Sánchez-Vizcaíno, Fernando; Noble, Peter-John M; Jones, Phil H; Menacere, Tarek; Buchan, Iain; Reynolds, Suzanna; Dawson, Susan; Gaskell, Rosalind M; Everitt, Sally; Radford, Alan D
Understanding the distribution and determinants of disease in animal populations must be underpinned by knowledge of animal demographics. For companion animals, these data have been difficult to collect because of the distributed nature of the companion animal veterinary industry. Here we describe key demographic features of a large veterinary-visiting pet population in Great Britain as recorded in electronic health records, and explore the association between a range of animal's characteristics and socioeconomic factors. Electronic health records were captured by the Small Animal Veterinary Surveillance Network (SAVSNET), from 143 practices (329 sites) in Great Britain. Mixed logistic regression models were used to assess the association between socioeconomic factors and species and breed ownership, and preventative health care interventions. Dogs made up 64.8% of the veterinary-visiting population, with cats, rabbits and other species making up 30.3, 2.0 and 1.6% respectively. Compared to cats, dogs and rabbits were more likely to be purebred and younger. Neutering was more common in cats (77.0%) compared to dogs (57.1%) and rabbits (45.8%). The insurance and microchipping relative frequency was highest in dogs (27.9 and 53.1%, respectively). Dogs in the veterinary-visiting population belonging to owners living in least-deprived areas of Great Britain were more likely to be purebred, neutered, insured and microchipped. The same association was found for cats in England and for certain parameters in Wales and Scotland. The differences we observed within these populations are likely to impact on the clinical diseases observed within individual veterinary practices that care for them. Based on this descriptive study, there is an indication that the population structures of companion animals co-vary with human and environmental factors such as the predicted socioeconomic level linked to the owner's address. This 'co-demographic' information suggests that further
Dan G O Neill
Full Text Available Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3, periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3 and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1. Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9, the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6 and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3. Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001, obesity (P = 0.006 and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033, and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002, overgrown nails (P = 0.004, degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005, obesity (P = 0.001 and lipoma (P = 0.003. These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information
O Neill, Dan G; Church, David B; McGreevy, Paul D; Thomson, Peter C; Brodbelt, Dave C
Purebred dog health is thought to be compromised by an increasing occurence of inherited diseases but inadequate prevalence data on common disorders have hampered efforts to prioritise health reforms. Analysis of primary veterinary practice clinical data has been proposed for reliable estimation of disorder prevalence in dogs. Electronic patient record (EPR) data were collected on 148,741 dogs attending 93 clinics across central and south-eastern England. Analysis in detail of a random sample of EPRs relating to 3,884 dogs from 89 clinics identified the most frequently recorded disorders as otitis externa (prevalence 10.2%, 95% CI: 9.1-11.3), periodontal disease (9.3%, 95% CI: 8.3-10.3) and anal sac impaction (7.1%, 95% CI: 6.1-8.1). Using syndromic classification, the most prevalent body location affected was the head-and-neck (32.8%, 95% CI: 30.7-34.9), the most prevalent organ system affected was the integument (36.3%, 95% CI: 33.9-38.6) and the most prevalent pathophysiologic process diagnosed was inflammation (32.1%, 95% CI: 29.8-34.3). Among the twenty most-frequently recorded disorders, purebred dogs had a significantly higher prevalence compared with crossbreds for three: otitis externa (P = 0.001), obesity (P = 0.006) and skin mass lesion (P = 0.033), and popular breeds differed significantly from each other in their prevalence for five: periodontal disease (P = 0.002), overgrown nails (P = 0.004), degenerative joint disease (P = 0.005), obesity (P = 0.001) and lipoma (P = 0.003). These results fill a crucial data gap in disorder prevalence information and assist with disorder prioritisation. The results suggest that, for maximal impact, breeding reforms should target commonly-diagnosed complex disorders that are amenable to genetic improvement and should place special focus on at-risk breeds. Future studies evaluating disorder severity and duration will augment the usefulness of the disorder prevalence information reported
Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A.
This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.)
Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi; Kusama, Tomoko.
To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author)
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary records...
Pearson, Caroline Elizabeth; Butler, Allan J; Murray, Yaqub Paul
The Vet Futures Report has identified 'exceptional leadership' as a key ambition for the long-term sustainability of the industry. This research investigates what it is like to be a veterinary surgeon in an in-practice leadership position, applying the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Through the researchers' interpretation of the seven participants' stories of their leadership experiences, the study advances understanding of the work environment, underlying motivations and the perceived responsibilities of veterinary leaders. Findings suggest, for many, a struggle in transition to leader positions, improving with time. The increase in pace of work is relayed by participants, with an ongoing, and unchallenged, work-life imbalance. The vets involved are highly motivated, driven by enjoyment of their jobs, a desire for self-determination and a need to make a difference. Relationships form the core of the perceived responsibilities, and yet are identified as the greatest day-to-day challenge of leadership. This study offers a valuable insight for veterinary surgeons, suggesting the industry could benefit from pausing and reflecting on behaviours. With a greater understanding of the complexity of leadership and followership, progress can be made to enact positive changes for the future. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Full Text Available Including current published evidence is vital as part of evidence-based decision making in veterinary practice. Sometimes there is no published evidence which is relevant or applicable to the clinical situation.This can be either because it refers to patients with experimentally induced conditions, from a referral population or who lack the co-morbities often seen outside of the experimental context. The Veterinary Clinical Trials Network is unique. It is a rapidly expanding network of veterinary practices, with whom we are working to establish methods for running prospective, pragmatic, practical clinical trials in veterinary practice.Data is extracted from the patient record using an XML Schema. The data extracted is already captured by the Practice Management Software (PMS system as part of the consultation, no extra information is required, and the extraction method is automated. This improves participation as it minimises the time input required from vets and vet nurses. Other data is obtained directly from owners of the animals involved.By working with a large number of first opinion veterinary practices we are able to include enough patients to ensure that our trials are suitably powered, and the participants will be representative of the wider vet-visiting pet population. The research generated from this clinical trials network will help strengthen the evidence base to aid decision making by veterinary practitioners.
Kinnison, T; Guile, D; May, S A
Case studies in two typical UK veterinary practices were undertaken to explore teamwork, including interprofessional working. Each study involved one week of whole team observation based on practice locations (reception, operating theatre), one week of shadowing six focus individuals (veterinary surgeons, veterinary nurses and administrators) and a final week consisting of semistructured interviews regarding teamwork. Errors emerged as a finding of the study. The definition of errors was inclusive, pertaining to inputs or omitted actions with potential adverse outcomes for patients, clients or the practice. The 40 identified instances could be grouped into clinical errors (dosing/drugs, surgical preparation, lack of follow-up), lost item errors, and most frequently, communication errors (records, procedures, missing face-to-face communication, mistakes within face-to-face communication). The qualitative nature of the study allowed the underlying cause of the errors to be explored. In addition to some individual mistakes, system faults were identified as a major cause of errors. Observed examples and interviews demonstrated several challenges to interprofessional teamworking which may cause errors, including: lack of time, part-time staff leading to frequent handovers, branch differences and individual veterinary surgeon work preferences. Lessons are drawn for building better veterinary teams and implications for Disciplinary Proceedings considered. British Veterinary Association.
Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F
Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...
Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida
Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.
Aim The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the factors which influence veterinary surgeons’ clinical decision making during routine consultations. Methods The research takes a qualitative approach using video-cued interviews, in which one of the veterinary surgeon’s own consultations is used as the basis of a semi-structured interview exploring decision making in real cases. The research focuses primarily on small animal consultations in first opinion practice, how...
Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E
This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.
Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.
All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects.
Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.
All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects
Schuurmans, A J; Smidts, A
An increase in the number of veterinarians, while at the same time the number of animals has remained constant, has resulted in growing competition. By extending the range of products and by enlarging the veterinarians' scope of activities this competition can be decreased. A marketing-orientation will be helpful in this respect. This article indicates in which way marketing concepts can be used in a veterinary practice. The services of the veterinarian will be looked at by means of the Abell approach. This focuses on the functions performed by the services and examines, per function performed, for whom this might be interesting and which alternatives there might be. Next the concept of market segmentation is filled in for a veterinary practice by means of a hypothetical example. The marketing mix (product, place, price, promotion and personnel) is given considerable attention. The last element of marketing in a veterinary practice that is discussed here is the marketing information system. In a next article the question will be answered how marketing-directed the Dutch veterinarian works nowadays. To find this out research has been done; 166 vets were interviewed by telephone for approximately 40 minutes each.
Sitkowska, Jolanta; Sitkowski, Wiesław; Sitkowski, Łukasz; Lutnicki, Krzysztof; Adamek, Łukasz; Wilkołek, Piotr
Numerous studies focused on the bioaerosols in the areas of industry, agriculture and animal husbandry, concerning both residential and public buildings, have been conducted continuously for many years. The aim of the present work was to determine the concentration and composition of mesophilic bacterial flora in the air of selected medical and veterinary clinics located in the cities and in the countryside. Air sampling was carried out in 2011-2013 in 44 veterinary practices in autumn-winter and spring-summer seasons. The concentration of bacteria ranged from 39 - 5,034 cfu/m(3) , with higher values recorded in offices operating in the cities. In the examined medical and veterinary offices, Gram-positive bacteria comprised the largest group of microorganisms, among which Gram-positive cocci of the genus Staphylococcus prevailed, with the highest average of 1,074.40 cfu/m(3) in urban offices during the autumn season. The smallest group was represented by Gram-negative bacteria, with a concentration of 0.0 - 215 cfu/m(3). In total, 93 kinds/species of bacteria were identified. A 12-month series of studies showed the highest mean concentrations of microorganisms in autumn for offices located in the city, while the lowest in winter for rural centres. The environment of veterinary offices is a habitat of pathogenic and potentially pathogenic bacteria, which may pose health problems not only for residents, but also for the animals.
Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F
Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure.
Molhoek, A W I; Endenburg, N
What makes pet owners chose one veterinary practice and not another? This survey was performed to gain insight into what factors influence new clients' choice of veterinary practice, and consequently the most effective way to promote veterinary practices. To this end, a questionnaire was completed by 129 pet owners who became new clients of one of eight selected veterinary practices in January 2005 or later. All selected practices are members of the Dierenartsen Dienstgroep Domstad, Utrecht, The Netherlands. This survey showed word-of-mouth referral to be the most effective way to increase a practice client base: 32.8% of all respondents first heard of their practice of choice through a fellow pet owner. Other pet owners first 'heard' of their practice by passing the practice (17.2%), seeing an advertisement in the Yellow Pages (14.1%), visiting the veterinary practice website (13.3%), and looking in the phone book (10.9%). These information sources should be considered for promotional activities. However this is not the case for advertisements in newspapers or magazines: none of the respondents became acquainted with the practice through these media. Respondents primarily based their choice on personnel and product (the total package of services and its quality) and less on location, but many prospective clients also based their choice on promotional activities and prices. Because pet owners apparently take so many aspects into consideration when choosing a veterinary practice, the marketing orientation (focusing on the client with her/his wishes and problems) is crucial.
Duffy, J.; Fenton, D.; McGarry, A.; McAllister, H.; Skelly, C
This Code of Practice updates the Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in Veterinary Radiology prepared by the Nuclear Energy Board in June 1989. The Code is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons to ensure that they, their employees and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of X-ray equipment and radioactive substances in the practice of veterinary medicine. It reflects the regulations as specified in the Radiological Protection Act, 1991, (Ionising Radiation) Order, 2000 (S.I. No. 125 of 2000)
Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R
Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.
Full Text Available The Internet has become a major source of health information and has the potential to offer many benefits for both human and animal health. In order for impact to be positive, however, it is critical that users be able to access reliable, trustworthy information. Although more pet owners are using the Internet to research animal health information than ever before, there remains limited research surrounding their online activities or the ability to influence owners’ online search behaviors. The current study was designed to assess the online behaviors and perceptions of pet owners after receiving either general or topic-specific information prescriptions as part of their veterinary appointment. Results indicate that nearly 60% of clients accessed the suggested websites and nearly all of these clients reported positive feelings about this addition to their veterinary services. These results suggest that offering information prescriptions to clients can facilitate better online searches by clients and positively impact both animal health and client satisfaction.
Buckland, E L; O'Neill, D; Summers, J; Mateus, A; Church, D; Redmond, L; Brodbelt, D
There is scant evidence describing antimicrobial (AM) usage in companion animal primary care veterinary practices in the UK. The use of AMs in dogs and cats was quantified using data extracted from 374 veterinary practices participating in VetCompass. The frequency and quantity of systemic antibiotic usage was described.Overall, 25 per cent of 963,463 dogs and 21 per cent of 594,812 cats seen at veterinary practices received at least one AM over a two-year period (2012-2014) and 42 per cent of these animals were given repeated AMs. The main agents used were aminopenicillin types and cephalosporins. Of the AM events, 60 per cent in dogs and 81 per cent in cats were AMs classified as critically important (CIAs) to human health by the World Health Organisation. CIAs of highest importance (fluoroquinolones, macrolides, third-generation cephalosporins) accounted for just over 6 per cent and 34 per cent of AMs in dogs and cats, respectively. The total quantity of AMs used within the study population was estimated to be 1473 kg for dogs and 58 kg for cats.This study has identified a high frequency of AM usage in companion animal practice and for certain agents classified as of critical importance in human medicine. The study highlights the usefulness of veterinary practice electronic health records for studying AM usage. British Veterinary Association.
Hashizume, Cary T; Woloschuk, Wayne; Hecker, Kent G
There is a paucity of research regarding veterinary students' attitudes toward the rural environment and rural veterinary practice and how these attitudes might change over the course of a veterinary medicine program that includes rural clinical experience. Using a 23-item questionnaire, attitudes toward rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, opportunities for career and skill development in rural veterinary practice, and inter-professional teamwork in the rural environment were assessed at the beginning and completion of a four-year veterinary medicine program. Eighty-six students (74.4% female) were included in this Canadian study over a six-year period. Thirty-one participants (36.1%) were rural students. Overall, students' attitudes toward the rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, and inter-professional teamwork in rural veterinary practice all significantly decreased (pstudents, rural students had significantly higher rural lifestyle scores at both the beginning (pworking in a rural environment could influence students to exclude rural veterinary practice as a career choice. Rural clinical experiences designed to sustain or increase veterinary student interest in rural practice may not be sufficient to support positive rural attitudes. Given the demand for rural veterinary services in developed countries, the implications of this study may extend beyond Canada.
Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A
OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting
Data were collected from a total of 400 ruminant livestock farmers selected from Oyo, Ogun, Lagos, Ondo and Edo States of Nigeria using Multi-stage sampling technique. The data collected include the specific attributes of small ruminant livestock farmers in the area, ethno-veterinary practices of farmers in the treatment of ...
Haldane, Sarah; Hinchcliff, Kenneth; Mansell, Peter; Baik, Chi
Good communication skills are an important entry-level attribute of graduates of professional degrees. The inclusion of communication training within the curriculum can be problematic, particularly in programs with a high content load, such as veterinary science. This study examined the differences between the perceptions of students and qualified veterinarians with regards to the entry-level communication skills required of new graduates in clinical practice. Surveys were distributed to students in each of the four year levels of the veterinary science degree at the University of Melbourne and to recent graduates and experienced veterinarians registered in Victoria, Australia. Respondents were asked to rank the relative importance of six different skill sets: knowledge base; medical and technical skills; surgical skills; verbal communication and interpersonal skills; written communication skills; and critical thinking and problem solving. They were then asked to rate the importance of specific communication skills for new graduate veterinarians. Veterinarians and students ranked verbal communication and interpersonal skills as the most important skill set for an entry-level veterinarian. Veterinarians considered many new graduates to be deficient in these skills. Students often felt they lacked confidence in this area. This has important implications for veterinary educators in terms of managing the expectations of students and improving the delivery of communication skills courses within the veterinary curriculum.
...; Proposed New System of Records; Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program AGENCY: National Institute of..., ``Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program Records System, USDA/NIFA-1.'' This newly established system will... Sherman; National Program Leader, Veterinary Science; National Institute of Food and Agriculture...
Tomlin, J L; Brodbelt, D C; May, S A
Lack of a clear perception of the realities of a career in veterinary medicine could adversely affect young graduates' satisfaction with the profession and their long-term commitment to it. Veterinary students' understanding of a career in practice were explored. Traditional-entry first-year and final-year students, as well as entry-level 'Gateway' (widening participation) students, were invited to complete a questionnaire exploring their pre-university experiences and their understandings of a career in general practice. Broadly speaking, the undergraduate students taking part in the survey (the majority of whom were entry-level students) had a realistic view of average weekly working hours, out-of-hours duties and the development of their remuneration packages over the course of their careers. The main attractions of the profession were working with animals and the perception of a rewarding job. The main concerns were making mistakes and balancing work and home life. The vast majority of students wanted to pursue a career in general practice, and other career opportunities did not appear to be well understood, particularly by entry-level students.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of analyses based on veterinary records of animal disease may be prone to variation and bias, because data collection for these registers relies on different observers in different settings as well as different treatment criteria. Understanding the human influence on data collection and the decisions related to this process may help veterinary and agricultural scientists motivate observers (veterinarians and farmers to work more systematically, which may improve data quality. This study investigates qualitative relations between two types of records: 1 'diagnostic data' as recordings of metritis scores and 2 'intervention data' as recordings of medical treatment for metritis and the potential influence on quality of the data. Methods The study is based on observations in veterinary dairy practice combined with semi-structured research interviews of veterinarians working within a herd health concept where metritis diagnosis was described in detail. The observations and interviews were analysed by qualitative research methods to describe differences in the veterinarians' perceptions of metritis diagnosis (scores and their own decisions related to diagnosis, treatment, and recording. Results The analysis demonstrates how data quality can be affected during the diagnostic procedures, as interaction occurs between diagnostics and decisions about medical treatments. Important findings were when scores lacked consistency within and between observers (variation and when scores were adjusted to the treatment decision already made by the veterinarian (bias. The study further demonstrates that veterinarians made their decisions at 3 different levels of focus (cow, farm, population. Data quality was influenced by the veterinarians' perceptions of collection procedures, decision making and their different motivations to collect data systematically. Conclusion Both variation and bias were introduced into the data because of
Hudson Neil PH
Full Text Available Abstract Background The transition from veterinary student to member of the veterinary profession is known to be challenging. This study aimed to determine and compare the opinions of final year veterinary students and recent graduates on graduate attributes that ease this transition. Methods The study was carried out across 3 veterinary schools in the United Kingdom. Paper based or electronic surveys were used. Final year students in the 3 schools were surveyed either electronically (school A or on paper (schools B and C. Student cohort sizes were 112, 227 and 102 respectively. Recent graduates were contacted either at a reunion event (school A or electronically from database records (school B and school C. Cohort sizes of contacted graduates were 80, 175 and 91 respectively. Respondents were asked to rate 42 individual attributes on a 5 point Likert scale. Focus groups with final year students and recent graduates and telephone interviews with recent graduates were carried out. Data were analysed by two researchers through a combination of manual coding and thematic analysis. Data were grouped into broad themes then sorted into narrower themes. Data were then searched for counter examples. Results Response rates for final year students were 34% (school A, 36% (school B and 40% (school C. Response rates for recent graduates were 56% (school A, 20% (school B and 11% (school C. There was a high level of agreement between the cohorts with respect to communication skills, problem solving and decision making skills, recognition of own limitations and the ability to cope with pressure all rated unanimously important or very important. Business acumen, knowledge of veterinary practice management and research skills were the 3 attributes ranked at the bottom of the list. Nine attributes were identified with a significantly different (p Conclusions Recent graduates and final year students rate highly the attributes which help foster the client
Data recorded include breed and age of dogs, indication for CS and method of anaesthesia used. Other records obtained ... Indication for CS in the dogs included uterine inertia (13), uterine torsion (1) and vaginal prolapse (1). Mean time of ...
Yeates, J W
To present insights to aid decision-making about novel veterinary treatments from regulations concerning animal experimentation and human clinical medical trials. EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes and EU Regulation 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use were analysed, evaluated and "translated" into relevant principles for veterinary surgeons. A number of principles are relevant, relating to treatment expectations, thresholds and objectives; client consent; minimising harms; personnel; review committees; assessment and publication. These principles should assist veterinary surgeons to make good ethical decisions about novel treatments. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
The general standards of radiological protection found in 23 veterinary practices are summarised, with reference to the recommendations of the Code of Practice for the Protection of Persons Exposed to Ionising Radiations from Veterinary Uses. The views expressed by the veterinary surgeons interviewed are included where relevant. It is concluded that the majority of practices do not completely satisfy the present standards for radiological safety but that the radiographic workloads are small and unlikely to give cause for alarm. Of most concern are the doses to the hands and forearms of persons who manually restrain small animals during radiography. Recommendations are made concerning the need for greater management supervision in practices and the training and designation of veterinary workers. The veterinary profession are urged to promote discussion on radiological procedures and techniques which avoid the exposure of the personnel involved. (author)
Although the intervention of conventional veterinary medicine is pervasive in Toteng, and many livestock owners are resorting to it, there is evidence, however, of generalized ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases. Local farmers and their herders in Ngamiland are not only knowledgeable ...
Hardefeldt, Laura Y; Gilkerson, J R; Billman-Jacobe, H; Stevenson, M A; Thursky, K; Bailey, K E; Browning, G F
Antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programs are yet to be widely implemented in veterinary practice and medical programs are unlikely to be directly applicable to veterinary settings. To gain an in-depth understanding of the factors that influence effective AMS in veterinary practices in Australia. A concurrent explanatory mixed methods design was used. The quantitative phase of the study consisted of an online questionnaire to assess veterinarians' attitudes to antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and antimicrobial use in animals, and the extent to which AMS currently is implemented (knowingly or unknowingly). The qualitative phase used semi-structured interviews to gain an understanding of the barriers to and enablers of AMS in veterinary practices. Data were collected and entered into NVivo v.11, openly coded and analyzed according to mixed methods data analysis principles. Companion animal, equine, and bovine veterinarians participated in the study. Veterinary practices rarely had antimicrobial prescribing policies. The key barriers were a lack of AMS governance structures, client expectations and competition between practices, cost of microbiological testing, and lack of access to education, training and AMS resources. The enablers were concern for the role of veterinary antimicrobial use in development of AMR in humans, a sense of pride in the service provided, and preparedness to change prescribing practices. Our study can guide development and establishment of AMS programs in veterinary practices by defining the major issues that influence the prescribing behavior of veterinarians. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Khan, Amir Hasan; Adnan, Muhammad; Ullah, Habib
The pastoral lifestyle of Indigenous communities of Bajaur Agency is bringing them close to natural remedies for treating their domestic animals. Several studies have been conducted across the globe describing the importance of traditional knowledge in veterinary care. Therefore, this study was planned with the aim to record knowledge on ethnoveterinary practices from the remote areas and share sit with other communities through published literature. Data was gathered from community members through semi-structured interviews and analyzed through informant consensus factor (Fic) to evaluate the consent of current ethnoveterinary practices among the local people. In total, 73 medicinal plants were recorded under the ethnoveterinary practices. Most widely used medicinal plants with maximum use reports (URs) were Visnaga daucoides Gaertn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Solanum virginianum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., and Curcuma longa L. New medicinal values were found with confidential level of citations for species including Heracleum candicans and Glycerhiza glabra. Family Apiaceae was the utmost family with high number (7 species) of medicinal plants. Maximum number of medicinal plants (32) was used for gastric problems. High Fic was recorded for dermatological (0.97) followed by reproductive (0.93) and gastrointestinal disorders (0.92). The main route of remedies administration was oral. Current study revealed that the study area has sufficient knowledge on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants. This knowledge is in the custody of nomadic grazers, herders, and aged community members. Plants with new medicinal uses need to be validated phytochemically and pharmacologically for the development of new alternative drugs for veterinary purposes.
Currie, Kay; King, Caroline; Nuttall, Tim; Smith, Matt; Flowers, Paul
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global challenge facing both human and animal healthcare professionals; an effective response to this threat requires a 'One-Health' approach to antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) to preserve important antibiotics for urgent clinical need. However, understanding of barriers and enablers to effective AMS behaviour in companion animal veterinary practice is currently limited. We conducted a Delphi study of 16 nationally recognised experts from UK-based veterinary policymakers, university academics and leaders of professional bodies. This Delphi study sought to identify veterinary behaviours which experts believe contribute to AMR and form vital aspects of AMS. Analysis of Delphi findings indicated a perceived hierarchy of behaviours, the most influential being antibiotic prescribing behaviours and interactions with clients. Other veterinary behaviours perceived as being important related to interactions with veterinary colleagues; infection control practices; and the use of diagnostic tests to confirm infection. Key barriers and enablers to AMS within each of these behavioural domains were identified. Specific interventions to address important barriers and enablers are recommended. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to establish expert consensus at a national level about which 'behaviours' (aspects of veterinarian practice) should be targeted in relation to AMR and AMS in companion animal veterinary practice. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Ilgen, Daniel R
Recent studies of veterinary practices and services have suggested that more attention must be focused on business practices and on the skills, knowledge, and abilities (SKAs) of veterinarians related to veterinary practice management (VPM). Responses to these concerns have been directed at the selection and education of veterinarians in veterinary school. While this position is supported in the present article, it is argued that the values and interests of persons who are likely to enter the field, as well as the nature of the experiences encountered across the career of veterinarians, will moderate the potential effectiveness of veterinary school practices and experiences regarding SKAs in VPM. The paper explores some potential implications of these moderators on the effectiveness of selection and education for increasing SKAs in VPM.
Elein Hernandez; Anne Fawcett; Emily Brouwer; Jeff Rau; Patricia V. Turner
Although expectations for appropriate animal care are present in most developed countries, significant animal welfare challenges continue to be seen on a regular basis in all areas of veterinary practice. Veterinary ethics is a relatively new area of educational focus but is thought to be critically important in helping veterinarians formulate their approach to clinical case management and in determining the overall acceptability of practices towards animals. An overview is provided of how ve...
Tomlinson, Lindsay; Boone, Laura I; Ramaiah, Lila; Penraat, Kelley A; von Beust, Barbara R; Ameri, Mehrdad; Poitout-Belissent, Florence M; Weingand, Kurt; Workman, Heather C; Aulbach, Adam D; Meyer, Dennis J; Brown, Diane E; MacNeill, Amy L; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Bounous, Denise I
The purpose of this paper by the Regulatory Affairs Committee (RAC) of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) is to review the current regulatory guidances (eg, guidelines) and published recommendations for best practices in veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, and to utilize the combined experience of ASVCP RAC to provide updated recommendations. Discussion points include (1) instrumentation, validation, and sample collection, (2) routine laboratory variables, (3) cytologic laboratory variables, (4) data interpretation and reporting (including peer review, reference intervals and statistics), and (5) roles and responsibilities of clinical pathologists and laboratory personnel. Revision and improvement of current practices should be in alignment with evolving regulatory guidance documents, new technology, and expanding understanding and utility of clinical pathology. These recommendations provide a contemporary guide for the refinement of veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology best practices. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Phillips, Alexandra M; Coe, Jason B; Rock, Melanie J; Adams, Cindy L
Feline obesity has become a common disease and important animal welfare issue. Little is known about how, or how often, veterinarians and feline-owning clients are addressing obesity during clinical appointments. The purpose of this qualitative study was to characterize verbal and non-verbal communication between veterinarians and clients regarding feline obesity. The sample consisted of video-recordings of 17 veterinarians during 284 actual appointments in companion animal patients in Eastern Ontario. This audio-visual dataset served to identify 123 feline appointments. Of these, only 25 appointments were identified in which 12 veterinarians and their clients spoke about feline obesity. Thematic analysis of the videos and transcripts revealed inconsistencies in the depth of address of feline obesity and its prevention by participating veterinarians. In particular, in-depth nutritional history taking and clear recommendations of management rarely took place. Veterinarians appeared to attempt to strengthen the veterinary-client relationship and cope with ambiguity in their role managing obesity with humor and by speaking directly to their animal patients. Clients also appeared to use humor to deal with discomfort surrounding the topic. Our findings have implications for communication skills training within veterinary curricula and professional development among practicing veterinarians. As obesity is complex and potentially sensitive subject matter, we suggest a need for veterinarians to have further intentionality and training toward in-depth nutritional history gathering and information sharing while navigating obesity management discussions to more completely address client perspective and patient needs.
Golden, Olwen; Hanlon, Alison J
Veterinary behaviour medicine should be a foundation subject of the veterinary curriculum because of its wide scope of applications to veterinary practice. Private practitioners are likely to be the primary source of information on animal behaviour for most pet owners, however studies indicate that behavioural issues are not frequently discussed during companion animal consultations and many practitioners lack confidence in dealing with behavioural problems, likely due to poor coverage of this subject in veterinary education.There is a need to identify learning outcomes to support day one competences in veterinary behaviour medicine and these should be informed by practice-based evidence. This study aimed to investigate the nature and frequency of behavioural queries experienced by veterinary professionals in Ireland, the provision of behavioural services at companion animal practices, behaviour referral practices and challenges associated with providing a behaviour service. Two online surveys were developed, one for private veterinary practitioners (PVP) and one for veterinary nurses (VN). Invitations to participate were distributed using contact details from the Premises Accreditation Scheme database on the Veterinary Council of Ireland website. Thirty-eight PVPs and 69 VNs completed the survey. Results indicated that less than half of companion animal practices offer behavioural consults and under a third of practices provide training and socialization events. Over half of the practices surveyed have referred cases to a behavioural specialist.The majority of respondents encountered behavioural queries weekly. Ninety-eight percent reported receiving queries regarding dog behaviour. Toilet training and unruly behaviour were two issues encountered frequently. Behavioural issues in cats were also common. House soiling and destructive behaviour were the problems most frequently encountered by respondents.The two most commonly cited barriers to providing behavioural
Dale, Vicki H M; Sullivan, Martin; May, Stephen A
This paper argues the case for the increased application of adult learning principles to veterinary education. It encapsulates evidence from the United Kingdom, Europe, North America, and Australia to explain why it has taken veterinary schools so long to transform their curricula to best facilitate the development of lifelong learning skills, such as independent and self-directed learning, problem solving, and critical thinking. Despite the variation in training programs in these different regions, the paper identifies common issues-conflicting educational paradigms and the need for faculty development-and ultimately concludes that professional and continuing education should be viewed as a continuous process, supporting the adult learner's cognitive development and facilitated through experiential learning.
Piluzza, G; Virdis, S; Serralutzu, F; Bullitta, S
The cultural heritage of Sardinian shepherds is rapidly vanishing and survives in the memory of elderly people. The objective of our study was not only to report the usage of plants and their preparation for administration but also the use of other remedies of different origin arising from traditional ethno-veterinary knowledge, as Sardinian shepherds were used to employ plants, animals, minerals and combinations of several substances to prepare remedies for prophylaxis or therapy on their animals. The work was carried out in rural areas of the island of Sardinia (Italy) by interviewing shepherds and filling questionnaires in order to record ethno-veterinary practices traditionally used for animal health care. Ethno-veterinary remedies traditionally utilised for treatments of small ruminants against ecto-and endo-parasites, gastrointestinal diseases, viral and bacterial diseases, wounds, sprains and bruises were identified. Non herbal remedies outnumbered the herbal ones, as usually plant species were mainly used for the care of cattle and equines. A total of 150 ethno-veterinary uses were documented for the treatment of 33 animal conditions, a detailed account of the formulations and their administration to sheep and goats was provided. Herbal remedies involved the use of twenty two spontaneous species and seven cultivated species. This study identifies remedies used in ethno-veterinary practices for small ruminants care in Sardinia, the second major Mediterranean island which has agro-pastoral activities dating back to Neolithic. Moreover, the danger of losing oral traditions, and the increasing attention towards traditional remedies as potential sources of natural products for improving animal health and welfare, support the interest of our survey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hernandez, Elein; Fawcett, Anne; Brouwer, Emily; Rau, Jeff
Simple Summary Veterinarians have an ethical obligation to provide good care for the animals that they see in practice. However, at times, there may be conflicts between the interests of animal caregivers or owners, the interests of veterinarians and the interests of animals. We provide an overview of why and how veterinary ethics is taught to veterinary students, as well as providing a context for thinking about veterinary ethical challenges and animal welfare issues. We argue that veterinarians are ethically obliged to speak up and ask questions when problems arise or are seen and provide a series of clinical case examples in which there is scope for veterinarians to improve animal welfare by ‘speaking up’. Abstract Although expectations for appropriate animal care are present in most developed countries, significant animal welfare challenges continue to be seen on a regular basis in all areas of veterinary practice. Veterinary ethics is a relatively new area of educational focus but is thought to be critically important in helping veterinarians formulate their approach to clinical case management and in determining the overall acceptability of practices towards animals. An overview is provided of how veterinary ethics are taught and how common ethical frameworks and approaches are employed—along with legislation, guidelines and codes of professional conduct—to address animal welfare issues. Insufficiently mature ethical reasoning or a lack of veterinary ethical sensitivity can lead to an inability or difficulty in speaking up about concerns with clients and ultimately, failure in their duty of care to animals, leading to poor animal welfare outcomes. A number of examples are provided to illustrate this point. Ensuring that robust ethical frameworks are employed will ultimately help veterinarians to “speak up” to address animal welfare concerns and prevent future harms. PMID:29361786
D'Souza, Eva; Barraclough, Richard; Fishwick, David; Curran, Andrew
Small-animal work is a major element of veterinary practice in the UK and may be hazardous, with high levels of work-related injuries and ill-health reported in Australia and USA. There are no studies addressing the management of occupational health risks arising from small-animal work in the UK. To investigate the sources of health and safety information used and how health and safety and 12 specific occupational health risks are managed by practices. A cross-sectional postal survey of all small-animal veterinary practices in Hampshire. A response was mandatory as this was a Health & Safety Executive (HSE) inspection activity. A total of 118 (100%) practices responded of which 93 were eligible for inclusion. Of these, 99 and 86%, respectively, were aware of the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) practice standards and had British Small Animal Veterinary Association (BSAVA) staff members, while only 51% had previous contact with HSE (publications, advice and visit). Ninety per cent had health and safety policies, but only 31% had trained responsible staff in health and safety. Specific health hazards such as occupational allergens and computer use were relatively overlooked both by practices and the RCVS/BSAVA guidance available in 2002. Failings in active health risk management systems could be due to a lack of training to ensure competence in those with responsibilities. Practices rely on guidance produced by their professional bodies. Current RCVS guidance, available since 2005, has remedied some previous omissions, but further improvements are recommended.
Nitin E Gade
Full Text Available Stem cell research acquired great attention during last decade inspite of incredible therapeutic potential of these cells the ethical controversies exists. Stem cells have enormous uses in animal cloning, drug discovery, gene targeting, transgenic production and regenerative therapy. Stem cells are the naïve cells of body which can self-renew and differentiate into other cell types to carry out multiple functions, these properties have been utilized in therapeutic application of stem cells in human and veterinary medicine. The application of stem cells in human medicine is well established and it is commonly used for chronic and accidental injuries. In Veterinary sciences previous studies mostly focused on establishing protocols for isolation and their characterization but with advancement in array of techniques for in vitro studies, stem cells rapidly became a viable tool for regenerative therapy of chronic, debilitating and various unresponsive clinical diseases and disorders. Multipotent adult stem cells have certain advantages over embryonic stem cells like easy isolation and expansion from numerous sources, less immunogenicity and no risk of teratoma formation hence their use is preferred in therapeutics. Adult stem cells have been utilized for treatment of spinal injuries, tendonitis, cartilage defects, osteoarthritis and ligament defects, liver diseases, wounds, cardiac and bone defects in animals. The multi-potential capability of these cells can be better utilized in near future to overcome the challenges faced by the clinicians. This review will emphasize on the therapeutic utilization and success of stem cell therapies in animals. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 499-507
Radiologists from 28 veterinary schools and one private teaching hospital responded to a survey questionnaire focused on diagnostic image reporting. Radiologists at 26 hospitals generated a hard copy report on essentially all imaging studies performed. At 25 hospitals, radiologists dictated and transcriptionists typed all or most reports; radiologists at two institutions typed all or some of their reports. At five hospitals, preliminary and/or final handwritten reports were generated. The range of reports generated per day was <10 to 40 per radiologist on duty. Seven respondents generated reports as films came from the processor and another 12 routinely generated reports the day the studies were completed. Clinician access to a processed report averaged 2 to 4 days after study was completed (reported range: several hours to 7 or more days). Fifteen responding radiologists personally mounted films from storage jackets for a majority of their reporting. Fourteen respondents generated reports from films mounted on motorized or stationary viewers. Nineteen respondents generated reports in a busy viewing area where they were frequently interrupted. Radiologists' impression of clinician and resident satisfaction regarding availability of radiology reports was that they were satisfied or very satisfied at 15 of the 29 hospitals. Five respondents reported that clinicians and residents were not concerned about availability of processed radiology reports. Thirteen radiologists were planning to change their reporting method within the next 2 years. The change most frequently sought (12 respondents) was to decrease turn-around time of reports. Ten radiologists indicated an interest in trying a voice recognition dictation system. The most common reasons given for not planning any changes in radiology reporting in the next 2 years were: limited number of radiologists (8) and 1 ''satisfied as is'' (7). Turn-around of radiology reports at these veterinary institutions averaged 2
Tater, Kathy Chu; Cole, William Elliott; Pion, Paul David
Poor adherence to continuing allergen-specific immunotherapy treatment (ASIT) may be an issue in veterinary medicine. No studies describe how allergen tests are used in general veterinary practice, including the percentage of patients that receive ASIT after allergen testing. Assess veterinary ASIT patterns in United States general practices. Dogs (n = 2,557) and 121 cats allergen-tested at 177 hospitals (173 general practice and four specialty practices) in 44 states. Invoiced service descriptions of allergen tests and ASIT orders were retrieved from an aggregated database of veterinary practices. In general practice, 42% (992 of 2,360) of patients did not begin ASIT after allergen testing. ASIT was not refilled for 29% (398 of 1,368) of patients after the initial order. ASIT was initiated and refilled more often in dogs (56.6%, 71.4%, respectively) than cats (38%, 67.4%). Specialty practice patients had the highest ASIT initiation (94.4%) and refill (92.7%) percentages in comparison to general practices (P < 0.001). Size, age, geographical region and type of practice were associated with whether dogs were started on ASIT. Geographical region was also associated with refilling a prescription for ASIT, which was considered to be evidence of adherence to continuing treatment. Almost one third of clients failed to continue ASIT beyond the initial order, which is a much shorter duration of therapy than the 12 months recommended for determining ASIT efficacy. A large number of general practice patients did not begin ASIT after allergen testing, likely due to differences in how clinicians in general and dermatology practices use allergen tests. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.
The study was designed to examine perception of ethno-veterinary practices and information gathering among rural dwellers in selected villages in two local government areas (LGAs) of Ogun state, Nigeria. The aim was to assess the involvement of rural poultry farmers in the use of herbs as alternatives to antibiotics.
Víctor Acero P
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to perform a critical analysis and guide veterinarians in the management of canine Leishmaniosis. A systematic literature review was performed between 2005 and 2014 including scientific papers which take into account experiences and reports of: pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical presentation, treatment, vaccination, prevention and control strategies. We discuss the different aspects of VL management and aspects that should be taken into account depending on the country, after a patient is suspected or confirmed as positive, including the possibility of euthanasia. We describe the different clinical manifestations of the disease, diagnosis, signs and treatment of canine leishmaniosis. Canine leishmaniosis is present in different parts of the country, therefore it must be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in the veterinary clinic, in patients with dermatological and systemic signs that are compatible with various diseases. In Colombia, the patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis could be treated and have a favorable prognosis, whereas in canines with diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis euthanasia should be considered because of the public health implications.
Alexandra M. Phillips
Full Text Available Feline obesity has become a common disease and important animal welfare issue. Little is known about how, or how often, veterinarians and feline-owning clients are addressing obesity during clinical appointments. The purpose of this qualitative study was to characterize verbal and non-verbal communication between veterinarians and clients regarding feline obesity. The sample consisted of video-recordings of 17 veterinarians during 284 actual appointments in companion animal patients in Eastern Ontario. This audio-visual dataset served to identify 123 feline appointments. Of these, only 25 appointments were identified in which 12 veterinarians and their clients spoke about feline obesity. Thematic analysis of the videos and transcripts revealed inconsistencies in the depth of address of feline obesity and its prevention by participating veterinarians. In particular, in-depth nutritional history taking and clear recommendations of management rarely took place. Veterinarians appeared to attempt to strengthen the veterinary–client relationship and cope with ambiguity in their role managing obesity with humor and by speaking directly to their animal patients. Clients also appeared to use humor to deal with discomfort surrounding the topic. Our findings have implications for communication skills training within veterinary curricula and professional development among practicing veterinarians. As obesity is complex and potentially sensitive subject matter, we suggest a need for veterinarians to have further intentionality and training toward in-depth nutritional history gathering and information sharing while navigating obesity management discussions to more completely address client perspective and patient needs.
Mikkonen, Johanna; Ruohoniemi, Mirja
The aim of the present study was to explore the factors associated with veterinary students' study success. All veterinary students who began their studies at the University of Helsinki in 2005 participated in this qualitative longitudinal study (N=52). The data consisted of assignments that the students completed at the beginning of their studies and again after three years of studying. The focus was on differences in motivation and study practices as well as possible changes in these over the three-year period. The students were divided into three groups according to their study success (grade point average and study progress). These groups were compared according to group-level differences in the categorized data. The most successful students already described themselves using more positive words than other students at the beginning of their veterinary studies. In addition, they seemed more adaptive in relation to the study's demands. However, there were drops in both the most and least successful students' motivation during their studies. The findings suggest that it is possible to predict forthcoming study problems by analyzing students' study practices and their own descriptions of themselves as learners. In addition, the results show that veterinary students' high motivation cannot be taken for granted. The comparative and longitudinal perspective of the present study can be useful in the development of curricula and in student support.
Adams, Cindy L; Kurtz, Suzanne
Communication is a critical clinical skill closely linked to clinical reasoning, medical problem solving, and significant outcomes of care such as accuracy, efficiency, supportiveness, adherence to treatment plans, and client and veterinarian satisfaction. More than 40 years of research on communication and communication education in human medicine and, more recently, in veterinary medicine provide a substantive rationale for formal communication teaching in veterinary education. As a result, veterinary schools are beginning to invest in communication training. However, if communication training is to result in development of veterinary communication skills to a professional level of competence, there must be follow-through with effective communication modeling and coaching in practice settings. The purpose of this article is to move the communication modeling and coaching done in the "real world" of clinical practice to the next level. The development of skills for communication coaching and feedback is demanding. We begin by comparing communication coaching with what is required for teaching other clinical skills in practice settings. Examining both, what it takes to teach others (whether DVM students or veterinarians in practice for several years) and what it takes to enhance one's own communication skills and capacities, we consider the why, what, and how of communication coaching. We describe the use of teaching instruments to structure this work and give particular attention to how to engage in feedback sessions, since these elements are so critical in communication teaching and learning. We consider the preconditions necessary to initiate and sustain communication skills training in practice, including the need for a safe and supportive environment within which to implement communication coaching and feedback. Finally we discuss the challenges and opportunities unique to coaching and to building and delivering communication skills training in practice
Wang, Hong; Rush, Bonnie R; Wilkerson, Melinda; Herman, Cheryl; Miesner, Matt; Renter, David; Gehring, Ronette
Technology has changed the landscape of teaching and learning. The integration of instructional technology into teaching for meaningful learning is an issue for all educators to consider. In this article, we introduce educational theories including constructivism, information-processing theory, and dual-coding theory, along with the seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education. We also discuss five practical instructional strategies and the relationship of these strategies to the educational theories. From theory to practice, the purpose of the article is to share our application of educational theory and practice to work toward more innovative teaching in veterinary medical education.
Bell, Regan; Harr, Kendal; Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul
While there have been ASVCP meeting discussions regarding quality assurance plans and lack thereof for in-clinic analyzers, there are little published data regarding in-clinic quality assurance and control practices. The purpose of this study was the identification of the common equipment used in hematologic, biochemical, urinalysis, and other testing, and assessment of quality control and assurance programs currently being performed in-clinic. All members of the Veterinary Information Network (VIN) were solicited to participate in an online survey between July and September 2007. In total, 452 complete or partial responses were received. Eighty-nine percent of respondents (361/404) said that veterinary technicians (unlicensed, licensed, and registered) performed the majority of analyses. Eighty-eight percent (366/417) of respondents performed some quality assurance on their laboratory equipment, most commonly on chemistry (91%, 324/357), and hematology (84%, 292/347) analyzers, and least commonly on fecal analyses (57%, 148/260) and ELISA assays (25%, 65/256). Ignorance of how to perform quality assurance was the most commonly stated reason (49%, 25/51) for lack of a quality assurance program. The majority of practices (316/374) utilized manufacturer-provided reference intervals without further adjustment or assessment. Roughly one-third of respondents (126/374) used reference intervals from textbooks, which is discouraged by ASVCP guidelines. This study found that the majority of respondents were not in compliance with ASVCP guidelines, illustrating the need for improved education of technical staff, veterinary students, and veterinarians regarding limitations of in-clinic laboratory equipment and the importance of regular quality control, maintenance, training, and reference interval development. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Salo, Allen L; Stone, Elizabeth
According to the American Pet Products Association, in the USA there are an estimated 86.4 million owned cats, and approximately 40% of these are allowed to roam outdoors. Little has been written about the contribution of owned cats to problems attributed to feral cats, including wildlife predation, spread of zoonotic diseases and overpopulation. A recent study found that 64% of cats have visited the veterinarian within the past year, suggesting frequent opportunity for veterinarians to communicate risks and benefits of indoor vs outdoor living. We conducted the following survey to evaluate current views about this role of veterinarians, by surveying veterinary school faculty (n = 158). Our objectives were to assess (i) the degree to which veterinary teaching faculty believe that the issue of clients maintaining owned cats indoors vs outdoors is appropriate for discussion with students within the veterinary school curriculum; (ii) the degree of agreement and understanding there is among the faculty as to the reasons that clients maintain cats either inside or outside the home; and (iii) the degree to which veterinary faculty believe owned cats that are allowed to go outdoors contribute to various identified problems. The results indicated that many participants believed that the discussion of maintaining cats indoors is relevant to the profession, that it belongs in the veterinary school curriculum, that they understand client motivations, that they feel that more practicing veterinarians should discuss cat housing practices with clients and that cat overpopulation continues to be a significant concern for owned cats being outdoors. Additional ways to help maintain the health and wellbeing of cats that are primarily housed indoors is briefly discussed, including through such means as environmental enrichment or by providing cats access to safe areas while outdoors. © ISFM and AAFP 2014.
Lam, Jennifer; Chan, Samuel S; Conway, Flaxen D L; Stone, David
OBJECTIVE To document the environmental stewardship practices (decisions and actions regarding use and disposal) of pet and human pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) among pet-owning veterinary-care professionals (practicing veterinarians, veterinary students, and veterinary technicians and trainees) and environmental educators. DESIGN Internet-based cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 191 pet owners (103 veterinary-care professionals and 88 environmental educators). PROCEDURES Study participants were recruited by means of a 2-part internet survey distributed to veterinary-care professional and environmental educator networks of individuals residing in Washington state, Oregon, and southern California. Survey questions addressed motivators for environmental stewardship practices (ie, decisions and actions regarding use and disposal of pet and human PPCPs). RESULTS Data were collected from 191 respondents; the response rate for individuals who self-selected to opt in was 78% (191/246). Of the 191 respondents, 42 (22%) stored pet pharmaceuticals indefinitely. The most common disposal method was the garbage (88/191 [46%]). Veterinary-care professionals counseled clients infrequently regarding environmental stewardship practices for PPCPs. Fifty-five percent (105/191) of all respondents preferred more environmentally friendly and clinically effective PPCPs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of the present survey emphasized the urgent need for improved educational resources to minimize environmental contamination from improper disposal of PPCPs. Environmental and economic motivations among pet owners in the veterinary-care and education professions indicate further opportunities for outreach and institutional support.
Weijs, Cynthia A; Coe, Jason B; Muise, Amy; Christofides, Emily; Desmarais, Serge
From the Social media use by health professionals occurs in a digital environment where etiquette has yet to be solidly defined. The objectives of this study were to explore veterinarians' personal use of Facebook, knowledge of privacy settings, and factors related to sharing personal information online. All American Animal Hospital Association member veterinarians with a valid e-mail address (9469) were invited to complete an online survey about Facebook (e.g., time spent on Facebook, awareness of consequences, types of information posted). Questions assessing personality dimensions including trust, popularity, self-esteem and professional identity were included. The response rate was 17% (1594 of 9469); 72% of respondents (1148 of 1594) had a personal Facebook profile. Veterinarians were more likely to share information on Facebook than they would in general. Trust, need for popularity, and more time spent on Facebook predicted more disclosure of personal information on Facebook. Awareness of consequences and increased veterinary experience predicted lesser disclosure. As veterinary practices use Facebook to improve client services, they need also to manage risks associated with online disclosure by staff. Raising awareness of reputation management and consequences of posting certain types of information to Facebook is integral to protecting the individual, the practice, and the veterinary profession.
Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A; Pavlov, Alexander; Kyuchukova, Ralica; Fatehi, Foad; Bamidele, Florence A
The results from the first survey on food safety knowledge, attitudes and hygiene practices (KAP) among veterinary medicine students in Bulgaria are reported in this study. It was designed and conducted from September to December 2015 using structured questionnaires on food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. Data were collected from 100 undergraduate veterinary medicine students from the Trakia University, Bulgaria. It was observed that the age and the gender did not affect food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) on food safety knowledge and practices among students based on the years of study. A high level of food safety knowledge was observed among the participants (85.06%), however, the practice of food safety was above average (65.28%) while attitude toward food safety was high (70%). Although there was a significant awareness of food safety knowledge among respondents, there is a need for improvement on food safety practices, interventions on food safety and foodborne diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
In a first part a survey was made by questionnaires from veterinary doctors about the existence and use of X-ray sets in their practices. Special attention is given to the quality of X-ray shots. In part two stray radiation measurements under typical conditions were performed and the radiation burden of the personnel estimated. The results is that because of the small number of shots the burden is safely below the legal limits. (G.Q.)
Welsh, C E; Parkin, T D H; Marshall, J F
As antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains continue to emerge and spread in human and animal populations, understanding prescription practices is key in benchmarking current performance and setting goals. Antimicrobial prescription (AP) in companion veterinary species is widespread, but is neither monitored nor restricted in the USA and Canada. The veterinary use of certain antimicrobial classes is discouraged in some countries, in the hope of preserving efficacy for serious human infections. The aim of this study was to ascertain the rate of prescription of a number of 'reserved' antimicrobials in a first-opinion US and Canadian horse cohort, and identify trends in their empirical use. Retrospective cohort study. A large convenience sample of electronic medical records (2006-2012) was interrogated using text mining to identify enrofloxacin, clarithromycin and ceftiofur prescriptions. Time series analysis and logistic regression were used to identify trends and risk factors for prescription. Prescription of these antimicrobials as a first-line intervention, without culture and sensitivity testing (CST), was common in this population. Enrofloxacin prescriptions were found to increase over the study period, and there was evidence of either a reducing, or static trend in the proportion of reserved APs informed by CST. Dose adequacy could not be included due to the nature of the data used. Empirical use of reserved antimicrobials was common in this population, and further advice and guidance should be issued to first-opinion veterinarians to safeguard antimicrobial efficacy. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.
Edery, E G
To investigate how first opinion small animal veterinary surgeons in the UK handled chemotherapeutic agents, a questionnaire was distributed at the 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association congress and by internet. Chemotherapy was regularly offered by 70.4 per cent of the respondents. Gold standards defined according to available guidelines for safe handling of antineoplastic drugs were poorly followed by general practitioners with only 2 per cent of respondents complying with all of them. Dedicated facilities for preparation and administration of cytotoxic drugs were variably available among participants. The level of training of staff indirectly involved in handling chemotherapy was appropriate in less than 50 per cent of practices. No association was found between demographic characteristics of the sampled population and the decision to perform chemotherapy. The results of this study raise concerns about the safety of the veterinary staff in first opinion practices involved in handling chemotherapy. British Veterinary Association.
Stevens, Brenda J; Kedrowicz, April A
Effective client communication is important for success in veterinary practice. The purpose of this project was to describe one approach to communication training and explore fourth-year veterinary students' communication skills through an evaluation of their interactions with clients during a general practice rotation. Two raters coded 20 random videotaped interactions simultaneously to assess students' communication, including their ability to initiate the session, incorporate open-ended questions, listen reflectively, express empathy, incorporate appropriate nonverbal communication, and attend to organization and sequencing. We provide baseline data that will guide future instruction in client communication. Results showed that students' communication skills require development. Half of the students sampled excelled at open-ended inquiry (n=10), and 40% (n=8) excelled at nonverbal communication. Students needed improvement on greeting clients by name and introducing themselves and their role (n=15), reflective listening (n=18), empathy (n=17), and organization and sequencing (n=18). These findings suggest that more focused instruction and practice is necessary in maintaining an organized structure, reflective listening, and empathy to create a relationship-centered approach to care.
Judith L. Stella
Full Text Available Understanding cat owners’ housing, care, and management practices is important for promoting cat welfare. A survey study was conducted on the housing and management practices used for cats by students, faculty, and staff of The Ohio State University and Purdue University veterinary colleges. Subjects were 138 cat-owner dyads. Most cats (74% were housed strictly indoors in keeping with common US veterinary recommendations. However, many did not implement best practices outlined for behavior and other welfare needs of indoor cats. The percentage of respondents placing resources where cats could be disrupted while using them was 31%, 53%, and 30% for resting areas, food/water dishes, and litter boxes, respectively. Many cats were not provided a litter box in a private area (35%, in multiple areas of the house (51%, or that was regularly washed (73%. Horizontal scratching opportunities were not provided to 38% of cats; 32% were not provided toys that mimic prey and 91% of cats were fed a diet consisting of >75% dry food. These findings suggest a need for more concerted efforts to educate owners about meeting their cats’ welfare needs so as to attenuate risks and improve cat physical and behavioral welfare outcomes.
rapidly organize definitive therapy,. Traumas from various causes are recognized as frequent causes of injury to pet animals. However, there is paucity of information concerning the patterns of injuries associated with various causes of trauma in referral Veterinary centers in. Nigeria. This article presents the results of a.
Muellner, Petra; Muellner, Ulrich; Gates, M Carolyn; Pearce, Trish; Ahlstrom, Christina; O'Neill, Dan; Brodbelt, Dave; Cave, Nick John
Veterinary practitioners have extensive knowledge of animal health from their day-to-day observations of clinical patients. There have been several recent initiatives to capture these data from electronic medical records for use in national surveillance systems and clinical research. In response, an approach to surveillance has been evolving that leverages existing computerized veterinary practice management systems to capture animal health data recorded by veterinarians. Work in the United Kingdom within the VetCompass program utilizes routinely recorded clinical data with the addition of further standardized fields. The current study describes a prototype system that was developed based on this approach. In a 4-week pilot study in New Zealand, clinical data on presentation reasons and diagnoses from a total of 344 patient consults were extracted from two veterinary clinics into a dedicated database and analyzed at the population level. New Zealand companion animal and equine veterinary practitioners were engaged to test the feasibility of this national practice-based health information and data system. Strategies to ensure continued engagement and submission of quality data by participating veterinarians were identified, as were important considerations for transitioning the pilot program to a sustainable large-scale and multi-species surveillance system that has the capacity to securely manage big data. The results further emphasized the need for a high degree of usability and smart interface design to make such a system work effectively in practice. The geospatial integration of data from multiple clinical practices into a common operating picture can be used to establish the baseline incidence of disease in New Zealand companion animal and equine populations, detect unusual trends that may indicate an emerging disease threat or welfare issue, improve the management of endemic and exotic infectious diseases, and support research activities. This pilot project
Firth, Clair L; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Schleicher, Corina; Fuchs, Klemens; Egger-Danner, Christa; Mayerhofer, Martin; Schobesberger, Hermann; Köfer, Josef; Obritzhauser, Walter
Antimicrobial use in livestock production is an important contemporary issue, which is of public interest worldwide. Antimicrobials are not freely available to Austrian farmers and can only be administered to livestock by veterinarians, or by farmers who are trained members of the Animal Health Service. Since 2015, veterinarians have been required by law to report antimicrobials dispensed to farmers for use in food-producing animals. The study presented here went further than the statutory framework, and collected data on antimicrobials dispensed to farmers and those administered by veterinarians. Seventeen veterinary practices were enrolled in the study via convenience sampling. These veterinarians were asked to contact interested dairy farmers regarding participation in the study (respondent-driven sampling). Data were collected from veterinary practice software between 1st October 2015 and 30th September 2016. Electronic data (89.4%) were transferred via an online interface and paper records (10.6%) were entered by the authors. Antimicrobial treatments with respect to udder disease were analysed by number of defined daily doses per cow and year (nDDD vet /cow/year), based on the European Medicines Agency technical unit, Defined Daily Dose for animals (DDD vet ). Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyse the results. Antimicrobial use data from a total of 248 dairy farms were collected during the study, 232 of these farms treated cows with antibiotics; dry cow therapy was excluded from the current analysis. The mean number of DDD vet /cow/year for the antimicrobial treatment of all udder disease was 1.33 DDD vet /cow/year. Of these treatments, 0.73 DDD vet /cow/year were classed as highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIAs), according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition. The Wilcoxon rank sum test determined a statistically significant difference between the median number of DDD vet /cow/year for
Clair L. Firth
Full Text Available Background Antimicrobial use in livestock production is an important contemporary issue, which is of public interest worldwide. Antimicrobials are not freely available to Austrian farmers and can only be administered to livestock by veterinarians, or by farmers who are trained members of the Animal Health Service. Since 2015, veterinarians have been required by law to report antimicrobials dispensed to farmers for use in food-producing animals. The study presented here went further than the statutory framework, and collected data on antimicrobials dispensed to farmers and those administered by veterinarians. Methods Seventeen veterinary practices were enrolled in the study via convenience sampling. These veterinarians were asked to contact interested dairy farmers regarding participation in the study (respondent-driven sampling. Data were collected from veterinary practice software between 1st October 2015 and 30th September 2016. Electronic data (89.4% were transferred via an online interface and paper records (10.6% were entered by the authors. Antimicrobial treatments with respect to udder disease were analysed by number of defined daily doses per cow and year (nDDDvet/cow/year, based on the European Medicines Agency technical unit, Defined Daily Dose for animals (DDDvet. Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyse the results. Results Antimicrobial use data from a total of 248 dairy farms were collected during the study, 232 of these farms treated cows with antibiotics; dry cow therapy was excluded from the current analysis. The mean number of DDDvet/cow/year for the antimicrobial treatment of all udder disease was 1.33 DDDvet/cow/year. Of these treatments, 0.73 DDDvet/cow/year were classed as highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIAs, according to the World Health Organization (WHO definition. The Wilcoxon rank sum test determined a statistically significant difference between the median
Dilly, Marc; Read, Emma K; Baillie, Sarah
Developing competence in clinical skills is important if graduates are to provide entry-level care, but it is dependent on having had sufficient hands-on practice. Clinical skills laboratories provide opportunities for students to learn on simulators and models in a safe environment and to supplement training with animals. Interest in facilities for developing veterinary clinical skills has increased in recent years as many veterinary colleges face challenges in training their students with traditional methods alone. For the present study, we designed a survey to gather information from established veterinary clinical skills laboratories with the aim of assisting others considering opening or expanding their own facility. Data were collated from 16 veterinary colleges in North America and Europe about the uses of their laboratory, the building and associated facilities, and the staffing, budgets, equipment, and supporting learning resources. The findings indicated that having a dedicated veterinary clinical skills laboratory is a relatively new initiative and that colleges have adopted a range of approaches to implementing and running the laboratory, teaching, and assessments. Major strengths were the motivation and positive characteristics of the staff involved, providing open access and supporting self-directed learning. However, respondents widely recognized the increasing demands placed on the facility to provide more space, equipment, and staff. There is no doubt that veterinary clinical skills laboratories are on the increase and provide opportunities to enhance student learning, complement traditional training, and benefit animal welfare.
Sonja Catharina Boy
Full Text Available Developmental tooth abnormalities in dogs are uncommon in general veterinary practice but understanding thereof is important for optimal management in order to maintain gnathic function through conservation of the dentition. The purpose of this review is to discuss abnormalities of enamel structure and macroscopic tooth anatomy in dogs encountered in veterinary dental referral practice in South Africa and the United Kingdom. The basis of the pathogenesis, resultant clinical appearance and the management principles of each anomaly will be considered. Future research should aim to provide a detailed individual tooth mineralization schedule for dogs.
O'Neill, D G; Elliott, J; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C
The prevalence for chronic kidney disease (CKD) in dogs varies widely (0.05-3.74%). Identified risk factors include advancing age, specific breeds, small body size, and periodontal disease. To estimate the prevalence and identify risk factors associated with CKD diagnosis and survival in dogs. Purebred dogs were hypothesized to have higher CKD risk and poorer survival characteristics than crossbred dogs. A merged clinical database of 107,214 dogs attending 89 UK veterinary practices over a 2-year period (January 2010-December 2011). A longitudinal study design estimated the apparent prevalence (AP) whereas the true prevalence (TP) was estimated using Bayesian analysis. A nested case-control study design evaluated risk factors. Survival analysis used the Kaplan-Meier survival curve method and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. The CKD AP was 0.21% (95% CI: 0.19-0.24%) and TP was 0.37% (95% posterior credibility interval 0.02-1.44%). Significant risk factors included increasing age, being insured, and certain breeds (Cocker Spaniel, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel). Cardiac disease was a significant comorbid disorder. Significant clinical signs included halitosis, weight loss, polyuria/polydipsia, urinary incontinence, vomiting, decreased appetite, lethargy, and diarrhea. The median survival time from diagnosis was 226 days (95% CI 112-326 days). International Renal Interest Society stage and blood urea nitrogen concentration at diagnosis were significantly associated with hazard of death due to CKD. Chronic kidney disease compromises dog welfare. Increased awareness of CKD risk factors and association of blood biochemistry results with survival time should facilitate diagnosis and optimize case management to improve animal survival and welfare. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who may inspect records and records management practices... Records § 15.504 Who may inspect records and records management practices? (a) You may inspect the probate... Secretary and the Archivist of the United States may inspect records and records management practices and...
Cave, N J; Jackson, R; Bridges, J P
To determine current practices and attitudes towards vaccination of dogs and cats of veterinarians in New Zealand; the methods used for informing clients on which vaccines to use, and the preferred site for vaccination of cats. A postal questionnaire was sent to all 483 listed veterinary practices in New Zealand during February 2012. Some questions were specific to pet dogs, cats, or working farm dogs. Responses were categorised according to practice type and geographical region of the respondent. Factors associated with respondent recommendation of annual vaccination with modified live viral (MLV) vaccines were examined using logistic regression analysis. Vaccines that were considered to be essential for every animal were defined as core; those that may be recommended for animals whose location or lifestyle placed them at risk, were defined as non-core. There were 204 useable returns, equivalent to a response rate of 42.2%, distributed across the country. Annual vaccination with MLV vaccines of dogs was recommended by 54/198 (27.3%) respondents, and of cats by 107/181 (59.1%) respondents. Factors associated with the recommendation of annual administration of MLV vaccines to dogs included being a companion animal practice, a desire for policies on vaccination to be left to individual clinics, and having one veterinarian in the practice. Administration of the final vaccination for puppies was recommended at ≥14 weeks old by 55/185 (29.7%) respondents, and for kittens at ≥13 weeks old by 42/183 (23%) respondents. Of respondents that administered MLV vaccines annually, 62/103 (60.2%) believed reducing the frequency of vaccination would reduce income, and 52/103 (50.5%) considered it would have a negative effect on animal health. Advice to enable clients to decide which non-core vaccines were administered was given by 181/199 (91%) respondents. Factors considered when recommending a vaccine included consideration of risk to individual patients (190/203; 93
... animals, animal products, birds, germ plasm, organisms, and vectors. VS incurs costs associated with... exportation of animals, animal products, birds, germ plasm, organisms, and vectors. Categories of records in... role-based access given on a need-to-know basis. Retention and disposal: Electronic data is maintained...
Full Text Available The use of antimicrobial agents is the key risk factor for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. It is therefore generally recognized that data on the usage of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals are essential for identifying and quantifying the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance in the food-chain. According to the WHO guidelines, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical system for the classification of veterinary medicines (ATC-vet is widely recognized as a classification tool. The aim of this work is to analyze the list of registered veterinary medicinal products in R. Macedonia and to evaluate the quality and practical use of this list according to the ATC-vet classification in order to identify the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance.
Svirin, Vaytcheslav N.; Rogatkin, Dmitrii A.; Barybin, Vitalii F.
During same years various medical effect of low-energy laser therapy in veterinary were tested. We established that the laser low-energy therapy can be very effective for treatment such animal's diseases as mastitis and demodekose when certain combinations of laser beam parameters are used. This combinations were taken as the principle of a number of laser veterinary apparatus, which we started to produce at `POLUS'. It is our series of apparatus `VEGA-MB' and `VETLAS-3', which is real used today for dogs and cows treatment in Russia.
Full Text Available This paper illustrates and discusses the key issues of the geographical information system (GIS developed by the Unit of Veterinary Epidemiology of the Veneto region (CREV, defined according to user needs, spatial data (availability, accessibility and applicability, development, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationships, constraints and policies. GeoCREV, the support system for decision-making, was designed to integrate geographic information and veterinary laboratory data with the main aim to develop a sub-national, spatial data infrastructure (SDI for the veterinary services of the Veneto region in north-eastern Italy. Its implementation required (i collection of data and information; (ii building a geodatabase; and (iii development of a WebGIS application. Tools for the management, collection, validation and dissemination of the results (public access and limited access were developed. The modular concept facilitates the updating and development of the system according to user needs and data availability. The GIS management practices that were followed to develop the system are outlined, followed by a detailed discussion of the key elements of the GIS implementation process (data model, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationship, user dimension and institutional framework. Problems encountered in organising the non-spatial data and the future work directions are also described.
Ferrè, Nicola; Mulatti, Paolo; Mazzucato, Matteo; Lorenzetto, Monica; Trolese, Matteo; Pandolfo, Dario; Vio, Piero; Sitta, Guido; Marangon, Stefano
This paper illustrates and discusses the key issues of the geographical information system (GIS) developed by the Unit of Veterinary Epidemiology of the Veneto region (CREV), defined according to user needs, spatial data (availability, accessibility and applicability), development, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationships, constraints and policies. GeoCREV, the support system for decision-making, was designed to integrate geographic information and veterinary laboratory data with the main aim to develop a sub-national, spatial data infrastructure (SDI) for the veterinary services of the Veneto region in north-eastern Italy. Its implementation required (i) collection of data and information; (ii) building a geodatabase; and (iii) development of a WebGIS application. Tools for the management, collection, validation and dissemination of the results (public access and limited access) were developed. The modular concept facilitates the updating and development of the system according to user needs and data availability. The GIS management practices that were followed to develop the system are outlined, followed by a detailed discussion of the key elements of the GIS implementation process (data model, technical aspects, inter-institutional relationship, user dimension and institutional framework). Problems encountered in organising the non-spatial data and the future work directions are also described.
Hudak, R.; Zivcak, J.; Sevcik, A.; Danko, J.
The use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine has been practiced since at least the 1960's, but it is only now, in approximately the last 5 years, that it has been viewed with a reasonably open mind in the veterinary community at large. One of the reasons is progress in sensors technology, which contributed for an outstanding improvement of the thermal imager parameters. Paper deals with veterinary thermography and with description of applications at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice. (authors)
Zaninelli, M; Campagnoli, A; Reyes, M; Rojas, V
In order to improve the hospital information system of the Chilean University Hospital, the Veterinary Medicine School of Universidad de Chile made a research cooperation with Università San Raffaele Roma to develop and test a new release of the O3-Vet software application. O3-Vet was selected by the Chilean University mainly for two reasons: (1) it uses human medicine standardized technologies such as "Health Level 7" (HL7) and "Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise" (IHE), which allow a good level of data sharing and hospital management; (2) it is open source, which means it can be adapted to specific hospital needs. In the new release, a subset of diagnostic terms was added from the "Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms" (SNOMED CT), selected by the "American Animal Hospital Association" (AAHA) to standardize the filing of clinical data and its retrieval. Results from a limited survey of veterinarians of the University (n=9) show that the new release improved the management of the Chilean University Hospital and the ability to retrieve useful clinical data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morris, Daniel O; Boston, Raymond C; O'Shea, Kathleen; Rankin, Shelley C
It has been shown that people and pets can harbour identical strains of meticillin-resistant (MR) staphylococci when they share an environment. Veterinary dermatology practitioners are a professional group with a high incidence of exposure to animals infected by Staphylococcus spp. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of carriage of MR Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), MR S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) and MR S. schleiferi (MRSS) by veterinary dermatology practice staff and their personal pets. A swab technique and selective media were used to screen 171 veterinary dermatology practice staff and their respective pets (258 dogs and 160 cats). Samples were shipped by over-night carrier. Human subjects completed a 22-question survey of demographic and epidemiologic data relevant to staphylococcal transmission. The 171 human-source samples yielded six MRSA (3.5%), nine MRSP (5.3%) and four MRSS (2.3%) isolates, while 418 animal-source samples yielded eight MRSA (1.9%) 21 MRSP (5%), and two MRSS (0.5%) isolates. Concordant strains (genetically identical by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis) were isolated from human subjects and their respective pets in four of 171 (2.9%) households: MRSA from one person/two pets and MRSP from three people/three pets. In seven additional households (4.1%), concordant strains were isolated from only the pets: MRSA in two households and MRSP in five households. There were no demographic or epidemiologic factors statistically associated with either human or animal carriage of MR staphylococci, or with concordant carriage by person-pet or pet-pet pairs. Lack of statistical associations may reflect an underpowered study. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.
Fernanda C. Dórea
Full Text Available Background: We describe a veterinary syndromic surveillance system developed in Sweden based on laboratory test requests. Materials and methods: The system is a desktop application built using free software. Results: Development took 1 year. During the first year of operation, utility was demonstrated by the detection of statistically significant increases in the number of laboratory submissions. The number of false alarms was considered satisfactory in order to achieve the desired sensitivity. Discussion: Besides the demonstrated benefit for disease surveillance, the system contributed to improving data quality and communication between the diagnostic departments and the epidemiology department.
Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E
Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.
O'Neill, D G; Case, J; Boag, A K; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C
To report prevalence, risk factors and clinical outcomes for presumptive gastric dilation-volvulus diagnosed among an emergency-care population of UK dogs. The study used a cross-sectional design using emergency-care veterinary clinical records from the VetCompass Programme spanning September 1, 2012 to February 28, 2014 and risk factor analysis using multivariable logistic regression modelling. The study population comprised 77,088 dogs attending 50 Vets Now clinics. Overall, 492 dogs had presumptive gastric dilation-volvulus diagnoses, giving a prevalence of 0·64% (95% Confidence interval: 0·58 to 0·70%). Compared with cross-bred dogs, breeds with the highest odds ratios for the diagnosis of presumptive gastric dilation-volvulus were the great Dane (odds ratio: 114·3, 95% Confidence interval 55·1 to 237·1, Pdogs aged up to 12 years and neutered male dogs had 1·3 (95% Confidence interval 1·0 to 1·8, P=0·041) times the odds compared with entire females. Of the cases that were presented alive, 49·7% survived to discharge overall, but 79·3% of surgical cases survived to discharge. Approximately 80% of surgically managed cases survived to discharge. Certain large breeds were highly predisposed. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Full Text Available The evolution of veterinary nursing over the past fifty years combined with the introduction of the RCVS Register and Code of Conduct means that RVN's are now accountable for their actions and as a result must develop the ability to critically appraise, both their own practice and the protocols of the organisation in which they work, as part of clinical governance. It is therefore important that they develop the tools which enable them to confidently question all aspects of their clinical practice, but especially patient care and welfare, where necessary.This is a podcast of Sue and Andrea's talk at the Veterinary Evidence Today conference, Edinburgh November 1, 2016.
Pastoret, P P
Veterinary vaccinology is a very interesting and rapidly developing field. In fact veterinary vaccines are not only used for the prevention of infectious diseases in the animal health sector, but also help to solve problems of public health, to reduce detrimental environmental impact of the use of some veterinary drugs and prevent the emergence of resistance of micro-organisms or parasites. After a short introduction, this paper will deal with the use of vaccines for animal health and welfare, including new developments in the veterinary field such as marker vaccines and vectored vaccines, the special case of equine influenza-inactivated vaccines and the use of veterinary vaccines in public health. The conclusions will analyse the reasons as to why develop veterinary vaccines and the obstacles to their development.
Haider, Najmul; Khan, S. U.; Islam, A.
) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). We conducted the study from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals where veterinarians collected samples from sick livestock and recorded the presumptive diagnosis on the basis of clinical presentations. Samples were tested for PPR and FMD using...... competency of these veterinarians needs to be improved and access to laboratory diagnostic facilities could help veterinarians to improve the diagnostics and outcomes. The rational use of antibiotics by veterinarians in animals must be ensured....... validation process for PPR (kappa: 0.25) and FMD (kappa 0.36) indicated a poor performance of the presumptive diagnoses. Most of the animals (93%) were treated with antibiotics. Our findings indicate that veterinarians can detect animals not infected with FMD or PPR but miss the true cases. The clinical...
Joel Barker, a noted futurist, points out that the best ideas usually come from outside an industry or profession. As a management consultant, I often get new ideas from industries completely unrelated to my clients' industry. For example, companies interested in offering outstanding customer service might study Nordstrom's, L.L. Bean, or Lexus. Those interested in world class distribution might research Federal Express or United Parcel Service. Airlines, trying to minimize downtime of jets at the terminal, learn secrets from Indianapolis 500 pit crews. Similarly, in observing optometrists and dentists, there are valuable lessons for veterinarians. Dentists identified a business model or organizational structure that generates healthy profits. Independent optometrists experienced the onslaught of intense competition from huge corporate players and weathered the storm. The veterinary profession is not so unique. By studying other professions, we need not recreate the wheel.
This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)
Full Text Available Background: Electronic medical records (EMRs can be of great use in dermatological data recording. Unfortunately, not many studies have been carried out in this specific area. Aims: We attempt to evaluate the use of an EMR system in dermatology, comparing it with a conventional paper-based system. Methods: Two hundred patient records of patients attending the dermatology outpatient department were studied over a 3-month period. Half the reports were entered in the conventional paper-based format while the other half was entered in an EMR system. The time taken for each consultation was recorded and the same was carried out for the first subsequent follow-up visit. Results: The average time taken for the completion of the EMR-based consultation for new cases was 19.15 min (range, 10-30 min; standard deviation, 6.47. The paper-based consultation had an average time of 15.70 min (range, 5-25 min; standard deviation, 6.78. The P-value (T-test was used was 0.002, which was significant. The average time taken for consultations and entering progress notes in the follow-up cases was slightly less than 10 min (9.7 for EMR while it was slightly more than 10 min (10.3 for the paper format. The difference was not statistically significant. The doctors involved also mentioned what they felt were the advantages and disadvantages of the system along with suggestions for improvement. Conclusion: The use of an EMR system in dermatology (or for that matter in any specialty may overawe most users at the beginning, but once a comfort level is established, EMR is likely to outscore conventional paper recording systems. More time-motion-case studies are required to ascertain the optimal usage of EMR systems.
McCobb, Emily; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Malcolm, Elizabeth L; Wolfus, Gregory; Rush, John E
Providing veterinary students with opportunities to develop clinical skills in a realistic, hands-on environment remains a challenge for veterinary education. We have developed a novel approach to teaching clinical medicine to fourth-year veterinary students and technical high school students via development of a primary care clinic embedded within a technical high school. The primary care clinic targets an underserved area of the community, which includes many of the participating high school students. Support from the veterinary community for the project has been strong as a result of communication, the opportunity for veterinarians to volunteer in the clinic, and the careful targeting of services. Benefits to veterinary students include the opportunity to build clinical competencies and confidence, as well as the exposure to a diverse client population. The financial model of the clinic is described and initial data on outcomes for case load, clinic income, veterinary student evaluations, and high school students' success in passing the veterinary assisting examination are reported. This clinical model, involving a partnership between a veterinary school and a technical high school, may be adoptable to other clinical teaching situations.
Clarke, Patricia; Schull, Daniel; Coleman, Glen; Pitt, Rachael; Manathunga, Catherine
Veterinary technology is an emerging profession within the veterinary and allied animal health fields in Australia and affords graduates the opportunity to contribute to the small but growing body of literature within this discipline. This study describes the introduction of a contextualised assessment task to develop students' research…
The history of parasitology and the teaching of veterinary parasitology in South Africa are reviewed briefly. Courses in veterinary parasitology are presented at the faculties of veterinary science at the University of Pretoria and the Medical University of South Africa as well as at the Pretoria Technicon. At the University of Pretoria, the three disciplines of veterinary parasitology, entomology, helminthology and protozoology, are covered in 330 core lectures; from 13 to 40% of the contact time is devoted to practical classes. Teaching veterinary parasitology is both labour intensive and costly, viz. R1700 (US$570) per student per annum. Such costs are justified by the R148.8 million (US$49.6 million) spent every year in South Africa on anthelmintics, ectoparasiticides and vaccines to control parasites. Veterinary parasitology is a dynamic subject and the curriculum must be revised regularly to incorporate new information. Because the parasite faunas are so diverse no single textbook can satisfy the requirements of the various institutions worldwide which teach the subject, with the result that extensive use is made of notes. In Australia and in Europe, ticks and tick-borne diseases are less important than they are in Africa; consequently insufficient space is devoted to them in textbooks to satisfy the requirements of the subject in African countries. Parasite control under extensive and intensive conditions is dealt with adequately at the University of Pretoria, but increasing emphasis will be given to small-scale farming systems, particularly if alternative food animals are to be kept.
Smallwood, Robert F
The ultimate guide to electronic records management, featuring a collaboration of expert practitioners including over 400 cited references documenting today's global trends, standards, and best practices Nearly all business records created today are electronic, and are increasing in number at breathtaking rates, yet most organizations do not have the policies and technologies in place to effectively organize, search, protect, preserve, and produce these records. Authored by an internationally recognized expert on e-records in collaboration with leading subject matter experts worldwide
McGreevy, Paul; Thomson, Peter; Dhand, Navneet K.; Raubenheimer, David; Masters, Sophie; Mansfield, Caroline S.; Baldwin, Timothy; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J.; Rand, Jacquie; Hill, Peter; Gilkerson, James; Combs, Martin; Raidal, Shane; Irwin, Peter; Irons, Peter; Squires, Richard; Brodbelt, David; Hammond, Jeremy
Simple Summary The VetCompass Australia program collects real-time clinical records from veterinary practices and aggregates them for researchers to interrogate. It delivers Australian researchers sustainable and cost-effective access to authoritative data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners, across Australia and opens up major international collaborative opportunities with related projects in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Abstract VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses). Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1) roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2) development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation) platform; and (3) creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP) technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will
McGreevy, Paul; Thomson, Peter; Dhand, Navneet K; Raubenheimer, David; Masters, Sophie; Mansfield, Caroline S; Baldwin, Timothy; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Rand, Jacquie; Hill, Peter; Peaston, Anne; Gilkerson, James; Combs, Martin; Raidal, Shane; Irwin, Peter; Irons, Peter; Squires, Richard; Brodbelt, David; Hammond, Jeremy
VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses). Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1) roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2) development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation) platform; and (3) creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP) technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.
Full Text Available VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses. Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1 roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2 development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation platform; and (3 creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.
Routly, J E; Taylor, I R; Turner, R; McKernan, E J; Dobson, H
Postal surveys or personal interviews of 76 recent veterinary graduates and their 49 employers were undertaken to establish their perceptions of good practice when integrating a new graduate into a business and their preferred methods of assessment and development. Practice type and location were the main influences on graduates looking for their first job. Interviews were mostly informal. Employers expected basic veterinary competence and candidates expected good quality support. Most graduates (93 per cent) had their own consultations on the first day. During early consultations 2 per cent of senior vets accompanied the new graduate, 95 per cent of practices provided senior back-up either in person or by telephone but in 3 per cent no back-up was available. Most new graduates (90 per cent) were satisfied with their workload. Three-fifths were on-call within the first week, and 95 per cent within a month. Graduates received calls directly in 45 per cent of practices, in 9 per cent seniors screened the calls, and the remainder used a third party. Assistance from experienced lay staff varied greatly. Discussion of problems was mainly informal. There was little spontaneous feedback and problems resulted from inadequate communication. One in three new graduates left their first job within two years, and one in six identified lack of support, heavy workload, stress or clashes with staff as a primary reason. This high turnover was a problem for employers. From the new graduates' perspectives, initial problems included: being on call (59 per cent), financial aspects (47 per cent) and surgery (43 per cent). Communicating with clients and learning to prioritise jobs were also difficult. New graduates took longer over procedures (79 per cent of employers commented) and required extra back-up (91 per cent) both of which reduced income (59 per cent). Nearly all the seniors felt that their current new graduates had coped 'quite well', although it was claimed that new graduates
Wedlich, Richard C.; Libera, Agata E.; Pires, Amanda; Tellarini, Cassandra
A clear understanding of how "raw data" is defined, recorded, and retained in the laboratory record is essential to the chemist employed in the laboratory compliant with the Good Laboratory Practices regulations. This article is intended to provide an understanding by drawing upon examples taken from the modern pharmaceutical analysis…
Many organizations are moving away from managing records and information in paper form to setting up electronic records management (ERM) systems. Whatever the whyfor in your organization, this book provides straightforward, practical guidance on how to prepare for and enable ERM.
Health Data Recording, Reporting and Utilization Practices Among Primary Health Care Workers in Enugu State, South Eastern Nigeria. ... of PHC workers used notepads, 52.3% used notebooks while only 47.7% used health management information system (HMIS) forms to record data. ... AJOL African Journals Online.
Douglas, Jeffrey S.
Spiraling veterinary student debt and the lack of a sustainable and profitable business model for many private practices in the modern business environment threaten the future growth and stability of the veterinary profession.
Dhollander, S.; Jallow, A.; Mbodge, K.; Kora, S.; Sanneh, M.; Gaye, M.; Bos, J.F.F.P.; Leak, S.; Berkvens, D.; Geerts, S.
The objective of this,study was to provide epidemiological information of equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division (CRD) of The Gambia. Therefore, 2285 consultations records of equines, admitted in a gate-clinic at Sololo in CRD, were studied retrospectively. The data were recorded in the
Henken, Kirsten R; Jansen, Frank Willem; Klein, Jan; Stassen, Laurents P S; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J
Technological developments allow for a variety of applications of video recording in health care, including endoscopic procedures. Although the value of video registration is recognized, medicolegal concerns regarding the privacy of patients and professionals are growing. A clear understanding of the legal framework is lacking. Therefore, this research aims to provide insight into the juridical position of patients and professionals regarding video recording in health care practice. Jurisprudence was searched to exemplify legislation on video recording in health care. In addition, legislation was translated for different applications of video in health care found in the literature. Three principles in Western law are relevant for video recording in health care practice: (1) regulations on privacy regarding personal data, which apply to the gathering and processing of video data in health care settings; (2) the patient record, in which video data can be stored; and (3) professional secrecy, which protects the privacy of patients including video data. Practical implementation of these principles in video recording in health care does not exist. Practical regulations on video recording in health care for different specifically defined purposes are needed. Innovations in video capture technology that enable video data to be made anonymous automatically can contribute to protection for the privacy of all the people involved.
Singleton, D A; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, F; Dawson, S; Jones, P H; Noble, P J M; Pinchbeck, G L; Williams, N J; Radford, A D
Antimicrobial resistance is an increasingly important global health threat and the use of antimicrobial agents is a key risk factor in its development. This study describes antimicrobial agent prescription (AAP) patterns over a 2year period using electronic health records (EHRs) from booked consultations in a network of 457 sentinel veterinary premises in the United Kingdom. A semi-automated classification methodology was used to map practitioner defined product codes in 918,333 EHRs from 413,870 dogs and 352,730 EHRs from 200,541 cats, including 289,789 AAPs. AAP as a proportion of total booked consultations was more frequent in dogs (18.8%, 95% confidence interval, CI, 18.2-19.4) than cats (17.5%, 95% CI 16.9-18.1). Prescription of topical antimicrobial agents was more frequent in dogs (7.4%, 95% CI 7.2-7.7) than cats (3.2%, 95% CI 3.1-3.3), whilst prescription of systemic antimicrobial agents was more frequent in cats (14.8%, 95% CI 14.2-15.4) than dogs (12.2%, 95% CI 11.7-12.7). A decreasing temporal pattern was identified for prescription of systemic antimicrobial agents in dogs and cats. Premises which prescribed antimicrobial agents frequently for dogs also prescribed frequently for cats. AAP was most frequent during pruritus consultations in dogs and trauma consultations in cats. Clavulanic acid potentiated amoxicillin was the most frequently prescribed antimicrobial agent in dogs (28.6% of prescriptions, 95% CI 27.4-29.8), whereas cefovecin, a third generation cephalosporin, was the most frequently prescribed antimicrobial agent in cats (36.2%, 95% CI 33.9-38.5). This study demonstrated patterns in AAP over time and for different conditions in a population of companion animals in the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Today's medical practice staff communicates remotely with patients, pharmacies, and other medical providers in new ways that go far beyond telephone calls. Patient care and communication are now being provided via telecommunications technologies, including chat/IM, screen, Skype, and other video applications. This new paradigm in patient care, known as "telehealth" or "telemedicine," could put medical practices at risk for noncompliance with strict HIPAA and other regulations. Interaction recording encompasses these new means of communication and can help medical practice staff achieve compliance and reduce financial and liability risks while improving operations and patient care. This article explores what medical practices need to know about interaction recording, what to look for in an interaction recording solution, and how to best utilize that solution to meet compliance, manage liability, and improve patient care.
Fusi, Francesca; Angelucci, Alessandra; Lorenzi, Valentina; Bolzoni, Luca; Bertocchi, Luigi
A questionnaire survey about on farm dairy cow mortality was carried out among veterinary practitioners in Italy between January 2013 and May 2014. The study aimed at investigating the main circumstances of death in dairy cows (euthanasia, emergency slaughter or unassisted death), the primary causes and the risk factors of death. Out of 251 dead cows involved (across 137 farms), 54.6% died assisted and 45.4% were found dead. The main causes of death were metabolic/digestive disorders (22.3%) and mastitis/udder problems (17.1%), while in 14.7% of all cases, reasons of death were unknown. From the univariable generalised linear mixed models, dry cows showed a significantly higher odds to die unassisted compared to lactating cows (OR=3.2); dry cows also had higher odds of dying from unknown reasons (OR=11.7). Season was not significantly related to the risk of dying unassisted and for unknown reasons, but during the summer (characterised by hot and muggy weather in Northern Italy) cows died mostly for problems at calving. 54.2% of cows died during the first 30days in milk (DIM). Half of the multiparous cows that died, died in the first 29.5 DIM, while half of the primiparous cows that died, died in the first 50 DIM. Results pointed out that, especially in dry cows, around calving and during the summer, some failure in management practices and daily inspections may occur. Improvements should be done in monitoring activities and in recognising early symptoms of diseases among stockperson. In addition, in case of diagnosed diseases with poor prognosis, euthanasia procedures should be implemented to prevent cows from dying unassisted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Alison M Bard
Full Text Available Client behaviour change is at the heart of veterinary practice, where promoting animal health and welfare is often synonymous with engaging clients in animal management practices. In the medical realm, extensive research points to the link between practitioner communication and patient behavioural outcomes, suggesting that the veterinary industry could benefit from a deeper understanding of veterinarian communication and its effects on client motivation. Whilst extensive studies have quantified language components typical of the veterinary consultation, the literature is lacking in-depth qualitative analysis in this context. The objective of this study was to address this deficit, and offer new critical insight into veterinary communication strategies in the pursuit of client behaviour change. Role-play interactions (n = 15 between UK cattle veterinarians and an actress experienced in medical and veterinary education were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Analysis revealed that, overall, veterinarians tend to communicate in a directive style (minimal eliciting of client opinion, dominating the consultation agenda, prioritising instrumental support, reflecting a paternalistic role in the consultation interaction. Given this finding, recommendations for progress in the veterinary industry are made; namely, the integration of evidence-based medical communication methodologies into clinical training. Use of these types of methodologies may facilitate the adoption of more mutualistic, relationship-centred communication in veterinary practice, supporting core psychological elements of client motivation and resultant behaviour change.
Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem
BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro......-pathogens in veterinary practice. METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture...... B (commercial name Flexicult(®) Vet) is a time- and cost-effective point-of-care test to guide antimicrobial choice and facilitate implementation of antimicrobial use guidelines for treatment of UTIs in small animals, provided that clinical staff is adequately trained to interpret the results...
Beck, Cathy; Gaunt, Heather; Chiavaroli, Neville
Radiographic interpretation is a perceptual and cognitive skill. Recently core veterinary radiology textbooks have focused on the cognitive (i.e., the clinical aspects of radiographic interpretation) rather than the features of visual observation that improve identification of abnormalities. As a result, the skill of visual observation is underemphasized and thus often underdeveloped by trainees. The study of the arts in medical education has been used to train and improve visual observation and empathy. The use of the arts to improve visual observation skills in Veterinary Science has not been previously described. Objectives of this pilot study were to adapt the existing Visual Arts in Health Education Program for medical and dental students at the University of Melbourne, Australia to third year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students and evaluate their perceptions regarding the program's effects on visual observation skills and confidence with respect to radiographic interpretation. This adaptation took the form of a single seminar given to third year Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students. Following the seminar, students reported an improved approach to radiographic interpretation and felt they had gained skills which would assist them throughout their career. In the year following the seminar, written reports of the students who attended the seminar were compared with reports from a matched cohort of students who did not attend the seminar. This demonstrated increased identification of abnormalities and greater description of the abnormalities identified. Findings indicated that explicit training in visual observation may be a valuable adjunct to the radiology training of Doctor of Veterinary Medicine students. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Kirshin, V.A.; Belov, A.D.; Budarkov, V.A.; Prochazka, Z.
The monograph summarizes the authors' experience and data from Soviet and foreign scientific literature. It consists of the following chapters: radioactive sources; utilization of ionizing radiation and radioactive isotopes; biological effects of ionizing radiation; radiation sickness in animals; combined post-irradiation syndromes; prophylaxis of radiation injury; therapy of irradiated animals; and veterinary radiation hygiene control of the environment, fodder, animals and animal products. (P.A.)
Oborn, Eivor; Barrett, Michael; Davidson, Elizabeth
In this paper we examine the use of electronic patient records (EPR) by clinical specialists in their development of multidisciplinary care for diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer. We develop a practice theory lens to investigate EPR use across multidisciplinary team practice. Our findings suggest that there are oppositional tendencies towards diversity in EPR use and unity which emerges across multidisciplinary work, and this influences the outcomes of EPR use. The value of this persp...
Computers have been used to automate complex and repetitive tasks in veterinary hospitals since the 1960s. Early systems were expensive, but their use was justified because they performed jobs which would have been impossible or which would have required greater resources in terms of time and personnel had they been performed by other methods. Systems found in most veterinary hospitals today are less costly, magnitudes more capable, and often underused. Modern multitasking operating systems and graphical interfaces bring many opportunities for automation. Commercial and custom programs developed and used in a typical multidoctor mixed species veterinary practice are described.
Project #OA-FY13-0113, December 13, 2012. This memorandum is to notify you that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Office of Inspector General, plans to begin an audit of certain EPA electronic records management practices.
Hands-on practical guide covering all aspects of recording, ideal for beginning and intermediate recording engineers, producers, musicians and audio enthusiasts. Filled with tips and shortcuts, this book offers advice on equipping a home studio (both low-budget and advanced), suggestions for set-up, acoustics, choosing monitor speakers, and preventing hum. This best-selling guide also tells how to judge recordings and improve them to produce maximum results. New material covered in the 5th edition to include: * complete revision and update of dig
Brusk, Amy M; White, Brad J; Goehl, Dan R; Dhuyvetter, Kevin C
To determine potential associations between demographic and business management factors and practice size and growth rate in rural mixed-animal veterinary practices. Cross-sectional survey. 54 mixed-animal practitioners. A cross-sectional survey (96 questions) was electronically disseminated. Responses were collected, and outcomes (number of veterinarians [NV], growth in number of veterinarians [NVG], gross practice income [GPI], growth in gross practice income [GPIG], gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIV], and growth in gross practice income per veterinarian [GPIVG]) were calculated. Bivariate analyses were performed and multivariable models created to determine associations between survey responses and outcomes of interest. Survey respondents were from mixed-animal practices, and most (46/54 [85.2%]) practiced in small communities (business manager. Typically, practices had positive mean growth in NVG (4.4%), GPIG (8.5%), and GPIVG (8.1%), but growth rate was highly variable among practices. Factors associated with growth rate included main species interest, frequency for adjusting prices, use of a marketing plan, service fee structure, and sending a client newsletter. Mixed-animal practices had a large range in size and growth rate. Economic indices were impacted by common business management practices.
Weese, J Scott; Jack, Douglas C
Needlestick injuries are an inherent risk of handling needles during the course of veterinary practice. While significant effort has been expended to reduce needlestick injuries in human medicine, a relatively lax approach seems to be prevalent in veterinary medicine. It appears that needlestick injuries are very common among veterinary personnel and that serious adverse effects, while uncommon, do occur. Clients may also receive injuries in clinics during the course of animal restraint, and at home following prescription of injectable medications or fluids. Because of occupational health, personal health, and liability concerns, veterinary practices should review the measures they are taking to reduce the likelihood of needlestick injuries and develop written needlestick injury avoidance protocols.
Vockeroth, W G
Complementary and alternative therapies, including homeopathy, have a definite place in veterinary medicine today. The public is demanding access to a full range of conventional and complementary therapies, and the best scenario is to have all therapies available, for there is a place and a need for all of them in the right situation. In my own practice, I use both alternative and conventional therapies, as well as referring patients to specialists, for services such as ultrasound and surgery...
Tatiana Barbieri Bombarda
Full Text Available Considering the importance of records in the professional practice of occupational therapy, it is necessary to instill a more insightful look at the effectiveness of practitioners’ notes, as well as encourage the development of research–oriented documentary practice. The preparation of records arises from the need to have information from the service as a means of guidance and oversight of the service provided and on the adopted technical responsibility, as well as from the fact that the notes are a valuable data providing resource for research. The present study sought to identify and characterize occupational therapists in the state of Sao Paulo who work in inclusive education and how the records of their interventional practices are performed. A structured questionnaire as a tool available on the website for specific predetermined time was used as the study instrument, and the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Participants were 55 occupational therapists working in the inclusive education process registered in the 3rd region of the Regional Council of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy. The results demonstrated that free narrative was the most commonly used registration model and that information related to the process of custody of notes was fragmented. These data showed weakness in the systematization of records, which is believed to result in improvement of the profession, a factor that demonstrates the necessity and temporality of the scientific production on this issue.
¹Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ABU Zaria, Nigeria, ²Department of. Veterinary Physiology ... dogs, AGRs have a highly sensitive sense of smell. The rats ..... Gonadal Axis and thyroid Activity in. Male rats.
Diana L. Eubanks
Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.
Magalhães-Sant'Ana, M.; More, S. J.; Morton, D. B.; Hanlon, A.
Ethics is key to the integrity of the veterinary profession. Despite its importance, there is a lack of applied research on the range of ethical challenges faced by veterinarians. A three round Policy Delphi with vignette methodology was used to record the diversity of views on ethical challenges faced by veterinary professionals in Ireland. Forty experts, comprising veterinary practitioners, inspectors and nurses, accepted to participate. In round 1, twenty vignettes describing a variety of ethically challenging veterinary scenarios were ranked in terms of ethical acceptability, reputational risk and perceived standards of practice. Round 2 aimed at characterising challenges where future policy development or professional guidance was deemed to be needed. In round 3, possible solutions to key challenges were explored. Results suggest that current rules and regulations are insufficient to ensure best veterinary practices and that a collective approach is needed to harness workable solutions for the identified ethical challenges. Challenges pertaining mostly to the food chain seem to require enforcement measures whereas softer measures that promote professional discretion were preferred to address challenges dealing with veterinary clinical services. These findings can support veterinary representative bodies, advisory committees and regulatory authorities in their decision making, policy and regulation. PMID:27613779
Bartsch, Emily; Park, Alison L; Young, Jacqueline; Ray, Joel G; Tu, Karen
The emerging adoption of the electronic medical record (EMR) in primary care enables clinicians and researchers to efficiently examine epidemiological trends in child health, including infant feeding practices. We completed a population-based retrospective cohort study of 8815 singleton infants born at term in Ontario, Canada, April 2002 to March 2013. Newborn records were linked to the Electronic Medical Record Administrative data Linked Database (EMRALD™), which uses patient-level information from participating family practice EMRs across Ontario. We assessed exclusive breastfeeding patterns using an automated electronic search algorithm, with manual review of EMRs when the latter was not possible. We examined the rate of breastfeeding at visits corresponding to 2, 4 and 6 months of age, as well as sociodemographic factors associated with exclusive breastfeeding. Of the 8815 newborns, 1044 (11.8%) lacked breastfeeding information in their EMR. Rates of exclusive breastfeeding were 39.5% at 2 months, 32.4% at 4 months and 25.1% at 6 months. At age 6 months, exclusive breastfeeding rates were highest among mothers aged ≥40 vs. database.
Menachemi, Nir; Mazurenko, Olena; Kazley, Abby Swanson; Diana, Mark L; Ford, Eric W
Previous studies identified individual or practice factors that influence practice-based physicians' electronic medical record (EMR) adoption. Less is known about the market factors that influence physicians' EMR adoption. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between environmental market characteristics and physicians' EMR adoption. The Health Tracking Physician Survey 2008 and Area Resource File (2008) were combined and analyzed. Binary logistic regression was used to examine the relationship between three dimensions of the market environment (munificence, dynamism, and complexity) and EMR adoption controlling for several physician and practice characteristics. In a nationally representative sample of 4,720 physicians, measures of market dynamism including increases in unemployment, odds ratio (OR) = 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.91, 0.99], or poverty rates, OR = 0.93, 95% CI [0.89, 0.96], were negatively associated with EMR adoption. Health maintenance organization penetration, OR = 3.01, 95% CI [1.49, 6.05], another measure of dynamism, was positively associated with EMR adoption. Physicians practicing in areas with a malpractice crisis, OR = 0.82, 95% CI [0.71, 0.94], representing environmental complexity, had lower EMR adoption rates. Understanding how market factors relate to practice-based physicians' EMR adoption can assist policymakers to better target limited resources as they work to realize the national goal of universal EMR adoption and meaningful use.
Babica, Jan; Rusek, Václav
In the 1920s Czechoslovakia, an increased attention was paid to the new ideas of scientific management (Taylorism), work rationalization and standardization. This was reflected in the foundation of the Masaryk Academy of Work in 1920. An effort to implement the new principles into health care led to the establishment of the Commission for Rationalization and Standardization in Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (RANOK) within the Department of Natural Science and Medicine of the Academy. Within RANOK, the group for pharmacy worked between 1928-1932. The first part of the paper describes the scientific management and standardization movement in interwar Czechoslovakia, and the establishment of Masaryk Academy of Work and RANOK, including the group for pharmacy. The paper discusses the work objectives of the commission and presents concise biographies of the group for pharmacy members, too. The second part will be focused on the work results, relative failure and role of the group. Masaryk Academy of Work Comission for Rationalization and Standardization in Medicine Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (RANOK) work rationalization standardization pharmacy practice.
Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270
Fraser, D R; McGregor, D D; Grohn, Y T
The Cornell Leadership Program at Cornell University, usa, aims to assist talented veterinary students to embark on careers in research, academia, government agencies or industry. Over 400 students have participated since the Program began in 1990 and their subsequent careers have been followed. In this study, five sources of data were analysed: application documents of the participants; audio recordings of interviews with each participant from 2000 to 2007; annual tracking records of alumni after graduating with a veterinary degree; spontaneous comments from alumni about how the Program influenced their career plans; and a list of published scientific papers by alumni. Analysis revealed that about 50 per cent of veterinary graduates were establishing themselves in careers envisaged by the Program, although many of them experienced conflicts between a vocational commitment to clinical practice and a desire to solve problems through research. Many alumni asserted that the Program had influenced their career plans, but they had difficulty in accepting that rigorous scientific training was more important in acquiring research skills than working directly on a veterinary research problem. One career of great appeal to alumni was that of veterinary translational science, in which disease mechanisms are defined through fundamental research. It is concluded from the data that there are three challenging concepts for recently qualified veterinarians aiming to advance the knowledge of animal disease: research careers are satisfying and rewarding for veterinarians; a deep understanding of the chosen field of research is needed; and a high standard of scientific training is required to become an effective veterinary scientist.
Full Text Available More than 155 participants from 25 countries attended the 30th Annual IVAS Congress, September 8–11, 2004 in Oostende, Belgium. The focus was on veterinary acupuncture (AP and immunology, and the event was sponsored by the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society (IVAS. IVAS is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting excellence in the practice of veterinary AP as an integral part of the total veterinary health care delivery system. The Society endeavors to establish uniformly high standards of veterinary AP through its educational programs and accreditation examination. IVAS seeks to integrate veterinary AP and the practice of Western veterinary science, while also noting that the science of veterinary AP does not overlook allied health systems, such as homeopathy, herbology, nutrition, chiropractic, kinesiology, etc. (www.ivas.org.
Conclusions We have shown that in Scotland there is a high level of testing and recording of all the important information regarding patients with recorded CHD, irrespective of whether practices have fully electronic records, paper-based records, or a mixture of the two. If practices have fully electronic patient records, the information can be extracted easily, but unless there is a standard template, the information can only be viewed in isolation and is of little value for comparative purposes.
Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin ... One of these mutations led to an amino acid exchange at position 544 ... organs such as comb, wattle, brain, heart, .... congestion in various tissues and edema of.
and Aji, T. G.. 1. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. ... limited nervous, muscle and skeletal systems development ... samples. Colloid area/volume and perimeter: This ..... BANKS, W. J., (1993): Applied Veterinary.
The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. ... dogs diagnosed with parvovirus enteritis in some veterinary clinics in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Rabies vaccination status among occupationally exposed humans in Nigeria ...
... free client handout to share with them. Compounding Veterinary Compounding FDA has withdrawn its draft guidance for ... new guidance, the AVMA is working to ensure veterinary access and animal health are protected. NEWS & ALERTS ...
2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 3Veterinary. Teaching ... salivation, cornea opacity, haematuria and convulsion were observed in 20, 8, 2, 4, 1 and 3 of the patients ... intravenous fluid administration either for.
Krzeminski, M.; Lass, P.; Teodorczyk, J.; Krajka, J.
The veterinary use of radionuclide techniques dates back to the mid-sixties, but its more extensive use dates back to the past two decades. Veterinary nuclear medicine is focused mainly on four major issues: bone scintigraphy - with the majority of applications in horses, veterinary endocrinology - dealing mainly with the problems of hyperthyreosis in cats and hyperthyreosis in dogs, portosystemic shunts in small animals and veterinary oncology, however, most radionuclide techniques applied to humans can be applied to most animals. (author)
García-Vázquez, Francisco A.; Romar, Raquel; Gadea, Joaquín; Matás, Carmen; Coy, Pilar; Ruiz, Salvador
Over recent decades, education has increasingly focused on student-centered learning. Guided practices represent a new way of learning for undergraduate students of physiology, whereby the students turn into teacher-students and become more deeply involved in the subject by preparing and teaching a practical (laboratory) class to their peers. The…
Nielsen, T. D.; Dean, R. S.; Massey, A.; Brennan, M. L.
Access to the most up-to-date evidence is an important cornerstone for veterinarians attempting to practice in an evidence-based manner; therefore, an understanding of what and how information is accessed is vital. The aim of this study was to identify what resources the UK veterinary profession access and regard as most useful. Based on questionnaires received from veterinarians, the Veterinary Times was nominated as most often read journal or magazine by respondents (n=3572, 79 per cent). In Practice (n=3224, 82 per cent) and the Veterinary Record (n=165, 34 per cent) were seen as most useful by clinicians, and non-clinicians, respectively. Google was the most often nominated electronic resource by all respondents (n=3076, 71 per cent), with Google (n=459, 23 per cent) and PubMed (n=60, 17 per cent) seen as most useful by clinicians and non-clinicians, respectively. The abstract and conclusion sections were the most read parts of scientific manuscripts nominated by all respondents. When looking for assistance with difficult cases, colleagues were the common information choice for clinicians. Different sections of the veterinary profession access information, and deem resources useful, in different ways. Access to good quality evidence is important for the practice of evidence-based veterinary medicine, and therefore, researchers should think about disseminating their findings in a targeted way for optimal use by the profession. PMID:26246397
Boxall, A B A; Fogg, L A; Blackwell, P A; Kay, P; Pemberton, E J; Croxford, A
The impact of veterinary medicines on the environment will depend on a number of factors including physicochemical properties, amount used and method of administration, treatment type and dose, animal husbandry practices, manure storage and handling practices, metabolism within the animal, and degradation rates in manure and slurry. Once released to the environment, other factors such as soil type, climate, and ecotoxicity also determine the environmental impact of the compound. The importance of individual routes into the environment for different types of veterinary medicines varies according to the type of treatment and livestock category. Treatments used in aquaculture have a high potential to reach the aquatic environment. The main routes of entry to the terrestrial environment are from the use of veterinary medicines in intensively reared livestock, via the application of slurry and manure to land, and by the use of veterinary medicines in pasture-reared animals where pharmaceutical residues are excreted directly into the environment. Veterinary medicines applied to land via spreading of slurry may also enter the aquatic environment indirectly via surface runoff or leaching to groundwater. It is likely that topical treatments have greater potential to be released to the environment than treatments administered orally or by injection. Inputs from the manufacturing process, companion animal treatments, and disposal are likely to be minimal in comparison. Monitoring studies demonstrate that veterinary medicines do enter the environment, with sheep dip chemicals, antibiotics, sealice treatments, and anthelmintics being measured in soils, groundwater, surface waters, sediment, or biota. Maximum concentrations vary across chemical classes, with very high concentrations being reported for the sheep dip chemicals. The degree to which veterinary medicines may adsorb to particulates varies widely. Partition coefficients (K(d)) range from low (0.61 L kg(-1)) to high
Freeman, Kathleen P; Bauer, Natali; Jensen, Asger L; Thoresen, Stein
A trend in human and veterinary medical laboratory management is to achieve accreditation based on international standards. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189 standard is the first developed especially for accreditation of medical laboratories, and emphasizes the laboratory-client interface. European veterinary laboratories seeking to train candidates for the certification examination of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) require approval by the ECVCP Laboratory Standards Committee, which bases its evaluation in part on adherence to quality systems described in the ISO 15189 standards. The purpose of this article was to introduce the latest ISO quality standard and describe its application to veterinary laboratories in Europe, specifically as pertains to accreditation of laboratories involved in training veterinary clinical pathologists. Between 2003 and 2006, the Laboratory Standards Committee reviewed 12 applications from laboratories (3 commercial and 9 university) involved in training veterinary clinical pathologists. Applicants were asked to provide a description of the facilities for training and testing, current methodology and technology, health and safety policy, quality assurance policy (including internal quality control and participation in an external quality assurance program), written standard operating procedures (SOPs) and policies, a description of the laboratory information system, and personnel and training. Also during this time period multiple informal and formal discussions among ECVCP diplomates took place as to current practices and perceived areas of concern with regard to laboratory accreditation requirements. Areas in which improvement most often was needed in veterinary laboratories applying for ECVCP accreditation were the written quality plan, defined quality requirements for the tests performed, written SOPs and policies, training records, ongoing audits and competency
Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem; Damborg, Peter
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common reason for antimicrobial prescription in dogs and cats. The objective of this study was to optimize and evaluate a culture-based point-of-care test for detection, identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of bacterial uro-pathogens in veterinary practice. Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture and susceptibility testing. Subsequently, the test was modified by inclusion of an oxacillin-containing compartment for detection of methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The performance of the modified product (Flexicult Vet B) for susceptibility testing was evaluated in vitro using a collection of 110 clinical isolates. Bacteriuria was reported by the laboratory in 25 (35 %) samples from the field study. The sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A for detection of bacteriuria were 83 and 100 %, respectively. Bacterial species were correctly identified in 53 and 100 % of the positive samples by clinical staff and the investigator, respectively. The susceptibility results were interpreted correctly by clinical staff for 70 % of the 94 drug-strain combinations. Higher percentages of correct interpretation were observed when the results were interpreted by the investigator in both the field (76 %) and the in vitro study (94 %). The most frequent errors were false resistance to β-lactams (ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate and cephalotin) in Escherichia coli for Flexicult Vet A, and false amoxicillin-clavulanate resistance in E. coli and false ampicillin susceptibility in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius for Flexicult Vet B. The latter error can be prevented by categorizing staphylococcal strains growing in the oxacillin compartment as resistant to all β-lactams. Despite the
Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection
Rieger, Kendra L; Hack, Thomas F; Beaver, Kinta; Schofield, Penelope
To conduct a systematic review of the effectiveness of consultation recordings and identify factors contributing to their successful implementation in health-care settings. A systematic review was conducted for quantitative studies examining the effectiveness of consultation recordings in health care. Two independent reviewers assessed the relevance and quality of retrieved quantitative studies by using standardized criteria. Study findings were examined to determine consultation recording effectiveness and to identify barriers and facilitators to implementation. A supplementary review of qualitative evidence was performed to further explicate implementation factors. Of the 3373 articles retrieved in the quantitative search, 26 satisfied the standardized inclusion criteria (12 randomized controlled trials, 1 quasi-experiment, and 13 cross-sectional studies). Most patients found consultation recordings beneficial. Statistically significant evidentiary support was found for the beneficial impact of consultation recordings on the following patient reported outcomes: knowledge, perception of being informed, information recall, decision-making factors, anxiety, and depression. Implementation barriers included strength of evidence concerns, patient distress, impact of the recording on consultation quality, clinic procedures, medico-legal issues, and resource costs. Facilitators included comfort with being recorded, clinical champions, legal strategies, efficient recording procedures, and a positive consultation recording experience. Consultation recordings are valuable to patients and positively associated with patient-reported outcomes. Successful integration of consultation recording use into clinical practice requires an administratively supported, systematic approach to addressing implementation factors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...
A principal goal of computerisation of medical records is to join up care services for patients, so that their records can follow them wherever they go and thereby reduce delays, duplications, risks and errors, and costs. Healthcare records are increasingly being stored electronically, which has created the necessary conditions for them to be readily sharable. However simply driving the implementation of electronic medical records is not sufficient, as recent developments have demonstrated (1): there remain significant obstacles. The three main obstacles relate to (a) record accessibility (knowing where event records are and being able to access them), (b) maintaining privacy (ensuring that only those authorised by the patient can access and extract meaning from the records) and (c) assuring the functionality of the shared information (ensuring that the records can be shared non-proprietorially across platforms without loss of meaning, and that their authenticity and trustworthiness are demonstrable). These constitute a set of issues that need new thinking, since existing systems are struggling to deliver them. The solution to this puzzle lies in three main parts. Clearly there is only one environment suited to such widespread sharing, which is the World Wide Web, so this is the communications basis. Part one requires that a sharable synoptic record is created for each care event and stored in standard web-format and in readily accessible locations, on 'the web' or in 'the cloud'. To maintain privacy these publicly-accessible records must be suitably protected either stripped of identifiers (names, addresses, dates, places etc.) and/or encrypted: either way the record must be tagged with a tag that means nothing to anyone, but serves to identify and authenticate a specific record when retrieved. For ease of retrieval patients must hold an index of care events, records and web locations (plus any associated information for each such as encryption keys, context etc
Griffiths, Paul; Debbage, Samantha; Smith, Alison
Good quality record keeping is essential to safe and effective patient care. To ensure that high standards of record keeping are maintained, regular clinical audit should be undertaken. This article describes an audit and re-audit of nursing record keeping at Sheffield Teaching Hospital NHS Foundation Trust. The article demonstrates improving audit data in 2005 and 2006 and describes how audit and the resulting recommendations and action plans can result in real improvements in the quality of record keeping. The keys to success in this ongoing audit programme are identified as stakeholder involvement, support from the senior nurses in the organization and the use of the data for both local and trust-wide purposes.
K.R. Henken (Kirsten R.); F-W. Jansen (Frank-Willem); J. Klein (Jan); L.P. Stassen (Laurents); J. Dankelman (Jenny); J.J. van den Dobbelsteen (John)
textabstractBackground: Technological developments allow for a variety of applications of video recording in health care, including endoscopic procedures. Although the value of video registration is recognized, medicolegal concerns regarding the privacy of patients and professionals are growing. A
Henken, K.R.; Jansen, F.W.; Klein, J.; Stassen, L.P.S.; Dankelman, J.; Van den Dobbelsteen, J.J.
Background Technological developments allow for a variety of applications of video recording in health care, including endoscopic procedures. Although the value of video registration is recognized, medicolegal concerns regarding the privacy of patients and professionals are growing. A clear
Henken, Kirsten R.; Jansen, Frank-Willem; Klein, Jan; Stassen, Laurents; Dankelman, Jenny; Dobbelsteen, John
textabstractBackground: Technological developments allow for a variety of applications of video recording in health care, including endoscopic procedures. Although the value of video registration is recognized, medicolegal concerns regarding the privacy of patients and professionals are growing. A clear understanding of the legal framework is lacking. Therefore, this research aims to provide insight into the juridical position of patients and professionals regarding video recording in health ...
Quinn, P. J
"Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...
The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.
Chernobilsky, Boris; Boruk, Marina
Pressure is mounting on physicians to adopt electronic medical records. The field of health information technology is evolving rapidly with innovations and policies often outpacing science. We sought to review research and discussions about electronic medical records from the past year to keep abreast of these changes. Original scientific research, especially from otolaryngologists, is lacking in this field. Adoption rates are slowly increasing, but more of the burden is shouldered by physicians despite policy efforts and the clear benefits to third-party payers. Scientific research from the past year suggests lack of improvements and even decreasing quality of healthcare with electronic medical record adoption in the ambulatory care setting. The increasing prevalence and standardization of electronic medical record systems results in a new set of problems including rising costs, audits, difficulties in transition and public concerns about security of information. As major players in healthcare continue to push for adoption, increased effort must be made to demonstrate actual improvements in patient care in the ambulatory care setting. More scientific studies are needed to demonstrate what features of electronic medical records actually improve patient care. Otolaryngologists should help each other by disseminating research about improvement in patient outcomes with their systems since current adoption and outcomes policies do not apply to specialists.
Luís P. Carmo
Full Text Available Reducing antimicrobial use (AMU in livestock is requested by Public Health authorities. Ideally, this should be achieved without jeopardizing production output or animal health and welfare. Thus, efficient measures must be identified and developed to target drivers of AMU. Veterinarians play a central role in the identification and implementation of such efficient interventions. Sixty-seven veterinarians with expertise in livestock production in Denmark, Portugal, and Switzerland participated in an expert opinion study aimed at investigating experiences and opinions of veterinarians about the driving forces and practices related to AMU in the main livestock sectors (broiler, dairy cattle, fattening/veal calf, and pig industry of the aforementioned countries. Opinions on potential factors influencing the choice of antimicrobials and opportunities to reduce AMU were collected. Antibiograms are seldom used, mainly due to the time lag between testing and obtaining the results. The perceived percentage of treatment failures varied between countries and livestock sectors; however, little changes were reported over time (2005−2015. The animal health problems of each livestock sector most frequently leading to AMU did not vary substantially between countries. Mandatory official interventions (i.e., binding measures applied by national or international authorities were highlighted as having the biggest impact on AMU. There was a variation in the experts’ opinion regarding feasibility and impact of interventions both between countries and livestock sectors. Nevertheless, improved biosecurity and education of veterinarians frequently received high scores. Most veterinarians believed that AMU can be reduced. The median potential reduction estimates varied from 1% in Swiss broilers to 50% in Portuguese broilers and veal/fattening calves in all countries. We hypothesize that the differences in views could be related to disease epidemiology, animal
Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...
Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 16 of 16 Items ...
Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...
'Central Diagnostic, National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, 'Department of Veterinary Medicine. Ahmadu Bello ..... environment as reported by (Olabode et al., 2009; Okwor and Eze, 2011;Jwander et al., 2013b). Farmers who had the same complaints of. Marek's disease from the same source of.
Verheij, R.; Jabaaij, L.; Njoo, K.; Hoogen, H. van den; Bakker, D. de
Background: The use of electronic medical records (EMR) in general practice has spread rapidly in the last decade (more than 90% today). Traditionally, these records are primarily used for direct patient care and for administrative purposes by the practice involved. In recent years, further
The need for organisations to demonstrate good corporate governance remains unquestionable. Effective management of ... Unless they systematically manage their information recorded in different media, most organisations including the pension industry in Zambia risk punitive damages. The overall aim of this study was ...
Svensson, C; Alvåsen, K; Eldh, A C; Frössling, J; Lomander, H
A preventive herd health approach will most likely reduce incidences of clinical and subclinical disease. Swedish veterinary organizations offer specific veterinary herd health management (HHM) programs, but these services are not used to a large extent. The aim of this study was to investigate dairy farmers' experience of HHM and the conditions for collaboration with veterinarians in HHM. Six focus group discussions were conducted in March 2015 in West Sweden. In total, 33 dairy farmers participated. The recordings were transcribed and coded using thematic analysis, and the transcripts were reviewed to identify potential factors indicating barriers for farmers to engage a veterinarian in HHM. The participants reported HHM to be important, but they had difficulty defining the actions included in the concept. They described a wide range of their work duties as preventive. The farmers' list of potential contributions by the veterinarians in HHM was strikingly short compared to the considerable number of preventive measures they performed themselves. Four main obstacles for farmers and farm managers to engage a veterinarian in HHM on their farm were identified in the analysis: "costs", "veterinary knowledge, skills, and organization", "farmer attitudes", and "veterinarian-farmer relationships". Costs were proposed as the main reason against engaging a veterinarian in HHM and included a high veterinary bill, low cost-benefit of veterinary services, and high costs to implement advice. Poor veterinary competence in HHM and poor knowledge about effective measures, practical farming, and farm economics were other important obstacles. Veterinarians were perceived to insufficiently describe their services and their benefits, and several participants felt they had never been offered veterinary HHM. Although veterinary HHM may be initiated by the farmer, the participants expected the veterinarian to have special responsibility for the initiation. A firm trust between farmer
Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded, and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.
Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter
Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only...... clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical...
Zhang, L.; Cong, Y.; Wu, C.; Bai, C.; Wu, C.
The recording of Architectural heritage information is the foundation of research, conservation, management, and the display of architectural heritage. In other words, the recording of architectural heritage information supports heritage research, conservation, management and architectural heritage display. What information do we record and collect and what technology do we use for information recording? How do we determine the level of accuracy required when recording architectural information? What method do we use for information recording? These questions should be addressed in relation to the nature of the particular heritage site and the specific conditions for the conservation work. In recent years, with the rapid development of information acquisition technology such as Close Range Photogrammetry, 3D Laser Scanning as well as high speed and high precision Aerial Photogrammetry, many Chinese universities, research institutes and heritage management bureaux have purchased considerable equipment for information recording. However, the lack of understanding of both the nature of architectural heritage and the purpose for which the information is being collected has led to several problems. For example: some institutions when recording architectural heritage information aim solely at high accuracy. Some consider that advanced measuring methods must automatically replace traditional measuring methods. Information collection becomes the purpose, rather than the means, of architectural heritage conservation. Addressing these issues, this paper briefly reviews the history of architectural heritage information recording at the Summer Palace (Yihe Yuan, first built in 1750), Beijing. Using the recording practices at the Summer Palace during the past ten years as examples, we illustrate our achievements and lessons in recording architectural heritage information with regard to the following aspects: (buildings') ideal status desired, (buildings') current status
Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chung, Yu-Fang; Huang, Yao-Min; Chen, Tao-Chieh; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei
Pet markets involve in great commercial possibilities, which boost thriving development of veterinary hospital businesses. The service tends to intensive competition and diversified channel environment. Information technology is integrated for developing the veterinary hospital cloud service platform. The platform contains not only pet medical services but veterinary hospital management and services. In the study, QR Code andcloud technology are applied to establish the veterinary hospital cloud service platform for pet search by labeling a pet's identification with QR Code. This technology can break the restriction on veterinary hospital inspection in different areas and allows veterinary hospitals receiving the medical records and information through the exclusive QR Code for more effective inspection. As an interactive platform, the veterinary hospital cloud service platform allows pet owners gaining the knowledge of pet diseases and healthcare. Moreover, pet owners can enquire and communicate with veterinarians through the platform. Also, veterinary hospitals can periodically send reminders of relevant points and introduce exclusive marketing information with the platform for promoting the service items and establishing individualized marketing. Consequently, veterinary hospitals can increase the profits by information share and create the best solution in such a competitive veterinary market with industry alliance.
Nigeria. 2. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Sokoto, Nigeria ... from three different small ruminant farms with birth record within Sokoto metropolis,. Nigeria. They were ... animals, one of which is the use of epiphyseal plate closure (Choi et al., ...
Corresponding author: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel No:+2348037811882 ... and veterinary medicine as potent anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and .... steroid skeleton, similar to hydrocortisone. ... for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth.
... Journal are the Research Workers, Veterinary Clinicians, Animal Scientists, Field Officers ... Prevalence and risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infestations in ... Mastitis pathogens prevalent in dairy cattle at Magadu farm, Morogoro- ...
Also, the advantage of ... antibodies. The major disadvantage of the polyclonal ... advantage of a monoclonal antibody over .... department in the veterinary school was obtained from the ..... methodology for both routine diagnostic and research ...
Control Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Abuja; 9National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B 01 Vom,. Nigeria. *Corresponding ... because the poultry industry contributes ..... holidays have been identified as source of transmission ...
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
Stephanie A. Sapowicz
Full Text Available This study assessed body condition scores (BCS and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic (n=149 and a general practice (n=166. BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices. Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income (P<0.001 and education (P<0.001 compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger (P<0.001 and dogs were less likely to be neutered (P<0.001. Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (P=0.083, with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; P=0.046, but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; P=0.230. Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (P=0.004. Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status.
Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.
Part 2 of this narrative review outlines the theoretical and practical bases for assessing the efficacy and effectiveness of conventional medicines and homeopathic products. Known and postulated mechanisms of action are critically reviewed. The evidence for clinical efficacy of products in both categories, in the form of practitioner experience, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of clinical trial results, is discussed. The review also addresses problems and pitfalls in assessing data, and the ethical and negative aspects of pharmacology and homeopathy in veterinary medicine. PMID:28821700
Phillips, Kari A; Singh Ospina, Naykky; Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Rene; Castaneda-Guarderas, Ana; Gionfriddo, Michael R; Branda, Megan; Montori, Victor
Little is known about humor's use in clinical encounters, despite its many potential benefits. We aimed to describe humor during clinical encounters. We analyzed 112 recorded clinical encounters. Two reviewers working independently identified instances of humor, as well as information surrounding the logistics of its use. Of the 112 encounters, 66 (59%) contained 131 instances of humor. Humor was similarly frequent in primary care (36/61, 59%) and in specialty care (30/51, 59%), was more common in gender-concordant interactions (43/63, 68%), and was most common during counseling (81/112, 62%). Patients and clinicians introduced humor similarly (63 vs 66 instances). Typically, humor was about the patient's medical condition (40/131, 31%). Humor is used commonly during counseling to discuss the patient's medical condition and to relate to general life events bringing warmth to the medical encounter. The timing and topic of humor and its use by all parties suggests humor plays a role in the social connection between patients and physicians and allows easier discussion of difficult topics. Further research is necessary to establish its impact on clinicians, patients, and outcomes. © Copyright 2018 by the American Board of Family Medicine.
Sanchez, Rick F; Dawson, Charlotte; Matas Riera, Màrian; Escanilla, Natàlia
To introduce a new corneal clarity score for use in small animals and describe its inter- and intra-user variability. Twelve dogs and two cats with corneal abnormalities and five dogs with healthy corneas. Four examiners scored every patient twice and never consecutively, focusing on the central cornea. The peripheral cornea was scored separately. The following scoring system was used to describe corneal clarity: G0: no fundus reflection is visible on retroillumination (RI) using a head-mounted indirect ophthalmoscope. G1: a fundus reflection is visible with RI. G2: a 0.1-mm diameter light beam is visible on the anterior surface of the iris and/or lens. G3: gross fundic features are visible when viewed with indirect ophthalmoscopy (IO) using a head-mounted indirect ophthalmoscope and a hand-held 30D lens, although fine details are not clear. G4: fine details of the fundic features are clearly visible with IO. The minimum grades given were analyzed for inter- and intra-user variability with kappa analysis. Intra- and interuser variability of the central corneal clarity ranged from 0.78 to 0.96, showing substantial to almost perfect reproducibility, and from 0.66 to 0.91, showing substantial to almost perfect reliability, respectively. Intra- and interuser variability of the peripheral cornea ranged from 0.83 to 0.95, showing almost perfect agreement, and from 0.53 to 0.91, showing moderate to almost perfect agreement. The RVC-CCS is well suited to assess and monitor central corneal clarity in small animals and to compare outcomes between studies and different surgeons. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Bisson, J L; Argyle, D J; Argyle, S A
Bacterial infection following cancer chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in human and veterinary patients. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is controversial in the human oncology field, as any decreased incidence in bacterial infections is countered by patient adverse effects and increased antimicrobial resistance. Comprehensive guidelines exist to aid human oncologists in prescribing antimicrobial prophylaxis but similar recommendations are not available in veterinary literature. As the veterinarian's role in antimicrobial stewardship is increasingly emphasized, it is vital that veterinary oncologists implement appropriate antimicrobial use. By considering the available human and veterinary literature we present an overview of current clinical practices and are able to suggest recommendations for prophylactic antimicrobial use in veterinary cancer chemotherapy patients. © 2018 The Authors. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Camilla Kirketerp Nielsen
Full Text Available The overall objective of this project is research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based learning concept to be used in the veterinary education. Herd visits and animal contact are essential for the development of veterinary competences and skills during education. Yet veterinary students have little occasion to reach/attain a proper level of confidence in their own skills/abilities, as they have limited “training-facilities” (Kneebone & Baillie, 2008. One possible solution mightbe to provide a safe, virtual environment (game-based where students could practise interdisciplinary clinical skills in an easily-accessible, interactive setting. A playable demo using Classical Swine Fever in a pig herd as an example has been produced for this purpose. In order totailor the game concept to the specific veterinary learning environment and to ensure compliance with both learning objectives and the actual learning processes/procedures of the veterinary students, the project contains both a developmental aspect (game development and an exploration of the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context. The initial phase of the project was a preliminary exploration of the actual learning context, providing an important starting point for the upcoming phase in which I will concentrate on research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based virtual environment in this course context. In the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context of a veterinary course in Herd Health Management (Pig module,ethnographic studies have been conducted by using multiple data collection methods; participant observation, spontaneous dialogues and interviews (Borgnakke, 1996; Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007. All courserelated activities in the different learning spaces (commercial pig herds, auditoriums, post-mortem examinations, independent group work were followed.This paper will
... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Use and Characteristics of Electronic Health Record Systems Among Office-based ... physicians that collects information on physician and practice characteristics, including the adoption and use of EHR systems. ...
In their practice, physicians and veterinarians need to resort to an array of ethical competences. As a teaching topic, however, there is no accepted gold standard for human medical ethics, and veterinary medical ethics is not yet well established. This paper provides a reflection on the underlying aims of human and veterinary medical ethics…
Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.
Morgan, Carol A; McDonald, Michael
Veterinarians frequently encounter situations that are morally charged and potentially difficult to manage. Situation involving euthanasia, end-of-life care, economics, and inadequate provision of care create practical and moral dilemmas. Ethical tension may be attributable to differences in beliefs regarding the moral value of animals, client and veterinary responsibilities, and deciding what is best for an animal. Veterinarians can employ communication skills used in medical situations to explore the reasons underpinning ethical dilemmas and to search for solutions with clients, staff, and colleagues.
Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Jung-Hee
A nursing record focused on sexual health care for patients with cancer could encourage oncology nurses to provide sexual health care for oncology patients in a simple and effective manner. However, existing electronic information systems focus on professional use and not sexual health care, which could lead to inefficiencies in clinical practice. To examine the effects of a sexual health care nursing record on the attitudes and practice of oncology nurses. Twenty-four full-time registered nurses caring for oncology patients were randomly assigned to the intervention and control groups in Korea. The researchers developed a sexual health care record and applied it to the intervention group for one month. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test and chi-square test. Content analysis was used to analyze interviews. Oncology nurses using the sexual health care record had significantly higher levels of sexual health care practice at 4 weeks post-intervention as compared to those who provided usual care to patients with cancer. A sexual health care record may have the potential to facilitate oncology nurses' practice of sexual health care. This study highlighted the importance of using SHC records with oncology patients to improve nursing practice related to sexuality issues. A nursing record focused on SHC for patients with cancer could make it easier and more effective for oncology nurses to provide such care to their patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, Donald F
The future of veterinary medicine is best understood in the context of history. What began as a profession rooted in urban centers in proximity to horses, physicians, and medical schools, was transformed into a land grant-based agricultural profession with the arrival of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century. Most of the United States' current veterinary colleges are still located in towns or small cities in the middle section of the country, outside the largest metropolitan areas where most veterinarians practice companion-animal medicine. Throughout veterinarian history, substantial numbers of US students have been educated in foreign colleges and this continues today, creating an even greater geographic imbalance between the veterinary educational process and US population centers and major medical schools. Three themes deserve special attention as we celebrate the profession's 150th anniversary. We must first move beyond the land-grant culture and develop a more geographically balanced approach to establishing new veterinary colleges that are also in closer association with schools of medicine and public health. We must also facilitate more opportunities for women leadership in organized veterinary medicine, in practice ownership, in academia, and in the corporate structures that educate, hire, and interface with veterinarians. Finally, we need to expand our understanding of One Health to include the concept of zooeyia (the role of animals in promoting human health), as well as continue to emphasize veterinarians' special roles in the control and management of zoonotic diseases and in advancing comparative medicine in the age of the genome.
Rinehart-Thompson, Laurie A.
This exploratory study examined health record retention practices among health information management professionals in acute care general hospitals in the United States. A descriptive research design was used, and data were collected using a self-reporting survey. Respondents answered questions about record retention policies, the responsibility of health information professionals in policy administration, record retention periods, factors that determine retention periods, and other informati...
Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials...... sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification...... of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can...
Moore, Irene C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Sargeant, Jan M
To determine the role of veterinary team effectiveness regarding job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary practice. Cross-sectional observational study. 48 companion animal veterinary health-care teams. 274 team members participated in an online survey. Overall job satisfaction was evaluated with a 1-item measure, and the 3 dimensions of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) were measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Team effectiveness was assessed with a survey developed for this study. Demographic and team effectiveness factors (coordinated team environment, toxic team environment, team engagement, and individual engagement) associated with job satisfaction and burnout were evaluated. Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.46 of 7 (median, 6.00); veterinary technicians and kennel attendants had the lowest scores. According to the Maslach survey results, 22.4% of participants were in the high-risk category for exhaustion, 23.2% were in the high-risk category for cynicism, and 9.3% were in the high-risk category for professional efficacy. A coordinated team environment was associated with increased professional efficacy and decreased cynicism. A toxic team environment was negatively associated with job satisfaction and positively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Individual engagement was positively associated with job satisfaction and professional efficacy and negatively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Results suggested the effectiveness of a veterinary team can significantly influence individual team members' job satisfaction and burnout. Practices should pay specific attention to the effectiveness with which their veterinary team operates.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension or revocation of veterinary... REVOCATION OF SUCH ACCREDITATION § 161.4 Suspension or revocation of veterinary accreditation; criminal and... to practice veterinary medicine in at least one State. (c) Accreditation shall be automatically...
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…
Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, ...
McDowell, Arlene; Beard, Rebekah; Brightmore, Anna; Lu, Lisa W; McKay, Amelia; Mistry, Maadhuri; Owen, Kate; Swan, Emma; Young, Jessica
Globally pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in veterinary medicine; however, little is known about the level of interest for pharmacists playing a larger role in animal treatment in New Zealand. A key stakeholder in any progression of pharmacists becoming more involved in the practice of veterinary pharmacy is the veterinary profession. The aim of this study was to investigate views of veterinarians and veterinary students on the role of pharmacists supporting veterinarians with advice on animal medicines. Open interviews were conducted with veterinarians in Dunedin, New Zealand. Veterinary students at Massey University completed an online survey. Most veterinarians do not have regular communication with pharmacists regarding animal care, but believe it may be beneficial. In order to support veterinarians, pharmacists would need further education in veterinary medicine. Veterinary students believe there is opportunity for collaboration between professions provided that pharmacists have a better working knowledge of animal treatment. Most of the veterinary students surveyed perceive a gap in their knowledge concerning animal medicines, specifically pharmacology and compounding. While there is support for pharmacists contributing to veterinary medicine, particularly in the area of pharmaceutics, this is currently limited in New Zealand due to a lack of specialized education opportunities.
Gwaltney-Brant, S M
Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.
Hrusovsky, J.; Benes, J.
A textbook is presented for pregraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary medicine, offering an extensive review of all aspects of radiology as applied in veterinary sciences. Based on findings published in the literature and the authors' own research, the textbook familiarizes the reader with the problems of nuclear physics, biological effects of ionizing radiation on animals, the principles of biological cycles of radionuclides in the atmosphere, the fundamentals of radiochemistry, dosimetry, radiometry and nuclear medicine. Radiation protection of animals, raw materials, feeds, foodstuff and water, and the questions of the aplications of ionizing radiation and of radionuclides in veterinary medicine are discussed in great detail. The publication is complemented with numerous photographs, figures and graphs. (L.O.)
Kallfelz, F.A.; Comar, C.L.; Wentworth, R.A.
A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)
Langebaek, Rikke; Tanggaard, Lene; Berendt, Mette
When veterinary students face their first live animal surgeries, their level of anxiety is generally high and this can affect their ability to recall the procedure they are about to undertake. Multimodal teaching methods have previously been shown to enhance learning and facilitate recall; however......, student preferences for recollection methods when translating theory into practice have not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate veterinary students' experience with recollection of a surgical procedure they were about to perform after using multiple methods for preparation. From...... a group of 171 veterinary students enrolled in a basic surgery course, 26 students were randomly selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. Results showed that 58% of the students used a visual, dynamic method of recollection, mentally visualizing the video they had watched as part...
Nemeth, Lynne S; Feifer, Chris; Stuart, Gail W; Ornstein, Steven M
Implementing change in primary care is difficult, and little practical guidance is available to assist small primary care practices. Methods to structure care and develop new roles are often needed to implement an evidence-based practice that improves care. This study explored the process of change used to implement clinical guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in primary care practices that used a common electronic medical record (EMR). Multiple conceptual frameworks informed the design of this study designed to explain the complex phenomena of implementing change in primary care practice. Qualitative methods were used to examine the processes of change that practice members used to implement the guidelines. Purposive sampling in eight primary care practices within the Practice Partner Research Network-Translating Researching into Practice (PPRNet-TRIP II) clinical trial yielded 28 staff members and clinicians who were interviewed regarding how change in practice occurred while implementing clinical guidelines for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease and strokes. A conceptual framework for implementing clinical guidelines into primary care practice was developed through this research. Seven concepts and their relationships were modelled within this framework: leaders setting a vision with clear goals for staff to embrace; involving the team to enable the goals and vision for the practice to be achieved; enhancing communication systems to reinforce goals for patient care; developing the team to enable the staff to contribute toward practice improvement; taking small steps, encouraging practices' tests of small changes in practice; assimilating the electronic medical record to maximize clinical effectiveness, enhancing practices' use of the electronic tool they have invested in for patient care improvement; and providing feedback within a culture of improvement, leading to an iterative cycle of goal setting
Urquhart, Christine; Currell, Rosemary; Grant, Maria J; Hardiker, Nicholas R
A nursing record system is the record of care that was planned or given to individual patients and clients by qualified nurses or other caregivers under the direction of a qualified nurse. Nursing record systems may be an effective way of influencing nurse practice. To assess the effects of nursing record systems on nursing practice and patient outcomes. For the original version of this review in 2000, and updates in 2003 and 2008, we searched: the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register; MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, BNI, ISI Web of Knowledge, and ASLIB Index of Theses. We also handsearched: Computers, Informatics, Nursing (Computers in Nursing); Information Technology in Nursing; and the Journal of Nursing Administration. For this update, searches can be considered complete until the end of 2007. We checked reference lists of retrieved articles and other related reviews. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series comparing one kind of nursing record system with another in hospital, community or primary care settings. The participants were qualified nurses, students or healthcare assistants working under the direction of a qualified nurse, and patients receiving care recorded or planned using nursing record systems. Two review authors (in two pairs) independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We included nine trials (eight RCTs, one controlled before and after study) involving 1846 people. The studies that evaluated nursing record systems focusing on relatively discrete and focused problems, for example effective pain management in children, empowering pregnant women and parents, reducing loss of notes, reducing time spent on data entry of test results, reducing transcription errors, and reducing the number of pieces of paper in a record, all demonstrated some degree of success in achieving the desired results. Studies of nursing care planning
Focus and Scope. The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the ...
Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain. Meseko, C. A.. 1. ; Shittu, I. 1. ; Bwala, D. G.. 2. ; Joannis, T. M.. 1 and Nwosuh, C. I.. 2. 1Regional Laboratory For Animal Influenza and Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Veterinary ...
Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...
Roest, H.I.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weesendorp, E.; Bossers, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.
In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this
Sonographic Measurements of Ocular Biometry of Indigenous Nigerian. Dogs in Zaria ..... between L2 and R) anesthetic risks and additional costs were ... prevalent worldwide problem (Toni et al.,. 2013). Paunknis and ... correlation with refractive error is larger for axial length than .... Veterinary Medical Association. 207:12.
1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, ... email@example.com; Tel No:+2348038352906. ... in-contact humans from pig farms and abattoir. ... Momoh et al. 141 and may enhance the distribution of resistance genes into ... treating clinical infections in both man and.
xyphoid cartilage to the pelvic area and aquasonic gel applied. The uterus was ... is used in both veterinary and human medicine ... Idris et al. 135 the pelvic region was gently made wet, with ... showing multiple fetuses (blue arrow). Plate IV: ... The beginning of bone formation which appears as hyperechoic structures ...
Kamaldeep; Bhaktivinayagam, A.; Singh, Sanjay Kumar
Radioisotopes have found wide applications in the field of biomedical veterinary nuclear medicine and research. Radiation safety issues during internal administration of radioisotopes to laboratory animals, unlike human use, are far more challenging and requires stringent, well planned and an organized system of radiation protection in the animal house facility. In this paper, we discuss our experience during veterinary research experiments involving use, handling and administration of liquid sources of 131 I. With extensive radiation protection surveillance and application of practical and essential radiation safety and hygiene practices, the radiation exposure and contamination levels during the veterinary application of isotopes can be kept ALARA
Armitage-Chan, E; Maddison, J; May, S A
Professionalism and professional skills are increasingly being incorporated into veterinary curricula; however, lack of clarity in defining veterinary professionalism presents a potential challenge for directing course outcomes that are of benefit to the veterinary professional. An online continuing education course in veterinary professionalism was designed to address a deficit in postgraduate support in this area; as part of this course, delegates of varying practice backgrounds participated in online discussions reflecting on the implications of professional skills for their clinical practice. The discussions surrounding the role of the veterinary professional and reflecting on strengths and weaknesses in professional skills were analysed using narrative methodology, which provided an understanding of the defining skills and attributes of the veterinary professional, from the perspectives of those involved (i.e. how vets understood their own career identity). The veterinary surgeon was understood to be an interprofessional team member, who makes clinical decisions in the face of competing stakeholder needs and works in a complex environment comprising multiple and diverse challenges (stress, high emotions, financial issues, work-life balance). It was identified that strategies for accepting fallibility, and those necessary for establishing reasonable expectations of professional behaviour and clinical ability, are poorly developed. British Veterinary Association.
Nappier, Michael T; Corrigan, Virginia K; Bartl-Wilson, Lara E; Freeman, Mark; Werre, Stephen; Tempel, Eric
The number of companion animal wellness visits in private practice has been decreasing, and one important factor cited is the lack of effective communication between veterinarians and pet owners regarding the importance of preventive care. Checklists have been widely used in many fields and are especially useful in areas where a complex task must be completed with multiple small steps, or when cognitive fatigue is evident. The use of checklists in veterinary medical education has not yet been thoroughly evaluated as a potential strategy to improve communication with pet owners regarding preventive care. The authors explored whether the use of a checklist based on the American Animal Hospital Association/American Veterinary Medical Association canine and feline preventive care guidelines would benefit senior veterinary students in accomplishing more complete canine and feline wellness visits. A group of students using provided checklists was compared to a control group of students who did not use checklists on the basis of their medical record notes from the visits. The students using the checklists were routinely more complete in several areas of a wellness visit vs. those who did not use the checklists. However, neither group of students routinely discussed follow-up care recommendations such as frequency or timing of follow-up visits. The study authors recommend considering checklist use for teaching and implementing wellness in companion animal primary care veterinary clinical teaching settings.
Michael T. Nappier
Full Text Available The number of companion animal wellness visits in private practice has been decreasing, and one important factor cited is the lack of effective communication between veterinarians and pet owners regarding the importance of preventive care. Checklists have been widely used in many fields and are especially useful in areas where a complex task must be completed with multiple small steps, or when cognitive fatigue is evident. The use of checklists in veterinary medical education has not yet been thoroughly evaluated as a potential strategy to improve communication with pet owners regarding preventive care. The authors explored whether the use of a checklist based on the American Animal Hospital Association/American Veterinary Medical Association canine and feline preventive care guidelines would benefit senior veterinary students in accomplishing more complete canine and feline wellness visits. A group of students using provided checklists was compared to a control group of students who did not use checklists on the basis of their medical record notes from the visits. The students using the checklists were routinely more complete in several areas of a wellness visit vs. those who did not use the checklists. However, neither group of students routinely discussed follow-up care recommendations such as frequency or timing of follow-up visits. The study authors recommend considering checklist use for teaching and implementing wellness in companion animal primary care veterinary clinical teaching settings.
Mendez, D; Foyle, L; Cobbold, R; Speare, R
To determine the rabies vaccination status of Queensland veterinarians and veterinary students and their perception of zoonotic risk from Australian bat lyssavirus (ABLV). Cross-sectional questionnaire surveys. Questionnaires were sent by post in 2011 to veterinary surgeons registered in Queensland, to final-year veterinary students at James Cook University via SurveyMonkey® in 2013 and to final-year veterinary students at James Cook University and University of Queensland via SurveyMonkey® in 2014. The response rate for registered veterinarians was 33.5% and for veterinary students 33.3% and 30% in 2013 and 2014, respectively. Of the 466 registered veterinary surgeons, 147 (31.5%) had been vaccinated, with 72 (15.5%) currently vaccinated. For veterinary students the rabies vaccination rate was 20.0% (4/20) and 13.0% (6/46) in the 2013 and 2014 surveys, respectively. More than 95% of veterinary students had received the mandatory Q fever vaccine. Both veterinarians and students regarded bats and horses as high-risk species for zoonoses. Queensland veterinarians and veterinary students have low levels of protection against ABLV. Although incidents of ABLV spilling over from a bat to a domestic mammal are likely to remain rare, they pose a significant human health and occupational risk given the outcome of infection in humans is high consequence. Principals of veterinary practices and veterinary authorities in Australia should implement a policy of rabies vaccination for clinical staff and veterinary students. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.
McDermott, M P; Cobb, M A; Tischler, V A; Robbé, I J; Dean, R S
A survey was conducted among veterinary practitioners in the UK and the USA in 2012/2013. Thematic analysis was used to identify underlying reasons behind answers to questions about the importance of communication skills and the desire to participate in postgraduate communication skills training. Lack of training among more experienced veterinary surgeons, incomplete preparation of younger practitioners and differences in ability to communicate all contribute to gaps in communication competency. Barriers to participating in further communication training include time, cost and doubts in the ability of training to provide value. To help enhance communication ability, communication skills should be assessed in veterinary school applicants, and communication skills training should be more thoroughly integrated into veterinary curricula. Continuing education/professional development in communication should be part of all postgraduate education and should be targeted to learning style preferences and communication needs and challenges through an entire career in practice. British Veterinary Association.
Cavalari, Rachel N S; Gillis, Jennifer M; Kruser, Nathan; Romanczyk, Raymond G
While the use of computer-based communication, video recordings, and other "electronic" records is commonplace in clinical service settings and research, management of digital records can become a great burden from both practical and regulatory perspectives. Three types of challenges commonly present themselves: regulatory requirements; storage, transmission, and access; and analysis for clinical and research decision-making. Unfortunately, few practitioners and organizations are well enough informed to set necessary policies and procedures in an effective, comprehensive manner. The three challenges are addressed using a demonstrative example of policies and procedural guidelines from an applied perspective, maintaining the unique emphasis behavior analysts place upon quantitative analysis. Specifically, we provide a brief review of federal requirements relevant to the use of video and electronic records in the USA; non-jargon pragmatic solutions to managing and storing video and electronic records; and last, specific methodologies to facilitate extraction of quantitative information in a cost-effective manner.
Selene J Huntley
Full Text Available Veterinarians are encouraged to use evidence to inform their practice, but it is unknown what resources (e.g. journals, electronic sources are accessed by them globally. Understanding the key places veterinarians seek information can inform where new clinically relevant evidence should most effectively be placed. An international survey was conducted to gain understanding of how veterinary information is accessed by veterinarians worldwide. There were 2137 useable responses to the questionnaire from veterinarians in 78 countries. The majority of respondents (n = 1835/2137, 85.9% undertook clinical work and worked in a high income country (n = 1576/1762, 89.4%. Respondents heard about the survey via national veterinary organisations or regulatory bodies (31.5%, online veterinary forums and websites (22.7%, regional, discipline-based or international veterinary organisations (22.7% or by direct invitation from the researchers or via friends, colleagues or social media (7.6%. Clinicians and non-clinicians reportedly used journals most commonly (65.8%, n = 1207/1835; 75.6%, n = 216/286 followed by electronic resources (58.7%, n = 1077/1835; 55.9%, n = 160/286, respectively. Respondents listed a total of 518 journals and 567 electronic sources that they read. Differences in veterinarian preference for resources in developed, and developing countries, were found. The nominated journals most read were the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (12.7% of nominations for clinicians and the Veterinary Record (5.7% for non-clinicians. The most accessed electronic resource reported was the Veterinary Information Network (25.6% for clinicians and PubMed (7.4% for non-clinicians. In conclusion, a wide array of journals and electronic resources appear to be accessed by veterinarians worldwide. Veterinary organisations appear to play an important role in global communication and outreach to veterinarians and consideration should be given to how
Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth; Jackson, Elizabeth
Improving Student Engagement in Veterinary Business StudiesIn a densely packed veterinary curriculum, students may find it particularly challenging to engage in the less overtly clinical subjects, yet pressure from industry and an increasingly competitive employment market necessitate improved veterinary student education in business and management skills. We describe a curriculum intervention (formative reflective assignment) that optimizes workplace learning opportunities and aims to provide better student scaffolding for their in-context business learning. Students were asked to analyze a business practice they experienced during a period of extra-mural studies (external work placement). Following return to the college, they were then instructed to discuss their findings in their study group, and produce a group reflection on their learning. To better understand student engagement in this area, we analyzed individual and group components of the assignment. Thematic analysis revealed evidence of various depths of student engagement, and provided indications of the behaviors they used when engaging at different levels. Interactive and social practices (discussing business strategies with veterinary employees and student peers) appeared to facilitate student engagement, assist the perception of relevance of these skills, and encourage integration with other curriculum elements such as communication skills and clinical problem solving.
Babica, Jan; Rusek, Václav
In interwar Czechoslovakia health care, an increased attention paid to the new ideas of scientific management (Taylorism), work rationalization and standardization led to the establishment of the Commission for Rationalization and Standardization in Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (RANOK) within the Department of Natural Science and Medicine of the Masaryk Academy of Work. Within RANOK, the group for pharmacy worked between 1928 and 1932. The first part of the paper described the scientific management and standardization movement in interwar Czechoslovakia, the establishment of Masaryk Academy of Work and RANOK, and work objectives of RANOK and its group for pharmacy. The second part deals with the work results, relative failure and importance of the group for pharmacy.
Hancock, Jason; Hammond, Jennifer A; Roberts, Martin; Mattick, Karen
Current guidelines suggest that educators in both medical and veterinary professions should do more to ensure that students can tolerate ambiguity. Designing curricula to achieve this requires the ability to measure and understand differences in ambiguity tolerance among and within professional groups. Although scales have been developed to measure tolerance of ambiguity in both medical and veterinary professions, no comparative studies have been reported. We compared the tolerance of ambiguity of medical and veterinary students, hypothesizing that veterinary students would have higher tolerance of ambiguity, given the greater patient diversity and less well-established evidence base underpinning practice. We conducted a secondary analysis of questionnaire data from first- to fourth-year medical and veterinary students. Tolerance of ambiguity scores were calculated and compared using the TAMSAD scale (29 items validated for the medical student population), the TAVS scale (27 items validated for the veterinary student population), and a scale comprising the 22 items common to both scales. Using the TAMSAD and TAVS scales, medical students had a significantly higher mean tolerance of ambiguity score than veterinary students (56.1 vs. 54.1, pambiguity than veterinary students, although this depends on the scale used.
Dinkelman, Andrea L; Viera, Ann R; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle A
This qualitative study seeks to determine the nature of the instruction librarians provide to veterinary medical students at all 28 United States veterinary colleges. A secondary goal of the study was to determine in what ways and to what extent librarians participated in other instructional activities at their colleges. Over half of the librarians formally taught in one or more courses, predominantly in the first two years of the veterinary curriculum. One presentation per course was most common. Over half of the librarians interviewed stated that evidence-based veterinary medicine was taught at their colleges, and about half of these librarians collaborated with veterinary faculty in this instruction. Many librarians participated in orientation for first-year veterinary students. The librarians also taught instructional sessions for residents, interns, faculty, graduate students, and practicing veterinarians. This study found that librarians teach information literacy skills both formally and informally, but, in general, instruction by librarians was not well integrated into the curriculum. This study advances several recommendations to help veterinary students develop information literacy skills. These include: encourage veterinary faculty and administrators to collaborate more closely with librarians, incorporate a broader array of information literacy skills into assignments, and add a literature evaluation course to the curriculum.
Johnson, Genevieve Marie
In higher education, assessment integrity is pivotal to student learning and satisfaction, and, therefore, a particularly important target of continuous quality improvement. This paper reports on the preliminary development and application of a process of recording and analysing current assessment moderation practices, with the aim of identifying…
Brown, Nathan L; Jephcote, Victoria E L
Fourteen dentists at different practices in the UK assessed the dental charts of 1128 patients who were new to the dentist but not new to the practice; 44% of the dental charts were found to be inaccurate. Inaccuracy of the individual practice-based charts ranged between 16% for the best performing practices to 83% for the worst: 5% of dental charts had too many teeth charted and 5% had too few teeth charted; 13% of charts had missed amalgam restorations and 18% had missed tooth-coloured restorations; 5% of charts had amalgam restorations recorded but with the surfaces incorrect (eg an MO restoration charted but a DO restoration actually present); 9% of charts had tooth-coloured restoration surfaces incorrectly recorded. For 7.5% of charts, amalgams were charted but not actually present. Other inaccuracies were also noted. The authors reinforce the requirements of the GDC, the advice of defence organizations, and the forensic importance of accurate dental charts. Clinical relevance: Dental charting forms part of the patient’s dental records, and the GDC requires dentists to maintain complete and accurate dental records.
Biermans, M.C.J.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de; Zielhuis, G.A.; Vries Robbé, P.F. de
Objectives: In this study, we evaluated the internal validity of EPICON, an application for grouping ICPCcoded diagnoses from electronic medical records into episodes of care. These episodes are used to estimate morbidity rates in general practice. Methods: Morbidity rates based on EPICON were
Hemler, Jennifer R; Hall, Jennifer D; Cholan, Raja A; Crabtree, Benjamin F; Damschroder, Laura J; Solberg, Leif I; Ono, Sarah S; Cohen, Deborah J
Practice facilitators ("facilitators") can play an important role in supporting primary care practices in performing quality improvement (QI), but they need complete and accurate clinical performance data from practices' electronic health records (EHR) to help them set improvement priorities, guide clinical change, and monitor progress. Here, we describe the strategies facilitators use to help practices perform QI when complete or accurate performance data are not available. Seven regional cooperatives enrolled approximately 1500 small-to-medium-sized primary care practices and 136 facilitators in EvidenceNOW, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's initiative to improve cardiovascular preventive services. The national evaluation team analyzed qualitative data from online diaries, site visit field notes, and interviews to discover how facilitators worked with practices on EHR data challenges to obtain and use data for QI. We found facilitators faced practice-level EHR data challenges, such as a lack of clinical performance data, partial or incomplete clinical performance data, and inaccurate clinical performance data. We found that facilitators responded to these challenges, respectively, by using other data sources or tools to fill in for missing data, approximating performance reports and generating patient lists, and teaching practices how to document care and confirm performance measures. In addition, facilitators helped practices communicate with EHR vendors or health systems in requesting data they needed. Overall, facilitators tailored strategies to fit the individual practice and helped build data skills and trust. Facilitators can use a range of strategies to help practices perform data-driven QI when performance data are inaccurate, incomplete, or missing. Support is necessary to help practices, particularly those with EHR data challenges, build their capacity for conducting data-driven QI that is required of them for participating in practice
... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules of agency practice and procedure concerning OSHA... PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE CONCERNING OSHA ACCESS TO EMPLOYEE MEDICAL RECORDS § 1913.10 Rules of agency practice and procedure concerning OSHA access to employee medical records. (a) General policy. OSHA access...
Hamood, Wendy J; Chur-Hansen, Anna; McArthur, Michelle L
To explore and gain an understanding of what "clinical communication skills" mean to veterinarians working in private practice and what implications this might have for veterinary medical education. Qualitative research methods were used to purposefully sample a range of veterinary practitioners from a pool of South Australian veterinary practices who were interviewed to determine their understanding of what communication skills mean in the context of veterinary practice. Interviews were conducted with fourteen veterinary practitioners. Participants were sampled from a range of ages, veterinary schools of graduation plus urban and rural locations. Interview transcripts were analysed for themes, definitions and contexts. Participants' accounts included a number of skills which they considered to be "communication". Some of the definitions of these skills parallel communication skills and competencies for human medicine on which communication skills training incorporated into veterinary curricula to date have largely been based. However, the veterinarians in this study also raised interesting contextual differences unique to the veterinary profession, such as communication with the animal, selling service, discussing money in relation to decisions for care, and communicating about euthanasia. Veterinary practitioners require high level communication skills. Education and training in veterinary medicine may be better tailored to reflect the unique context of the veterinary profession.
Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei
Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Katrina Wilcox Hagberg, Susan S Jick Boston Collaborative Drug Surveillance Program, Boston University School of Public Health, Lexington, MA, USA Background: Prior studies have reported that the validity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD diagnoses recorded in the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD was high; however, diagnostic criteria and screening practices have changed since the last study was published in 2004.Objectives: 1 To calculate the positive predictive value (PPV of ASD diagnoses recorded in the CPRD compared to original medical records and 2 to describe characteristics of cases and use of clinical codes that support the ASD diagnosis as recorded in the electronic data by general practitioners over time.Methods: We identified children with a code for ASD (autism spectrum disorder, autism, Asperger’s, or pervasive developmental disorder in the CPRD from 1990 to 2014. We evaluated presence of codes in the electronic medical record indicating the presence of developmental delay, speech delay, behavioral problems, and other supporting clinical codes (e.g., therapy, referrals, etc.. We also evaluated changes in recording of these clinical codes over time. We compared the information present in the electronic medical record to original medical records for a sample of cases and calculated PPVs of ASD diagnoses recorded in the CPRD.Results: We identified 2154 children with a code for ASD. The mean age at diagnosis was 5.8 years, and 84% of cases were male. The majority (78.4% had 1 ASD diagnosis code in their electronic medical record. Approximately half of the cases had a code indicating behavioral problem, developmental delay, or speech delay, and 24.7% had a code indicating specialist referral or visit. After review of original medical records, the PPV of ASD diagnoses recorded in the CPRD was 91.9%. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that ASD diagnoses recorded in the CPRD are reliable and can be used with confidence
Joubert, M; Baillot-Rudoni, S; Catargi, B; Charpentier, G; Esvant, A; Franc, S; Guerci, B; Guilhem, I; Melki, V; Merlen, E; Penfornis, A; Renard, E; Riveline, J P; Schaepelynck, P; Sola-Gazagnes, A; Hanaire, H
The benefits of retrospective continuous glucose monitoring (retroCGM) recording have been widely explored in clinical studies, and many diabetes physicians routinely use this examination. However, the method of interpretation of CGM recordings has never been precisely described. An expert French panel of physicians met for two days to discuss several aspects of retroCGM use and to produce a position statement. The guidelines cover the indications for retroCGM, the general organization and practical implementation of CGM recordings, a description of the different devices available and guidelines for the interpretation of retroCGM recordings. This consensus document should help clinicians in the proper use of retroCGM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena; Milne, Marjorie; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Farqhuar, Robyn G; Fischer, Andrea; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Pakozdy, Akos; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials for seizures, the parameters for MRI examination should allow the detection of subtle lesions which may not be obvious with existing techniques. In addition, there are several differentials for idiopathic epilepsy in humans, for example some focal cortical dysplasias, which may only apparent with special sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can be adapted for both low and high field scanners. Standardisation of imaging will improve clinical communication and uniformity of case definition between research studies. A 6-7 sequence epilepsy-specific MRI protocol for veterinary patients is proposed and further advanced MR and functional imaging is reviewed.
Wynia, Matthew; Dunn, Kyle
Electronic health records for patients, personal health records (PHRs), have become increasingly popular among policy makers and purchasers, but uptake among patients and physicians has been relatively slow. PHRs have varying uses that might make them more or less appealing to different stakeholders. The three core uses for PHRs - promoting communication, data use, and patient responsibility - each raises a set of potential practical and financial dilemmas. But some ethical concerns are also at play, some of which are rarely recognized as values-based barriers to the use of PHRs. Recognizing these ethical issues, and addressing them explicitly in PHR design and policy making, would help PHRs to achieve their promise.
The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
1.1 This practice covers a procedure for recording data of atmospheric corrosion tests of metallic-coated steel specimens. Its objective is the assurance of (1) complete identification of materials before testing, (2) objective reporting of material appearance during visual inspections, and (3) adequate photographic, micrographic, and chemical laboratory examinations at specific stages of deterioration, and at the end of the tests. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Young, Stacy L.; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Brown, David W.
Background Data on home-based records (HBRs) practices within national immunization programmes are non-existent, making it difficult to determine whether current efforts of immunization programmes related to basic recording of immunization services are appropriately focused. Methods During January 2014, WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund sent a one-page questionnaire to 195 countries to obtain information on HBRs including type of record used, number of records printed, whether record...
Bergman, Philip J
The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Palmeiro, Brian S
Cyclosporine is an immunomodulatory medication that is efficacious and approved for atopic dermatitis in dogs and allergic dermatitis in cats; it has also been used to successfully manage a variety of immune-mediated dermatoses in dogs and cats. This article reviews the use of cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology including its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, side effects, and relevant clinical updates. Dermatologic indications including atopic/allergic dermatitis, perianal fistulas, sebaceous adenitis, and other immune-mediated skin diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study\\'s objective was to assess the usability of the epilepsy history module of the electronic patient record, developed at Beaumont Hospital, and to identify opportunities for improvement. Observation, interview and document analysis methods were used. Results indicated that the module was useable but the design did not work as well in practice as anticipated by theory. The next iteration of the module included identified enhancements; this iteration is currently in use.
Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone
As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.
Boyd, C. Trenton
Objective: The objective of this study was to survey holdings of ephemeral veterinary literature. Methods: WorldCat OCLC catalog, the Library of Congress online catalog, the US National Agricultural Library online catalog, and the Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862–1965, were used to determine current library holdings of materials published by veterinary schools that are no longer in existence and veterinary associations that are defunct, veterinary supply catalogs, veterinary house organs, patent medicine publications, and veterinary advertisements. Individual library catalogs were also consulted. In addition, the practice of removing advertisements from bound volumes was examined. Results: There are many gaps in the cataloged library holdings of primary source materials relating to the history of the education of veterinarians in the United States. Conclusions: A proactive action plan needs to be designed and activated to locate, catalog, and preserve this primary source material of veterinary medicine for posterity. PMID:21243050
Hardefeldt, L Y; Marenda, M; Crabb, H; Stevenson, M A; Gilkerson, J R; Billman-Jacobe, H; Browning, G F
The national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance highlights the need for antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary practice and for surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility in veterinary pathogens. Diagnostic laboratories have an important role in facilitating both of these processes, but it is unclear whether data from veterinary diagnostic laboratories are similar enough to allow for compilation and if there is consistent promotion of appropriate antimicrobial use embedded in the approaches of different laboratories to susceptibility testing. A cross-sectional study of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and reporting procedures by Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories was conducted in 2017 using an online questionnaire. All 18 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia completed the questionnaire. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion was the method predominantly used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and was used to evaluate 86% of all isolates, although two different protocols were used across the 18 laboratories (CLSI 15/18, CDS 3/18). Minimum inhibitory concentrations were never reported by 61% of laboratories. Common isolates were consistently reported on across all species, except for gram-negative isolates in pigs, for which there was some variation in the approach to reporting. There was considerable diversity in the panels of antimicrobials used for susceptibility testing on common isolates and no consistency was apparent between laboratories for any bacterial species. We recommend that nationally agreed and consistent antimicrobial panels for routine susceptibility testing should be developed and a uniform set of guidelines should be adopted by veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.
Kong, Kaimeng; Zhang, Lulu; Huang, Lisu; Tao, Yexuan
Image-assisted dietary assessment methods are frequently used to record individual eating habits. This study tested the validity of a smartphone-based photographic food recording approach by comparing the results obtained with those of a weighed food record. We also assessed the practicality of the method by using it to measure the energy and nutrient intake of college students. The experiment was implemented in two phases, each lasting 2 weeks. In the first phase, a labelled menu and a photograph database were constructed. The energy and nutrient content of 31 randomly selected dishes in three different portion sizes were then estimated by the photograph-based method and compared with a weighed food record. In the second phase, we combined the smartphone-based photographic method with the WeChat smartphone application and applied this to 120 randomly selected participants to record their energy and nutrient intake. The Pearson correlation coefficients for energy, protein, fat, and carbohydrate content between the weighed and the photographic food record were 0.997, 0.936, 0.996, and 0.999, respectively. Bland-Altman plots showed good agreement between the two methods. The estimated protein, fat, and carbohydrate intake by participants was in accordance with values in the Chinese Residents' Nutrition and Chronic Disease report (2015). Participants expressed satisfaction with the new approach and the compliance rate was 97.5%. The smartphone-based photographic dietary assessment method combined with the WeChat instant messaging application was effective and practical for use by young people.
Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah
Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international
Kinnison, Tierney; Lumbis, Rachel; Orpet, Hilary; Welsh, Perdi; Gregory, Sue; Baillie, Sarah
Interprofessional education (IPE) has received little attention in veterinary education even though members of the veterinary and nursing professions work closely together. The present study investigates veterinary and veterinary nursing students' and practitioners' experiences with interprofessional issues and the potential benefits of IPE. Based on stakeholder consultations, two teaching interventions were modified or developed for use with veterinary and veterinary nursing students: Talking Walls, which aimed to increase individuals' understanding of each other's roles, and an Emergency-Case Role-Play Scenario, which aimed to improve teamwork. These interventions were piloted with volunteer veterinary and veterinary nursing students who were recruited through convenience sampling. A questionnaire (the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [RIPLS]) was modified for use in veterinary education and used to investigate changes in attitudes toward IPE over time (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and four to five months afterward). The results showed an immediate and significant positive change in attitude after the intervention, highlighting the students' willingness to learn collaboratively, their ability to recognize the benefits of IPE, a decreased sense of professional isolation, and reduced hierarchical views. Although nearly half of the students felt concerned about learning with students from another profession before the intervention, the majority (97%) enjoyed learning together. However, the positive change in attitude was not evident four to five months after the intervention, though attitudes remained above pre-intervention levels. The results of the pilot study were encouraging and emphasize the relevance and importance of veterinary IPE as well as the need for further investigation to explore methods of sustaining a change in attitude over time.
... become essential tools in almost every field of research and applied technology. ... Computers in veterinary medicine have been used for veterinary education; ... agro-veterinary project design, monitoring and implementation; preparation of ...
Mazumdar, Soumya; Konings, Paul; Hewett, Michael; Bagheri, Nasser; McRae, Ian; Del Fante, Peter
General practitioner (GP) practices in Australia are increasingly storing patient information in electronic databases. These practice databases can be accessed by clinical audit software to generate reports that inform clinical or population health decision making and public health surveillance. Many audit software applications also have the capacity to generate de-identified patient unit record data. However, the de-identified nature of the extracted data means that these records often lack geographic information. Without spatial references, it is impossible to build maps reflecting the spatial distribution of patients with particular conditions and needs. Links to socioeconomic, demographic, environmental or other geographically based information are also not possible. In some cases, relatively coarse geographies such as postcode are available, but these are of limited use and researchers cannot undertake precision spatial analyses such as calculating travel times. We describe a method that allows researchers to implement meaningful mapping and spatial epidemiological analyses of practice level patient data while preserving privacy. This solution has been piloted in a diabetes risk research project in the patient population of a practice in Adelaide. The method offers researchers a powerful means of analysing geographic clinic data in a privacy-protected manner. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.
Ishihara, Kanako; Saito, Mieko; Shimokubo, Natsumi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Maetani, Shigeki; Tamura, Yutaka
To explore the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary medical practices, MRSA carriage was tested among 96 veterinarians (Vets), 70 veterinary technicians (VTs) and 292 dogs with which they had contact at 71 private veterinary clinics (VCs) in Hokkaido, Japan. MRSA isolates were obtained from 22 Vets [22.9%] and 7 VTs [10%]. The prevalence of MRSA among Vets was as high as that found in an academic veterinary hospital in our previous study. In contrast, only two blood donor dogs and one dog with liver disease (1.0%, 3/292) yielded MRSA. All MRSA-positive dogs were reared or treated in different VCs, in each of which at least one veterinary staff member carrying MRSA worked. Sequence types (ST) identified by multilocus sequence typing, spa types, and SCCmec types for canine MRSA isolates (ST5-spa t002-SCCmec II [from two dogs] or ST30-spa t021-SCCmec IV [from a dog]) were concordant with those from veterinary staff members in the same clinics as the MRSA-positive dogs, with which they had potentially had contact. Most MRSA isolates from veterinary staff were the same genotype (SCCmec type II and spa type t002) as a major hospital-acquired MRSA clone in Japan. The remaining MRSA was the same genotypes as domestic and foreign community-associated MRSA. Measures against MRSA infection should be provided in private VCs. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Lloyd, Adam; Dewar, Alistair; Edgar, Simon; Caesar, Dave; Gowens, Paul; Clegg, Gareth
The use of video in healthcare is becoming more common, particularly in simulation and educational settings. However, video recording live episodes of clinical care is far less routine. To provide a practical guide for clinical services to embed live video recording. Using Kotter's 8-step process for leading change, we provide a 'how to' guide to navigate the challenges required to implement a continuous video-audit system based on our experience of video recording in our emergency department resuscitation rooms. The most significant hurdles in installing continuous video audit in a busy clinical area involve change management rather than equipment. Clinicians are faced with considerable ethical, legal and data protection challenges which are the primary barriers for services that pursue video recording of patient care. Existing accounts of video use rarely acknowledge the organisational and cultural dimensions that are key to the success of establishing a video system. This article outlines core implementation issues that need to be addressed if video is to become part of routine care delivery. By focussing on issues such as staff acceptability, departmental culture and organisational readiness, we provide a roadmap that can be pragmatically adapted by all clinical environments, locally and internationally, that seek to utilise video recording as an approach to improving clinical care. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S
It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.
Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...
Rumball-Smith, Juliet; Shekelle, Paul; Damberg, Cheryl L
This study explored variation in the extent of use of electronic health record (EHR)-based health information technology (IT) functionalities across US ambulatory care practices. Use of health IT functionalities in ambulatory care is important for delivering high-quality care, including that provided in coordination with multiple practitioners. We used data from the 2014 Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society Analytics survey. The responses of 30,123 ambulatory practices with an operational EHR were analyzed to examine the extent of use of EHR-based health IT functionalities for each practice. We created a novel framework for classifying ambulatory care practices employing 7 domains of health IT functionality. Drawing from the survey responses, we created a composite "use" variable indicating the extent of health IT functionality use across these domains. "Super-user" practices were defined as having near-full employment of the 7 domains of health IT functionalities and "under-users" as those with minimal or no use of health IT functionalities. We used multivariable logistic regression to investigate how the odds of super-use and under-use varied by practice size, type, urban or rural location, and geographic region. Seventy-three percent of practices were not using EHR technologies to their full capability, and nearly 40% were classified as under-users. Under-user practices were more likely to be of smaller size, situated in the West, and located outside a metropolitan area. To achieve the broader benefits of the EHR and health IT, health systems and policy makers need to identify and address barriers to full use of health IT functionalities.
The first animal disease act of Switzerland was released in 1872. Its revision in 1886 brought the basis for establishing a border veterinary inspection service. This service was first reporting to the federal Ministry of Agriculture; after 1914, the newly created Federal Veterinary Office became responsible for it. The border checks were first limited to live biungulate animals and horses; later on they were extended to meat and meat products and finally to venison and fishery products. At the beginning, part-time veterinarians with own practice were engaged. As the traffic increased, full time border veterinary inspectors joined the team; these were mainly active at the most important border posts (like Basel, St. Margrethen, Buchs, Chiasso, Geneva, more recently the international airports). The border veterinary inspection service, including the relevant instruction of the personnel, was (and is) financed with weight depending fees which included until 1966 a fee intended for financing the efforts to control livestocks epidemics.
Veterinarians have been radiographing animal skulls for many years, but sophisticated dentistry was not widely used until the 1970s. Elevated awareness of veterinary dental techniques has led to the need for producing accurate radiographic images of the teeth and periodontal structures. Many problems arise for the clinician who treats small animals who has, before this time, radiographed the skull of dogs and cats solely for the purpose of assessing neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic disease of the mandible, maxilla, or calvarium and now desires to perform dental radiography. This chapter will describe the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more common types of radiographic equipment and supplies, discuss extraoral and intraoral radiographic positioning and technique, identify anatomic landmarks and diagnostic features of intraoral radiography, and offer suggestions concerning the art of using dental radiography in veterinary practice
Jonckheer-Sheehy, Valerie; Endenburg, Nienke
An enquiry into the requirement of a university veterinary behaviour clinic in The Netherlands revealed that there is a clear call for such a service. The specific demands and wishes of first line practicing veterinarians and companion animal owners were investigated. The research revealed that veterinarians are regular confronted with behaviour problems in companion animals and that they are willing to refer these cases to the University. They also expressed their need for access to continuing professional development opportunities in the field of veterinary behavioural medicine (which is something that most veterinary behaviour clinics associated with veterinary faculties provide). The demand from companion animal owners was also examined. It can be concluded that a large number of them had animals with behaviour problems and that they were willing to seek veterinary advice on these matters. In response to the above mentioned demands the University of Utrecht will open a veterinary behaviour clinic, providing high quality service for animals, their owners and the referring veterinarians. This service will be based on sound scientific practice and delivered by both veterinarians specialised in this field and recognised animal behaviour therapists.
Ward, F.A.; Woodhouse, J.A.; Kennedy, J.W.
The paper compares the system of dose limitation recommended in ICRP Publication 26 with that based upon previous ICRP Publications upon which the current United Kingdom Legislation is based. Particular attention is given to the implication of the place given to the concept of committed dose in the system of dose limitation. The present dosimetry procedures in use within British Nuclear Fuels Ltd are outlined together with their practical limitations, and attention is drawn to the particular technical problems associated with plutonium uptake assessments. A number of other practical issues are identified such as dose records and the supplementary dose information which would require recording and the need for the re-education of employees in the new control concepts. A proposal is presented for internal dose recording based initially upon environmental measurements but subject to subsequent modification by preferred assessments based upon in-vivo and urinalysis techniques. Finally an assessment and, where appropriate, suspension procedure is proposed to control long-term exposure arising from plutonium intakes based upon an averaging period of 15 years. (author)
Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E
Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Sittig, Dean F; Gonzalez, Daniel; Singh, Hardeep
Reliable health information technology (HIT) in general, and electronic health record systems (EHRs) in particular are essential to a high-performing healthcare system. When the availability of EHRs are disrupted, alternative methods must be used to maintain the continuity of healthcare. We developed a survey to assess institutional practices to handle situations when EHRs were unavailable for use (downtime preparedness). We used literature reviews and expert opinion to develop items that assessed the implementation of potentially useful practices. We administered the survey to U.S.-based healthcare institutions that were members of a professional organization that focused on collaboration and sharing of HIT-related best practices among its members. All members were large integrated health systems. We received responses from 50 of the 59 (84%) member institutions. Nearly all (96%) institutions reported at least one unplanned downtime (of any length) in the last 3 years and 70% had at least one unplanned downtime greater than 8h in the last 3 years. Three institutions reported that one or more patients were injured as a result of either a planned or unplanned downtime. The majority of institutions (70-85%) had implemented a portion of the useful practices we identified, but very few practices were followed by all organizations. Unexpected downtimes related to EHRs appear to be fairly common among institutions in our survey. Most institutions had only partially implemented comprehensive contingency plans to maintain safe and effective healthcare during unexpected EHRs downtimes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Perera, Gihan; Holbrook, Anne; Thabane, Lehana; Foster, Gary; Willison, Donald J
To determine how patients and physicians balance the perceived benefits and harms of sharing electronic health data for patient care and for secondary purposes. Before-after survey of patients and providers in practices using electronic medical records (EMRs) enrolled in a clinical trial in Ontario, Canada. Outcomes were measured using the Health Information Privacy Questionnaire (HIPQ) at baseline and end of study. Thirteen questions in 4 general domains investigated attitudes towards the privacy of EMRs, outsider's use of patient's health information, the sharing of patient's information within the health care system, and the overall perception of benefits versus harms of computerization in health care. 511 patients (mean age 60.3 years, 49.6% female) and 46 physicians (mean age 47.2 years, 37.0% female) participated. Most (>90%) supported the computerized sharing of the patient's health records among their health care professionals and to provide clinical advice. Fewer agreed that the patient's de-identified information should be shared outside of the health care circle (records can be keep more private than paper records (38-50%). Overall, a majority (58% patients, 70% physicians) believed that the benefits of computerization were greater than the risks of confidentiality loss. This was especially true for patients who were frequent computer users. While these primary care physicians and their patients valued the clinical features of EMRs, a substantial minority have concerns about the secondary use of de-identified information. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Karusisi, Noëlla; Thomas, Frédérique; Méline, Julie; Chaix, Basile
Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various individual socio-demographic characteristics and neighborhood socioeconomic variables. Data from the RECORD Study involving 7290 participants recruited in 2007-2008, aged 30-79 years, and residing in the Paris metropolitan area were analyzed. Four categories of sports were studied: team sports, racket sports, swimming and related activities, and fitness. Spatial accessibility to sport facilities was measured with two complementary approaches that both take into account the street network (distance to the nearest facility and count of facilities around the dwelling). Associations between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports were assessed using multilevel logistic regression after adjusting for individual and contextual characteristics. High individual education and high household income were associated with the practice of racket sports, swimming or related activities, and fitness over the previous 7 days. The spatial accessibility to swimming pools was associated with swimming and related sports, even after adjustment for individual/contextual factors. The spatial accessibility to facilities was not related to the practice of other sports. High neighborhood income was associated with the practice of a racket sport and fitness. Accessibility is a multi-dimensional concept that integrates educational, financial, and geographical aspects. Our work supports the evidence that strategies to increase participation in sport activities should improve the spatial and
Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter; Williams, Andrew R; Mejer, Helena
Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only a few parasites have Danish names. In our veterinary curriculum, zoology has disappeared as a discipline, and parasitology has gradually moved from the third year to the beginning of the second year, which implies that, for example, pathology and pharmacology are "unknown fields". The number of contact hours in veterinary parasitology has been gradually cut to 24 lectures (35 min each) and practical exercises (24 h), including 9 h on coprology. The course is taught and examined jointly with bacteriology and virology in a 8-week course. As a comprehensive course, it has become increasingly difficult to get students to acquire enough active knowledge of the most common parasites and an understanding of the basic principles in relation to, for example, transmission and control. Even though information is readily accessible through books and on-line resources, we still believe that a competent clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical and diagnostic parasitology. The students can also now select a One Health track for six months in which zoonotic parasites are obviously a relevant topic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ledbetter, C S; Morgan, M W
Automating clinical and administrative processes via an electronic patient record (EPR) gives clinicians the point-of-care tools they need to deliver better patient care. However, to improve clinical practice as a whole and then evaluate it, healthcare must go beyond basic automation and convert EPR data into aggregated, multidimensional information. Unfortunately, few EPR systems have the established, powerful analytical clinical data warehouses (CDWs) required for this conversion. This article describes how an organization can support best practice by leveraging a CDW that is fully integrated into its EPR and clinical decision support (CDS) system. The article (1) discusses the requirements for comprehensive CDS, including on-line analytical processing (OLAP) of data at both transactional and aggregate levels, (2) suggests that the transactional data acquired by an OLTP EPR system must be remodeled to support retrospective, population-based, aggregate analysis of those data, and (3) concludes that this aggregate analysis is best provided by a separate CDW system.
Nault, Andre J.
Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…
Vinten, Claire E K; Cobb, Kate A; Freeman, Sarah L; Mossop, Liz H
Clinical reasoning is a fundamental skill for veterinary clinicians and a competency required of graduates by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. However, it is unknown how veterinary students develop reasoning skills and where strengths and shortcomings of curricula lie. This research aimed to use the University of Nottingham School of Veterinary Medicine and Science (SVMS) as a case study to investigate the development of clinical reasoning among veterinary students. The analysis was framed in consideration of the taught, learned, and declared curricula. Sixteen staff and sixteen students from the SVMS participated separately in a total of four focus groups. In addition, five interviews were conducted with recent SVMS graduates. Audio transcriptions were used to conduct a thematic analysis. A content analysis was performed on all curriculum documentation. It was found that SVMS graduates feel they have a good level of reasoning ability, but they still experience a deficit in their reasoning capabilities when starting their first job. Overarching themes arising from the data suggest that a lack of responsibility for clinical decisions during the program and the embedded nature of the clinical reasoning skill within the curriculum could be restricting development. In addition, SVMS students would benefit from clinical reasoning training where factors influencing "real life" decisions (e.g., finances) are explored in more depth. Integrating these factors into the curriculum could lead to improved decision-making ability among SVMS graduates and better prepare students for the stressful transition to practice. These findings are likely to have implications for other veterinary curricula.
Boundary work refers to the strategies deployed by professionals in the arenas of the public, the law and the workplace to define and defend jurisdictional authority. Little attention has been directed to the role of documents in negotiating professional claims. While boundary work over induced abortion has been extensively documented, few studies have examined jurisdictional disputes over the treatment of abortion complications, or post-abortion care (PAC). This study explores how medical providers deploy medical records in boundary work over the treatment of complications of spontaneous and induced abortion in Senegal, where induced abortion is prohibited under any circumstance. Findings are based on an institutional ethnography of Senegal’s national PAC program over a period of 13 months between 2010 and 2011. Data collection methods included in-depth interviews with 36 health care professionals, observation of PAC services at three hospitals, a review of abortion records at each hospital, and a case review of illegal abortions prosecuted by the state. Findings show that health providers produce a particular account of the type of abortion treated through a series of practices such as the patient interview and the clinical exam. Providers obscure induced abortion in medical documents in three ways: the use of terminology that does not differentiate between induced and spontaneous abortion in PAC registers, the omission of data on the type of abortion altogether in PAC registers, and reporting the total number but not the type of abortions treated in hospital data transmitted to state health authorities. The obscuration of suspected induced abortion in the record permits providers to circumvent police inquiry at the hospital. PAC has been implemented in nearly 50 countries worldwide. This study demonstrates the need for additional research on how medical professionals negotiate conflicting medical and legal obligations in the daily practice of treating abortion
Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...
Heeding calls to generate a creative synthesis between business history and organisation studies, this article analyses the emergence, institutionalisation and digitalisation of record pooling practices through the lens of institutional work. By developing an ‘analytically structured history’, this
Laerum, Hallvard; Karlsen, Tom H; Faxvaag, Arild
It is not automatically given that the paper-based medical record can be eliminated after the introduction of an electronic medical record (EMR) in a hospital. Many keep and update the paper-based counterpart, and this limits the use of the EMR system. The authors have evaluated the physicians' clinical work practices and attitudes toward a system in a hospital that has eliminated the paper-based counterpart using scanning technology. Combined open-ended interviews (8 physicians) and cross-sectional survey (70 physicians) were conducted and compared with reference data from a previous national survey (69 physicians from six hospitals). The hospitals in the reference group were using the same EMR system without the scanning module. The questionnaire (English translation available as an online data supplement at ) covered frequency of use of the EMR system for 19 defined tasks, ease of performing them, and user satisfaction. The interviews were open-ended. The physicians routinely used the system for nine of 11 tasks regarding retrieval of patient data, which the majority of the physicians found more easily performed than before. However, 22% to 25% of the physicians found retrieval of patient data more difficult, particularly among internists (33%). Overall, the physicians were equally satisfied with the part of the system handling the regular electronic data as that of the physicians in the reference group. They were, however, much less satisfied with the use of scanned document images than that of regular electronic data, using the former less frequently than the latter. Scanning and elimination of the paper-based medical record is feasible, but the scanned document images should be considered an intermediate stage toward fully electronic medical records. To our knowledge, this is the first assessment from a hospital in the process of completing such a scanning project.
Burns, Gilbert A; Ruby, Kathleen L; Debowes, Richard M; Seaman, Susan J; Brannan, Julia K
Data from focused studies and comprehensive surveys suggest that developing or enhancing non-technical (professional) skills will result in a more satisfied and successful veterinary student or veterinary graduate. The College of Veterinary Medicine at Washington State University has devoted considerable time, effort, and resources to augmenting the non-technical aspects of its curriculum while maintaining the traditional strengths of its DVM program. Here we summarize pertinent research and best-practice recommendations from a variety of sources and outline the steps that have been taken, with the underlying rationales, to integrate the teaching and modeling of non-technical (professional) competence throughout a four-year course of veterinary study.
Brandt, Jennifer C; Bateman, Shane W
Recent studies of veterinary practice have suggested a correlation between well-developed communication skills and job satisfaction, career retention, customer satisfaction, decreased lawsuits, and financial remuneration for veterinarians. Veterinary educators are under growing pressure to teach functional communication skills to veterinary students; however, the methods employed have not been well evaluated. In this study we have evaluated veterinary student's attitudes to learning communication skills by participating in role play. The study indicates that experiential learning modalities such as role play are perceived as effective by students, despite reluctance to participate and some discomfort surrounding participation.
This Safety Practice is the first in a series of reports under the programme on the management of nuclear power plant ageing. The purpose of the programme is to facilitate the exchange of information and to promote co-operation among Member States towards understanding and managing the ageing degradation of components, with the aim of maintaining safe and reliable plant operation. The availability and evaluation of appropriate data on nuclear power plant components are essential to safety and constitute a key factor in plant life extension considerations. The present publication provides guidance on data requirements and an effective and practical system for data collection and record keeping in relation to the evaluation and management of ageing and service life. This guidance is based on current practices. It is envisaged that the application of the guidance will contribute to the safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants and will facilitate international information exchange on ageing related component failures, malfunctions and degradation, since data collected using the same ground rules would be easier to exchange and compare. The guidance is intended primarily for the management, maintenance and technical staff of nuclear power plants, on whom the ultimate success of the recommended system and its associated benefits depend. Intended secondary audiences include utility management and central technical support organizations, regulatory bodies, standards organizations, design companies, and research and development institutes. 8 refs, 1 fig., 1 tab
Cohen, Deborah J; Dorr, David A; Knierim, Kyle; DuBard, C Annette; Hemler, Jennifer R; Hall, Jennifer D; Marino, Miguel; Solberg, Leif I; McConnell, K John; Nichols, Len M; Nease, Donald E; Edwards, Samuel T; Wu, Winfred Y; Pham-Singer, Hang; Kho, Abel N; Phillips, Robert L; Rasmussen, Luke V; Duffy, F Daniel; Balasubramanian, Bijal A
Federal value-based payment programs require primary care practices to conduct quality improvement activities, informed by the electronic reports on clinical quality measures that their electronic health records (EHRs) generate. To determine whether EHRs produce reports adequate to the task, we examined survey responses from 1,492 practices across twelve states, supplemented with qualitative data. Meaningful-use participation, which requires the use of a federally certified EHR, was associated with the ability to generate reports-but the reports did not necessarily support quality improvement initiatives. Practices reported numerous challenges in generating adequate reports, such as difficulty manipulating and aligning measurement time frames with quality improvement needs, lack of functionality for generating reports on electronic clinical quality measures at different levels, discordance between clinical guidelines and measures available in reports, questionable data quality, and vendors that were unreceptive to changing EHR configuration beyond federal requirements. The current state of EHR measurement functionality may be insufficient to support federal initiatives that tie payment to clinical quality measures.
Stanicova, J.; Lohajova, L.
Diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionising radiation is very important in all of branches of medicine including veterinary medicine. In veterinary training at University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice (UVM), biophysics is a basic subject and it grants physical basis necessary for understanding subsequent subjects such as veterinary surgery, roentgenology, orthopedics. In view of this, traditional methods of radiology such as fluoroscopy, skiagraphy and tomography are explaining. The appearance and application of the theory so called reconstruction of image and also computers led to qualitatively new solutions via the development of modern methods in radiology. Explaining of physical principles, advantages or disadvantages of these new methods is also important in veterinary training although some of them do not use in veterinary practice yet. Two modern methods of nuclear medicine using in diagnostic (SPECT and PET) are discussed bellow. (authors)
Cairns-Haylor, Theodora; Fordyce, Peter
This study maps communication between veterinary surgeons and dog owners on obesity management in four first-opinion practices in the UK. A total of 74 dog owners who met the study's inclusion criteria and 24 veterinary surgeons were interviewed using oral questionnaires between November 2013 and May 2014. The dog owner questionnaire was based on potential discussion areas that could influence an owner's intention to act (initiate a weight loss regime) based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour. The veterinary surgeons' questionnaires assessed perception of canine obesity, their personal communication strategies and current practice-level interventions. The findings identify opportunities for more proactive approaches to obesity management by veterinary surgeons and their practices. British Veterinary Association.
A five years study (2003-2007) of parasitic diseases of ruminants brought to two Zonal Veterinary clinics located in the Southern part of Niger State, Central Nigeria was carried out to establish disease patterns in cattle, sheep and goats. The study was based on the data extracted from the monthly records of parasitic disease ...
The record of 114 small animal trauma cases seen at the Surgery Unit of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH), Ibadan between 2008 and 2012 were studied to evaluate the pattern of trauma with reference to species, sex, age groups, causes of trauma, regional involvement, severity including fatalities, in order to develop ...
Holt, Elsbeth; And Others
Reviews a course in Food Hygiene and Public Health at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine in which students are sequenced through a series of computer-based lessons or autotutorial slide-tape lessons, the computer also being used to route, test, and keep records. Since grades indicated mastery of the subject, the course will…
Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased investments are being made for electronic medical records (EMRs in Canada. There is a need to learn from earlier EMR studies on their impact on physician practice in office settings. To address this need, we conducted a systematic review to examine the impact of EMRs in the physician office, factors that influenced their success, and the lessons learned. Results For this review we included publications cited in Medline and CINAHL between 2000 and 2009 on physician office EMRs. Studies were included if they evaluated the impact of EMR on physician practice in office settings. The Clinical Adoption Framework provided a conceptual scheme to make sense of the findings and allow for future comparison/alignment to other Canadian eHealth initiatives. In the final selection, we included 27 controlled and 16 descriptive studies. We examined six areas: prescribing support, disease management, clinical documentation, work practice, preventive care, and patient-physician interaction. Overall, 22/43 studies (51.2% and 50/109 individual measures (45.9% showed positive impacts, 18.6% studies and 18.3% measures had negative impacts, while the remaining had no effect. Forty-eight distinct factors were identified that influenced EMR success. Several lessons learned were repeated across studies: (a having robust EMR features that support clinical use; (b redesigning EMR-supported work practices for optimal fit; (c demonstrating value for money; (d having realistic expectations on implementation; and (e engaging patients in the process. Conclusions Currently there is limited positive EMR impact in the physician office. To improve EMR success one needs to draw on the lessons from previous studies such as those in this review.
Ahmed MOHD MUSTAQUE
Full Text Available Many countries and cultures inherited knowledge of plant medicines to cure diseases and health problems from time immemorial. Field survey work and the registration of patients on a daily basis for a number of 129 randomly selected days, mainly in Thoubal district from January 2006 to October 2006 were conducted, alongside the collection of plants up to April, 2008. Recorded patients belonging to these communities included communities 514 Muslims: 390 Meeteis: 159 Tribals. Male and female were in a proportion of 614:548. The present study deals with 13 plant species, under 14 genera belonging to 13 families closely associated with 12 categories of treatment of diseases and human health problems. The plant parts/plants employed are categorised as leaves (L, 7 times; whole plant (WP, 2 times and Fruits (F, Whole plant without root (WPWR, Seeds (S, Bulbs (B, Roots (R; 1 time each. Category of illnesses and health problems and number of patients recorded were - Bone dislocation, fracture & other bone related problems (BDFOP 402; Ligament (LG 86; Kidney stone and kidney related problem (KSAP 47; Joint, body ache &associated problems( JBAP 37; Gastric problems (GST 35; Diabetes(DBT 35; Leiman or Bad Womb (BW 30; Dhatu or Piles & Constipation (PC 27; Phunba and Lengba or Congestion of chest (CC; Asthma (AST 16; Stomach and associated problems (SAP 14; Heart weakness (9; Liver problems (LP(9; Lack of blood & Blood problem (LBBP 8; Chakmangba or post-birth lack of appetite female case (PBLAFC 8; Paralysis (P6; Female white discharge (FWD 4; Irregular Men’s Cycle (IMC 4; possessiveness due to black earth (PBE 4; Gall bladder stone (GBS 4; Fever (2 and others (OTS 366. The investigation of the traditional medicinal practices of Muslim herbalists in Manipur vis a vis finding along potentiality of the practical know how of indigenous medicinal knowledge. Comparative study of some plants for their useful aspects in solving health problems had been discussed
Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. PMID:28801498
Belshaw, Zoe; Robinson, Natalie J; Dean, Rachel S; Brennan, Marnie L
Routine use of preventative medicines is advocated as part of responsible dog and cat ownership. However, it has been suggested that the number of owners in the United Kingdom (UK) using preventative medicines to protect their pets is in decline. The aim of this novel study was to use a qualitative methodology to explore the attitudes of pet owners and veterinary surgeons in the UK to using preventative medicine products in dogs and cats. Preventative medicine was defined as "a drug or any other preparation used to prevent disease, illness or injury." Semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone with owners and veterinary surgeons who had recently participated in a preventative healthcare consultation. Thematic analysis of transcribed recordings of these interviews identified four themes. This paper reports the theme related to motivators and barriers to using preventative medicines. Owners' understanding varied widely about the importance of preventative medicines for pets, as did their confidence in the safety of prescription products. A good relationship with their veterinary surgeon or practice, seeing adverts on the television about specific diseases, advice from a breeder and having personally seen infected animals appeared to be motivators for owners to use preventative medicines. Concern about adverse events and uncertainty about the necessity of using preventative medicines were barriers. Owners who trusted their veterinary surgeons to advise them on preventative medicine products described little use of alternative information sources when making preventative medicine choices. However, owners who preferred to do their own research described reading online opinions, particular in relation to the safety of preventative medicines, which they found confusing. In contrast, veterinary surgeons described broad confidence in the safety and efficacy of prescription preventative medicines and described protection of pet health as a strong motivator for
The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of veterinary science students to activities designed to promote curriculum integration. Students (N = 33) in their second year of a five-year veterinary degree were surveyed in regard to their attitudes to activities that aimed to promote integration. Imaging, veterinary practice practicals, and a field trip to a cattle property were classified as the three most valuable learning activities that were designed to promote integration. Veterinary practice practicals, case studies, and palpable anatomy were regarded by students as helping them to learn information presented in other teaching sessions. They also appeared to enhance student motivation, and students indicated that the activities assisted them with their preparation for and performance at examinations. Attitudes to whether the learning exercises helped improve a range of skills and specific knowledge varied, with 39-88% of students agreeing that specific skills and knowledge were enhanced to a large or very large extent by the learning activities. The results indicate that learning activities designed to promote curriculum integration helped improve motivation, reinforced learning, created links between foundational knowledge and its application, and assisted with the development of skills that are related to what students will do in their future careers.
Yates, Robin M.
In step with the worldwide trend for higher educational institutes to establish areas of research emphasis,the accumulation of resources in key areas has become common practice in veterinary faculties. Although there are perceived logical benefits to research prioritisation, there have been very little critical retrospective analyses of research…
Separate questionnaires were designed for pet owners (clients) and veterinarians to ascertain the existence and extent of noncompliance in veterinary practice in lbadan and to elucidate the influence of such factors as logistics, education, economy, attitudes and veterinarian/client relationship on non-compliance. Analyses ...
An audit of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ibadan between 2008 and 2011 was conducted to evaluate the level of compliance with standard practices. The study involved retrospective case note audit of surgical procedures performed during the period. A total number of 108 operations ...
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff
The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...
Knill, Marta; Samuels, Mary
Developing reflective skills and habits during initial teacher education and progressing to deeper and more critical reflection are challenges for trainee teachers. This small-scale action research study investigates how two structured tasks using Digital Voice Recorders (DVRs) initiated, sustained and improved reflection and reflective practice. Trainee teachers reported benefits in increased understanding of reflection, development of reflective skills, deepening of reflection and improveme...
livestock species in Africa (Peacock, 1996). They are ... dexamethasone is a common clinical practice ... and mastitis (McDonald, 1990; Aliu, 2007), prenatal foetal .... Parameters Groups .... and changes in gene expressions in .... in dairy cows.
Dixon, William H R; Kinnison, Tierney; May, Stephen A
At a time where high levels of stress are reported in the veterinary profession, this study explores the challenges that veterinary graduates encounter when they enter general (first opinion) practice. Participants had written reflective accounts of their 'Most Puzzling Cases' for the postgraduate Professional Key Skills module of the Certificate in Advanced Veterinary Practice, offered by the Royal Veterinary College. Reasons that a case was puzzling, or became challenging, were thematically analysed. Fifteen summaries were analysed. Three core themes were identified: 'clinical reasoning', centred on the limitations of pattern recognition and the methods used to overcome this; the 'veterinary healthcare system', focusing on the need for continuity of care, time pressure and support in the transition to practice; and the 'owner', looking at the broader clinical skills needed to succeed in general practice. Clinical reasoning was raised as an issue; discussion of when pattern recognition is not appropriate and what to do in these cases was common. A lack of experience in general practice case types, and how to best operate in the resource-constrained environment in which they present, is the likely cause of this, suggesting that a greater focus on the primary care paradigm is needed within veterinary education. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Bulkhanov, R.U.; Butaev, M.K.; Mirzaev, B.Sh.; Ryasnyanskiy, I.V.; Yuldashev, R.Yu.
Full text: The process based on stimulated action of ionized radiation, change of quality of agricultural goods and row materials, biocides including bactericide action of ionized radiation are among the methods of radiation biotechnology, which can be applied in agriculture. We used the bactericide action of ionized radiation in technological process for creation of fundamentally new preparation possessed by by immunogenic properties and named as 'radio vaccine'. This term is well known and frequently used in scientific papers in the field of applied radiobiology. It is well known that physical (thermal) and chemical actions are used for preparation of vaccine for veterinary. It was noted that this process resulted in destruction of antigenic structure of bacteria cells, with are responsible for immunity creation. The possibility of virulence reduction at constant immunogenic properties of microorganism and keeping its antigenic structure can be achieved by using ionized radiation as one of the factor, which influences on bacteria. Taking into account the necessity of vaccine improvement and increase of quantity of associated vaccine one of the most important problems of veterinary science and particle is creation of vaccines of new generation which are characterized by the ability to form immunity against several diseases of agricultural animals. As a result of many-years investigations using gamma rays radiations in UzSRIV (laboratory of radiobiology) the radiation biotechnology of vaccine preparation was developed. These vaccines are necessary for practical application. Radiation biotechnology allows to prepare high-effective mono-, associated and polyvalent radio vaccines against widespread infection diseases of agricultural animals especially cubs (calves, lambs, young pigs). On the basis of developed radiation biotechnology there were prepared the following vaccines: 'Associated radio vaccine against colibacteriosis and salmonellosis of small horned cattle
Kipp, Ryan; Young, Natasha; Barnett, Anne; Kopp, Douglas; Leal, Miguel A; Eckhardt, Lee L; Teelin, Thomas; Hoffmayer, Kurt S; Wright, Jennifer; Field, Michael
Implantable loop recorder (ILR) insertion has historically been performed in a surgical environment such as the electrophysiology (EP) lab. The newest generation loop recorder (Medtronic Reveal LINQ™, Minneapolis, MN, USA) is injectable with potential for implantation in a non-EP lab setting by advanced practice providers (APPs) facilitating improved workflow and resource utilization. We report the safety and efficacy of injectable ILR placement in the ambulatory care setting by APPs. A retrospective review was performed including all patients referred for injectable ILR placement from March 2014 to November 2015. All device placement procedures were performed in an ambulatory care setting using the standard manufacturer deployment kit with sterile technique and local anesthetic following a single dose of intravenous antibiotics. Acute procedural success and complication rates following injectable ILR placement in the ambulatory setting were reviewed. During the study period, 125 injectable ILRs were implanted. Acute procedural success with adequate sensing (R-waves ≥ 0.2 mV) occurred in 100% of patients. There were no acute procedural complications. Subacute complications occurred in two patients (1.6% of implantations), including one possible infection treated with oral antibiotics and one device removal due to pain at the implant site. In this retrospective single-center study, implantation of injectable ILR in an ambulatory care setting by APPs following a single dose of intravenous antibiotics and standard manufacturer technique yielded a low complication rate with high acute procedural success. Use of this implantation strategy may improve EP lab workflow while providing a safe and effective technique for device placement. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard
A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...
Nissen, Francis; Morales, Daniel R; Mullerova, Hana; Smeeth, Liam; Douglas, Ian J; Quint, Jennifer K
The optimal method of identifying people with asthma from electronic health records in primary care is not known. The aim of this study is to determine the positive predictive value (PPV) of different algorithms using clinical codes and prescription data to identify people with asthma in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). 684 participants registered with a general practitioner (GP) practice contributing to CPRD between 1 December 2013 and 30 November 2015 were selected according to one of eight predefined potential asthma identification algorithms. A questionnaire was sent to the GPs to confirm asthma status and provide additional information to support an asthma diagnosis. Two study physicians independently reviewed and adjudicated the questionnaires and additional information to form a gold standard for asthma diagnosis. The PPV was calculated for each algorithm. 684 questionnaires were sent, of which 494 (72%) were returned and 475 (69%) were complete and analysed. All five algorithms including a specific Read code indicating asthma or non-specific Read code accompanied by additional conditions performed well. The PPV for asthma diagnosis using only a specific asthma code was 86.4% (95% CI 77.4% to 95.4%). Extra information on asthma medication prescription (PPV 83.3%), evidence of reversibility testing (PPV 86.0%) or a combination of all three selection criteria (PPV 86.4%) did not result in a higher PPV. The algorithm using non-specific asthma codes, information on reversibility testing and respiratory medication use scored highest (PPV 90.7%, 95% CI (82.8% to 98.7%), but had a much lower identifiable population. Algorithms based on asthma symptom codes had low PPVs (43.1% to 57.8%)%). People with asthma can be accurately identified from UK primary care records using specific Read codes. The inclusion of spirometry or asthma medications in the algorithm did not clearly improve accuracy. The protocol for this research was approved
Cresswell Kathrin M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that many small- and medium-scale Electronic Health Record (EHR implementations encounter problems, these often stemming from users' difficulties in accommodating the new technology into their work practices. There is the possibility that these challenges may be exacerbated in the context of the larger-scale, more standardised, implementation strategies now being pursued as part of major national modernisation initiatives. We sought to understand how England's centrally procured and delivered EHR software was integrated within the work practices of users in selected secondary and specialist care settings. Methods We conducted a qualitative longitudinal case study-based investigation drawing on sociotechnical theory in three purposefully selected sites implementing early functionality of a nationally procured EHR system. The complete dataset comprised semi-structured interview data from a total of 66 different participants, 38.5 hours of non-participant observation of use of the software in context, accompanying researcher field notes, and hospital documents (including project initiation and lessons learnt reports. Transcribed data were analysed thematically using a combination of deductive and inductive approaches, and drawing on NVivo8 software to facilitate coding. Results The nationally led "top-down" implementation and the associated focus on interoperability limited the opportunity to customise software to local needs. Lack of system usability led users to employ a range of workarounds unanticipated by management to compensate for the perceived shortcomings of the system. These had a number of knock-on effects relating to the nature of collaborative work, patterns of communication, the timeliness and availability of records (including paper and the ability for hospital management to monitor organisational performance. Conclusions This work has highlighted the importance of addressing potentially adverse
Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples
Full Text Available Objective: This paper sets out to highlight the ongoing need for integrated teaching of business skills in the veterinary curriculum.Background: In response to the changing environment of the veterinary profession, it is important to understand the future needs of veterinary practitioners. While changes to the veterinary curriculum have been made in recent years, they have been highly varied across schools and little evidence is available on how these have improved students’ non-technical skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and attitudes. Evidentiary value: This literature review of 23 papers provides a solid basis for the further development of knowledge on business management issues in veterinary curricula. The impact on practice from our findings is substantial. The role of clinicians in academia is recognised as a primary source of engaging students with business management through their day-to-day teaching. Furthermore, the role of first-opinion vets who take on placement students (known as extra mural studies or ‘EMS’ in the UK cannot be underestimated as they play an essential role in ensuring that students perceive business skills with the same importance as clinical skills.Methods: This research draws on the findings of 23 papers that emerged as relevant from the structured literature search. The search yielded 124 papers but many were excluded because they focused on issues beyond the search strategy, did not report empirical findings so were based largely on discussion and conjecture, were not about the undergraduate veterinary curriculum, were not written in English or were not related to business teaching.Results: Employers of recent graduates highly value business skills, and often base their hiring decision on non-technical skills, rather than clinical skills. While changes to the veterinary curriculum have been made to include more non-technical training by individual veterinary schools, it is unclear how effective these
Full Text Available Abstract The decline in dairy herd fertility internationally has highlighted the limited impact of traditional veterinary approaches to bovine fertility management. Three questionnaire surveys were conducted at buiatrics conferences attended by veterinary practitioners on veterinary dairy herd fertility services (HFS in countries with a seasonal (Ireland, 47 respondents and non-seasonal breeding model (The Netherlands, 44 respondents and Portugal, 31 respondents. Of the 122 respondents, 73 (60% provided a HFS and 49 (40% did not. The majority (76% of all practitioners who responded stated that bovine fertility had declined in their practice clients' herds with inadequate cow management, inadequate nutrition and increased milk yield as the most important putative causes. The type of clients who adopted a herd fertility service were deemed more educated than average (70% of respondents, and/or had fertility problems (58% and/or large herds (53%. The main components of this service were routine postpartum examinations (95% of respondents, fertility records analysis (75% and ultrasound pregnancy examinations (69%. The number of planned visits per annum varied between an average of four in Ireland, where breeding is seasonal, and 23 in Portugal, where breeding is year-round. The benefits to both the practitioner and their clients from running a HFS were cited as better fertility, financial rewards and job satisfaction. For practitioners who did not run a HFS the main reasons given were no client demand (55% and lack of fertility records (33%. Better economic evidence to convince clients of the cost-benefit of such a service was seen as a major constraint to adoption of this service by 67% of practitioners.
Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.
Heske, Linda; Berendt, Mette; Jäderlund, Karin Hultin
Canine epilepsy is one of the most common neurological conditions in dogs but the actual incidence of the disease remains unknown. A Swedish animal insurance database has previously been shown useful for the study of disease occurrence in companion animals. The dogs insured by this company...... represent a unique population for epidemiological studies, because they are representative of the general dog population in Sweden and are followed throughout their life allowing studies of disease incidence to be performed. The database covers 50% of all insured dogs (in the year 2012) which represents 40......% of the national dog population. Most commonly, dogs are covered by both veterinary care insurance and life insurance. Previous studies have shown that the general data quality is good, but the validity of a specific diagnosis should be examined carefully before using the database for incidence calculations...
Full Text Available Video games are a cultural phenomenon; a medium like no other that has become one of the largest entertainment sectors in the world. While the UK boasts an enviable games development heritage, it risks losing a major part of its cultural output through an inability to preserve the games that are created by the country’s independent games developers. The issues go deeper than bit rot and other problems that affect all digital media; loss of context, copyright and legal issues, and the throwaway culture of the ‘next’ game all hinder the ability of fans and academics to preserve video games and make them accessible in the future. This study looked at the current attitudes towards preservation in the UK’s independent (‘indie’ video games industry by examining current record-keeping practices and analysing the views of games developers. The results show that there is an interest in preserving games, and possibly a desire to do so, but issues of piracy and cost prevent the industry from undertaking preservation work internally, and from allowing others to assume such responsibility. The recommendation made by this paper is not simply for preservation professionals and enthusiasts to collaborate with the industry, but to do so by advocating the commercial benefits that preservation may offer to the industry.
The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to ...
caught from different sampling sites in .... N and longitude 4· 25' - 4· 45' E and ... collected from the six sampling sites in the ... general methods of visual inspection of the .... drink and defecate in and around the lakeat ... hosts a big fish market. ... Practice in tropical countries. Cambridge University. Press, Cambridge: 434.
dental care, castration and ovariohysterectomy. (Meredith and. Crossby, 2001). Rabbits are considered as difficult patients in relation to anaesthesia. ..... technicians. Academic Press Ltd,. London: 98-100. FLECKNELL, P.A. (1991). Anaesthesia and post-operative care of small mammals. In practice., 12:181-198.
Paulsen, Lynn Mulcahy
A one-semester, two-credit course is described that was developed cooperatively by the colleges of pharmacy and veterinary medicine at Washington State University to help resolve an acute shortage of clinical pharmacologists in veterinary medicine and veterinary medical education. Course procedures, content, and evaluation are outlined (MSE)
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary Services. 371.4 Section 371.4 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.4 Veterinary Services. (a) General statement. Veterinary Services (VS) protects and safeguards the Nation's livestock and...
Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...
Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... African Journals Online: Veterinary Science ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ... Life Sciences, Chemistry, Mathematics & Physics, Earth Sciences ... The Nigerian Journal of Animal Science (NJAS) is an official ...
Focus and Scope. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked Peer Reviewed. Publication Frequency.
Prasse, Keith W
Dr. Keith Prasse is a very distinguished leader in veterinary education. He started his career achieving his BS and DVM degrees from Iowa State University (ISU). He returned to ISU after a brief period in private practice in Illinois. His well-recognized career in veterinary pathology began with his MS and PhD degrees, followed by a five-year period of teaching at ISU. Dr. Prasse joined the faculty of the University of Georgia in 1972, and thus began a long-term partnership with Dr. Bob Duncan that is arguably the foundation of veterinary clinical pathology. The textbook they authored, Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, or "Duncan and Prasse" as it is known, remains the standard today, with later participation from Dr. Ed Mahaffey and most recently Dr. Ken Latimer. Dr. Prasse has mentored numerous graduate students and received many awards over his 23-year career in teaching, including the Norden Distinguished Teaching award twice, once at ISU and once at Georgia. His leadership as President of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists was greatly acknowledged and appreciated. Dr. Prasse's administrative service at the University of Georgia spanned 14 years, first as Associate Dean for Public Service and Outreach and later as Dean for eight years, during which time he served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC). The growth of the College of Veterinary Medicine under Dean Prasse's visionary leadership was extraordinary. He led through difficult economic and political times, yet the college and its community continued to prosper. His legacy at the University of Georgia is indelible and perpetual. His outstanding leadership of the college was recognized by the Georgia Veterinary Medical Association in 2004, when he was given the Georgia Veterinarian of the Year award. Since his retirement from Georgia, Dr. Prasse has contributed greatly to the profession and to the AAVMC by leading the Foresight project
Simpraga, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Dodig, D.
X-radiography and ultrasound imaging are well established and widely used in veterinary practice, but it is not the same situation with radioisotope imaging. In veterinary practice the above mentioned methods of nuclear medicine are developed only in two countries in Europe. That is not doubt due, so bar, to the difficulties in obtaining satisfactory supply of radioisotopes and to the relatively high cost of scanning equipment. However, in collaboration with the Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Medicine of the Medical Faculty in Zagreb, Croatia, we have chance to develop the use of those methods in clinical veterinary practice in Zagreb. That is way in this paper an overview of the application of radioisotopes imaging in veterinary medicine is given. In small animals skeletal changes, lung perusions, brain lesions, space occupying lesions in the liver and its function and hearth function can be usefully searched by a gamma camera and its associated computer. In equine practice scintigraphy of bones, liver, hearth, pulmonary circulation and ventilation is described. The largest amount of radioactive material is used during gamma camera scanning of the skeletons of horses. In this cases the radiation dose 1-2 m from the animal is approximately 3 μSv/h. That is why the protection of personal involved in radioisotope scanning in veterinary medicine must be also regulated by low of radiation protection. Also, the animals should be confined to a controlled area for 2-3 days after scanning before being returned to their owners. After this period the area must be cleaned. (author)
These notes are not intended to provide detailed guidance on all the conditions that apply to veterinary practice but rather to indicate the types of arrangements which should be employed in order to comply with the main requirements of the Regulations. They also aim to establish a pattern by which good radiological practice can be achieved and radiation doses to veterinary surgeons, radiographic staff, and anyone else involved, minimised. (author)
Moulin, Gérard; Cavalié, Philippe; Pellanne, Isabelle; Chevance, Anne; Laval, Arlette; Millemann, Yves; Colin, Pierre; Chauvin, Claire
The antimicrobials allowed and amounts sold in veterinary and human medicine in France were compared to see if the same antimicrobial drugs are used in veterinary and human medicine, and to the same extent. Registers of all approved antimicrobial commercial products, kept by the French Agency for Veterinary Medicinal Products (AFSSA ANMV) for animals and the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) for humans, were compared to determine whether the same antimicrobials were approved in 2007 for use in both human and animal populations. Sales data were collected from pharmaceutical companies between 1999 and 2005 by the AFSSA ANMV and AFSSAPS. Usage of the different antimicrobial anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classes in human and veterinary medicines was recorded. Data were expressed in tonnes of active ingredients and were then related to the animal and human biomasses to compare usages expressed in mg/kg. All antimicrobial ATC classes were used in both human and veterinary medicine. Tetracyclines accounted for the most sales in veterinary medicine. beta-Lactams predominated in human medicine. A decrease in the amounts consumed by both human and animal populations was observed during the study. In 2005, 760 tonnes were used in human medicine and 1320 tonnes in veterinary medicine, corresponding to 199 and 84 mg/kg of live weight in human and animal populations, respectively. The same antimicrobial drugs were used in human and veterinary medicines but the quantitative patterns of use were different. Expression of antimicrobial usage is a key point to address when comparing usage trends.
Full Text Available In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy in the years 2013-2014.
Full Text Available The veterinary profession as a health service is facing new market conditions of business management. In the conditions of increased competition it is necessary to look for new ways of expanding the business and increase the economic efficiency and profitability. The introduction of the prospective customers to the activities and promotion of its services is one of the ways of expanding the veterinary clinic. The promotion is a crucial tool in the market penetration in every field, but one of the disadvantages of this tool is the often extremely high price and is not appropriate for small business, such as veterinary practice. This is why the Internet as a medium is interesting means of promotion of the veterinary clinic due to its many advantages. It is accessible to everyone, has a great number of users and at the same time, is fairly affordable. Its important feature is the room for modern, creative and interactive approach. In certain countries there are certain limitations in the promotion of veterinary facilities, and the Internet is useful in such cases. The veterinary clinic has a great choice of means of promotion. Some of them are completely free, and those which cost usually have a symbolic price. Their usage enables the veterinarian to be more competitive, and helps their clinic to increase its successful work. At the same time this type of promotion provides the opportunity for interactive relationship with the clients and for promotion of the facilities and the accomplishments of the clinic. The increase in the market share and the economic efficiency is also an important factor in favor of this type of promotion. The example with the veterinary clinic Animal Medica, which has managed to increase its frequency in 15 % is another proof. Almost 60% f the clients talked that they heard first time for Animal Medica on the net (Facebook or website. Therefore the veterinarians in their ruthless competition should use the limitless
Anderson, Jamie G; Goldstein, Gary; Boudreaux, Karen; Ilkiw, Jan E
Dental disease is important in the population of pets seen by veterinarians. Knowledge and skills related to oral disease and dentistry are critical entry-level skills expected of graduating veterinarians. A descriptive survey on the state of veterinary dental education was sent to respondents from 35 veterinary schools in the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean. Using the online SurveyMonkey application, respondents answered up to 26 questions. Questions were primarily designed to determine the breadth and depth of veterinary dental education from didactic instruction in years 1-3 to the clinical year programs. There was an excellent response to the survey with 86% compliance. Learning opportunities for veterinary students in years 1-3 in both the lecture and laboratory environments were limited, as were the experiences in the clinical year 4, which were divided between community-type practices and veterinary dentistry and oral surgery services. The former provided more hands-on clinical experience, including tooth extraction, while the latter focused on dental charting and periodontal debridement. Data on degrees and certifications of faculty revealed only 12 programs with board-certified veterinary dentists. Of these, seven veterinary schools had residency programs in veterinary dentistry at the time of the survey. Data from this study demonstrate the lack of curricular time dedicated to dental content in the veterinary schools participating in the survey, thereby suggesting the need for veterinary schools to address the issue of veterinary dental education. By graduation, new veterinarians should have acquired the needed knowledge and skills to meet both societal demands and professional expectations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Electronic linkage to routine administrative datasets, such as the Hospital Episode Statistics (HES in England, is increasingly used in medical research. Relatively little is known about the reliability of HES diagnostic information for epidemiological studies. In the United Kingdom (UK, general practitioners hold comprehensive records for individuals relating to their primary, secondary and tertiary care. For a random sample of participants in a large UK cohort, we compared vascular disease diagnoses in HES and general practice records to assess agreement between the two sources. Methods Million Women Study participants with a HES record of hospital admission with vascular disease (ischaemic heart disease [ICD-10 codes I20-I25], cerebrovascular disease [G45, I60-I69] or venous thromboembolism [I26, I80-I82] between April 1st 1997 and March 31st 2005 were identified. In each broad diagnostic group and in women with no such HES diagnoses, a random sample of about a thousand women was selected for study. We asked each woman’s general practitioner to provide information on her history of vascular disease and this information was compared with the HES diagnosis record. Results Over 90% of study forms sent to general practitioners were returned and 88% of these contained analysable data. For the vast majority of study participants for whom information was available, diagnostic information from general practice and HES records was consistent. Overall, for 93% of women with a HES diagnosis of vascular disease, general practice records agreed with the HES diagnosis; and for 97% of women with no HES diagnosis of vascular disease, the general practitioner had no record of a diagnosis of vascular disease. For severe vascular disease, including myocardial infarction (I21-22, stroke, both overall (I60-64 and by subtype, and pulmonary embolism (I26, HES records appeared to be both reliable and complete. Conclusion Hospital admission data
Coulter, Dwight B.
The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)
Lee, David E
Marketing is a holistic process that goes far beyond a Yellow Page advertisement or a glossy brochure. A thorough evaluation of a market before entry, including best and worst case scenarios, is critical to mak-ing good investments. Veterinarians are fortunate to have a market that is largely protected by barriers to entry and characterized by reasonably high rates of return given minimal risk. Our market base continues to expand and, overall, remains fairly price insensitive. The extent to which a practice can align its capabilities with a product mix that ideally meets its clients' needs will ultimately determine its success.
Full Text Available Online access to medical records and linked services, including requesting repeat prescriptions and booking appointments, enables patients to personalize their access to care. However, online access creates opportunities and challenges for both health professionals and their patients, in practices and in research. The challenges for practice are the impact of online services on workload and the quality and safety of health care. Health professionals are concerned about the impact on workload, especially from email or other online enquiry systems, as well as risks to privacy. Patients report how online access provides a convenient means through which to access their health provider and may offer greater satisfaction if they get a timely response from a clinician. Online access and services may also result in unforeseen consequences and may change the nature of the patient-clinician interaction. Research challenges include: (1 Ensuring privacy, including how to control inappropriate carer and guardian access to medical records; (2 Whether online access to records improves patient safety and health outcomes; (3 Whether record access increases disparities across social classes and between genders; and (4 Improving efficiency. The challenges for practice are: (1 How to incorporate online access into clinical workflow; (2 The need for a business model to fund the additional time taken. Creating a sustainable business model for a safe, private, informative, more equitable online service is needed if online access to records is to be provided outside of pay-for-service systems.
Leblanc, Genevieve; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Sanderson, Duncan
A provincial electronic health record is being developed in the Province of Quebec (and in all other provinces in Canada), and authorities hope that it will enable a safer and more efficient healthcare system for citizens. However, the expected benefits can occur only if healthcare professionals, including nurses, adopt this technology. Although attention to the use of the electronic health record by nurses is growing, better understanding of nurses' intention to use an electronic health record is needed and could help managers to better plan its implementation. This study examined the factors that influence primary care nurses' intention to adopt the provincial electronic health record, since intention influences electronic health record use and implementation success. Using a modified version of Ajzen's Theory of Planned Theory of Planned Behavior, a questionnaire was developed and pretested. Questionnaires were distributed to 199 primary care nurses. Multiple hierarchical regression indicated that the Theory of Planned Behavior variables explained 58% of the variance in nurses' intention to adopt an electronic health record. The strong intention to adopt the electronic health record is mainly determined by perceived behavioral control, normative beliefs, and attitudes. The implications of the study are that healthcare managers could facilitate adoption of an electronic health record by strengthening nurses' intention to adopt the electronic health record, which in turn can be influenced through interventions oriented toward the belief that using an electronic health record will improve the quality of patient care.
Pelzer, Nancy L; Wiese, William H
Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5-3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature.
Full Text Available Developing reflective skills and habits during initial teacher education and progressing to deeper and more critical reflection are challenges for trainee teachers. This small-scale action research study investigates how two structured tasks using Digital Voice Recorders (DVRs initiated, sustained and improved reflection and reflective practice. Trainee teachers reported benefits in increased understanding of reflection, development of reflective skills, deepening of reflection and improvements in practice through joint reflection with Teacher Educators on specific aspects of teaching and learning. The structuring of the tasks with prompts and dialogue clearly contributed to the positive outcomes. The study suggests that use of the small, convenient and relatively low cost DVR technology has a place in learning to reflect.
Siegel, David M; Kinscherff, Robert
The standard of practice for forensic interviews in criminal and delinquency cases, other than those conducted as part of brief preliminary screening evaluations or in emergency situations, should include a digital recording requirement. This standard should be adopted because of the greater availability of, and familiarity with, recording technology on the part of mental health professionals, the greater use and proven effectiveness of recording in other contexts of the criminal justice system, and the improvement in court presentation and accuracy of judicial determinations involving forensic assessments that recording will provide. The experience of practitioners with recording since professional associations last studied the issue should be taken into account, as informal data suggest it has been positive. Unfortunately, the legal system is unlikely to prompt this advance without its reconsideration by the forensic mental health professions, because current constitutional jurisprudence does not require recording and effectively makes it contingent upon request by examiners. Forensic evaluators thus have a valuable opportunity to educate the legal system on the utility and importance of this key reform, and so should adopt it as a best practice. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Lerner, Henrik; Lindblad, Anna; Algers, Bo; Lynöe, Niels
To examine the hypothesis that knowledge about physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia is associated with a more restrictive attitude towards PAS. A questionnaire about attitudes towards PAS, including prioritization of arguments pro and contra, was sent to Swedish veterinary surgeons. The results were compared with those from similar surveys of attitudes among the general public and physicians. All veterinary surgeons who were members of the Swedish Veterinary Association and had provided an email address (n=2421). Similarities or differences in response pattern between veterinary surgeons, physicians and the general public. The response pattern among veterinary surgeons and the general public was almost similar in all relevant aspects. Of the veterinarians 75% (95% CI 72% to 78%) were in favour of PAS, compared with 73% (95% CI 69% to 77%) among the general public. Only 10% (95% CI 5% to 15%) of the veterinary surgeons were against PAS, compared with 12% (95% CI 5% to 19%) among the general public. Finally, 15% (95% CI 10% to 21%) of veterinarians were undecided, compared with 15% (95% CI 8% to 22%) among the general public. Physicians had a more restrictive attitude to PAS than the general public. Since veterinary surgeons have frequent practical experience of euthanasia in animals, they do have knowledge about what euthanasia really is. Veterinary surgeons and the general public had an almost similar response pattern. Accordingly it seems difficult to maintain that knowledge about euthanasia is unambiguously associated with a restrictive attitude towards PAS.
Stone, Elizabeth A; Reimann, Jessica; Greenhill, Lisa M; Dewey, Cate E
Three milestone educational planning initiatives engaged the veterinary medical profession in the United States and Canada between 1987 and 2011, namely the Pew National Veterinary Education Program, the Foresight Project, and the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. In a quantitative study, we investigated the impact of these initiatives on veterinary medical education through a survey of academic leaders (deans, previous deans, and associate deans for academics from veterinary medical schools that are members of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges) to assess their perspectives on the initiatives and eight recommendations that were common to all three initiatives. Two of the recommendations have in effect been implemented: enable students to elect in-depth instruction and experience within a practice theme or discipline area (tracking), and increase the number of graduating veterinarians. For three of the recommendations, awareness of the issues has increased but substantial progress has not been made: promote diversity in the veterinary profession, develop a plan to reduce student debt, and develop a North American strategic plan. Lastly, three recommendations have not been accomplished: emphasize use of information more than fact recall, share educational resources to enable a cost-effective education, and standardize core admissions requirements. The educational planning initiatives did provide collaborative opportunities to discuss and determine what needs to change within veterinary medical education. Future initiatives should explore how to avoid and overcome obstacles to successful implementation.
Rhodes, Darson L; Draper, Michele; Woolman, Kendra; Cox, Carol
School nurses play a key role in maintaining a healthy student population, and one of their roles includes maintaining vaccination records. Further, they can play an important role in advocating for human papillomavirus (HPV) and meningococcal vaccination for students. All Missouri public high school nurses were sent an electronic survey addressing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding immunization records and HPV and meningococcal vaccination of high school seniors. Approximately 75% of nurses reported their schools did not have or they did not know if the school had a written policy regarding the release of vaccination records. Approximately 1/2 and 1/3 of nurses do not communicate with parents/students about HPV or meningococcal vaccines, respectively. Although most favorable toward meningococcal, nurses had positive attitudes toward both vaccines. Recommendations include establishment of written policies regarding vaccination record release, and future research should focus on evaluating school nurses' communication methods regarding HPV and meningococcal vaccination.
Elisabeth A Innes
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.
Tuil, W.S.; Hoopen, A.J. ten; Braat, D.D.M.; Vries Robbé, P.F. de; Kremer, J.A.M.
BACKGROUND: Generic patient-accessible medical records have shown promise in enhancing patient-centred care for patients with chronic diseases. We sought to design, implement and evaluate a patient-accessible medical record specifically for patients undergoing a course of assisted reproduction (IVF
Hashizume, Cary T; Myhre, Douglas L; Hecker, Kent G; Bailey, Jeremy V; Lockyer, Jocelyn M
Optimization of clinical veterinary education requires an understanding of what compels veterinary preceptors in their role as clinical educators, what satisfaction they receive from the teaching experience, and what struggles they encounter while supervising students in private practice. We explored veterinary preceptors' teaching motivations, enjoyment, and challenges by undertaking a thematic content analysis of 97 questionnaires and 17 semi-structured telephone interviews. Preceptor motivations included intrinsic factors (obligation to the profession, maintenance of competence, satisfaction) and extrinsic factors (promotion of the veterinary field, recruitment). Veterinarians enjoyed observing the learner (motivation and enthusiasm, skill development) and engaging with the learner (sharing their passion for the profession, developing professional relationships). Challenges for veterinary preceptors included variability in learner interest and engagement, time management, and lack of guidance from the veterinary medicine program. We found dynamic interactions among the teaching motivations, enjoyment, and challenges for preceptors. Our findings suggest that in order to sustain the veterinary preceptor, there is a need to recognize the interplay between the incentives and disincentives for teaching, to foster the motivations and enjoyment for teaching, and to mitigate the challenges of teaching in community private practice.
For the past two decades, scholars in archival science have begun to question traditional assumptions about the nature of the record. Drawing on theories from fields such as sociology, organization theory, and science studies, and on their own ethnographic studies, they propose more inclusive definitions and widening the contexts of analysis of record making and recordkeeping. This paper continues this critical consideration of the concept of record by examining the nature of nonprototypical records in the scientific world. The paper focuses on the system of specimens and field notes established by biologist Joseph Grinnell at the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology (University of California, Berkeley) as a means of examining several aspects of the nature of the scientific record: materiality, representation, and the triad evidence/memory/accountability. Focusing on the creation and management of these scientific records, the paper argues that further analyses of scientific record making and recordkeeping are bound to benefit both scientific work, which depends more and more on databases and archives, as well as archival science, which is becoming more relevant beyond its traditional realm of the legal/business/administrative world.
Full Text Available Veterinary nosocomial infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria cause increased morbidity, higher cost and length of treatment and increased zoonotic risk because of the difficulty in treating them. In this study, an individual-based model was developed to investigate the effects of movements of canine patients among ten areas (transmission points within a veterinary teaching hospital, and the effects of these movements on transmission of antibiotic susceptible and resistant pathogens. The model simulates contamination of transmission points, healthcare workers, and patients as well as the effects of decontamination of transmission points, disinfection of healthcare workers, and antibiotic treatments of canine patients. The model was parameterized using data obtained from hospital records, information obtained by interviews with hospital staff, and the published literature. The model suggested that transmission resulting from contact with healthcare workers was common, and that certain transmission points (housing wards, diagnostics room, and the intensive care unit presented higher risk for transmission than others (lobby and surgery. Sensitivity analyses using a range of parameter values demonstrated that the risk of acquisition of colonization by resistant pathogens decreased with shorter patient hospital stays (P<0.0001, more frequent decontamination of transmission points and disinfection of healthcare workers (P<0.0001 and better compliance of healthcare workers with hygiene practices (P<0.0001. More frequent decontamination of heavily trafficked transmission points was especially effective at reducing transmission of the model pathogen.
Full Text Available Objective: As little prior research exists about the non-clinical benefits of evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM, this exploratory study was conducted to identify non-clinical benefits of EBVM to veterinary practices, as well as highlighting the barriers to further implementation, and ways to overcome them.Background: A PICO-based literature review (Hauser and Jackson, 2016 was conducted to establish current knowledge about the non-clinical benefits of EBVM. It found that while there are some papers suggesting a link between the practice of EBVM and better non-clinical benefits such as client satisfaction and client retention, a single study, focusing on the non-clinical benefits of EBVM, had yet to be conducted.Evidentiary value: This exploratory study provides a solid basis for the further development of a confirmatory study of the themes identified in the interviews. The impact on practice from our findings is significant as it details the key areas where the use of EBVM can yield commercial benefits from the perspective of a group of EBVM experts via interview. It is entirely possible that international veterinary environments which mirror that of the UK will find this research beneficial.Methods: Due to the paucity of data about the non-clinical benefits of EBVM, an exploratory, qualitative approach was taken to this research in order to build a platform for further confirmatory, quantitative investigation (Zikmund, 2003. In February and March 2016 interviews with 16 RCVS Knowledge Group chairs were conducted. The interview guide contained broad, open-ended questions to explore existing tacit knowledge about the non-commercial benefits of EBVM. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and subsequently analysed using NVivo 11 software.Results: This qualitative enquiry showed that the key areas where the use of EBVM can yield non-clinical benefits are through increased client satisfaction and retention, improved
Verrinder, Joy M; Phillips, Clive J C
Veterinarians increasingly face animal ethics issues, conflicts, and dilemmas, both in practice and in policy, such as the tension between clients' and animals' interests. Little has been done to measure the capacity of veterinarians to make ethical judgments to prevent and address these issues or to identify the effectiveness of strategies to build this capacity. The objectives of this study were, first, to develop a test to identify the capacity of veterinarians to make ethical decisions in relation to animal ethics issues and, second, to assess students' perceptions of the usefulness of three methods for the development of ethical decision making. The Veterinary Defining Issues Test (VetDIT) was piloted with 88 first-year veterinary students at an Australian university. The veterinary students were at a variety of reasoning stages in their use of the Personal Interest (PI), Maintaining Norms (MN), and Universal Principles (UP) reasoning methods in relation to both human ethics and animal ethics issues and operated at a higher level of reasoning for animal than human ethics. Thirty-eight students assessed three methods for developing ethical decision-making skills and identified these as being helpful in clarifying their positions, clarifying others' positions, increasing awareness of the complexity of making ethical decisions, using ethical frameworks and principles, and improving moral reasoning skills, with two methods identified as most helpful. These methods and the VetDIT have the potential to be used as tools for development and assessment of moral judgment in veterinary education to address animal ethics issues.
Full Text Available The author describes problems related to the implementation of electronic medical record in family medicine in Slovenia since 1992 when first personal computers have been delivered to family physicians' practices. The situation of health care informatization and implementation of electronic medical record in primary health care in new countries, other former Yugoslav republics, is described. There are rather big differences among countries and even among some regions of one country, but in the last year the situation improved, especially in Montenegro, Serbia and Slovenia. The main problem that is still unsolved is software offered by several companies which do not offer many functions, are non-standardized or user friendly enough and is not adapted to doctors' needs. Some important questions on medical records are discussed, e.g. what is in fact a medical record, what is its purpose, who uses it, which record is a good one, what should contain and confidentiality issue. The author describes what makes electronic medical record better than paper-based one (above all it is of better quality, efficiency and care-safe, easier in data retrieval and does it offer the possibility of data exchange with other health care professionals and what are the barriers to its wider implementation.
This paper examines the turn toward the small companion animal that occurred in British veterinary medicine in the twentieth century. The change in species emphasis is usually attributed to post-war socioeconomic factors, however this explanation ignores the extensive small animal treatment that was occurring outwith the veterinary profession in the interwar period. The success of this unqualified practice caused the veterinary profession to rethink attitudes to small animals (dogs initially, later cats) upon the decline of horse practice. This paper argues that a shift toward seeing the small animal as a legitimate veterinary patient was necessary before the specialty could become mainstream in the post-war years, and that this occurred between the wars as a result of the activities of British animal welfare charities, especially the People's Dispensary for Sick Animals of the Poor. PMID:25067889
Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M
Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.
Schuers, M; Timsit, M; Gillibert, A; Fred, A; Griffon, N; Bénichou, J; Darmoni, S J; Staccini, P
To evaluate the impact of the pharmaceutical patient record use in emergency, geriatric and anaesthesia and intensive care departments, an experimentation was launched in 2013 in 55 hospitals. The purpose of the study was to assess the opinions of physicians and pharmacists about the benefits and usability of the patient pharmaceutical record. An e-mailed self-administered questionnaire was sent to all the pharmacists, anaesthesiologists, geriatricians and emergency physicians of the 55 hospitals involved in the patient pharmaceutical record experimentation. The questionnaire assessed the usability of the patient pharmaceutical record using the "System Usability Scale", as well as its use, its benefits and limitations perceived in clinical practice, and overall user satisfaction. Questionnaires were collected from November 2014 to January 2015. Ninety-six questionnaires were collected, from 47 hospitals, representing 86% of the hospitals involved in the experimentation. The patient pharmaceutical record was effectively operational in 36 hospitals. Data from 73 questionnaires filled by physicians and pharmacists with potential experience with the patient pharmaceutical record were used for evaluation. Forty-two respondents were pharmacists (57%) and 31 were physicians (43%), including 13 geriatricians, 11 emergency physicians and 7 anaesthesiologists. Patient pharmaceutical record overall usability score was 62.5 out of 100. It did not vary with the profession or seniority of the respondent. It was positively correlated with the frequency of use. More than half of respondents reported that they never or uncommonly used the patient pharmaceutical record. The length of access to data period was considered as insufficient. Main obstacles to more utilization of the patient pharmaceutical record were the lack of information about the dosage of dispensed drugs, the low number of patients in possession of their health card and the low number of patients with an activated
Detmer Don E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adoption of EHRs by U.S. ambulatory practices has been slow despite the perceived benefits of their use. Most evaluations of EHR implementations in the literature apply to large practice settings. While there are similarities relating to EHR implementation in large and small practice settings, the authors argue that scale is an important differentiator. Focusing on small ambulatory practices, this paper outlines the benefits and barriers to EHR use in this setting, and provides a "field guide" for these practices to facilitate successful EHR implementation. Discussion The benefits of EHRs in ambulatory practices include improved patient care and office efficiency, and potential financial benefits. Barriers to EHRs include costs; lack of standardization of EHR products and the design of vendor systems for large practice environments; resistance to change; initial difficulty of system use leading to productivity reduction; and perceived accrual of benefits to society and payers rather than providers. The authors stress the need for developing a flexible change management strategy when introducing EHRs that is relevant to the small practice environment; the strategy should acknowledge the importance of relationship management and the role of individual staff members in helping the entire staff to manage change. Practice staff must create an actionable vision outlining realistic goals for the implementation, and all staff must buy into the project. The authors detail the process of implementing EHRs through several stages: decision, selection, pre-implementation, implementation, and post-implementation. They stress the importance of identifying a champion to serve as an advocate of the value of EHRs and provide direction and encouragement for the project. Other key activities include assessing and redesigning workflow; understanding financial issues; conducting training that is well-timed and meets the needs of practice staff
Lorenzi, Nancy M; Kouroubali, Angelina; Detmer, Don E; Bloomrosen, Meryl
Adoption of EHRs by U.S. ambulatory practices has been slow despite the perceived benefits of their use. Most evaluations of EHR implementations in the literature apply to large practice settings. While there are similarities relating to EHR implementation in large and small practice settings, the authors argue that scale is an important differentiator. Focusing on small ambulatory practices, this paper outlines the benefits and barriers to EHR use in this setting, and provides a "field guide" for these practices to facilitate successful EHR implementation. The benefits of EHRs in ambulatory practices include improved patient care and office efficiency, and potential financial benefits. Barriers to EHRs include costs; lack of standardization of EHR products and the design of vendor systems for large practice environments; resistance to change; initial difficulty of system use leading to productivity reduction; and perceived accrual of benefits to society and payers rather than providers. The authors stress the need for developing a flexible change management strategy when introducing EHRs that is relevant to the small practice environment; the strategy should acknowledge the importance of relationship management and the role of individual staff members in helping the entire staff to manage change. Practice staff must create an actionable vision outlining realistic goals for the implementation, and all staff must buy into the project. The authors detail the process of implementing EHRs through several stages: decision, selection, pre-implementation, implementation, and post-implementation. They stress the importance of identifying a champion to serve as an advocate of the value of EHRs and provide direction and encouragement for the project. Other key activities include assessing and redesigning workflow; understanding financial issues; conducting training that is well-timed and meets the needs of practice staff; and evaluating the implementation process. The EHR
Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.
A. A. Deltsov
Full Text Available Nowadays there is an active growth of veterinary pharmacy organizations and consumed medicinal drugs for veterinary use. Content-analysis showed that there was an insufficient number of studies devoted to the activity of veterinary pharmacies. The purpose of our work was the analysis of correspondence of range fullness of veterinary pharmacies to the contemporary state of pharmaceutical market of drugs for veterinary use. Veterinary clinics and pharmacies of Moscow and Moscow oblast were the object of our study. We have applied sociological methods (questionnaire, interview, marketing and statistic analysis methods. We have established that liquid dosage forms (53% occupy the biggest part of drugs in the State Registry of Veterinary Drugs. Solutions occupy 68% of this amount. Antimicrobial drugs for systematic use (40% are the most numerous drugs from pharmacotheraperutic group represented in the State Registry. Assortment of veterinary drugs is targeted mainly on a farm livestock (more than 50%. 58% of the market share is domestic drugs. Principal commodity groups which are released by veterinary pharmacies are feed-stuff (31% and drugs (30%. Pharmacy organizations does not have sufficient number of drugs in their assortment (fullness coefficient 7.9% which speaks about nonconformity of the assortment fullness.
Ferber, R; Millman, R; Coppola, M; Fleetham, J; Murray, C F; Iber, C; McCall, V; Nino-Murcia, G; Pressman, M; Sanders, M
The objective assessment of patients with a presumptive diagnosis of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) has primarily used attended polysomnographic study. Recent technologic advances and issues of availability, convenience and cost have led to a rapid increase in the use of portable recording devices. However, limited scientific information has been published regarding the evaluation of the efficacy, accuracy, validity, utility, cost effectiveness and limitations of this portable equipment. Attaining a clear assessment of the role of portable devices is complicated by the multiplicity of recording systems and the variability of clinical settings in which they have been analyzed. This paper reviews the current knowledge base regarding portable recording in the assessment of OSA, including technical considerations, validation studies, potential advantages and disadvantages, issues of safety, current clinical usage and areas most in need of further study.
Murphy, M J; Smiciklas-Wright, H; Heasley, D K; Hamilton, L W
Described are the design and preliminary administration of an instrument to measure the impact of the Pennsylvania Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) on food storage and safety, kitchen sanitation, and food money management practices of program participants. No significant differences among these practices were found when each was correlated with duration of program participation. Overall improvement, however, was revealed, particularly in the first six months in the program.
Karusisi, No?lla; Thomas, Fr?d?rique; M?line, Julie; Chaix, Basile
International audience; BACKGROUND: Physical activity is considered as a major component of a healthy lifestyle. However, few studies have examined the relationships between the spatial accessibility to sport facilities and sport practice with a sufficient degree of specificity. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between the spatial accessibility to specific types of sports facilities and the practice of the corresponding sports after carefully controlling for various i...
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute... information collection for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). This notice initiates a 30...
Liljeqvist, Gösta T H; Staff, Michael; Puech, Michele; Blom, Hans; Torvaldsen, Siranda
Influenza intelligence in New South Wales (NSW), Australia is derived mainly from emergency department (ED) presentations and hospital and intensive care admissions, which represent only a portion of influenza-like illness (ILI) in the population. A substantial amount of the remaining data lies hidden in general practice (GP) records. Previous attempts in Australia to gather ILI data from GPs have given them extra work. We explored the possibility of applying automated data extraction from GP records in sentinel surveillance in an Australian setting.The two research questions asked in designing the study were: Can syndromic ILI data be extracted automatically from routine GP data? How do ILI trends in sentinel general practice compare with ILI trends in EDs? We adapted a software program already capable of automated data extraction to identify records of patients with ILI in routine electronic GP records in two of the most commonly used commercial programs. This tool was applied in sentinel sites to gather retrospective data for May-October 2007-2009 and in real-time for the same interval in 2010. The data were compared with that provided by the Public Health Real-time Emergency Department Surveillance System (PHREDSS) and with ED data for the same periods. The GP surveillance tool identified seasonal trends in ILI both retrospectively and in near real-time. The curve of seasonal ILI was more responsive and less volatile than that of PHREDSS on a local area level. The number of weekly ILI presentations ranged from 8 to 128 at GP sites and from 0 to 18 in EDs in non-pandemic years. Automated data extraction from routine GP records offers a means to gather data without introducing any additional work for the practitioner. Adding this method to current surveillance programs will enhance their ability to monitor ILI and to detect early warning signals of new ILI events.
One of the objectives of the U.S. government has been the development of a nationwide health information infrastructure, including adoption and use of an electronic health records (EHR) system. However, a 2008 survey conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics indicated a 41.5% usage of the EHR system by physicians in office-based…
Anholt, R M; Berezowski, J; Jamal, I; Ribble, C; Stephen, C
Large amounts of animal health care data are present in veterinary electronic medical records (EMR) and they present an opportunity for companion animal disease surveillance. Veterinary patient records are largely in free-text without clinical coding or fixed vocabulary. Text-mining, a computer and information technology application, is needed to identify cases of interest and to add structure to the otherwise unstructured data. In this study EMR's were extracted from veterinary management programs of 12 participating veterinary practices and stored in a data warehouse. Using commercially available text-mining software (WordStat™), we developed a categorization dictionary that could be used to automatically classify and extract enteric syndrome cases from the warehoused electronic medical records. The diagnostic accuracy of the text-miner for retrieving cases of enteric syndrome was measured against human reviewers who independently categorized a random sample of 2500 cases as enteric syndrome positive or negative. Compared to the reviewers, the text-miner retrieved cases with enteric signs with a sensitivity of 87.6% (95%CI, 80.4-92.9%) and a specificity of 99.3% (95%CI, 98.9-99.6%). Automatic and accurate detection of enteric syndrome cases provides an opportunity for community surveillance of enteric pathogens in companion animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The concepts of ‘one medicine’ and 'one ‘health’ are supported and visualised as a tree (medicine, placed on the fertile soil (basic sciences, which divides into the two major branches of human and veterinary medicine, connected by the large branch of public health; minor branches (specialisations depart from the three larger ones. The synergy between human and veterinary medicine is not only a must for public health, but also implies ethical considerations. The basic reasons requiring synergy are found in the common sharing of the environment, in the use of animal products by humans, in the common culture and in the many problems to be faced together. The long list of adversities requiring synergy is topped by zoonoses (intended both in the classic and in the extended sense and food safety that extends to many other items connected with nutrition, environment, human/animal coexistence and the management of public health; the entire quality of human life is affected. Human and veterinary medicine have a strong cultural background (many subject matters in common, but unfortunately the undergraduate and postgraduate education programme (with few important exceptions do not offer training in cooperation. The synergy between human and veterinary medicines is an indicator of 'good public health practice' and any obstacles to this collaboration should be identified and eliminated. The logo for a public health founded on synergy is drawn as an umbrella formed by the medical and veterinary activities, protecting the population (consumers and producers, the animals and their products and the environment from the possible adversities linked to health.
Coyne, L. A.; Latham, S. M.; Williams, N. J.; Dawson, S.; Donald, I. J.; Pearson, R. B.; Smith, R. F.; Pinchbeck, G. L.
Objectives The use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals has been linked with the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial populations, with consequences for animal and public health. This study explored the underpinning drivers, motivators and reasoning behind prescribing decisions made by veterinary surgeons working in the UK pig industry. Methods A qualitative interview study was conducted with 21 veterinary surgeons purposively selected from all UK pig veterinary surgeons. Thematic analysis was used to analyse transcripts. Results Ensuring optimum pig health and welfare was described as a driver for antimicrobial use by many veterinary surgeons and was considered a professional and moral obligation. Veterinary surgeons also exhibited a strong sense of social responsibility over the need to ensure that antimicrobial use was responsible. A close relationship between management practices, health and economics was evident, with improvements in management commonly identified as being potential routes to reduce antimicrobial usage; however, these were not always considered economically viable. The relationship with clients was identified as being a source of professional stress for practitioners due to pressure from farmers requesting antimicrobial prescriptions, and concern over poor compliance of antimicrobial administration by some farmers. Conclusions The drivers behind prescribing decisions by veterinary surgeons were complex and diverse. A combination of education, improving communication between veterinary surgeons and farmers, and changes in regulations, in farm management and in consumer/retailer demands may all be needed to ensure that antimicrobial prescribing is optimal and to achieve significant reductions in use. PMID:27516473
Young, Stacy L; Gacic-Dobo, Marta; Brown, David W
Data on home-based records (HBRs) practices within national immunization programmes are non-existent, making it difficult to determine whether current efforts of immunization programmes related to basic recording of immunization services are appropriately focused. During January 2014, WHO and the United Nations Children's Fund sent a one-page questionnaire to 195 countries to obtain information on HBRs including type of record used, number of records printed, whether records were provided free-of-charge or required by schools, whether there was a stock-out and the duration of any stock-outs that occurred, as well as the total expenditure for printing HBRs during 2013. A total of 140 countries returned a completed HBR questionnaire. Two countries were excluded from analysis because they did not use a HBR during 2013. HBR types varied across countries (vaccination only cards, 32/138 [23.1%]; vaccination plus growth monitoring records, 31/138 [22.4%]; child health books, 48/138 [34.7%]; combination of these, 27/138 [19.5%] countries). HBRs were provided free-of-charge in 124/138 (89.8%) respondent countries. HBRs were required for school entry in 62/138 (44.9%) countries. Nearly a quarter of countries reported HBR stock-outs during 2013. Computed printing cost per record was work remains to improve forecasting where appropriate, to prevent HBR stock-outs, to identify and improve sustainable financing options and to explore viable market shaping opportunities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Final-year veterinary students' perceptions of their communication competencies and a communication skills training program delivered in a primary care setting and based on Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory.
Meehan, Michael P; Menniti, Marie F
Veterinary graduates require effective communication skills training to successfully transition from university into practice. Although the literature has supported the need for veterinary student communication skills training programs, there is minimal research using learning theory to design programs and explore students' perceptions of such programs. This study investigated veterinary students' perceptions of (1) their communication skills and (2) the usefulness of a communication skills training program designed with Kolb's Experiential Learning Theory (ELT) as a framework and implemented in a primary care setting. Twenty-nine final-year veterinary students from the Ontario Veterinary College attended a 3-week communication skills training rotation. Pre- and post-training surveys explored their communication objectives, confidence in their communication skills, and the usefulness of specific communication training strategies. The results indicated that both before and after training, students were most confident in building rapport, displaying empathy, recognizing how bonded a client is with his or her pet, and listening. They were least confident in managing clients who were angry or not happy with the charges and who monopolized the appointment. Emotionally laden topics, such as breaking bad news and managing euthanasia discussions, were also identified as challenging and in need of improvement. Interactive small-group discussions and review of video-recorded authentic client appointments were most valuable for their learning and informed students' self-awareness of their non-verbal communication. These findings support the use of Kolb's ELT as a theoretical framework and of video review and reflection to guide veterinary students' learning of communication skills in a primary care setting.
Balogh, L.; Mathe, D.; Andocs, G.; Polyak, A.; Kiraly, R.; Janoki, G.A.; Szilagyi, J.; Thuroczy, J.; Chaudhari, P.
Veterinary nuclear medicine is somehow similar to its roots, Human Nuclear Medicine, but certainly there are a few basic differences. Patients sent by veterinary clinicians could be members of exotic species (birds, reptiles, rodents) and even the most often treated dog, cat, and horse patients vary in a pretty wide scale in weight, size and anatomical, physiological features. As there are no veterinary radiopharmaceuticals in the market, vets use human registered products, therefore applied radioactive doses are often calculated on an empirical manner. As opposed to humans, animal subjects almost always need to be sedated or anaesthetised for scintigraphical protocols. We vets, frequently perform bone and thyroid scintigraphy in the everyday clinical routine and oncological applications are more and more common in the veterinary field as well. But in contrast with human practice, our animal patients suffer very rarely from cardiovascular diseases, so heart and brain perfusion studies are less frequently performed at veterinary clinics. (author)Veterinary nuclear medicine is somehow similar to its roots,
Kullik, Sigrun A; Belknap, Andrew M
Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. Although veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for nontarget organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution, and potential effects. The Canadian predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECsoil) for new veterinary drug ingredients for use in intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessments. The calculation for the European Medicines Agency PECsoil can be adapted to account for regional animal husbandry and land use practices. Canadian agricultural practices for intensively reared cattle, pigs, and poultry differ substantially from those in the European Union. The development of PECsoil default values and livestock categories representative of typical Canadian animal production methods and nutrient management practices culminates several years of research and an extensive survey and analysis of the scientific literature, Canadian agricultural statistics, national and provincial management recommendations, veterinary product databases, and producers. A PECsoil can be used to rapidly identify new veterinary drugs intended for intensive livestock production that should undergo targeted ecotoxicity and fate testing. The Canadian PECsoil model is readily available, transparent, and requires minimal inputs to generate a screening level environmental assessment for veterinary drugs that can be refined if additional data are available. PECsoil values for a hypothetical veterinary drug dosage regimen are presented and discussed in an international context. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:331-341. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada
Bertelsen, Pernille; Nøhr, Christian
The introduction of electronic health records will entail substantial organisational changes to the clinical and administrative staff in hospitals. Hospital owners in Denmark have predicted that these changes will render up to half of medical secretaries redundant. The present study however shows...... that medical secretaries have a great variety of duties, and often act as the organisational ‘glue’ or connecting thread between other professional groups at the hospital. The aim of this study is to obtain a detailed understanding of the pluralism of work tasks the medical secretaries perform. It is concluded...... that clinicians as well as nurses depend on medical secretaries, and therefore to reduce the number of secretaries because electronic health record systems are implemented needs very careful thinking, planning and discussion with the other professions involved....
Hubbert, William T.
The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)
N. Anju Latha; B. Rama Murthy; U. Sunitha
Smart cards are used in information technologies as portable integrated devices with data storage and data processing capabilities. As in other fields, smart card use in health systems became popular due to their increased capacity and performance. Smart cards are used as a Electronic Health Record (EHR) Their efficient use with easy and fast data access facilities leads to implementation particularly widespread in hospitals. In this paper, a smart card based Integrated Electronic health Reco...
Lopez, Veronica; Ahumada, Luis; Galdames, Sergio; Madrid, Romina
This study used portable technology based on Experience Sampling Methodology (ESM log) to register workday practices of school principals and heads from Chilean schools who were implementing school improvement plans aimed at developing a culture of organizational learning. For a week, Smartphone devices which beeped seven times a day were given to…
Dunne, Karen; Brereton, Bernadette; Duggan, Vivienne; Campion, Deirdre
Veterinary nurses report an intrinsic desire to work with animals. However, this motivation may be eroded by poor working conditions and low pay, resulting in the exit of experienced veterinary nurses from clinical practice. This study sought to quantify the level of animal-handling experience students possessed at the start of their training and to explore the factors motivating them to enter veterinary nurse training in two Irish third-level institutions. The authors had noted a tendency for veterinary nursing students to possess limited animal-handling skills, despite their obvious motivation to work with animals. The study explores possible reasons for this, as it mirrors previous reports in relation to students of veterinary medicine. First-year veterinary nursing students at Dundalk Institute of Technology and University College Dublin were surveyed and a focus group was held in each institution to explore student motivations for choosing this career and their prior animal-handling experience and workplace exposure. The results show that veterinary nursing students are highly intrinsically motivated to work with and care for animals. The majority had spent time in the veterinary workplace before starting their studies but they had limited animal-handling experience beyond that of family pets, primarily dogs. The study also revealed potential tensions between the veterinary nursing and veterinary medical students at University College Dublin: a hitherto unexposed aspect of the hidden curriculum in this institution. The results of this study highlight the need for ongoing investment in practical animal-handling training for veterinary nursing students.
Helen M Higgins
Full Text Available Footrot is a widespread, infectious cause of lameness in sheep, with major economic and welfare costs. The aims of this research were: (i to quantify how veterinary surgeons' beliefs regarding the efficacy of two treatments for footrot changed following a review of the evidence (ii to obtain a consensus opinion following group discussions (iii to capture complementary qualitative data to place their beliefs within a broader clinical context. Grounded in a Bayesian statistical framework, probabilistic elicitation (roulette method was used to quantify the beliefs of eleven veterinary surgeons during two one-day workshops. There was considerable heterogeneity in veterinary surgeons' beliefs before they listened to a review of the evidence. After hearing the evidence, seven participants quantifiably changed their beliefs. In particular, two participants who initially believed that foot trimming with topical oxytetracycline was the better treatment, changed to entirely favour systemic and topical oxytetracycline instead. The results suggest that a substantial amount of the variation in beliefs related to differences in veterinary surgeons' knowledge of the evidence. Although considerable differences in opinion still remained after the evidence review, with several participants having non-overlapping 95% credible intervals, both groups did achieve a consensus opinion. Two key findings from the qualitative data were: (i veterinary surgeons believed that farmers are unlikely to actively seek advice on lameness, suggesting a proactive veterinary approach is required (ii more attention could be given to improving the way in which veterinary advice is delivered to farmers. In summary this study has: (i demonstrated a practical method for probabilistically quantifying how veterinary surgeons' beliefs change (ii revealed that the evidence that currently exists is capable of changing veterinary opinion (iii suggested that improved transfer of research
Higgins, Helen M; Green, Laura E; Green, Martin J; Kaler, Jasmeet
Footrot is a widespread, infectious cause of lameness in sheep, with major economic and welfare costs. The aims of this research were: (i) to quantify how veterinary surgeons' beliefs regarding the efficacy of two treatments for footrot changed following a review of the evidence (ii) to obtain a consensus opinion following group discussions (iii) to capture complementary qualitative data to place their beliefs within a broader clinical context. Grounded in a Bayesian statistical framework, probabilistic elicitation (roulette method) was used to quantify the beliefs of eleven veterinary surgeons during two one-day workshops. There was considerable heterogeneity in veterinary surgeons' beliefs before they listened to a review of the evidence. After hearing the evidence, seven participants quantifiably changed their beliefs. In particular, two participants who initially believed that foot trimming with topical oxytetracycline was the better treatment, changed to entirely favour systemic and topical oxytetracycline instead. The results suggest that a substantial amount of the variation in beliefs related to differences in veterinary surgeons' knowledge of the evidence. Although considerable differences in opinion still remained after the evidence review, with several participants having non-overlapping 95% credible intervals, both groups did achieve a consensus opinion. Two key findings from the qualitative data were: (i) veterinary surgeons believed that farmers are unlikely to actively seek advice on lameness, suggesting a proactive veterinary approach is required (ii) more attention could be given to improving the way in which veterinary advice is delivered to farmers. In summary this study has: (i) demonstrated a practical method for probabilistically quantifying how veterinary surgeons' beliefs change (ii) revealed that the evidence that currently exists is capable of changing veterinary opinion (iii) suggested that improved transfer of research knowledge into
Higgins, Helen M.; Green, Laura E.; Green, Martin J.; Kaler, Jasmeet
Footrot is a widespread, infectious cause of lameness in sheep, with major economic and welfare costs. The aims of this research were: (i) to quantify how veterinary surgeons’ beliefs regarding the efficacy of two treatments for footrot changed following a review of the evidence (ii) to obtain a consensus opinion following group discussions (iii) to capture complementary qualitative data to place their beliefs within a broader clinical context. Grounded in a Bayesian statistical framework, probabilistic elicitation (roulette method) was used to quantify the beliefs of eleven veterinary surgeons during two one-day workshops. There was considerable heterogeneity in veterinary surgeons’ beliefs before they listened to a review of the evidence. After hearing the evidence, seven participants quantifiably changed their beliefs. In particular, two participants who initially believed that foot trimming with topical oxytetracycline was the better treatment, changed to entirely favour systemic and topical oxytetracycline instead. The results suggest that a substantial amount of the variation in beliefs related to differences in veterinary surgeons’ knowledge of the evidence. Although considerable differences in opinion still remained after the evidence review, with several participants having non-overlapping 95% credible intervals, both groups did achieve a consensus opinion. Two key findings from the qualitative data were: (i) veterinary surgeons believed that farmers are unlikely to actively seek advice on lameness, suggesting a proactive veterinary approach is required (ii) more attention could be given to improving the way in which veterinary advice is delivered to farmers. In summary this study has: (i) demonstrated a practical method for probabilistically quantifying how veterinary surgeons’ beliefs change (ii) revealed that the evidence that currently exists is capable of changing veterinary opinion (iii) suggested that improved transfer of research knowledge
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to the...
Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.
The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of
This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...
McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J
Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.
More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. British Veterinary Association.
Kalymbek, Bakytzhan; Shulanbekova, Gulmira K.; Madiyarova, Ainur S.; Mirambaeva, Gulnaz Zh.
This article is devoted to the problem of veterinary safety of the countries under the Eurasian Economic Union. Animal health's measures are provided in order to prevent the entry and spread of infectious animal diseases, including common to humans and animals, as well as goods not conforming to the common veterinary and sanitary requirements.…
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine mammals...
Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, ...
Aplicação do sistema de gestão da qualidade BPF (boas práticas de fabricação na indústria de produtos farmacêuticos veterinários The usage of the GMP (good manufacturing practices quality management system for veterinary pharmaceutical industries
Felipe Araújo Calarge
veterinary products in Brazil. This article intends to depict the main aspects and results which come from a survey research, which tried to analyze how veterinary product manufacturers have been adapted to the usage of Good Manufacturing Practices as a system of quality control and management. Due to collecting a bibliography, aspects relating to the context of agribusiness competitiveness and the market of veterinary products are described, as well as the main topics relating to standard procedures emphasized in Good Manufacturing Practices. The study was carried out as a survey in companies manufacturing veterinary products, attempting to characterize the methodology of the adopted research, as well as to report and analyze the collected data. The study concludes, among other aspects, that veterinary product manufacturers have been implementing Good Manufacturing Practices which are more encouraged by aspects which come from a more efficient management of their productive resources than by complying with governmental standards and legislations.
Narayanan, Jaishree; Dobrin, Sofia; Choi, Janet; Rubin, Susan; Pham, Anna; Patel, Vimal; Frigerio, Roberta; Maurer, Darryck; Gupta, Payal; Link, Lourdes; Walters, Shaun; Wang, Chi; Ji, Yuan; Maraganore, Demetrius M
Using the electronic medical record (EMR) to capture structured clinical data at the point of care would be a practical way to support quality improvement and practice-based research in epilepsy. We describe our stepwise process for building structured clinical documentation support tools in the EMR that define best practices in epilepsy, and we describe how we incorporated these toolkits into our clinical workflow. These tools write notes and capture hundreds of fields of data including several score tests: Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 items, Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Quality of Life in Epilepsy-10 items, Montreal Cognitive Assessment/Short Test of Mental Status, and Medical Research Council Prognostic Index. The tools summarize brain imaging, blood laboratory, and electroencephalography results, and document neuromodulation treatments. The tools provide Best Practices Advisories and other clinical decision support when appropriate. The tools prompt enrollment in a DNA biobanking study. We have thus far enrolled 231 patients for initial visits and are starting our first annual follow-up visits and provide a brief description of our cohort. We are sharing these EMR tools and captured data with other epilepsy clinics as part of a Neurology Practice Based Research Network, and are using the tools to conduct pragmatic trials using subgroup-based adaptive designs. © 2016 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy.
Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P
In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Ow Yong, Lai Meng; Tan, Amanda Wei Li; Loo, Cecilia Lay Keng; Lim, Esther Li Ping
In 2013, the Singapore General Hospital (SGH) Campus initiated a shared electronic system where patient records and documentations were standardized and shared across institutions within the Campus. The project was initiated to enhance quality of health care, improve accessibility, and ensure integrated (as opposed to fragmented) care for best outcomes in our patients. In mitigating the risks of ICT, it was found that familiarity with guiding ethical principles, and ensuring adherence to regulatory and technical competencies in medical social work were important. The need to negotiate and maneuver in a large environment within the Campus to ensure proactive integrative process helped.
Kongstad, Line Planck; Mellace, Giovanni; Rose Olsen, Kim
on Electronic Health Records (EHR) on diabetes patients total hospitalizations, diabetes related hospitalizations and hospitalizations with diabetes and cardiovascular related Ambulatory Care Sentive Conditions (ACSC). We use a rich nationwide panel dataset (2004-2013) with information of stepwise enrolment...... of GPs in the EHR program. As a control group we use GPs who never enrolled. Following the recent literature on causal inference with panel data, we use a standard propensity score matching estimator where we also match on pre-treatment outcomes. This allows controlling for all the unobservable...
Hammond, Jennifer A; Hancock, Jason; Martin, Margaret S; Jamieson, Susan; Mellor, Dominic J
The ability to cope with ambiguity and feelings of uncertainty is an essential part of professional practice. Research with physicians has identified that intolerance of ambiguity or uncertainty is linked to stress, and some authors have hypothesized that there could be an association between intolerance of ambiguity and burnout. We describe the adaptation of the TAMSAD (Tolerance of Ambiguity in Medical Students and Doctors) scale for use with veterinary students. Exploratory factor analysis supports a uni-dimensional structure for the Ambiguity tolerance construct. Although internal reliability of the 29-item TAMSAD scale is reasonable (α=.50), an alternative 27-item scale (drawn from the original 41 items used to develop TAMSAD) shows higher internal reliability for veterinary students (α=.67). We conclude that there is good evidence to support the validity of this latter TAVS (Tolerance of Ambiguity in Veterinary Students) scale to study ambiguity tolerance in veterinary students.
McBride, E Anne
People have obligations to ensure the welfare of animals under their care. Offences under the UK Animal Welfare Act are acts, or failures of action, causing unnecessary suffering. Veterinary professionals need to be able to provide current, scientifically based prophylactic advice, and respect the limits of their expertise. The ethical concept of a life worth living and the Five Freedoms are core to welfare. Behaviour is a central component, both influencing and influenced by physical health. Owners frequently misunderstand the behaviour of small prey mammals and how to meet their needs. This review provides insight into the physical-social (external) and the cognitive-emotional (internal) environments of small prey mammals, contextualised within an evolutionary perspective. This is extrapolated to captivity and practical suggestions given for meeting behavioural freedoms and enhancing client understanding and enjoyment of their animals, thereby improving welfare. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Phil Lionel Ramsey
Full Text Available Although learning is a natural process, many of the systems designed to support education do not contribute positively to the experience of students. This paper reports on the design of Skill Tracker, a software system developed at Massey University to manage processes around student skill acquisition, and initially applied to the university’s Veterinary Science program. The software has been designed around guiding ideas relevant to learning in a professional context: the “progress principle” and Communities of Practice. The paper outlines how these ideas have shaped the design of the software. While Skill Tracker enables the university to collect data that informs the management of the Veterinary School, the underlying purpose of the system is to enhance the experience of students. In order to do achieve this goal it is necessary to understand a key dilemma in any educational innovation: the need to integrate technology and pedagogy.
Walther, Birgit; Tedin, Karsten; Lübke-Becker, Antina
Although the problems associated with healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and the emergence of zoonotic and multidrug-resistant pathogens in companion animal (dogs, cats and horses) medicine have been well-known for decades, current progress with respect to practical implementation of infection control programs in veterinary clinics has been limited. Clinical outbreak events reported for methicillin-resistant Staphylooccus aureus (MRSA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and multidrug-resistant (MDR) Salmonella Serovars indicate the necessity of infection control strategies for protecting animal patients at risk as well as veterinary personnel. The close bond between humans and their companion animals provides opportunities for exchange of microorganisms, including MDR pathogens. This particular aspect of the "One Health" idea requires more representative surveillance efforts and infection control strategies with respect to animal-species specific characters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lysons, R E; Gibbens, J C; Smith, L H
The UK has experienced various animal health events that have had national impact in recent years. In response, a ;Veterinary Surveillance Strategy' (VSS) was published in 2003, with the objective of enhancing and coordinating national veterinary surveillance practice in a way that would enable important animal health events to be detected and assessed more rapidly and reliably. The VSS adopts an integrated UK-wide approach, which includes widespread engagement with interested parties both within government and beyond. It proposes enhancing surveillance through improved collaboration; transparent and defensible prioritisation of government resources to surveillance; deriving better value from existing resources, and assuring quality of the surveillance reports and source data. This article describes progress with implementing the VSS, in particular the methodology for developing a functional network and creating an effective, quality-assured, information management system, RADAR.
Freire, Rafael; Phillips, Clive J C; Verrinder, Joy M; Collins, Teresa; Degeling, Chris; Fawcett, Anne; Fisher, Andrew D; Hazel, Susan; Hood, Jennifer; Johnson, Jane; Lloyd, Janice K F; Stafford, Kevin; Tzioumis, Vicky; McGreevy, Paul D
The study of animal welfare and ethics (AWE) as part of veterinary education is important due to increasing community concerns and expectations about this topic, global pressures regarding food security, and the requirements of veterinary accreditation, especially with respect to Day One Competences. To address several key questions regarding the attitudes to AWE of veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand (NZ), the authors surveyed the 2014 cohort of these students. The survey aimed (1) to reveal what AWE topics veterinary students in Australia and NZ consider important as Day One Competences, and (2) to ascertain how these priorities align with existing research on how concern for AWE relates to gender and stage of study. Students identified triage and professional ethics as the most important Day One Competences in AWE. Students ranked an understanding of triage as increasingly important as they progressed through their program. Professional ethics was rated more important by early and mid-stage students than by senior students. Understanding the development of animal welfare science and perspectives on animal welfare were rated as being of little importance to veterinary graduates as Day One Competences, and an understanding of "why animal welfare matters" declined as the students progressed through the program. Combined, these findings suggest that veterinary students consider it more important to have the necessary practical skills and knowledge to function as a veterinarian on their first day in practice.
Seguino, Alessandro; Seguino, Ferruccio; Eleuteri, Antonio; Rhind, Susan M
Veterinary surgeons working on farms and food-processing establishments play a fundamental role in safeguarding both public health and the welfare of animals under their care. An essential part of veterinary public health (VPH) undergraduate training in the UK involves students undertaking placements within abattoirs, a practice that remains vital to the educational experience of future veterinary professionals. However, several issues have adversely affected the ability of students to gain such extramural placements. For this reason, the Virtual Slaughterhouse Simulator (VSS) was developed to strengthen and enhance undergraduate VPH teaching at the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, enabling students to explore a realistic abattoir work environment with embedded educational activities. The aim of this research project was to evaluate the VSS as a teaching and learning tool for training and educating veterinary students. Ninety-eight final-year veterinary students engaged with the prototype VSS, followed by assessment of their knowledge and behavior when faced with a "real-life" abattoir situation. Further evaluation of their experiences with the VSS was carried out using questionnaires and focus groups. The results of this investigation show that there is the potential for the VSS to enhance the student learning experience in basic abattoir procedures. This innovative tool provides a visually based learning resource that can support traditional lectures and practical classes and can also be used to stimulate interactive problem-solving activities embedded in the relevant context.
Min, Yul Ha; Park, Hyeoun-Ae; Chung, Eunja; Lee, Hyunsook
The purpose of this paper is to describe the components of a next-generation electronic nursing records system ensuring full semantic interoperability and integrating evidence into the nursing records system. A next-generation electronic nursing records system based on detailed clinical models and clinical practice guidelines was developed at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital in 2013. This system has two components, a terminology server and a nursing documentation system. The terminology server manages nursing narratives generated from entity-attribute-value triplets of detailed clinical models using a natural language generation system. The nursing documentation system provides nurses with a set of nursing narratives arranged around the recommendations extracted from clinical practice guidelines. An electronic nursing records system based on detailed clinical models and clinical practice guidelines was successfully implemented in a hospital in Korea. The next-generation electronic nursing records system can support nursing practice and nursing documentation, which in turn will improve data quality.
Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K
Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.
Veterinary specialist diplomas were available in many European countries during the second half of the 20th century. However, such an early recognition of the importance of veterinary specialization actually delayed the concept of the European veterinary specialist in Europe, compared with the United States, where the first specialist colleges were established in the 1960s, because it was felt that the national system was functioning properly and there was therefore no need for a new structure in the European countries. The European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS) was established in 1996, and currently there are 23 specialist colleges with more than 2,600 veterinarians officially listed in the EBVS register as European specialists. The Advisory Committee on Veterinary Training (ACVT) approved the establishment of EBVS but never implemented a supervising body (with ACVT representation). Such a body, the European Coordinating Committee on Veterinary Training, was later implemented by the profession itself, although it still lacked a political component. Each college depends on the EBVS, which has the function to define standards and criteria for monitoring the quality of college diplomates. To become a European Diplomate, veterinarians must have gone through an intensive period of training supervised by a diplomate, after which candidates must pass an examination. Although the term European veterinary specialist still does not have any legal recognition, national specialist qualifications are being phased out in many countries because of the inherent higher quality of EBVS specialist qualifications.
Funmilayo A. Okanlawon, RN, PhD, FWACN
Full Text Available Traditionally, nursing care has been identified as an integral part of human medicine but is not well recognised in veterinary medicine as practised in Nigeria. In caring for human beings, a nurse is expected to have the fundamental understanding of disease aetiology, manifestations, diagnosis, manage-ment, rehabilitation, prevention and control. This is equally applicable to the care of animals. The role of veterinary nursing in veterinary medicine is significant considering the multitude of issues involved in the care of animals. The keeping of domestic animals is becoming popular and consequently the spread of infectious diseases from animals to human beings is on the increase. It is vital for human beings and animals to coexist in a healthy environment. The authors examine the importance of nursing care in veterinary medicine, the current situation in Nigeria, the role of veterinary nurses, the inter-professional approach to veterinary medicine, preparedness for the emergence of infectious diseases and career opportunities for veterinary nurses. This premise falls within the context of the ‘One Health’ concept.
Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.
Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009
Barletta, Michele; Young, Courtni N; Quandt, Jane E; Hofmeister, Erik H
To determine the levels of agreement among first- and second-year veterinary students and experienced anesthesiologists in assessing postoperative pain in dogs from video-recordings. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-seven veterinary students, five anesthesiologists and 13 canine clinical patients. Prior to their enrolment in a core anesthesia course, veterinary students volunteered to watch 13 90 second videos of dogs. Dogs were hospitalized in an intensive care unit after a variety of surgical procedures. Students were asked to score the level of the dogs' pain using the Dynamic Interactive Visual Analog Scale and the Short Form of the Glasgow Composite-Measure Pain Scale. The same videotapes were scored by five board-certified anesthesiologists. The differences and agreement between the ratings of anesthesiologists and students, and first- and second-year students were determined with Mann-Whitney U-tests and Fleiss' or Cohen's kappa, respectively. Pain scores assigned by students and anesthesiologists differed significantly (p Veterinary students early in their training assigned pain scores to dogs that differed from scores assigned by experienced anesthesiologists. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.
Redd, Travis K; Read-Brown, Sarah; Choi, Dongseok; Yackel, Thomas R; Tu, Daniel C; Chiang, Michael F
To measure the effect of electronic health record (EHR) implementation on productivity and efficiency in the pediatric ophthalmology division at an academic medical center. Four established providers were selected from the pediatric ophthalmology division at the Oregon Health & Science University Casey Eye Institute. Clinical volume was compared before and after EHR implementation for each provider. Time elapsed from chart open to completion (OTC time) and the proportion of charts completed during business hours were monitored for 3 years following implementation. Overall there was an 11% decrease in clinical volume following EHR implementation, which was not statistically significant (P = 0.18). The mean OTC time ranged from 5.5 to 28.3 hours among providers in this study, and trends over time were variable among the four providers. Forty-four percent of all charts were closed outside normal business hours (30% on weekdays, 14% on weekends). EHR implementation was associated with a negative impact on productivity and efficiency in our pediatric ophthalmology division. Copyright © 2014 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Khattak, Noor Saeed; Nouroz, Faisal; Inayat Ur Rahman; Noreen, Shumaila
In the study area, the traditional knowledge regarding the uses of local wild medicinal plants for treating diseases of domestic animals and birds is totally in the custody of elders of the existing community. The young ones are not much aware about such important practices. The main aim of the study was to document and to release this knowledge from the custody of elders and share with the community. Total 115 people between 20 and 80 years of age were interviewed and information was collected through semi-structured questionnaires. The data obtained were quantitatively analyzed using the use value (UV) formula. The collected specimens were pressed, dried, preserved, mounted on Herbarium sheets, identified properly and were submitted in the Herbarium, Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan. With the co-ordination and cooperation of the local people, 46 plant species of 42 genera belonging to 31 families were collected, 3 were monocotyledons while 43 plant species belonged to dicotyledonae class. Considering taxonomic characteristics, it was confirmed that 12 trees, 10 shrubs and 22 herbs were commonly used by the local people in ethno veterinary practices. Two plants like Cistanche tubulosa and Cuscuta reflexa from family Orobanchaceae and family Cuscutaceae respectively lack chlorophyll and are parasites on host plants like Doedonia, Ziziphus, Calligonum and Calotropis. The powder of both plants showed great ethno veterinary value. The parts of 46 plant species commonly used for ethno veterinary practices were whole plants (32.60%), leaves (26.08%), fruits (17.39%), stems (13.04%) and roots (10.86%). Medicinal plants were administered through various routes i.e. oral (78.26%), skin (17.21%) and smoke (4.34%). The traditional knowledge of local plants of ethno veterinary values is mainly possessed by elders and transmitted from generation to generation with chances of elimination of such traditional knowledge due to less awareness. The present
Blach, Edward L
This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.
In Sweden 300 veterinary clinics have a license for x-ray diagnostics. Six of them also have a license for nuclear medicine. During 2005 eight clinics were inspected and the results show that the radiation protection in veterinary medicine can be improved. No clinic fulfilled the regulations of categorization of workplaces and workers (SSI FS 1998:3). Half of the clinics had no Swedish manual to the x-ray equipment and just as many had not performed the annual function check. Obviously, there is a need for more information to staff in veterinary medicine.
This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).
Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.
Earthquake engineering practice is increasingly using nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) to demonstrate performance of structures. This rigorous method of analysis requires selection and scaling of ground motions appropriate to design hazard levels. Presented herein is a modal-pushover-based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for use in nonlinear RHA of buildings and bridges. In the MPS method, the ground motions are scaled to match (to a specified tolerance) a target value of the inelastic deformation of the first-'mode' inelastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDF) system whose properties are determined by first-'mode' pushover analysis. Appropriate for first-?mode? dominated structures, this approach is extended for structures with significant contributions of higher modes by considering elastic deformation of second-'mode' SDF system in selecting a subset of the scaled ground motions. Based on results presented for two bridges, covering single- and multi-span 'ordinary standard' bridge types, and six buildings, covering low-, mid-, and tall building types in California, the accuracy and efficiency of the MPS procedure are established and its superiority over the ASCE/SEI 7-05 scaling procedure is demonstrated.
Romero, Bernadine; Fry, Margaret; Roche, Michael
To explore the number of patients presenting with sepsis before and after guideline implementation; the impact of sepsis guidelines on triage assessment, emergency department management and time to antibiotics. Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity within hospitals. Globally, strategies have been implemented to reduce morbidity and mortality rates, which rely on the early recognition and management of sepsis. To improve patient outcomes, the New South Wales government in Australia introduced sepsis guidelines into emergency departments. However, the impact of the guidelines on clinical practice remains unclear. A 12-month pre-post retrospective randomised medical record audit of adult patients with a sepsis diagnosis. Data were extracted from the emergency department database and paper medical record. Data included patient demographic (age, gender), clinical information (time of arrival, triage code, seen by time, disposition, time to antibiotic, pathology, time to intravenous fluids) and patient assessment data (heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, temperature, oxygen saturations, medication). This study demonstrated a statistically significant 230-minute reduction in time to antibiotics post implementation of the guidelines. The post group (n = 165) received more urgent triage categories (n = 81; 49·1%), a 758-minute reduction in mean time to second litre of intravenous fluids and an improvement in collection of lactate (n = 112, 67·9%), also statistically significant. The findings highlight the impact the guidelines can have on clinician decision-making and behaviour that support best practice and positive patient outcomes. The sepsis guidelines improved the early assessment, recognition and management of patients presenting with sepsis in one tertiary referral emergency department. The use of evidenced-based guidelines can impact clinical decision-making and behaviour, resulting in the translation and support of
Khosa, Deep K; Volet, Simone E; Bolton, John R
In recent years, veterinary education has received an increased amount of attention directed at the value and application of collaborative case-based learning. The benefit of instilling deep learning practices in undergraduate veterinary students has also emerged as a powerful tool in encouraging continued professional education. However, research into the design and application of instructional strategies to encourage deep, collaborative case-based learning in veterinary undergraduates has been limited. This study focused on delivering an instructional intervention (via a 20-minute presentation and student handout) to foster productive, collaborative case-based learning in veterinary education. The aim was to instigate and encourage deep learning practices in a collaborative case-based assignment and to assess the impact of the intervention on students' group learning. Two cohorts of veterinary students were involved in the study. One cohort was exposed to an instructional intervention, and the other provided the control for the study. The instructional strategy was grounded in the collaborative learning literature and prior empirical studies with veterinary students. Results showed that the intervention cohort spent proportionally more time on understanding case content material than did the control cohort and rated their face-to-face discussions as more useful in achieving their learning outcomes than did their control counterparts. In addition, the perceived difficulty of the assignment evolved differently for the control and intervention students from start to end of the assignment. This study provides encouraging evidence that veterinary students can change and enhance the way they interact in a group setting to effectively engage in collaborative learning practices.
Robertson, Kristen M; Bowser, Jacquelyn E; Bernstein, Joshua; Aboul-Enein, Basil H
The prevalence of diseases of foodborne and zoonotic origin in Arabic-speaking countries highlights the importance of collaboration between human and animal health professionals. However, accessibility of research and evidence-based practices in these countries is not well characterized. This brief report determines the availability of professional veterinary journals within the Arabic-speaking region. An electronic search using 6 databases assessed for publication period, activity status, and available languages incorporated all aspects of veterinary medicine and specialties. Among 29 veterinary journals identified, the oldest current publication originated 63 years ago, with 10 journals currently interrupted or ceased. All 19 currently active journals are available electronically as open access, with 8 also offered in paper format. Veterinary journals published within Arabic-speaking countries are predominantly produced in Egypt, Iraq, and Sudan. Electronic access is lacking compared with English-speaking countries, and there is a lack of journals with an Arabic-language option. The reasons associated with language options in veterinary publications are not immediately apparent, yet may highlight differences among public health, health education, and zoonotic professionals and the populations they serve. Veterinary journals in Arabic-speaking countries do not adequately represent the overall region and are limited in access. Further evaluation of regional culture and publisher preferences is indicated to identify new collaboration opportunities among health professionals and local stakeholders. Copyright © 2017 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bulkhanov, R.U.; Butaev, M.K.; Mirsaev, B.Sh.; Ryasnaynskiy, I.V.; Yuldashev, R.Yu.
Full text: In applied radiology scientists usually use stimulating, mutagenic and inactivating effects of gamma-radiation. In this report there are the results of gamma-radiation inactivating effect for radiovaccine making biotechnology development for veterinary. Inactivation with hamma-irradiation gives us opportunity to make highly immunogenic vaccines, which cause minimum damage of antigenic contaminants structure. With the help of radiative biotechnology we can produce highly effective monoassociated and polyvalented radiovaccines against the most wide-spread infections disease in agricultural animals, young animals in particular (calves, lambs, sucking-pigs). These diseases include such infection diseases as colibacterioses, salmonellosis, pasterellosis, which cause much economic damage to stockbreeding i.e. loss of cattle, slow growth of young animal, lack of offsprings, decrease of reproduction properties. Monovaccines are used for these disease prophylaxis as well as associated and polyvalented vaccines. Taking into consideration the necessity of vaccine improvement and great amount of associated vaccines, one of the main problems of veterinary is the development of vaccines of new generation, which can induce immunity against several diseases in agricultural animals. That is why, radiative biotechnology of radiovaccines creation was developed and is used in radiative laboratory of Uzbek Scientific Veterinary Institute (Bulkhanov R.U., 1999, 2001), A ssociated radiovaccine against colibacteriosis, salmonellosis of calves, kids , 'Associated radiovaccine against colibacteriosis and salmonellosis of calves', 'Polyvalented radiovaccine against pasterellosis, salmonellosis and colibacteriosis in agricultural animals' were developed with the help of radiative biotechnology and are successfully used in veterinary practice. The advantage of these radiovaccines is that they produce one year immunity and you need twice less dosage and revaccinations. More than
Royal, Kenneth D; Hunt, Suzanne A; Borst, Luke B; Gerard, Mathew
The objective of this study was to better understand veterinary medical students' sleep hygiene and identify the extent to which sleep hygiene behaviors may result in consequences (either positive or negative) for students. A total of 187 doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) program students at a large College of Veterinary Medicine in the United States. The Epworth Sleep Scale and Daytime Sleepiness Scale were administered to 393 students enrolled in the DVM program. About 55.1% of students reported sleep per night, 28.9% reported having trouble sleeping, and 50.3% reported feeling sleepy all day. With respect to sleep quality, 5.3% described it as excellent, 52.4% as good, 34.2% as fair, and 8.0% as poor. A significant percentage of veterinary medical students exhibit poor sleep hygiene habits that may be detrimental to both their health and academic endeavors.
Tanner, C; Gans, D; White, J; Nath, R; Pohl, J
The role of electronic health records (EHR) in enhancing patient safety, while substantiated in many studies, is still debated. This paper examines early EHR adopters in primary care to understand the extent to which EHR implementation is associated with the workflows, policies and practices that promote patient safety, as compared to practices with paper records. Early adoption is defined as those who were using EHR prior to implementation of the Meaningful Use program. We utilized the Physician Practice Patient Safety Assessment (PPPSA) to compare primary care practices with fully implemented EHR to those utilizing paper records. The PPPSA measures the extent of adoption of patient safety practices in the domains: medication management, handoffs and transition, personnel qualifications and competencies, practice management and culture, and patient communication. Data from 209 primary care practices responding between 2006-2010 were included in the analysis: 117 practices used paper medical records and 92 used an EHR. Results showed that, within all domains, EHR settings showed significantly higher rates of having workflows, policies and practices that promote patient safety than paper record settings. While these results were expected in the area of medication management, EHR use was also associated with adoption of patient safety practices in areas in which the researchers had no a priori expectations of association. Sociotechnical models of EHR use point to complex interactions between technology and other aspects of the environment related to human resources, workflow, policy, culture, among others. This study identifies that among primary care practices in the national PPPSA database, having an EHR was strongly empirically associated with the workflow, policy, communication and cultural practices recommended for safe patient care in ambulatory settings.
Msellati, L; Commault, J; Dehove, A
Good veterinary governance assumes the provision of veterinary services that are sustainably financed, universally available, and provided efficiently without waste or duplication, in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. Good veterinary governance is a necessary condition for sustainable economic development insomuch as it promotes the effective delivery of services and improves the overall performance of animal health systems. This article defines governance in Veterinary Services and proposes a framework for its measurement. It also discusses the role of Veterinary Services and analyses the governance dimensions of the performance-assessment tools developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). These tools (OIE PVS Tool and PVS Gap Analysis) track the performance of Veterinary Services across countries (a harmonised tool) and over time (the PVS Pathway). The article shows the usefulness of the OIE PVS Tool for measuring governance, but also points to two shortcomings, namely (i) the lack of clear outcome indicators, which is an impediment to a comprehensive assessment of the performance of Veterinary Services, and (ii) the lack of specific measures for assessing the extent of corruption within Veterinary Services and the extent to which demand for better governance is being strengthened within the animal health system. A discussion follows on the drivers of corruption and instruments for perception-based assessments of country governance and corruption. Similarly, the article introduces the concept of social accountability, which is an approach to enhancing government transparency and accountability, and shows how supply-side and demand-side mechanisms complement each other in improving the governance of service delivery. It further elaborates on two instruments--citizen report card surveys and grievance redress mechanisms--because of their wider relevance and their possible applications in many settings, including Veterinary
Biermans, M.C.J.; Spreeuwenberg, P.; Verheij, R.A.; Bakker, D.H. de; Vries Robbé, P.F. de; Zielhuis, G.A.
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to detect striking trends based on a new strategy for monitoring public health. METHODS: We used data over 4 years from electronic medical records of a large, nationally representative network of general practices. Episodes were either directly recorded by general
Ratwani, Raj; Fairbanks, Terry; Savage, Erica; Adams, Katie; Wittie, Michael; Boone, Edna; Hayden, Andrew; Barnes, Janey; Hettinger, Zach; Gettinger, Andrew
Decisions made during electronic health record (EHR) implementations profoundly affect usability and safety. This study aims to identify gaps between the current literature and key stakeholders' perceptions of usability and safety practices and the challenges encountered during the implementation of EHRs. Two approaches were used: a literature review and interviews with key stakeholders. We performed a systematic review of the literature to identify usability and safety challenges and best practices during implementation. A total of 55 articles were reviewed through searches of PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. We used a qualitative approach to identify key stakeholders' perceptions; semi-structured interviews were conducted with a diverse set of health IT stakeholders to understand their current practices and challenges related to usability during implementation. We used a grounded theory approach: data were coded, sorted, and emerging themes were identified. Conclusions from both sources of data were compared to identify areas of misalignment. We identified six emerging themes from the literature and stakeholder interviews: cost and resources, risk assessment, governance and consensus building, customization, clinical workflow and usability testing, and training. Across these themes, there were misalignments between the literature and stakeholder perspectives, indicating major gaps. Major gaps identified from each of six emerging themes are discussed as critical areas for future research, opportunities for new stakeholder initiatives, and opportunities to better disseminate resources to improve the implementation of EHRs. Our analysis identified practices and challenges across six different emerging themes, illustrated important gaps, and results suggest critical areas for future research and dissemination to improve EHR implementation.
Joan Hendricks, VMD, PhD
Full Text Available The University of Pennsylvania's School of Veterinary Medicine (Penn Vet, in partnership with other veterinary schools and health professions, is positioned well to advance an international ‘One Medicine - One Health’ initiative. Founded in 1884 by the University's Medical Faculty, the School has been a leader in moulding the education and practice of veterinary medicine in the nation and the world. Successfully integrating biomedical research into all aspects of veterinary medical education, the School has made significant contributions to basic and clinical research by exemplifying ‘One Medicine’. In looking to the future, Penn Vet will embrace the broader ‘One Health’ mission as well.
Kerby, Erin E
The study investigated veterinary medicine librarians' experience with and perceptions of research data services. Many academic libraries have begun to offer research data services in response to researchers' increased need for data management support. To date, such services have typically been generic, rather than discipline-specific, to appeal to a wide variety of researchers. An online survey was deployed to identify trends regarding research data services in veterinary medicine libraries. Participants were identified from a list of contacts from the MLA Veterinary Medical Libraries Section. Although many respondents indicated that they have a professional interest in research data services, the majority of veterinary medicine librarians only rarely or occasionally provide data management support as part of their regular job responsibilities. There was little consensus as to whether research data services should be core to a library's mission despite their perceived importance to the advancement of veterinary research. Furthermore, most respondents stated that research data services are just as or somewhat less important than the other services that they provide and feel only slightly or somewhat prepared to offer such services. Lacking a standard definition of "research data" and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.
Hively, W. Dean; Devereux, Olivia H.; Claggett, Peter
In response to the Executive Order for Chesapeake Bay Protection and Restoration (E.O. #13508, May 12, 2009), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) took on the task of acquiring and assessing agricultural conservation practice data records for U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs, and transferred those datasets in aggregated format to State jurisdictional agencies for use in reporting conservation progress to the Chesapeake Bay Program Partnership (CBP Partnership). Under the guidelines and regulations that have been developed to protect and restore water-quality in the Chesapeake Bay, the six State jurisdictions that fall within the Chesapeake Bay watershed are required to report their progress in promoting agricultural conservation practices to the CBP Partnership on an annual basis. The installation and adoption of agricultural best management practices is supported by technical and financial assistance from both Federal and State conservation programs. The farm enrollment data for USDA conservation programs are confidential, but agencies can obtain access to the privacy-protected data if they are established as USDA Conservation Cooperators. The datasets can also be released to the public if they are first aggregated to protect farmer privacy. In 2012, the USGS used its Conservation Cooperator status to obtain implementation data for conservation programs sponsored by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) and the USDA Farm Service Agency (FSA) for farms within the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Three jurisdictions (Delaware, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia) used the USGS-provided aggregated dataset to report conservation progress in 2012, whereas the remaining three jurisdictions (Maryland, New York, and Virginia) used jurisdictional Conservation Cooperator Agreements to obtain privacy-protected data directly from the USDA. This report reviews the status of conservation data sharing between the USDA and the various jurisdictions, discusses the
Stewart K. Morgan
Full Text Available Background The practice of feeding of diets containing raw animal products (RAP to pets (dogs and cats is discouraged by veterinary organizations and governmental public health organizations. Nevertheless, the practice of feeding RAP to pets is increasing in popularity. Pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets to pets have not been explored and the benefits of RAP diets remain largely anecdotal. We hypothesized that pet owners feeding RAP diets would not rely on veterinary advice in choosing their pet’s diet. We also hypothesized that these owners would have lower levels of trust in veterinary advice with respect to nutrition relative to pet owners not feeding RAP. Methods An anonymous web-based survey was developed to identify pet owner motivations for feeding RAP diets, and to characterize the veterinarian-client relationships of individuals feeding RAP diets. Results There were 2,337 respondents and 2,171 completed surveys. Of survey respondents, 804 reported feeding RAP at the time of the survey. While 20% of pet owners feeding RAP relied on online resources to determine what or how much RAP to feed, only 9% reported consulting with a veterinarian in making decisions about feeding RAP. Pet owners feeding RAP reported lower levels of trust in veterinary advice both ‘in general’ and ‘with respect to nutrition’ than pet owners not feeding RAP. Most pet owners reported that a discussion regarding their pet’s nutrition does not occur at every veterinary appointment. Discussion Pet owners feeding a RAP diet have lower trust in veterinary advice than pet owners not feeding a RAP diet. Owners feeding RAP are more reliant on online resources than their own veterinarian in deciding what and how much RAP to feed. Pet owners perceive that nutrition is not discussed at most veterinary appointments. Therefore, there is room for improvement in the veterinarian-client communication with regards to nutrition.
Landau, Ruth E; Beck, Alan; Glickman, Larry T; Litster, Annette; Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Moore, George E
Veterinary schools and colleges generally include communication skills training in their professional curriculum, but few programs address challenges resulting from language gaps between pet owners and practitioners. Due to shifting US demographics, small animal veterinary practices must accommodate an increasing number of limited English proficient (LEP) Spanish-speaking pet owners (SSPOs). A national survey was conducted to assess the interest and preparedness of US veterinary students to communicate with LEP SSPOs when they graduate. This online survey, with more than 2,000 first-, second-, and third-year US veterinary students, revealed that over 50% of students had worked at a practice or shelter that had LEP Spanish-speaking clients. Yet fewer than 20% of these students described themselves as prepared to give medical information to an LEP SSPO. Over three-fourths of respondents agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for veterinarians in general, and two-thirds agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for themselves personally. Ninety percent of students who described themselves as conversant in Spanish agreed that they would be able to communicate socially with SSPOs, while only 55% said they would be able to communicate medically with such clients. Overall, two-thirds of students expressed interest in taking Spanish for Veterinary Professionals elective course while in school, with the strongest interest expressed by those with advanced proficiency in spoken Spanish. Bridging language gaps has the potential to improve communication with LEP SSPOs in the veterinary clinical setting and to improve patient care, client satisfaction, and the economic health of the veterinary profession.
Veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods must be monitored to ensure food safety, verify proper veterinary practices, enforce legal limits in domestic and imported foods, and other purposes. A common goal in drug residue analysis in foods is to achieve acceptable monitoring results for as m...
Gibbins, John D; MacMahon, Kathleen
Veterinary clinic employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to provide a safe and healthy workplace. Clinic members are responsible for consistently using safe practices and procedures set up by their employer. Development and implementation of a customized comprehensive workplace safety and health program is emphasized, including an infection control plan. Occupational safety and health regulations are reviewed. The hazards of sharps, animal bites and scratches, and drugs are discussed. Strategies to prevent or minimize adverse health effects and resources for training and education are provided. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Background The effect of health information technology (HIT on efficiency and workload among clinical and nonclinical staff has been debated, with conflicting evidence about whether electronic health records (EHRs increase or decrease effort. None of this paper to date, however, examines the effect of interoperability quantitatively using discrete event simulation techniques.Objective To estimate the impact of EHR systems with various levels of interoperability on day-to-day tasks and operations of ambulatory physician offices.Methods Interviews and observations were used to collect workflow data from 12 adult primary and specialty practices. A discrete event simulation model was constructed to represent patient flows and clinical and administrative tasks of physicians and staff members.Results High levels of EHR interoperability were associated with reduced time spent by providers on four tasks: preparing lab reports, requesting lab orders, prescribing medications, and writing referrals. The implementation of an EHR was associated with less time spent by administrators but more time spent by physicians, compared with time spent at paper-based practices. In addition, the presence of EHRs and of interoperability did not significantly affect the time usage of registered nurses or the total visit time and waiting time of patients.Conclusion This paper suggests that the impact of using HIT on clinical and nonclinical staff work efficiency varies, however, overall it appears to improve time efficiency more for administrators than for physicians and nurses.
Regan, Annette K; Gibbs, Robyn A; Effler, Paul V
To evaluate the reliability of information in general practice (GP) electronic health records (EHRs), 2100 adult patients were randomly selected for interview regarding the presence of specific medical conditions and recent influenza vaccination. Agreement between self-report and data extracted from EHRs was compared using Cohen's kappa coefficient (k) and interpreted in accordance with Altman's Kappa Benchmarking criteria; 377 (18%) patients declined participation, and 608 (29%) could not be contacted. Of 1115 (53%) remaining, 856 (77%) were active patients (≥3 visits to the GP practice in the last two years) who provided complete information for analysis. Although a higher proportion of patients self-reported being vaccinated or having a medical condition compared to the EHR (50.7% vs 36.9%, and 39.4% vs 30.3%, respectively), there was "good" agreement between self-report and EHR for both vaccination status (κ = 0.67) and medical conditions (κ = 0.66). These findings suggest EHR may be useful for public health surveillance. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This is the Special Issue of Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. that summarizes the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto, Brazil. The 8 th IVIS highlighted the importance of veterinary immunology for animal health, vaccinology, reproducti...
Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Fraile, Lorenzo
The emergence of resistance in food animals has been associated to the consumption of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine. Consequently, monitoring programs have been designed to monitor the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. This study analyses the amount of antimicrobial agents...... antimicrobial classes. Substantial differences between countries were observed in the amount of antimicrobials used to produce 1kg of meat. Moreover, large variations in proportions of resistant bacteria were reported by the different countries, suggesting differences in veterinary practice. Despite...
Effective leadership, strong teamwork and the client journey all formed key themes at this year's congress of the Society of Practising Veterinary Surgeons and the Veterinary Practice Management Association. The congress, the third the two organisations have held jointly, discussed a variety of management topics for vets, practice managers and other members of the veterinary team, with a view to making their practices better places to work in and for clients to visit. British Veterinary Association.
Page-Jones, S; Abbey, G
This research investigates vet and vet nurse career identity through the qualitative methodology of narrative enquiry. It derives learning and understanding from these empirical data to assist the veterinary profession to adjust to the changing industry landscape. Through a case series of 20 vets and vet nurses' career stories, this paper seeks understanding about career identity and its impact on individuals and organisations in the light of industry consolidation. Findings suggest that career is central to identity for many veterinary professionals who tend to have a strong sense of self; this is particularly evident around self as learner and technically competent, teacher and educator, ethical and moral and dedicated and resilient. Consequently, mismatches between 'who I am' and 'what I do' tend not to lead to identity customisation (to fit self into role or organisation) but to the search for alternative, more identity-compatible employment. This study offers a valuable insight for employers, veterinary professionals and universities. It suggests that businesses can gain competitive advantage and employees achieve validation and enrichment by working towards organisational and individual identity congruence and that teaching veterinary professionals with contemporary business in mind may develop graduates with a more sustainable identity. British Veterinary Association.
Musk, Gabrielle C; Collins, Teresa; Hosgood, Giselle
In veterinary medical education, reduction, replacement, and refinement (the three Rs) must be considered. Three clinical skills in anesthesia were identified as challenging to students: endotracheal intubation, intravenous catheterization, and drug dose calculations. The aims of this project were to evaluate students' perception of their level of confidence in performing these three clinical skills in veterinary anesthesia, to document the extent of students' previous experience in performing these three tasks, and to describe students' emotional states during this training. Veterinary students completed a series of four surveys over the period of their pre-clinical training to evaluate the usefulness of high-fidelity models for skill acquisition in endotracheal intubation and intravenous catheterization. In addition, practice and ongoing assessment in drug dose calculations were performed. The curriculum during this period of training progressed from lectures and non-animal training, to anesthesia of pigs undergoing surgery from which they did not recover, and finally to anesthesia of dogs and cats in a neutering clinic. The level of confidence for each of the three clinical skills increased over the study period. For each skill, the number of students with no confidence decreased to zero and the proportion of students with higher levels of confidence increased. The high-fidelity models for endotracheal intubation and intravenous catheterization used to complement the live-animal teaching were considered a useful adjunct to the teaching of clinical skills in veterinary anesthesia. With practice, students became more confident performing drug dose calculations.
Surjan, Y.; Ostwald, P.; Milross, C.; Warren-Forward, H.
Objective: To examine current knowledge and the level of compliance of radiation safety principles in equine veterinary clinics within Australia. Method: Surveys were sent to equine veterinary surgeons working in Australia. The survey was delivered both online and in hardcopy format; it comprised 49 questions, 15 of these directly related to radiation safety. The participants were asked about their current and previous use of radiation-producing equipment. Information regarding their level of knowledge and application of radiation safety principles and practice standards was collected and analysed. Results: The use of radiation-producing equipment was evident in 94% of responding clinics (a combination of X-ray, CT and/or Nuclear Medicine Cameras). Of those with radiation-producing equipment, 94% indicated that they hold a radiation licence, 78% had never completed a certified radiation safety course and 19% of participants did not use a personal radiation monitor. In 14% of cases, radiation safety manuals or protocols were not available within clinics. Conclusions: The study has shown that knowledge and application of guidelines as provided by the Code of Practice for Radiation Protection in Veterinary Medicine (2009) is poorly adhered to. The importance of compliance with regulatory requirements is pivotal in minimising occupational exposure to ionising radiation in veterinary medicine, thus there is a need for increased education and training in the area. - Highlights: • Application of the Code of Practice for Veterinary Medicine is poorly adhered to. • Majority of veterinary clinics had not completed certified radiation safety course. • One-fifth of participants did not use personal radiation monitoring. • Increased education and training in area of radiation safety and protection required to generate compliance in clinics
Coyne, L A; Latham, S M; Williams, N J; Dawson, S; Donald, I J; Pearson, R B; Smith, R F; Pinchbeck, G L
The use of antimicrobials in food-producing animals has been linked with the emergence of antimicrobial resistance in bacterial populations, with consequences for animal and public health. This study explored the underpinning drivers, motivators and reasoning behind prescribing decisions made by veterinary surgeons working in the UK pig industry. A qualitative interview study was conducted with 21 veterinary surgeons purposively selected from all UK pig veterinary surgeons. Thematic analysis was used to analyse transcripts. Ensuring optimum pig health and welfare was described as a driver for antimicrobial use by many veterinary surgeons and was considered a professional and moral obligation. Veterinary surgeons also exhibited a strong sense of social responsibility over the need to ensure that antimicrobial use was responsible. A close relationship between management practices, health and economics was evident, with improvements in management commonly identified as being potential routes to reduce antimicrobial usage; however, these were not always considered economically viable. The relationship with clients was identified as being a source of professional stress for practitioners due to pressure from farmers requesting antimicrobial prescriptions, and concern over poor compliance of antimicrobial administration by some farmers. The drivers behind prescribing decisions by veterinary surgeons were complex and diverse. A combination of education, improving communication between veterinary surgeons and farmers, and changes in regulations, in farm management and in consumer/retailer demands may all be needed to ensure that antimicrobial prescribing is optimal and to achieve significant reductions in use. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.
Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J; Pakozdy, Akos; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Pumarola, Martí Batlle; Rusbridge, Clare; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A
Dogs with epilepsy are among the commonest neurological patients in veterinary practice and therefore have historically attracted much attention with regard to definitions, clinical approach and management. A number of classification proposals for canine epilepsy have been published during the years
Meulen, van der J.; Werf, van der J.T.N.; Kijlstra, A.
Disease prevalence and veterinary treatments in organic animal production differ from those in conventional systems. In order to gather information about current current practices in organic layer husbandry, 33 organic egg producers of 16 small, 12 medium-sized and 5 large farms were asked to
Malone, Erin; Spieth, Amie
Team-Based Learning (TBL) maximizes class time for student practice in complex problems using peer learning in an instructor-guided format. Generally entire courses are structured using the comprehensive guidelines of TBL. We used TBL in a subsection of a veterinary course to determine if it remained effective in this format. One section of the…
Dalton, Joseph C.; Robinson, James Q.; DeJarnette, J. M.
Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle is a critical career skill for veterinarians interested in food animal practice. Consequently, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Student Chapter of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Select Sires, and University of Idaho Extension have partnered to offer an intensive 2-day course to…
All parts of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. (Fabaceae) is used in tropical Africa for numerous ethno-medical and traditional veterinary practices. The leaf is ichthyotoxic and has been used as insecticide, rodenticide and anthelminthic. It has also been used as abortifacient and to induce menses. The leaf macerate is purgative and ...
Leykum, Luci K; McDaniel, Reuben R
Objective Despite efforts made by ambulatory care organizations to standardize the use of electronic health records (EHRs), practices often incorporate these systems into their work differently from each other. One potential factor contributing to these differences is within-practice communication patterns. The authors explore the linkage between within-practice communication patterns and practice-level EHR use patterns. Design Qualitative study of six practices operating within the same multi-specialty ambulatory care organization using the same EHR system. Semistructured interviews and direct observation were conducted with all physicians, nurses, medical assistants, practice managers, and non-clinical staff from each practice. Measurements An existing model of practice relationships was used to analyze communication patterns within the practices. Practice-level EHR use was defined and analyzed as the ways in which a practice uses an EHR as a collective or a group—including the degree of feature use, level of EHR-enabled communication, and frequency that EHR use changes in a practice. Interview and observation data were analyzed for themes. Based on these themes, within-practice communication patterns were categorized as fragmented or cohesive, and practice-level EHR use patterns were categorized as heterogeneous or homogeneous. Practices where EHR use was uniformly high across all users were further categorized as having standardized EHR use. Communication patterns and EHR use patterns were compared across the six practices. Results Within-practice communication patterns were associated with practice-level EHR use patterns. In practices where communication patterns were fragmented, EHR use was heterogeneous. In practices where communication patterns were cohesive, EHR use was homogeneous. Additional analysis revealed that practices that had achieved standardized EHR use (uniformly high EHR use across all users) exhibited high levels of mindfulness and
Same organization, same electronic health records (EHRs) system, different use: exploring the linkage between practice member communication patterns and EHR use patterns in an ambulatory care setting.
Lanham, Holly Jordan; Leykum, Luci K; McDaniel, Reuben R
Despite efforts made by ambulatory care organizations to standardize the use of electronic health records (EHRs), practices often incorporate these systems into their work differently from each other. One potential factor contributing to these differences is within-practice communication patterns. The authors explore the linkage between within-practice communication patterns and practice-level EHR use patterns. Qualitative study of six practices operating within the same multi-specialty ambulatory care organization using the same EHR system. Semistructured interviews and direct observation were conducted with all physicians, nurses, medical assistants, practice managers, and non-clinical staff from each practice. An existing model of practice relationships was used to analyze communication patterns within the practices. Practice-level EHR use was defined and analyzed as the ways in which a practice uses an EHR as a collective or a group-including the degree of feature use, level of EHR-enabled communication, and frequency that EHR use changes in a practice. Interview and observation data were analyzed for themes. Based on these themes, within-practice communication patterns were categorized as fragmented or cohesive, and practice-level EHR use patterns were categorized as heterogeneous or homogeneous. Practices where EHR use was uniformly high across all users were further categorized as having standardized EHR use. Communication patterns and EHR use patterns were compared across the six practices. Within-practice communication patterns were associated with practice-level EHR use patterns. In practices where communication patterns were fragmented, EHR use was heterogeneous. In practices where communication patterns were cohesive, EHR use was homogeneous. Additional analysis revealed that practices that had achieved standardized EHR use (uniformly high EHR use across all users) exhibited high levels of mindfulness and respectful interaction, whereas practices that
Hernández-Ruiz, L.; Jimenez-Flores, Y.; Rivera-Montalvo, T.; Arias-Cisneros, L.; Méndez-Aguilar, R.E.; Uribe-Izquierdo, P.
This paper presents the results of Environmental and Personnel Dosimetry made in a radiology area of a veterinary hospital. Dosimetry was realized using thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Environmental Dosimetry results show that areas closer to the X-ray equipment are safe. Personnel Dosimetry shows important measurements of daily workday in some persons near to the limit established by ICRP. TL results of radiation measurement suggest TLDs are good candidates as a dosimeter to radiation dosimetry in veterinary radiology. - Highlights: ► Personnel dosimetry in laboratory veterinary diagnostic was determined. ► Student workplaces are safe against radiation. ► Efficiency value of apron lead was determined. ► X-ray beams distribution into veterinarian laboratory was measured.
Clausen, Jürgen; Albrecht, Henning
The aim of the present report is to provide an overview of the first database on clinical research in veterinary homeopathy. Detailed searches in the database 'Veterinary Clinical Research-Database in Homeopathy' (http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/clinresvet/index.php). The database contains about 200 entries of randomised clinical trials, non-randomised clinical trials, observational studies, drug provings, case reports and case series. Twenty-two clinical fields are covered and eight different groups of species are included. The database is free of charge and open to all interested veterinarians and researchers. The database enables researchers and veterinarians, sceptics and supporters to get a quick overview of the status of veterinary clinical research in homeopathy and alleviates the preparation of systematical reviews or may stimulate reproductions or even new studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harris, Donna L; Lloyd, James W; Marrinan, Mike
The Skills, Knowledge, Aptitude, and Attitude (SKA) Subcommittee of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues (NCVEI) has identified the need for veterinary teaching hospitals (VTH) to be at the forefront of progressive business management to serve as a model for both students and practitioners to emulate. To provide a foundation for developing a model, this study reviewed pertinent literature applicable to the management of a VTH. Much of the literature relevant to VTH management relates to work completed for the human side of medicine (academic health centers, or AHCs) or to the private sector. This review explores management practices in strategic planning, financial management, human resource management, marketing, pricing, operations, and legal issues. It is concluded that strategic management is important to provide the foundation for success in the VTH. In addition, periodic financial reports are recommended, as are the development and use of benchmarks for financial management. Establishing positive, motivating human resource practices is also suggested, along with development of a marketing plan based on a clear understanding of VTH core competencies and the market's specific needs.
Baars, J C
Veterinary medicines constitute an unescapable element in the scheme of animal health and welfare. Nowadays, they are used more and more to improve health and productivity in farm animals. When a veterinary medicine is prescribed it must not only be effective but must also be safe for both animals and humans. Due to ever changing regulations and constant improvements in residue detection techniques it is necessary to conduct new investigations with existing products. It therefore costs a great deal of time and money to introduce, and maintain, a product in the market. In future, therefore, fewer medicines with more limited indications will be introduced and these will be to combat important production disorders in the more significant species only. In view of the above, research and production will be restricted to large, international, concerns. Due to our well structured agricultural industry and the existence of well organized and equipped veterinary research institutions, and practitioners, Holland is able to play an important role in the development of veterinary medicines. Close co-operation between all involved parties coupled with an efficient registration procedure is not ony of benefit to the veterinary pharmaceutical industry but also for international recognition of our national animal husbandry industry, ancillary industries and veterinary and other consultants. In this scheme of things the accent is not upon qualifications but upon the skills of veterinarians - wherever placed - who are involved in the administration of veterinary medicines.
Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Muñana, Karen
with the initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug...... treatment protocols, 1) is based on current published evidence-based literature, 2) considers the current legal framework of the cascade regulation for the prescription of veterinary drugs in Europe, and 3) reflects the authors' experience. With this paper it is aimed to provide a consensus...
Miller, Robert E. (Robin)
In acoustic spaces that are played as extensions of musical instruments, tonality is a major contributor to the experience of reality. Tonality is described as a process of integration in our consciousness over the reverberation time of the room of many sonic arrivals in three dimensions, each directionally coded in a learned response by the listeners unique head-related transfer function (HRTF). Preserving this complex 3D directionality is key to lifelike reproduction of a recording. Conventional techniques such as stereo or 5.1-channel surround sound position the listener at the apex of a triangle or the center of a circle, not the center of the sphere of lifelike hearing. A periphonic reproduction system for music and movie entertainment, Virtual Reality, and Training Simulation termed PerAmbio 3D/2D (Pat. pending) is described in theory and subjective tests that capture the 3D sound field with a microphone array and transform the periphonic signals into ordinary 6-channel media for either decoderless 2D replay on 5.1 systems, or lossless 3D replay with decoder and five additional speakers. PerAmbio 3D/2D is described as a practical approach to preserving the spatial perception of reality, where the listening room and speakers disappear, leaving the acoustical impression of the original venue.
Michele C. Lim
Full Text Available Purpose. To examine financial and clinical work productivity outcomes associated with the use of the electronic health record (EHR. Methods. 191,360 billable clinical encounters were analyzed for 12 clinical providers over a 9-year study period during which an EHR was implemented. Main outcome measures were clinical revenues collected per provider and secondary outcomes were charge capture, patient visit coding levels, transcription costs, patient visit volume per provider, digital drawing, and digital imaging volume. Results. The difference in inflation adjusted net clinical revenue per provider per year did not change significantly in the period after EHR implementation (mean = $404,198; SD = $17,912 than before (mean = $411,420; SD = $39,366 (P=0.746. Charge capture, the proportion of higher- and lower-level visit codes for new and established patients, and patient visits per provider remained stable. A total savings of $188,951 in transcription costs occurred over a 4-year time period post-EHR implementation. The rate of drawing the ophthalmic exam in the EHR was low (mean = 2.28%; SD = 0.05% for all providers. Conclusions. This study did not show a clear financial gain after EHR implementation in an academic ophthalmology practice. Ophthalmologists do not rely on drawings to document the ophthalmic exam; instead, the ophthalmic exam becomes text-driven in a paperless world.
This article discusses the findings of a study that was conducted between February 2013 and November 2013 to determine the inter-connectedness between records and archives management practices for religious archives within the Pietermaritzburg Cluster of Theological libraries (PCTL). It is important to note that much of our national heritage is recorded in the archives of our religious institutions, hence the need to ensure that a continuum of care is provided for this Christian heritage from...
Stahl, Scott J
The reptile veterinarian should approach the breeder with a comprehensive plan involving a review of proper husbandry, nutrition, record keeping, and a thorough prebreeding evaluation of the snakes. In addition, an evaluation of the reproductive strategy, assistance with confirming and monitoring gestation, and a review of potential reproductive complications will help to prepare the snake owner for a successful breeding season.
Williams, Rachael; van Staa, Tjeerd-Pieter; Gallagher, Arlene M; Hammad, Tarek; Leufkens, Hubert G M; de Vries, Frank
Conflicting results from studies using electronic health records to evaluate the associations between type 2 diabetes and cancer fuel concerns regarding potential biases. This study aimed to describe completeness of cancer recording in UK primary care data linked to hospital admissions records. Patients aged 40+ years with insulin or oral antidiabetic prescriptions in Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) primary care without type 1 diabetes were matched by age, sex and general practitioner practice to non-diabetics. Those eligible for linkage to Hospital Episode Statistics Admitted Patient Care (HES APC), and with follow-up during April 1997-December 2006 were included. Cancer recording and date of first record of cancer were compared. Characteristics of patients with cancer most likely to have the diagnosis recorded only in a single data source were assessed. Relative rates of cancer estimated from the two datasets were compared. 53 585 patients with type 2 diabetes matched to 47 435 patients without diabetes were included. Of all cancers (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer) recorded in CPRD, 83% were recorded in HES APC. 94% of cases in HES APC were recorded in CPRD. Concordance was lower when restricted to same-site cancer records, and was negatively associated with increasing age. Relative rates for cancer were similar in both datasets. Good concordance in cancer recording was found between CPRD and HES APC among type 2 diabetics and matched controls. Linked data may reduce misclassification and increase case ascertainment when analysis focuses on site-specific cancers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa
The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples
Wood, Cheryl L; Tanner, Benjamin D; Higgins, Laura A; Dennis, Jeffrey S; Luempert, Louis G
To evaluate whether the application of steam to a variety of surface types in a veterinary hospital would effectively reduce the number of bacteria. 5 surface types. Steam was applied as a surface treatment for disinfection to 18 test sites of 5 surface types in a veterinary hospital. A pretreatment sample was obtained by collection of a swab specimen from the left side of each defined test surface. Steam disinfection was performed on the right side of each test surface, and a posttreatment sample was then collected in the same manner from the treated (right) side of each test surface. Total bacteria for pretreatment and posttreatment samples were quantified by heterotrophic plate counts and for Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas spp, and total coliforms by counts on selective media. Significant reductions were observed in heterotrophic plate counts after steam application to dog runs and dog kennel floors. A significant reduction in counts of Pseudomonas spp was observed after steam application to tub sinks. Bacterial counts were reduced, but not significantly, on most other test surfaces that had adequate pretreatment counts for quantification. Development of health-care-associated infections is of increasing concern in human and veterinary medicine. The application of steam significantly reduced bacterial numbers on a variety of surfaces within a veterinary facility. Steam disinfection may prove to be an alternative or adjunct to chemical disinfection within veterinary practices.
Full Text Available Abstract There have been few formal studies on stress in veterinary surgeons and, in the rare studies available, stress is not examined jointly through the levels of job strain and job engagement, the sources of stress in the issue of work environment and the work-home interference. The authors' goal in this study was to analyse job engagement, job strain, burnout, work-home interference and job stress factors among 216 Belgian veterinary surgeons. Rural practice was compared to small animal and mixed activity. The mean job strain and job engagement level in veterinary surgeons was not higher than what we found in other working populations. However, 15.6% of the group were found to be suffering from high burnout. Rural practitioners had a lower level of job engagement than small animal veterinary surgeons. These small animal practitioners had a lower level of job strain than the mixed practitioners. The level of burnout did not differ significantly across the three types of activity. In comparison to other Belgian and Dutch workers, veterinary surgeons perceived more negative work-home interference. Bovine and mixed practitioners were the most concerned with this problem. The two most important sources of stress reported by bovine practitioners were relations to farmers and working time management (including emergencies and availability.
Hansez, I; Schins, F; Rollin, F
There have been few formal studies on stress in veterinary surgeons and, in the rare studies available, stress is not examined jointly through the levels of job strain and job engagement, the sources of stress in the issue of work environment and the work-home interference. The authors' goal in this study was to analyse job engagement, job strain, burnout, work-home interference and job stress factors among 216 Belgian veterinary surgeons. Rural practice was compared to small animal and mixed activity. The mean job strain and job engagement level in veterinary surgeons was not higher than what we found in other working populations. However, 15.6% of the group were found to be suffering from high burnout. Rural practitioners had a lower level of job engagement than small animal veterinary surgeons. These small animal practitioners had a lower level of job strain than the mixed practitioners. The level of burnout did not differ significantly across the three types of activity. In comparison to other Belgian and Dutch workers, veterinary surgeons perceived more negative work-home interference. Bovine and mixed practitioners were the most concerned with this problem. The two most important sources of stress reported by bovine practitioners were relations to farmers and working time management (including emergencies and availability).
Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples
Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J
the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed consensus, "a common language", for the classification and terminology used between veterinary and human...... neurologists and neuroscientists, practitioners, neuropharmacologists and neuropathologists. This has led to an unfortunate situation where different veterinary publications and textbook chapters on epilepsy merely reflect individual author preferences with respect to terminology, which can be confusing...... to the readers and influence the definition and diagnosis of epilepsy in first line practice and research studies.In this document the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force (IVETF) discusses current understanding of canine epilepsy and presents our 2015 proposal for terminology and classification...
Poehling, Katherine A; Vannoy, Lauren; Peters, Timothy R
The North Carolina Immunization Registry (NCIR) has been available since 2004. We sought to measure its utilization among practices that provide primary care for children who are enrolled in a prospective influenza surveillance study. This study included children aged 0.5-17 years who presented with fever or acute respiratory symptoms to an emergency department or inpatient setting in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, from September 1, 2009, through May 19, 2010. Study team members verified influenza and pneumococcal immunization status by requesting records from each child's primary care practice and by independently reviewing the NCIR. We assessed agreement of nonregistry immunization medical records with NCIR data using the kappa statistic. Fifty-six practices confirmed the immunization status of 292 study-enrolled children. For most children (238/292, 82%), practices verified the child's immunizations by providing a copy of the NCIR record. For 54 children whose practices verified their immunizations by providing practice records alone, agreement with the NCIR by the kappa statistic was 0.6-0.7 for seasonal and monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccines and 0.8-0.9 for pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines. A total of 221 (98%) of 226 enrolled children younger than 6 years of age had 2 or more immunizations documented in the NCIR. NCIR usage may vary in other regions of North Carolina. More than 95% of children younger than 6 years of age had 2 or more immunizations documented in the NCIR; thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010 goal for immunization information systems was met in this population. We found substantial agreement between practice records and the NCIR for influenza and pneumococcal immunizations in children.
Full Text Available Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.
When graduating from veterinary school, veterinary professionals must be ready to enter the complex veterinary profession. Therefore, one of the major responsibilities of any veterinary school is to develop training programmes that support students’ competency development on the trajectory from
A well-attended session at this year's joint SPVS/VPMA congress considered what lessons the medical and veterinary professions might learn from one another. Laura Honey reports. British Veterinary Association.
services, and black-market drug dealers were found to be challengers associated .... veterinary service, private veterinarians, traditional healers and NGOs mainly ... timeliness, effectiveness and affordability of the veterinary service providers.
In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...
Full Text Available The Melbourne East MonAsh GeNeral PracticE DaTabase (MAGNET research platform was launched in 2013 to provide a unique data source for primary care and health services research in Australia. MAGNET contains information from the computerised records of 50 participating general practices and includes data from the computerised medical records of more than 1,100,000 patients. The data extracted is patient-level episodic information and includes a variety of fields related to patient demographics and historical clinical information, along with the characteristics of the participating general practices. While there are limitations to the data that is currently available, the MAGNET research platform continues to investigate other avenues for improving the breadth and quality of data, with the aim of providing a more comprehensive picture of primary care in Australia
Mazza, Danielle; Pearce, Christopher; Turner, Lyle Robert; De Leon-Santiago, Maria; McLeod, Adam; Ferriggi, Jason; Shearer, Marianne
The Melbourne East MonAsh GeNeral PracticE DaTabase (MAGNET) research platform was launched in 2013 to provide a unique data source for primary care and health services research in Australia. MAGNET contains information from the computerised records of 50 participating general practices and includes data from the computerised medical records of more than 1,100,000 patients. The data extracted is patient-level episodic information and includes a variety of fields related to patient demographics and historical clinical information, along with the characteristics of the participating general practices. While there are limitations to the data that is currently available, the MAGNET research platform continues to investigate other avenues for improving the breadth and quality of data, with the aim of providing a more comprehensive picture of primary care in Australia.
Samadi, Sadegh; Spithoven, Jack; Jamshidifard, Ali-Reza; Berends, Boyd R; Lipman, Len; Heederik, Dick J J; Wouters, Inge M
Veterinary medicine students who practice with animals are potentially exposed to many occupational agents, yet sensitisation and allergic symptoms among this group have not been studied extensively. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sensitisation and allergic symptoms in veterinary medicine students in association with study specialisation over time. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Blood was collected and tested for total and specific serum IgE for 16 different common and study-specific allergens using enzyme immunoassay. New development of self-reported allergic symptoms to various allergens occurred in 8.7%, of which 44% was deducted against animals. Handling farm animals was strongly associated with self-reported allergies to various allergens (OR=6.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 25) and animal allergens (OR=12, 95% CI 1.4 to 103). Sensitisation to at least one allergen occurred in 33.1%. Sensitisation prevalence tended to be elevated in later years of the equine study program. In contrast to self-reported allergies, the prevalence of sensitisation to any allergen decreased with prolonged study duration for those specialising in farm animal health (years 3-5: OR=0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 1.1; year 6: OR=0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5). This was independent of whether people were raised on a farm, which is in itself a protective factor for allergy and sensitisation. This study provides evidence of an elevated prevalence of allergic symptoms with increasing years of veterinary study, suggesting that contact with animals, more specifically contact to farm animals, is a risk factor for the development of symptoms.
Castro, S M; Armitage-Chan, E
It is widely reported that the veterinary profession is becoming increasingly female-dominated, but there are concerns that this is not represented in positions of leadership. Although there are well-documented data describing the under-representation of women in various senior veterinary positions (academic deans, practice owners, positions on professional councils and corporate boards), it is less clear why this occurs. Although likely multifactorial, the relative contributions from a gender divide in intent to pursue leadership positions, women being dissuaded from considering senior roles, or differences in success rate (e.g. in leadership appointments), are unknown. This study was performed to investigate whether there is a gender divide among veterinary students in intent to pursue a leadership role and also to explore other influencing factors in career aspiration in veterinary students. Students from five UK veterinary schools were surveyed using an electronically distributed questionnaire. Career aspiration and leadership ambition were identified as being influenced by gender, with a greater proportion of male students (83 per cent) than female students (73 per cent) indicating they aspired to owning a practice. Career aspiration was also positively influenced by self-esteem, confidence and previously holding a position in the students' union or other club or society; however, all of these were also more apparent in male students than female students. Career aspiration also appeared to be influenced by year of study, with a decline seen at each increasing student year group, and this was unrelated to gender or self-esteem. British Veterinary Association.
Renda-Francis, Lori A.
Program directors of American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) accredited veterinary technician programs may have little or no training in leadership. The need for program directors of AVMA-accredited veterinary technician programs to understand how leadership traits may have an impact on student success is often overlooked. The purpose of…
Swan, G E; Kriek, N P J
Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa. Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and agricultural economies of countries worldwide. Veterinary education, postgraduate training, and research, and adequate numbers of veterinarians, are essential to satisfy the millennium development goals, the objectives of NEPAD and the African Union, and the agreements regulating international trade. The relevance of the veterinary profession internationally is currently subject to profound scrutiny. Its contributions are assessed against major environmental, demographic, political, disease, technological and economic needs. The scope of veterinary training in future will have to emphasise veterinary public health, food safety, emerging diseases, international trade, bioterrorism, and biomedical research, within the context of a one-health system focusing on the interface between wildlife, domesticated animals, humans, and their environment. Within the context of time available, it would mean reducing the time allocated to training in the field of companion animals. A brief history and scope of veterinary education; current international trends in veterinary education and provisioning; and some perspectives on future veterinary training and initiatives applicable to Africa are provided.
... the veterinary profession: A study of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria. ... the university, however only 33.7% believed that they obtain veterinary services ... of the opinion that both veterinary and medical students study similar courses. ... that veterinarians, pharmacists and physicians can work together in the Food ...
Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake
Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234
.... FDA-2013-N-1380] Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination AGENCY: Food... announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. This document removes the Veterinary Advisory Committee from the Agency's list of standing advisory committees. DATES: This rule is...
... 558 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0155] Veterinary Feed Directive; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food... veterinary feed directive (VFD) regulation. The agency is taking this action in response to requests for an... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration, 7500...
... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0093] RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Correcting Amendment..., Docket No. APHIS-2006-0093), and effective on February 1, 2010, we amended the National Veterinary... Veterinary Accreditation Program, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 200, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851-3401...
...] Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory... Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary practitioners and animal... FROM PREPARATION PURSUANT TO AN UNSUSPENDED AND UNREVOKED LICENSE § 107.1 Veterinary practitioners and...)(1) Products prepared by a veterinary practitioner (veterinarian) solely for administration to...
...] Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory..., Rockville, MD 20852, 301-468-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3...
Henry, Colette; Treanor, Lorna
Purpose: This paper has the purpose of exploring the potential for entrepreneurship education within veterinary medicine. It aims to examine some of the key themes in the entrepreneurship education literature, discuss the make-up of the UK veterinary sector, consider veterinary curricula requirements and illustrate how entrepreneurship education…
Horzinek, M.C.; Venker-van Haagen, Anjop
On November 19, the Federation of Veterinarians in Europe (FVE) issued a policy statement urging its 200,000 members "to work only on the basis of scientifically proven and evidence-based methods and to stay away from non-evidence-based methods." The Swedish Veterinary Association banned its members
Ducrot, C.; Calavas, D.; Legay, J.-M.
One of the main goals of veterinary epidemiology is to analyse the determinants of disease, commonly called risk factors. The analysis of such systems is usually based on a pluridisciplinary approach, a planned observation of the natural state, and a judicious use of various methods to analyse...
Harkness, John E.
A prose text in veterinary medicine can be arranged and supplemented to facilitate efficient and effective acquisition into short-term memory. Methods include: variation in textual format; relating new information to previous knowledge and future goals; providing specific, test-relevant objectives or introductions, describing mnemonic devices; and…
Author Guidelines. The Editorial Board of the Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (SJVS) wishes to invite research articles, case reports and review articles for ... be accompanied by a cover letter verifying that the final manuscript has been seen and approved by all authors and transferring copyright ownership to SJVS.
Erin E. Kerby, MSI
Conclusions: Lacking a standard definition of ‘‘research data’’ and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.
Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...
at Veterinary anatomy education. The objective was to assess the importance of student participation in skeletal preparation. The hypothesis that the students would be more interested in the discipline if the teaching methodology used is based on creative and constructivist methods. Thirteen animal skeletons were ...
Cancer constitutes the major health problem both in human and veterinary medicine. Comparative oncology as an integrative approach offers to learn more about naturally occurring cancers across different species. Canine models have many advantages as they experience spontaneous disease, have many genes similar ...
van Thielen, B.; Siguenza, F.; Hassan, B.
The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in imaging dogs and cats for diagnostic dental veterinary applications. CBCT scans of heads of six dogs and two cats were made. Dental panoramic and multi-planar reformatted (MPR) para-sagittal
Backues, Kay; Clyde, Vickie; Denver, Mary; Fiorello, Christine; Hilsenroth, Rob; Lamberski, Nadine; Larson, Scott; Meehan, Tom; Murray, Mike; Ramer, Jan; Ramsay, Ed; Suedmeyer, Kirk; Whiteside, Doug
These guidelines for veterinary medical care and veterinary hospitals are written to conform with the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act, which states that programs of disease prevention and parasite control, euthanasia, and adequate veterinary care shall be established and maintained under the supervision of a veterinarian. Ideally the zoo and aquarium should be providing the best possible veterinary medical care for the animals in their collections. Many of these animals are rare and endangered and the institutions should endeavor both to provide for the long term health and well being of these animals and to advance the field of non-domestic animal medicine. It is hoped that this publication will aid in this process.
... clients can reasonably be expected to pay for professional veterinary services and where food animal... the event of a discrepancy between the primary reviewer's scoring and the panel poll results, the...
Surjan, Yolanda, E-mail: Yolanda.Surjan@newcastle.edu.au [Medical Radiation Science (MRS), School of Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Warren-Forward, Helen [Medical Radiation Science (MRS), School of Health Sciences, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia); Milross, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Camperdown, Sydney (Australia)
Role expansion recognises enlargement of existing scope of practice within radiation therapy (RT). Over the past decade, there has been increasing involvement and movement towards advanced practice in the form of role extension in specialised areas of practice including brachytherapy, image fusion and quality assurance. It is also recognised that radiation therapy expert practitioners exist in the areas of imaging immobilisation, treatment, education and research. The acquisition of additional skills has hastened the need for autonomy within the RT profession and with this comes the responsibility to share our knowledge and specialist abilities with the wider community. Radiation therapy is a highly specialised profession working to treat a commonly encountered ailment like cancer and we should ask ourselves what other community members could benefit from our knowledge and skills. Cancer is not limited to the human population but affects animals as readily and severely. Particular types of cancers have been identified as being comparable with that of humans; one such tumour is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Squamous cell carcinoma is the most commonly found tumour of the eye and adnexa in horses. Comparatively, SCC in humans is the most common cancer in Australia. Whilst human treatment is well established with surgery and radiation therapy offering comparable control rates, the treatment within Australia's Veterinary Oncology field is currently at a standstill. It is reported, however, that the use of interstitial brachytherapy has been shown to be highly effective and thoroughly practiced and established within the United States of America (USA). This paper reviews current literature in readiness for the potential for radiation therapy cross-over into the veterinary sphere with regard to the implementation of treatment and radiation safety protocols for the use of interstitial brachytherapy in horses.
Surjan, Yolanda; Warren-Forward, Helen; Milross, Christopher
Role expansion recognises enlargement of existing scope of practice within radiation therapy (RT). Over the past decade, there has been increasing involvement and movement towards advanced practice in the form of role extension in specialised areas of practice including brachytherapy, image fusion and quality assurance. It is also recognised that radiation therapy expert practitioners exist in the areas of imaging immobilisation, treatment, education and research. The acquisition of additional skills has hastened the need for autonomy within the RT profession and with this comes the responsibility to share our knowledge and specialist abilities with the wider community. Radiation therapy is a highly specialised profession working to treat a commonly encountered ailment like cancer and we should ask ourselves what other community members could benefit from our knowledge and skills. Cancer is not limited to the human population but affects animals as readily and severely. Particular types of cancers have been identified as being comparable with that of humans; one such tumour is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Squamous cell carcinoma is the most commonly found tumour of the eye and adnexa in horses. Comparatively, SCC in humans is the most common cancer in Australia. Whilst human treatment is well established with surgery and radiation therapy offering comparable control rates, the treatment within Australia's Veterinary Oncology field is currently at a standstill. It is reported, however, that the use of interstitial brachytherapy has been shown to be highly effective and thoroughly practiced and established within the United States of America (USA). This paper reviews current literature in readiness for the potential for radiation therapy cross-over into the veterinary sphere with regard to the implementation of treatment and radiation safety protocols for the use of interstitial brachytherapy in horses.
Mazan, Melissa R; Kay, Gigi; Souhail, Mohammed Larbi; Bubeck, Kirstin; Jenei, Thomas; Merriam, Jay
There is an increasing need to produce veterinarians with knowledge and critical thinking skills that will allow them to participate in veterinary global health equity delivery, particularly in the developing world, where many people remain dependent on animal-based agriculture for a living. This need for veterinarians trained in global health is reflected by the demand among students for greater exposure and education. At the same time, many students are held back from on-site training in global health due to constraints of cost, time, or family obligations. The purpose of this article is to describe the use of a telemedicine approach to educating veterinary students at Tufts Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine. This approach simultaneously provides expert consultation and support for a pro bono hospital in the developing world. The development of a telemedicine teaching service is discussed, from initial ad hoc email consultation among friends and associates to a more formal use of store-and-forward delivery of data along with real-time videoconferencing on a regular basis, termed tele-rounds. The practicalities of data delivery and exchange and best use of available bandwidth are also discussed, as this very mundane information is critical to efficient and useful tele-rounds. Students are able to participate in discussion of cases that they would never see in their usual clinical sphere and to become familiar with diagnostic and treatment approaches to these cases. By having the patient "virtually" brought to us, tele-rounds also decrease the usual carbon footprint of global health delivery.
Mathie, Robert T; Hacke, Daniela; Clausen, Jürgen
Systematic review of the research evidence in veterinary homeopathy has never previously been carried out. This paper presents the search methods, together with categorised lists of retrieved records, that enable us to identify the literature that is acceptable for future systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in veterinary homeopathy. All randomised and controlled trials of homeopathic intervention (prophylaxis and/or treatment of disease, in any species except man) were appraised according to pre-specified criteria. The following databases were systematically searched from their inception up to and including March 2011: AMED; Carstens-Stiftung Homeopathic Veterinary Clinical Research (HomVetCR) database; CINAHL; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; Embase; Hom-Inform; LILACS; PubMed; Science Citation Index; Scopus. One hundred and fifty records were retrieved; 38 satisfied the acceptance criteria (substantive report of a clinical treatment or prophylaxis trial in veterinary homeopathic medicine randomised and controlled and published in a peer-reviewed journal), and were thus eligible for future planned systematic review. Approximately half of the rejected records were theses. Seven species and 27 different species-specific medical conditions were represented in the 38 papers. Similar numbers of papers reported trials of treatment and prophylaxis (n=21 and n=17 respectively) and were controlled against placebo or other than placebo (n=18, n=20 respectively). Most research focused on non-individualised homeopathy (n=35 papers) compared with individualised homeopathy (n=3). The results provide a complete and clarified view of the RCT literature in veterinary homeopathy. We will systematically review the 38 substantive peer-reviewed journal articles under the main headings: treatment trials; prophylaxis trials. Copyright © 2012 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A R G; Crous, Pedro W; Geiser, David M
Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate M; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I Anna S
Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010-2011). The content of the interview transcripts were analyzed using Toulmin's argumentative model. Ten objectives in teaching veterinary ethics were identified, which can be grouped into four overarching themes: ethical awareness, ethical knowledge, ethical skills, and individual and professional qualities. These objectives include recognizing values and ethical viewpoints, identifying norms and regulations, developing skills of communication and decision making, and contributing to a professional identity. Whereas many of the objectives complement each other, there is tension between the view that ethics teaching should promote knowledge of professional rules and the view that ethics teaching should emphasize critical reasoning skills. The wide range of objectives and the possible tensions between them highlight the challenges faced by educators as they attempt to prioritize among these goals of ethics teaching within a crowded veterinary curriculum.
Clerkin, P; Buckley, B S; Murphy, A W; MacFarlane, A E
National policies are being developed, which may limit access to patients' records for health research. This could reduce the ability of health research to benefit society as a whole. It is important to develop an in-depth understanding of people's views across demographic groups to inform such policy development. Aims. To explore patients' views about the use of their general practice records in health research with attention to gender and age. Design of study. Qualitative study using focus groups. Six General Practices in the west of Ireland. Focus Group interviews with 35 people who were patients at the practices. Overall, participants were positively inclined towards the idea of information from their records (anonymous and identifiable) being used in research for the 'greater good' although there were some concerns about personal information being 'leaked'. Males emphasized risks in relation to employment and finances, whereas females emphasized risks in relation to social discomfort and embarrassment. Participants were supportive of consent models that enable patients to give prior ongoing consent for specific agreed 'levels' of data use, affording patients self-determination without the need for consent request on study-by-study basis. Overall male and female patients of different ages are supportive of the use of their general practice records in health research and of general practitioners as data protectors.
Mardones, Fernando O; Hernandez-Jover, Marta; Berezowski, John A; Lindberg, Ann; Mazet, Jonna A K; Morris, Roger S
The One Health concept has been extensively used to describe those practices that support transdisciplinary collaborations involving animal and human health and the environment. During the past International Society of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics (ISVEE) conference in Merida (Mexico) in November 2015, a panel discussion was held to identify gaps and needs required for success with such approaches. Key messages included further development of dynamic, transdisciplinary collaborations, new mechanisms for obtaining, integrating and interpreting data from diverse sources, the identification of One Health joint priorities and resources for the veterinary and public health professions, and operationalization and institutionalization of One Health. Additionally, all abstracts that were presented at ISVEE containing the term "One Health" were identified. There has been an increase in the use of the term over time. One Health research has been presented at ISVEE since at least as early as 2009 and has been highlighted at the conference for work carried out in at least 41 countries from 69 research centers or institutions, with highly diversified articles, which reveals the richness of this field of research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Coe, Jason B; Weijs, Cynthia A; Muise, Amy; Christofides, Emily; Desmarais, Serge
Facebook has been identified as the preferred social networking site among postsecondary students. Repeated findings in the social networking literature have suggested that postsecondary students practice high personal self-disclosure on Facebook and tend not to use privacy settings that would limit public access. This study identified and reviewed Facebook profiles for 805 veterinarians-in-training enrolled at four veterinary colleges across Canada. Of these, 265 (32.9%) were categorized as having low exposure, 286 (35.5%) were categorized as having medium exposure, and 254 (31.6%) were categorized as having high exposure of information. Content analysis on a sub-sample (n=80) of the high-exposure profiles revealed publicly available unprofessional content, including indications of substance use and abuse, obscene comments, and breaches of client confidentiality. Regression analysis revealed that an increasing number of years to graduation and having a publicly visible wall were both positively associated with having a high-exposure profile. Given the rapid uptake of social media in recent years, veterinary educators should be aware of and begin to educate students on the associated risks and repercussions of blurring one's private life and one's emerging professional identity through personal online disclosures.
Cake, Martin A
The profusion of descriptive, factual information in veterinary anatomy inevitably creates pressure on students to employ surface learning approaches and "rote learning." This phenomenon may contribute to negative perceptions of the relevance of anatomy as a discipline. Thus, encouraging deep learning outcomes will not only lead to greater satisfaction for both instructors and learners but may have the added effect of raising the profile of and respect for the discipline. Consideration of the literature reveals the broad scope of interventions required to motivate students to go beyond rote learning. While many of these are common to all disciplines (e.g., promoting active learning, making higher-order goals explicit, reducing content in favor of concepts, aligning assessment with outcomes), other factors are peculiar to anatomy, such as the benefits of incorporating clinical tidbits, "living anatomy," the anatomy museum, and dissection classes into a "learning context" that fosters deep approaches. Surprisingly, the 10 interventions discussed focus more on factors contributing to student perceptions of the course than on drastic changes to the anatomy course itself. This is because many traditional anatomy practices, such as dissection and museum-based classes, are eminently compatible with active, student-centered learning strategies and the adoption of deep learning approaches by veterinary students. Thus the key to encouraging, for example, dissection for deep learning ("deep dissection") lies more in student motivation, personal engagement, curriculum structure, and "learning context" than in the nature of the learning activity itself.
Vergnano, D; Bergero, D; Valle, E
Nutrition plays a very important role in the healthy and in the ill horse. Although research in this field clearly shows that incorrect nutritional practices may lead to severe pathologies, inappropriate feeding plans often continue to be used. A clinical nutrition counselling (CNC) service could thus be of great use to both horse owners and veterinarians. The aim of this study was to provide information on equine patients referred to the CNC service of the University of Turin and to provide standard dietary protocols as used in our Veterinary Teaching Hospital for the most common nutrition-related pathologies. The data were obtained by retrospective analysis of the nutritional records of referred equine patients. The data collected included information about anamnesis, nutritional assessment, current diet, referring person and follow-up of each patient. Sixty-one horses were included in the study. The majority were adult males. The most common breeds were the Italian Saddle Horse and the Friesian Horse. Old horses (>19 years) had a statistically lower BCS than brood mares or other adult horses (p equine gastric ulcer syndrome. All horses received first-cut meadow hay; 85% also ate concentrates. Young horses (equine population. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
van der Walt, H S; Pickworth, Glynis
To aid in selecting students for admission to undergraduate veterinary training, admissions procedures often take into account students' previous academic performance as well as the results of an interview. The study reported here investigated the relationship between personality and academic success. Students from three entry cohorts to the second year of study of a six-year BVSc program at the University of Pretoria completed the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire. A meta-analytic approach was used to estimate the relationship between academic performance in two major final-year subjects and academic performance on entry, an interview score, and the personality factors. The study confirmed the value of previous academic performance and the interview in selecting students for the veterinary degree program. The findings also indicate that the inclusion of a measure of intellectual ability could be of value. The value of various personality characteristics in predicting good study habits and examination performance is highlighted by the study results: students were more successful if they were conscientious, emotionally stable, socially adept, self-disciplined, practical rather than imaginative, and relaxed rather than anxious. It appears worthwhile to consider including an appropriate personality questionnaire in the selection process to improve the accuracy of predictions of students' success. A sound personality make-up will not only increase the likelihood of academic success but should also be beneficial in the successful management of a veterinary practice and in enjoying veterinary science as a career.
Kang, JeongWoo; Park, Hae-Chul; Jang, Yang Ho; Hossain, Md Akil; Jeong, Kyunghun; Jeong, Mi Young; Yun, Seon-Jong; Park, Sung-Won; Kim, Dae Gyun; Lee, Kwang-Jick
Veterinary medicines have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of diseases, growth promotion, and to promote feeding efficacy in livestock. As the veterinary medicine industry has steadily grown, it is crucial to set up a baseline for the quality of medicine as well as the insufficiency or excessiveness of the active ingredients in drug products to ensure the compliance, safety and efficacy of these medicines. Thus, the 10 years data of post-marketing quality control study was summarized to determine the rate and extent of non-compliance of these medicines and to establish baseline data for future quality control measures of veterinary medicine. In this study, 1650 drugs for veterinary use were collected per year from each city and province in Korea and analysed for the quantity of active ingredients according to the "national post-market surveillance (NPMS) system" over the past decade. The NPMS assessment was performed using liquid and gas chromatography, titration, UV/Vis spectrophotometry, and bioassays. A total of 358 cases were deemed noncompliant, with the average noncompliance rate for all medicine types being 2.0%. The average noncompliance rates for antibiotics, biologics and other chemical drugs except antibiotics (OCD) were 1.1%, 1.2%, and 3.0%, respectively. The first leading cause for noncompliant products was insufficient quantity of major ingredients (283 cases), and the second leading cause was the existence of excess amount of active ingredients (60 cases). Tylosin, spiramycin, ampicillin, tetracyclines and penicillins were most frequently found to be noncompliant among antibiotics. Among the OCD, the noncompliance was found commonly in vitamin A. The overall trend presented gradually decreasing violation rates, suggesting that the quality of veterinary medicines has improved. Consistent application of the NPMS assessment and the establishment of the Korea Veterinary Good Manufacturing Practice (KVGMP) will help to maintain the good
Chieffo, Carla; Kelly, Alan M; Ferguson, James
To characterize trends in gender, employment, starting salaries, and educational debt of graduates of US veterinary medical schools and colleges from 1988 to 2007. Meta-analysis. Sample Population-Veterinary medical graduates from 26 or 27 of 27 US veterinary schools and colleges from 1988 through 2007. Data were obtained from surveys published in the JAVMA. A chi2 test for trend was used to analyze trends in choices of employment and educational indebtedness for the veterinary graduate populations over time. The greatest changes in employment occurred in predominantly large animal practice, which attracted 10.7% of new graduates in 1989 but only 2.2% in 2007, and in advanced study, which attracted 15.2% of new graduates in 1989 and 36.8% in 2007. In 2007, 75% of graduates were women, but this gender shift was not associated with the decline in the percentage of graduates entering rural practice. From 1989 through 2007, starting salaries in private practice increased at a rate of 4.60%/y. During the same period, educational debt increased at an annual rate of 7.36%, or 60% higher than the rate of increases for starting salaries. As a result, debt at graduation increased from 1.1 times the starting salary in 1989 to 2.0 times the starting salary in 2007. Veterinary students are now more in debt than they have ever been. This trend together with a substantial increase in the rate of interest charged for government-backed education loans create conditions for new graduates that appear unsustainable.
Coe, Jason B; Weijs, Cynthia A; Muise, Amy; Christofides, Emily; Desmarais, Serge
Social media is an increasingly common form of communication, with Facebook being the preferred social-networking site among post-secondary students. Numerous studies suggest post-secondary students practice high self-disclosure on Facebook. Research evaluating veterinary students' use of social media found a notable proportion of student-posted content deemed inappropriate. Lack of discretion in posting content can have significant repercussions for aspiring veterinary professionals, their college of study, and the veterinary profession they represent. Veterinarians-in-training at three veterinary colleges across Canada were surveyed to explore their use of and attitude toward the social networking site, Facebook. Students were invited to complete an online survey with questions relating to their knowledge of privacy in relation to using Facebook, their views on the acceptability of posting certain types of information, and their level of professional accountability online. Linear regression modeling was used to further examine factors related to veterinary students' disclosure of personal information on Facebook. Need for popularity (pFacebook. Understanding veterinary students' use of and attitudes toward social media, such as Facebook, reveals a need, and provides a basis, for developing educational programs to address online professionalism. Educators and administrators at veterinary schools may use this information to assist in developing veterinary curricula that addresses the escalating issue of online professionalism.
Weijs, Cynthia A; Coe, Jason B; Hecker, Kent G
Final-year veterinary students must meet baseline clinical competency upon completion of their training for entry to practice. Workplace-based assessments (WBAs), widely used in human medical training to assess post-graduate students' professionalism and clinical performance, have recently been adopted in undergraduate veterinary clinical teaching environments. WBAs should support veterinary trainees' learning in a clinical teaching environment, though utility of WBAs within veterinary education may differ from that in medical training due to differences in context and in learners' stage of clinical development. We conducted focus groups with final-year veterinary students and clinical instructors following the implementation of three WBAs (Direct Observation of Procedural Skills [DOPS], the Mini-Clinical evaluation exercise [Mini-CEX], and the In-Training Evaluation Report [ITER]) during a small-animal primary-veterinary-care rotation. Students and clinical instructors viewed the DOPS and Mini-CEX as feasible and valuable learning and assessment tools that offered an overall opportunity for timely in-the-moment feedback. Instructors viewed the ITER as less feasible in the context of a service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environment. Students believed the ITER had potential to be informative, although in its existing application the ITER had limited utility due to time constraints on instructors that prevented them from providing students with individualized and specific feedback. In service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environments, successful implementation of WBAs requires balancing provision of feedback to students, time demands on clinical instructors, and flexibility of assessment tools.
Full Text Available Despite the fact that health communication is a discipline developed only recently, its importance in human medicine is well recognized. However, it is less considered in veterinary medicine, even if it has the potential to improve public health because of the role of veterinary medicine in public health. For this reason, an One Health approach is useful for communication as well. This approach leads to a “One Communication” concept, which is the result of the synergy in communicative efforts both in human and in veterinary medicine. Our analysis explores the potential of communication in several veterinary fields: institutions, food safety, companion animal and food-producing animal practice, pharmacology and drugs, wildlife fauna and environment. In almost all the areas of veterinary activity communication can contribute to human health. It takes many forms and use several channels, and this variety of communicative opportunities represent a challenge for veterinarians. For this reason, the communication course should be included in the curricula of Veterinary Medicine Schools. As One Health, One Communication is a strategy for expanding collaborations in health communication and it will enhance public health.
Englar, Ryane E; Show-Ridgway, Alyssa; Noah, Donald L; Appelt, Erin; Kosinski, Ross
Conflicts among health care professionals often stem from misperceptions about each profession's role in the health care industry. These divisive tendencies impede progress in multidisciplinary collaborations to improve human, animal, and environmental health. Inter-professional education (IPE) may repair rifts between health care professions by encouraging students to share their professional identities with colleagues in unrelated health care disciplines. An online survey was conducted at Midwestern University (MWU) to identify baseline perceptions about veterinary medicine among entry-level human health care students before their enrollment in an inter-professional course. Participation was anonymous and voluntary. The survey included Likert-type scales and free-text questions. Survey participants expressed their interest in and respect for the discipline of veterinary medicine, but indicated that their unfamiliarity with the profession hindered their ability to collaborate. Twenty percent of human health care students did not know the length of a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) program and 27.6% were unaware that veterinarians could specialize. Although 83.2% of participants agreed that maintaining the human-animal bond is a central role of the veterinary profession, veterinary contributions to stem cell research, food and water safety, public health, environmental conservation, and the military were infrequently recognized. If IPE is to successfully pave the way for multidisciplinary collaboration, it needs to address these gaps in knowledge and broaden the definition of veterinary practice for future human health care providers.
Englar, Ryane E
Experiential learning through the use of standardized patients (SPs) is the primary way by which human medical schools teach clinical communication. The profession of veterinary medicine has followed suit in response to new graduates' and their employers' concerns that veterinary interpersonal skills are weak and unsatisfactory. As a result, standardized clients (SCs) are increasingly relied upon as invaluable teaching tools within veterinary curricula to advance relationship-centered care in the context of a clinical scenario. However, there is little to no uniformity in the approach that various colleges of veterinary medicine take when designing simulation-based education (SBE). A further complication is that programs with pre-conceived curricula must now make room for training in clinical communication. Curricular time constraints challenge veterinary colleges to individually decide how best to utilize SCs in what time is available. Because it is a new program, Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) has had the flexibility and the freedom to prioritize an innovative approach to SBE. The author discusses the SBE that is currently underway at MWU CVM, which incorporates 27 standardized client encounters over eight consecutive pre-clinical quarters. Prior to entering clinical rotations, MWU CVM students are exposed to a variety of simulation formats, species, clients, settings, presenting complaints, and communication tasks. These represent key learning opportunities for students to practice clinical communication, develop self-awareness, and strategize their approach to future clinical experiences.
Engelskirchen, Simon; Ehlers, Jan; Kirk, Ansgar T; Tipold, Andrea; Dilly, Marc
During five and a half years of studying veterinary medicine, students should in addition to theoretical knowledge acquire sufficient practical skills. Considering animal welfare and ethical aspects, opportunities for hands-on learning on living animals are limited because of the high annual number of students. The first German veterinary clinical-skills lab, established in 2013 at the University for Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation (TiHo), offers opportunities for all students to learn, train and repeat clinical skills on simulators and models as frequently as they would like, until they feel sufficiently confident to transfer these skills to living animals. This study describes the establishment of clinical-skills lab training within the students' practical education, using the example of the small-animal clinic of the TiHo. Two groups of students were compared: without skills lab training (control group K) and with skills lab training (intervention group I). At the end of both the training and a subsequent 10-week clinical rotation in different sections of the clinic, an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was performed, testing the students' practical skills at 15 stations. An additional multiple-choice test was performed before and after the clinical rotation to evaluate the increased theoretical knowledge. Students of group I achieved significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better results in eight of the 15 tested skills. The multiple-choice test revealed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) gain of theoretical knowledge in both groups without any differences between the groups. Students displayed a high degree of acceptance of the skills lab training. Using simulators and models in veterinary education is an efficient teaching concept, and should be used continually and integrated in the curriculum.
de Branco, Freitas Maia L M
Quality assurance of services provided by veterinary diagnostics laboratories is a fundamental element promoted by international animal health organizations to establish trust, confidence and transparency needed for the trade of animals and their products at domestic and international levels. It requires, among other things, trained personnel, consistent and rigorous methodology, choice of suitable methods as well as appropriate calibration and traceability procedures. An important part of laboratory quality management is addressed by ISO/IEC 17025, which aims to facilitate cooperation among laboratories and their associated parties by assuring the generation of credible and consistent information derived from analytical results. Currently, according to OIE recommendation, veterinary diagnostics laboratories are only subject to voluntary compliance with standard ISO/IEC 17025; however, it is proposed here that OIE reference laboratories and collaboration centres strongly consider its adoption.
Gallacher, M; Barcos, L
This paper analyses the different ways of financing official Veterinary Services (VS) and the effects of these choices on the performance of such Services. The links between governance, organisational effectiveness and financing arrangements are seen as particularly important. The paper comments on some of the advantages and disadvantages of financing VS with service fees, as compared to budget transfers from general government revenues. Evidence is presented on the considerable heterogeneity in the size of VS and on the impact of this heterogeneity on organisation and financing. The paper concludes with a stylised case study, which emphasises the importance of collaboration and the division of labour between the official and the private sector of the veterinary profession.
Veterinary practice and occupational health. An epidemiological study of several professional groups of Dutch veterinarians. I. General physical examination and prevalence of allergy, lung function disorders, and bronchial hyperreactivity.
Elbers, A R; Blaauw, P J; de Vries, M; van Gulick, P J; Smithuis, O L; Gerrits, R P; Tielen, M J
The prevalence of allergy, lung function disorders, and bronchial hyperreactivity was studied in 102 Dutch veterinarians, subdivided into five professional groups (predominantly working with either swine, cattle, poultry, companion animals, or as a non-practitioner). The mean age of the participants was 43 years; 6 participants were females. Twenty-two per cent of the participants were overweight, and relatively more non-practitioners than practitioners were overweight. Approximately 23% of the vets reported complaints of prolonged fatigue. The data suggest a relationship between complaints of prolonged fatigue and a more than average number of daily working hours. Only a small proportion of vets were sensitized against several allergens. There were no significant differences in prevalence of distinct lung function disorders or bronchial hyperreactivity between professional groups. It is hypothesized that the respiratory complaints (chronic coughing, chronic phlegm production, stuffed nose, sneezing) reported by the vets predominantly working in swine and/or poultry practice could be caused by irritation and/or inflammation of the first part of the trachea-bronchial tree that has no measurable and permanent consequences for changes in lung function or increased bronchial hyperreactivity. The results of a skin test against allergens and determination of allergen-specific IgE in blood indicated that the respiratory complaints were probably not related to allergy against the panel of allergens tested.
Fernandes, Marco A.R.; Andrade, Alexandre L.; Luvizoto, Maria C.R.; Piero, Juliana R.; Ciarlini, Luciana D.R.P.
This work presents a brief historical about the use of ionizing radiations in Veterinary Medicine, instructing the physical beginnings and techniques wrapped in the realization of the proceedings of radiotherapy in animals, illustrating some treated cases, highlighting the difficulties and pointing to the perspectives and importance of the acting of the medical physics in this kind of therapeutic still little used in the national scenery. (author)
Full Text Available Given that: (1 the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2 the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR of animal origin; (3 alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed green antibiotics, having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes.We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a turnstile exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s. For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem.
Unbeck, Maria; Schildmeijer, Kristina; Henriksson, Peter; Jürgensen, Urban; Muren, Olav; Nilsson, Lena; Pukk Härenstam, Karin
There has been a theoretical debate as to which retrospective record review method is the most valid, reliable, cost efficient and feasible for detecting adverse events. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the feasibility and capability of two common retrospective record review methods, the "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method and the "Global Trigger Tool" in detecting adverse events in adult orthopaedic inpatients. We performed a three-stage structured retrospective record review process in a random sample of 350 orthopaedic admissions during 2009 at a Swedish university hospital. Two teams comprised each of a registered nurse and two physicians were assigned, one to each method. All records were primarily reviewed by registered nurses. Records containing a potential adverse event were forwarded to physicians for review in stage 2. Physicians made an independent review regarding, for example, healthcare causation, preventability and severity. In the third review stage all adverse events that were found with the two methods together were compared and all discrepancies after review stage 2 were analysed. Events that had not been identified by one of the methods in the first two review stages were reviewed by the respective physicians. Altogether, 160 different adverse events were identified in 105 (30.0%) of the 350 records with both methods combined. The "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method identified 155 of the 160 (96.9%, 95% CI: 92.9-99.0) adverse events in 104 (29.7%) records compared with 137 (85.6%, 95% CI: 79.2-90.7) adverse events in 98 (28.0%) records using the "Global Trigger Tool". Adverse events "causing harm without permanent disability" accounted for most of the observed difference. The overall positive predictive value for criteria and triggers using the "Harvard Medical Practice Study" method and the "Global Trigger Tool" was 40.3% and 30.4%, respectively. More adverse events were identified using the "Harvard Medical Practice Study
De Leon, Samantha; Connelly-Flores, Alison; Mostashari, Farzad; Shih, Sarah C
Electronic health records (EHRs) are expected to transform and improve the way medicine is practiced. However, providers perceive many barriers toward implementing new health information technology. Specifically, they are most concerned about the potentially negative impact on their practice finances and productivity. This study compares the productivity of 75 providers at a large urban primary care practice from January 2005 to February 2009, before and after implementing an EHR system, using longitudinal mixed model analyses. While decreases in productivity were observed at the time the EHR system was implemented, most providers quickly recovered, showing increases in productivity per month shortly after EHR implementation. Overall, providers had significant productivity increases of 1.7% per month per provider from pre- to post-EHR adoption. The majority of the productivity gains occurred after the practice instituted a pay-for-performance program, enabled by the data capture of the EHRs. Coupled with pay-for-performance, EHRs can spur rapid gains in provider productivity.
Halliwell, R E W
It is an unfortunate fact that not only has veterinary education failed to adapt in the face of likely future needs, but it has also failed to respond to societal changes that have already taken place and that have affected the requirements for veterinary services and veterinary capability. The responsibility is primarily that of educators, although vision and foresight require a co-ordinated approach involving national and international veterinary organisations. Once it is accepted by all parties that change is essential, the implementation will fail unless there is a unified programme involving the schools and colleges, the accrediting agencies, the licensing authorities, governments, the professional organisations and corporate veterinary medicine. All have a role to play, and any one can readily block progress. A unified approach is an absolute requirement. The developed countries must take a leading role, but the issues are global, and ways must be found to facilitate change in all parts of the world. Disease knows no boundaries, and any strategy is only as strong as its weakest link.
Ferreira, T B; Alves, P M; Aunins, J G; Carrondo, M J T
Vaccines are the most effective and inexpensive prophylactic tool in veterinary medicine. Ideally, vaccines should induce a lifelong protective immunity against the target pathogen while not causing clinical or pathological signs of diseases in the vaccinated animals. However, such ideal vaccines are rare in the veterinary field. Many vaccines are either of limited effectiveness or have harmful side effects. In addition, there are still severe diseases with no effective vaccines. A very important criterion for an ideal vaccine in veterinary medicine is low cost; this is especially important in developing countries and even more so for poultry vaccination, where vaccines must sell for a few cents a dose. Traditional approaches include inactivated vaccines, attenuated live vaccines and subunit vaccines. Recently, genetic engineering has been applied to design new, improved vaccines. Adenovirus vectors are highly efficient for gene transfer in a broad spectrum of cell types and species. Moreover, adenoviruses often induce humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted foreign genes. Thus, adenoviruses have become a vector of choice for delivery and expression of foreign proteins for vaccination. Consequently, the market requirements for adenovirus vaccines are increasing, creating a need for production methodologies of concentrated vectors with warranted purity and efficacy. This review summarizes recent developments and approaches of adenovirus production and purification as the application of these vectors, including successes and failures in clinical applications to date.
Chaney, Kristin P; Macik, Maria L; Turner, Jacqueline S; Korich, Jodi A; Rogers, Kenita S; Fowler, Debra; Scallan, Elizabeth M; Keefe, Lisa M
Curricular review is considered a necessary component for growth and enhancement of academic programs and requires time, energy, creativity, and persistence from both faculty and administration. At Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (TAMU), the faculty and administration partnered with the university's Center for Teaching Excellence to create a faculty-driven, data-enhanced curricular redesign process. The 8-step process begins with the formation of a dedicated faculty curriculum design team to drive the redesign process and to support the college curriculum committee. The next steps include defining graduate outcomes and mapping the current curriculum to identify gaps and redundancies across the curriculum. Data are collected from internal and external stakeholders including veterinary students, faculty, alumni, and employers of graduates. Data collected through curriculum mapping and stakeholder engagement substantiate the curriculum redesign. The guidelines, supporting documents, and 8-step process developed at TAMU are provided to assist other veterinary schools in successful curricular redesign. This is the first of a two-part report that provides the background, context, and description of the process for charting the course for curricular change. The process involves defining expected learning outcomes for new graduates, conducting a curriculum mapping exercise, and collecting stakeholder data for curricular evaluation (steps 1-4). The second part of the report describes the development of rubrics that were applied to the graduate learning outcomes (steps 5-8) and engagement of faculty during the implementation phases of data-driven curriculum change.
Williamson, Julie A; Tornquist, Susan J
There is a huge unmet need for veterinary diagnostic laboratory services in developing nations such as Liberia. One way of bridging the service gap is for visiting experts to provide veterinary laboratory training to technicians in a central location in a short-course format. An intensive 1-week training workshop was organized for 18 student and faculty participants from the College of Agriculture and Integrated Development Studies (CAIDS) at Cuttington University in rural central Liberia. The training was designed and delivered by the non-governmental organization Veterinarians Without Borders US and funded through a Farmer-to-Farmer grant provided by the United States Agency for International Development. Although at the start of training none of the students had any veterinary laboratory experience, by the end of the course over 80% of the students were able to discuss appropriate care and use of a microscope and name at least three important components of laboratory record keeping; over 60% were able to describe how to make and stain a blood smear and how to perform a passive fecal flotation; and over 30% were able to describe what a packed cell volume is and how it is measured and name at least three criteria for classifying bacteria. The intensive training workshop greatly improved the knowledge of trainees about veterinary diagnostic laboratory techniques. The training provided initial skills to students and faculty who are awaiting the arrival of additional grant-funded laboratory equipment to continue their training.