Ward, G.S.; Byland, R.R.
The surgical rooms of 14 private veterinary practices were monitored to determined methoxyflurane (MOF) concentrations during surgical procedure under routine working conditions. The average room volume for these 14 rooms was 29 m3. The average MOF value for all rooms was 2.3 ppm, with a range of 0.7 to 7.4 ppm. Four of the 14 rooms exceeded the maximum recommended concentration of 2 ppm. Six rooms which had 6 or more air changes/hr averaged 1.1 ppm, whereas 8 rooms with less than 6 measurable air changes/hr averaged 3.2 ppm. Operating rooms that had oxygen flows of more than 1,000 cm3/min averaged 4.4 ppm, whereas those with flows of less than 1,000 cm3/min averaged 1.5 ppm. The average time spent during a surgical procedure using MOF, for all 14 facilities, was 2 hours. Nitrous oxide (N/sub 2/O) concentrations were determined in 4 veterinary surgical rooms. The average N/sub 2/O concentration for 3 rooms without waste anesthetic gas scavenging was 138 ppm. Concentration of N/sub 2/O in the waste anesthetic gas-scavenged surgical room was 14 ppm, which was below the maximum recommended concentration of 25 ppm.
Hans, Elias W.; Nieberg, T.
The operating room (OR) department of a hospital forms the heart of the organization, where the single largest cost is incurred. This document presents and reports on the “Operating Room Manager Game,” developed to give insight into managing a large hospital's OR department at various levels of
Nelson, Jason; Shinn, Antoinette M; Bivens, Ava
...) could be found on telephones in the Operating Room (OR). A total of 26 cultures were taken from telephones within 14 operating rooms and two sub-sterile rooms at a large, teaching, medical center...
The Operating Room (OR) is a complex environment, where a large variety of patients and diseases can be treated and many unexpected events occur (such as emergency surgeries and unexpected progress of procedures). In practice, OR assistants support OR processes as well as they can, in order to
van Essen, J. Theresia; Hurink, Johann L.; Hartholt, W.; van den Akker, B.J.
Due to surgery duration variability and arrivals of emergency surgeries, the planned Operating Room (OR) schedule is disrupted throughout the day which may lead to a change in the start time of the elective surgeries. These changes may result in undesirable situations for patients, wards or other
Mansour, Ahmad M; Hamam, Rola
The operating room is a place of surgical intervention with its accompanying bodily and cognitive strain on the performers. Stress in the operating room may lead to the onset of central serous chorioretinopathy as reported hereby in a retina surgeon and is labeled as operating room central serous chorioretinopathy. The same operator performed the optical coherence tomography scans on one retina surgeon. A masked observer estimated the maximal height of the subretinal fluid. Central serous chorioretinopathy recurred four times over a 1-year period 1 -2 days after a stressful day in the operating room, especially when cases were done under topical or subtenon anesthesia for cataract surgery, vitreous surgery or combined surgeries with complex ocular and medical problems and inability for anesthesia team to intervene. Stress management allowed resolution of subretinal fluid between 3 and 4 weeks. Adopting this strategy, no further attacks were documented by optical coherence tomography for 5 years. (1) This is one of a few optical coherence tomography documentation of resolution of central serous chorioretinopathy within 3-4 weeks of its occurrence and its recurrence induced by stress in the operating room; (2) Unassisted topical anesthesia required in patients with complex medical and ocular problems causes more cognitive stress than when surgery is carried under assisted local or general anesthesia (partly due to unexpected ocular or bodily movements); and (3) the available evidence suggests that those overcommitted surgeons (type A personality) may very well be most susceptible to burnout and central serous chorioretinopathy.
The aim of this study was to get acquainted with the opinions of the nursing staff on working conditions at their workplace. The study was carried out in a group of 398 nurses working in various kinds of operating rooms at 11 public hospitals. A questionnaire was used as a major tool of this study. The questionnaires were filled in by 259 operating room nurses (circulating nurses) and 139 nurse-anesthetists. The collected data show that working conditions in operating rooms do not ensure safety of the nursing staff at work. The main sources of problems are: work organization, technical factors, work equipment, work space, knowledge of hazards and strenuous factors among nurses, ways of preventing and/or limiting them. These elements are serious occupational risk factors influencing the work process and health status of nurses.
El Gharbi, Najla; Benzaoui, Ahmed; Bennacer, Rachid
International audience; The hospital is the place where we find simultaneously people whose health state is weakened, or vulnerable, and pathogenic micro-organisms able to worsen their health. Because these, the quality of the air in hospital must be in conformity with precise criteria in the buildings such everyday usage, and in particular in the buildings where some risk of specific pollution exist as in operating rooms. In this paper, we present a modelisation and three dimensional numeric...
The study was conducted to. (1) determine the kinds of veterinary extension services that are provided to livestock farmers;. (2) determine the frequency of farmers contact with extension agents in relation to the extent of adoption of animal health innovations, and. (3) identify the various constraints to veterinary extension ...
Small, Travis J; Gad, Bishoy V; Klika, Alison K; Mounir-Soliman, Loran S; Gerritsen, Ryan L; Barsoum, Wael K
We investigated the effectiveness of dedicated orthopedic operating rooms (OR) on minimizing time spent on perioperative processes to increase OR throughput in total knee and hip arthroplasty procedures. The use of a dedicated orthopedic unit that included 6 ORs with staff allocated only for those ORs was compared to the use of a traditional staffing model. After matching to simulate randomization, each group consisted of 422 procedures. The dedicated orthopedic unit improved average anesthesia controlled time by 4 minutes (Poperative time by 7 minutes (P=.004) and turnover time by 8 minutes (P<.001). An overall improvement of 19 minutes per procedure using the dedicated unit was observed. Utilizing a dedicated orthopedic unit can save time without increasing adverse events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Janki, Shiromani; Mulder, Evalyn E A P; IJzermans, Jan N M; Tran, T C Khe
Since the introduction of minimally invasive surgery, surgeons appear to be experiencing more occupational musculoskeletal injuries. The aim of this study is to investigate the current frequency and effects of occupational musculoskeletal injuries on work absence. An online questionnaire was conducted among all surgeons affiliated to the Dutch Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Gastrointestinal Surgery, and Surgical Oncology. In addition, this survey was conducted among surgeons, gynaecologists, and urologists of one cluster of training hospitals in the Netherlands. There were 127 respondents. Fifty-six surgeons currently suffer from musculoskeletal complaints, and 30 have previously suffered from musculoskeletal complaints with no current complaints. Frequently reported localizations were the neck (39.5 %), the erector spinae muscle (34.9 %), and the right deltoid muscle (18.6 %). Most of the musculoskeletal complaints were present while operating (41.8 %). Currently, 37.5 % uses medication and/or therapy to reduce complaints. Of surgeons with past complaints, 26.7 % required work leave and 40.0 % made intraoperative adjustments. More surgeons with a medical history of musculoskeletal complaints have current complaints (OR 6.1, 95 % CI 1.9-19.6). There were no significant differences between surgeons of different operating techniques in localizations and frequency of complaints, or work leave. Despite previous various ergonomic recommendations in the operating room, the current study demonstrated that musculoskeletal complaints and subsequent work absence are still present among surgeons, especially among surgeons with a positive medical history for musculoskeletal complaints. Even sick leave was necessary to fully recover. There were no significant differences in reported complaints between surgeons of different operating techniques. Almost half of the respondents with complaints made intraoperative ergonomic adjustments to prevent future complaints. The
Friedman, David M; Sokal, Suzanne M; Chang, Yuchiao; Berger, David L
Because of rising costs and shrinking reimbursements, hospitals must continually find ways to improve efficiency and productivity. This study attempts to increase caseloads in ambulatory surgery operating rooms while maintaining patient satisfaction and safety. In most hospitals, patients move through their operative day in a linear fashion, starting at registration and finishing in the recovery room. Given this pattern, only 1 patient may occupy the efforts of the operating room team at a time. By processing patients in a parallel fashion, operating room efficiency and patient throughput are increased while costs remain stable. Patients undergoing hernia repairs under local anesthesia with intravenous sedation were divided into a control group and an experimental group. Patients in the control group received their local anesthesia in the operating room at the start of the surgery. The experimental group patients received their local anesthesia in the induction room by the surgeon while the operating room was being cleaned and set up. While operative time for the control group and the experimental group were nearly identical, the turnover time and the induction time were significantly shorter for the experimental group. The cumulative reduction in time during the operative day was sufficient to allow the addition of new operative cases. This study demonstrates a system of increasing operating room efficiency by changing patient flow rather than simply working to streamline existing steps. This increase in efficiency is not associated with the expansion of hospital budgets or a decrease in patient safety or satisfaction.
Rejger, V; Burm, A G; Spierdijk, J
A literature survey indicates that some complaints occur relatively frequently among anesthetists and nurses working in operating rooms. Pollution of the air in the operating rooms by anesthetic gases is often considered as a possible cause. On account of this the degree of pollution has been determined. Concentrations of nitrous oxide and halothane were measured using an infrared absorption spectrophotometer. In each room the concentrations were measured at several different sites. In naturally ventilated operating rooms the concentrations increased steadily during operation. The measured values lied mostly between 1500 and 3000 ppm (vol/vol) for nitrous oxide and between 15 and 35 ppm for halothane. In mechanically ventilated operating rooms where no recirculation is applied a constant level was found some time after the beginning of an operation. The concentrations varied from about 100 to 500 ppm for nitrous oxide and from 1 to 5 ppm for halothane. In naturally ventilated operating rooms the anesthetic gases were rather homogeneously spread, while in mechanically ventilated rooms there was an inhomogeneous distribution. Scavenging of waste anesthetics is recommended.
van der Lans, M.; Hans, Elias W.; Hurink, Johann L.; Wullink, Gerhard; van Houdenhoven, M.; Kazemier, G.
Operating Room (OR) departments need to create robust surgical schedules that anticipate urgent surgery, while minimizing urgent surgery waiting time and overtime, and maximizing utilization. We consider two levels of planning and control to anticipate urgent surgery. At the tactical level, we study
Does, R.J.M.M.; Vermaat, T.M.B.; Verver, J.P.S.; Bisgaard, S.; van den Heuvel, J.
Problem: Health care today is facing serious problems: quality of care does not meet patients’ needs and costs are exploding. Inefficient utilization of expensive operating rooms is one of the major problems in many hospitals worldwide. A benchmark study of 13 hospitals in the Netherlands and
Full Text Available Objective: To improve the quality of nursing service. Methods: To improve nursing service of the aspects of nursing environment, nursing intervention and nursing aesthetics. Results: To achieve the goal that patient satisfaction rate was 100% and to stimulate the enthusiasm of the medical staff. Conclusion: Humanized nursing service is an effective method of improving efficiency and quality of nursing in the operating room.
Fong, Abigail J; Smith, Meghan; Langerman, Alexander
In the changing health care environment, health systems, hospitals, and health care providers must focus on improving efficiency to meet an increasing demand for high-quality, low-cost health care. Much has been written about strategies and efforts to improve efficiency in the perioperative periods, yet the time when the patient is in the operating room-the intraoperative period-has received less attention. Yet, this is the period in which surgeons may have the most influence. Systematically review published efforts to improve intraoperative efficiency; assess the outcomes of these efforts, and propose standardized reporting of future studies. A total of 39 studies were identified that met inclusion criteria. These divided naturally into small (single operative team), medium (multi-operative team), and large (institutional) interventions. Most studies used time or money as their metric for efficiency, though others were used as well. There is substantial opportunity to enhance operating room efficiency during the intraoperative period. Surgeons may have a particular role in procedural efficiency, which has been relatively unstudied. Common themes were standardizing tasks, collecting and using actionable data, and maintaining effective team communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
L. C. Cadwallader; B. J. Denny
Monitoring the breathing air in tritium facility rooms for airborne tritium is a radiological safety requirement and a best practice for personnel safety. Besides audible alarms for room evacuation, these monitors often send signals for process shutdown, ventilation isolation, and cleanup system actuation to mitigate releases and prevent tritium spread to the environment. Therefore, these monitors are important not only to personnel safety but also to public safety and environmental protection. This paper presents an operating experience review of tritium monitor performance on demand during small (1 mCi to 1 Ci) operational releases, and intentional airborne inroom tritium release tests. The tritium tests provide monitor operation data to allow calculation of a statistical estimate for the reliability of monitors annunciating in actual tritium gas airborne release situations. The data show a failure to operate rate of 3.5E-06/monitor-hr with an upper bound of 4.7E-06, a failure to alarm on demand rate of 1.4E-02/demand with an upper bound of 4.4E-02, and a spurious alarm rate of 0.1 to 0.2/monitor-yr.
de Ruiter, QMB|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413971171
The of the hybrid Operation room (an operation room combined with advanced radiological X-ray equipment) is gaining popularity, as it is now the preferred room to perform (complex) endovascular aortic procedures. The fixed C-arms equipped in these rooms make it possible to gain very high image
Jackson, Christopher R; Eavey, Roland D; Francis, David O
The extent to which surgeons understand costs associated with expensive operative procedures remains unclear. The goal of the study was to better understand surgeon cost awareness of operating room supplies and implants. This was a cross-sectional study of faculty (n = 24) and trainees (fellow and residents, n = 27) in the Department of Otolaryngology. Participants completed surveys to assess opinions on importance of cost and ease in accessing cost data and were asked to estimate the costs of operating room (OR) supplies and implants. Estimates within 20% of actual cost were considered correct. Analyses were stratified into faculty and trainee surgeons. Cost estimates varied widely, with a low percentage of correct estimations (25% for faculty, 12% for trainees). Surgeons tended to underestimate the cost of high-cost items (55%) and overestimate the cost of low-cost items (77%). Attending surgeons were more accurate at correctly estimating costs within their own subspecialty (33% vs 16%, P cost knowledge and years in practice did not correlate with cost accuracy (P costs of items/implants used in their OR. An opportunity exists to improve the mechanisms by which cost data are fed back to physicians to help promote value-based decision making. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kulis, E; Newell, J C
The effect of dirt encountered during normal use on the conductivity of operating room footwear has been studied. Booties, sneakers, and shoes having relatively larger conductive area remained conductive throughout the testing period. Shoes and clogs having relatively smaller conductive contact area were found to lose conductivity sooner, and, in more cases, than any other type of footwear tested. The size of the conductive contact area appears to correlate with the length of time that conductive footwear will remain within resistance specification during use.
Herseth, Andrew; Goldsmith-Grinspoon, Jennifer; Scott, Pataya
Operating and maintaining a tornado safe room can be critical to the effective continuity of business operations because a firm's most valuable asset is its people. This paper describes aspects of operations and maintenance (O&M) for existing tornado safe rooms as well as a few planning and design aspects that affect the ultimate operation of a safe room for situations where a safe room is planned, but not yet constructed. The information is based on several Federal Emergency Management Agency safe room publications that provide guidance on emergency management and operations, as well as the design and construction of tornado safe rooms.
Montgomery, Patty; Reeves, A. Scott
The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) is a multi-project facility that is responsible for 24x7 real-time International Space Station (ISS) payload operations management, integration, and control and has the capability to support small satellite projects and will provide real-time support for SLS launches. The HOSC is a service-oriented/ highly available operations center for ISS payloads-directly supporting science teams across the world responsible for the payloads. The HOSC is required to endure an annual 2-day power outage event for facility preventive maintenance and safety inspection of the core electro-mechanical systems. While complete system shut-downs are against the grain of a highly available sub-system, the entire facility must be powered down for a weekend for environmental and safety purposes. The consequence of this ground system outage is far reaching: any science performed on ISS during this outage weekend is lost. Engineering efforts were focused to maximize the ISS investment by engineering a suitable solution capable of continuing HOSC services while supporting safety requirements. The HOSC Power Outage Contingency (HPOC) System is a physically diversified compliment of systems capable of providing identified real-time services for the duration of a planned power outage condition from an alternate control room. HPOC was designed to maintain ISS payload operations for approximately three continuous days during planned HOSC power outages and support a local Payload Operations Team, International Partners, as well as remote users from the alternate control room located in another building.
Schüpfer, G; Bauer, M; Scherzinger, B; Schleppers, A
Management means developing, shaping and controlling of complex, productive and social systems. Therefore, operating room managers also need to develop basic skills in financial and managerial accounting as a basis for operative and strategic controlling which is an essential part of their work. A good measurement system should include financial and strategic concepts for market position, innovation performance, productivity, attractiveness, liquidity/cash flow and profitability. Since hospitals need to implement a strategy to reach their business objectives, the performance measurement system has to be individually adapted to the strategy of the hospital. In this respect the navigation system developed by Gälweiler is compared to the "balanced score card" system of Kaplan and Norton.
Molina-Pariente, Jose M.; Hans, Elias W.; Framinan, Jose M.
We address a stochastic operating room scheduling problem which consists of assigning an intervention date and operating room to surgeries on the waiting list, minimizing the under- and overtime costs of the operating rooms, and the cost of exceeding the capacity constraints of the system.
Santos, Isaac J.A.L.; Carvalho, Paulo Victor R.; Grecco, Claudio H.S. [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
Human reliability is the probability that a person correctly performs some system required action in a required time period and performs no extraneous action that can degrade the system Human reliability analysis (HRA) is the analysis, prediction and evaluation of work-oriented human performance using some indices as human error likelihood and probability of task accomplishment. Significant progress has been made in the HRA field during the last years, mainly in nuclear area. Some first-generation HRA methods were developed, as THERP (Technique for human error rate prediction). Now, an array of called second-generation methods are emerging as alternatives, for instance ATHEANA (A Technique for human event analysis). The ergonomics approach has as tool the ergonomic work analysis. It focus on the study of operator's activities in physical and mental form, considering at the same time the observed characteristics of operator and the elements of the work environment as they are presented to and perceived by the operators. The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology to analyze the human reliability of the operators of industrial plant control room, using a framework that includes the approach used by ATHEANA, THERP and the work ergonomics analysis. (author)
Jones, Laura K.; Jennings, Bonnie Mowinski; Goelz, Ryan M.; Haythorn, Kent W.; Zivot, Joel B.; de Waal, Frans B. M.
Background The operating room (OR) is a highly social and hierarchical setting where interprofessional team members must work interdependently under pressure. Due primarily to methodological challenges, the social and behavioral sciences have had trouble offering insight into OR dynamics. Purpose We adopted a method from the field of ethology for observing and quantifying the interpersonal interactions of OR team members. Methods We created and refined an ethogram, a catalog of all our subjects’ observable social behaviors. The ethogram was then assessed for its feasibility and interobserver reliability. Results It was feasible to use an ethogram to gather data in the OR. The high interobserver reliability (Cohen’s Kappa coefficients of 81 % and higher) indicates its utility for yielding largely objective, descriptive, quantitative data on OR behavior. Conclusions The method we propose has potential for social research conducted in healthcare settings as complex as the OR. PMID:26813263
Robinson, Stephen T; Kirsch, Jeffrey R
Lean strategies can be readily applied to health care in general and operating rooms specifically. The emphasis is on the patient as the customer, respect and engagement of all providers, and leadership from management. The strategy of lean is to use continuous improvement to eliminate waste from the care process, leaving only value-added activities. This iterative process progressively adds the steps of identifying the 7 common forms of waste (transportation, inventory, motion, waiting, overproduction, overprocessing, and defects), 5S (sort, simplify, sweep, standardize, sustain), visual controls, just-in-time processing, level-loaded work, and built-in quality to achieve the highest quality of patient care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction. Long term exposure to trace amounts of anesthetic vapors and gases may produce hematologic and hepatic disorders in human. Since operating room (OR staffs are exposed to these agents, we decided to study their hematopoietic and hepatic systems in comparison with ordinary ward staffs. Methods. Seventy staffs from OR were compared with a matched similar number of ward staffs about their hematologic and hepatic laboratory findings in a historical cohort study. Findings. Mean of leukocyte and platelet counts were significantly lower in OR staffs, but in normal range. Mean of monocyte count was significantly higher in OR staffs. No significant differences were found between two groups for other hepatic and hematologic tests. Fatigue and headache were reported in OR staffs more than others. Conclusion. These findings may warn a risk to OR staffs but, it is not clear and requires further controlled studies.
Kirschbaum, Kristin A; Rask, John P; Fortner, Sally A; Kulesher, Robert; Nelson, Michael T; Yen, Tony; Brennan, Matthew
In this study, communication research was conducted with multidisciplinary groups of operating-room physicians. Theoretical frameworks from intercultural communication and rhetoric were used to (a) measure latent cultural communication variables and (b) conduct communication training with the physicians. A six-step protocol guided the research with teams of physicians from different surgical specialties: anesthesiologists, general surgeons, and obstetrician-gynecologists (n = 85). Latent cultural communication variables were measured by surveys administered to physicians before and after completion of the protocol. The centerpiece of the 2-hour research protocol was an instructional session that informed the surgical physicians about rhetorical choices that support participatory communication. Post-training results demonstrated scores increased on communication variables that contribute to collaborative communication and teamwork among the physicians. This study expands health communication research through application of combined intercultural and rhetorical frameworks, and establishes new ways communication theory can contribute to medical education.
Favero, Martin S.; Puleo, John R.; Marshall, James H.; Oxborrow, Gordon S.
Microbial contamination in industrial clean rooms was compared quantitatively and qualitatively with that of hospital operating rooms. The number of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms which accumulated on stainless-steel strips exposed for periods up to 21 weeks to the intramural air of four operating rooms was at least 1 log higher than the accumulation on strips exposed in four clean rooms, and was essentially the same as that found in two factory areas. Volumetric air samplings showed that there were significantly higher numbers of airborne viable particles per cubic foot of air in operating rooms than in industrial clean rooms. In contrast to clean rooms, where most of the airborne contaminants were those associated with human hair, skin, and respiratory tract, the hospital operating rooms showed a very high level of microorganisms associated with dust and soil. Images Fig. 4 PMID:5649862
Weinbroum, Avi A; Ekstein, Perla; Ezri, Tiberiu
The need to control high costs of running operating rooms while providing for timely patient care led us to assess the time wasted in the operating room (OR). OR use by two general surgery and two orthopedic departments in a metropolitan public hospital were analyzed, and the time elapsed when a scheduled OR remained unused or the patient was still awaiting surgery was measured. OR "time-waste" defined as the time in which the scheduled OR was not busy with the scheduled patient amounted to 79 hours over the 30-day study period (15% of total time). It was wasted owing to inappropriately prepared patients (12%), unavailability of surgeons (7%), insufficient nursing staff, anesthesiologists, or OR assignment to emergency surgery (59%), congestion of the postanesthesia care unit (10%), and delay in transport to the OR (2%) Another issue delineated was the frequent occurrence of surgical cases running longer than their scheduled time (termed "spill-over"), outrunning the staffing expectations after 3:00 PM and delaying admission of add-on and emergency procedures, adding 33% to the time wasted. A quality-assurance committee review resulted in implementation of new guidelines, and within 3 months several underlying causes were rectified, and time-waste and spill over time was reduced by 35%. Surgical time predictions were also improved. Shortage of nurses and anesthesiologists, and OR emergency reassignment remained the major causes of OR waste time. Continuous surveillance on OR suite-patients' prompt care, repeated evaluation, and wise staff deployment-could maximize OR efficiency.
Alexander, J Wesley; Van Sweringen, Heather; Vanoss, Katherine; Hooker, Edmond A; Edwards, Michael J
Surgical site infections (SSIs) continue to occur at an unacceptably high rate, incurring direct costs of up to $10 billion per year in the United States and far more than that in total economic costs. There is a continued need to identify potential sources of microbial contamination that lead to surgical infections. Using contact culture plates, we randomly took a total of 517 samples of various surfaces in 33 operating rooms (ORs) over a 6-mo period. Flat surfaces treated with decontamination techniques (floors, anesthesia carts, operating tables, and other flat surfaces) grew small numbers of bacterial colonies, as did other surfaces that were decontaminated less often. Personal items, especially the tops of shoes and personal hats, had much higher contamination than the surfaces just described, which in the case of these two items averaged 50-60 CFU/20 cm(2). The outsides of face masks contained slightly more organisms than did floors, but the insides had almost 100 times more organisms, which was of concern because of high leakage rates at the mask-face interface. The culture system used in our study can be used as a simplified and cost-effective method of identifying the comparative densities of organisms on different surfaces for surveillance of microbial contamination in the OR. To reduce bacterial contamination, shoe covers and disposable hair coverings should be worn at every operation in which there are substantial risks of SSI. Masks that reduce leakage at the mask-face interface should be worn and discarded after each operation.
Kiefer, Nicholas; Hoeft, Andreas
The ongoing development of new sensors and parameters for intraoperative monitoring has outpaced the development of display design, leading to a gap between the load of information and the quality of its delivery. This is not a circumstantial problem, as a large portion of critical incidents is attributable to inadequate situation awareness and the failure to recognize readily monitored data. This review also addresses improvements of current threshold alarms. Research has focused on advanced integrated displays, drawing on the findings of human factor science and on the exploitation of alternative sensory pathways. Integrated displays, as well as auditory, vibrotactile and head-mounted displays have been shown to promote situation awareness and reduce cognitive workload. Intelligent alarm design can successfully reduce the number of false alarms. Improvement of the display of information in the operating room is warranted, and recent developments are promising. However, their introduction into mass market is not yet on the horizon, although the shortcomings of the traditional single-sensor-single-indicator principle are known for a long time. If manufacturers are reluctant to implement new techniques into their devices, they should at least facilitate access to monitoring raw data in order to allow independent development of displays.
Guédon, Annetje C P; Wauben, Linda S G L; Overvelde, Marlies; Blok, Joleen H; van der Elst, Maarten; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J
Since the increase of the number of technological aids in the operating room (OR), equipment-related incidents have come to be a common kind of adverse events. This underlines the importance of adequate equipment management to improve the safety in the OR. A system was developed to monitor the safety status (periodic maintenance and registered malfunctions) of OR devices and to facilitate the notification of malfunctions. The objective was to assess whether the system is suitable for use in an busy OR setting and to analyse its effect on the notification of malfunctions. The system checks automatically the safety status of OR devices through constant communication with the technical facility management system, informs the OR staff real-time and facilitates notification of malfunctions. The system was tested for a pilot period of six months in four ORs of a Dutch teaching hospital and 17 users were interviewed on the usability of the system. The users provided positive feedback on the usability. For 86.6% of total time, the localisation of OR devices was accurate. 62 malfunctions of OR devices were reported, an increase of 12 notifications compared to the previous year. The safety status system was suitable for an OR complex, both from a usability and technical point of view, and an increase of reported malfunctions was observed. The system eases monitoring the safety status of equipment and is a promising tool to improve the safety related to OR devices.
The design of intraoperative suites require significant inputs from the neurosurgeons. Prior consideration of specific surgical objectives before investment of capital resources will enable to surgeon to yield maximum value from the project. We describe the setup of the integrated neurosurgical centre at our institution which comprises of a hybrid high field MRI suite, an OR's consisting of a multi-slice CT scanner and iso-C 3D respectively. The iCT and ioMRI OR's carry ICG angiography capabilities. These ORs are linked to also the Novalis radiosurgery suites and outpatient clinics and offices to facilitate pre-surgical review, planning as well as treatment plans on a common interface via the BRAINSUITE net.Design considerations include right sit-ing of imaging equipment as well as a focus of ergonomics and design features to maximize workflow. Whenever possible, standard neurosurgical instrumentation is utilized. With widespread availability of technology, neuro-imaging in the operating room may become more prevalent. The surgeon is the lead individual in the team with regards to planning and designing the ORs to accommodate the new imaging equipment.
Maamari, Robi N; Custer, Philip L
This study was performed to characterize the frequency, causes, and possible risk factors of operating room (OR) fires experienced by members of the American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. An online questionnaire was distributed to American Society of Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery members, collecting data on surgical fires experienced by respondents throughout their careers. In addition, the questionnaire investigated viewpoints on OR fire safety, current practice patterns with oxygen delivery and surgical device usage, and management of patients referred after previous surgical fire exposure. There were 258 participants in the survey. Eighty-three surgeons (32.2%) experienced at least 1 surgical fire in their careers. Most OR fires occurred during monitored sedation cases with oxygen delivered by nasal cannula underneath drapes completely covering the head and use of a monopolar or battery-operated device. Patient hair and skin were the most common fuel sources, and most of the injuries were limited to singing of facial hair. Regarding current practice patterns, monopolar, bipolar, and battery-powered disposable devices were the most frequently used electrosurgery and electrocautery tools. Patients seen after an OR fire with another surgeon generally experienced more severe burns requiring hospitalization and subsequent procedures. Many oculoplastic surgeons have experienced OR fires during their careers. Certain surgical and anesthetic techniques, particularly the delivery of supplemental oxygen underneath surgical drapes and the use of monopolar electrosurgery and battery-powered electrocautery, may be associated with increased fire risk. While most of the reported OR fires did not result in significant patient injury, caution must be taken to prevent these potentially devastating events.
Riley, Robin; Manias, Elizabeth
Operating room nursing is an under-researched area of nursing practice. The stereotypical image of operating room nursing is one of task- and technically-orientated aspects of practice, where nurses work in a medical model and are dominated by constraints from outside their sphere of influence. This paper explores the possibility of understanding operating room nursing in a different way. Using the work of Michel Foucault to analyse the work of operating room nursing, this paper argues the relevance of the framework for a more in-depth analysis of this specialty area of practice. The concepts of power, discipline and subjectivity are used to demonstrate how operating room nursing is constructed as a discipline and how operating room nurses act to govern and construct the specialty. Exemplars are drawn from extensive professional experience, from guidelines of professional operating room nursing associations, as well as published texts. The focus is predominantly on the regulation of space and time to maintain the integrity of the sterile surgical field and issues of management, as well as the use of the ethical concept of the 'surgical conscience'. This form of analysis provides a level and depth of inquiry that has rarely been undertaken in operating room nursing. As such, it has the potential to provide a much needed, different view of operation room nursing that can only help to strengthen its professional foundations and development.
Salassa, Tiare E; Swiontkowski, Marc F
➤ Although there is some evidence that scrubs, masks, and head coverings reduce bacterial counts in the operating room, there is no evidence that these measures reduce the prevalence of surgical site infection.➤ The use of gloves and impervious surgical gowns in the operating room reduces the prevalence of surgical site infection.➤ Operating-room ventilation plays an unclear role in the prevention of surgical site infection.➤ Exposure of fluids and surgical instruments to the operating-room environment can lead to contamination. Room traffic increases levels of bacteria in the operating room, although the role of this contamination in surgical site infection is unclear. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.
Full Text Available Background: The first step in cultivating the culture of safety in the operating room is the assessment of safety culture among operating room personnel. Objective: To assess the patient safety culture of operating room personnel at the Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, and compare attitudes among different groups of personnel, and compare them with the international standards. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of safety attitudes among 396 operating room personnel, using a short form of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ. The SAQ employed 30 items to assess safety culture in six dimensions: teamwork climate, safety climate, stress recognition, perception of hospital management, working conditions, and job satisfaction. The subscore of each dimension was calculated and converted to a scale score with a full score of 100, where higher scores indicated better safety attitudes. Results: The response rate was 66.4%. The overall safety culture score of the operating room personnel was 65.02, higher than an international average (61.80. Operating room personnel at Siriraj Hospital had safety attitudes in teamwork climate, safety climate, and stress recognition lower than the international average, but had safety attitudes in the perception of hospital management, working conditions, and job satisfaction higher than the international average. Conclusion: The safety culture attitudes of operating room personnel at the Department of Surgery, Siriraj Hospital were comparable to international standards. The safety dimensions that Siriraj Hospital operating room should try to improve were teamwork climate, safety climate, and stress recognition.
Weld, Lancaster R; Stringer, Matthew T; Ebertowski, James S; Baumgartner, Timothy S; Kasprenski, Matthew C; Kelley, Jeremy C; Cho, Doug S; Tieva, Erwin A; Novak, Thomas E
The objective was to evaluate the effect of TeamSTEPPS on operating room efficiency and patient safety. TeamSTEPPS consisted of briefings attended by all health care personnel assigned to the specific operating room to discuss issues unique to each case scheduled for that day. The operative times, on-time start rates, and turnover times of all cases performed by the urology service during the initial year with TeamSTEPPS were compared to the prior year. Patient safety issues identified during postoperative briefings were analyzed. The mean case time was 12.7 minutes less with TeamSTEPPS (P room turnover time did not change. Patient safety issues declined from an initial rate of 16% to 6% at midyear and remained stable (P operating room efficiency and diminished patient safety issues in the operating room. © The Author(s) 2015.
Brohus, Henrik; Hyldig, Mikkel; Kamper, Simon
In operating rooms great effort is manifested to reduce the bacteria level in order to decrease the risk of infections. The main source of bacteria is the staff and the patient, thus, the resulting bacteria concentration is roughly speaking a combination of the ventilation system and the emission...... from the occupants. This study investigates the influence of two main disturbances in an operating room namely the door opening during the operation and the activity level of the staff. It is found that the frequent door opening in this case does not cause significant transport of air from outside...... the operating room to the wound area of the patient. However, a significant influence of the activity level on the bacteria emission and concentration is found. Counting the number of persons in an operating room to estimate the bacteria source strength is not sufficient, the corresponding activity level must...
Alfredsdottir, Herdis; Bjornsdottir, Kristin
This paper is a report of a study to identify what operating room nurses believe influences patient safety and how they see their role in enhancing patient safety. Research in health care shows that work experience, communication and the organization of work are key factors in patient safety. This study draws on Reason's definitions of active and latent errors to conceptualize the complex issues that affect patient safety in the operating room. The study reported here is part of an action research project at a university hospital in Iceland. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2004 with eight nurses, followed by two focus groups of four nurses each in 2005. Data were analysed using interpretive content analysis. Securing patient safety and preventing mistakes were described as key elements in operating room nursing by all survey participants. In the interviews, the nurses identified the existing culture of prevention and protection that characterizes operating room nursing as crucial in enhancing safety. The organization of work into specialty teams was considered essential. Increased speed of work in an environment where enhanced productivity is imperative, as well as imbalance in staffing, was identified as the main threats to safety. Operating room nurses have a common understanding of the core of their work, which is to ensure patient safety during operations. The work environment is increasingly characterized by latent error, i.e. system-based threats to patient safety that can materialize at any time. Interventions to enhance patient safety in operating room nursing are needed.
Sandbaek, Birgithe E; Helgheim, Berit I; Larsen, Odd I; Fasting, Sigurd
To increase operating room (OR) efficiency, a new resource allocation strategy, a new policy for patient urgency classification, and a new system for OR booking was implemented at a tertiary referral hospital...
Bennett, Christopher L; Dudaryk, Roman; Ayers, Andrew L; McNeer, Richard R
In this study, an operating room simulation environment was adapted to include quadraphonic speakers, which were used to recreate a composed clinical soundscape. To assess validity of the composed soundscape, several acoustic parameters of this simulated environment were acquired in the presence of alarms only, background noise only, or both. These parameters were also measured for comparison from size-matched operating rooms at Jackson Memorial Hospital. The parameters examined included sound level, reverberation time, and predictive metrics of speech intelligibility in quiet and noise. It was found that the sound levels and acoustic parameters were comparable between the simulated environment and the actual operating rooms. The impact of the background noise on the perception of medical alarms was then examined, and was found to have little impact on the audibility of the alarms. This study is a first in kind report of a comparison between the environmental and psychological acoustical parameters of a hospital simulation environment and actual operating rooms.
McFadden, David W; Tsai, Mitchell; Kadry, Bassam; Souba, Wiley W
Game theory is an economic system of strategic behavior, often referred to as the "theory of social situations." Very little has been written in the medical literature about game theory or its applications, yet the practice of surgery and the operating room environment clearly involves multiple social situations with both cooperative and non-cooperative behaviors. A comprehensive review was performed of the medical literature on game theory and its medical applications. Definitive resources on the subject were also examined and applied to surgery and the operating room whenever possible. Applications of game theory and its proposed dilemmas abound in the practicing surgeon's world, especially in the operating room environment. The surgeon with a basic understanding of game theory principles is better prepared for understanding and navigating the complex Operating Room system and optimizing cooperative behaviors for the benefit all stakeholders. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
新, 太喜治; 清水, 信義; 河上, 靖登; 冨田,校朗; 光岡,利人; 塚原, 恒子; 折田,薫三
A survey was undertaken to evaluate the possible relationship between abnormal pregnancy and exposure to waste anesthetic gases. The results indicate that during the years 1976-1979, 36 per cent of pregnant operating room nurses suffered from threatend abortion, compared with 10 per cent in the control group. Our measurement of waste anesthetic gases showed that trace concentrations of 100ppm of nitrous oxide and 2.0 ppm of halothane were present in the operating room atomosphere. The contami...
Stepaniak, Pieter S; Mannaerts, Guido H H; de Quelerij, Marcel; de Vries, Guus
The Operating Room Coordinator (ORC) is responsible for filling gaps in every operating room (OR) schedule. We have observed differences among the personalities of the four ORCs with regard to their willingness to agree to assume more risk concerning their daily planning. The hypothesis to be tested is that the relationship between the personality of each of the four ORCs and the risk an ORC is willing to take of cases running late affects OR efficiency. In order to judge the personality of an ORC in relation to risk-taking in planning schedules, we applied the Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire in our study. Seven anesthesiologists were asked to score every ORC on willingness to take risks in planning. To analyze which risk attitude creates more OR efficiency, the daily prognosis of the ORC compared with the actual OR program outcome was registered during a 5-mo period in 2006 and 2007. We analyzed whether, in the opinion of hospital management, the costs of reserving too much OR time balances with the costs of reserving too little OR time, and whether this result is consistent with the assignment of the management tasks of the ORC. Seven anesthesiologists classified the four ORCs into the risk-averse group (n = 2) and the nonrisk-averse group (n = 2). The Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire results for risk-seeking indicate that there is a difference in risk appreciation among the different ORCs. The main finding in our study is that the nonrisk-averse ORC plans to fill the gaps in more cases in the OR program than the risk-averse ORC does. The number of extra cases performed by the nonrisk-averse ORC as compared to a risk-averse ORC is 188 in 2006 and 174 in 2007. The average end-of-program-time per OR/day for the nonrisk-averse ORC is 34 min (+/-19 min, P = 0.0085) later than for the risk-averse ORC. We find that this hospital on average reserves more OR time for procedures than is actually required. The nonrisk-averse ORC takes more advantage
McNeill, James; Hertzberg, Jean; Zhai, John
In hospital operating rooms, centrally located non-isothermal ceiling jets provide sterile air for protecting the surgical site from infectious particles in the room air as well as room cooling. Modern operating rooms are requiring larger temperature differences to accommodate increasing cooling loads for heat gains from medical equipment. This trend may lead to significant changes in the room air distribution patterns that may sacrifice the sterile air field across the surgical table. Quantitative flow visualization experiments using laser sheet illumination and RANS modeling of the indoor environment were conducted to demonstrate the impact of the indoor environment thermal conditions on the room air distribution. The angle of the jet shear layer was studied as function of the area of the vena contracta of the jet, which is in turn dependent upon the Archimedes number of the jet. Increases in the buoyancy forces cause greater air velocities in the vicinity of the surgical site increasing the likelihood of deposition of contaminants in the flow field. The outcome of this study shows the Archimedes number should be used as the design parameter for hospital operating room air distribution in order to maintain a proper supply air jet for covering the sterile region. This work is supported by ASHRAE.
behind this assumption, we will focus on four different types of surgical care: cardiac, orthopedic, robotic and trauma surgery . SIGNIFICANCE... surgery . The management of perfusion (sufficient oxygen supply to the brain and vital organs) while the heart is being operated is the key component of...management (Catchpole et al. 2007). Task, Technology and Teamwork in Robotic Surgery We have also been conducting new studies examining robotic surgery
Bollin, Marty; Murry, Lisa
The purpose of this article is to evaluate and recommend current best practices related to safe handling of sharp instruments in reducing transmission of blood borne pathogens, specifically HIV, in the operating suite. 1) To identify the risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens from sharps in the OR suite. 2) To identify practices to reduce the risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens in the OR suite.
Odle, Teresa G
Managers of interventional radiology departments and medical imaging personnel who work in surgical suites deal with regular technical innovations in their work, but large-scale innovations seldom come along that transform markets and require massive architectural, training, and technological changes. The hybrid interventional/operating suite is one such massive change. This article presents an overview of the transition to hybrid procedures and designs, the benefits and challenges of the new delivery method, and change management issues for managers of cardiovascular and vascular interventional departments. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.
Shams, Alexandra; Ahmed, Mostafa; Scalzitti, Nicholas J; Stringer, Matthew; Howard, N Scott; Maturo, Stephen
To evaluate the effect of TeamSTEPPS (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety) on operating room efficiency for the otolaryngology service at a tertiary care medical center. Retrospective database review. Otolaryngology department at tertiary care medical center. To assess the impact of implementing an evidence-based patient safety initiative, TeamSTEPPS, on operating room efficiency in the otolaryngology department, the operative times, time lost to delayed starts, and turnover times during the year following the implementation of TeamSTEPPS were compared with the values from the prior year. The study compared 1322 cases and 644 turnovers in the year prior to TeamSTEPPS implementation with 1609 cases and 769 turnovers in the following year. There were no statistically significant decreases in operating room efficiency in the year after the TeamSTEPPS rollout. Operating room efficiency was preserved after the rollout of a rigorous evidence-based patient safety initiative that requires active participation from all operating room team members. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Zheng, Bin; Tien, Geoffrey; Atkins, Stella M; Swindells, Colin; Tanin, Homa; Meneghetti, Adam; Qayumi, Karim A; Neely, O; Panton, M
Surgeons' vigilance regarding patient condition was assessed using eye-tracking techniques during a simulated laparoscopic procedure. Surgeons were required to perform a partial cholecystectomy in a virtual reality trainer (SurgicalSim; METI Inc, Sarasota, FL) while wearing a lightweight head-mounted eye-tracker (Locarna systems Inc, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada). Half of the patients were preprogrammed to present a mildly unstable cardiac condition during the procedure. Surgical performance (evaluated by task time, instrument trajectory, and errors), mental workload (by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Task Load Index), and eye movement were recorded and compared between 13 experienced and 10 novice surgeons. Experienced surgeons took longer to complete the task and also made more errors. The overall workload reported by surgeons was similar, but expert surgeons reported a higher level of frustration and a lower level of physical demands. Surgeon workload was greater when operating on the unstable patient than on the stable patient. Novices performed faster but focused more of their attention on the surgical task. In contrast, experts glanced more frequently at the anesthetic monitor. This study shows the usefulness of using eye-tracking technology to measure a surgeon's vigilance during an operation. Eye-tracking observations can lead to inferences about a surgeon's behavior for patient safety. The unsatisfactory performance of expert surgeons on the VR simulator suggests that the fidelity of the virtual simulator needs to improve to enable surgeons to transfer their clinical skills. This, in turn, suggests using caution when having clinical experts as instructors to teach skills with virtual simulators. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McColligan, Elizabeth E.; Gordon, Toby A.; Jones, Cynthia E.; Stiff, Judith L.; Donham, Robert T.; Rogers, Mark C.
This paper describes an Operating Room Management Information System developed at the Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. The system has two major components: an operating room scheduling component and an operating room utilization analysis component.
Raquel Murano Alfaia dos Santos
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the quality of life of operating room nurses and collect their opinions as to the influence their professional activity exerts on their quality of life. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study carried out on a sample of 24 nurses that work in the operating room of a large private hospital in the city of São Paulo. Two questionnaires were applied; one was designed by the authors of this research project, and the other was the Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF. Rresults: As to quality of life, the environment domain obtained the highest score, while the psychological domain obtained the lowest. When asked if their professional activity in the operating room influenced their quality of life, most responded affirmatively. Regarding the justifications offered by the nurses for the influence of their professional activity on their quality of life, 50% mentioned environment-related stress, responsibilities, duties, risk situations, relationships with the multiprofessional team, and the type of work carried out in the operating room. Cconclusions: The psychological domain obtained the lowest score in the nurse quality of life evaluation, pointing out the need to facilitate and/or encourage nurses to seek psychological support. As to the influence of their professional activity on their quality of life, the nurses mentioned stress related to their work environment and professional activities in the operating room. This highlights the importance of managers in this area, paying greater attention to the individual and collective needs of their employees.
Hsueh, Christine; Giuffrida, Michelle; Mayhew, Philipp D; Case, J Brad; Singh, Ameet; Monnet, Eric; Holt, David E; Cray, Megan; Curcillo, Chiara; Runge, Jeffrey J
To describe pet owner preferences within the veterinary community when choosing operative techniques for canine spay. Prospective survey. 1234 respondents from 5 veterinary university teaching hospitals in North America. An electronic survey was distributed to faculty, students, and staff that currently are or previously were dog owners. Responses were analyzed to determine what spay technique respondents would choose for their own dogs. Surgical options offered included open celiotomy, 2-port (TP) laparoscopy, single-port (SP) laparoscopy, and natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES). TP laparoscopic ovariectomy (OVE) was the most popular choice, followed by SP laparoscopic OVE; NOTES was the least popular technique when all surgical options were available. If only minimally invasive surgeries were offered, 0.3% of respondents would refuse surgery. Nearly half (48%) of respondents were willing to spend between $100 and $200 more for a minimally invasive OVE than for an open celiotomy. Minimally invasive OVE is an acceptable operative approach to those in the veterinary community. Additional study is required to correlate these findings with the general veterinary client population. © 2018 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.
El-Sawah, G. [Higher Technological Inst., Ramadan Tenth City (Egypt); Fouad, M. [Cairo Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Engineering]|[ECDG Consulting, Cairo (Egypt); Hendawi, T. [ECDG Consulting, Cairo (Egypt)
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was used to model airflow and contaminant concentrations in a hospital operating room. The study compared different heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The study then compared a conventional operating room set-up with a new system configuration. A range of different configurations and air inlet velocities were investigated in order to measure the benefits of unidirectional displacement ventilation systems in controlling airborne infections. Results of the study showed that the proposed operating room HVAC system was more efficient than the conventional system in reducing the risk of injection and contamination during surgery. The study also determined a specific configuration that provided minimum contaminant concentrations in a controlled zone by offering a uni-directional flow in the working area that prevented cross-contamination from surrounding areas. The optimum configuration used vertical unidirectional flow diffusers with air curtains that used a room-within-a-room principle that provided a high number of air changes within the operating theatre. 10 refs., 10 figs.
Lange, Victor R
We investigated eyewear contamination levels in the operating room to assess infection risk and inform protocol development. Microbial contamination after use was found in 37.7% of disposable and 94.9% of reusable eyewear pieces. After disinfection, 74.4% of reusable eyewear also cultured positive. Disposable eyewear may reduce intercase contamination risk. Reusable eyewear may carry ongoing bioburden and, thus, contribute to operating room environment risk. Eyewear with antimicrobial material or components could reduce risk. Alternative decontamination methods for reusable eyewear should be evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
De Deyne, Cathy; Heylen, René
Operating Room (OR) information systems should manage the OR time, assigned to every surgeon, thereby minimizing the sum of costs of unused OR time and minimizing the costs of elective cases performed outside normal allocated OR time (excess OR-time). The aim of this paper is to illustrate how the introduction of an OR information system influenced daily OR activity performance. Since January 2001, we introduced an OR information system with a visual, airport-like, screen as central part, displaying all scheduled OR activity linked in real-time activity with all OR theatres. For the aim of this paper, we compared all data of OR activity for elective abdominal surgery (EAS) for the first half of 2000 compared to the first half of 2001, after the introduction of our information system. In 2000, 764 elective cases were performed, compared to 815 cases in 2001. For both periods, the total OR time allocated to EAS for this 6 months period was 805 h. For 2000, the total duration of OR activity for EAS was 1044 h 50 min (implicating 239 h 50 min over-time), compared to 1127 h 35 min (implicating 322 h 35 min overtime) for 2001. For 2000, we recorded 147 h 20 min excess time (=exceeding the time limits of OR activity and inducing extra costs) and 46h45min unused OR time. For 2001, we recorded 123 h 04 min excess time and 35 h 21 min unused time. In conclusion, in 2001 we recorded an increase in total OR activity for elective abdominal surgery by 7% in number of procedures and by 8% in total duration. However, in 2001 we recorded a decrease in excess time by 16% (123 h 04 min vs 147 h 20 min), which was for a large part due to a 23% decrease in unused OR time in 2001 compared to 2000 (35 h 21min vs 46 h 45 min). Therefore, the introduction of an OR information system, with a real-time visual display of ongoing OR activity, resulted in a increased performance of OR activity, with more OR procedures performed despite less excess time and less extra costs.
Feußner, H; Ostler, D; Kohn, N; Vogel, T; Wilhelm, D; Koller, S; Kranzfelder, M
A comprehensive surveillance and control system integrating all devices and functions is a precondition for realization of the operating room of the future. Multiple proprietary integrated operation room systems are currently available with a central user interface; however, they only cover a relatively small part of all functionalities. Internationally, there are at least three different initiatives to promote a comprehensive systems integration and networking in the operating room: the Japanese smart cyber operating theater (SCOT), the American medical device plug-and-play interoperability program (MDPnP) and the German secure and dynamic networking in operating room and hospital (OR.NET) project supported by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research. Within the framework of the internationally advanced OR.NET project, prototype solution approaches were realized, which make short-term and mid-term comprehensive data retrieval systems probable. An active and even autonomous control of the medical devices by the surveillance and control system (closed loop) is expected only in the long run due to strict regulatory barriers.
Huang, Jui-Chen; Pan, Shu-Pan; Huang, Yi-Tzu; Chen, Shu-Hua
Inappropriate patient positioning during surgery causes respiratory pattern changes, inadequate gaseous exchange, tissue hypoperfusion and disruption of skin integrity. Inadvertent loosening of positioning devices on a patient in our ward during surgery caused surgical field contamination. We thus proposed a project to promote patient positioning accuracy in operating rooms to improve patient safety. This project was intended to promote accurate patient positioning by operating room nurses, raise nursing professionalism, ensure patient safety, and avoid unnecessary patient injury. Under the project, we held educational training programs, developed patient positioning standard operating procedures (SOPs) and check lists, inspected all positioning assistance devices, purchased additional belt restraint straps, and conducted periodic monitoring. Patient positioning execution accuracy increased from 80% to 100%; cognition of patient positioning increased from 88% to 100%. The operating room committee adopted the proposed procedures and they are now SOPs in all operating rooms at our hospital. We suggest including the SOPs developed in this project in continuous education programs and urge making well-designed positioning assistance devices available to protect patient safety during surgery.
Madni, Tarik D; Imran, Jonathan B; Clark, Audra; Arnoldo, Brett A; Phelan, Herb A; Wolf, Steven E
Many operating room (OR) processes can limit productivity. Surprisingly, little has been done to identify which OR processes limit downstream activities. Here, the authors aimed to review their burn OR procedures to determine if and where inefficiencies exist. Data for all operations performed in a dedicated burn OR from January 1, 2015, to July 31, 2016 were reviewed in the electronic medical records of our public, teaching hospital. The total time spent was allocated into the following components: induction (patient in room to end of induction), preparation (end of induction to procedure start), procedure (procedure start to procedure end), exit (procedure end to patient out of room), and turnover (patient out of room to next patient in room). Operative times and work relative value units generated were summarized. A total of 1033 cases were performed. Mean ± SD times for each component in minutes were induction (12.4 ± 7.4), preparation (32.1 ± 15.4), procedure (68.21 ± 42.0), exit (14.7 ± 11.0), turnover (50.5 ± 30.0), and total aggregation of components (155.8 ± 65.4). Procedure, turnover, and preparation were the 3 largest time components of an operation in decreasing order (39, 29, and 18%). Mean work relative value units per month was 1749.4 ± 411.9. Average work relative value units per OR hour was 11.7 ± 8.5. The time spent doing procedures comprises about 40% of the total operational time in a burn OR. Other than the procedure itself, the second and third largest component of an operation were turnover and preparation time, respectively.
Wong, Janice; Khu, Kathleen Joy; Kaderali, Zul; Bernstein, Mark
Background Delays in the operating room have a negative effect on its efficiency and the working environment. In this prospective study, we analyzed data on perioperative system delays. Methods One neurosurgeon prospectively recorded all errors, including perioperative delays, for consecutive patients undergoing elective procedures from May 2000 to February 2009. We analyzed the prevalence, causes and impact of perioperative system delays that occurred in one neurosurgeon’s practice. Results A total of 1531 elective surgical cases were performed during the study period. Delays were the most common type of error (33.6%), and more than half (51.4%) of all cases had at least 1 delay. The most common cause of delay was equipment failure. The first cases of the day and cranial cases had more delays than subsequent cases and spinal cases, respectively. A delay in starting the first case was associated with subsequent delays. Conclusion Delays frequently occur in the operating room and have a major effect on patient flow and resource utilization. Thorough documentation of perioperative delays provides a basis for the development of solutions for improving operating room efficiency and illustrates the principles underlying the causes of operating room delays across surgical disciplines. PMID:20507792
Blakeley, J A; Ribeiro, V; Hughes, A
The unique features of the operating room (OR) make it an ideal setting for the proliferation of gossip and rumor. Although not always negative, these "grapevine" communications can reduce productivity and work satisfaction. Hence, OR managers need to understand these forms of communication and prevent or control their negative consequences. The authors offer suggestions for undertaking this challenge.
van der Houwen, Clasien; Boor, Klarke; Essed, Gerard G. M.; Boendermaker, Peter M.; Scherpbier, Albert A. J. J. A.; Scheele, Fedde
Objective: One of the challenging goals of gynaecological education is preparing trainees for independent practice of surgery. Research, however, on how to acquire surgical skills in the operating room safely, effectively and efficiently is scarce. We performed this study to explore trainers' and
Wong, Janice; Khu, Kathleen Joy; Kaderali, Zul; Bernstein, Mark
Delays in the operating room have a negative effect on its efficiency and the working environment. In this prospective study, we analyzed data on perioperative system delays. One neurosurgeon prospectively recorded all errors, including perioperative delays, for consecutive patients undergoing elective procedures from May 2000 to February 2009. We analyzed the prevalence, causes and impact of perioperative system delays that occurred in one neurosurgeon's practice. A total of 1531 elective surgical cases were performed during the study period. Delays were the most common type of error (33.6%), and more than half (51.4%) of all cases had at least 1 delay. The most common cause of delay was equipment failure. The first cases of the day and cranial cases had more delays than subsequent cases and spinal cases, respectively. A delay in starting the first case was associated with subsequent delays. Delays frequently occur in the operating room and have a major effect on patient flow and resource utilization. Thorough documentation of perioperative delays provides a basis for the development of solutions for improving operating room efficiency and illustrates the principles underlying the causes of operating room delays across surgical disciplines.
studies of operating room management. These studies and associated results were in the following publications: 13. Seagull FJ, Xiao Y, & Plasters C...the B.Sc. degree in electrical engineering from the Pontificia Universidad Católica del Perú, Lima, Peru , in 1999, and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees
G. Xiao (Guanlian); W.L. van Jaarsveld (Willem); M. Dong (Ming); J.J. van de Klundert (Joris)
textabstractThe complex optimisation problems arising in the scheduling of operating rooms have received considerable attention in recent scientific literature because of their impact on costs, revenues and patient health. For an important part, the complexity stems from the stochastic nature of the
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Breaking room operations. 590.522 Section 590.522 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... egg holding vats and containers (including tank trucks) used for transporting liquid eggs shall be...
Tiel, F.H. van; Buiting, A.G.M.; Meessen, N.E.L.; Voss, A.; Vos, M.C.
The Dutch quality control plan for climatisation of the operating room (OR), which was published in 2005, describes the management and maintenance of the air conditioning system. This management plan proposes a standard for air quality in class 1 ORs. This has been adopted by the Dutch Orthopaedic
Platz, O.; Rasmussen, Jens; Skanborg, Preben Zacho
A statistical analysis was made of operator response times recorded in the control room of a research reactor during the years 1972-1974. A homogeneity test revealed that the data consist of a mixture of populations. A small but statistically significant difference is found between day and night...
Spring 2009 semester, I conducted a thorough review of the operations research literature on operating room (OR) scheduling. In the course of this...of basic surgical sciences. The Innovations in the Surgical Environment conference planned for the spring of 2010 will summarize the entirety of the...activation levels between different muscle groups, maximum voluntary contraction ( MVC ) levels of each muscle group were recorded for several
Zahed Husaain Khan; Seydeh Shohreh Alavi; Shahriar Arbabi; Jalil Makarem
Background: Education is the main mission of teaching hospitals, but the residents’ learning in acquiring new techniques does interfere in the overall treatment process of patients. Studies pertaining to the effect of anesthesia residents’ training in operating room on treatment procedures have reported conflicting results. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate the effects of anesthesia residents’ training on start time operative delays. Methods: This cohort study was done in ...
Fry, Donald E
Bloodborne pathogens continue to be a source of occupational infection for healthcare workers, but particularly for surgeons. Over 1 per cent of the U.S. population has one or more chronic viral infections. Hepatitis B is the infection that has the longest known role as an occupational pathogen, but infection with this virus is largely preventable with the use of the effective hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis C affects the largest number of people in the United States, and there is no vaccine available for the prevention of this infection. HIV infection still has not been associated with a documented transmission in the operating room environment, but six cases of probable occupational transmission have been reported. A total of 57 healthcare workers have had documented occupational infection since the epidemic of HIV infection began. Infection of blood-borne pathogens to patients from infected surgeons remains a concern. Surgeons who are e-antigen-positive for hepatitis B have been well documented to be an infection risk to patients in the operating room. Only four surgeons have been documented to transmit hepatitis C, although other transmissions have occurred in the care of patients when practices of infection control have been violated. No surgical transmission of HIV to a patient has been identified at this time. Prevention of occupational infection requires use of protective barriers, avoidance of exposure risk by modification of techniques, and a constant awareness of sharp instruments in the operating room. Blood exposure in the operating room carries risk of infection and should be avoided. It is likely that other infectious agents will emerge as operating room threats. Surgeons must maintain vigilance in avoiding blood exposure and percutaneous injury.
Katz, Jonathan D
There is a direct relationship between the quality of the environment of a workplace and the productivity and efficiency of the work accomplished. Components such as temperature, humidity, ventilation, drafts, lighting, and noise each contribute to the quality of the overall environment and the sense of well-being of those who work there.The modern operating room is a unique workplace with specific, and frequently conflicting, environmental requirements for each of the inhabitants. Even minor disturbances in the internal environment of the operating room can have serious ramifications on the comfort, effectiveness, and safety of each of the inhabitants. A cool, well-ventilated, and dry climate is optimal for many members of the surgical team. Any significant deviation from these objectives raises the risk of decreased efficiency and productivity and adverse surgical outcomes. A warmer, more humid, and quieter environment is necessary for the patient. If these requirements are not met, the risk of surgical morbidity and mortality is increased. An important task for the surgical team is to find the correct balance between these 2 opposed requirements. Several of the components of the operating room environment, especially room temperature and airflow patterns, are easily manipulated by the members of the surgical team. In the following discussion, we will examine these elements to better understand the clinical ramifications of adjustments and accommodations that are frequently made to meet the requirements of both the surgical staff and the patient.
Rhea, E B; Rogers, T H; Riehl, J T
In many orthopaedic operating rooms, anaesthesia providers routinely wear lead aprons for protection from radiation, but some studies have questioned whether this is needed. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that measured the amount of radiation that anaesthetists were exposed to in the orthopaedic operating room. Multiple studies have shown that at 1.5 m from the source of radiation, anaesthetists received no radiation, or amounts so small that a person would have to be present in an unreasonable number of operations to receive cumulative doses of any significance. Radiation doses at this distance were often at the limits of the sensitivity of the measuring dosimeter. We question the need to wear lead protection for anaesthesia providers who are routinely at 1.5 m or a greater distance from standard fluoroscopy units. © 2016 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.
Park, Kyung W; Dickerson, Cheryl
Supply expenses occupy an ever-increasing portion of the expense budget in today's increasingly technologically complex operating rooms. Yet, little has been studied and published in the anesthesia literature. This review attempts to bring the topic of supply management to anesthesiologists, who play a significant role in operating room management. Little investigative work has been performed on supply management. Anecdotal reports suggest the benefits of a perpetual inventory system over a periodic inventory system. A perpetual inventory system uses utilization data to update inventory on hand continually and this information is linked to purchasing and restocking, whereas a periodic inventory system counts inventory at some regular intervals (such as annually) and uses average utilization to set par levels. On the basis of application of operational management concepts, ways of taking advantage of a perpetual inventory system to achieve savings in supply expenses are outlined. These include linking the operating room scheduling and supply order system, distributor-driven just-in-time delivery of case carts, continual updating of preference lists based on utilization patterns, increasing inventory turnovers, standardizing surgical practices, and vendor consignment of high unit-cost items such as implants. In addition, Lean principles of visual management and elimination of eight wastes may be applicable to supply management.
Hartmann, Florian; Schlaefer, Alexander
Today's highly technical operating rooms lead to fairly complex surgical workflows where the surgeon has to interact with a number of devices, including the operating room light. Hence, ideally, the surgeon could direct the light without major disruption of his work. We studied whether a gesture tracking-based control of an automated operating room light is feasible. So far, there has been little research on control approaches for operating lights. We have implemented an exemplary setup to mimic an automated light controlled by a gesture tracking system. The setup includes a articulated arm to position the light source and an off-the-shelf RGBD camera to detect the user interaction. We assessed the tracking performance using a robot-mounted hand phantom and ran a number of tests with 18 volunteers to evaluate the potential of touch-less light control. All test persons were comfortable with using the gesture-based system and quickly learned how to move a light spot on flat surface. The hand tracking error is direction-dependent and in the range of several centimeters, with a standard deviation of less than 1 mm and up to 3.5 mm orthogonal and parallel to the finger orientation, respectively. However, the subjects had no problems following even more complex paths with a width of less than 10 cm. The average speed was 0.15 m/s, and even initially slow subjects improved over time. Gestures to initiate control can be performed in approximately 2 s. Two-thirds of the subjects considered gesture control to be simple, and a majority considered it to be rather efficient. Implementation of an automated operating room light and touch-less control using an RGBD camera for gesture tracking is feasible. The remaining tracking error does not affect smooth control, and the use of the system is intuitive even for inexperienced users.
Ménard, C; Pambrun, J-F; Kadoury, S
Online image guidance in the operating room using ultrasound imaging led to the resurgence of prostate brachytherapy in the 1980s. Here we describe the evolution of integrating MRI technology in the brachytherapy suite or operating room. Given the complexity, cost, and inherent safety issues associated with MRI system integration, first steps focused on the computational integration of images rather than systems. This approach has broad appeal given minimal infrastructure costs and efficiencies comparable with standard care workflows. However, many concerns remain regarding accuracy of registration through the course of a brachytherapy procedure. In selected academic institutions, MRI systems have been integrated in or near the brachytherapy suite in varied configurations to improve the precision and quality of treatments. Navigation toolsets specifically adapted to prostate brachytherapy are in development and are reviewed. Copyright © 2017 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tobias, Joseph D
Although adults may be able to tolerate procedures without sedation, developmental and cognitive issues often mandate the use of sedation in infants and children. There has been a shift in the philosophy regarding sedation with an increasing recognition of the negative psychological and physiological aspects of inadequate sedation. The expansion of our technology continues to result in an increasing number of techniques, which require sedation outside of the operating room environment. These factors have contributed to an ever growing number of pediatric patients presenting themselves for procedural sedation. This chapter will discuss issues regarding the provision of anesthesia outside of the operating room for pediatric patients including current guidelines for patient assessment prior to procedural, monitoring during sedation, and a discussion of some of the more commonly utilized sedative and analgesic agents within the pediatric population.
Kanmura, Y; Sakai, J; Yoshinaka, H; Shirao, K
To reduce the ambient concentration of waste anesthetic agents, exhaust gas scavenging systems are standard in almost all operating rooms. The incidence of contamination and the factors that may increase the concentrations of ambient anesthetic gases have not been evaluated fully during routine circumstances, however. Concentrations of nitrous oxide (N2O) in ambient air were monitored automatically in 10 operating rooms in Kagoshima University Hospital from January to March 1997. Ambient air was sampled automatically from each operating room, and the concentrations of N2O were analyzed every 22 min by an infrared spectrophotometer. The output of the N2O analyzer was integrated electronically regarding time, and data were displayed on a monitor in the administrative office for anesthesia supervisors. A concentration of N2O > 50 parts per million was regarded as abnormally high and was displayed with an alarm signal. The cause of the high concentration of N2O was then sought. During the 3-month investigation, N2O was used in 402 cases. Abnormally high concentrations of N2O were detected at some time during 104 (25.9%) of those cases. The causes were mask ventilation (42 cases, 40.4% of detected cases), unconnected scavenging systems (20 cases, 19.2%), leak around uncuffed pediatric endotracheal tube (13 cases, 12.5%), equipment leakage (12 cases, 11.5%), and others (17 cases, 16.4%). N2O contamination was common during routine circumstances in our operating rooms. An unconnected scavenging system led to the highest concentrations of N2O recorded. Proper use of scavenging systems is necessary if contamination by anesthetic gas is to be limited.
Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Birnbach, David J; Lubarsky, David A; Arheart, Kristopher L; Fajardo-Aquino, Yovanit; Rosalsky, Mara; Cleary, Timothy; Depascale, Dennise; Coro, Gabriel; Namias, Nicholas; Carling, Philip
Potential transmission of organisms from the environment to patients is a concern, especially in enclosed settings, such as operating rooms, in which there are multiple and frequent contacts between patients, provider's hands, and environmental surfaces. Therefore, adequate disinfection of operating rooms is essential. We aimed to determine the change in both the thoroughness of environmental cleaning and the proportion of environmental surfaces within operating rooms from which pathogenic organisms were recovered. Prospective environmental study using feedback with UV markers and environmental cultures. A 1,500-bed county teaching hospital. Environmental service personnel, hospital administration, and medical and nursing leadership. The proportion of UV markers removed (cleaned) increased from 0.47 (284 of 600 markers; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-0.53) at baseline to 0.82 (634 of 777 markers; 95% CI, 0.77-0.85) during the last month of observations ([Formula: see text]). Nevertheless, the percentage of samples from which pathogenic organisms (gram-negative bacilli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus species) were recovered did not change throughout our study. Pathogens were identified on 16.6% of surfaces at baseline and 12.5% of surfaces during the follow-up period ([Formula: see text]). However, the percentage of surfaces from which gram-negative bacilli were recovered decreased from 10.7% at baseline to 2.3% during the follow-up period ([Formula: see text]). Feedback using Gram staining of environmental cultures and UV markers was successful at improving the degree of cleaning in our operating rooms.
María del Pilar Sánchez Moreno
Full Text Available Patient´s safety is a priority line of action in the Quality of Health Care. Adequate patient safety culture is one of the important pillars in the health care. Also the World Health Organization reports that 7 million people, of 234 million of major surgeries, suffer complications and this can be reduced by half with a system that decreases the possibility of error. Objectives: To determinate the attitude and behavior of professionals in the operating room unit in Hospital Virgen de la Salud of Toledo towards patient safety. Material and method: The type of study is a descriptive and transversal. Population: medical and nursing staff of the theatre with over 1 year in service. Measurement of variables will be made by a validated test and adapted to Spanish territory by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality of the United States. We intend to identify the strengths and weaknesses in matter of operating room safety, to know the starting point for the implementation of the surgical safety checklist and to develop a safety culture in the operating room with standardized tools and regular quality controls.
Andrés, C; Pérez-García, H; Agulla, M; Torres, R; Miguel, D; Del Castillo, A; Flota, C M; Alonso, D; de Frutos, J; Vaquero, C
This study aimed to characterize the radiation exposure to patients and workers in a new vascular hybrid operating room during X-ray-guided procedures. During one year, data from 260 interventions performed in a hybrid operating room equipped with a Siemens Artis Zeego angiography system were monitored. The patient doses were analysed using the following parameters: radiation time, kerma-area product, patient entrance reference point dose and peak skin dose. Staff radiation exposure and ambient dose equivalent were also measured using direct reading dosimeters and thermoluminescent dosimeters. The radiation time, kerma-area product, patient entrance reference point dose and peak skin dose were, on average, 19:15min, 67Gy·cm(2), 0.41Gy and 0.23Gy, respectively. Although the contribution of the acquisition mode was smaller than 5% in terms of the radiation time, this mode accounted for more than 60% of the effective dose per patient. All of the worker dose measurements remained below the limits established by law. The working conditions in the hybrid operating room HOR are safe in terms of patient and staff radiation protection. Nevertheless, doses are highly dependent on the workload; thus, further research is necessary to evaluate any possible radiological deviation of the daily working conditions in the HOR. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Healthcare expenditure is a serious concern, with escalating costs failing to meet the expectations of quality care. The treatment capacities are limited in a hospital setting and the operating rooms (ORs. Their optimal utilization is vital in efficient hospital management. Starting late means considerable wait time for staff, patients and waste of resources. We planned an audit to assess different perspectives of the residents in surgical specialities and anesthesia and OR staff nurses so as to know the causative factors of operative delay. This can help develop a practical model to decrease start time delays in operating room (ORs. Aims: An audit to assess different perspectives of the Operating room (OR staff with respect to the varied causative factors of operative delay in the OR. To aid in the development of a practical model to decrease start time delays in ORs and facilitate on-time starts at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma centre (JPNATC, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS, New Delhi. Methods: We prepared a questionnaire seeking the five main reasons of delay as per their perspective. Results: The available data was analysed. Analysis of the data demonstrated the common causative factors in start time operative delays as: a lack of proper planning, deficiencies in team work, communication gap and limited availability of trained supporting staff. Conclusions: The preparation of the equipment and required material for the OR cases must be done well in advance. Utilization of newer technology enables timely booking and scheduling of cases. Improved inter-departmental coordination and compliance with preanesthetic instructions needs to be ensured. It is essential that the anesthesiologists perform their work promptly, well in time . and supervise the proceedings as the OR manager. This audit is a step forward in defining the need of effective OR planning for continuous quality improvement.
Gupta, Babita; Agrawal, Pramendra; D'souza, Nita; Soni, Kapil Dev
Healthcare expenditure is a serious concern, with escalating costs failing to meet the expectations of quality care. The treatment capacities are limited in a hospital setting and the operating rooms (ORs). Their optimal utilization is vital in efficient hospital management. Starting late means considerable wait time for staff, patients and waste of resources. We planned an audit to assess different perspectives of the residents in surgical specialities and anesthesia and OR staff nurses so as to know the causative factors of operative delay. This can help develop a practical model to decrease start time delays in operating room (ORs). An audit to assess different perspectives of the Operating room (OR) staff with respect to the varied causative factors of operative delay in the OR. To aid in the development of a practical model to decrease start time delays in ORs and facilitate on-time starts at Jai Prakash Narayan Apex Trauma centre (JPNATC), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi. We prepared a questionnaire seeking the five main reasons of delay as per their perspective. The available data was analysed. Analysis of the data demonstrated the common causative factors in start time operative delays as: a lack of proper planning, deficiencies in team work, communication gap and limited availability of trained supporting staff. The preparation of the equipment and required material for the OR cases must be done well in advance. Utilization of newer technology enables timely booking and scheduling of cases. Improved inter-departmental coordination and compliance with preanesthetic instructions needs to be ensured. It is essential that the anesthesiologists perform their work promptly, well in time . and supervise the proceedings as the OR manager. This audit is a step forward in defining the need of effective OR planning for continuous quality improvement.
Hu, Yue-Yung; Mazer, Laura M; Yule, Steven J; Arriaga, Alexander F; Greenberg, Caprice C; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Gawande, Atul A; Smink, Douglas S
Surgical expertise demands technical and nontechnical skills. Traditionally, surgical trainees acquired these skills in the operating room; however, operative time for residents has decreased with duty hour restrictions. As in other professions, video analysis may help maximize the learning experience. To develop and evaluate a postoperative video-based coaching intervention for residents. In this mixed methods analysis, 10 senior (postgraduate year 4 and 5) residents were videorecorded operating with an attending surgeon at an academic tertiary care hospital. Each video formed the basis of a 1-hour one-on-one coaching session conducted by the operative attending; although a coaching framework was provided, participants determined the specific content collaboratively. Teaching points were identified in the operating room and the video-based coaching sessions; iterative inductive coding, followed by thematic analysis, was performed. Teaching points made in the operating room were compared with those in the video-based coaching sessions with respect to initiator, content, and teaching technique, adjusting for time. Among 10 cases, surgeons made more teaching points per unit time (63.0 vs 102.7 per hour) while coaching. Teaching in the video-based coaching sessions was more resident centered; attendings were more inquisitive about residents' learning needs (3.30 vs 0.28, P = .04), and residents took more initiative to direct their education (27% [198 of 729 teaching points] vs 17% [331 of 1977 teaching points], P coaching is a novel and feasible modality for supplementing intraoperative learning. Objective evaluation demonstrates that video-based coaching may be particularly useful for teaching higher-level concepts, such as decision making, and for individualizing instruction and feedback to each resident.
Klein, M.; Andersen, L.P.H.; Alamili, M.
psychological and physiological stress in experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Methods: This was a prospective case-controlled study including 10 experienced surgeons. Surgery was performed in 2 different ORs: a standard room and a modern room (OR1-suite, Karl Storz). The surgeons filled out questionnaires......Purpose: There have been no studies examining the effect of optimized ergonomic and technical environment on the psychological and physiological stress of the surgeon. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimized ergonomics and technical aids within a modern operating room (OR) affect...... OR compared with a standard room...
Meyerson, Shari L; Sternbach, Joel M; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Bender, Edward M
There is concern about graduating thoracic trainees' independent operative skills due to limited autonomy in training. This study compared faculty and trainee expected levels of autonomy with intraoperative measurements of autonomy for common cardiothoracic operations. Participants underwent frame-of-reference training on the 4-point Zwisch scale of operative autonomy (show and tell → active help → passive help → supervision only) and evaluated autonomy in actual cases using the Zwisch Me!! mobile application. A separate "expected autonomy" survey elicited faculty and resident perceptions of how much autonomy a resident should have for six common operations: decortication, wedge resection, thoracoscopic lobectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting, aortic valve replacement, and mitral valve repair. Thirty-three trainees from 7 institutions submitted evaluations of 596 cases over 18 months (March 2015 to September 2016). Thirty attendings subsequently provided their evaluation of 476 of those cases (79.9% response rate). Expected autonomy surveys were completed by 21 attendings and 19 trainees from 5 institutions. The six operations included in the survey constituted 47% (226 of 476) of the cases evaluated. Trainee and attending expectations did not differ significantly for senior trainees. Both groups expected significantly higher levels of autonomy than observed in the operating room for all six types of cases. Although faculty and trainees both expect similar levels of autonomy in the operating room, real-time measurements of autonomy show a gap between expectations and reality. Decreasing this gap will require a concerted effort by both faculty and residents to focus on the development of independent operative skills. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perkins, Jonathan N; Chiang, Tendy; Ruiz, Amanda G; Prager, Jeremy D
A quality improvement project to evaluate operating room efficiency and utilization and to identify areas for improvement. A retrospective assessment of a single surgeon's surgical cases over a 6-month period at a tertiary children's hospital. Primary outcomes included case timing defined as T1, T2, T3 and T4. (T1)-Patient enters OR-to-procedure start. (T2)-Procedure start-to-procedure end. (T3)-Procedure end-to-patient exits OR. (T4)-Patient exits OR-to-next patient enters OR (turnover). Comparison to existing literature was performed and results were presented to stakeholders. A total of 180 surgical cases were reviewed, 92 adenotonsillectomies (T&A), 33 Bilateral Pressure Equalization Tube Placement (PET) and 55 microlaryngoscopies and bronchoscopies (MLB). All outcomes were calculated by case type, except T4, and compared to available published data. T2 was compared to published benchmarks for otolaryngology demonstrating favorable operative times for T&A and PET. However, T4 was considerably longer at our institution (average 31.09). Overall OR efficiency was 20.58%. The operating room represents one of a hospital's most costly resources. Ensuring that this resource is designed, staffed and utilized efficiently is of major importance to both the quality of patient care and financial productivity. Surgeons are key components of operating room efficiency, utilization and other measurements of institutional performance. How surgeons schedule and perform cases directly impacts, and is impacted by, these measurements of performance. For fields dominated by high volume, short duration procedures such as pediatric otolaryngology, T4 may be the most important variable in determining OR efficiency. By utilizing modern electronic medical records, surgeons can easily track OR time points thereby determining the potential causes of and solutions for OR inefficiency. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zullo, Melissa D; McCarroll, Michele L; Mendise, Thomas M; Ferris, Edward F; Roulette, G D; Zolton, Jessica; Andrews, Stephen J; von Gruenigen, Vivian E
To measure the safety culture in the robotics surgery operating room before and after implementation of the Robotic Operating Room Computerized Checklist (RORCC). Prospective study. Gynecology surgical staff (n = 32). An urban community hospital. The Safety Attitudes Questionnaire domains examined were teamwork, safety, job satisfaction, stress recognition, perceptions of management, and working conditions. Questions and domains were described using percent agreement and the Cronbach alpha. Paired t-tests were used to describe differences before and after implementation of the checklist. Mean (SD) staff age was 46.7 (9.5) years, and most were women (78%) and worked full-time (97%). Twenty respondents (83% of nurses, 80% of surgeons, 66% of surgical technicians, and 33% of certified registered nurse anesthetists) completed the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire; 6 were excluded because of non-matching identifiers. Before RORCC implementation, the highest quality of communication and collaboration was reported by surgeons and surgical technicians (100%). Certified registered nurse anesthetists reported only adequate levels of communication and collaboration with other positions. Most staff reported positive responses for teamwork (48%; α = 0.81), safety (47%; α = 0.75), working conditions (37%; α = 0.55), stress recognition (26%; α = 0.71), and perceptions of management (32%; α = 0.52). No differences were observed after RORCC implementation. Quality of communication and collaboration in the gynecology robotics operating room is high between most positions; however, safety attitude responses are low overall. No differences after RORCC implementation and low response rates may highlight lack of staff support. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Müller, W; Grosskopf, S; Hildebrand, A; Malkewitz, R; Ziegler, R
In cooperation with the Max-Delbrück-Centrum/Robert-Rössle-Klinik (MDC/RRK) in Berlin, the Fraunhofer Institute for Computer Graphics is currently designing and developing a scenario for the operating room of the future. The goal of this project is to integrate new analysis, visualization and interaction tools in order to optimize and refine tumor diagnostics and therapy in combination with laser technology and remote stereoscopic video transfer. Hence, a human 3-D reference model is reconstructed using CT, MR, and anatomical cryosection images from the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Project. Applying segmentation algorithms and surface-polygonization methods a 3-D representation is obtained. In addition, a "fly-through" the virtual patient is realized using 3-D input devices (data glove, tracking system, 6-DOF mouse). In this way, the surgeon can experience really new perspectives of the human anatomy. Moreover, using a virtual cutting plane any cut of the CT volume can be interactively placed and visualized in realtime. In conclusion, this project delivers visions for the application of effective visualization and VR systems. Commonly known as Virtual Prototyping and applied by the automotive industry long ago, this project shows, that the use of VR techniques can also prototype an operating room. After evaluating design and functionality of the virtual operating room, MDC plans to build real ORs in the near future. The use of VR techniques provides a more natural interface for the surgeon in the OR (e.g., controlling interactions by voice input). Besides preoperative planning future work will focus on supporting the surgeon in performing surgical interventions. An optimal synthesis of real and synthetic data, and the inclusion of visual, aural, and tactile senses in virtual environments can meet these requirements. This Augmented Reality could represent the environment for the surgeons of tomorrow.
Butler, Victoria; Clinton, Christopher; Sagi, Harsha K; Kenney, Robert; Barsoum, Wael K
The traditional means of planning nurse staffing for operating rooms are either poorly translated to the setting or do not provide decision makers with a platform to defend their needs, especially in an era of health care reform. The surgical operations department of the Cleveland Clinic initiated a quality improvement project aimed at applying a scientific method to operating room staffing. One goal was to provide a defensible plan for allocating direct caregiver positions. A second goal was to provide a quick and easy way for nurse managers and directors to track positions and graphically depict the effect of vacancies and orientation on their staffing budgets. Using an objective, scientific method allows position requests to be approved quickly and allows managers to feel much more comfortable functioning in a "lean" mode because they know needed positions will be approved quickly. Managers and directors also have found that graphically depicting numbers of vacant positions, as well as staff in orientation, could quickly relate a story visually rather than getting "bogged down" in narrative (often losing finance administrators along the way).
Smith, John C
Stabilization and reconstruction operations in failed or failing states are vital to US security interests. These operations require a bottom-up approach, focusing on the population as the strategic center of gravity. This bottom-up approach must address the population's basic needs, as defined by Dr Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of needs, and provide a long-term means of self-sufficiency, rather than creating an "aid dependent economy." Focusing operations on agricultural projects provides relief from donor dependency, stimulates economic growth, and thwarts the power of spoilers. US Army Veterinary Corps personnel provide essential services ensuring the procurement of safe and wholesome subsistence and provision of medical care to government-owned animals. Veterinary Corps officers are also uniquely qualified to design and implement agricultural stabilization and reconstruction programs in conjunction with host-state ministries and agencies across the full range of military operations. Early, sustained engagement by veterinarians stimulates agricultural productivity, improves animal and human health, directly supports the population's hierarchy of needs on all levels, and accelerates stabilization operations by reducing the population's susceptibility to spoilers.
Heng, Marilyn; Wright, James G
Scheduling emergency cases among elective surgeries often results in prolonged waits for emergency surgery and delays or cancellation of elective cases. We evaluated the benefits of a dedicated operating room (OR) for emergency procedures available to all surgical services at a large children's hospital. We compared a 6-month period (January 2009 to June 2009) preimplementation with a 6-month period (January 2010 to June 2010) postimplementation of a dedicated OR. We evaluated OR use, wait times, percentage of cases done within and outside of access targets, off-hours surgery, cancellations, overruns and length of stay. Preimplementation, 1069 of the 5500 surgeries performed were emergency cases. Postimplementation, 1084 of the 5358 surgeries performed were emergency cases. Overall use of the dedicated OR was 53% (standard deviation 25%) postimplementation. Excluding outliers, the average wait time for priority 3 emergency patients decreased from 11 hours 8 minutes to 10 hours 5 minutes (p = 0.004). An increased proportion of priority 3 patients, from 52% to 58%, received surgery within 12 hours (p = 0.020). There was a 9% decrease in the proportion of priority 3 cases completed during the evening and night (p rooms. The average hospital stay after emergency surgery decreased from 16.0 days to 14.7 days (p = 0.12) following implementation of the dedicated OR. A dedicated OR for emergency cases improved quality of care by decreasing cancellations and overruns in elective rooms and increasing the proportion of priority 3 patients who accessed care within the targeted time.
the black box of teamwork in search for relational elements critical to successful collaboration and communication. Few single studies exists which explore how RC could be observed and improved in this context. The present study examines surgical teams in selected operating rooms (OR) focusing on RC......In surgical teams, where health professionals are highly interdependent and work under time pressure, it is of particular importance that the team work is well-functioning to secure treatment quality and patient safety. Using the theory of relational coordination (RC) may be the key to unlocking...
Hu, Yue-Yung; Greenberg, Caprice C
Despite knowledge that most surgical adverse events occur in the operating room (OR), understanding of the intraoperative phase of care is incomplete; most studies measure surgical safety in terms of preoperative risk or postoperative morbidity and mortality. Because of the OR's complexity, human factors engineering provides an ideal methodology for studies of intraoperative safety. This article reviews models of error and resilience as delineated by human factors experts, correlating them to OR performance. Existing methodologies for studying intraoperative safety are then outlined, focusing on video-based observational research. Finally, specific human and system factors examined in the OR are detailed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clinical features and management of equine post operative ileus (POI): Survey of Diplomates of the American Colleges of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM), Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) and Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (ACVECC).
Lefebvre, D; Hudson, N P H; Elce, Y A; Blikslager, A; Divers, T J; Handel, I G; Tremaine, W H; Pirie, R S
A recent survey of European Colleges (European College of Equine Internal Medicine [ECEIM] and European College of Veterinary Surgeons [ECVS]) revealed the different strategies implemented by, and some of the challenges facing, European clinicians presented with cases of post operative ileus (POI). It was concluded that further comparative analysis of opinions, canvassed from additional colleges of equine veterinary specialism worldwide, would provide valuable additional insight into current POI knowledge on a more global scale. To report and compare the current strategies favoured by American veterinary specialists when managing POI in horses that underwent emergency colic surgery. Cross-sectional survey. Electronic invitations were sent to 814 Large Animal specialists, including 3 colleges: the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM), American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) and the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (ACVECC). The response rate was 14% (115/814). The majority of respondents (68%) reported an estimated prevalence range of POI of 0-20%. The presence of reflux on nasogastric intubation was the main criterion used to define POI. A lesion involving the small intestine was considered the main risk factor for POI. Anti-inflammatory drugs, intravenous (i.v.) fluids and antimicrobial drugs were the primary strategies used when managing POI. Flunixin meglumine and i.v. lidocaine were the drugs most commonly used in the treatment of horses with POI. Supplementary management strategies targeted mainly the prevention of post operative adhesions, infection and inflammation. There is a lack of consensus on the clinical definition of POI. Prospective and objective clinical assessment of the effectiveness of the different strategies contained within this and the European survey is necessary in order to identify a standardised approach to the management of equine POI. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.
Hirsch, Tobias; Hubert, Helmine; Fischer, Sebastian; Lahmer, Armin; Lehnhardt, Marcus; Steinau, Hans-Ulrich; Steinstraesser, Lars; Seipp, Hans-Martin
Wound infections present one of the most prevalent and frequent complications associated with surgical procedures. This study analyzes the impact of currently used ventilation systems in the operating room to reduce bacterial contamination during surgical procedures. Four ventilation systems (window-based ventilation, supported air nozzle canopy, low-turbulence displacement airflow, and low-turbulence displacement airflow with flow stabilizer) were analyzed. Two hundred seventy-seven surgical procedures in 6 operating rooms of 5 different hospitals were analyzed for this study. Window-based ventilation showed the highest intraoperative contamination (13.3 colony-forming units [CFU]/h) followed by supported air nozzle canopy (6.4 CFU/h; P = .001 vs window-based ventilation) and low-turbulence displacement airflow (3.4 and 0.8 CFU/h; P system showed no increase of contamination in prolonged durations of surgical procedures. This study shows that intraoperative contamination can be significantly reduced by the use of adequate ventilation systems. Copyright © 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Ullmann, Yehuda; Fodor, Lucian; Schwarzberg, Irena; Carmi, Nurit; Ullmann, Amos; Ramon, Yitzchak
Little information is available about the effect of music on the operating room (OR) staff. The objective of this study was to evaluate the perception of the influence of music on physicians and nurses working in the OR. A questionnaire was designed and 250 copies were distributed to the doctors and nurses working in the OR at three hospitals. One hundred and seventy-one returned the completed questionnaire and were included in this study. 63% of the participants listen to music on a regular basis in the OR. Classical music is the most requested (58%) and most of the responders do not choose the type of music according to the type of the procedure. In our study, the nurses were more likely to listen to music and the willingness is higher among the female responders. The desired volume is lower as age increases and 78.9% of the participants claimed that music in the OR makes them calmer and more efficient. According to our study, music has a positive effect on the staff working in the operating rooms.
Chen, Yuanyuan; Han, Xiaodao; Xu, Yongjie; Li, Weihua
Nursing project management is widely used in different aspects of the society. However, whether the nursing project management can control the infections in the operation room (OR) is rarely reported. We evaluated the outcomes of surgical patients after implementing a nursing project management program to provide new scientific ways to manage the OR infections. Overall, 382 patients, who underwent surgical treatment in Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Shandong, China from May 2015 to January 2016, were enrolled as observation group. Besides, 347 cases were selected as control group. Patients in the observation group were treated with the nursing project management plan, while patients in the control group were treated with the routine operation-room nursing measures. The infection control rates in the OR, and the patient satisfaction with the nursing team postoperatively were both compared between the two groups of patients. The OR air, the surgical and personnel's hands surfaces were sampled for colony forming units, and all were found to be significantly of better quality (indicated by less colony forming units) in the observation group (Pproject management plan for surgical patients in hospitals.
Scagliarini, Michele; Apreda, Mariarosaria; Wienand, Ulrich; Valpiani, Giorgia
Purpose - Operating room (OR) turnaround time is a key process indicator for hospital business management: delays lead to a reduced surgical interventions per day with a consequent increase in costs and decrease in efficiency. The purpose of this paper is to increase understanding by assessing the process' steady-state behaviour and identifying changes that indicate either improvement or deterioration in quality. Design/methodology/approach - With this purpose, the authors retrospectively applied Shewhart control charts and exponentially weighted moving average control charts to data extracted from an hospital information system. Findings - The results showed that statistical process control is able to identify steady-state behaviour process and to detect positive or negative changes in process performance. In particular the authors detected a deterioration in the process performance coinciding with the change in the operating room patient transfer staff. Practical implications - This study showed that statistical quality control is a valuable tool for monitoring performance indicators. Currently, hospital managers are designing an OR dashboard which also includes the control charts. Originality/value - The paper highlights the control chart application to organizational indicators allowing an objective OR system performance assessment.
Chang, Ju-Hsin; Chen, Ke-Wei; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Poon, Kin-Shing; Liu, Shih-Kai
Cancellation of surgery close to scheduled time causes a waste of healthcare resources. The current study analyzes surgery cancellations occurring after the patient has been prepared for the operating room, in order to see whether improvements in the surgery planning process may reduce the number of cancellations. In a retrospective chart review of operating room surgery cancellations during the period from 2006 to 2011, cancellations were divided into the following categories: inadequate NPO; medical; surgical; system; airway; incomplete evaluation. The relative use of these reasons in relation to patient age and surgical department was then evaluated. Forty-one percent of cancellations were for other than medical reasons. Among these, 17.7% were due to incomplete evaluation, and 8.2% were due to family issues. Sixty seven percent of cancelled cases eventually received surgery. The relative use of individual reasons for cancellation varied with patient age and surgical department. The difference between cancellations before and after anesthesia was dependent on the causes of cancellation, but not age, sex, ASA status, or follow-up procedures required. Almost half of the cancellations were not due to medical reasons, and these cancellations could be reduced by better administrative and surgical planning and better communication with the patient and/or his family.
Rosenblatt, Peter L; McKinney, Jessica; Adams, Sonia R
To review elements of an ergonomic operating room environment and describe common ergonomic errors in surgeon posture during laparoscopic and robotic surgery. Descriptive video based on clinical experience and a review of the literature (Canadian Task Force classification III). Community teaching hospital affiliated with a major teaching hospital. Gynecologic surgeons. Demonstration of surgical ergonomic principles and common errors in surgical ergonomics by a physical therapist and surgeon. The physical nature of surgery necessitates awareness of ergonomic principles. The literature has identified ergonomic awareness to be grossly lacking among practicing surgeons, and video has not been documented as a teaching tool for this population. Taking this into account, we created a video that demonstrates proper positioning of monitors and equipment, and incorrect and correct ergonomic positions during surgery. Also presented are 3 common ergonomic errors in surgeon posture: forward head position, improper shoulder elevation, and pelvic girdle asymmetry. Postural reset and motion strategies are demonstrated to help the surgeon learn techniques to counterbalance the sustained and awkward positions common during surgery that lead to muscle fatigue, pain, and degenerative changes. Correct ergonomics is a learned and practiced behavior. We believe that video is a useful way to facilitate improvement in ergonomic behaviors. We suggest that consideration of operating room setup, proper posture, and practice of postural resets are necessary components for a longer, healthier, and pain-free surgical career. Copyright © 2013 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Henrickson Parker, Sarah; Yule, Steven; Flin, Rhona; McKinley, Aileen
There is widespread recognition that leadership skills are essential for effective performance in the workplace, but the evidence detailing effective leadership behaviours for surgeons during operations is unclear. Boolean searches of four on-line databases and detailed hand search of relevant references were conducted. A four stage screening process was adopted stipulating that articles presented empirical data on surgeons' intraoperative leadership behaviours. Ten relevant articles were identified and organised by method of investigation into (i) observation, (ii) questionnaire and (iii) interview studies. This review summarises the limited literature on surgeons' intraoperative leadership, and proposes a preliminary theoretically based structure for intraoperative leadership behaviours. This structure comprises seven categories with corresponding leadership components and covers two overarching themes related to task- and team-focus. Selected leadership theories which may be applicable to the operating room environment are also discussed. Further research is required to determine effective intraoperative leadership behaviours for safe surgical practice.
Heng, Marilyn; Wright, James G.
Background Scheduling emergency cases among elective surgeries often results in prolonged waits for emergency surgery and delays or cancellation of elective cases. We evaluated the benefits of a dedicated operating room (OR) for emergency procedures available to all surgical services at a large children’s hospital. Methods We compared a 6-month period (January 2009 to June 2009) preimplementation with a 6-month period (January 2010 to June 2010) postimplementation of a dedicated OR. We evaluated OR use, wait times, percentage of cases done within and outside of access targets, off-hours surgery, cancellations, overruns and length of stay. Results Preimplementation, 1069 of the 5500 surgeries performed were emergency cases. Postimplementation, 1084 of the 5358 surgeries performed were emergency cases. Overall use of the dedicated OR was 53% (standard deviation 25%) postimplementation. Excluding outliers, the average wait time for priority 3 emergency patients decreased from 11 hours 8 minutes to 10 hours 5 minutes (p = 0.004). An increased proportion of priority 3 patients, from 52% to 58%, received surgery within 12 hours (p = 0.020). There was a 9% decrease in the proportion of priority 3 cases completed during the evening and night (p rooms. The average hospital stay after emergency surgery decreased from 16.0 days to 14.7 days (p = 0.12) following implementation of the dedicated OR. Conclusion A dedicated OR for emergency cases improved quality of care by decreasing cancellations and overruns in elective rooms and increasing the proportion of priority 3 patients who accessed care within the targeted time. PMID:23706847
Surgical operating rooms are cost-intensive parts of health service production. Managing operating units efficiently is essential when hospitals and healthcare systems aim to maximize health outcomes with limited resources. Previous research about operating room management has focused on studying the effect of management practices and decisions on efficiency by utilizing mainly modeling approach or before-after analysis in single hospital case. The purpose of this research is to analyze the synergic effect of strategic decisions and operative management practices on operating room productivity and to use a multiple case study method enabling statistical hypothesis testing with empirical data. 11 hypotheses that propose connections between the use of strategic and operative practices and productivity were tested in a multi-hospital study that included 26 units. The results indicate that operative practices, such as personnel management, case scheduling and performance measurement, affect productivity more remarkably than do strategic decisions that relate to, e.g., units' size, scope or academic status. Units with different strategic positions should apply different operative practices: Focused hospital units benefit most from sophisticated case scheduling and parallel processing whereas central and ambulatory units should apply flexible working hours, incentives and multi-skilled personnel. Operating units should be more active in applying management practices which are adequate for their strategic orientation.
Bhatt, Ankeet S; Carlson, Grant W; Deckers, Peter J
Operating room (OR) turnover time (TT) has a broad and significant impact on hospital administrators, providers, staff and patients. Our objective was to identify current problems in TT management and implement a consistent, reproducible process to reduce average TT and process variability. Initial observations of TT were made to document the existing process at a 511 bed, 24 OR, academic medical center. Three control groups, including one consisting of Orthopedic and Vascular Surgery, were used to limit potential confounders such as case acuity/duration and equipment needs. A redesigned process based on observed issues, focusing on a horizontally structured, systems-based approach has three major interventions: developing consistent criteria for OR readiness, utilizing parallel processing for patient and room readiness, and enhancing perioperative communication. Process redesign was implemented in Orthopedics and Vascular Surgery. Comparisons of mean and standard deviation of TT were made using an independent 2-tailed t-test. Using all surgical specialties as controls (n = 237), mean TT (hh:mm:ss) was reduced by 0:20:48 min (95 % CI, 0:10:46-0:30:50), from 0:44:23 to 0:23:25, a 46.9 % reduction. Standard deviation of TT was reduced by 0:10:32 min, from 0:16:24 to 0:05:52 and frequency of TT≥30 min was reduced from 72.5to 11.7 %. P systems-based focus should drive OR TT design.
Full Text Available The Predictable Quantum Efficient Detector (PQED is evaluated as a new primary standard of optical power. Design and characterization results are presented for a new compact room temperature PQED that consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes mounted in a wedged trap configuration. The detector assembly includes a window aligned in Brewster angle in front of the photodiodes for high transmission of p polarized light. The detector can also be operated without the window, in which case a dry nitrogen flow system is utilized to prevent dust contamination of the photodiodes. Measurements of individual detectors at the wavelength of 488 nm indicate that reflectance and internal quantum efficiency are consistent within 14 ppm and 10 ppm (ppm = part per million, respectively, and agree with the predicted values. The measured photocurrent ratio of the two photodiodes confirms the predicted value for s and p polarized light, and the spatial variation in the photocurrent ratio can be used to estimate the uniformity in the thickness of the silicon dioxide layer on the surface of the photodiodes. In addition, the spatial non-uniformity of the responsivity of the PQED is an order of magnitude lower than that of single photodiodes. Such data provide evidence that the room temperature PQED may replace the cryogenic radiometer as a primary standard of optical power in the visible wavelength range.
Bender, Jeffrey S; Nicolescu, Teodora O; Hollingsworth, Susan B; Murer, Krystal; Wallace, Kristina R; Ertl, William J
Third-party payer reimbursements will likely continue to decrease. Therefore, it is imperative for operating rooms (ORs), often a hospital's largest revenue source, to improve efficiency. We report the outcome after 3 years of a lean, Six Sigma program to improve OR utilization. In January 2011, our hospital system instituted a facility-wide approach to address the problem of OR efficiency. Interprofessional teams were formed to examine all aspects of OR use. An OR Governance Committee consisting of Department Chairs, nursing and senior administration oversaw the project. Outpatients' readiness on time for surgery increased from 59% to 95%, while first case on-time starts improved from 32% to 73%. Block utilization went from 68% to 74% and actual room utilization improved from 56% to 68%. The number of cases increased by 9%. Overtime went from 7% of total to 4%, so personnel costs decreased 14% despite 26% more employees. There was a reduction in annual voluntary OR staff turnover from 28% to 11%. Revenues increased more than 10% annually. A concerted effort to optimize OR performance resulted in marked improvements in access, overall case efficiency, staff satisfaction, and financial performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Appropriate usage of operating room (OR time can improve efficiency of utilization of resources and help to decrease surgical waiting lists. Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate the pattern of usage of OR time in a tertiary referral cancer hospital. Setting and Design: This was a prospective audit carried out over 2 months in 11 major ORs in a cancer hospital. Materials and Methods: OR anesthesiologists filled a standard form for all patients undergoing elective surgery and documented the following times: entry into OR, start of anesthesia, handover to surgeon, incision, start of reversal, end of anesthesia, and shifting out of patient. Statistical Analysis: Median time utilized for various OR processes was calculated. Results: An average of two surgeries were performed per OR session (828 surgeries in 407 OR sessions. Anesthesia and surgery-related processes contributed to 17% and 79%, respectively, of total OR time, with turnover time between cases accounting for the remaining 4%. Fifteen percent (60 out of 407 OR sessions started more than 10 min later than the planned start time, and 17% (70 of 407 of OR sessions ended more than 2 h after the scheduled finish time. An anesthesia procedure room was utilized in only 15% of cases where it could potentially have been used. Conclusion: This audit identified patterns of OR usage in a cancer hospital and helped to detect areas of inefficient utilization. Anesthesia-related processes contributed to 17% of the total OR time.
Dönsberg, Timo; Sildoja, Meelis; Manoocheri, Farshid; Merimaa, Mikko; Petroff, Leo; Ikonen, Erkki
The Predictable Quantum Efficient Detector (PQED) is evaluated as a new primary standard of optical power. Design and characterization results are presented for a new compact room temperature PQED that consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes mounted in a wedged trap configuration. The detector assembly includes a window aligned in Brewster angle in front of the photodiodes for high transmission of p polarized light. The detector can also be operated without the window, in which case a dry nitrogen flow system is utilized to prevent dust contamination of the photodiodes. Measurements of individual detectors at the wavelength of 488 nm indicate that reflectance and internal quantum efficiency are consistent within 14 ppm and 10 ppm (ppm = part per million), respectively, and agree with the predicted values. The measured photocurrent ratio of the two photodiodes confirms the predicted value for s and p polarized light, and the spatial variation in the photocurrent ratio can be used to estimate the uniformity in the thickness of the silicon dioxide layer on the surface of the photodiodes. In addition, the spatial non-uniformity of the responsivity of the PQED is an order of magnitude lower than that of single photodiodes. Such data provide evidence that the room temperature PQED may replace the cryogenic radiometer as a primary standard of optical power in the visible wavelength range.
Attaallah, A F; Elzamzamy, O M; Phelps, A L; Ranganthan, P; Vallejo, M C
We used electronic medical record (EMR) analysis to determine errors in operating room (OR) time utilisation. Over a two year period EMR data of 44,503 surgical procedures was analysed for OR duration, on-time, first case, and add-on time performance, within 19 surgical specialties. Maximal OR time utilisation at our institution could have saved over 302,620 min or 5,044 hours of OR efficiency over a two year period. Most specialties (78.95%) had inaccurately scheduled procedure times and therefore used the OR more than their scheduled allotment time. Significant differences occurred between the mean scheduled surgical durations (101.38 ± 87.11 min) and actual durations (108.18 ± 102.27 min; P efficiency and increase OR time utilisation.
Shambo, Lyda; Umadhay, Tony; Pedoto, Alessia
Noise is a health hazard and a source of stress, and it impairs concentration and communication. Since 1960, hospital noise levels have risen around the world. Nowhere in the healthcare setting is noise more prevalent than in the operating room (OR). The genetic makeup of humans does not evolve at the rate of technology. Noise exposure, sensory overload, and the capacity to adapt without physical and psychological consequences are absent from the human condition. The World Health Organization has recognized environmental noise as harmful pollution that causesadverse effects on health. Although noise in the OR is unavoidable, music is a choice. The purpose of this literature review is to provide further insight into the ramifications of the presence of music in the OR, evaluate its appropriateness in relation to care and safety for the patient and staff, and provide information for future research.
Full Text Available A theoretical calculation model based on the ergonomic evaluation of team performance was proposed in order to carry out the ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station in a multitasking operational room. This model was constructed in order to calculate and compare the theoretical value of team performance in multiple layout schemes by considering such substantial influential factors as frequency of communication, distance, angle, importance, human cognitive characteristics and so on. An experiment was finally conducted to verify the proposed model under the criteria of completion time and accuracy rating. As illustrated by the experiment results,the proposed approach is conductive to the prediction and ergonomic evaluation of the layout design schemes of the action station during early design stages,and provides a new theoretical method for the ergonomic evaluation,selection and optimization design of layout design schemes.
Dath, Deepak; Hoogenes, Jen; Matsumoto, Edward D; Szalay, David A
Motivation in teaching, mainly studied in disciplines outside of surgery, may also be an important part of intraoperative teaching. We explored techniques surgeons use to motivate learners in the operating room (OR). Forty-four experienced surgeon teachers from multiple specialties participated in 9 focus groups about teaching in the OR. Focus groups were transcribed and subjected to qualitative thematic analysis by 3 reviewers through an iterative, rigorous process. Analysis revealed 8 motivational techniques. Surgeons used motivation techniques tacitly, describing multiple ways that they facilitate resident motivation while teaching. Two major categories of motivational techniques emerged: (1) the facilitation of intrinsic motivation; and (2) the provision of factors to stimulate extrinsic motivation. Surgeons unknowingly but tacitly and commonly use motivation in intraoperative teaching and use a variety of techniques to foster learners' intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. Motivating learners is 1 vital role that surgeon teachers play in nontechnical intraoperative teaching. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baumgart, André; Schüpfer, Guido; Welker, Andreas; Bender, Hans-Joachim; Schleppers, Alexander
Ongoing healthcare reforms in Germany have required strenuous efforts to adapt hospital and operating room organizations to the needs of patients, new technological developments, and social and economic demands. This review addresses the major developments in German operating room management research and current practice. The introduction of the diagnosis-related group system in 2003 has changed the incentive structure of German hospitals to redesign their operating room units. The role of operating room managers has been gradually changing in hospitals in response to the change in the reimbursement system. Operating room managers are today specifically qualified and increasingly externally hired staff. They are more and more empowered with authority to plan and control operating rooms as profit centers. For measuring performance, common perioperative performance indicators are still scarcely implemented in German hospitals. In 2008, a concerted time glossary was established to enable consistent monitoring of operating room performance with generally accepted process indicators. These key performance indicators are a consistent way to make a procedure or case - and also the effectiveness of the operating room management - more transparent. In the presence of increasing financial pressure, a hospital's executives need to empower an independent operating room management function to achieve the hospital's economic goals. Operating room managers need to adopt evidence-based methods also from other scientific fields, for example management science and information technology, to further sustain operating room performance.
Hu, Yue-Yung; Parker, Sarah Henrickson; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Arriaga, Alexander F; Peyre, Sarah E; Corso, Katherine A; Roth, Emilie M; Yule, Steven J; Greenberg, Caprice C
The importance of leadership is recognized in surgery, but the specific impact of leadership style on team behavior is not well understood. In other industries, leadership is a well-characterized construct. One dominant theory proposes that transactional (task-focused) leaders achieve minimum standards and transformational (team-oriented) leaders inspire performance beyond expectations. We videorecorded 5 surgeons performing complex operations. Each surgeon was scored on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, a validated method for scoring transformational and transactional leadership style, by an organizational psychologist and a surgeon researcher. Independent coders assessed surgeons' leadership behaviors according to the Surgical Leadership Inventory and team behaviors (information sharing, cooperative, and voice behaviors). All coders were blinded. Leadership style (Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire) was correlated with surgeon behavior (Surgical Leadership Inventory) and team behavior using Poisson regression, controlling for time and the total number of behaviors, respectively. All surgeons scored similarly on transactional leadership (range 2.38 to 2.69), but varied more widely on transformational leadership (range 1.98 to 3.60). Each 1-point increase in transformational score corresponded to 3 times more information-sharing behaviors (p leadership and its impact on team performance in the operating room. As in other fields, our data suggest that transformational leadership is associated with improved team behavior. Surgeon leadership development, therefore, has the potential to improve the efficiency and safety of operative care. Copyright © 2016 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wu, Albert; Sanford, Joseph A; Tsai, Mitchell H; O'Donnell, Stephen E; Tran, Billy K; Urman, Richard D
While a number of studies have examined efficiency metrics in the operating rooms (ORs), there are few studies addressing non-operating room anesthesia (NORA) metrics. The standards established in the realm of OR studies may not apply to ongoing investigations of NORA efficiency. We hypothesize that there are significant differences in these commonly used metrics. Using retrospective data from a single tertiary care hospital in the 2015 calendar year, we measured turnover times, cancellation rates, first case start delays, and scheduling error (actual time minus scheduled time) for the OR and NORA settings. On average, TOTs for NORA cases were approximately 50% shorter than OR cases (16.21 min vs. 37.18 min), but had a larger variation (11.02 min vs. 8.12 min). NORA cases were 64% as likely to be cancelled compared to OR cases. In contrast, NORA cases had an average first case start delay that was two times greater than that of OR cases (24.45 min vs. 10.58 min), along with over double the standard deviation (11.97 min vs. 5.90 min). Case times for NORA settings tended to be overestimated (-4.07 min versus -2.12 min), but showed less variation (8.61 min vs. 17.92 min). In short, there are significant differences in common efficiency metrics between OR and NORA cases. Future studies should elucidate and validate appropriate efficiency benchmarks for the NORA setting.
Azzi, Alain Joe; Shah, Karan; Seely, Andrew; Villeneuve, James Patrick; Sundaresan, Sudhir R; Shamji, Farid M; Maziak, Donna E; Gilbert, Sebastien
Health care resources are costly and should be used judiciously and efficiently. Predicting the duration of surgical procedures is key to optimizing operating room resources. Our objective was to identify factors influencing operative time, particularly surgical team turnover. We performed a single-institution, retrospective review of lobectomy operations. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of different factors on surgical time (skin-to-skin) and total procedure time. Staff turnover within the nursing component of the surgical team was defined as the number of instances any nurse had to leave the operating room over the total number of nurses involved in the operation. A total of 235 lobectomies were performed by 5 surgeons, most commonly for lung cancer (95%). On multivariate analysis, percent forced expiratory volume in 1 second, surgical approach, and lesion size had a significant effect on surgical time. Nursing turnover was associated with a significant increase in surgical time (53.7 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 6.4-101; P = .026) and total procedure time (83.2 minutes; 95% confidence interval, 30.1-136.2; P = .002). Active management of surgical team turnover may be an opportunity to improve operating room efficiency when the surgical team is engaged in a major pulmonary resection. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sandbaek, Birgithe E; Helgheim, Berit I; Larsen, Odd I; Fasting, Sigurd
To increase operating room (OR) efficiency, a new resource allocation strategy, a new policy for patient urgency classification, and a new system for OR booking was implemented at a tertiary referral hospital. We investigated the impact of these interventions. We carried out a before-and-after study using OR data. A total of 23,515 elective (planned) and non-elective (unplanned) orthopaedic and general surgeries were conducted during calendar year 2007 (period 1) and July 2008 to July 2009 (period 2). The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test was used to calculate statistical significance. An increased amount of case time (7.1%, p operations could be planned at least 24 hours in advance. The redesign facilitated effective daytime surgery and a more selective use of the ORs for high urgency patients out of hours. The synergistic effect probably exceeded the sum of the individual effects of the changes, because the effects of each intervention facilitated the successful implementation of others.
van Tiel, Frank H; Buiting, Anton G; Meessen, Nico E L; Voss, Andreas; Vos, Margreet C
The Dutch quality control plan for climatisation of the operating room (OR), which was published in 2005, describes the management and maintenance of the air conditioning system. This management plan proposes a standard for air quality in class 1 ORs. This has been adopted by the Dutch Orthopaedic Society, but not by other surgical societies. The British study which underlies the proposed norm for air quality in class 1 ORs, a study on the infection preventive effect of ultraclean air, dates from 1982 and is inadequately controlled for prophylactic use of antibiotics. Antibiotic prophylaxis in itself already reduces the number of surgical site infections.-More recent studies fail to show an infection preventive effect of ultraclean air in the OR. The Dutch Working Party for Infection Prevention (WIP) ought to take the initiative, together with the medical Scientific Societies and the Society of Infection Prevention and Control in the health care setting (VHIG), to establish enforceable norms for microbiological air quality and to set criteria as to which types of operations are allowed to be performed in which class of OR.
Dascalaki, Elena G.; Gaglia, Athina G.; Balaras, Constantinos A. [Group Energy Conservation, Institute for Environmental Research and Sustainable Development, National Observatory of Athens, I. Metaxa and Vas. Pavlou, GR 152 36 P. Penteli (Greece); Lagoudi, Argyro [Terra Nova Ltd., Environmental Engineering Consultancy, Athens, Kaisareias 39, GR 115 27 Athens (Greece)
Indoor environmental quality (IEQ) in hospital operating rooms (ORs) constitutes a major challenge for the proper design and operation of an energy efficient hospital. A subjective assessment of the indoor environment along with a short monitoring campaign was performed during the audits of 18 ORs at nine major Hellenic hospitals. A total of 557 medical personnel participated in an occupational survey, providing data for a subjective assessment of IEQ in the audited ORs. The OR personnel reported work related health symptoms and an assessment of indoor conditions (thermal, visual and acoustical comfort, and air quality). Overall, personnel reported an average of 2.24 work-related symptoms each, and 67.2% of respondents reported at least one. Women suffer more health symptoms than men. Special dispositions, such as smoking and allergies, increase the number of reported symptoms for male and female personnel. Personnel that perceive satisfactory indoor comfort conditions (temperature, humidity, ventilation, light, and noise) average 1.18 symptoms per person, while for satisfactory indoor air quality the average complaints are 0.99. The perception of satisfactory IEQ (satisfactory comfort conditions and air quality) reduces the average number of health complaints to 0.64 symptoms per person and improves working conditions, even in a demanding OR environment. (author)
Lee, Jason Y; Lantz, Andrea G; McDougall, Elspeth M; Landman, Jaime; Gettman, Matthew; Sweet, Robert; Sundaram, Chandru P; Zorn, Kevin C
Surgical outcomes depend on patient and disease-related factors, as well as the technical skill of the surgeon. Various distractions in the operating room (OR) environment have been shown to negatively impact a surgeon's performance. A survey was conducted with the objective to evaluate and characterize distractions during urologic surgery. An Internet-based survey was distributed to 2057 international urologists via email between April and October 2011; questions focused on a variety of disruptive factors postulated to have a negative impact on surgical performance. Of the 523 (25%) respondents, 58% practiced in North America, 42% were from an academic institution, and 68% had completed a clinical fellowship. In an average year, 83% reported having operated at least once while sleep deprived, 84% when significantly ill, 55% with a musculoskeletal injury, and 65% under significant social stress. Up to 38% reported that on at least one occasion, such "internal distractions" had significantly affected surgical performance and 14% perceived that at least one surgical complication was caused mainly by an internal distraction. Less than 50% had ever cancelled surgery because of an internal distraction. Music was routinely played in the OR by 57% of respondents, >67% reported answering pages and discussing consults while operating, and 25% reported "commonly" working with scrub nurses/techs that were unfamiliar with the procedure and/or instruments. Only 44% had consistent individual(s) assisting, and 27% reported that the scrub nurse/tech would "commonly" scrub out during a critical portion of the procedure. Overall, 14.5% reported that at least one complication had occurred mainly because of such "external" or "interactive" distractions. Urologists face various distractions in the OR that can negatively impact surgical performance, potentially compromising patient outcomes and safety. Further studies are needed to elucidate the true impact of such distractions and to
Rigante, Luigi; Moudrous, Walid; de Vries, Joost; Grotenhuis, André J; Boogaarts, Hieronymus D
Operating rooms account for 70% of hospital waste, increasing healthcare costs and creating environmental hazards. Endovascular treatment of cerebrovascular pathologies has become prominent, and associated products highly impact the total cost of care. We investigated the costs of endovascular surgical waste at our institution. Data from 53 consecutive endovascular procedures at the Radboud UMC Nijmegen from May to December 2016 were collected. "Unused disposable supply" was defined as one-time use items opened but not used during the procedure. Two observers cataloged the unused disposable supply for each case. The cost of each item was determined from the center supply catalog, and these costs were summed to determine the total cost of unused supply per case. Thirteen diagnostic cerebral digital subtraction angiographies (DSA) (24.5%) and 40 endovascular procedures (75.5%) were analyzed. Total interventional waste was 27,299.53 € (mean 515.09 € per procedure). While total costs of unused disposable supply were almost irrelevant for DSAs, they were consistent for interventional procedures (mean 676.49 € per case). Aneurysm standard coiling had the highest impact on total interventional waste (mean 1061.55 €). Disposable interventional products had a very high impact on the surgical waste costs in the series of the neurointerventional procedures (95% of total waste). This study shows the impact of neurointerventional waste on the total care costs for cerebrovascular patients. This might reflect the tendency to anticipate needs and emergencies in neurointervention. Responsible use of disposable material can be achieved by educating operators and nurses and creating operator preference cards.
Panni, M K; Shah, S J; Chavarro, C; Rawl, M; Wojnarwsky, P K; Panni, J K
There are multiple components leading to improved operating room efficiency. We undertook a project focusing on first case starts; accounting for each delay component on a global basis. Our hypothesis was there would be a reduction in first start delays after we implemented strategies to address the issues identified through this accounting process. An orange sheet checklist was implemented, with specific items that needed to be clear prior to roll back to the operating room (OR), and an OR facilitator was employed to intervene whenever there were any missing items needed for a specific patient. We present the data from this quality improvement project over an 18-month period. Initially, 10.07 (± 0.73) delayed first starts occurred per day but declined steadily over time to a low of 4.95 (± 0.38) per day after 6 months (-49.2 %, P operating room environment based on our patient population, multiple trainees in both the surgery and anaesthesiology teams: an orange sheet - pre-operative checklist in addition to a dedicated pre-operative facilitator; allowed us to make a substantial improvement in our first start on time starts. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zygourakis, Corinna C; Valencia, Victoria; Moriates, Christopher; Boscardin, Christy K; Catschegn, Sereina; Rajkomar, Alvin; Bozic, Kevin J; Soo Hoo, Kent; Goldberg, Andrew N; Pitts, Lawrence; Lawton, Michael T; Dudley, R Adams; Gonzales, Ralph
Despite the significant contribution of surgical spending to health care costs, most surgeons are unaware of their operating room costs. To examine the association between providing surgeons with individualized cost feedback and surgical supply costs in the operating room. The OR Surgical Cost Reduction (OR SCORE) project was a single-health system, multihospital, multidepartmental prospective controlled study in an urban academic setting. Intervention participants were attending surgeons in orthopedic surgery, otolaryngology-head and neck surgery, and neurological surgery (n = 63). Control participants were attending surgeons in cardiothoracic surgery, general surgery, vascular surgery, pediatric surgery, obstetrics/gynecology, ophthalmology, and urology (n = 186). From January 1 to December 31, 2015, each surgeon in the intervention group received standardized monthly scorecards showing the median surgical supply direct cost for each procedure type performed in the prior month compared with the surgeon's baseline (July 1, 2012, to November 30, 2014) and compared with all surgeons at the institution performing the same procedure at baseline. All surgical departments were eligible for a financial incentive if they met a 5% cost reduction goal. The primary outcome was each group's median surgical supply cost per case. Secondary outcome measures included total departmental surgical supply costs, case mix index-adjusted median surgical supply costs, patient outcomes (30-day readmission, 30-day mortality, and discharge status), and surgeon responses to a postintervention study-specific health care value survey. The median surgical supply direct costs per case decreased 6.54% in the intervention group, from $1398 (interquartile range [IQR], $316-$5181) (10 637 cases) in 2014 to $1307 (IQR, $319-$5037) (11 820 cases) in 2015. In contrast, the median surgical supply direct cost increased 7.42% in the control group, from $712 (IQR, $202-$1602) (16 441 cases
Klein, M.; Andersen, L.P.H.; Alamili, M.
Purpose: There have been no studies examining the effect of optimized ergonomic and technical environment on the psychological and physiological stress of the surgeon. The aim of this study was to examine whether optimized ergonomics and technical aids within a modern operating room (OR) affect...... psychological and physiological stress in experienced laparoscopic surgeons. Methods: This was a prospective case-controlled study including 10 experienced surgeons. Surgery was performed in 2 different ORs: a standard room and a modern room (OR1-suite, Karl Storz). The surgeons filled out questionnaires...... concerning physical and psychological wellbeing before and after surgery and had their heart rate variability registered during surgery. Results: Preoperative to postoperative physical strain and pain measurements revealed a systematical difference with 14 of 15 parameters favoring the modern OR. Two...
Murayama, Yuichi; Irie, Koreaki; Saguchi, Takayuki; Ishibashi, Toshihiro; Ebara, Masaki; Nagashima, Hiroyasu; Isoshima, Akira; Arakawa, Hideki; Takao, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hiroki; Joki, Tatsuhiro; Kato, Masataka; Tani, Satoshi; Ikeuchi, Satoshi; Abe, Toshiaki
Fully equipped high-end digital subtraction angiography (DSA) within the operating room (OR) environment has emerged as a new trend in the fields of neurosurgery and vascular surgery. To describe initial clinical experience with a robotic DSA system in the hybrid OR. A newly designed robotic DSA system (Artis zeego; Siemens AG, Forchheim, Germany) was installed in the hybrid OR. The system consists of a multiaxis robotic C arm and surgical OR table. In addition to conventional neuroendovascular procedures, the system was used as an intraoperative imaging tool for various neurosurgical procedures such as aneurysm clipping and spine instrumentation. Five hundred one neurosurgical procedures were successfully conducted in the hybrid OR with the robotic DSA. During surgical procedures such as aneurysm clipping and arteriovenous fistula treatment, intraoperative 2-/3-dimensional angiography and C-arm-based computed tomographic images (DynaCT) were easily performed without moving the OR table. Newly developed virtual navigation software (syngo iGuide; Siemens AG) can be used in frameless navigation and in access to deep-seated intracranial lesions or needle placement. This newly developed robotic DSA system provides safe and precise treatment in the fields of endovascular treatment and neurosurgery.
Clark, Audra; Dackiw, Alan P; White, Wendy D; Nwariaku, Fiemu E; Holt, Shelby A; Rabaglia, Jennifer L; Oltmann, Sarah C
Preincision operating room (OR) preparation varies greatly. Cases requiring exacting preoperative setup may be more sensitive to inconsistent team members and trainees. Leadership and oversight by the surgeon may facilitate a timely start. The study hypothesized that early attending presence in the OR expedites surgery start time, improving efficiency, and decreasing cost. Prospective data collection of endocrine surgery cases at an urban teaching hospital was performed. Time points recorded in minutes. Cost/min of OR time was $54. Patients classified as in the OR ≤10 min before attending arrival or >10 min before attending arrival. A total of 227 cases (166 thyroid, 54 parathyroid, 10 adrenal) were performed over 14 mo. Of the patients, 128 were in the OR ≤10 min before attending arrival, and 99 patients were >10 min (3 ± 3 min versus 35 ± 14 min, P 10 min (P efficiency and yields significant cost savings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Regiane Aparecida dos Santos Soares Barreto
Full Text Available This study aimed at providing related problems in patients who had undergone orthopedic surgery through theevaluation of the following variables: sex, age, surgery type and anesthesia type. Two hundred and twenty patientswere studied. They had been submitted to an elective orthopedic surgical procedure from July to December 1998and their medical records were used for retrospective data collection. With regard to sex, 58% were males and42% were females. As to age, middle-aged patients - 35 to 65 years old - comprised 48%, young adults - 18 to 35years old - were 38% and elderly adults - over 66 years old - were 14%. The frequency of results were as follows:surgery on the upper limbs/shoulder, 27%, knee/leg, 32%, spinal cord, 17%, femur/hips, 15%, ankle/foot, 9%,regional anesthesia, 48%, general anesthesia, 38%, regional associated with general, 6% and blocking, 8%.Occurred 306 post-operative problems were observed as follows: pain, 45%, nausea/vomiting, 16%, blooding,11%, cardiovascular alterations, 10%, hypothermia, 9%, urinary retention, 5%, respiratory problems, 1% andhiperthermia, 0,6%. In this way, there was an attempt at making a profile of orthopedic surgery patients in POI as asource of data for planning nursing care. It is believed that the study has contributed to nursing care in postanesthesiarecovery room which is based on scientific data and not only on every-day practice.
Full Text Available With the emergence of new technologies, the surgical working environment becomes increasingly complex and comprises many medical devices that have to be taken cared of. However, the goal is to reduce the workload of the surgical team to allow them to fully focus on the actual surgical procedure. Therefore, new strategies are needed to keep the working environment manageable. Existing research projects in the field of intelligent medical environments mostly concentrate on workflow modeling or single smart features rather than building up a complete intelligent environment. In this article, we present the concept of intelligent digital assistance for clinical operating rooms (IDACO, providing the surgeon assistance in many different situations before and during an ongoing procedure using natural spoken language. The speech interface enables the surgeon to concentrate on the surgery and control the technical environment at the same time, without taking care of how to interact with the system. Furthermore, the system observes the context of the surgery and controls several devices autonomously at the appropriate time during the procedure.
Thomas-Olson, Leah; Gee, Melanie; Harrison, Deanna; Helal, Nermin
Healthcare workers make up 11% of British Columbia's workforce and, on an annual basis, they account for over 7,500 time-loss claims, 300,000 days of work lost, and a cost of more than $50 million in health claims as a result of musculo-skeletal injuries (MSIs) that occur in the workplace relating to patient care, over-exertion, slips, trips and violence. A new acute care hospital was constructed in Abbotsford, BC and opened in 2008. During this construction, extensive ceiling lift coverage was provided throughout the facility including in the operating room (OR). Given a lack of literature and research, around this important ergonomic engineering control in the OR environment, a staff survey was administered to capture information on the familiarity, usage, and perception of the ceiling lifts. Findings were positive and showed that the staff felt ceiling lifts were a practical and useful ergonomic engineering control, for the OR environment, and that key patient handling tasks were now being carried out with the use of ceiling lifts.
van Essen, J Theresia; Hurink, Johann L; Hartholt, Woutske; van den Akker, Bernd J
Due to surgery duration variability and arrivals of emergency surgeries, the planned Operating Room (OR) schedule is disrupted throughout the day which may lead to a change in the start time of the elective surgeries. These changes may result in undesirable situations for patients, wards or other involved departments, and therefore, the OR schedule has to be adjusted. In this paper, we develop a decision support system (DSS) which assists the OR manager in this decision by providing the three best adjusted OR schedules. The system considers the preferences of all involved stakeholders and only evaluates the OR schedules that satisfy the imposed resource constraints. The decision rules used for this system are based on a thorough analysis of the OR rescheduling problem. We model this problem as an Integer Linear Program (ILP) which objective is to minimize the deviation from the preferences of the considered stakeholders. By applying this ILP to instances from practice, we determined that the given preferences mainly lead to (i) shifting a surgery and (ii) scheduling a break between two surgeries. By using these changes in the DSS, the performed simulation study shows that less surgeries are canceled and patients and wards are more satisfied, but also that the perceived workload of several departments increases to compensate this. The system can also be used to judge the acceptability of a proposed initial OR schedule.
Robertson, Jamie M; Dias, Roger D; Yule, Steven; Smink, Douglas S
Nontechnical skills (NTS) such as teamwork and communication play an important role in preventing adverse outcomes in the operating room (OR). Simulation-based OR team training focused on these skills provides an environment where team members can learn with and from one another. We sought to conduct a systematic review to identify simulation-based approaches to NTS training for surgical teams. We conducted a systematic search of PubMed, ERIC, and the Cochrane Database using keywords and MeSH terms for studies describing simulation-based training for OR teams, including members from surgery, anesthesia, and nursing in September 2016. Information on the simulations, participants, and NTS assessments were abstracted from the articles meeting our search criteria. We identified 10 published articles describing simulation-based OR team-training programs focused on NTS. The primary focus of these programs was on communication, teamwork, leadership, and situation awareness. Only four of the programs used a validated instrument to assess the NTS of the individuals or teams participating in the simulations. Simulation-based OR team-training programs provide opportunities for NTS development and reflection by participants. Future programs could benefit from involving the full range of disciplines and professions that compose an OR team, as well as increased use of validated assessment instruments.
Fukada, T; Iwakiri, H; Ozaki, M
To store anaesthetic records in computers, anaesthetists usually input data while still wearing dirty wet gloves. No studies have explored computer contamination in the operating room (OR) or anaesthetists' awareness of the importance of handwashing or hand hygiene. We investigated four components of keyboard contamination: (1) degree of contamination, (2) effect of cleaning with ethyl alcohol, (3) bacterial transmission between gloves and keyboards by tapping keys, and (4) frequency of anaesthetists' performing hand hygiene. Most of the bacteria on keyboards were coagulase-negative staphylococci and Bacillus spp.; however, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was also found. Cleaning keyboards with ethyl alcohol effectively reduced bacterial counts. Wet contaminated gloves and keyboards transmitted meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis from one to the other more readily than dry contaminated gloves and keyboards. Only 17% of anaesthetists performed hand hygiene before anaesthesia, although 64% or 69% of anaesthetists performed hand hygiene after anaesthesia or before lunch. To prevent cross-contamination, keyboards should be routinely cleaned according to the manufacturer's instructions and disinfected once daily, or, when visibly soiled with blood or secretions. Moreover, anaesthetists should be aware that they could spread microbes that might cause healthcare-associated infection in the OR. Anaesthetists should perform hand hygiene before and after anaesthesia and remove gloves after each procedure and before using the computer.
Brown, Michael J; Subramanian, Arun; Curry, Timothy B; Kor, Daryl J; Moran, Steven L; Rohleder, Thomas R
Parallel processing of regional anesthesia may improve operating room (OR) efficiency in patients undergoes upper extremity surgical procedures. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate whether performing regional anesthesia outside the OR in parallel increases total cases per day, improve efficiency and productivity. Data from all adult patients who underwent regional anesthesia as their primary anesthetic for upper extremity surgery over a one-year period were used to develop a simulation model. The model evaluated pure operating modes of regional anesthesia performed within and outside the OR in a parallel manner. The scenarios were used to evaluate how many surgeries could be completed in a standard work day (555 minutes) and assuming a standard three cases per day, what was the predicted end-of-day time overtime. Modeling results show that parallel processing of regional anesthesia increases the average cases per day for all surgeons included in the study. The average increase was 0.42 surgeries per day. Where it was assumed that three cases per day would be performed by all surgeons, the days going to overtime was reduced by 43 percent with parallel block. The overtime with parallel anesthesia was also projected to be 40 minutes less per day per surgeon. Key limitations include the assumption that all cases used regional anesthesia in the comparisons. Many days may have both regional and general anesthesia. Also, as a case study, single-center research may limit generalizability. Perioperative care providers should consider parallel administration of regional anesthesia where there is a desire to increase daily upper extremity surgical case capacity. Where there are sufficient resources to do parallel anesthesia processing, efficiency and productivity can be significantly improved. Simulation modeling can be an effective tool to show practice change effects at a system-wide level.
Full Text Available Very few studies have addressed the issue of surgeon volume on cost savings of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC in Asian countries. The objectives of the study were to analyze LC operating-room (OR costs between two study hospitals and to examine the effect of surgeon volume on OR costs. Patients diagnosed with gallbladder disease who underwent LC in October through December 2002 at two acute tertiary-care hospitals were included. Patient demographics and clinical information were derived from patient charts. Cost information was obtained from purchasing departments or specific cost centers. Three multivariate linear regression models were performed to examine the association between surgeon volume, cost, and utilization. There were no significant differences in patient demographics and disease severity between the two hospitals. Hospital A consumed fewer resources than did hospital B (NT$21,674 vs NT$26,417. Direct materials cost, direct professional costs, and indirect costs varied significantly by study hospital and by surgeon volume. High-volume surgeons incurred lower costs and shorter stay as compared with low-volume surgeons. Patients who scored in the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status (ASA PS 3 incurred significantly higher costs and longer hospital stays than did patients with ASA PS 1. The present study supports the proposal that hospital management and experience of surgeons are of equal importance in maintaining the standing of hospitals in competitive positions. In addition to the differences in hospital management and surgeon volume, the patient severity of illness also needs to be taken into consideration in cost containment.
Hosseini, Narges; Taaffe, Kevin M
Operating room (OR) allocation and planning is one of the most important strategic decisions that OR managers face. The number of ORs that a hospital opens depends on the number of blocks that are allocated to the surgical groups, services, or individual surgeons, combined with the amount of open posting time (i.e., first come, first serve posting) that the hospital wants to provide. By allocating too few ORs, a hospital may turn away surgery demand whereas opening too many ORs could prove to be a costly decision. The traditional method of determining block frequency and size considers the average historical surgery demand for each group. However, given that there are penalties to the system for having too much or too little OR time allocated to a group, demand variability should play a role in determining the real OR requirement. In this paper we present an algorithm that allocates block time based on this demand variability, specifically accounting for both over-utilized time (time used beyond the block) and under-utilized time (time unused within the block). This algorithm provides a solution to the situation in which total caseload demand can be accommodated by the total OR resource set, in other words not in a capacity-constrained situation. We have found this scenario to be common among several regional healthcare providers with large OR suites and excess capacity. This algorithm could be used to adjust existing blocks or to assign new blocks to surgeons that did not previously have a block. We also have studied the effect of turnover time on the number of ORs that needs to be allocated. Numerical experiments based on real data from a large health-care provider indicate the opportunity to achieve over 2,900 hours of OR time savings through improved block allocations.
Porta, Christopher R; Foster, Andrew; Causey, Marlin W; Cordier, Patricia; Ozbirn, Roger; Bolt, Stephen; Allison, Dennis; Rush, Robert
Operating room time is highly resource intensive, and delays can be a source of lost revenue and surgeon frustration. Methods to decrease these delays are important not only for patient care, but to maximize operating room resource utilization. The purpose of this study was to determine the root cause of operating room delays in a standardized manner to help improve overall operating room efficiency. We performed a single-center prospective observational study analyzing operating room utilization and efficiency after implementing an executive-driven standardized postoperative team debriefing system from January 2010 to December 2010. A total of 11,342 procedures were performed over the 1-y study period (elective 86%, urgent 11%, and emergent 3%), with 1.3 million min of operating room time, 865,864 min of surgeon operative time (62.5%), and 162,958 min of anesthesia time (11.8%). Overall, the average operating room delay was 18 min and varied greatly based on the surgical specialty. The longest delays were due to need for radiology (40 min); other significant delays were due to supply issues (22.7 min), surgeon issues (18 min), nursing issues (14 min), and room turnover (14 min). Over the 1-y period, there was a decrease in mean delay duration, averaging a decrease in delay of 0.147 min/mo with an overall 9% decrease in the mean delay times. With regard to overall operating room utilization, there was a 39% decrease in overall un-utilized available OR time that was due to delays, improving efficiency by 2334 min (212 min/mo). During this study interval no sentinel events occurred in the operating room. A standardized postoperative debrief tracking system is highly beneficial in identifying and reducing overall operative delays and improving operating room utilization. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC. Air Pollution Training Inst.
This Operator's Manual is a supplement to a self-instructional course prepared for the United States Environmental Protection Agency. This publication is the Boiler Room Handbook for operating and maintaining the boiler and the boiler room. As the student completes this handbook, he is putting together a manual for running his own boiler. The…
Attigah, Nicolas; Oikonomou, Kyriakos; Hinz, Ulf; Knoch, Thomas; Demirel, Serdar; Verhoeven, Eric; Böckler, Dittmar
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiation exposure of vascular surgeons' eye lens and fingers during complex endovascular procedures in modern hybrid operating rooms. Prospective, nonrandomized multicenter study design. One hundred seventy-one consecutive patients (138 male; median age, 72.5 years [interquartile range, 65-77 years]) underwent an endovascular procedure in a hybrid operating room between March 2012 and July 2013 in two vascular centers. The dose-area product (DAP), fluoroscopy time, operating time, and amount of contrast dye were registered prospectively. For radiation dose recordings, single-use dosimeters were attached at eye level and to the ring finger of the hand next to the radiation field of the operator for each endovascular procedure. Dose recordings were evaluated by an independent institution. Before the study, precursory investigations were obtained to simulate the radiation dose to eye lens and fingers with an Alderson phantome (RSD, Long Beach, Calif). Interventions were classified into six treatment categories: endovascular repair of infrarenal abdominal aneurysm (n = 65), thoracic endovascular aortic repair (n = 32), branched endovascular aortic repair for thoracoabdominal aneurysms (n = 17), fenestrated endovascular aortic repair for complex abdominal aortic aneurysm, (n = 25), iliac branched device (n = 8), and peripheral interventions (n = 24). There was a significant correlation in DAP between both lens (P exposure to the eyes can be obtained. Copyright © 2016 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Heiner, Jeremy S.
Student registered nurse anesthetists are an important part of an operating room team, yet little research has investigated how they perceive teamwork or approach team related issues specific to the operating room. This mixed methods study evaluated junior and senior student registered nurse anesthetists' attitudes toward and perceptions of…
van Oostrum, Jeroen M.; van Houdenhoven, M.; Hurink, Johann L.; Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, G.
This paper addresses the problem of operating room (OR) scheduling at the tactical level of hospital planning and control. Hospitals repetitively construct operating room schedules, which is a time-consuming, tedious, and complex task. The stochasticity of the durations of surgical procedures
van Oostrum, J.M.; van Houdenhoven, M.; Hurink, Johann L.; Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, G.
This paper addresses the problem of operating room scheduling at the tactical level of hospital planning and control. Hospitals repetitively construct operating room schedules, which is a time consuming tedious and complex task. The stochasticity of the durations of surgical procedures complicates
Stewart, D Y
We demonstrate the first operation of CdZnTe room-temperature detectors in a liquid scintillator environment. This work follows conceptually the Heusser-type detector method of operating HPGe detectors in liquid nitrogen and liquid argon but instead for a far more practical room-temperature ensemble with the aim of achieving ultra-low background levels for radiation detection.
Van Beuzekom, M.; Boer, F.; Akerboom, S.; Hudson, P.T.W.
Background Patient safety is one of the greatest challenges in healthcare. In the operating room errors are frequent and often consequential. This article describes an approach to a successful implementation of a patient safety program in the operating room, focussing on latent risk factors that
Chang, Tsui-Fen; Chen, Chung-Kuang; Chen, Ming-Jia
Team collaboration is an important factor that affects the performance of the operating room (OR). Therefore, the ability of OR nurses to adapt to and manage interpersonal conflict incidents properly is very important. The aims of this study were to investigate the interpersonal conflict management capabilities of OR nursing staffs and to find the relationships among the demographics of OR nurses and the following: work-related variables, interpersonal conflict management style, and target of interpersonal conflict. This study investigated 201 OR nurses who had worked for more than 6 months at the target hospitals, which were located in the three counties of Changhua, Yunlin, and Chiayi. The questionnaire that was used to collect data included three components: a demographic and work-related variables survey, interpersonal conflict management factor analysis scale, and interpersonal conflict parties and frequency scale. Data were analyzed using independent t test, analysis of variance, Scheffe's test, and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The main findings were as follows: (a) Integration and arbitration were the major interpersonal conflict management strategies adopted by the participants; (b) medical doctor, OR nurses, and anesthetists were the primary targets of conflict for the participants; (c) the factors of educational background, job position, experience in other departments, seniority, attending courses in conflict management, and level of hospital significantly affected the strategies that participants used to manage interpersonal conflict; and (d) license level, experience in other departments, seniority, and inclination toward serving in the OR were each found to relate significantly to the target of interpersonal conflict and the frequency of interpersonal conflict incidents. The main implications of this study are as follows: (a) The environment for communication in the OR should be made more friendly to encourage junior OR nurses to adopt
Santoso, Linda Wahyuni; Sinawan, Aisyah Ashrinawati; Wijaya, Andi Rahadiyan; Sudiarso, Andi; Masruroh, Nur Aini; Herliansyah, Muhammad Kusumawan
Operating room is a bottleneck resource in most hospitals so that operating room scheduling system will influence the whole performance of the hospitals. This research develops a mathematical model of operating room scheduling for elective patients which considers patient priority with limit number of surgeons, operating rooms, and nurse team. Clustering analysis was conducted to the data of surgery durations using hierarchical and non-hierarchical methods. The priority rule of each resulting cluster was determined using Shortest Processing Time method. Genetic Algorithm was used to generate daily operating room schedule which resulted in the lowest values of patient waiting time and nurse overtime. The computational results show that this proposed model reduced patient waiting time by approximately 32.22% and nurse overtime by approximately 32.74% when compared to actual schedule.
Carpintero, G; Hartnagel, H; Preu, S; Raisanen, A
Key advances in Semiconductor Terahertz (THz) Technology now promises important new applications enabling scientists and engineers to overcome the challenges of accessing the so-called "terahertz gap". This pioneering reference explains the fundamental methods and surveys innovative techniques in the generation, detection and processing of THz waves with solid-state devices, as well as illustrating their potential applications in security and telecommunications, among other fields. With contributions from leading experts, Semiconductor Terahertz Technology: Devices and Systems at Room Tempe
Full Text Available The laminar flow air-conditioning system with 100% fresh air is used in almost all operating rooms without discrimination in Turkey. The laminar flow device which is working with 100% fresh air should be absolutely used in Type 1A operating rooms. However, there is not mandatory to use of 100% fresh air for Type 1B defined as places performed simpler operation. Compared with recirculating laminar flow, energy needs of the laminar flow with 100 % fresh air has been emerged about 40% more than re-circulated air flow. Therefore, when a recirculating laminar flow device is operated instead of laminar flow system with 100% fresh air in the Type 1B operating room, annual energy consumption will be reduced. In this study, in an operating room with recirculating laminar flow, optimal conditions have been investigated in order to obtain laminar flow form by analyzing velocity distributions at various supply velocities by using computational fluid dynamics method (CFD.
Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI), Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questio...
Full Text Available This research has been carried out in order to determine anger expression and anger management styles in operating room nurses. By applying an in-depth interview technique on operating room nurses working in a private hospital, a qualitative study has been performed in order to determine anger expression and anger management styles in operating room nurses. The interview consisted of ten questions such as demographic questions addressing the workers’ age, sex, education level and duration of employment in the organization they work, aiming to determine their anger expression and anger management styles. Since operating room environments contain various risk factors, and require active team work in a stressful dynamic setting under excessive workload, , it has been found that operating room nurses display their anger through loud speaking, fail to settle their anger positively, fail to control their anger in a behavioural pattern despite their cognitive awareness in anger management. Thus, it has been suggested that operating room nurses should be trained on anger management methods so that they can manage their anger in a stressful operating room environment.
Pałaszkiewicz, Piotr; Szulc, Roman
The occupational exposure to inhalation anaesthetics in operating rooms, and its effect on hospital staff, have been widely discussed. The first national survey, published in Poland several years ago, revealed worrying levels of contamination, especially in hospitals with poorly equipped operating rooms. The purpose of this recent survey was to assess contamination of the operating room air under various conditions. The survey questionnaire was sent to 484 hospitals, of different levels of referral, in Poland between October 2006 and January 2007. The questions in the questionnaire referred to anaesthetic techniques, technical infrastructures of operating rooms, and quality of anaesthetic equipment. Two hundred and seventy surveys were returned (55.8%), providing information about 1280 operating rooms.They revealed a major deficit in essential infrastructures and anaesthetic equipment in operating rooms, especially in regional hospitals. In addition, an important human factor was revealed, with many anaesthesiologists found to be using out-dated, air polluting methods of anaesthesia. Operating room air contamination with inhalation anaesthetics still poses a major risk in Polish hospitals, because of poor infrastructure and lack of modern anaesthetic equipment. The risk factors are related to the hospital referral level, but not to their geographic location.
Conclusion: In some procedures types a significant part of the variability in operative time is due to the interaction between the surgeon and anesthesiologist. Reviewing operative records should allow identification of efficient/inefficient combinations.
Brusalis, Christopher M; Shah, Apurva S; Luan, Xianqun; Lutts, Meaghan K; Sankar, Wudbhav N
Dedicated orthopaedic trauma operating rooms have improved operating room efficiency, physician schedules, and patient outcomes in adult populations. The purpose of this study was to determine if a dedicated orthopaedic trauma operating room was associated with improved patient flow and cost savings at a level-I pediatric trauma center. A retrospective analysis was performed for two 3-year intervals before and after implementation of a weekday, unbooked operating room reserved for orthopaedic trauma cases. Index procedures for 5 common fractures were investigated, including supracondylar humeral fractures, both bone forearm fractures, lateral condylar fractures, tibial fractures, and femoral fractures. To provide a control group to account for potential extrinsic changes in hospital efficiency, laparoscopic appendectomies were also analyzed. For each procedure, efficiency parameters and surgical complications, defined as unplanned reoperations, were compared between time periods. The mean cost reduction per patient was calculated on the basis of the mean daily cost of an inpatient hospital bed. Of 1,469 orthopaedic procedures analyzed, 719 cases occurred before the implementation of the dedicated orthopaedic trauma operating room, and 750 cases were performed after the implementation. The frequency of after-hours procedures (5 P.M. to 7 A.M.) was reduced by 48% (p operating room decreased among supracondylar humeral fractures, lateral condylar fractures, and tibial fractures, whereas no significant decrease (p = 0.302) occurred among 2,076 laparoscopic appendectomy cases. The mean duration of the surgical procedure and the mean time in the operating room were not significantly affected. Across all orthopaedic procedures, the mean duration of inpatient hospitalization decreased by 5.6 hours (p operating room had fewer surgical complications (p = 0.018). No difference in complication rate was detected among the other orthopaedic procedures. A dedicated orthopaedic
Dalstrom, David J; Venkatarayappa, Indresh; Manternach, Alison L; Palcic, Marilyn S; Heyse, Beth A; Prayson, Michael J
There are no clear guidelines for how long a sterile operating-room tray can be exposed to the open environment before the contamination risk becomes unacceptable. The purpose of this study was to determine the time until first contamination and the rate of time-dependent contamination of sterile trays that had been opened in a controlled operating-room environment. We also examined the effect of operating-room traffic on the contamination rate. Forty-five sterile trays were opened in a positive-air-flow operating room. The trays were randomly assigned to three groups. All trays were opened with use of sterile technique and were exposed for four hours. Culture specimens were obtained immediately after opening and every thirty minutes thereafter during the study period. Group 1 consisted of fifteen trays that were opened and left uncovered in a locked operating room (i.e., one with no traffic). Group 2 was identical to Group 1 with the addition of single-person traffic flowing in and out of the operating room from a nonsterile corridor every ten minutes. Group 3 included fifteen trays that were opened, immediately covered with a sterile surgical towel, and then left uncovered in a locked operating room (i.e., one with no traffic). Three of the thirty uncovered trays (one left in the operating room with traffic and two left in the room with no traffic) were found to be contaminated immediately after opening. After those three trays were eliminated, the contamination rates recorded for the twenty-seven uncovered trays were 4% (one tray) at thirty minutes, 15% (four) at one hour, 22% (six) at two hours, 26% (seven) at three hours, and 30% (eight) at four hours. There was no difference in survival time (p = 0.47) or contamination rate (p = 0.69) between the uncovered trays in the room with traffic and those in the room without traffic. The covered trays were not contaminated during the testing period. The survival time for those trays was significantly longer (p = 0
Bull, Rosalind; FitzGerald, Mary
Operating room nurses continue to draw criticism regarding the appropriateness of a nursing presence in the operating room. The technological focus of the theatre and the ways in which nurses in the theatre have shaped and reshaped their practice in response to technological change have caused people within and outside the nursing profession to question whether operating room nursing is a technological rather than nursing undertaking. This paper reports findings from an ethnographic study that was conducted in an Australian operating department. The study examined the contribution of nurses to the work of the operating room through intensive observation and ethnographic interviews. This paper uses selected findings from the study to explore the ways in which nurses in theatre interpret their role in terms of caring in a technological environment.
Balkissoon, Rishi; Nayfeh, Tariq; Adams, Kerri L; Belkoff, Stephen M; Riedel, Stefan; Mears, Simon C
At the authors' institution, some joint arthroplasty surgeons require the operating room to be terminally cleaned before using the room after infected cases, in theory to decrease exposure to excessive microbial contamination for the subsequent patient. The authors found no guidance in the literature to support this practice. To test this theory, the authors measured microbial surface contamination from 9 surfaces in operating rooms after standard operating room turnover following 14 infected cases vs 16 noninfected cases. A check was made for an association between organisms isolated intraoperatively from infected surgical patients immediately preceding standard cleaning and organisms isolated from common operating room surfaces. Colony counts were made at 24 and 48 hours, and organisms were identified. No significant difference was noted in colony counts between infected and noninfected cases, and no relationship was found between organisms isolated from infected cases and those from operating room surfaces. Furthermore, the largest colony count from both groups (0.08 cfu/cm(2)) was an order of magnitude less than the recently proposed 5 cfu/cm(2) threshold for surface hygiene in hospitals. This finding indicates that standard operating room turnover results in minimal surface contamination, regardless of the previous case's infection status, and that there is no need for a more extensive terminal cleaning after an infected case. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
of the most difficult administrativo tasks that a modern hospital must face, and proposed using a combination of a master posting sheet and a...rooms. The greater degree of control maintained over the amount of available operating room time provided by this computerized system would in- crease
Kako, Hiromi; Corridore, Marco; Seo, Sarah; Elmaraghy, Charles; Lind, Meredith; Tobias, Joseph D
Adenotonsillectomy is one of the most commonly performed operative procedures in children. It is imperative to find the most efficient and cost-effective methods of practice to facilitate operating room management while maintaining patient safety. We investigated the efficiency of two different approaches of tracheal extubation in pediatric patients following adenotonsillectomy at two tertiary care pediatric hospitals with large surgical volumes. The primary aim of the study was to determine the difference in the operating room time according to the institutional practice of tracheal extubation in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU) as compared to the operating room. After obtaining IRB approval, a retrospective chart review was performed over a 12-month period at two large, tertiary care children's hospitals including the first hospital, where patients undergo tracheal extubation in the operating room after completion of the surgical procedure and a second hospital, where patients are brought directly to the PACU and undergo tracheal extubation in the PACU by nurses, with immediate availability of the pediatric anesthesiology faculty. Patients ≤12 years of age undergoing adenotonsillectomy were eligible for inclusion in the study. Patients with significant cardiopulmonary disease or scheduled for recovery in the critical care unit were excluded. Patient demographics, total time in the operating room, surgical time, total time in the PACU, and, when applicable, time until tracheal extubation, were noted. The study cohort included 672 patients from the first hospital and 700 patients from the second hospital. Average operating room time was 17 min shorter at the first hospital than at the other, with most of the difference due to a reduction in the time between surgery end and transport from the operating room. PACU times were also 26 min shorter at the first hospital than at the second children's hospital. Tracheal extubation in the PACU is an efficient use of
Gabriel, Rodney A; Gimlich, Robert; Ehrenfeld, Jesse M; Urman, Richard D
The balance between reducing costs and inefficiencies with that of patient safety is a challenging problem faced in the operating room suite. An ongoing challenge is the creation of effective strategies that reduce these inefficiencies and provide real-time personalized metrics and electronic feedback to anesthesia practitioners. We created a sample report card structure, utilizing existing informatics systems. This system allows to gather and analyze operating room metrics for each anesthesia provider and offer personalized feedback. To accomplish this task, we identified key metrics that represented time and quality parameters. We collected these data for individual anesthesiologists and compared performance to the overall group average. Data were presented as an electronic score card and made available to individual clinicians on a real-time basis in an effort to provide effective feedback. These metrics included number of cancelled cases, average turnover time, average time to operating room ready and patient in room, number of delayed first case starts, average induction time, average extubation time, average time to recovery room arrival to discharge, performance feedback from other providers, compliance to various protocols, and total anesthetic costs. The concept we propose can easily be generalized to a variety of operating room settings, types of facilities and OR health care professionals. Such a scorecard can be created using content that is important for operating room efficiency, research, and practice improvement for anesthesia providers.
nails, orthopedic appliances Anticipating needs of surgeon Specimen care in surgical field Casting and splinting procedures 84 1. _ 7 I Competency...nails, orthopedic appliances Skin preparation and draping techniques Casting and splinting procedures 167 I Competency: OPERATING ROOM TECHNICIAN (ORT...remove prosthetic appliance j. Remove plaster cast PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE (Stimulus) When required for an orthopedic surgical procedure (Behavior) The ORT
Attarian, David E; Wahl, Jennie E; Wellman, Samuel S; Bolognesi, Michael P
Developing a high-efficiency operating room (OR) for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in an academic setting is challenging given the preexisting work cultures, bureaucratic road blocks, and departmental silo mentalities...
Ahmad Joneidi Jafari
Conclusion: Overall total noise dose during all types of surgeries was measured as twice of permitted dose and also orthopedic and general operation rooms experience brief periods of noise exposure in excess.
Coveney, Andrew P; Switzer, Timothy; Corrigan, Mark A; Redmond, Henry P
.... Using a free recall experimental model, fourteen medical student participants were administered audio lists of 30 words in two separate learning environments, a tutorial room and an operating theatre...
Ferrante, Margherita; Fiore, Maria; Fallico, Giuseppe; Mazza, Angelo; Fallico, Roberto; Biondi, Marisa; Mirone, Lucia; Sciacca, Salvatore
Previous studies conducted in Catania hospitals have revealed a high burden of contamination in the air of operating rooms and have recommended measures to improve air quality. In this study we verified the effectiveness of the undertaken measures. Furthermore we evaluated the possibility of using microclimatic parameters as "markers" of operating room contamination. Changes made to ventilation systems and to waste gas scavenging systems in the monitored operating rooms were remarkably effective. Microclimatic conditions and degree of chemical contamination improved over time; nevertheless airflow velocity values were found to be insufficient and nitrous oxide values, in some cases, remained slightly elevated. A significant correlation was observed only between some nitrous oxide values and relative humidity. Monitoring important marker levels is useful for correctly evaluating operating room thermal, chemical and microbiological air quality.
Merlo, Lisa J; Goldberger, Bruce A; Kolodner, Dara; Fitzgerald, Kimberly; Gold, Mark S
Inflated rates of opioid addiction among anesthesiologists may be caused by chronic exposure to low doses of aerosolized anesthetic/analgesic agents in the operating room. Such secondhand exposure produces neurobiological sensitization to the reinforcing effects of these substances, making later addiction more likely. This article extends findings that fentanyl and propofol are detectable in the air of the operating room and demonstrates that fentanyl is also detectable on surfaces in the operating room. Secondhand exposure could, therefore, occur by inhalation and skin absorption. Additionally, data show that many physicians with opiate addiction have a family history of addiction, suggesting genetic vulnerability to the effects of secondhand exposure. Other new data demonstrate that the rates of marijuana and tobacco smoking are much higher among opioid-addicted physicians, suggesting that prior exposure to THC (the psychoactive component of cannabis) or nicotine might increase vulnerability to secondhand effects. Suggestions for reducing secondhand exposure in the operating room are discussed.
Steelman (2014) stated that the concept of briefing and debriefing used in operating theatres derived from the airline industry in the 1970s. There had been a series of devastating air crashes and the airline industry had come under severe public scrutiny. Investigations identified that, while the crews operating these aircrafts were very skilled and knowledgeable, they lacked competence in their ability to perform as part of a team. Copyright the Association for Perioperative Practice.
Saeid Amini Rarani
Full Text Available Abstract Background: Operating room personnel are subject to occupational hazards which could lead to an increase in free radicals and develop various diseases. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of consuming green tea on the improvement of the blood oxidative biomarkers in operating room personnel who are exposed to anesthetic gases. Materials and Methods: This study was a before-after clinical trial which was conducted on 24 operating room personnel. They were invited to consume 4 cups of a green tea beverage, prepared from 3 g of green tea leaves in 300 mL of boiled water (at 80˚ C, daily for 8 weeks. Then, Myeloperoxidase (MPO, DNA damage, Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx, and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD in the plasma were measured in order to evaluate the level of oxidative stress biomarkers before and after consuming green tea. Results: Green tea consumption by operating room personnel brought about a significant increase in glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase and a considerable decrease in myeloperoxidase and DNA damage. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, green tea consumption as an antioxidant supplement by operating room personnel, who are regularly exposed to anesthetic gases, can minimize oxidative stress and DNA damage considerably. Thus, it is advisable for operating room personnel to consume green tea as a natural antioxidant supplement.
Yezli, Saber; Barbut, Frédéric; Otter, Jonathan A
The role of surface contamination in the transmission of nosocomial pathogens is recognized increasingly. For more than 100 years, the inanimate environment in operating rooms (e.g., walls, tables, floors, and equipment surfaces) has been considered a potential source of pathogens that may cause surgical site infections (SSIs). However, the role of contaminated surfaces in pathogen acquisition in this setting generally is considered negligible, as most SSIs are believed to originate from patients' or healthcare workers' flora. A search of relevant medical literature was performed using PubMed to identify studies that investigated surface contamination of operating rooms and its possible role in infection transmission. Despite a limited number of studies evaluating the role of surface contamination in operating rooms, there is accumulating evidence that the inanimate environment of the operating room can become contaminated with pathogens despite standard environmental cleaning. These pathogens can then be transmitted to the hands of personnel and then to patients and may result in SSIs and infection outbreaks. Contaminated surfaces can be responsible for the transmission of pathogens in the operating room setting. Further studies are necessary to quantify the role of contaminated surfaces in the transmission of pathogens and to inform the most effective environmental interventions. Given the serious consequences of SSIs, special attention should be given to the proper cleaning and disinfection of the inanimate environment in operating rooms in addition to the other established infection control measures to reduce the burden of SSIs.
May Socorro Martinez Afonso
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This bibliographic survey in data banks such as MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO, Ministry of Health, among others aims at identifying what makes air conditioners a source of environmental contamination. The air is contaminated by particles which transport microorganisms. The sources of particles include patients and surgical staff. The control of the temperature, relative humidity, pressure, number of changes of air accomplished per hour, clothes, traffic, number of people in the rooms, maintenance and cleaning of the system of conditioned air of surgical centers are major factors for the reduction of the number of microorganisms in the environment of operating rooms. KEY WORDS: Operating room; Hospital infection; Air conditioning.
Parker, Sarah Henrickson; Yule, Steven; Flin, Rhona; McKinley, Aileen
There is widespread recognition in high-risk organizations that leadership is essential for efficient and safe team performance. However, there is limited empiric evidence identifying specific leadership skills and associated behaviors enacted by surgeons during surgery. Observational data on surgeons' intraoperative leadership behaviors were gathered during surgeries (n = 29) in 3 hospitals. Observations were coded using 7 leadership elements identified from the literature on surgeons' leadership. Surgeries were categorized by complexity using British United Provident Association ratings. A total of 258 leadership behaviors were observed during more than 63 hours of observation. Surgeons most frequently showed guiding and supporting (33%), communicating and coordinating (20%), and task management behaviors (15%). In many instances the surgeons' leadership was directed to the room rather than to a specific team member. Surgeons engaged in leadership behaviors significantly more frequently during cases of high complexity compared with cases of lower complexity. This study is the first step in developing an empirically derived taxonomy to identify and classify surgeons' intraoperative leadership behaviors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ninan, David; Zhu, Janet; Kore, Amanda; Wasson, Elizabeth; Fullerton, Tricia; Ninan, Barbara
This analysis looks at the application of a robust process improvement methodology to achieve a sustained organizational change. The implementation took place in a safety net hospital's operating suites that had a problem with relatively long, nonproductive turnover times between surgical procedures. Organizational leadership empowered stakeholders to use Lean and Six-Sigma tools to develop more efficient organizational processes. These processes were then implemented in a phased approach with careful attention to the organization's culture. The result was a significant reduction in turnover times leading to greater operational efficiency.
Chen, Minjiang; Catterson, Victoria; Syed, Mazheruddin
Operating power systems is an extremely challenging task, not least because power systems have become highly interconnected, as well as the range of network issues that can occur. It is therefore a necessity to develop decision support systems and visualisation that can effectively support the hu...
Lai, Fuji; Spitz, Gabriel; Brzezinski, Philip
The perioperative environment is a complex, high risk environment that requires real-time coordination by all perioperative team members and accurate, up-to-date information for situation assessment and decision-making. There is the need for a "Gestalt" holistic awareness of the perioperative environment to enable synthesis and contextualization of the salient information such as: patient information, case and procedure information, staff information, operative site view, physiological data, resource availability. One potential approach is to augment the medical toolkit with a large screen wall display that integrates and makes accessible information that currently resides in different data systems and care providers. The objectives are to promote safe workflows, team coordination and communication, and to enable diagnosis, anticipation of events, and information flow from upstream to downstream care providers. We used the human factors engineering design process to design and develop a display that provides a common operational picture for shared virtual perioperative team situation awareness to enhance patient safety.
Gleicher, Yehoshua; Singer, Oskar; Choi, Stephen; McHardy, Paul
The primary aim of this study was to review the impact of inserting thoracic epidural catheters in a preoperative block room setting on operating room efficiency. We conducted a retrospective preintervention/postintervention review of thoracic epidurals inserted over a 12-month period. The review included 6 months of data prior to implementation of the regional anesthesia block room and 6 months of data following implementation. The primary outcome measure was anesthesia-controlled operating room time, defined as time from patient arrival to the operating room to time of surgical site sterile preparation. Secondary measures included operating room waiting time for the patient arrival, thoracic epidural failure rate, and number of epidural insertion attempts. Data from thoracic epidurals for 112 patients of preblock room and 142 patients of postblock room implementation were collected. Anesthesia-controlled operating room time was reduced by an average of 22.9 minutes per patient (95% confidence interval, 19.3-26.3 minutes; P operating room waiting time for patient arrival increased by 3.8 minutes (95% confidence interval, 1.0-6.5 minutes; P operating room time savings of 19.1 minutes per epidural. The epidural failure rate decreased from 16.0% to 5.6% (P room setting can significantly reduce anesthesia-controlled operating room time and epidural failure rates.
Hu, Yue-Yung; Parker, Sarah Henrickson; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Arriaga, Alexander F; Peyre, Sarah E; Corso, Katherine A; Roth, Emilie M; Yule, Steven J; Greenberg, Caprice C
Background The importance of leadership is recognized in surgery, but the specific impact of leadership style on team behavior is not well understood. In other industries, leadership is a well-characterized construct. One dominant theory proposes that transactional (task-focused) leaders achieve minimum standards, whereas transformational (team-oriented) leaders inspire performance beyond expectations. Study Design We video-recorded 5 surgeons performing complex operations. Each surgeon was scored on the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire, a validated method for scoring transformational and transactional leadership style, by an organizational psychologist and a surgeon-researcher. Independent coders assessed surgeons' leadership behaviors according to the Surgical Leadership Inventory and team behaviors (information-sharing, cooperative, and voice behaviors). All coders were blinded. Leadership style (MLQ) was correlated with surgeon behavior (SLI) and team behavior using Poisson regression, controlling for time and the total number of behaviors, respectively. Results All surgeons scored similarly on transactional leadership (2.38-2.69), but varied more widely on transformational leadership (1.98-3.60). Each 1-point increase in transformational score corresponded to 3× more information-sharing behaviors (pleadership and its impact on team performance in the OR. As in other fields, our data suggest that transformational leadership is associated with improved team behavior. Surgeon leadership development therefore has the potential to improve the efficiency and safety of operative care. PMID:26481409
Hasvold, Per Erlend; Scholl, Jeremiah
The purpose of this study was to learn about factors that influence the design and implementation of situated computing solutions that support hospital work. This includes social and technical aspects of the actual systems that will be implemented, as well as the appropriate design methodology for developing these systems. Staff at a surgical department at a University hospital were engaged in a participatory design (PD) process to help solve a problem that was presented by the staff: scheduling of patients and surgery rooms, and creating awareness of the status of ongoing surgeries. The PD process was conceptually aided by a model that describes Medical Informatics Systems as comprising of three components, a service component, a technical component and a social component. The process included the use of ethnographic field work and iterative redesign of both technical and social components of the system after it had been implemented into day-to-day work practice. The PD process resulted in the creation of a system that was iteratively created over a period of about 2 years, and which then handed over to the IT department of the hospital and used by the surgical department for a period of about 1 additional year. The first version of the prototype that was implemented contained usability flaws that made the system difficult to use in time critical situations. As a result of observations and a redesign of the technical component and social component of the system a new version was possible to implement that managed to overcome this problem. A key feature of this second version of the system was that some responsibility for data entry validation was shifted from the technical component of the system to the social component of the system. This was done by allowing users to input poor data initially, while requiring them to fix this data later on. This solution breaks from "traditional" usability design but proved to be quite successful in this case. A challenge with
Metzler, Elise C; Kodali, Bhavani S; Urman, Richard D; Flanagan, Hugh L; Rego, Monica Sa; Vacanti, Joshua C
The post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) is a major contributor to the operating room (OR) process flow and efficiency. A sudden failure of hospital facility infrastructure due to a burst pipe resulted in the complete loss of a 66-bed combined preoperative and PACU facility of a major academic medical center. The OR suites were undamaged. The clinical and administrative challenges of caring for surgical patients without the usual preoperative and postoperative care areas are discussed. Our strategy for maintaining OR functions and management of patient flow, OR personnel, case prioritization, and equipment needs are detailed from the time of initial crisis until restoration of these clinical care areas. Utilization of the hospital disaster Incident Command Structure and the activation and decision support provided by the hospital Emergency Operations Center (EOC) for the week immediately following the crisis, helped maintain OR functionality.
Full Text Available Hyperosmotic-hyperoncotic solutions have been widely used during prehospital care of trauma patients and have shown positive hemodynamic effects. Recently, there has been a growing interest in intra-operative use of hypertonic solutions. We reviewed 30 clinical studies on the use of hypertonic saline solutions during surgeries, with the majority being cardiac surgeries. Reduced positive fluid balance, increased cardiac index, and decreased systemic vascular resistance were the main beneficial effects of using hypertonic solutions in this population. Well-designed clinical trials are highly needed, particularly in aortic aneurysm repair surgeries, where hypertonic solutions have shown many beneficial effects. Examining the immunomodulatory effects of hypertonic solutions should also be a priority in future studies.
Joginder Pal Attri
Full Text Available The operation theater (OT environment is the most complex and volatile workplace where two coequal physicians share responsibility of one patient. Difference in information, opinion, values, experience and interests between a surgeon and anesthesiologist may arise while working in high-pressure environments like OT, which may trigger conflict. Quality of patient care depends on effective teamwork for which multidisciplinary communication is an essential part. Troubled relationships leads to conflicts and conflicts leads to stressful work environment which hinders the safe discharge of patient care. Unresolved conflicts can harm the relationship but when handled in a positive way it provides an opportunity for growth and ultimately strengthening the bond between two people. By learning the skills to resolve conflict, we can keep our professional relationship healthy and strong which is an important component of good patient care.
Alsved, Malin; Civilis, Anette; Ekolind, Peter
, vertical laminar airflow (LAF) and turbulent mixed airflow (TMA), were compared with a newly developed ventilation technique: temperature controlled airflow (TcAF). CFU concentrations were measured at three locations in an operating room during 45 orthopaedic surgeries: close to the wound (...), at the instrument table, and peripherally in the room. The operating team evaluated the working environment comfort by answering a questionnaire. FINDINGS: We showed that LAF and TcAF, but not TMA, resulted in less than 10 CFU/m(3) at all measurement locations in the room during ongoing surgery. Median values...... of CFU/m(3) close to the wound (250 samples) were 0 for LAF, 1 for TcAF and 10 for TMA. Peripherally in the room, the CFU concentrations were lowest for TcAF. The CFU concentrations did not scale proportionally with airflow rates. Compared to LAF, TcAF's power consumption was 28% lower...
Gaines, Sara; Luo, James N; Gilbert, Jack; Zaborina, Olga; Alverdy, John C
Surgical site infections (SSI), whether they be incisional or deep, can entail major morbidity and death to patients and additional cost to the healthcare system. A significant amount of effort has gone into optimizing the surgical patient and the operating room environment to reduce SSI. Relevant guidelines and literature were reviewed. The modern practice of surgical antisepsis involves the employment of strict sterile techniques inside the operating room. Extensive guidelines are available regarding the proper operating room antisepsis as well as pre-operative preparation. The use of pre-operative antimicrobial prophylaxis has become increasingly prevalent, which also presents the challenge of opportunistic and nosocomial infections. Ongoing investigative efforts have brought about a greater appreciation of the surgical patient's endogenous microflora, use of non-bactericidal small molecules, and pre-operative microbial screening. Systematic protocols exist for optimizing the surgical sterility of the operating room to prevent SSIs. Ongoing research efforts aim to improve the precision of peri-operative antisepsis measures and personalize these measures to tailor the patient's unique microbial environment.
Abundo, Paolo; Rosato, Nicola; Abundo, Mario
We propose a simple stochastic model for the movement of a potentially infective particle in operating room in which the local air contamination level is reduced by using a double laminar flow. Numerical simulation is used to obtain qualitative scenario analysis, in order to prevent infection, i.e. impact of the infective particle with the surgical wound, during the operation.
Russ, Stephanie; Arora, Sonal; Wharton, Rupert; Wheelock, Ana; Hull, Louise; Sharma, Eshaa; Darzi, Ara; Vincent, Charles; Sevdalis, Nick
Although a number of validated tools are available for assessing nontechnical skills and teamwork in the operating room (OR), there are no tools for measuring completion of key OR tasks, which is fundamental to effective teamwork, patient safety, and OR efficiency. This study describes the development and content validation of a new tool (ie, the Metric for Evaluating Task Execution in the Operating Room) for measuring basic task completion during surgical procedures. The content validity of 106 OR tasks was assessed using 50 real-time observations of general surgical procedures, followed by a process of expert consensus. A panel of 15 OR experts (ie, surgeons, anesthesiologists, and OR nurses) were asked to rate all tasks observed in efficiency (using scientifically accepted definitions). Tasks rated highly were retained. Those perceived less relevant were removed. A second panel of patient-safety experts refined the tool to remove duplication, ensure usability, and include novel tasks. Twenty-four of the original 106 tasks were observed in efficiency and were retained in the Metric for Evaluating Task Execution in the Operating Room. Of the remaining 17, four were retained and 13 were removed by the patient-safety experts. In the final revision phase, an additional 23 tasks were removed and 10 new tasks added. The final tool consists of 80 OR tasks relating to well-established processes of care. The Metric for Evaluating Task Execution in the Operating Room is easy to use and can identify specific gaps in safety and/or efficiency in OR processes. Next, we should examine its links with additional measures of OR performance, for example, patient outcomes, list cancellations/delays, and nontechnical skills. Copyright © 2013 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zare, Zahra; Irani, Mehri Doosti; Aarabi, Akram; Motlagh, Farzaneh Gholami; Farahmand, Hassan; Naji, Homayoun; Mashhadizadeh, Ahmad; Rafiian, Mohsen
Education is based upon the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are required for an occupation, and the changes occurring in the occupations and duties as well as in the ideals and values necessitate constant needs analysis. Furthermore, owing to the transformations in sciences, especially medical sciences, the current syllabus for the operation room courses at associate level will not meet the requirements for operation room personnel in future. Therefore, the syllabus for operation room B.S. was developed and proposed in a research project entitled "Study of the international syllabus for the operation room courses and proposing an appropriate syllabus for the courses in Iran." Since the operation room courses at B.S. level are supposed to be introduced in Iranian universities, we intended to learn about the opinions of other people related to this subject in Iran. In this research, a questionnaire was used that contained the syllabus proposed for the operation room B.S. courses, which was the result of a research project entitled "Study of the international syllabus for the operation room courses and proposing an appropriate syllabus for the courses in Iran." To develop this syllabus, 12 heads of the operation room departments in universities across Iran in which the subject matter was being taught at associate level were consulted. The study showed that 14 out of the 53 courses proposed in the syllabus had a desirability level of 100%, 22 courses were desirable at levels of 91-100%, 19 were 75-90% desirable, and no courses had a desirability level less than 75%. After carrying out some modifications to the syllabus, the problems were resolved and the opinions were again asked. When a consensus of greater than 70% was reached, the syllabus for the operation room courses at B.S. level was finalized and proposed. The regulations from the Development, Planning, and Evaluation Office of the Ministry of Health were also followed. Although all the courses showed a
Pedersen, Laura; Elgin, Kimberly; Peace, Barbara; Masroor, Nadia; Doll, Michelle; Sanogo, Kakotan; Zuelzer, Wilhelm; Peterson, Gene; Stevens, Michael P; Bearman, Gonzalo
We examined the perceptions and barriers to nonsurgical scrubbed hand hygiene in the operating room and endoscopy procedure room using 2 anonymous Likert-scale surveys. Results indicated poor role modeling, inconvenience, and the need to monitor hand hygiene and feedback data to providers because of poor self-awareness of hand hygiene practices. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hüfner, T; Citak, M; Imrecke, J; Krettek, C; Stübig, T
Operating rooms are the central unit in the hospital network in trauma centers. In this area, high costs but also high revenues are generated. Modern operating theater concepts as an integrated model have been offered by different companies since the early 2000s. Our hypothesis is that integrative concepts for operating rooms, in addition to improved operating room ergonomics, have the potential for measurable time and cost savings. In our clinic, an integrated operating room concept (I-Suite, Stryker, Duisburg) was implemented after analysis of the problems. In addition to the ceiling-mounted arrangement, the system includes an endoscopy unit, a navigation system, and a voice control system. In the first 6 months (9/2005 to 2/2006), 112 procedures were performed in the integrated operating room: 34 total knee arthroplasties, 12 endoscopic spine surgeries, and 66 inpatient arthroscopic procedures (28 shoulder and 38 knee reconstructions). The analysis showed a daily saving of 22-45 min, corresponding to 15-30% of the daily changeover times, calculated to account for potential savings in the internal cost allocation of 225-450 EUR. A commercial operating room concept was evaluated in a pilot phase in terms of hard data, including time and cost factors. Besides the described effects further savings might be achieved through the effective use of voice control and the benefit of the sterile handle on the navigation camera, since waiting times for an additional nurse are minimized. The time of the procedure of intraoperative imaging is also reduced due to the ceiling-mounted concept, as the C-arm can be moved freely in the operating theater without hindering cables. By these measures and ensuing improved efficiency, the initial high costs for the implementation of the system may be cushioned over time.
Peláez, R; Aguilar, J L; Segura, C; Fermández, S; Mendiola, M A; Forner, J C
To report on the creation and development of an interdisciplinary anesthesiology and nursing team to provide anesthesia outside the operating room. We describe the creation of an interdisciplinary team and preanesthesia evaluation protocols for using nurses specializing in anesthesia for procedures outside the operating room. We analyzed the anesthetic procedures performed outside the operating room, the rate of suspensions due to failure of the procedure, and their impact on the rate of associated complications, from October 2006 to October 2007. Since the start of the project, 586 procedures outside the operating room have been performed. No suspensions or delays were observed that were due to comorbidity not detected in the preanesthesia evaluation carried out by the nurses. The incidences of complications and inadequate sedations were comparable to those reported for other similar interdisciplinary groups in this area. The creation of an interdisciplinary team of anesthesiologists and specialized nurses for providing anesthesia outside the operating room optimizes resources and improves routine clinical practice. It has allowed for universal preanesthesia evaluation, improved the distribution of resources, and proven a stimulus to the care-giving process.
Miller, Anya J; Gardner, Glendon M
We conducted a study to analyze hospital and patient costs, outcomes, and patient satisfaction among adults undergoing in-office and operating room procedures for the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis. Our final study population was made up of 17 patients-1 man and 16 women, aged 30 to 86 years (mean: 62). The mean number of in-office laser procedures per patient was 4.2, and the mean interval between procedures was 5.4 months (although 10 patients underwent only 1 office procedure); the mean number of operating room procedures was 13.5, and the mean interval between procedures was 14.3 months. An equal number of patients reported complications or adverse events with the two types of procedures-5 each. The difference in cost between the office procedure (mean: $3,413.00) and the operating room procedure (mean: $12,382.59) was almost $9,000, but these savings were offset by the fact that the office procedures needed to be performed three times as often. Patients reported slightly more anxiety and discomfort during the office procedures and, overall, they appeared to prefer the operating room procedure. We conclude that office procedures are significantly more cost-effective than operating room procedures, but their use may be limited by patient tolerance and the increased frequency of the procedure.
Pharmacy services have traditionally consisted of dispensing, provision of drug information and inventory management practices. Pharmacist's impact on the implementation of medication safety standards, drug therapy optimization, and other clinical interventions has been adequately reviewed in settings of general wards and considered as standard practice; however, these activities in the operating room have not become the standard practice. In this article, we reviewed the clinical interventions by pharmacists working in the operating room. The five main duties or obligations required of the pharmacists are appropriate drug management, achieving medical economic benefits, mixing injectable drugs, risk management, and provision of drug information. The major information provided to physicians and nurses is on usage, dosage, stability, incompatibility, pharmacological effects and adverse effects. Physicians and nurses require the drug information provided by the pharmacist in the operating room. Furthermore, their requirement for the stationing of pharmacist is extremely high. It is suggested that these services might be quite important in optimizing drug therapy and preventing adverse effects. Additionally, pharmacist can contribute on rational use of drug, safety management, reduction of works of other medical staff, and also the medical economics through pharmaceutical care in operating room as well as in general wards. It is suggested that stationing pharmacists in the operating room might be indispensable for hospital administration in view of the medication safety and cost reduction.
Husum, B; Niebuhr, E; Wulf, H C; Nørgaard, I
Information on possible chromosomal damage in humans after long-term exposure to trace concentrations of waste anaesthetic gases is scarce. We examined peripheral lymphocytes in operating room personnel for both chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCE). Following a standardized procedure of cultivation and staining, 30 cells from each person were scored for SCE and 100 cells from each person were examined for chromosome aberrations. A total of 45 persons were examined, representing anaesthetists (n = 15), operating room nurses assisting the surgeon (n = 10), nurses circulating in the operating room (n = 8) and healthy, unexposed controls (n = 12). The median duration of working in the operating room was 102 months, 66 months and 66 months, respectively. Time-weighted concentration levels of 2.5-4.3 p.p.m. of halothane and 25-400 p.p.m. of nitrous oxide were measured in the breathing zones of the anaesthetists during mask anaesthesia. Examination of SCE and chromosome aberrations yielded corresponding qualitative results. With both tests, no statistically significant difference was observed between the four groups of persons. It was concluded that by examination of both SCE and chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes in operating room personnel, no indication was found of a mutagenic effect of long-term exposure to trace concentrations of waste anaesthetic gases.
Rogers, David A; Lingard, Lorelei; Boehler, Margaret L; Espin, Sherry; Schindler, Nancy; Klingensmith, Mary; Mellinger, John D
Prior research has shown that surgeons who effectively manage operating room conflict engage in a problem-solving stage devoted to modifying systems that contribute to team conflict. The purpose of this study was to clarify how systems contributed to operating room team conflict and clarify what surgeons do to modify them. Focus groups of circulating nurses and surgeons were conducted at 5 academic medical centers. Narratives describing the contributions of systems to operating room conflict and behaviors used by surgeons to address those systems were analyzed using the constant comparative approach associated with a constructivist grounded theory approach. Operating room team conflict was affected by 4 systems-related factors: team features, procedural-specific staff training, equipment management systems, and the administrative leadership itself. Effective systems problem solving included advocating for change based on patient safety concerns. The results of this study provide clarity about how systems contribute to operating room conflict and what surgeons can do to effectively modify these systems. This information is foundational material for a conflict management educational program for surgeons. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Olatosi, J O; Anaegbu, N C
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an infective blood-borne pathogen that is a constant threat to operating room staff. The prevalence of Hepatitis B has been reported to range from 4.3% - 68% in Nigeria. The inadequate funding of health care in low income countries impacts negatively on the implementation of effective vaccination programs to protect health care workers including surgical theatre personnel. To determine the Hepatitis B vaccination status and the needle stick injury exposure among operating room staff in Lagos, Nigeria. The multicentre prospective survey was conducted in three public tertiary hospitals and two private hospitals in Lagos utilising a self-administered structured questionnaire that was distributed to operating room staff. We found that 96.7% (265) of respondents agreed that their job had exposed them to the risk of HBV infection. Over half (55.8%) correctly identified three doses of HBV as adequate to confer immunity against infection. It was observed that 58% (159) of the respondents were fully vaccinated, most of whom were doctors (69.8%, p=0.001) while a total of 173 (63.1%) reported exposure to needle-stick injury with blood in the preceding year. The operating room personnel were knowledgeable about the risk of HBV as an occupational hazard but a large number were not fully vaccinated against HBV infection. There was therefore the need to improve the vaccination coverage and educate identified high-risk operating room staff on appropriate post exposure prophylaxis practices.
Full Text Available Aim: to conduct a comparative analysis of the psychological characteristics of the most and least successful main control room operators. Material and Methods. Two NPP staff groups: the most and least successful main control room operators, who worked in routine operating conditions, were surveyed. Expert evaluation method has been applied to identify the groups. The subjects were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI, Cattell's Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF form A and Raven's Progressive Matrices test. Results. Numerous significant psychological differences between the groups of most and least successful control room operators were obtained: the best operators were significantly more introverted and correctly solved more logical tasks with smaller percentage of mistakes under time pressure than worst ones. Conclusions: 1. The psychodiagnostic methods used in the study were adequate to meet research objective 2. Tendency to introversion, as well as developed the ability to solve logic problems undertime pressure, apparently, are important professional qualities for control room operators. These indicators should be considered in the process of psychological selection and professional guidance of nuclear power plant operators.
Chen, W G; Shan, H; Ye, J M; Zhang, P W; Jin, K L; Lin, K; Chu, W J
Objective: To evaluate the impact of CO(2) pneumoperitoneum in operating rooms on the health of medical staffs. Methods: In June 2016, the thirty-three medical staffs in operating rooms were chosen as the object of the research.Seventeen people who took part in the pneumoperitoneum operation were selected as a exposure group and sixteen people who took part in the laparotomy operation were selected as a control group.Vital signs and arterial blood gases of medical staffs in the two groups were both measured in pre-operation and post-operation. Occupational Health Questionnaires were conducted to collect information on age, weight and postoperative symptoms. The level of CO(2) in operating room was determined by a portable infrared CO(2) analyzer. Results: Compared with the control group, the concentration of CO(2) in the exposed group was higherat T(1), T(2) and T(3) (t=22.227, 13.583, 17.408, Pexposure group raised greatly (t=2.132, 2.129, Poperating rooms.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hand washing has been considered a measure of personal hygiene for centuries and it is known that an improper hand hygiene by healthcare workers is responsible for about 40% of nosocomial infections. Therefore, surgical hand preparation is a critical element for healthcare safety in order to reduce microbial contamination of surgical wound in case of non detected break of the gloves. The aim of our study is to evaluate the efficacy three antiseptics: Povi-iodine scrub; EPG (Ethanol, Hydrogen Peroxide, Glycerol, recommended by WHO, and common marseille soap type in a liquid formulation. METHODS It was designed a randomized, double-blind, single-center study conducted in the University Hospital of Messina, from January to June 2013. We asked operators to put the fingertips of their right hand (if not left-handed for one minute on the PCA medium, before washing with the three types of antiseptics, and after washing and drying. Drying was made using sterile gauzes or disposable wipes. Then, we measured the number of colony forming units per mL (CFU/mL and calculated the percentage of microbial load reduction. RESULTS 211 samples have been considered for statistical analysis: in 42 samples, in fact, initial microbial load was lower than after washing. Washing with EPG reduced CFU/ml from a mean of 38,9 to 4,1 (86,5% reduction, washing with povi-iodine scrub from 59,55 to 12,9 (75,9% reduction and washing with Marseille soap from 47,26 to 12,7 (64,3% reduction. CONCLUSIONS Our study shows that washing with EPG has superior efficacy in CFU reduction. Antiseptic hand washing, however, cannot be considered the only measure to reduce infections: the anomaly of some results (initial microbial load lower than after washing demonstrates that drying is an essential phase in the presurgical preparation. Therefore, hand hygiene must be part of a more complex strategy of surveillance and control of nosocomial infections
Morita, Mark M.; Ratib, Osman
The ergonomic design in the Surgical OR of information technology systems has been and continues to be a large problem. Numerous disparate information systems with unique hardware and display configurations create an environment similar to the chaotic environments of air traffic control. Patient information systems tend to show all available statistics making it difficult to isolate the key, relevant vitals for the patient. Interactions in this sterile environment are still being done with the traditional keyboard and mouse designed for cubicle office workflows. This presentation will address the shortcomings of the current design paradigm in the Surgical OR that relate to Information Technology systems. It will offer a perspective that addresses the ergonomic deficiencies and predicts how future technological innovations will integrate into this vision. Part of this vision includes a Surgical OR PACS prototype, developed by GE Healthcare Technologies, that addresses ergonomic challenges of PACS in the OR that include lack of portability, sterile field integrity, and UI targeted for diagnostic radiologists. GWindows (gesture control) developed by Microsoft Research and Voice command will allow for the surgeons to navigate and review diagnostic imagery without using the conventional keyboard and mouse that disrupt the integrity of the sterile field. This prototype also demonstrates how a wireless, battery powered, self contained mobile PACS workstation can be optimally positioned for a surgeon to reference images during an intervention as opposed to the current pre-operative review. Lessons learned from the creation of the Surgical OR PACS Prototype have demonstrated that PACS alone is not the end all solution in the OR. Integration of other disparate information systems and presentation of this information in simple, easy to navigate information packets will enable smoother interactions for the surgeons and other healthcare professionals in the OR. More intuitive
Ball, Lorenzo; Dameri, Maddalena; Pelosi, Paolo
Most patients undergoing surgical procedures need to be mechanically ventilated, because of the impact of several drugs administered at induction and during maintenance of general anaesthesia on respiratory function. Optimization of intraoperative mechanical ventilation can reduce the incidence of post-operative pulmonary complications and improve the patient's outcome. Preoxygenation at induction of general anaesthesia prolongs the time window for safe intubation, reducing the risk of hypoxia and overweighs the potential risk of reabsorption atelectasis. Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation delivered through different interfaces should be considered at the induction of anaesthesia morbidly obese patients. Anaesthesia ventilators are becoming increasingly sophisticated, integrating many functions that were once exclusive to intensive care. Modern anaesthesia machines provide high performances in delivering the desired volumes and pressures accurately and precisely, including assisted ventilation modes. Therefore, the physicians should be familiar with the potential and pitfalls of the most commonly used intraoperative ventilation modes: volume-controlled, pressure-controlled, dual-controlled and assisted ventilation. Although there is no clear evidence to support the advantage of any one of these ventilation modes over the others, protective mechanical ventilation with low tidal volume and low levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) should be considered in patients undergoing surgery. The target tidal volume should be calculated based on the predicted or ideal body weight rather than on the actual body weight. To optimize ventilation monitoring, anaesthesia machines should include end-inspiratory and end-expiratory pause as well as flow-volume loop curves. The routine administration of high PEEP levels should be avoided, as this may lead to haemodynamic impairment and fluid overload. Higher PEEP might be considered during surgery longer than 3 h
Wachtel, Ruth E; Dexter, Franklin
Operating room (OR) managers must plan staffing in the face of uncertain demand for OR time. Planning too much staffing results in underutilized OR time. Planning too little staffing causes overutilized time, which is approximately twice as expensive as underutilized time. Deciding how much staffing to plan for an OR is analogous to the classic newsvendor problem in operations research. A newsvendor must decide how much product to order based on its cost c and sales price p, plus estimates of the uncertain future demand for the product. The newsvendor problem has a simple mathematical solution. The correct amount of product to order is the (p - c)/p quantile of the demand for the product. This optimal order quantity is analogous mathematically to the number of hours of OR time for which staffing should be planned. We performed a systematic review of the behavioral operations experimental literature on newsvendor problems relevant to OR management. Student volunteers participating in experimental studies have great difficulty knowing how much product to order, given c, p, and the demand distribution. Decision making is only modestly improved by more frequent feedback. Even scores of rounds of ordering are insufficient for much learning to occur. Suboptimal decisions result from innate psychological biases. Students anchor on mean demand, make insufficient adjustments, and rely disproportionately on the most recent demand values. The behavior of OR managers who plan staffing for the OR is analogous to that of students participating in a newsvendor experiment. Month after month, an OR manager will plan too little staffing for the surgeon who consistently ends the day late and too much staffing for the surgeon who consistently does not fill an OR. Experimental studies of the newsvendor problem provide mechanistic insights into the reasons that OR managers make poor decisions when planning OR staffing. The students face no organizational factors or personality issues
Liu, Baozhen; Liu, Zhiguo; Wang, Xianwen
A mobile operating room information management system with electronic medical record (EMR) is designed to improve work efficiency and to enhance the patient information sharing. In the operating room, this system acquires the information from various medical devices through the Client/Server (C/S) pattern, and automatically generates XML-based EMR. Outside the operating room, this system provides information access service by using the Browser/Server (B/S) pattern. Software test shows that this system can correctly collect medical information from equipment and clearly display the real-time waveform. By achieving surgery records with higher quality and sharing the information among mobile medical units, this system can effectively reduce doctors' workload and promote the information construction of the field hospital.
van Beuzekom Martie
Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient safety is one of the greatest challenges in healthcare. In the operating room errors are frequent and often consequential. This article describes an approach to a successful implementation of a patient safety program in the operating room, focussing on latent risk factors that influence patient safety. We performed an intervention to improve these latent risk factors (LRFs and increase awareness of patient safety issues amongst OR staff. Methods Latent risk factors were studied using a validated questionnaire applied to the OR staff before and after an intervention. A pre-test/post-test control group design with repeated measures was used to evaluate the effects of the interventions. The staff from one operating room of an university hospital acted as the intervention group. Controls consisted of the staff of the operating room in another university hospital. The outcomes were the changes in LRF scores, perceived incident rate, and changes in incident reports between pre- and post-intervention. Results Based on pre-test scores and participants’ key concerns about organizational factors affecting patient safety in their department the intervention focused on the following LRFs: Material Resources, Training and Staffing Recourses. After the intervention, the intervention operating room - compared to the control operating room - reported significantly fewer problems on Material Resources and Staffing Resources and a significantly lower score on perceived incident rate. The contribution of technical factors to incident causation decreased significantly in the intervention group after the intervention. Conclusion The change of state of latent risk factors can be measured using a patient safety questionnaire aimed at these factors. The change of the relevant risk factors (Material and Staffing resources concurred with a decrease in perceived and reported incident rates in the relevant categories. We conclude that
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: High prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders, especially in jobs such as nursing which covers tasks like patients' repositioning, has attracted great attentions from occupational healthcare experts to necessitate the knowledge of ergonomic science. Therefore, this study was performed aiming at ergonomic relationship during work in nursing staff of Intensive Care Unit (ICU with operating room. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study (cohort, fifty personnel of ICU staff and fifty of operating room staff were selected through a census method and were assessed using tools such as Nordic questionnaire and Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA standards in terms of body posture ergonomics. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS software and Chi-Square test after collection. Results: The most complaints were from the operating room group (68% and ICU staff (60% for the lumbar musculoskeletal system. There was a significant relationship between the total REBA scores of body, legs, neck, arm, force status, load fitting with hands and static or dynamic activities in the operating room and ICU staff groups (P < 0.05. In operating room and ICU groups, most subjects obtained score 11–15 and very high-risk level. Conclusion: Nurses working at operating room and ICU ward are subjected to high-risk levels and occupational injuries which is dramatically resulted from inappropriate body posture or particular conditions of their works. As a result, taking corrective actions along with planning and identifying ways will help prohibiting the prevalence of disorders in the future.
Full Text Available In recent years, approaches for information and control integration in the digital operating room have emerged. A major step towards an intelligent operating room and a cooperative technical environment would be autonomous adaptation of medical devices and systems to the surgical workflow. The OR staff should be freed from information seeking and maintenance tasks. We propose a closed-loop concept integrating workflow monitoring, processing and (semi-automatic interaction to bridge the gap between OR integration of medical devices and workflow-related information management.
Suzuki, A.; Namba, Y; Matsuura, M; Horisawa, A.
Bacterial contamination of floors and other surfaces in the operating suite has been investigated by contact impression plates during the past five years. Colony counts of the floors of operating rooms, cleaned with disinfectant, were 3.3 c.f.u./10 cm2; on the floors of semi-clean and dirty areas, cleaned with detergent, colony counts were 44.8 and 71.4 c.f.u./10 cm2 respectively. The highest colony counts of 487.4 c.f.u./10 cm2 were found in the dressing rooms, the floors of which were cover...
Schuld, Jochen; Justinger, Christoph; Kollmar, Otto; Schilling, Martin K; Richter, Sven
The so-called "practical year" is the last part of medical students' education in Germany. Without being paid, final-year medical students have to work for 1 year under supervision in academic teaching hospitals. It is mandatory for every student to rotate to a surgical department for 4 months. The aim of the present study was to assess the working time contribution of final-year medical students on operation room performance at the surgical department of a university hospital. Over an 8-year period, purely surgical times of 24,214 operations in 2,792 days were analyzed with special regard to final-year medical students' participation rate. Students' cumulative workload in the operating room was compared to that of surgical residents. Mean participation rate of final-year medical students was 47.8%, being higher in elective surgery than in emergency surgery (53.9% vs. 24.7%; p students participated in operations, mean daily cumulative working time of student's cohort was 10.3 ± 0.12 h. Daily cumulative workload of medical students in the operating room strongly correlated with both medical doctors' cumulative workload (r (2) = 0.573) and daily workload of the team (r (2) = 0.740, p students assisted significantly more often in time-consuming operations. Final-year medical students contribute significantly to surgical operation room performance, similarly but less intensively than residents. Employment of students may counterbalance staff shortage in operating rooms. Therefore, it is likely that the German health care system relies on unpaid medical students to minimize the total cost of surgery. According to the extent of workload accomplished by final-year medical students, a remuneration of the "practical year" seems reasonable.
Papaconstantinou, Harry T; Smythe, William R; Reznik, Scott I; Sibbitt, Stephen; Wehbe-Janek, Hania
The Surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) improves patient safety and outcomes; however, barriers to effective use include the perceived negative impact on operating room (OR) efficiency. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of SSC implementation on OR efficiency. All operations at our large multispecialty tertiary care hospital were reviewed for 1-year pre- and 1-year post-SSC implementation. OR efficiency included operating room time, operation time, first starts on time, same-day cancellations, and OR disposable cost. A total of 35,570 operations were reviewed: 17,204 pre-SSC and 18,366 post-SSC. There was no difference between groups for operating room time (P = .93), operation time (P = .66), first starts on time (P = .15), and same-day cancellations (P = .57). The mean OR disposable cost was significantly lower ($70/operation) for the post-SSC group (P efficiency and should not be considered a barrier to effective use. Our data suggest that SSC use can reduce overall cost per surgical procedure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sonoda, Yukio; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito
To evaluate operating room nurses' perception of teamwork performance and their level of mental stress and to identify related factors. Little is known about the factors affecting teamwork and the mental stress of surgical nurses, although the performance of the surgical team is essential for patient safety. The questionnaire survey for operation room nurses consisted of simple questions about teamwork performance and mental stress. Multivariate analyses were used to identify factors causing a sense of teamwork performance or mental stress. A large number of surgical nurses had a sense of teamwork performance, but 30-40% of operation room nurses were mentally stressed during surgery. Neither the patient nor the operation factors were related to the sense of teamwork performance in both types of nurses. Among scrub nurses, endoscopic and abdominal surgery, body mass index, blood loss and the American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class were related to their mental stress. Conversely, circulating nurses were stressed about teamwork performance. The factors related to teamwork performance and mental stress during surgery differed between scrub and circulating nurses. Increased support for operation room nurses is necessary. The increased support leads to safer surgical procedures and better patient outcomes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nakayama, Takayuki; Numao, Noboru; Yoshida, Soichiro; Ishioka, Junichiro; Matsuoka, Yoh; Saito, Kazutaka; Fujii, Yasuhisa; Kihara, Kazunori
The shortage of surgeon is one of the serious problems in Japan. To solve the problem, various efforts have been undertaken to improve surgical education and training. However, appropriate teaching methods in the operating room have not been well established. The aim of this study is to assess the utility of a novel interactive educational (IE) system for surgical education on urologic surgeries in the operating room. A total of 20 Japanese medical students were educated on urologic surgery using the IE system in the operating room. The IE system consists of two parts. The first is three-dimensional (3D) magnified vision of the operative field using a 3D head-mounted display and a 3D endoscope. The second is interactive educative communication between medical students and surgeons using a small-sized wireless communication device. The satisfaction level with the IE system and the physical burden on medical students was examined via questionnaire. All students utilized the IE system in urologic surgery and responded to the survey. Most students were satisfied with the IE system. They also felt more welcomed by the surgeon when using the IE system than when not using it. No major unpleasant symptoms were observed but five students (25 %) experienced mild eye fatigue as a result of viewing the medical images. The IE system has the potential to motivate students to become interested in surgery and could be an efficient method of surgical education in the operating room.
O'Donnell, Brian D; Walsh, Ken; Murphy, Aileen; McElroy, Brendan; Iohom, Gabriella; Shorten, George D
Operating room time is a limited, expensive commodity in acute hospitals. Strategies aimed at reduction of non-operative time improve operating room throughput and capacity. We conducted a prospective study to evaluate and augment operating room throughput and capacity using context-specific work practice changes. Following institutional and ethical approval, an interdisciplinary group designed and introduced a series of work practice changes specific to a stand-alone soft tissue trauma theatre, comprising modifications to patient processing, staff behaviours and additional anaesthesiologist hours. Time intervals relating to each patient were measured during a 16 week period before and after implementing work practice changes. The primary outcome measure was non-operative time, with daily caseload and cancellations amongst secondary outcome measures. 251 procedures were included over 58 working days (8 to 17 Monday to Friday). Non-operative time [55.6 (31.1) vs 52.3 (9.8) minutes, p = 0.48], daily caseload [4 [1-9] vs 4 [2-7], p = 0.56], and the number of daily cancellations [3 [0-11] vs 5 [0-8], p = 0.38], did not differ between baseline and study phases. Regional anaesthesia for upper limb surgery increased during the study phase [26/59 (44.0%) vs 10/63 (15.9%), p = 0.014] with resultant decrease in mean duration of recovery room stay [20.7 (17.7) vs 30 (20.5) minutes, p = 0.0001] and increased recovery room bypass [26/116 (22.4%) vs 6/135 (4.4%), p = 0.0002]. Avoidable delays accounted for 124.8 (72.2) minutes of theatre time lost each day. In conclusion, additional attending anaesthesiologist hours combined with work practice changes did not impact on measures of theatre throughput and capacity. The study identified important variables that contribute to avoidable delays, and points the way for future research.
Edmiston, Charles E; Seabrook, Gary R; Cambria, Robert A; Brown, Kellie R; Lewis, Brian D; Sommers, Jay R; Krepel, Candace J; Wilson, Patti J; Sinski, Sharon; Towne, Jonathan B
Modern operating rooms are considered to be aseptic environments. The use of surgical mask, frequent air exchanges, and architectural barriers are used to reduce airborne microbial populations. Breaks in surgical technique, host contamination, or hematogenous seeding are suggested as causal factors in these infections. This study implicates contamination of the operating room air as an additional etiology of infection. To investigate the potential sources of perioperative contamination, an innovative in situ air-sampling analysis was conducted during an 18-month period involving 70 separate vascular surgical procedures. Air-sample cultures were obtained from multiple points within the operating room, ranging from 0.5 to 4 m from the surgical wound. Selected microbial clonality was determined by pulse-field gel electrophoresis. In a separate series of studies microbial nasopharyngeal shedding was evaluated under controlled environmental conditions in the presence and absence of a surgical mask. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were recovered from 86% of air samples, 51% from within 0.5 m of the surgical wound, whereas Staphylococcus aureus was recovered from 64% of air samples, 39% within 0.5 m from the wound. Anterior nares swabs were obtained from 11 members of the vascular team, clonality was observed between 8 strains of S epidermidis, and 2 strains of S aureus were recovered from selected team members and air-samples collected throughout the operating room environment. Miscellaneous Gram-negative isolates were recovered less frequently (operating room, including areas adjacent to the operative field. Nasopharyngeal shedding from person participating in the operation was identified as the source of many of these airborne contaminants. Failure of the traditional surgical mask to prevent microbial shedding is likely associated with an increased risk of perioperative contamination of biomedical implants, especially in procedures lasting longer than 90 minutes.
Padegimas, Eric M; Hendy, Benjamin A; Lawrence, Cassandra; Devasagayaraj, Richard; Zmistowski, Benjamin M; Abboud, Joseph A; Lazarus, Mark D; Williams, Gerald R; Namdari, Surena
A significant portion of operating room time in shoulder arthroplasty is devoted to nonsurgical tasks. To maximize efficiency and to increase access to care, it is important to accurately quantify surgical and nonsurgical time for shoulder arthroplasty. This study aimed to evaluate surgical vs. nonsurgical time and to assess the viability of using a 1-surgeon, 2-operating room model. An institutional database was used to identify all primary and revision shoulder arthroplasty cases from February 2011 through December 2013. Time intervals were analyzed, including anesthesia and positioning time, surgical time, conclusion time, and turnover time. We identified 1062 shoulder arthroplasties. The average anesthesia and positioning time was 48.2 ± 11.7 minutes, surgical time was 122.7 ± 36.4 minutes, and conclusion time was 10.5 ± 7.0 minutes. Average turnover time at our institution was 40 minutes. An average of 58.8 ± 13.8 minutes (33.2%) of the patient's time in the operating room was not surgical. A 1-room surgical model, with each case following the next, would allow 3 arthroplasties to be performed in a 10-hour surgical day. A 2-room model would allow 4 cases to be performed in a 9-hour surgical day or 5 in an 11-hour day. In this 2-room model, there would be no time in which the surgeon is absent for any surgical portion of the case. For a high-volume shoulder arthroplasty practice, a 2-room model leads to greater efficiency and patient access to care without sacrificing the surgeon's presence during surgical portions of the case. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Habert, Séverine; Weidert, Simon; Navab, Nassir
In the modern day operating room, the surgeon performs surgeries with the support of different medical systems that showcase patient information, physiological data, and medical images. It is generally accepted that numerous interactions must be performed by the surgical team to control the corresponding medical system to retrieve the desired information. Joysticks and physical keys are still present in the operating room due to the disadvantages of mouses, and surgeons often communicate instructions to the surgical team when requiring information from a specific medical system. In this paper, a novel user interface is developed that allows the surgeon to personally perform touchless interaction with the various medical systems, switch effortlessly among them, all of this without modifying the systems' software and hardware. To achieve this, a wearable RGB-D sensor is mounted on the surgeon's head for inside-out tracking of his/her finger with any of the medical systems' displays. Android devices with a special application are connected to the computers on which the medical systems are running, simulating a normal USB mouse and keyboard. When the surgeon performs interaction using pointing gestures, the desired cursor position in the targeted medical system display, and gestures, are transformed into general events and then sent to the corresponding Android device. Finally, the application running on the Android devices generates the corresponding mouse or keyboard events according to the targeted medical system. To simulate an operating room setting, our unique user interface was tested by seven medical participants who performed several interactions with the visualization of CT, MRI, and fluoroscopy images at varying distances from them. Results from the system usability scale and NASA-TLX workload index indicated a strong acceptance of our proposed user interface.
Norton, Elizabeth K; Singer, Sara J; Sparks, William; Ozonoff, Al; Baxter, Jessica; Rangel, Shawn
Despite mounting evidence that use of surgical checklists improves patient morbidity and mortality, compliance among surgical teams in executing required elements of checklists has been low. Recognizing that clinicians' receptivity is a major determinant of checklist use, we conducted a survey to investigate how mandated use of a surgical checklist impacts its operating room clinicians' attitudes about and perceptions of operating room safety, efficiency, teamwork, and prevention of medical errors. Operating room clinicians at 1 pediatric hospital were surveyed on their attitudes and perception of the novel Pediatric Surgical Safety Checklist and the impact the checklist had on efficiency, teamwork, and prevention of medical errors 1 year after its implementation. The survey responses were compared and classified by multidisciplinary perioperative clinical staff. Most responses reflected positive attitudes toward checklist use. The respondents felt that the checklist reduced complications and errors and improved patient safety, communication among team members, teamwork in complex procedures, and efficiency in the operating room. Many operating room staff also reported that checklist use had prevented or averted an error or a complication. Perceptions varied according to perioperative clinical discipline, reflecting differences in perspectives. For example, the nurses perceived a higher rate of consent-related errors and site marking errors than did the physicians; the surgeons reported more antibiotic timing and equipment errors than did others. The surgical staff at 1 pediatric hospital who responded viewed the novel Pediatric Surgical Safety Checklist as potentially beneficial to operative patient safety by improving teamwork and communication, reducing errors, and improving efficiency. Responses varied by discipline, indicating that team members view the checklist from different perspectives.
van Houdenhoven, M.; van Oostrum, J.M.; Hans, Elias W.; Wullink, Gerhard; Kazemier, G.
BACKGROUND: An operating room (OR) department has adopted an efficient business model and subsequently investigated how efficiency could be further improved. The aim of this study is to show the efficiency improvement of lowering organizational barriers and applying advanced mathematical techniques.
Listyowardojo, Tita A.; Steglich, Christian; Peuchen, Stephen; Johnson, Addie; de Waard, D.; Godthelp, J.; Kooi, F.L.; Brookhuis, K.A.
The frequency with which operating room (OR) staff work together can impact patient safety because staff who often work together share a set of experiences which may enable them to anticipate each other’s actions and reactions in the future. Identifying sub-groups of staff who frequently work
Bronkhorst, A.W.; Post, W.M.; Brake, G.M. te
Currently, Human Factors does not just cover human performance and human centred design but also the evaluation and influencing of human behaviour in complex environments. In particular in the design of operations centres and control rooms, the functioning of humans and systems must be considered in
L.S.G.L. Wauben; J.F. Lange (Johan); R.H.M. Goossens (Richard)
textabstractLessons learned from other high-risk industries could improve patient safety in the operating room (OR). This review describes similarities and differences between high-risk industries and describes current methods and solutions within a system approach to reduce errors in the OR. PubMed
Moual, N. le; Varraso, R.; Zock, J.P.; Henneberger, P.; Speizer, F.E.; Kauffmann, F.; Camargo, C.A.
Objective: To assess the associations between operating room (OR) nursing, a category of health care workers at high risk of exposure to various inhaled agents, and asthma severity/control among women with asthma. Methods: The level of severity/control in nurses with prevalent doctor-diagnosed
Chang, Beverly P; Vacanti, Joshua C; Michaud, Yvonne; Flanagan, Hugh; Urman, Richard D
The Boston Marathon terrorist bombing that occurred on April 15, 2013 illustrates the importance of a cohesive, efficient management for the operating room and perioperative services. Conceptually, emotional intelligence (EI) is a form of social intelligence used by individuals in leadership positions to monitor the feelings and emotions of their team while implementing a strategic plan. To describe the experience of caring for victims of the bombing at a large tertiary care center and provide examples demonstrating the importance of EI and its role in the management of patient flow and overall care. A retrospective review of trauma data was performed. Data regarding patient flow, treatment types, treatment times, and outcomes were gathered from the hospital's electronic tracking system and subsequently analyzed. Analyses were performed to aggregate the data, identify trends, and describe the medical care. Immediately following the bombing, a total of 35 patients were brought to the emergency department (ED) with injuries requiring immediate medical attention. 10 of these patients went directly to the operating room on arrival to the hospital. The first victim was in an operating room within 21 minutes after arrival to the ED. The application of EI in managerial decisions helped to ensure smooth transitions for victims throughout all stages of their perioperative care. EI provided the fundamental groundwork that allowed the operating room manager and nurse leaders to establish the calm and coordinated leadership that facilitated patient care and teamwork.
Paschold, M; Huber, T; Maedge, S; Zeissig, S R; Lang, H; Kneist, W
Laparoscopic assistance is often entrusted to a less experienced resident, medical student, or operating room nurse. Data regarding laparoscopic training for operating room nurses are not available. The aim of the study was to analyse the initial performance level and learning curves of operating room nurses in basic laparoscopic surgery compared with medical students and surgical residents to determine their ability to assist with this type of procedure. The study was designed to compare the initial virtual reality performance level and learning curves of user groups to analyse competence in laparoscopic assistance. The study subjects were operating room nurses, medical students, and first year residents. Participants performed three validated tasks (camera navigation, peg transfer, fine dissection) on a virtual reality laparoscopic simulator three times in 3 consecutive days. Laparoscopic experts were enrolled as a control group. Participants filled out questionnaires before and after the course. Nurses and students were comparable in their initial performance (p>0.05). Residents performed better in camera navigation than students and nurses and reached the expert level for this task. Residents, students, and nurses had comparable bimanual skills throughout the study; while, experts performed significantly better in bimanual manoeuvres at all times (p<0.05). The included user groups had comparable skills for bimanual tasks. Residents with limited experience reached the expert level in camera navigation. With training, nurses, students, and first year residents are equally capable of assisting in basic laparoscopic procedures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Freiberg, Florentina J; Brynskov, Troels; Munk, Marion R
PURPOSE: To evaluate the rate of presumed endophthalmitis (EO) after intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections in three European hospitals performed in an operation room (OR) under sterile conditions. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study between 2003 and 20...
Suzuki, A.; Namba, Y.; Matsuura, M.; Horisawa, A.
Bacterial contamination of floors and other surfaces in the operating suite has been investigated by contact impression plates during the past five years. Colony counts of the floors of operating rooms, cleaned with disinfectant, were 3.3 c.f.u./10 cm2; on the floors of semi-clean and dirty areas, cleaned with detergent, colony counts were 44.8 and 71.4 c.f.u./10 cm2 respectively. The highest colony counts of 487.4 c.f.u./10 cm2 were found in the dressing rooms, the floors of which were covered with carpets, cleaned with a vacuum cleaner. Mean bacterial numbers on surfaces of various equipment in operating rooms, cleaned with disinfectant, were 2.8 c.f.u./10 cm2. Bacterial numbers on surfaces decreased markedly from 253.2 to 11.9 c.f.u./10 cm2 following the use of disinfectant. Bacterial species found from various surfaces were mainly coagulase-negative staphylococci, derived from human beings. In the light of these findings the regular use of disinfectant for cleaning of the floors and other surfaces in operating rooms is advisable. PMID:6512255
Link, Terri; Kleiner, Catherine; Mancuso, Mary P; Dziadkowiec, Oliwier; Halverson-Carpenter, Katherine
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention put forth the recommendation to clean areas considered high touch more frequently than minimal touch surfaces. The operating room was not included in these recommendations. The purpose of this study was to determine the most frequently touched surfaces in the operating room and their level of contamination. Phase 1 was a descriptive study to identify high touch areas in the operating room. In phase 2, high touch areas determined in phase 1 were cultured to determine if high touch areas observed were also highly contaminated and if they were more contaminated than a low touch surface. The 5 primary high touch surfaces in order were the anesthesia computer mouse, OR bed, nurse computer mouse, OR door, and anesthesia medical cart. Using the OR light as a control, this study demonstrated that a low touch area was less contaminated than the high touch areas with the exception of the OR bed. Based on information and data collected in this study, it is recommended that an enhanced cleaning protocol be established based on the most frequently touched surfaces in the operating room. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hogue, Matthew H; Heilmann, Kris P; Callaghan, John J
Surgical site infection and nosocomial infections in general have appropriately undergone increased scrutiny over the last decade. Numerous studies have documented pathogenic bacterial contamination of personal items such as cell phones, pagers, ties, and pens in the hospital setting. It is our understanding that Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations requires all personnel to wear an identification badge at all times, which includes the operating room environment. Badges, lanyards, and pagers from operating room personnel were swabbed and cultured using the same protocol used for surgical specimens in the operating rooms. Personnel included orthopedic attendings (14), orthopedic residents (20), nurses (19), and anesthesia personnel (11). A total of 64 badges were sampled, with no methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) or methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) cultured on any of the badges. Two of 64 had enterococcus (3%), and 1 of those was vancomycin resistant. Pagers had similar results, with only 1/42 growing MSSA or enterococcus (2.4%), and no MRSA. Lanyards showed higher rates of contamination. There were 11% with MSSA or MRSA out of 27 sampled. Highest contamination rates were with orthopedic staff and resident lanyards, with 3/22 (13.6%) growing MSSA or MRSA. No lanyards grew enterococcus. When comparing rates of MSSA and/or MRSA between groups, lanyards had a statistically significant higher rate (P operating room personnel should probably not use lanyards to display their ID badges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kumari, Geeta; Kumar, Pratik; Wadhwa, Pankaj; Aron, Monish; Gupta, Narmada P; Dogra, Prem N
The increased use of fluoroscopy during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) places the urologist and operating room personnel at an occupational risk for measurable radiation exposure. We evaluated the degree of radiation exposure received by the patient and operating room personnel at our endourology facility during PCNL. The incident radiation dose to the patient and the urologist during 50 consecutive PCNL procedures was monitored using lithium fluoride thermo-luminescent dosimeter chips (TLD chips). A hand held radiation survey meter was used to measure the radiation in air at different positions occupied by various operating room personnel. The approximate distances of the various personnel from the X-ray tube were also measured. PCNL was performed upon 35 males and 15 females. The average time for the procedure was 75 minutes (range: 30-150 min). The mean fluoroscopy screening time during the procedure was 6.04 min (range 1.8-12.16 min) with a mean fluoroscopy tube potential of 68 kVp and a mean tube current of 2.76 mA. The mean radiation exposure dose to the patient was 0.56 mSv (SD +/- 0.35), while the mean incident radiation exposure to the finger of the urologist was 0.28 mSv (SD +/- 0.13). The various operating room personnel are within safe radiation dose limits during PCNL. Efficient fluoroscopy further reduces the radiation scatter. All occupational personnel should 'achieve as low as reasonably achievable' dose by adhering to good practices.
Brohus, Henrik; Balling, K. D.; Jeppesen, D.
The paper examines the efficiency of a local exhaust applied during an orthopaedic surgical operation. During operations performing hip replacements bone cement is sometimes applied to fasten the new metal hip to the existing thighbone, especially in case of elderly patients. The bone cement emits...... harmful VOCs that may influence the operating room personnel and the patient. A local exhaust is applied to reduce the VOC concentration in the operating room air, however, apparently without success. The aim is to assess the efficiency of the existing solution and to provide an alternative and better...... efficiency. The CFD model comprises persons, equipment and ventilation system apart from the local exhaust. The existing solution is found to be highly inadequate and a new solution is provided that considers the substantial influence of the unidirectional airflow....
Cordon, E.; Vigil, A.; Coll, A.
Nowadays, there is a trend towards the use of digital radiography in the veterinary field. As a consequence, there could be a workload increase in the X-ray system and higher exposure for veterinarians and members of the public. In this study we analyze the influence of the X-ray machine output with with the radiation levels at the veterinarian position. We have considered the leads apron that each veterinarian center has and we have related its attenuation coefficient with the dose exposure at the veterinarian position. With the maximum workload, we have made a theoretical assessment for the primary barrier at 1 m of the X-ray focus.Despite there is a workload increase due to the digital technologies, the studied results show that is is very unlikely to be in excess of annual dose limit for the exposed workers. (Author) 5 refs.
Gormley, Thomas; Markel, Troy A; Jones, Howard W; Wagner, Jennifer; Greeley, Damon; Clarke, James H; Abkowitz, Mark; Ostojic, John
Sufficient quantities of quality air and controlled, unidirectional flow are important elements in providing a safe building environment for operating rooms. To make dynamic assessments of an operating room environment, a validated method of testing the multiple factors influencing the air quality in health care settings needed to be constructed. These include the following: temperature, humidity, particle load, number of microbial contaminants, pressurization, air velocity, and air distribution. The team developed the name environmental quality indicators (EQIs) to describe the overall air quality based on the actual measurements of these properties taken during the mock surgical procedures. These indicators were measured at 3 different hospitals during mock surgical procedures to simulate actual operating room conditions. EQIs included microbial assessments at the operating table and the back instrument table and real-time analysis of particle counts at 9 different defined locations in the operating suites. Air velocities were measured at the face of the supply diffusers, at the sterile field, at the back table, and at a return grille. The testing protocol provided consistent and comparable measurements of air quality indicators between institutions. At 20 air changes per hour (ACH), and an average temperature of 66.3°F, the median of the microbial contaminants for the 3 operating room sites ranged from 3-22 colony forming units (CFU)/m3 at the sterile field and 5-27 CFU/m3 at the back table. At 20 ACH, the median levels of the 0.5-µm particles at the 3 sites were 85,079, 85,325, and 912,232 in particles per cubic meter, with a predictable increase in particle load in the non-high-efficiency particulate air-filtered operating room site. Using a comparison with cleanroom standards, the microbial and particle counts in all 3 operating rooms were equivalent to International Organization for Standardization classifications 7 and 8 during the mock surgical
McNeer, Richard R; Bennett, Christopher L; Horn, Danielle Bodzin; Dudaryk, Roman
Noise in health care settings has increased since 1960 and represents a significant source of dissatisfaction among staff and patients and risk to patient safety. Operating rooms (ORs) in which effective communication is crucial are particularly noisy. Speech intelligibility is impacted by noise, room architecture, and acoustics. For example, sound reverberation time (RT60) increases with room size, which can negatively impact intelligibility, while room objects are hypothesized to have the opposite effect. We explored these relationships by investigating room construction and acoustics of the surgical suites at our institution. We studied our ORs during times of nonuse. Room dimensions were measured to calculate room volumes (VR). Room content was assessed by estimating size and assigning items into 5 volume categories to arrive at an adjusted room content volume (VC) metric. Psychoacoustic analyses were performed by playing sweep tones from a speaker and recording the impulse responses (ie, resulting sound fields) from 3 locations in each room. The recordings were used to calculate 6 psychoacoustic indices of intelligibility. Multiple linear regression was performed using VR and VC as predictor variables and each intelligibility index as an outcome variable. A total of 40 ORs were studied. The surgical suites were characterized by a large degree of construction and surface finish heterogeneity and varied in size from 71.2 to 196.4 m (average VR = 131.1 [34.2] m). An insignificant correlation was observed between VR and VC (Pearson correlation = 0.223, P = .166). Multiple linear regression model fits and β coefficients for VR were highly significant for each of the intelligibility indices and were best for RT60 (R = 0.666, F(2, 37) = 39.9, P < .0001). For Dmax (maximum distance where there is <15% loss of consonant articulation), both VR and VC β coefficients were significant. For RT60 and Dmax, after controlling for VC, partial correlations were 0.825 (P
Full Text Available Background & purpose: There are occupational hazards related to Nitrous Oxide (N2O in hospitals operating and recovery rooms. These hazards include the decrease of mental performance and audio-visual ability, and reduced fertility, spontaneous abortion and neurological, renal and liver diseases. In this survey, the concentration of Nitrous Oxide in indoor air of hospitals operating and recovery rooms in Babol University of medical sciences was determined. Materials & Methods: This descriptive study was performed in 23 operating rooms and 3 recovery rooms in 3 educational hospitals of Babol medical sciences university. The rooms with continuous usage of N2O with 2-3 lit/min of flow of general anesthesia were studied. For sampling and detecting N2O concentration as part per million (ppm, a portable IR spectrophotometer (3015 model of Bacharach Inc. was used. The sampling was performed in 5 different zones of the operating rooms and 1zone of recovery room in 3 different hours of work time (8:30-9AM, 10:30-11AM and 12:30-1:00PM. One-way ANOVA ,SPSS 18 was used to analyze data and comparing the means. Results: N2O concentration mean in 5 different zones of the operating rooms was 318± 22.6, 325.5± 24.1, 299± 21.8, and 301± 22, 314± 23.7 ppm and in recovery room, it was 51± 15 ppm. There was no significant difference between the means of N2O concentration in different zones of the operating rooms, but the means of N2O concentration in different zones of the operating rooms and recovery room were significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: Considering high average concentration of Nitrous Oxide in different operating and recovery rooms with maximum contamination levels of N2O, this situation subjects the health personnel to risk. Therefore, further research and applying protection utilities are recommended.
Grote, R; Perschmann, S; Walleneit, A; Sedlacek, B; Leuchtmann, D; Menzel, M
The new index "degree of operation room (OR) utilization" describes the ratio between possible and actual OR utilization with purely surgical time. The possible OR utilization with purely surgical time was calculated by eliminating the time necessary for induction and emergence from anaesthesia, the time necessary for surgical measurements directly before the first incision (i.e. skin disinfection) and directly after the last suture (i.e. wound dressing) of an operation from the time an operating room could theoretically be used with purely surgical times (the theoretical block time). The possibility of distributing block time based on the effectiveness of surgeons and to reduce costs by identifying waste of block time was investigated using the "degree of OR utilization" method. Using our own anaesthesia data base with an average of 12,000 anaesthetic procedures per annum, the degree of OR utilization and the need for additional block time for each clinic performing operative procedures in the OR centre of the hospital were analyzed. The need for additional block time and the costs for additional OR staff (including anaesthesiologists and nurses) were then calculated in US dollars. After redistribution it was possible to reduce the OR capacities and costs for OR staff (including anaesthesiologists and nurses) by a minimum of 280.142 US dollars per year. The application of the new index "degree of OR utilization" enables the OR manager to distribute OR capacities to surgeons with effective use of block time. This leads to cost reduction without minimizing surgical productivity or income and therefore to a higher level of OR efficiency.
Callie M. Cox Bauer
Full Text Available Purpose: Operating room delays decrease health care system efficiency and increase costs. To improve operating room efficiency in our system, we retrospectively investigated delay frequencies, causes and costs. Methods: We studied all first-of-the-day nonemergent surgical cases performed at three high-volume urban hospitals of a large health system from July 2012 to November 2013. Times for patient flow from arrival to procedure start and documented reasons for delay were obtained from electronic medical records. Delay was defined as patient placement in the operating room later than scheduled surgery time. Effects of patient characteristics, late patient arrival to the hospital, number of planned procedures, years of surgeon experience, service department and hospital facility on odds of delay were examined using logistic regression. Results: Of 5,598 cases examined, 88% were delayed. Patients arrived late to the hospital (surgery in 65% of first cases. Mean time from arrival to scheduled surgery and in-room placement was 104.6 and 127.4 minutes, respectively. Mean delay time was 28.2 minutes. Nearly 60% of delayed cases had no documented reason for delay. For cases with documentation, causes included the physician (52%, anesthesia (15%, patient (13%, staff (9%, other sources (6% and facility (5%. Regression analysis revealed age, late arrival, department and facility as significant predictors of delay. Estimated delay costs, based on published figures and representing lost revenue, were $519,388. Conclusions: To improve operating room efficiency, multidisciplinary strategies are needed for increasing patient adherence to recommended arrival times, documentation of delay by medical staff and consistency in workflow patterns among facilities and departments.
DaRosa, Debra A; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Meyerson, Shari L; George, Brian C; Teitelbaum, Ezra N; Soper, Nathaniel J; Fryer, Jonathan P
The operating room (OR) remains primarily a master/apprenticeship-based learning environment for surgical residents. Changes in surgical education and health care systems challenge faculty to efficiently and effectively graduate residents truly competent in operations classified by the Surgical Council on Resident Education as "common essential" and "uncommon essential." Program directors are charged with employing resident evaluation systems that yield useful data, yet feasible enough to fit into a busy surgical faculty member's workflow. This paper proposes a simple model for teaching and assessing residents in the operating room to guide faculty and resident interaction in the OR, and designating a resident's earned level of autonomy for a given procedure. The system as proposed is supported by theories associated with motor skill acquisition and learning. Copyright © 2012 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arakelian, E; Gunningberg, L; Larsson, J
How to increase efficiency in operating departments has been widely studied. However, there is no overall definition of efficiency. Supervisors urging staff to work efficiently may meet strong reactions due to staff believing that demands for efficiency means just stress at work. Differences in how efficiency is understood may constitute an obstacle to supervisors' efforts to promote it. This study aimed to explore how staff and leadership understand operating room efficiency. Twenty-one members of staff and supervisors in an operating department in a Swedish county hospital were interviewed. The analysis was performed with a phenomenographic approach that aims to discover the variations in how a phenomenon is understood by a group of people. Six categories were found in the understanding of operation room efficiency: (A) having the right qualifications; (B) enjoying work; (C) planning and having good control and overview; (D) each professional performing the correct tasks; (E) completing a work assignment; and (F) producing as much as possible per time unit. The most significant finding was that most of the nurses and assistant nurses understood efficiency as individual knowledge and experience emphasizing the importance of the work process, whereas the supervisors and physicians understood efficiency in terms of production per time unit or completing an assignment. The concept 'operating room efficiency' is understood in different ways by leadership and staff members. Supervisors who are aware of this variation will have better prerequisites for defining the concept and for creating a common platform towards becoming efficient.
To present the development of a compact low field intraoperative MR image guidance system and its application in brain surgery. The PoleStar ioMRI system (Odin Medical Technologies, Israel and Medtronic, Inc. USA) was developed for use in a standard operating room. Its primary physical fixed parameters are magnetic field of 0.15 T and field of view of 20 x 16 cm. The magnet is mounted on a transportable gantry and can be positioned under the surgical table when not in use for scanning. Additional functionality includes integrated navigation, and system operation by the surgeons. The PoleStar system integrates into existing operating rooms requiring only slight modification of the surgical environment. Standard instruments can be used. The system's imaging allows it to be used for the following indications: pituitary tumors, low grade gliomas (including awake surgery), high grade gliomas, intraventricular tumors, accurate navigation to small lesions such as cavernous angiomas or metastases, drainage of cysts and brain abscesses. The image quality, which is comparable to post operative diagnostic high field imaging, enables high quality resection control. More than 6,000 brain surgeries were done with the system in 50 centers in the US and Europe. The low field intraoperative MRI system is a valuable tool in the modern operating room.
Ronald L. Boring; J.J. Persensky
The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research, development, and deployment on Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS), in which the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is working closely with nuclear utilities to develop technologies and solutions to help ensure the safe operational life extension of current nuclear power plants. One of the main areas of focus is control room modernization. Within control room modernization, alarm system upgrades present opportunities to meet the broader goals of the LWRS project in demonstrating the use and safety of the advanced instrumentation and control (I&C) technologies and the short-term and longer term objectives of the plant. In this paper, we review approaches for and human factors issues behind upgrading alarms in the main control room of nuclear power plants.
Sartini, M; Spagnolo, A M; Panatto, D; Perdelli, F; Cristina, M L
An experimental study was conducted in a hospital in Liguria (northern Italy) on two groups of patients with the same disease severity who were undergoing the same type of surgery (primary hemiarthroplasty). Our aim was to assessing the results of a quality-improvement scheme implemented in the operating room. The quality-improvement protocol involved analyzing a set of parameters concerning the operating team's behavior and environmental conditions that could be attributed to the operating team itself A program of training and sanitary education was carried to rectify any improper behavior of the operating staff Two hundred and six hip-joint replacement operations (primary hip hemiarthroplasty--ICD9-CM 81.51) all conducted in the same operating room were studied: 103 patients, i.e. operations performed before the quality-improvement scheme and 103 patients, i.e. operations performed after the quality improvement scheme; all were comparable in terms of type of surgery and severity. The scheme resulted in an improvement in both behavioral and environmental parameters and an 80% reduction in the level of microbial air contamination (p 37.5 degrees C) and microbiological contamination of surgical wounds. From an economic point of view, facility efficiency increased by 28.57%, average hospitalization time decreased (p < 0.001) and a theoretical increase of Euro 1,441,373.58 a year in revenues was achieved.
Faure, O; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Lebeau, B; Mallaret, M R; Ambroise-Thomas, P; Grillot, R
An eight-year fungal environmental surveillance was carried out in 15 operating theatres and two haematological units. Sampling was performed twice a year in each room, using contact plates for plane surfaces and sterile swabs for grids. From 1992 to 1999, individual rooms in the 17 units were sampled on 1094 occasions and 3822 samples were collected. The percentage of rooms without fungus increased regularly between 1992 and 1999 (41.1% and 74.8%, respectively). The units were classified according to the fungal contamination during the eight years: the operating theatres which required the highest protection (cardiological, thoracic, vascular, hand, orthopaedic and neurosurgery) and the adult haematological unit showed least contamination (71.8% rooms were negative). The most frequent species isolated were Penicillium spp. (28.4%), Cladosporium spp. (15.6%) and Aspergillus spp. (7.6%). Aspergillus fumigatus was rarely isolated (3.7%), and was mainly isolated at the beginning of the study. This study demonstrates that environmental control programmes are effective in reducing environmental mould contamination and could be useful in establishing exposure guidelines, especially by defining an acceptable level of biocontamination in zones at risk. Copyright 2002 The Hospital Infection Society.
Baumgart, A; Denz, C; Bender, H; Bauer, M; Hunziker, S; Schüpfer, G; Schleppers, A
The introduction of innovative drugs in anesthesiological treatment has the potential to improve perioperative efficiency. This article examines the impact of the new muscle relaxant encapsulator Bridion on emergence from anesthesia and on the efficiency of the perioperative organization. To analyze the effects of medical innovations, computer simulation was used as an experimental frame. The simulation was based on a realistic model of an operating room setting and used historical data to study the effect of innovation on the operational performance and the economic outcomes. The use of medical innovations in anesthesiological emergence yields new potentials for a hospital under certain conditions. Due to shorter block times and anesthesia-controlled times, additional benefits for the operating room could be realized. This results in an increase of up to 2.4% additional cases during similar working hours and planning periods. The introduction of innovative medicines may reveal more efficient and economical conditions in operating rooms. The overall result depends, for example, on the rate of application of the patient's portfolio or the organization and access rules of the surgical suite. Based on the anesthesia-controlled time no general a priori statement about the economic potentials can be confirmed. Future empirical studies should investigate the impact on quality and economic benefits for the entire patient pathway.
Coveney, Andrew P; Switzer, Timothy; Corrigan, Mark A; Redmond, Henry P
Psychologists have previously demonstrated that information recall is context dependent. However, how this influences the way we deliver medical education is unclear. This study aimed to determine if changing the recall context from the learning context affects the ability of medical students to recall information. Using a free recall experimental model, fourteen medical student participants were administered audio lists of 30 words in two separate learning environments, a tutorial room and an operating theatre. They were then asked to recall the words in both environments. While in the operating theatre participants wore appropriate surgical clothing and assembled around an operating table. While in the tutorial room, participants dressed casually and were seated around a table. Students experienced the same duration (15 minutes) and disruption in both environments. The mean recall score from the 28 tests performed in the same environment was 12.96 +/- 3.93 (mean, SD). The mean recall score from the 28 tests performed in an alternative environment to the learning episode was 13.5 +/- 5.31(mean, SD), indicating that changing the recall environment from the learning environment does not cause any statistical difference (p=0.58). The average recall score of participants who learned and recalled in the tutorial room was 13.0 +/- 3.84 (mean, SD). The average recall score of participants who learnt and recalled in the operating theatre was 12.92 +/- 4.18 (mean, SD), representing no significant difference between the two environments for learning (p=0.4792). The results support the continued use of tutorial rooms and operating theatres as appropriate environments in which to teach medical students, with no significant difference in information recall seen either due to a same context effect or specific context effect.
Cristina Silva Sousa
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention on malignant hyperthermia with operating room nurses. METHOD A quasi-experimental study, aimed at an educational intervention of short duration with the nursing staff in the operating room of the institution hosting the research in the city of São Paulo, with the participation of 96 professionals. Pre-intervention tests and post-intervention tests were applied, which consisted of a lecture followed by simulation. RESULTS Considering the overall results of the intervention, there was a statistically significant difference (p<0.00. After the educational intervention, there was an increase of the minimum and maximum scores, and average growth of 2.64 points in the knowledge of professionals when compared to the previous step. CONCLUSION The educational intervention strategy favors the concept of the content developed by everyone involved and qualifies professionals to work safely.
Tammelin, A; Ljungqvist, B; Reinmüller, B
It is desirable to maintain a low bacterial count in the operating room air to prevent surgical site infection. This can be achieved by ventilation or by all staff in the operating room wearing clothes made from low-permeable material (i.e. clean air suits). We investigated whether there was a difference in protective efficacy between a single-use clothing system made of polypropylene and a reusable clothing system made of a mixed material (cotton/polyester) by testing both in a dispersal chamber and during surgical procedures. Counts of colony-forming units (cfu)/m(3) air were significantly lower when using the single-use clothing system in both settings. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wang, Xianwen; Liu, Zhiguo; Zhang, Wenchang; Wu, Qingfu; Tan, Shulin
We have designed a mobile operating room information management system. The system is composed of a client and a server. A client, consisting of a PC, medical equipments, PLC and sensors, provides the acquisition and processing of anesthesia and micro-environment data. A server is a powerful computer that stores the data of the system. The client gathers the medical device data by using the C/S mode, and analyzes the obtained HL7 messages through the class library call. The client collects the micro-environment information with PLC, and finishes the data reading with the OPC technology. Experiment results showed that the designed system could manage the patient anesthesia and micro-environment information well, and improve the efficiency of the doctors' works and the digital level of the mobile operating room.
Pokrywka, Marian; Byers, Karin
Surgical wound contamination leading to surgical site infection can result from disruption of the intended airflow in the operating room (OR). When personnel enter and exit the OR, or create unnecessary movement and traffic during the procedure, the intended airflow in the vicinity of the open wound becomes disrupted and does not adequately remove airborne contaminants from the sterile field. An increase in the bacterial counts of airborne microorganisms is noted during increased activity levels within the OR. Researchers have studied OR traffic and door openings as a determinant of air contamination. During a surgical procedure the door to the operating room may be open as long as 20 minutes out of each surgical hour during critical procedures involving implants. Interventions into limiting excessive movement and traffic in the OR may lead to reductions in surgical site infections in select populations.
Fathi, Yadollah; Barati, Majid; Zandiyeh, Mitra; Bashirian, Saeed
Operating room personnel are at high risk of needlestick injuries (NSIs) and exposure to blood and body fluids. To investigate the predictors of NSIs preventive behaviors during surgery among operating room personnel based on a health belief model (HBM). This cross-sectional study was conducted on 128 operating room personnel in Hamadan, western Iran. Participants were selected, by census sampling, from teaching hospitals, completed a self-reported questionnaire including demographic characteristics, knowledge and HBM constructs. The levels of knowledge and perceived self-efficacy for the NSIs preventive behaviors among operating room personnel were not satisfactory. However, the levels of perceived benefits, susceptibility and severity were reported to be relatively good. The results showed that the perceived susceptibility (β ‑0.627) and cues to action (β 0.695) were the most important predictors of the NSIs preventive behaviors. The framework of the HBM is useful to predict the NSIs preventive behaviors among operating room personnel.
Markel, Troy A; Gormley, Thomas; Greeley, Damon; Ostojic, John; Wise, Angie; Rajala, Jonathan; Bharadwaj, Rahul; Wagner, Jennifer
The effectiveness of operating room headgear in preventing airborne contamination has been called into question. We hypothesized that bouffant style hats would be as effective in preventing bacterial and particulate contamination in the operating room compared with disposable or cloth skull caps, and bouffant style hats would have similar permeability, particle penetration, and porosity compared with skull caps. Disposable bouffant and skull cap hats and newly laundered cloth skull caps were tested. A mock surgical procedure was used in a dynamic operating room environment. Airborne particulate and microbial contaminants were sampled. Hat fabric was tested for permeability, particle transmission, and pore sizes. No significant differences were observed between disposable bouffant and disposable skull caps with regard to particle or actively sampled microbial contamination. However, when compared with disposable skull caps, disposable bouffant hats did have significantly higher microbial shed at the sterile field, as measured by passive settle plate analysis (p < 0.05). When compared with cloth skull caps, disposable bouffants yielded higher levels of 0.5 μm and 1.0 μm particles and significantly higher microbial shed detected with passive analysis. Fabric assessment determined that disposable bouffant hats had larger average and maximum pore sizes compared with cloth skull caps, and were significantly more permeable than either disposable or cloth skull caps. Disposable bouffant hats had greater permeability, penetration, and greater microbial shed, as assessed by passive microbial analysis compared with disposable skull caps. When compared with cloth skull caps, disposable bouffants yielded greater permeability, greater particulate contamination, and greater passive microbial shed. Disposable style bouffant hats should not be considered superior to skull caps in preventing airborne contamination in the operating room. Copyright © 2017 American College of
Feo, Claudio F; Ginesu, Giorgio C; Bellini, Alessandro; Cherchi, Giuseppe; Scanu, Antonio M; Cossu, Maria Laura; Fancellu, Alessandro; Porcu, Alberto
Totally implantable venous access devices (TIVADs) represent a convenient way for the administration of medications or nutrients. Traditionally, chest ports have been positioned by surgeons in the operating room, however there has been a transition over the years to port insertion by interventional radiologists in the radiology suite. The optimal method for chest port placement is still under debate. Data on all adult patients undergoing isolated chest port placement at our institution in a 12-year period were retrospectively reviewed. The aim of this cohort study was to compare cost and morbidity for chest port insertion in two different settings: outpatient clinic and operating room. Between 2003 and 2015 a total of 527 chest ports were placed in adult patients. Of them, 262 procedures were performed in the operating room and 265 procedures were undertaken in the outpatient clinic. Patient characteristics were similar and there was no significant difference in early (<30 days, p = 0.54) and late complications (30-120 days, p = 0.53). The average charge for placement of a chest port was 1270 Euros in the operating room versus 620 Euros in the outpatient clinic. Our results suggest that chest ports can be safely placed in most patients under local anesthesia in the office setting without fluoroscopy or ultrasound guidance. Future randomized controlled studies may evaluate if surgeons or interventional radiologists should routinely perform these procedures in a dedicated office setting and reserve more sophisticated facilities only for patients at high risk of technical failure.
Nouei, Mahyar Taghizadeh; Kamyad, Ali Vahidian; Soroush, Ahmad Reza; Ghazalbash, Somayeh
Occasionally, surgeons do need various types of information to be available rapidly, efficiently and safely during surgical procedures. Meanwhile, they need to free up hands throughout the surgery to necessarily access the mouse to control any application in the sterility mode. In addition, they are required to record audio as well as video files, and enter and save some data. This is an attempt to develop a comprehensive operating room information system called "Medinav" to tackle all mentioned issues. An integrated and comprehensive operating room information system is introduced to be compatible with Health Level 7 (HL7) and digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM). DICOM is a standard for handling, storing, printing, and transmitting information in medical imaging. Besides, a natural user interface (NUI) is designed specifically for operating rooms where touch-less interactions with finger and hand tracking are in use. Further, the system could both record procedural data automatically, and view acquired information from multiple perspectives graphically. A prototype system is tested in a live operating room environment at an Iranian teaching hospital. There are also contextual interviews and usability satisfaction questionnaires conducted with the "MediNav" system to investigate how useful the proposed system could be. The results reveal that integration of these systems into a complete solution is the key to not only stream up data and workflow but maximize surgical team usefulness as well. It is now possible to comprehensively collect and visualize medical information, and access a management tool with a touch-less NUI in a rather quick, practical, and harmless manner.
involving real- world experts will have to be developed and utilized. America’s Army: Operations (AA:O) is a desktop-based videogame /virtual world...understand the principles of precision room clearing: surprise, speed, and controlled violence of action (Department of the Army, 2002). Surprise is... violence of action eliminates or neutralizes the enemy while giving him the least chance of inflicting friendly casualties. It is not limited to the
Full Text Available Introduction: Chamomile tea (CT is an herbal tea and is served as a beneficial herbal infusion all over the world. Its major polyphenols constituents and tea-catechins have been shown to have health benefits. Operating room staff are commonly exposed to damaging factors, such as radiation, waste anesthetic gases and psychological stress. One of the most important qualities of CT is its antioxidant property. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CT in reducing the oxidative stress of operative room staff that are chronically exposed to damaging factors. Methods: In this study we approached to 20 operating room personnel. The subjects drank 2 cups of CT (every cup contained 1.8730 g of chamomile and 300 ml of water daily, one cup in the morning and another in the afternoon for 21 days. A questionnaire that contained personal information was filled by each subject. Oxidative stress parameters such as total antioxidant capacity (TAC, catalase (CAT and total thiol molecules (TTG were measured 2 times: first before drinking CT at the first day and the next time after the 21st day. Results: Consumption of CT by subjects caused a significant induction in TAC (6.62 ± 0.77 vs 4.81± 0.39 ųmol/ml, P < .05 of saliva. There was not any statistically significant change in saliva TTG and CAT after 21 days of drinking CT. Conclusion: In the end we came to conclusion that CT can be a useful additional food to remove the oxidative damage that happens to operating room staff.
Chen, Connie J; Gallagher, Rachel; Gerber, Linda M; Drusin, Lewis M; Roberts, Richard B
We compared the rates of exposure to blood in the operating room among third-year medical students during 2005-2006 with the rates reported in a study completed at the same institution during 1990-1991. The number of medical students exposed to blood decreased from 66 (68%) of 97 students during 1990-1991 to 8 (11%) of 75 students during 2005-2006 (P<.001).
Tankó, Béla; Molnár, Csilla; Budi, Tímea; Peto, Csaba; Novák, László; Fülesdi, Béla
Our primary aim in this study was to investigate whether escape of the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane from the surgical site during craniotomy for tumor resection increases the exposure of the neurosurgeon to the anesthetic when compared with the anesthesiologist. Initially, the release of sevoflurane from the surgical site was measured during 35 tumorectomies starting from opening to closure of the dura. Volatile anesthetic absorbers were placed at three detection sites: 1) the surgeon's breathing zone, 2) the anesthesiologist's breathing zone, and 3) the farthest corner of the operation room. In the second sampling series that included 16 patients, the detector that had been in the corner of the operating room in the first series was now placed in the vicinity of the patient's mouth (within 5 cm). Sevoflurane captured by the absorbers was quantified by an independent chemist using chromatography. Absorbers in the surgeon's breathing zone (0.24 +/- 0.04 ppm) captured a significantly lower amount of sevoflurane compared with absorbers in the anesthesiologist's breathing zone (1.40 +/- 0.37 ppm) and comparable with that in the farthest corner of the operation room (0.25 +/- 0.07 ppm). There was no correlation between the amount of absorbed sevoflurane and the size of craniotomy window, even when adjusting for the variation in duration of surgery. In the second series of sampling, absorbers in the proximity of the patient's mouth captured the highest amount of sevoflurane (1.54 +/- 0.55 ppm), followed by the anesthesiologist's (1.14 +/- 0.43 ppm) and the surgeon's (0.15 +/- 0.05 ppm) breathing zones. The close proximity of the surgeon's breathing zone to the craniotomy window does not appear to be a source of increased exposure to sevoflurane. The observed higher exposure of the anesthesiologist to sevoflurane in the operating room environment warrants further exploration.
Huang, Albert Y; Joerger, Guillaume; Fikfak, Vid; Salmon, Remi; Dunkin, Brian J; Bass, Barbara L; Garbey, Marc
Despite the significant expense of OR time, best practice achieves only 70% efficiency. Compounding this problem is a lack of real-time data. Most current OR utilization programs require manual data entry. Automated systems require installation and maintenance of expensive tracking hardware throughout the institution. This study developed an inexpensive, automated OR utilization system and analyzed data from multiple operating rooms. OR activity was deconstructed into four room states. A sensor network was then developed to automatically capture these states using only three sensors, a local wireless network, and a data capture computer. Two systems were then installed into two ORs, recordings captured 24/7. The SmartOR recorded the following events: any room activity, patient entry/exit time, anesthesia time, laparoscopy time, room turnover time, and time of preoperative patient identification by the surgeon. From November 2014 to December 2015, data on 1003 cases were collected. The mean turnover time was 36 min, and 38% of cases met the institutional goal of ≤30 min. Data analysis also identified outlier cases (>1 SD from mean) in the domains of time from patient entry into the OR to intubation (11% of cases) and time from extubation to patient exiting the OR (11% of cases). Time from surgeon identification of patient to scheduled procedure start time was 11 min (institution bylaws require 20 min before scheduled start time), yet OR teams required 22 min on average to bring a patient into the room after surgeon identification. The SmartOR automatically and reliably captures data on OR room state and, in real time, identifies outlier cases that may be examined closer to improve efficiency. As no manual entry is required, the data are indisputable and allow OR teams to maintain a patient-centric focus.
Arakelian, Erebouni; Gunningberg, Lena; Larsson, Jan
Building surgical teams is one attempt to ensure the health-care system becomes more efficient, but how is 'efficiency' understood or interpreted? The aim was to study how organized surgical team members and their leaders understood operating room efficiency. Qualitative study. A 1100-bed Swedish university hospital. Eleven participants, nine team members from the same team and their two leaders were interviewed. The analysis was performed according to phenomenography, a research approach that aims to discover variations in peoples' understanding of a phenomenon. Seven ways of understanding operating room efficiency were identified: doing one's best from one's prerequisites, enjoying work and adjusting it to the situation, interacting group performing parallel tasks, working with minimal resources to produce desired results, fast work with preserved quality, long-term effects for patient care and a relative concept. When talking about the quality and benefits of delivered care, most team members invoked the patient as the central focus. Despite seven ways of understanding efficiency between the team members, they described their team as efficient. The nurses and assistant nurses were involved in the production and discussed working in a timely manner more than the leaders. The seven ways of understanding operating room efficiency appear to represent both organization-oriented and individual-oriented understanding of that concept in surgical teams. The patient is in focus and efficiency is understood as maintaining quality of care and measuring benefits of care for the patients.
Farrokhi, Farrokh R; Gunther, Maria; Williams, Barbara; Blackmore, Christopher Craig
Advances in surgical instrumentation allow surgeons to treat patients with less morbidity and shorter recovery time. However, the increasing complexity also adds to surgical risk, and to operating room supply chain burden. To improve the quality and efficiency of operating room instrument availability, we developed and validated a Lean 5S approach consisting of sort (determining instrument usage and waste), simplify (removing unnecessary instruments), sweep (confirm availability of needed instruments), standardize (all trays the same for a given procedure), and self-discipline (monitor success). The primary outcome was reduction in unnecessary instruments delivered to the operating room. As a secondary analysis, we evaluated the effect of the Lean instrument intervention on surgery times. We reduced the number of instruments for minimally invasive spine surgery by 70% (from 197 to 58), and setup time decreased 37% (13.1-8.2 min, p = .0015). We also report subsequent validation of the approach on deep brain stimulator cases. We conclude that complex surgical procedures offer opportunities for substantial waste reduction, simplification, and quality improvement, with potential institutional annual cost savings of $2.8 million. We demonstrate that Lean methodology can improve quality at lower cost.
Yildiz Findik, Ummu; Ozbas, Ayfer; Cavdar, Ikbal; Yildizeli Topcu, Sacide; Onler, Ebru
The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress levels and stress coping strategies of nursing students in their first operating room experience. This descriptive study was done with 126 nursing students who were having an experience in an operating room for the first time. Data were collected by using Personal Information Form, Clinical Stress Questionnaire, and Styles of Coping Inventory. The nursing students mostly had low clinical stress levels (M = 27.56, SD = 10.76) and adopted a self-confident approach in coping with stress (M = 14.3, SD = 3.58). The nursing students generally employed a helpless/self-accusatory approach among passive patterns as their clinical stress levels increased, used a self-confident and optimistic approach among active patterns as their average age increased, and those who had never been to an operating room previously used a submissive approach among passive patterns. The results showed that low levels of stress caused the nursing students to use active patterns in coping with stress, whereas increasing levels of stress resulted in employing passive patterns in stress coping. The nursing students should be ensured to maintain low levels of stress and use active patterns in stress coping. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lyk-Jensen, H T; Jepsen, R M H G; Spanager, L; Dieckmann, P; Østergaard, D
Incident reporting and fieldwork in operating rooms have shown that some of the errors that arise in anaesthesia relate to inadequate use of non-technical skills. To provide a tool for training and feedback on nurse anaesthetists' non-technical skills, this study aimed to adapt the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) as a behavioural marker system for the formative assessment of nurse anaesthetists' non-technical skills in the operating room. A qualitative approach with focus group interviews was used to identify the non-technical skills of nurse anaesthetists in the operating room. The interview data were transcribed verbatim. Directed content analysis was used to code and sort data deductively into the ANTS categories: task management, team working, situation awareness and decision making. The prototype named Nurse Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (N-ANTS) was presented and discussed in a group of subject matter experts to ensure face validity. The N-ANTS system consists of the same four categories as ANTS and 15 underlying elements. Three to five good and poor behavioural markers for each element were identified. The headings and definitions of the categories and elements were adjusted to encompass the behavioural markers in N-ANTS. The differences that emerged mainly reflected statements regarding the establishment of role, competence, and task delegation. A behavioural marker system, N-ANTS, for nurse anaesthetists was adapted from a behavioural marker system, ANTS, for anaesthesiologists. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Black, David; Unger, Michael; Fischer, Nele; Kikinis, Ron; Hahn, Horst; Neumuth, Thomas; Glaser, Bernhard
The growing number of technical systems in the operating room has increased attention on developing touchless interaction methods for sterile conditions. However, touchless interaction paradigms lack the tactile feedback found in common input devices such as mice and keyboards. We propose a novel touchless eye-tracking interaction system with auditory display as a feedback method for completing typical operating room tasks. Auditory display provides feedback concerning the selected input into the eye-tracking system as well as a confirmation of the system response. An eye-tracking system with a novel auditory display using both earcons and parameter-mapping sonification was developed to allow touchless interaction for six typical scrub nurse tasks. An evaluation with novice participants compared auditory display with visual display with respect to reaction time and a series of subjective measures. When using auditory display to substitute for the lost tactile feedback during eye-tracking interaction, participants exhibit reduced reaction time compared to using visual-only display. In addition, the auditory feedback led to lower subjective workload and higher usefulness and system acceptance ratings. Due to the absence of tactile feedback for eye-tracking and other touchless interaction methods, auditory display is shown to be a useful and necessary addition to new interaction concepts for the sterile operating room, reducing reaction times while improving subjective measures, including usefulness, user satisfaction, and cognitive workload.
Dexter, F; Macario, A; O'Neill, L
We developed a relief strategy for assigning second-shift anesthetists to late-running operating rooms. The strategy relies on a statistical method which analyzes historical case durations available from surgical services information systems to estimate the expected (mean) remaining hours in cases after they have begun. We tested our relief strategy by comparing the number of hours that first-shift anesthetists would work overtime if second-shift anesthetists were assigned using our strategy versus if the anesthesia coordinator knew in advance the exact amount of time remaining in each case. Our relief strategy resulted in 3.4% to 4.9% more overtime hours for first-shift anesthetists than the theoretical minimum, as would have been obtained had perfect retrospective knowledge been available. Few additional staff hours would have been saved by supplementing our relief strategy with other methods to monitor case durations (e.g., real-time patient tracking systems or closed circuit cameras in operating rooms). A relief strategy that relies only on analyzing historical case durations from an operating room information system to predict the time remaining in cases performs well at minimizing anesthetist staffing costs.
Jeong, Ihn Sook; Park, Sunmi
The recently introduced concept of hands-free technique (HFT) currently has no recommendations or formal educational program for use in the Republic of Korea. This study evaluated the level of HFT use and investigated factors related to HFT use among Korean operating room nurses. Data were obtained through a self-administered questionnaire from 158 operating room nurses in 7 general hospitals in Busan, Republic of Korea, in April and May 2006. The questionnaire elicited information on demographics, exposure to education on HFT, attitude toward the need for HFT, concerns about exposure to bloodborne pathogens, and experience with HTF use. Multilevel multiple logistic regression analysis with generalized estimating equations was used, and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. We found that 56% of the participants had used HFT, and 50% had received education on HFT. The use of HFT had a significant association with both education on HFT (OR = 12.02; 95% CI = 7.50 to 19.25) and attitude toward the need for HFT (OR = 4.22; 95% CI = 2.43 to 7.35). Increasing education about HFT could be the most important approach to increasing the use of HFT among Korean operating room nurses. Thus, routine teaching about HFT should be provided to these nurses.
Richard, Raveesh Daniel; Bowen, Thomas R
Contaminated operating room surfaces can increase the risk of orthopaedic infections, particularly after procedures in which hardware implantation and instrumentation are used. The question arises as to how surgeons can measure surface cleanliness to detect increased levels of bioburden. This study aims to highlight the utility of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence technology as a novel technique in detecting the degree of contamination within the sterile operating room environment. What orthopaedic operating room surfaces are contaminated with bioburden? When energy is required for cellular work, ATP breaks down into adenosine biphosphate (ADP) and phosphate (P) and in that process releases energy. This process is inherent to all living things and can be detected as light emission with the use of bioluminescence assays. On a given day, six different orthopaedic surgery operating rooms (two adult reconstruction, two trauma, two spine) were tested before surgery with an ATP bioluminescence assay kit. All of the cases were considered clean surgery without infection, and this included the previously performed cases in each sampled room. These rooms had been cleaned and prepped for surgery but the patients had not been physically brought into the room. A total of 13 different surfaces were sampled once in each room: the operating room (OR) preparation table (both pre- and postdraping), OR light handles, Bovie machine buttons, supply closet countertops, the inside of the Bair Hugger™ hose, Bair Hugger™ buttons, right side of the OR table headboard, tourniquet machine buttons, the Clark-socket attachment, and patient positioners used for total hip and spine positioning. The relative light units (RLUs) obtained from each sample were recorded and data were compiled and averaged for analysis. These values were compared with previously published ATP benchmark values of 250 to 500 RLUs to define cleanliness in both the hospital and restaurant industries. All
Shakir, Irshad A; Patel, Nirav H; Chamberland, Robin R; Kaar, Scott G
Cell phone use has become common in areas of the hospital, including the operating room. The purpose of this study was to document the frequency of bacterial contamination on the cell phones of orthopaedic surgeons in the operating room and to determine whether a standardized disinfecting protocol decreased the rate of bacterial contamination and the amount of organic material. Orthopaedic attending and resident cell phones were swabbed on the front and back in the operating room with adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence to quantify organic material contamination and culture swabs to evaluate bacterial contamination. Adenosine triphosphate was quantified with use of relative light units. One photon of light was emitted for each molecule of adenosine triphosphate. Thresholds of 250 and 500 relative light units were used. The phones were cleaned with a cleaning wipe and were retested. One week later, a final set of studies was obtained. Fifty-three participants were enrolled in this study. Pathogenic bacteria were defined as those commonly causing surgical site infections. Of fifty-three cell phones, 83% (forty-four cell phones) had pathogenic bacteria at initial testing, 8% (four cell phones) had pathogenic bacteria after disinfection, and 75% (forty cell phones) had pathogenic bacteria one week later. The mean result (and standard deviation) at initial testing was 3488 ± 2998 relative light units, which reduced after disinfection to 200 ± 123 relative light units, indicating a cleaned surface, but increased one week later to 1825 ± 1699 relative light units, indicating a poorly cleaned surface. The cell phones of orthopaedic surgeons had a high rate of pathogenic bacteria and organic material contamination. Both were decreased after a single disinfecting process. However, recontamination occurred. It seems prudent to routinely disinfect them or avoid their use in the operating room. The current study investigates orthopaedic surgeons' cell phones as a
Schmidt, Caroline M; Sundararajan, Miel; Biggerstaff, Kristin S; Orengo-Nania, Silvia; Coffee, Robert E; Khandelwal, Sumitra S
To identify the clinical and operative factors predicting reoperation within 30 days of resident-performed cataract surgery and correlate them with 1-year visual outcomes. Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Houston, Texas, USA. Retrospective cohort study. The study assessed patients who had resident-performed cataract surgery between 2005 and 2013 and required return to the operating room for a second surgery on the same eye within 30 days. Preoperative and intraoperative risk factors were assessed. Outcome measures included corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) at 1 year. A review of 6644 resident-performed cataract surgeries showed that 54 eyes (0.85%) of 54 patients required a return to the operating room within 30 days. The reoperation rate was higher in the first half of the academic year (1.18%) than in the second half (0.55%) (P = .004). The mean CDVA 1 year postoperatively was 20/40, with a loss of lines of vision in 4 eyes. The mean operative time was 59.23 minutes ± 35.05 (SD). A longer intraoperative time was predictive of a worse visual outcome (P < .01). Despite the need for reoperation within 30 days, most patients achieved improved visual acuity. The reoperation rate was significantly lower in the second half of the academic year. Increased operation times correlated with worse visual acuity independent of other variables. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Williams, Reed G; George, Brian C; Meyerson, Shari L; Bohnen, Jordan D; Dunnington, Gary L; Schuller, Mary C; Torbeck, Laura; Mullen, John T; Auyang, Edward; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Choi, Jennifer; Choti, Michael; Endean, Eric; Foley, Eugene F; Mandell, Samuel; Meier, Andreas; Smink, Douglas S; Terhune, Kyla P; Wise, Paul; DaRosa, Debra; Soper, Nathaniel; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Lillemoe, Keith D; Fryer, Jonathan P
Educating residents in the operating room requires balancing patient safety, operating room efficiency demands, and resident learning needs. This study explores 4 factors that influence the amount of autonomy supervising surgeons afford to residents. We evaluated 7,297 operations performed by 487 general surgery residents and evaluated by 424 supervising surgeons from 14 training programs. The primary outcome measure was supervising surgeon autonomy granted to the resident during the operative procedure. Predictor variables included resident performance on that case, supervising surgeon history with granting autonomy, resident training level, and case difficulty. Resident performance was the strongest predictor of autonomy granted. Typical autonomy by supervising surgeon was the second most important predictor. Each additional factor led to a smaller but still significant improvement in ability to predict the supervising surgeon's autonomy decision. The 4 factors together accounted for 54% of decision variance (r = 0.74). Residents' operative performance in each case was the strongest predictor of how much autonomy was allowed in that case. Typical autonomy granted by the supervising surgeon, the second most important predictor, is unrelated to resident proficiency and warrants efforts to ensure that residents perform each procedure with many different supervisors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Girotto, John A; Koltz, Peter F; Drugas, George
Caring for patients in traditionally designed, large teaching hospitals is often frustrating. Attempts at decreasing internal costs and inpatient length of stay are universally undertaken in order to address dwindling reimbursement, and patient care becomes more specialized and fractionated. These attempts have proven to be myopic, at best, and injurious to patient care and professional job satisfaction, at worst. This manuscript attempts to characterize the operational processes of our university operating room facility as well as make suggestions for operational improvements that can be applied to all hospitals. Through a step-by-step approach, we analyze the patient's journey from the surgeon's office through the day of surgery to discharge. Using this approach, a series of studies designed to identify operational shortcomings and inefficiencies are undertaken, and the results of these shortcomings are elucidated. In our operating room, the peri-operative services are composed of multiple departments, each accountable to their own administrative silo. We found this to result in fragmented goals and objectives confounded by individualized and conflicting incentives. Consequently, we conclude with a recommendation that veers from process modification to a disruptive innovation of the hierarchical organization. Nowhere in the hospital is this drive for cost containment and increased patient volume more evident than in the operating theatre. Long-term improvements must embrace radical reduction of OR costs and increased operative patient through-put, (i.e. per 8 h day; per fiscal year) by re-engineering the processes of operative patient care. In the end, the ultimate goal of safe and high-quality patient care must not be compromised. Copyright 2010 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cherkashin, M A; Berezina, N A; Kuplevatsky, V I; Serov, A V; Mefodovsky, A A
An essential aspect of the work of the operating room is the provision of safety of both the patient and staff. The organization of the activity of the surgical service requires serious elaboration of each of its stage, as well as standardization in using various validated instruments. When speaking of a hybrid operating room with the use of intraoperative magnetic resonance tomography, such an approach becomes not merely a recommendation but rather forced and justified necessity. Simultaneous use of various technologies of imaging and treatment with the engagement of physicians of various specialties requires especially thorough control. A generally accepted international standard of the work of the operating block is the use of checklists, and since 2008 the initiative of the World Health Organization "Safe Surgery Saves Lives" has globally been working to promote implementation of the WHO Surgical Safety Checklists (SSCL) to the real clinical practice. The intraoperative MR-diagnostic stage dictates rigid requirements for proper inventory of ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic surgical tools, verified logistics, and routing of the patient in the conditions of high and extremely high (1.5-3.0 T) magnetic field. A separate and not less important problem is anaesthesiological support during MRT. In order to optimise the patient's movements and adequate monitoring of his/her safety inside the operating department, the authors have modified the standard WHO Surgical Safety Checklist. Implementation of the modified checklist for the MRT-equipped hybrid operating room should improve the control over the processes, as well as increase safety of both the patient and personnel.
Kerwat, Klaus; Piechowiak, Karolin; Wulf, Hinnerk
Nowadays almost all operating rooms are equipped with air conditioning (AC units). Their main purpose is climatization, like ventilation, moisturizing, cooling and also the warming of the room in large buildings. In operating rooms they have an additional function in the prevention of infections, especially the avoidance of postoperative wound infections. This is achieved by special filtration systems and by the creation of specific air currents. Since hypothermia is known to be an unambiguous factor for the development of postoperative wound infections, patients are often actively warmed intraoperatively using warm air blankets (forced-air warming units). In such cases it is frequently discussed whether such warm air blankets affect the performance of AC units by changing the air currents or whether, in contrast, have exactly the opposite effect. However, it has been demonstrated in numerous studies that warm air blankets do not have any relevant effect on the functioning of AC units. Also there are no indications that their use increases the rate of postoperative wound infections. By preventing the patient from experiencing hypothermia, the rate of postoperative wound infections can even be decreased thereby. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.
Dewyer, Nicholas A; Kram, Yoseph A; Long, Stephen; Russell, Marika D
We conducted a retrospective case review to determine if the presence of an Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) fellowship-trained pediatric anesthesiologist improves efficiency during pediatric tonsillectomies and adenotonsillectomies in hospitals that do not have dedicated pediatric operating rooms and, if so, to determine which specific anesthesia practices might account for such a difference. We reviewed the charts of all patients aged 12 years and younger who had undergone a tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy from Jan. 1, 2008, through Aug. 1, 2013, at San Francisco General Hospital. A total of 75 cases met our eligibility criteria. We compiled information on patient demographics, surgical time, anesthesia time, and anesthesia practices. Our primary study outcome was the amount of anesthesia-controlled time (ACT), which is the sum of time spent in induction and emergence. Cases were grouped according to whether the operation was staffed by an ACGME fellowship-trained pediatric anesthesiologist or a general anesthesiologist. Data were analyzed for 1 pediatric anesthesiologist and 23 general anesthesiologists. We found that ACT was significantly shorter during the cases staffed by the ACGME fellowship-trained pediatric anesthesiologist, although there were no major differences in anesthesia practices between the types of anesthesiologist. We suggest that staffing pediatric tonsillectomy operations with a fellowship-trained pediatric anesthesiologist may be an effective strategy for increasing operating room efficiency.
Palmer, Gary; Abernathy, James H; Swinton, Greg; Allison, David; Greenstein, Joel; Shappell, Scott; Juang, Kevin; Reeves, Scott T
Human factors engineering has allowed a systematic approach to the evaluation of adverse events in a multitude of high-stake industries. This study sought to develop an initial methodology for identifying and classifying flow disruptions in the cardiac operating room (OR). Two industrial engineers with expertise in human factors workflow disruptions observed 10 cardiac operations from the moment the patient entered the OR to the time they left for the intensive care unit. Each disruption was fully documented on an architectural layout of the OR suite and time-stamped during each phase of surgery (preoperative [before incision], operative [incision to skin closure], and postoperative [skin closure until the patient leaves the OR]) to synchronize flow disruptions between the two observers. These disruptions were then categorized. The two observers made a total of 1,158 observations. After the elimination of duplicate observations, a total of 1,080 observations remained to be analyzed. These disruptions were distributed into six categories such as communication, usability, physical layout, environmental hazards, general interruptions, and equipment failures. They were further organized into 33 subcategories. The most common disruptions were related to OR layout and design (33%). By using the detailed architectural diagrams, the authors were able to clearly demonstrate for the first time the unique role that OR design and equipment layout has on the generation of physical layout flow disruptions. Most importantly, the authors have developed a robust taxonomy to describe the flow disruptions encountered in a cardiac OR, which can be used for future research and patient safety improvements.
Zeybek, Burak; Oge, Tufan; Kılıç, Cemil Hakan; Borahay, Mostafa A; Kılıç, Gökhan Sami
To analyse the steps taking place in the operating room (OR) before the console time starts in robot-assisted gynaecologic surgery and to identify potential ways to decrease non-operative time in the OR. Thirteen consecutive robotic cases for benign gynaecologic disease at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at University of Texas Medical Branch (UTMB) were retrospectively reviewed. The collected data included the specific terms 'Anaesthesia Done' (step 1), 'Drape Done' (step 2), and 'Trocar In' (step 3), all of which refer to the time before the actual surgery began and OR charges were evaluated as level 3, 4, and 5 for open abdominal/vaginal hysterectomy, laparoscopic hysterectomy, and robot-assisted hysterectomy, respectively. The cost of the OR for 0-30 minutes and each additional 30 minutes were $3,693 and $1,488, $4,961 and $2,426, $5,513 and $2,756 in level 3, 4, and 5 surgeries, respectively. The median time for step 1 was 12.1 min (5.25-23.3), for step 2 was 19 (4.59-44) min, and for step 3 was 25.3 (16.45-45) min. The total median time until the actual operation began was 54.58 min (40-100). The total cost was $6948.7 when the charge was calculated according to level 4 and $7771.1 when the charge was calculated according to level 5. Robot-assisted surgery is already 'cost-expensive' in the preparation stage of a surgical procedure during anaesthesia induction and draping of the patient because of charging levels. Every effort should be made to shorten the time and reduce the number of instruments used without compromising care. (J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc 2014; 15: 25-9).
Blom, E M; Verdaasdonk, E G G; Stassen, L P S; Stassen, H G; Wieringa, P A; Dankelman, J
Verbal communication in the operating room during surgical procedures affects team performance, reflects individual skills, and is related to the complexity of the operation process. During the procedural training of surgeons (residents), feedback and guidance is given through verbal communication. A classification method based on structural analysis of the contents was developed to analyze verbal communication. This study aimed to evaluate whether a classification method for the contents of verbal communication in the operating room could provide insight into the teaching processes. Eight laparoscopic cholecystectomies were videotaped. Two entire cholecystectomies and the dissection phase of six additional procedures were analyzed by categorization of the communication in terms of type (4 categories: commanding, explaining, questioning, and miscellaneous) and content (9 categories: operation method, location, direction, instrument handling, visualization, anatomy and pathology, general, private, undefinable). The operation was divided into six phases: start, dissection, clipping, separating, control, closing. Classification of the communication during two entire procedures showed that each phase of the operation was dominated by different kinds of communication. A high percentage of explaining anatomy and pathology was found throughout the whole procedure except for the control and closing phases. In the dissection phases, 60% of verbal communication concerned explaining. These explaining communication events were divided as follows: 27% operation method, 19% anatomy and pathology, 25% location (positioning of the instrument-tissue interaction), 15% direction (direction of tissue manipulation), 11% instrument handling, and 3% other nonclassified instructions. The proposed classification method is feasible for analyzing verbal communication during surgical procedures. Communication content objectively reflects the interaction between surgeon and resident. This
... storage rooms; outer premises, docks, driveways, etc.; fly-breeding material; nuisances. 355.15 Section... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION CERTIFIED PRODUCTS FOR DOGS, CATS, AND OTHER CARNIVORA; INSPECTION...-breeding material; nuisances. All operating and storage rooms and departments of inspected plants used for...
Full Text Available Forced-air-warming (FAW is an effective and widely used means for maintaining surgical normothermia, but FAW also has the potential to generate and mobilize airborne contamination in the operating room. We measured the emission of viable and non-viable forms of airborne contamination from an arbitrary selection of FAW blowers (n=25 in the operating room. A laser particle counter measured particulate concentrations of the air near the intake filter and in the distal hose airstream. Filtration efficiency was calculated as the reduction in particulate concentration in the distal hose airstream relative to that of the intake. Microbial colonization of the FAW blower’s internal hose surfaces was assessed by culturing the microorganisms recovered through swabbing (n=17 and rinsing (n=9 techniques. Particle counting revealed that 24% of FAW blowers were emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contamination in the 0.5 to 5.0 mm size range, evidenced by a steep decrease in FAW blower filtration efficiency for particles 0.5 to 5.0 mm in size. The particle size-range-specific reduction in efficiency could not be explained by the filtration properties of the intake filter. Instead, the reduction was found to be caused by size-range-specific particle generation within the FAW blowers. Microorganisms were detected on the internal air path surfaces of 94% of FAW blowers. The design of FAW blowers was found to be questionable for preventing the build-up of internal contamination and the emission of airborne contamination into the operating room. Although we did not evaluate the link between FAW and surgical site infection rates, a significant percentage of FAW blowers with positive microbial cultures were emitting internally generated airborne contamination within the size range of free floating bacteria and fungi (<4 mm that could, conceivably, settle onto the surgical site.
Albrecht, Mark; Gauthier, Robert; Leaper, David
Forced-air-warming (FAW) is an effective and widely used means for maintaining surgical normothermia, but FAW also has the potential to generate and mobilize airborne contamination in the operating room. We measured the emission of viable and non-viable forms of airborne contamination from an arbitrary selection of FAW blowers (n=25) in the operating room. A laser particle counter measured particulate concentrations of the air near the intake filter and in the distal hose airstream. Filtration efficiency was calculated as the reduction in particulate concentration in the distal hose airstream relative to that of the intake. Microbial colonization of the FAW blower's internal hose surfaces was assessed by culturing the microorganisms recovered through swabbing (n=17) and rinsing (n=9) techniques. Particle counting revealed that 24% of FAW blowers were emitting significant levels of internally generated airborne contamination in the 0.5 to 5.0 µm size range, evidenced by a steep decrease in FAW blower filtration efficiency for particles 0.5 to 5.0 µm in size. The particle size-range-specific reduction in efficiency could not be explained by the filtration properties of the intake filter. Instead, the reduction was found to be caused by size-range-specific particle generation within the FAW blowers. Microorganisms were detected on the internal air path surfaces of 94% of FAW blowers. The design of FAW blowers was found to be questionable for preventing the build-up of internal contamination and the emission of airborne contamination into the operating room. Although we did not evaluate the link between FAW and surgical site infection rates, a significant percentage of FAW blowers with positive microbial cultures were emitting internally generated airborne contamination within the size range of free floating bacteria and fungi (<4 µm) that could, conceivably, settle onto the surgical site. PMID:21808690
Seim, Andreas R; Sandberg, Warren S
To review the current state of anesthesiology for operative and invasive procedures, with an eye toward possible future states. Anesthesiology is at once a mature specialty and in a crisis--requiring breakthrough to move forward. The cost of care now approaches reimbursement, and outcomes as commonly measured approach perfection. Thus, the cost of further improvements seems ready to topple the field, just as the specialty is realizing that seemingly innocuous anesthetic choices have long-term consequences, and better practice is required. Anesthesiologists must create more headroom between costs and revenues in order to sustain the academic vigor and creativity required to create better clinical practice. We outline three areas in which technological and organizational innovation in anesthesiology can improve competitiveness and become a driving force in collaborative efforts to develop the operating rooms and perioperative systems of the future: increasing the profitability of operating rooms; increasing the efficiency of anesthesia; and technological and organizational innovation to foster improved patient flow, communication, coordination, and organizational learning.
Andersson, Jonas; Osvalder, A.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Product and Producton Development (Sweden)
Today it is possible to automate almost any function in a human-machine system. Therefore it is important to find a balance between automation level and the prerequisites for the operator to maintain safe operation. Different human factors evaluation methods can be used to find differences between automatic and manual operations that have an effect on operator performance; e.g. Predictive Human Error Analysis (PHEA), NASA Task Load Index (NASA-TLX), Halden Questionnaire, and Human Error Assessment and Reduction Technique (HEART). Results from an empirical study concerning automation levels, made at Ringhals power plant, showed that factors as time pressure and criticality of the work situation influenced the operator's performance and mental workload more than differences in level of automation. The results indicate that the operator's attention strategies differ between the manual and automatic sequences. Independently of level of automation, it is essential that the operator retains control and situational understanding. When performing a manual task, the operator is 'closer' to the process and in control with sufficient situational understanding. When the level of automation increases, the demands on information presentation increase to ensure safe plant operation. The need for control can be met by introducing 'control gates' where the operator has to accept that the automatic procedures are continuing as expected. Situational understanding can be established by clear information about process status and by continuous feedback. A conclusion of the study was that a collaborative control room environment is important. Rather than allocating functions to either the operator or the system, a complementary strategy should be used. Key parameters to consider when planning the work in the control room are time constraints and task criticality and how they affect the performance of the joint cognitive system.However, the examined working
El Haddad, Lynn; Ghantoji, Shashank S; Stibich, Mark; Fleming, Jason B; Segal, Cindy; Ware, Kathy M; Chemaly, Roy F
Environmental cleanliness is one of the contributing factors for surgical site infections in the operating rooms (ORs). To decrease environmental contamination, pulsed xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV), an easy and safe no-touch disinfection system, is employed in several hospital environments. The positive effect of this technology on environmental decontamination has been observed in patient rooms and ORs during the end-of-day cleaning but so far, no study explored its feasibility between surgical cases in the OR. In this study, 5 high-touch surfaces in 30 ORs were sampled after manual cleaning and after PX-UV intervention mimicking between-case cleaning to avoid the disruption of the ORs' normal flow. The efficacy of a 1-min, 2-min, and 8-min cycle were tested by measuring the surfaces' contaminants by quantitative cultures using Tryptic Soy Agar contact plates. We showed that combining standard between-case manual cleaning of surfaces with a 2-min cycle of disinfection using a portable xenon pulsed ultraviolet light germicidal device eliminated at least 70% more bacterial load after manual cleaning. This study showed the proof of efficacy of a 2-min cycle of PX-UV in ORs in eliminating bacterial contaminants. This method will allow a short time for room turnover and a potential reduction of pathogen transmission to patients and possibly surgical site infections.
Bouhenguel, Jason T; Preiss, David A; Urman, Richard D
Non-operating room anesthesia (NORA) encounters comprise a significant fraction of contemporary anesthesia practice. With the implemention of an aneshtesia information management system (AIMS), anesthesia practitioners can better streamline preoperative assessment, intraoperative automated documentation, real-time decision support, and remote surveillance. Despite the large personal and financial commitments involved in adoption and implementation of AIMS and other electronic health records in these settings, the benefits to safety, efficacy, and efficiency are far too great to be ignored. Continued future innovation of AIMS technology only promises to further improve on our NORA experience and improve care quality and safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Management of supplies within the operating room (OR) has considerable implications for decreasing healthcare costs while maintaining high-quality patient care. This area of healthcare therefore requires more monitoring by end-users including OR management, physicians, and nursing staff. This article is based on understanding supply chain management in the OR setting. Information provided throughout the article can be applied to small or large health care centers. It defines supply chain management and contains a brief overview of supply chain processes. It reviews the benefits of following these processes. The article also includes recommendations for improving the supply chain in the OR.
Stewart, L. J.; Murphy, E. D.; Mitchell, C. M.
A human factors analysis addressed three related yet distinct issues within the area of workstation design for the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) mission operation room (MOR). The first issue, physical layout of the MOR, received the most intensive effort. It involved the positioning of clusters of equipment within the physical dimensions of the ERBS MOR. The second issue for analysis was comprised of several environmental concerns, such as lighting, furniture, and heating and ventilation systems. The third issue was component arrangement, involving the physical arrangement of individual components within clusters of consoles, e.g., a communications panel.
Tok, Adem; Akbas, Alparslan; Aytan, Nimet; Aliskan, Tamer; Cicekbilek, Izzet; Kaba, Mehmet; Tepeler, Abdulkadir
ABSTRACT Purpose: We assessed and evaluated attitudes and knowledge regarding ionizing radiation of urology surgery room staff. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was sent by e-mail to urology surgery room personnel in Turkey, between June and August 2013. The questionnaire included demographic questions and questions regarding radiation exposure and protection. Results: In total, 127 questionnaires were answered. Of them, 62 (48.8%) were nurses, 51 (40.2%) were other personnel, and 14 (11%) were radiological technicians. In total, 113 (89%) participants had some knowledge of radiation, but only 56 (44.1%) had received specific education or training regarding the harmful effects of radiation. In total, 92 (72.4%) participants indicated that they used a lead apron and a thyroid shield. In the subgroup that had received education about the harmful effects of radiation, the use ratio for all protective procedures was 21.4% (n=12); this ratio was only 2.8% (n=2) for those with no specific training; the difference was statistically significant (p=0.004). Regarding dosimeters, the use rates were 100% for radiology technicians, 46.8% for nurses, and 31.4% for other hospital personnel; these differences were statistically significant (p<0.001). No significant relationship between working period in the surgery room, number of daily fluoroscopy procedures, education, task, and use of radiation protection measures was found. Conclusions: It is clear that operating room-allied health personnel exposed to radiation do not have sufficient knowledge of ionizing radiation and they do not take sufficient protective measures. PMID:26689525
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: We assessed and evaluated attitudes and knowledge regarding ionizing radiation of urology surgery room staff. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire was sent by e-mail to urology surgery room personnel in Turkey, between June and August 2013. The questionnaire included demographic questions and questions regarding radiation exposure and protection. Results: In total, 127 questionnaires were answered. Of them, 62 (48.8% were nurses, 51 (40.2% were other personnel, and 14 (11% were radiological technicians. In total, 113 (89% participants had some knowledge of radiation, but only 56 (44.1% had received specific education or training regarding the harmful effects of radiation. In total, 92 (72.4% participants indicated that they used a lead apron and a thyroid shield. In the subgroup that had received education about the harmful effects of radiation, the use ratio for all protective procedures was 21.4% (n=12; this ratio was only 2.8% (n=2 for those with no specific training; the difference was statistically significant (p=0.004. Regarding dosimeters, the use rates were 100% for radiology technicians, 46.8% for nurses, and 31.4% for other hospital personnel; these differences were statistically significant (p<0.001. No significant relationship between working period in the surgery room, number of daily fluoroscopy procedures, education, task, and use of radiation protection measures was found. Conclusions: It is clear that operating room-allied health personnel exposed to radiation do not have sufficient knowledge of ionizing radiation and they do not take sufficient protective measures.
Birnbach, David J; Rosen, Lisa F; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Carling, Philip; Arheart, Kristopher L; Munoz-Price, L Silvia
.... We conducted a study in a simulated operating room using a newly validated technology to determine whether the use of 2 sets of gloves, with the outer set removed immediately after endotracheal...
Human Factors Guidance for Control Room and Digital Human-System Interface Design and Modification, Guidelines for Planning, Specification, Design, Licensing, Implementation, Training, Operation and Maintenance
R. Fink, D. Hill, J. O' Hara
Nuclear plant operators face a significant challenge designing and modifying control rooms. This report provides guidance on planning, designing, implementing and operating modernized control rooms and digital human-system interfaces.
Seung Woo Lee
Full Text Available Environments in nuclear power plants (NPPs are changing as the design of instrumentation and control systems for NPPs is rapidly moving toward fully digital instrumentation and control, and modern computer techniques are gradually introduced into main control rooms (MCRs. Within the context of these environmental changes, the level of performance of operators in a digital MCR is a major concern. Situation awareness (SA, which is used within human factors research to explain to what extent operators of safety-critical systems know what is transpiring in the system and the environment, is considered a prerequisite factor to guarantee the safe operation of NPPs. However, the safe operation of NPPs can be guaranteed through a team effort. In this regard, the operating team's SA in a conventional and digital MCR should be measured in order to assess whether the new design features implemented in a digital MCR affect this parameter. This paper explains the team SA measurement method used in this study and the results of applying this measurement method to operating teams in different MCR environments. The paper also discusses several empirical lessons learned from the results.
Kim, Ki-Hwan [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Digitalized MMI(Man-Machine Interface) including Digital Main Control Room(MCR) and digital I and C system was being applied for SKN 3 and 4 Nuclear Power Plant(NPP) and subsequent APR1400 NPP type. But, operators can not easily find instrument for alarm immediately. Therefore, Alarm system is required to easily find instrument for Alarm. For this implementation, we will plan system design considering design feature without affecting network load and CPU load. We have developed Alarm system link drawing for digital MCR. Operators of the digitalized MCR navigates from their consoles to the drawings related to the plant alarms and their instruments or the operation status. Such method gives cognitive load to the operators having to travel to different locations in finding the related information. Screen Sharing System, which is the fundamental technique for Drawing Interconnection Alarm System is close to completion, and it should be functionally tested and verified by the human factor engineering. For the actual application to the operating plants, the drawings to be interconnected to the alarms and the opinions from the operators/maintenance departments for designating alarm number should be surveyed, Also, another function that allows the access to the alarm related drawings not only from the MCR but also from the other offices.
Full Text Available To prevent surgical site infection (SSI, the airborne microbial concentration in operating theaters must be reduced. The air quality in operating theaters and nearby areas is also important to healthcare workers. Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center. Temperature, relative humidity (RH, and carbon dioxide (CO2, suspended particulate matter (PM, and bacterial concentrations were monitored weekly over one year. Measurement results reveal clear differences in air quality in different operating theater areas. The post-operative recovery room had significantly higher CO2 and bacterial concentrations than other locations. Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria often existed in the operating theater area. Furthermore, Acinetobacter spp. was the main pathogen in the post-operative recovery room (18% and traumatic surgery room (8%. The mixed effect models reveal a strong correlation between number of people in a space and high CO2 concentration after adjusting for sampling locations. In conclusion, air quality in the post-operative recovery room and operating theaters warrants attention, and merits long-term surveillance to protect both surgical patients and healthcare workers.
Tang, Chin-Sheng; Wan, Gwo-Hwa
To prevent surgical site infection (SSI), the airborne microbial concentration in operating theaters must be reduced. The air quality in operating theaters and nearby areas is also important to healthcare workers. Therefore, this study assessed air quality in the post-operative recovery room, locations surrounding the operating theater area, and operating theaters in a medical center. Temperature, relative humidity (RH), and carbon dioxide (CO2), suspended particulate matter (PM), and bacterial concentrations were monitored weekly over one year. Measurement results reveal clear differences in air quality in different operating theater areas. The post-operative recovery room had significantly higher CO2 and bacterial concentrations than other locations. Bacillus spp., Micrococcus spp., and Staphylococcus spp. bacteria often existed in the operating theater area. Furthermore, Acinetobacter spp. was the main pathogen in the post-operative recovery room (18%) and traumatic surgery room (8%). The mixed effect models reveal a strong correlation between number of people in a space and high CO2 concentration after adjusting for sampling locations. In conclusion, air quality in the post-operative recovery room and operating theaters warrants attention, and merits long-term surveillance to protect both surgical patients and healthcare workers.
Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Scottish Centre)
This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.).
Althausen, Peter L; Kauk, Justin R; Shannon, Steven; Lu, Minggen; O'Mara, Timothy J; Bray, Timothy J
Fellowship-trained orthopaedic traumatologists are presumably taught skill sets leading to "best practice" outcomes and more efficient use of hospital resources. This should result in more favorable economic opportunities when compared with general orthopaedic surgeons (GOSs) providing similar clinical services. The purpose of our study was to compare the operating room utilization and financial data of traumatologists versus GOSs at a level II trauma center. Retrospective review. Level II community-based trauma hospital. Patients who presented to the emergency room at our institution with fractures and orthopaedic conditions requiring surgical intervention from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2011. Operative fracture fixation by members of our orthopaedic trauma panel, including fellowship and nontrauma fellowship-trained orthopaedic surgeons. Our institutional database was queried to determine operative times, surgical supply and implant costs, and surgery labor expenses. Patients were stratified according to those treated by our trauma panel's 3 traumatologists and those treated by the 15 GOSs on our trauma panel. These 2 groups were then compared using standard statistical methods. A total of 6449 orthopedic cases were identified and 2076 of these involved fracture care. One thousand one hundred ninety-nine patients were treated by traumatologists and 877 by GOSs. There was no statistical difference detected in American Society of Anesthesiologists score between trauma and nontrauma groups. Overall, the traumatologist group demonstrated significantly decreased procedure times when compared with the GOS group (55.6 vs. 75.8 minutes, P , 0.0001). In 16 of 18 most common procedure types, traumatologists were more efficient. This led to significantly decreased surgical labor costs ($381.4 vs. $484.8; P operative times, surgical labor expenses, and supply and implant costs by the fellowship-trained group represent enhanced control of the design, plan, execution
Kimbrough, Charles W; McMasters, Kelly M; Canary, Jeff; Jackson, Lisa; Farah, Ian; Boswell, Mark V; Kim, Daniel; Scoggins, Charles R
Suboptimal operating room (OR) efficiency is a universal complaint among surgeons. Nonetheless, maximizing efficiency is critical to institutional success. Here, we report improvement achieved from low-cost, low-technology measures instituted within a tertiary-care academic medical center/Level I trauma center. Improvements in preadmission testing and OR scheduling, including appointing a senior nurse anesthetist to help direct OR use, were instituted in March 2012. A retrospective review of prospectively maintained OR case data was performed to evaluate time periods before and after program implementation, as well as to assess trends over time. Operating room performance metrics were compared using Mann-Whitney and chi-squared tests. Changes over time were analyzed using linear regression. Data including all surgical cases were available for a 36-month period; 10 months (6,581 cases) before program implementation and 26 months afterward (17,574 cases). Dramatic improvement was seen in first-case on-time starts, which increased from 39.3% to 83.8% (p efficiency and case volume. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Phieffer, Laura; Hefner, Jennifer L; Rahmanian, Armin; Swartz, Jason; Ellison, Christopher E; Harter, Ronald; Lumbley, Joshua; Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D
Operating rooms (ORs) are costly to run, and multiple factors influence efficiency. The first case on-time start (FCOS) of an OR is viewed as a harbinger of efficiency for the daily schedule. Across 26 ORs of a large, academic medical center, only 49% of cases started on time in October 2011. The Perioperative Services Department engaged an interdisciplinary Operating Room Committee to apply Six Sigma tools to this problem. The steps of this project included (1) problem mapping, (2) process improvements to preoperative readiness, (3) informatics support improvements, and (4) continuous measurement and feedback. By June 2013, there was a peak of 92% first case on-time starts across service lines, decreasing to 78% through 2014, still significantly above the preintervention level of 49% (p = .000). Delay minutes also significantly decreased through the study period (p = .000). Across 2013, the most common delay owners were the patient, the surgeon, the facility, and the anesthesia department. Continuous and sustained improvement of first case on-time starts is attributed to tracking the FCOS metric, establishing embedded process improvement resources and creating transparency of data. This article highlights success factors and barriers to program success and sustainability.
Gillespie, Brigid M; Chaboyer, Wendy; Wallis, Marianne
Resilience in the workplace has been described as a means of facilitating adaptation in stressful environments, and therefore has application in nursing contexts. However, little research has examined how personal characteristics such as age, nursing experience and education contribute to resilience in clinical environments such as the operating room (OR). First to identify the level of resilience, and second, investigate whether age, experience and education contribute to resilience in an Australian sample of OR nurses. A predictive survey design was used. A random sample of 1430 nurses who were members of the Australian College of Operating Room Nurses association were surveyed. The survey included the 25-item Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and demographic questions. A standard regression model tested the hypothesis that age, years of OR experience and education contributed to resilience in OR nurses. A total of 735 (51.4%) completed, usable surveys were returned. Pearson's correlations demonstrated modest but statistically significant associations between age (ppersonal characteristics. Thus, recruitment to the OR should not be based on the conventional notion that an older nursing workforce will have greater longevity and hence be more stable. If younger, less experienced nurses are adequately supported, they may thrive in the OR environment.
Henry, Linda; Hunt, Sharon L; Kroetch, Mary; Yang, Y Tony
The aim of this study was to understand the perceived safety culture and attitudes of caregivers in a large cardiovascular operating room (CVOR) in a mid-Atlantic state where more than 1500 procedures are performed annually to include ventricular assist device placement and heart and lung transplantations. We analyzed deidentified data obtained from a safety survey completed anonymously by frontline caregivers in the CVOR via the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire developed by Pasquel Metrics. The responses from the CVOR clinicians were overall positive for their perceptions of the CVOR safety climate, with the majority saying they would feel safe being treated as a patient, liked their job, and were aware of the proper channels regarding patient safety. However, many made claims of experiencing fatigue and stress due to an excessive workload and participation in emergency situations. Furthermore, the support/clinical perfusion teams were found to have experienced the greatest amount of stress and discomfort, whereas it seems the surgeons were impacted the least. This study suggests that reactions to different situations in the operating room are dependent on the role of the caregiver. Therefore, interventions to improve communication among the caregivers must be geared on an individual group basis.
Downes, Jessica; Rauk, Philip N; Vanheest, Ann E
Pregnant or lactating staff working in the orthopaedic operating room may be at risk of occupational exposure to several hazards, including blood-borne pathogens, anesthetic gases, methylmethacrylate, physical stress, and radiation. Because the use of proper personal protective equipment is mandatory, the risk of contamination with blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and HIV is low. Moreover, effective postexposure prophylactic regimens are available for hepatitis B and HIV. In the 1960s, concerns were raised about occupational exposure to harmful chemicals in the operating room such as anesthetic gases and methylmethacrylate. Guidelines on safe levels of exposure to these chemicals and the use of personal protective equipment have helped to minimize the risks to pregnant or lactating staff. Short periods of moderate physical activity are beneficial for pregnant women, but prolonged strenuous activity can lead to increased pregnancy complications. The risk of prenatal radiation exposure during orthopaedic procedures is of concern, as well. However, proper lead protection and contamination control can minimize the risk of occupational exposure to radiation.
Raft, J; Millet, F; Meistelman, C
The aim of this study was to evaluate the cost of an operating room using data from our hospital. Using an accounting-based method helped us. Over the year 2012, the sum of direct and indirect expenses with cost sharing expenses allowed us to calculate the cost of the operating room (OR) and of the post-anaesthesia care unit (PACU). The cost of the OR and PACU was €10.8 per minute of time offered. Two thirds of the direct expenses were allocated to surgery and one third to anaesthesia. Indirect expenses were 25% of the direct expenses. The cost of medications and single use medical devises was €111.45 per anaesthesia. The total cost of anaesthesia (taking into account wages and indirect expenses) was €753.14 per anaesthesia as compared to the total cost of the anaesthesia. The part of medications and single use devices for anaesthesia was 14.8% of the total cost. Despite the difficulties facing cost evaluation, this model of calculation, assisted by the cost accounting controller, helped us to have a concrete financial vision. It also shows that a global reflexion is necessary during financial decision-making. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tagge, Edward P; Thirumoorthi, Arul S; Lenart, John; Garberoglio, Carlos; Mitchell, Kenneth W
Lean Six Sigma (LSS) is a process improvement methodology that utilizes a collaborative team effort to improve performance by systematically identifying root causes of problems. Our objective was to determine whether application of LSS could improve efficiency when applied simultaneously to all services of an academic children's hospital. In our tertiary academic medical center, a multidisciplinary committee was formed, and the entire perioperative process was mapped, using fishbone diagrams, Pareto analysis, and other process improvement tools. Results for Children's Hospital scheduled main operating room (OR) cases were analyzed, where the surgical attending followed themselves. Six hundred twelve cases were included in the seven Children's Hospital operating rooms (OR) over a 6-month period. Turnover Time (interval between patient OR departure and arrival of the subsequent patient) decreased from a median 41min in the baseline period to 32min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). Turnaround Time (interval between surgical dressing application and subsequent surgical incision) decreased from a median 81.5min in the baseline period to 71min in the intervention period (p<0.0001). These results demonstrate that a coordinated multidisciplinary process improvement redesign can significantly improve efficiency in an academic Children's Hospital without preselecting specific services, removing surgical residents, or incorporating new personnel or technology. Prospective comparative study, Level II. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scollato, A; Perrini, P; Benedetto, N; Di Lorenzo, N
We propose an easy-to-construct digital video editing system ideal to produce video documentation and still images. A digital video editing system applicable to many video sources in the operating room is described in detail. The proposed system has proved easy to use and permits one to obtain videography quickly and easily. Mixing different streams of video input from all the devices in use in the operating room, the application of filters and effects produces a final, professional end-product. Recording on a DVD provides an inexpensive, portable and easy-to-use medium to store or re-edit or tape at a later time. From stored videography it is easy to extract high-quality, still images useful for teaching, presentations and publications. In conclusion digital videography and still photography can easily be recorded by the proposed system, producing high-quality video recording. The use of firewire ports provides good compatibility with next-generation hardware and software. The high standard of quality makes the proposed system one of the lowest priced products available today.
Full Text Available Purpose: Postoperative infections can be caused by a contaminated environment, unsterile equipment, contaminated surfaces, and infected personnel as well as contaminated disinfectants. In order to establish guidelines for microbiological monitoring, a detailed microbiological surveillance was carried out in an ophthalmic hospital. Method: Over a period of 21 months, we assessed environmental Bacteria Carrying Particle (BCP load and surface samples weekly (n=276; the autoclaving system once a month and repeated whenever the process failed (n= 24; the air conditioning filters for fungal growth once in four months (n = 15, and the disinfectant solution for contamination once in two months (n = 10. Additionally, the personnel involved directly in surgery were screened for potential pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and β haemolytic streptococci. Result: On 14 (5.07% occasions the environment in the operating rooms had a significant risk of airborne infections. Sterilisation of instruments in the autoclaves was unsatisfactory on 4 (16.66 % occasions. Samples from the filters of the air-conditioning units yielded potentially pathogenic fungi on 3 (20% occasions. Personnel sampling revealed that 5 (8.77% individuals harboured β haemolytic Streptococci in the throat and 4 (7.01 % harboured S. aureus in the nasal cavity. The samples of disinfectant in use were not contaminated. Conclusion: There is a need to standardise microbiological evaluation protocols for operating rooms.
Vedula, S Swaroop; Ishii, Masaru; Hager, Gregory D
Training skillful and competent surgeons is critical to ensure high quality of care and to minimize disparities in access to effective care. Traditional models to train surgeons are being challenged by rapid advances in technology, an intensified patient-safety culture, and a need for value-driven health systems. Simultaneously, technological developments are enabling capture and analysis of large amounts of complex surgical data. These developments are motivating a "surgical data science" approach to objective computer-aided technical skill evaluation (OCASE-T) for scalable, accurate assessment; individualized feedback; and automated coaching. We define the problem space for OCASE-T and summarize 45 publications representing recent research in this domain. We find that most studies on OCASE-T are simulation based; very few are in the operating room. The algorithms and validation methodologies used for OCASE-T are highly varied; there is no uniform consensus. Future research should emphasize competency assessment in the operating room, validation against patient outcomes, and effectiveness for surgical training.
Weller, Jennifer M; Cumin, David; Civil, Ian D; Torrie, Jane; Garden, Alexander; MacCormick, Andrew D; Gurusinghe, Nishanthi; Boyd, Matthew J; Frampton, Christopher; Cokorilo, Martina; Tranvik, Magnus; Carlsson, Lisa; Lee, Tracey; Ng, Wai Leap; Crossan, Michael; Merry, Alan F
We ran a Multidisciplinary Operating Room Simulation (MORSim) course for 20 complete general surgical teams from two large metropolitan hospitals. Our goal was to improve teamwork and communication in the operating room (OR). We hypothesised that scores for teamwork and communication in the OR would improve back in the workplace following MORSim. We used an extended Behavioural Marker Risk Index (BMRI) to measure teamwork and communication, because a relationship has previously been documented between BMRI scores and surgical patient outcomes. Trained observers scored general surgical teams in the OR at the two study hospitals before and after MORSim, using the BMRI. Analysis of BMRI scores for the 224 general surgical cases before and 213 cases after MORSim showed BMRI scores improved by more than 20% (0.41 v 0.32, pteamwork score would translate into a clinically important reduction in complications and mortality in surgical patients. We demonstrated an improvement in scores for teamwork and communication in general surgical ORs following our intervention. These results support the use of simulation-based multidisciplinary team training for OR staff to promote better teamwork and communication, and potentially improve outcomes for general surgical patients.
Okoshi, Kae; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Kinoshita, Koichi; Tomizawa, Yasuko; Hasegawa, Suguru; Sakai, Yoshiharu
Although surgical smoke contains potentially hazardous substances, such as cellular material, blood fragments, microorganisms, toxic gases and vapors, many operating rooms (ORs) do not provide protection from exposure to it. This article reviews the hazards of surgical smoke and the means of protecting OR personnel. Our objectives are to promote surgeons' acceptance to adopt measures to minimize the hazards. Depending on its components, surgical smoke can increase the risk of acute and chronic pulmonary conditions, cause acute headaches; irritation and soreness of the eyes, nose and throat; dermatitis and colic. Transmission of infectious disease may occur if bacterial or viral fragments present in the smoke are inhaled. The presence of carcinogens in surgical smoke and their mutagenic effects are also of concern. This review summarizes previously published reports and data regarding the toxic components of surgical smoke, the possible adverse effects on the health of operating room personnel and measures that can be used to minimize exposure to prevent respiratory problems. To reduce the hazards, surgical smoke should be removed by an evacuation system. Surgeons should assess the potential dangers of surgical smoke and encourage the use of evacuation devices to minimize potential health hazards to both themselves and other OR personnel.
Du, Hui; He, Anjie; Zeng, Leilei
Improvement of the surgery instrument's clean quality, the optimized preparation way, reasonable arrangement in groups, raising the working efficiency. We use the quality backward system into the instrument clean, the pack and the preparation way's question, carry on the analysis and the optimization, and appraise the effect after trying out 6 months. After finally the way optimized, instrument clean quality distinct enhancement; The flaws in the instrument clean, the pack way and the total operating time reduce; the contradictory between nurses and the cleans arising from the unclear connection reduces, the satisfaction degree of nurse and doctor to the instrument enhances. Using of operating room quality backward system in the management of the instrument clean, the pack and the preparation way optimized, may reduce flaws in the work and the waste of human resources, raise the working efficiency.
Córdoba, S; Caballero, I; Navalón, R; Martínez-Sánchez, D; Martínez-Morán, C; Borbujo, J
To analyze data corresponding to patients who underwent dermatological surgery in an operating room. This was a descriptive, retrospective study of operating room activities in the dermatology department of Hospital Universitario de Fuenlabrada in Madrid between January 2005 and December 2010. We analyzed the relative frequency of a range of patient and procedure-related variables, as well as substitution and cancellation rates, the proportional risk of complications, and operating room efficiency. In the period analyzed, 11,516 patients underwent surgery: 9351 required minor surgery, 1998 major ambulatory surgery, and 167 surgery requiring hospitalization. Simple excision was the most common procedure (64.7%), and in the majority of cases (85%), the condition was benign. The mean number of patients treated per day was 9.7, and mean operating room efficiency was 71.9%. Accurate record-keeping is essential for analyzing operating room activities and comparing results with those from other centers. The analysis of patterns over time shows the effect of changes made on different indicators. In our case, a decrease in operating room efficiency was seen with an increase in the number of patients per day undergoing surgery. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Parker, Sarah Henrickson; Flin, Rhona; McKinley, Aileen; Yule, Steven
The achievement of surgical goals and the successful functioning of operating room (OR) teams are dependent on leadership. The attending surgeon is a team leader during an operation, with responsibility for task accomplishment by the clinical team. This study examined surgeons' leadership behaviors during surgical procedures, with particular reference to the effect of intraoperative events on leadership. Videos of operations (n = 29) recorded at three UK teaching hospitals were analyzed to identify and classify surgeons' intraoperative leadership behaviors using the Surgeons' Leadership Inventory. The frequency and type of leadership behaviors were compared before and after the point of no return (PONR) (n = 24), and during an unexpected intraoperative event (n = 5). Most of the surgeons' leadership behaviors were directed toward the resident during an operation. No significant differences were found for the overall number or type of leadership behaviors pre- and post-PONR. The frequency of leadership behaviors classified as "Training" and "Supporting others" significantly decreased during an unanticipated intraoperative event. Overall, surgeons engaged in the same leadership behaviors throughout the course of an operation unless they were dealing with an unanticipated event. Surgeons appeared to adopt a "one size fits all" leadership style approach regardless of the team or situation. Additionally, surgeons seemed to limit their intraoperative leadership focus to other surgeons rather than to the wider OR team.
We examined how to program an operating room (OR) information system to assist the OR manager in deciding whether to move the last case of the day in one OR to another OR that is empty to decrease overtime labor costs. We first developed a statistical strategy to predict whether moving the case would decrease overtime labor costs for first shift nurses and anesthesia providers. The strategy was based on using historical case duration data stored in a surgical services information system. Second, we estimated the incremental overtime labor costs achieved if our strategy was used for moving cases versus movement of cases by an OR manager who knew in advance exactly how long each case would last. We found that if our strategy was used to decide whether to move cases, then depending on parameter values, only 2.0 to 4.3 more min of overtime would be required per case than if the OR manager had perfect retrospective knowledge of case durations. The use of other information technologies to assist in the decision of whether to move a case, such as real-time patient tracking information systems, closed-circuit cameras, or graphical airport-style displays can, on average, reduce overtime by no more than only 2 to 4 min per case that can be moved. The use of other information technologies to assist in the decision of whether to move a case, such as real-time patient tracking information systems, closed-circuit cameras, or graphical airport-style displays, can, on average, reduce overtime by no more than only 2 to 4 min per case that can be moved.
Holloran-Schwartz, M Brigid; Gavard, Jeffrey A; Martin, Jared C; Blaskiewicz, Robert J; Yeung, Patrick P
To compare the intraoperative direct costs of a single-use energy device with reusable energy devices during laparoscopic hysterectomy. A randomized controlled trial (Canadian Task Force Classification I). An academic hospital. Forty-six women who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy from March 2013 to September 2013. Each patient served as her own control. One side of the uterine attachments was desiccated and transected with the single-use device (Ligasure 5-mm Blunt Tip LF1537 with the Force Triad generator). The other side was desiccated and transected with reusable bipolar forceps (RoBi 5 mm), and transected with monopolar scissors using the same Covidien Force Triad generator. The instrument approach used was randomized to the attending physician who was always on the patient's left side. Resident physicians always operated on the patient's right side and used the converse instruments of the attending physician. Start time was recorded at the utero-ovarian pedicle and end time was recorded after transection of the uterine artery on the same side. Costs included the single-use device; amortized costs of the generator, reusable instruments, and cords; cleaning and packaging of reusable instruments; and disposal of the single-use device. Operating room time was $94.14/min. We estimated that our single use-device cost $630.14 and had a total time savings of 6.7 min per case, or 3.35 min per side, which could justify the expense of the device. The single-use energy device had significant median time savings (-4.7 min per side, p energy device that both desiccates and cuts significantly reduced operating room time to justify its own cost, and it also reduced total intraoperative direct costs during laparoscopic hysterectomy in our institution. Operating room cost per minute varies between institutions and must be considered before generalizing our results. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mohapatra, Abhisekh; Greenberg, Roy K; Mastracci, Tara M; Eagleton, Matthew J; Thornsberry, Brett
To characterize radiation exposure to patients and operating room personnel during fluoroscopic procedures. Patient dose information was collected from the imaging equipment. Real-time dosimetry was used to measure doses to the operators, scrub nurse, radiologic technologist (RT), and anesthesiologist in 39 cases of endovascular thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair using fenestrated endografts. Overall equivalent doses and dose rates at time points of interest were noted and compared with the corresponding patient doses. The dosimeter on the anesthesia equipment received 143 μSv (38-247) more radiation per case than the average operator, and the scrub nurse and RT received 106 μSv (66-146) and 100 μSv (55-145) less, respectively. Adjusting for protective lead aprons by the Webster methodology, the average operator received an effective dose of 38 μSv. Except for the RT, personnel doses were well correlated with patient dose as measured by kerma area product (KAP) (r = .82 for average operator, r = .85 for scrub nurse, and r = .86 for anesthesia; all P operator was 1.78 (1.37-2.31) times as high in a lateral projection as in a posterior-anterior projection. Personnel doses were best correlated with KAP and less well correlated with fluoroscopy time or CAK. The dosimeter on the anesthesia equipment recorded the highest doses attributable to ineffective shielding. Operators can reduce the effective dose to themselves, the patient, and other personnel by minimizing the use of digital subtraction acquisitions, avoiding lateral angulation, using higher magnification levels when possible, and being diligent about the use of shielding during fluoroscopy cases. Copyright © 2013. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Kaye, Alan David; McDowell, Joseph L; Diaz, James H; Buras, Jay A; Young, Amy E; Urman, Richard D
Traditionally, the operating room (OR) in an academic medical center has faced numerous challenges to effective clinical productivity, including additional missions of teaching and research. Level 1 trauma poses more challenges related to the need for additional specialized personnel in anesthesia, surgery, and nursing. The present investigation explores lessons learned in efficiency, teamwork, and data evaluation at a level 1 academic teaching facility. The months of July 2012, July 2013, and July 2014 were selected for this study. Multiple strategies were implemented through the Operating Room Committee during this time in an effort to reduce the number of OR delays and cancellations. Case cancellations decreased significantly over the three-year period, while delays remained relatively stable. In July 2012, 15.0% of cases were cancelled and 10.2% were delayed. Cancellations decreased to 6.3% in 2013 and to 5.9% in 2014. The total number of cases completed per month increased each year throughout the study, from 577 in 2012 to 649 in 2013 to 842 in 2014. These results are remarkable in comparison to the greater-than 20% cancellation rate recorded in 2005 when the current OR leadership team first assessed OR efficiency. An increase in the number of cases completed per month likely can be attributed to a reduction in the number of case cancellations. Increased efficiency allows for more operations to be performed, leading to increased profitability and an increased ability of hospitals to continue caring for patients. We advocate the implementation of a comprehensive multidisciplinary strategy for sustained improvement in OR efficiency and utilization.
MacDonald, Kathy; Latimer, Margot; Drisdelle, Nadia
A two-group (N = 92) quasi-experimental pre-post test design was used to examine the effects of intra-operative communication by a surgical liaison nurse (SLN) on parental anxiety. Group I received in person progress reports from the SLN. Group II received routine perioperative care. The Speilberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) Scale and investigator developed family rating scales were distributed to both groups and used as a quantitative as well as a qualitative approach to determine what was helpful for the family members during the operative period. Two hundred and eighty feedback forms were dispersed to various health care professionals including all anaesthetists, surgeons, nurses and other staff in the perioperative care team, including the operating room, day surgery unit and the post anaesthetic recovery room areas. Feedback forms were also circulated to staff from the intensive care unit and the surgical in-patient units. The results showed the anxiety levels were lower for the families who received in person progress reports but the difference by group was not statistically significant. Thematic written responses provided examples of improved care and effective time management behaviours on the part of the health care professionals. Written responses provided validation for the scale scores for both families and health care professionals and were an indication of the support for the role of the surgical liaison nurse. Qualitative findings implied that the surgical liaison nurse facilitated the transfer of necessary information between the perioperative care team and the family thus providing a support mechanism for families under stress.
Mulconrey, Daniel S
Prospective in vivo investigation of fluoroscopic radiation exposure during spinal surgery. To quantify the total amount of radiation dosage and identify techniques to maintain safe levels of fluoroscopic exposure in the operating room. No previous study has performed an in vivo examination of fluoroscopic radiation exposure to the spinal surgeon and operating room personnel. Previous similar studies were in vitro, used older versions of fluoroscopy, and increased fluoro times associated with pedicle screw placement. Thirty-five surgeries were evaluated in 18 males and 17 females (mean age 52.4 y; range, 26.0-79.4). Surgeries included 37 lumbar levels fused, 45 lumbar decompressions, 8 anterior cervical fusions, and 19 transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion procedures. Spinal instrumentation was implemented in all fusion procedures (104 lumbar pedicle screws, 14 iliac, 22 anterior cervical). Radiation dosimetry was obtained through unprotected badges placed on surgeon's chest, first assistant chest, cranial and caudal end of operating table. Total fluoroscopic time was 37.01 minutes. Mean fluoroscopic time with lumbar spine instrumentation was greater than decompression alone (1.74 vs. 0.22 min). Total fluoroscopic radiation exposure was obtained for surgeon (1225 mrem), first assistant (369 mrem), cranial table (92 mrem), and caudal table (150 mrem). Mean dose/min (mrem/min) was calculated for surgeon (33.1), first assistant (9.97), cranial table (2.48), and caudal table (4.05). To remain below the maximum yearly permissible level of radiation, the estimated total number of minutes for the surgeon would be 453. The results of this in vivo study indicate fluoroscopic dosage to the spine surgeon remains below the annual maximum limit of radiation exposure. Increasing distance from radiation source led to a significantly diminished in vivo dosimetry reading. Monitoring fluoroscopic time and maintaining a distance from the beam source, radiation exposure to the spine
Patrick, Nathan C; Kowalski, Christopher A; Hennrikus, William L
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions are complex orthopedic procedures in which a proficient team is of vital importance. Outpatient surgical centers (OSCs) often provide orthopedic-specific teams; however, hospital operating rooms (ORs) commonly rotate staff. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficiency of pediatric ACL reconstructions between a surgical center and a hospital OR owned and directed by a single institution. Cases examined involved pediatric patients, aged 12 to 18 years (mean age, 15.9±1.5 years), who underwent ACL reconstructions by a single orthopedic surgeon from 2009 to 2014. Procedural efficiency was defined as shorter total OR time, less total staff, and fewer support staff changes. Total OR time was also broken into 3 distinct time periods: in-room to incision time, total procedure time, and stop time to out-of-room time. A total of 49 ACL reconstructions were performed in healthy athletes, with 28 surgeries at the OSC (mean age, 15.7±1.3 years) and 21 surgeries in the hospital OR (mean age, 16.1±1.8 years). Overall efficiency was higher at the OSC, with total OR time improved by 30 minutes on average (P=.0001) with less total staff (P=.0002). Surgical technician and nursing changes occurred 6 and 2.5 times more often in the hospital OR, respectively. Procedural efficiency was greater at the OSC. The provision of consistent and experienced orthopedicspecific teams allows for improvement in OR efficiency, cost, and value. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(5):297-302.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.
Arevalo, Oscar; Saman, Daniel M; Roldan, Rosie; Ballard, Andre; Suta, Adi; Brocha, Gabriel
To analyze productivity of pediatric dental residents (PDRs) in the operating room (OR) and to determine predictors of case length. Service-mix for OR cases completed between 2010 and 2013 were converted to relative value units (RVUs). Additional information, including patients' age, gender, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status, number of teeth, and operation time was retrieved. Analysis entailed descriptive, correlational, and multivariable techniques. Eight PDRs completed 893 OR cases. First-year residents (FYRs) completed more complex cases than second-year residents (SYRs), as determined by total RVUs and number of teeth. However, SYRs were more productive, as determined by RVUs per minute. Productivity for all PDRs increased on average by 33 percent during the program, with an average of 0.39 versus 0.59 RVUs per minute during the first versus the last quarters. Case complexity - measured in total RVUs per case - was associated with number of teeth and operation time, while patients' age and ASA status were not significantly associated with case complexity in the final regression model. Clinical productivity of PDRs increased over the two-year period, with a wide variation demonstrating a differential learning curve on different individuals. A significant association between case complexity, number of teeth, and operation time was found.
Quint, U; Benen, T
Integrated ventilation systems with low turbulence displacement flow (TAV) are generally legally required in the architectural structure of operating theatres. However, it seems that the instruments laid out on sterile covered tables do not have the best possible protection from bacteria. Within an operating theatre, different bacteria counts are possible on the instruments. This prospective controlled study was conducted to demonstrate the influence of instrument tables with integrated horizontal flow on contamination with pathogens in comparison with conventional tables. In an operating theatre (OT) with a ceiling legally appropriate for TAV (2.40 m × 1.20 m), microbiological samples were placed on a table with integrated TAV flow (n = 100) and on a conventional instrument table (n = 100). The routine qualification of the OT was on an ongoing basis and was in accordance with DIN 1946-4: 1999 standards (in accordance with DIN measurement of recovery time 1946-4: 12-2008). This corresponds to the OT of the room class Ib. The results show significant differences between the two tables. The bacteria count and the percentage of contamination were many times higher on the conventional table. It is important to understand that the instruments are not completely protected against contamination after opening the pack and during the operation. Remedial measures are possible to optimise the sterility the instrument table. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Jones, Stephanie B; Munro, Malcolm G; Feldman, Liane S; Robinson, Thomas N; Brunt, L Michael; Schwaitzberg, Steven D; Jones, Daniel B; Fuchshuber, Pascal R
Operating room (OR) safety has become a major concern in patient safety since the 1990s. Improvement of team communication and behavior is a popular target for safety programming at the institutional level. Despite these efforts, essential safety gaps remain in the OR and procedure rooms. A prime example is the use of energy-based devices in ORs and procedural areas. The lack of fundamental understanding of energy device function, design, and application contributes to avoidable injury and harm at a rate of approximately 1 to 2 per 1000 patients in the US. Hundreds of OR fires occur each year in the US, some causing severe injury and even death. Most of these fires are associated with the use of energy-based surgical devices.In response to this safety issue, the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) developed the Fundamental Use of Surgical Energy (FUSE) program. This program includes a standardized curriculum targeted to surgeons, other physicians, and allied health care professionals and a psychometrically designed and validated certification test. A successful FUSE certification documents acquisition of the basic knowledge needed to safely use energy-based devices in the OR. By design FUSE fills a void in the curriculum and competency assessment for surgeons and other procedural specialists in the use of energy-based devices in patients.
A new mining machine is constructed for use in room and pillar mining operations. This machine uses the action of computer controlled, centrally located high pressure cutting lances to cut deep slots in a coal face. These slots stress relieve the coal ahead of the machine and outline blocks of coal. The movement forward of the machine then wedges up the lower block of coal. This wedging action is assisted by the gathering arms of the loader section of the machine, and by underlying oscillating waterjets which create a slot ahead of the loading wedge as it advances. Finally the top section of coal is brought down by the sequential advance of wedge faced roof support members, again assisted by the waterjet action from the central cutting arms. The machine is designed to overcome major disadvantages of existing room and pillar mining machines in regard to a reduction in respirable dust, the creation of an immediate roof support, and an increase in product size, with concomitant reduction in cleaning costs.
A new mining machine is constructed for use in room and pillar mining operations. This machine uses the action of computer controlled, centrally located high pressure cutting lances to cut deep slots in a coal face. These slots stress relieve the coal ahead of the machine and outline blocks of coal. The movement forward of the machine then wedges up the lower block of coal. This wedging action is assisted by the gathering arms of the loader section of the machine, and by underlying oscillating waterjets which create a slot ahead of the loading wedge as it advances. Finally the top section of coal is brought down by the sequential advance of wedge faced roof support members, again assisted by the waterjet action from the central cutting arms. The machine is designed to overcome major disadvantages of existing room and pillar mining machines in regard to a reduction in respirable dust, the creation of an immediate roof support, and an increase in product size, with concomitant reduction in cleaning costs.
Rezapoor, Maryam; Alvand, Abtin; Jacek, Elzbieta; Paziuk, Taylor; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Parvizi, Javad
Strategies to prevent bacterial fallout and reduce particle count in the operating room (OR) are key components of preventing periprosthetic joint infection. Although OR traffic control is an important factor, a quantitative study has not been performed to investigate the influence of personnel and door opening on OR air quality. This simulated study aimed to examine the influence of these 2 factors on particle density in OR with and without the laminar air flow (LAF). Both experiments took place within an empty OR of an arthroplasty unit equipped with an LAF system. First, the number of particles in the air was counted using a particle counting apparatus while 9 persons entered the room, one every 15 minutes. Second, the door was opened and closed starting with zero door openings per minute and increasing to 4 in 15-minute increments. Both experiments were performed once with the LAF turned on and once without. The number of personnel in the OR and the number of door openings per minute correlate with the density of particles. Both relationships were significantly reduced by turning the LAF on (correlation coefficients air. Controlling traffic is critical for reduction of particles and is likely to be a key preventative strategy in reducing periprosthetic joint infection. LAF is protective against the negative influence of number of people and door openings. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Wan, Gwo-Hwa; Chung, Feng-Fang; Tang, Chin-Sheng
Maintenance of adequate indoor air quality (IAQ) in operating rooms (ORs) is critical to the prevention of nosocomial infection in hospitalized patients. This study evaluated the characteristics of IAQ in various ORs in a medical center. Air temperature, relative humidity, carbon dioxide (CO(2)), particulate matter (PM), and bacterial concentrations were monitored in the ORs, and monthly variations were noted. The mean CO(2) concentrations in the ORs were lower than the suggested level (600 ppm average over 8 hours) set by Taiwan's Environmental Protection Agency. Positive relationships were found among the number of persons, temperature (Spearman's rho coefficient [r(s)] = 0.19; P room. Gram-positive bacteria (eg, Bacillus spp, Micrococcus spp, Staphylococcus spp) were frequently found in the monitored ORs. The IAQ in the ORs varied significantly from month to month. The number of persons in the OR affected IAQ, and a decreased PM level might indicate reduced microbial contamination in the OR. Copyright © 2011 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Frabetti, Alessia; Vandini, Alberta; Balboni, Piergiorgio; Triolo, Fabio; Mazzacane, Sante
There remains much debate on how to define an adequate sanitation protocol in hospital environments. The efficacy of a sanitation protocol in the operating room (OR) of a modern hospital was evaluated by measuring bacterial load on different types of finishing materials of all internal surfaces (ie, walls, floors, and furnishings). Samples were obtained before cleaning and over the subsequent 24 hours. A total of 2124 microbiological samples were collected using RODAC plates and sterile swabs. The data demonstrate a very significant postsanitation reduction of bacterial load on floors and furnishings; however, no significant data on walls were obtained, because of the low levels of initial contamination (1.50 to 5.98 cfu/100 cm2). The increase in postsanitation bacterial load over time was greater on smooth materials than on porous materials, on which a further reduction in contamination was seen. The study outcomes were confirmed by simulation experiments in which different materials were contaminated with a predetermined bacterial load and then subjected to the sanitation protocol. These simulation experiments were carried out both in vitro and in an eddy-flux testing room that simulated a full-scale OR similar (in terms of architectonic systems) to a real setting. Our data demonstrate that the spatial (vertical/horizontal) disposition of materials affects the initial contamination level, which is always much lower on vertical surfaces than on horizontal ones. Moreover, postsanitation bacterial load recovery is dependent on the physical properties of the surface.
Sugarindra, M.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Permana, A. I.
The workload, encountered a combination of physical workload and mental workload, is a consequence of the activities for workers. Central control room is one department in the oil processing company, employees tasked with monitoring the processing unit for 24 hours nonstop with a combination of 3 shifts in 8 hours. NASA-TLX (NASA Task Load Index) is one of the subjective mental workload measurement using six factors, namely the Mental demand (MD), Physical demand (PD), Temporal demand (TD), Performance (OP), Effort (EF), frustration levels (FR). Measurement of a subjective mental workload most widely used because it has a high degree of validity. Based on the calculation of the mental workload, there at 5 units (DTU, NPU, HTU, DIST and OPS) at the control chamber (94; 83.33; 94.67; 81, 33 and 94.67 respectively) that categorize as very high mental workload. The high level of mental workload on the operator in the Central Control Room is a requirement to have high accuracy, alertness and can make decisions quickly
Meyerson, Shari L; Sternbach, Joel M; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Bender, Edward M
Discrimination against women training in medicine and surgery has been subjectively described for decades. This study objectively documents gender differences in the degree of autonomy given to thoracic surgery trainees in the operating room. Thoracic surgery residents and faculty underwent frame of reference training on the use of the 4-point Zwisch scale to measure operative autonomy. Residents and faculty then submitted evaluations of their perception of autonomy granted for individual operations as well as operative difficulty on a real-time basis using the "Zwisch Me!!" mobile application. Differences in autonomy given to male and female residents were elucidated using chi-square analysis and ordered logistic regression. Seven academic medical centers with thoracic surgery training programs. Volunteer thoracic surgery residents in both integrated and traditional training pathways and their affiliated cardiothoracic faculty. Residents (n = 33, female 18%) submitted a total of 596 evaluations to faculty (n = 48, female 12%). Faculty gave less autonomy to female residents with only 56 of 184 evaluations (30.3%) showing meaningful autonomy (passive help or supervision only) compared to 107 of 292 evaluations (36.7%) at those levels for male residents (p = 0.02). Resident perceptions of autonomy showed even more pronounced differences with female residents receiving only 38 of 197 evaluations (19.3%) with meaningful autonomy compared to 133 of 399 evaluations (33.3%) for male residents (p autonomy granted to residents. Evaluations of operative autonomy reveal a significant bias against female residents. Faculty education is needed to encourage allowing female residents more operative autonomy. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin
Conceptually, cancelling a case close to the scheduled day of surgery increases variability in operating room (OR) workload (i.e., total hours of scheduled cases plus turnovers), creating managerial problems. However, in our recent study of an OR scheduling office, cancellations (slightly) reduced variability in workload among days. If a relatively low incidence of cancellations does not cause increased variability in workload, this would be a useful finding when focusing strategic OR management initiatives. However, the previous study considered only the effect on the schedule for the day the cancelled case originally was scheduled to be performed, not the future date on which the case was performed. For 90% of cancelled cases, the patient later underwent the same or a similar procedure at the studied hospital. Thus, the OR schedule at 7:00 am each day over 2 years could be used to study case rescheduling. The primary end point, calculated for each surgeon, was the difference of 2 ratios. The first ratio was the proportion of scheduled workload attributable to previously cancelled cases, among all days for which the surgeon's workload exceeded the surgeon's median workload. The second ratio was that proportion among the other days when the surgeon performed at least 1 case. Means ± SEMs were calculated by random effects analysis, stratified by surgeon. From 7:00 am the working day before surgery through the day of surgery, 9.7% ± 0.6% of scheduled OR hours and 9.7% ± 0.5% of cases were cancelled. Among cases performed, 9.5% ± 0.5% of the scheduled hours and 9.5% ± 0.5% of the cases were previously cancelled (i.e., rescheduled to a later date and then performed). Surgeons' median workloads on days with at least 1 case were 8.3 ± 0.2 hours. The percentage of scheduled workload attributable to rescheduled cases was slightly less on days when the surgeon had larger than median workloads (-0.7% ± 0.3%, P = 0.022). Rescheduled cancelled cases did not increase
Sharif, Hasanat; Shehzad, Noman; Farooqi, Joveria; Karim, Sana; Akbar, Sana
Operating room (OR) turnaround time (TAT) is the minimal essential time required for cleaning of OR and preparation for the next case. The TAT inversely affects OR efficiency. Several factors related to personnel, equipment and scheduling have been identified as causes of increased TAT. We conducted the study to identify factors that affect OR TAT and to propose recommendations for its reduction. The retrospective study, conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, comprised TAT records related to March 2014. Of the 88 cases, 22(25%) showed a delay. Upon Pareto analysis it was found that in 8(36.6%) cases there was a delay of 70% related to scheduling of OR list and 5(22.7%) related to movement of patients from wards to OR. As such, improvement in these two broad areas can take care of majority of delays. We also recommend documentation of all processes as part of continuous improvement.
Sang D. Choi
Full Text Available This review paper discusses the ergonomic challenges associated with laparoscopy in the operating room (OR and summarizes the practical ergonomic solutions. The literature search was conducted in the fields of laparoscopy and applied ergonomics. Findings indicated that laparoscopic OR staff (surgeons, perioperative nurses and technicians commonly experienced physical and mental ergonomic risks while working in prolonged static and awkward body positions. This study highlighted the need for more ergonomic interventions in OR environment in order to improve the efficiency of laparoscopy. Ergonomic solutions included utilizing adjustable equipment, placing computer peripherals in optimal locations, providing ergonomic instruments, and improving communication. Understanding the job- or task-related ergonomic risks and hazards could help identify intervention requirements to meet the challenges associated with increased dependency on advanced high technology in the OR.
Harmon, Laura A; Davis, Matthew L; Jupiter, Daniel C; Frazee, Richard C; Regner, Justin L
The aim of our study is to select patients with nonperforated appendicitis verified by computed tomography (CT) scan and to determine if there is a temporal component to perforation. A retrospective cohort study of patients with CT scan evidence of nonperforated appendicitis from 2007 to 2012. 411 patients, aged 39.7 ± 16.25 years (47.5% male) were included in the study. 330 patients (80.3%) were nonperforated at surgery. Analysis of 3-hour intervals from CT scan to operating room (OR) revealed an absolute reduction in the rate of perforation from 27% at the 6- to 9-hour interval, to 17% and 10% at the 3- to 6-hour and 0- to 3-hour intervals, respectively, (P appendicitis patients (P appendicitis had shorter hospitalization and fewer postoperative wound infections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tepper, Oren M; Rudy, Hayeem L; Lefkowitz, Aaron; Weimer, Katie A; Marks, Shelby M; Stern, Carrie S; Garfein, Evan S
Virtual reality and augmented reality devices have recently been described in the surgical literature. The authors have previously explored various iterations of these devices, and although they show promise, it has become clear that virtual reality and/or augmented reality devices alone do not adequately meet the demands of surgeons. The solution may lie in a hybrid technology known as mixed reality, which merges many virtual reality and augmented realty features. Microsoft's HoloLens, the first commercially available mixed reality device, provides surgeons intraoperative hands-free access to complex data, the real environment, and bidirectional communication. This report describes the use of HoloLens in the operating room to improve decision-making and surgical workflow. The pace of mixed reality-related technological development will undoubtedly be rapid in the coming years, and plastic surgeons are ideally suited to both lead and benefit from this advance.
Kindsmüller, Martin Christof; Haar, Maral; Schulz, Hannes; Herczeg, Michael
Today’s physicians and nurses working in operating rooms and intensive care units have to deal with an ever increasing amount of data. More and more medical devices are delivering information, which has to be perceived and interpreted in regard to patient status and the necessity to adjust therapy. The combination of high information load and insufficient usability creates a severe challenge for the health personnel with respect to proper monitoring of these devices respective to acknowledging alarms and timely reaction to critical incidents. Smart Applications are a new kind of decision support systems that incorporate medical expertise in order to help health personnel in regard to diagnosis and therapy. By means of a User Centered Design process of two Smart Applications (anaesthesia monitor display, diagnosis display), we illustrate which approach should be followed and which processes and methods have been successfully applied in fostering the design of usable medical devices.
Eberl, Susanne; Koers, Lena; Van Haperen, Maartje; Preckel, Benedikt
The human brain might not perform optimally during stressful situations. Cognitive aids can help in such situations to carry out all necessary treatment steps in a correct order. We present the case of a severe anaphylactic reaction during a percutaneous radiological intervention to drain an echinococcosis cyst on the radiology suite outside the operation room (OR), in which cognitive aids were successfully used to optimise patient care by a multidisciplinary team. Cognitive aids do not replace experience and skills of the individual caregivers, but can be invaluable tools for multidisciplinary teams dealing with crisis situations outside the OR. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Kim, Seung Hwan; Park, Jin kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
Verbal communication problems have been one of the major human factors causing serious problems in many industries. The results of existing researches have revealed that keeping good communication quality is essential to ensure the safety of a large-sized and highly advanced industrial process system. Communication Quality is ensured only when both parties involved in a communication process understand and comprehend each other correctly, and it can be decided based on the correctness of the messages communicated between them. In this paper, we suggested a method to measure the quality of communication during off-normal situation in main control room of nuclear power plants. It evaluates the cosine similarity that is a measure of sentence similarity between two operators by finding the cosine of the angle between them
Schieble, Thomas M
The present study aimed to identify firms supplying products to our university operating room (OR) that promote sustainable manufacturing methods. Results show that 72% of our suppliers, or 152 of 211 companies, do not promote sustainability practices in a salient manner. Multi-national firms document sustainability methods significantly more than U.S. divisions of multi-nationals or U.S. firms with chi-square = 157.93 (p product selection. Lack of sustainability information among suppliers in this study suggests that hospital procurement departments likely focus solely on issues like price or quality when making purchase decisions. These results also suggest an opportunity for healthcare administrators to evaluate more fully the products involved in the healthcare supply chain; the intrinsic, intangible value added to hospital products through sustainable manufacturing is consistent with responsible patient care and has the potential to create marketing and public relations value.
Zorrilla-Vaca, Andrés; Escandón-Vargas, Kevin; Brand-Giraldo, Vanessa; León, Tatiana; Herrera, Mónica; Payán, Andrey
We found a 6.1% bacterial contamination rate among 198 propofol vials collected after clinical use in 12 operating rooms of a high-complexity hospital in Cali, Colombia. Some propofol vials were used for extended periods (up to 72 hours), and only 26.1% of vials were punctured once. Median time of use, although not statistically significant, was higher in positive samples (7.2 vs 3.5 hours, P = .08). Education on the topic should stress that vials are single-patient use and must be immediately discarded after use. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cawich, Shamir O; Harding, Hyacinth E; Crandon, Ivor W; McGaw, Clarence D; Barnett, Alan T; Tennant, Ingrid; Evans, Necia R; Martin, Allie C; Simpson, Lindberg K; Johnson, Peter
The barriers to health care delivery in developing nations are many: underfunding, limited support services, scarce resources, suboptimal health care worker attitudes, and deficient health care policies are some of the challenges. The literature contains little information about health care leadership in developing nations. This discursive paper examines the impact of leadership on the delivery of operating room (OR) services in public sector hospitals in Jamaica.Delivery of OR services in Jamaica is hindered by many unique cultural, financial, political, and environmental barriers. We identify six leadership goals adapted to this environment to achieve change. Effective leadership must adapt to the environment. Delivery of OR services in Jamaica may be improved by addressing leadership training, workplace safety, interpersonal communication, and work environment and by revising existing policies. Additionally, there should be regular practice audits and quality control surveys.
Liu, David; Jenkins, Simon A; Sanderson, Penelope M; Fabian, Perry; Russell, W John
Patient monitors in the operating room are often positioned where it is difficult for the anesthesiologist to see them when performing procedures. Head-mounted displays (HMDs) can help anesthesiologists by superimposing a display of the patient's vital signs over the anesthesiologist's field of view. Simulator studies indicate that by using an HMD, anesthesiologists can spend more time looking at the patient and less at the monitors. We performed a clinical evaluation testing whether this finding would apply in practice. Six attending anesthesiologists provided anesthesia to patients undergoing rigid cystoscopy. Each anesthesiologist performed 6 cases alternating between standard monitoring using a Philips IntelliVue MP70 and standard monitoring plus a Microvision Nomad ND2000 HMD. The HMD interfaced wirelessly with the MP70 monitor and displayed waveform and numerical vital signs data. Video was recorded during all cases and analyzed to determine the percentage of time, frequency, and duration of looks at the anesthesia workstation and at the patient and surgical field during various anesthetic phases. Differences between the display conditions were tested for significance using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Video data were collected from 36 cases that ranged from 17 to 75 minutes in duration (median 31 minutes). When participants were using the HMD, compared with standard monitoring, they spent less time looking toward the anesthesia workstation (21.0% vs 25.3%, P = 0.003) and more time looking toward the patient and surgical field (55.9% vs 51.5%, P = 0.014). The HMD had no effect on either the frequency of looks or the average duration of looks toward the patient and surgical field or toward the anesthesia workstation. An HMD of patient vital signs reduces anesthesiologists' surveillance of the anesthesia workstation and allows them to spend more time monitoring their patient and surgical field during normal anesthesia. More research is needed to
Chandler, Rebecca E; Lee, Lore E; Townes, John M; Taplitz, Randy A
Nosocomial transmission of group A Streptococcus (GAS) has been well described. A recent report of an outbreak investigation suggested that transmission can be extensive and that standard infection control measures may not be adequate to prevent transmission from patients with severe, invasive disease to healthcare workers (HCWs). A case of pharyngitis in an HCW caring for a patient with GAS pharyngitis and necrotizing fasciitis prompted an investigation of the extent and risk factors for nosocomial transmission of GAS. A 509-bed, tertiary care center in Portland, Oregon with 631,100 patient visits (hospital and clinic) and 11,500 employees in the year 2003. HCWs with exposure to the index patient ("contacts") were identified for streptococcal screening and culture and completion of a questionnaire regarding the location and duration of exposure, use of personal protective equipment, and symptoms of GAS infection. We identified 103 contacts of the index patient; 89 (86%) submitted oropharyngeal swabs for screening and culture. Only 3 (3.4%) of contacts had a culture that yielded GAS; emm typing results and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns of GAS isolates from 2 HCWs were identical to those for the isolate from the index patient. Both HCWs were symptomatic, with febrile pharyngitis and reported prolonged contact with the open wound of the patient in the operating room. In this investigation, nosocomial transmission was not extensive, and standard precautions provided adequate protection for the majority of HCWs. Transmission was restricted to individuals with prolonged intraoperative exposure to open wounds. As a result, infection control policy for individuals was modified only for HCWs with exposure to GAS in the operating room.
Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J
To reduce the incidence of surgical fires. Operating room fires represent a potentially life-threatening hazard and are triggered by the electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil. Carbon dioxide is a fire suppressant and is a routinely used medical gas. We hypothesize that a shroud of protective carbon dioxide covering the tip of the ESU pencil displaces oxygen, thereby preventing fire ignition. Using 3-dimensional modeling techniques, a polymer sleeve was created and attached to an ESU pencil. This sleeve was connected to a carbon dioxide source and directed the gas through multiple precisely angled ports, generating a cone of fire-suppressive carbon dioxide surrounding the active pencil tip. This device was evaluated in a flammability test chamber containing 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen with sustained ESU activation. The sleeve was tested with and without carbon dioxide (control) until a fuel was ignited or 30 seconds elapsed. Time to ignition was measured by high-speed videography. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15 trials). The control group median ± SD ignition time in 21% oxygen was 3.0 ± 2.4 seconds, in 50% oxygen was 0.1 ± 1.8 seconds, and in 100% oxygen was 0.03 ± 0.1 seconds. No fire was observed when the fire safety device was used in all concentrations of oxygen (0/15 trials; P fire ignition was 76% to 100%. A sleeve creating a cone of protective carbon dioxide gas enshrouding the sparks from an ESU pencil effectively prevents fire in a high-flammability model. Clinical application of this device may reduce the incidence of operating room fires.
Alexandre, Dominique; Prieto, Marc; Beaumont, Fabien; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume
The purpose of this study is to quantify the impact of the weight of radiation protection lead aprons on the discomfort and the fatigue of the medical staff within an operating room of interventional gastroenterology. To quantify this fatigue, we analyzed variations of the physiological parameters, including heart rate, blood pressure, and cutaneous temperature; we compared two situations: the first within the classic endoscopy department (without apron) and the second within the operating room with apron. A follow-up study with lighter lead aprons was also conducted. We used infrared thermography as the principal method of analysis in our study. This technique permits us to obtain data, without body contact, of the spatial and temporal orientation of temperatures on subject skin. This method proves to be beneficial in the evaluation of the posture of users. The symmetry of the temperature evolution among the different body zones can contribute to the body balance analysis. Our results of the cutaneous temperatures obtained by infrared camera show significant differences in the muscular activity. All the muscular groups studied were revealed significant temperature increases. The temperature curve T2-T1 reveals the actual influence of carrying heavy apron loads. Regardless of the muscular group, this temperature increase varies on the range between 0.55°C and 0.95°C. The muscular groups most recruited are the trapezoids and pectorals. The muscles least recruited are those of the lower limbs. The study shows the impact of load bearing on the body mechanics of medical staff during work. It will be beneficial to develop this study to predict changes in skin temperature because of the various types of aprons and to determine the possible correlation between the thermal distribution and users' sense of comfort. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
We are going to consider the specific applications of the new legal system and of the most recent body of laws to those work environments of particular risk, such as healthcare facilities and in particular operating rooms. In such environments, volatile chemicals classified as "dangerous" are used with consequent exposure to "chemical risk", both of those persons professionally involved, depending on the type of activity, and of the patients to whom such activities are addressed in the same environment. Once the chemical risk is framed in the existing regulatory system, it must be specifically evaluated the application of the same principle to the particular chemical risk arising from the use of anesthetic agents in the operating room, for example sevoflurane and desflurane, being careful to test wether and how much this risk can be eliminated or reduced to minimum in relation to the new achievements of the technical progress. So, as soon as the quality of "dangerous chemical agent" of the "volatile chemicals" and of the "volatile liquid anesthetic" (sevoflurane and desflurane) as well--which are characterized by a lower degree of toxicity and for this reason are mostly used in current chemical practice, preferable to some anesthetic gases such as nitrous oxide--is legally verified, it is necessary to relate the scientific and technical data which result from the current "state of art" also to the other binding regulations that are imposed for the "prevention and protection from chemical agents", according to the relative Title IX of the TUSL (Unique text for Safety and Health at Work).
Wan, Eric L; Xie, Li; Barrett, Miceile; Baltodano, Pablo A; Rivadeneira, Andres F; Noboa, Jonathan; Silver, Maya; Zhou, Richard; Cho, Suzy; Tam, Tammie; Yurter, Alp; Gentry, Carol; Palacios, Jorge; Rosson, Gedge D; Redett, Richard J
In modern operating rooms, clean and unused medical supplies are routinely discarded and can be effectively recovered and redistributed abroad to alleviate the environmental burden of donor hospitals and to generate substantial health benefits at resource-poor recipient institutions. We established a recovery and donation program to collect clean and unused supplies for healthcare institutions in developing nations. We analyzed items donated over a 3-year period (September 2010-November 2013) by quantity and weight, and estimated the projected value of the program under potential nationwide participation. To capture the health benefits attributable to the donated supplies at recipient institutions, we partnered with two tertiary-care centers in Guayaquil, Ecuador and conducted a pilot study on the utility of the donated supplies at the recipient institutions (October 2013). We determined the disability-adjusted life years (DALY) averted for all patients undergoing procedures involving donated items and estimated the annual attributable DALY as well as the cost per DALY averted both by supply and by procedure. Approximately, 2 million lbs (907,185 kg) per year of medical supplies are recoverable from large non-rural US academic medical centers. Of these supplies, 19 common categories represent a potential for donation worth US $15 million per year, at a cost-utility of US $2.14 per DALY averted. Hospital operating rooms continue to represent a large source of recoverable surgical supplies that have demonstrable health benefits in the recipient communities. Cost-effective recovery and need-based donation programs can significantly alleviate the global burden of surgical diseases.
Wormer, Blair A; Augenstein, Vedra A; Carpenter, Christin L; Burton, Patrick V; Yokeley, William T; Prabhu, Ajita S; Harris, Beth; Norton, Sujatha; Klima, David A; Lincourt, Amy E; Heniford, B Todd
Generating over four billion pounds of waste each year, the healthcare system in the United States is the second largest contributor of trash with one-third produced by operating rooms. Our objective is to assess improvement in waste reduction and recycling after implementation of a Green Operating Room Committee (GORC) at our institution. A surgeon and nurse-initiated GORC was formed with members from corporate leadership, nursing, anesthesia, and OR staff. Initiatives for recycling opportunities, reduction of energy and water use as well as solid waste were implemented and the results were recorded. Since formation of GORC in 2008, our OR has diverted 6.5 tons of medical waste. An effort to recycle all single-use devices was implemented with annual solid waste reduction of approximately 12,860 lbs. Disposable OR foam padding was replaced with reusable gel pads at greater than $50,000 per year savings. Over 500 lbs of previously discarded batteries were salvaged from the OR and donated to charity or redistributed in the hospital ($9,000 annual savings). A "Power Down" initiative to turn off all anesthesia and OR lights and equipment not in use resulted in saving $33,000 and 234.3 metric tons of CO2 emissions reduced per year. Converting from soap to alcohol-based waterless scrub demonstrated a potential saving of 2.7 million liters of water annually. Formation of an OR committee dedicated to ecological initiatives can provide a significant opportunity to improve health care's impact on the environment and save money.
Full Text Available Context: The cost of anesthetic technique has three main components, i.e., disposable supplies, equipments, and anesthetic drugs. Drug budgets are an easily identifiable area for short-term savings. Aim: To assess and estimate the amount of anesthetic drug wastage in the general surgical operation room. Also, to analyze the financial implications to the hospital due to drug wastage and suggest appropriate steps to prevent or minimize this wastage. Settings and Design: A prospective observational study conducted in the general surgical operation room of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Drug wastage was considered as the amount of drug left unutilized in the syringes/vials after completion of a case and any ampoule or vial broken while loading. An estimation of the cost of wasted drug was made. Results: Maximal wastage was associated with adrenaline and lignocaine (100% and 93.63%, respectively. The drugs which accounted for maximum wastage due to not being used after loading into a syringe were adrenaline (95.24%, succinylcholine (92.63%, lignocaine (92.51%, mephentermine (83.80%, and atropine (81.82%. The cost of wasted drugs for the study duration was 46.57% (Rs. 16,044.01 of the total cost of drugs issued/loaded (Rs. 34,449.44. Of this, the cost of wastage of propofol was maximum being 56.27% (Rs. 9028.16 of the total wastage cost, followed by rocuronium 17.80% (Rs. 2856, vecuronium 5.23% (Rs. 840, and neostigmine 4.12% (Rs. 661.50. Conclusions: Drug wastage and the ensuing financial loss can be significant during the anesthetic management of surgical cases. Propofol, rocuronium, vecuronium, and neostigmine are the drugs which contribute maximally to the total wastage cost. Judicious use of these and other drugs and appropriate prudent measures as suggested can effectively decrease this cost.
Khoshbin, Amir; Lingard, Lorelei; Wright, James G
BACKGROUND: Wrong-site, wrong-procedure and wrong-patient surgeries are catastrophic events for patients, medical caregivers and institutions. Operating room (OR) briefings are intended to reduce the risk of wrong-site surgeries and promote collaboration among OR personnel. The purpose of our study was to evaluate 2 OR briefing safety initiatives, "07:35 huddles" (preoperative OR briefing) and "surgical time-outs" (perioperative OR briefing), at the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, Ont. METHODS: First, we evaluated the completion and components of the 07:35 huddles and surgical time-outs briefings using direct observations. We then evaluated the attitudes of the OR staff regarding safety in the OR using the "Safety Attitudes Questionnaire, Operating Room version." Finally, we conducted personal interviews with OR personnel. RESULTS: Based on direct observations, 102 of 159 (64.1%) 07:35 huddles and 230 of 232 (99.1%) surgical time-outs briefings were completed. The perception of safety in the OR improved, but only among nurses. Regarding difficulty discussing errors in the OR, the nurses' mean scores improved from 3.5 (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2-3.8) prebriefing to 2.8 (95% CI 2.5-3.2) postbriefing on a 5-point Likert scale (p < 0.05). Personal interviews confirmed that, mainly among the nursing staff, pre-and perioperative briefing tools increase the perception of communication within the OR, such that discussions regarding errors within the OR are more encouraged. CONCLUSION: Structured communication tools, such as 07:35 huddles and surgical time-outs briefings, especially for the nursing personnel, change the notion of individual advocacy to one of teamwork and being proactive about patient safety.
Myers, Douglas J; Epling, Carol; Dement, John; Hunt, Debra
The risk of percutaneous blood and body fluid (BBF) exposures in operating rooms was analyzed with regard to various properties of surgical procedures. Retrospective cohort study. A single university hospital. All surgical procedures performed during the period 2001-2002 (n=60,583) were included in the analysis. Administrative data were linked to allow examination of 389 BBF exposures. Stratified exposure rates were calculated; Poisson regression was used to analyze risk factors. Risk of percutaneous BBF exposure was examined separately for events involving suture needles and events involving other device types. Operating room personnel reported 6.4 BBF exposures per 1,000 surgical procedures (2.6 exposures per 1,000 surgical hours). Exposure rates increased with an increase in estimated blood loss (17.5 exposures per 1,000 procedures with 501-1,000 cc blood loss and 22.5 exposures per 1,000 procedures with >1,000 cc blood loss), increased number of personnel ever working in the surgical field (20.5 exposures per 1,000 procedures with 15 or more personnel ever in the field), and increased surgical procedure duration (13.7 exposures per 1,000 procedures that lasted 4-6 hours, 24.0 exposures per 1,000 procedures that lasted 6 hours or more). Associations were generally stronger for suture needle-related exposures. Our results support the need for prevention programs that are targeted to mitigate the risks for BBF exposure posed by high blood loss during surgery (eg, use of blunt suture needles and a neutral zone for passing surgical equipment) and prolonged duration of surgery (eg, double gloving to defend against the risk of glove perforation associated with long surgery). Further investigation is needed to understand the risks posed by lengthy surgical procedures.
Suria, S; Puizillout, J-M; Baguenard, P; Bourgain, J-L
controls performed at the opening of the operating room include the anesthesia machine auto-test. Omitting the preoperative checklist is unsafe for the patient and increases the risk of possible breakdowns. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and the situations in which the auto-test of the machine was not performed at the opening of the operative room. from a database including 55 195 cases between 1st January 2002 and 31st July 2009, a query identified cases in which the auto-test of the anaesthesia machine was omitted and the cases in which anaesthesia was made in spite of the failure of this test. Clinical circumstances were analyzed and anaesthetist and/or nurse anaesthetist were identified from the computerized anaesthesia record. one hundred and ninety cases (1.24%) were identified. Seventy-three percent of the omissions of the auto-test occurred while on duty whereas 85% of the failures of the auto-test took place at the beginning of the scheduled program. Individual factor was identified since three anaesthesiologists out of 22 were responsible for 49% of omissions on duty and one nurse anesthetist was responsible for 18% of the use of a failed machine and 30% of the omission of the auto-test. the auto-test of the anesthesia machine was correctly made in most cases but there are still situations where the checklist wasn't carried out. Therefore, the human factor seems important and justifies to be taken into account. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The most expensive variable in the operating room (OR is time. Lean Process Management is being used in the medical field to improve efficiency in the OR. Streamlining individual processes within the OR is crucial to a comprehensive time saving and cost-cutting health care strategy. At our institution, one hour of OR time costs approximately $500, exclusive of supply and personnel costs. Commercially prepared splint packs (SP contain all components necessary for plaster-of-Paris short-leg splint application and have the potential to decrease splint application time and overall costs by making it a more lean process. We conducted a randomized controlled trial comparing OR time savings between SP use and bulk supply (BS splint application. Methods: Fifty consecutive adult operative patients on whom post-operative short-leg splint immobilization was indicated were randomized to either a control group using BS or an experimental group using SP. One orthopaedic surgeon (EMB prepared and applied all of the splints in a standardized fashion. Retrieval time, preparation time, splint application time, and total splinting time for both groups were measured and statistically analyzed. Results: The retrieval time, preparation time and total splinting time were significantly less (p
Brandeau, Margaret L
Operations research (OR)-based analyses have the potential to improve decision making for many important, real-world health care problems. However, junior scholars often avoid working on practical applications in health because promotion and tenure processes tend to value theoretical studies more highly than applied studies. This paper discusses the author's experiences in using OR to inform and influence decisions in health and provides a blueprint for junior researchers who wish to find success by taking a similar path. This involves selecting good problems to study, forming productive collaborations with domain experts, developing appropriate models, identifying the most salient results from an analysis, and effectively disseminating findings to decision makers. The paper then suggests how journals, funding agencies, and senior academics can encourage such work by taking a broader and more informed view of the potential role and contributions of OR to solving health care problems. Making room in academia for the application of OR in health follows in the tradition begun by the founders of operations research: to work on important real-world problems where operations research can contribute to better decision making.
Kersten-Oertel, Marta; Gerard, Ian; Drouin, Simon; Mok, Kelvin; Sirhan, Denis; Sinclair, David S; Collins, D Louis
The aim of this report is to present a prototype augmented reality (AR) intra-operative brain imaging system. We present our experience of using this new neuronavigation system in neurovascular surgery and discuss the feasibility of this technology for aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), and arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs). We developed an augmented reality system that uses an external camera to capture the live view of the patient on the operating room table and to merge this view with pre-operative volume-rendered vessels. We have extensively tested the system in the laboratory and have used the system in four surgical cases: one aneurysm, two AVMs and one AVF case. The developed AR neuronavigation system allows for precise patient-to-image registration and calibration of the camera, resulting in a well-aligned augmented reality view. Initial results suggest that augmented reality is useful for tailoring craniotomies, localizing vessels of interest, and planning resection corridors. Augmented reality is a promising technology for neurovascular surgery. However, for more complex anomalies such as AVMs and AVFs, better visualization techniques that allow one to distinguish between arteries and veins and determine the absolute depth of a vessel of interest are needed.
Francois, M; Girard, R; Mauranne, C C; Ruffion, A; Terrier, J E
The surgical hand disinfection by friction (SDF) helps to reduce the risk of surgical site infections. For this purpose and in order to promote good compliance to quality care, the urology service of Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud achieved a continuous internal audit to improve the quality of the SDF. An internal audit executed by the medical students of urology was established in 2013. The study population was all operators, instrumentalists and operating aids of urology operating room (OR). Each student realized 5-10 random observations, of all types of professionals. The criteria measured by the audit were criteria for friction. The evolution of indicators was positive. Particularly, the increasing duration of the first and second friction was statistically significant during follow-up (P=0.001). The total duration of friction shows a similar trend for all professionals. The surgical hand disinfection by friction in the urology OR of the Centre Hospitalier Lyon Sud has gradually improved over the iterative audits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Hartog, C S; Rothaug, J; Goettermann, A; Zimmer, A; Meissner, W
The practice of post-operative pain therapy continues to be a problem. We conducted a survey among nurses and physicians about their views of an established post-operative pain management program. A questionnaire was sent to all nurses and physicians of nine surgical wards (general, trauma, cardio-thoracic and oromaxillofacial surgery and gynecology). Questions were developed from qualitative interviews with staff. Patient data were derived from a post-operative pain registry. Seventy-eight physicians and nurses answered; the overall response rate was 23%. Post-operative pain therapy had high personal priority on an 11-point numeric rating scale (mean 9.08+/-1.27 standard deviation), but the success of pain management on the ward was rated as 7.32+/-1.37. Staff rating of success tended to correspond with patients' actual pain ratings. Knowledge of pain therapy was assessed as 6.85+/-1.82; nurses consistently rated levels higher than physicians. Staff over- or underestimated the painfulness of typical procedures and females rated procedures as more painful than men. There was considerable confusion about responsibilities and duties. 10.7% of staff perceived time delays exceeding 6 h between a request for acute pain services (APS) consultation and administration of medication to the patient. Invited comments suggested improvement in personnel education, team coordination, communication with patients and speed of action to increase the quality of pain therapy. Despite staff's high personal priority and well-established APS and pain management program, post-operative pain therapy still leaves room for improvement. Considerable confusion about responsibilities and duties underlines the importance of better organizational approaches.
Basson, Marc D; Butler, Timothy W; Verma, Harish
Previous attempts at improving operating room utilization have generally emphasized more accurate scheduling, starting the first case on time, and reducing turnover time. Surgical case cancellations have largely been ignored except for recommendations for preoperative screening and good physician-patient communication to improve patient compliance. A retrospective review of operating room records was initially used to identify reasons for surgical cancellations. This was followed by a retrospective stratified case-control study of patient records to identify preexisting factors that predict the failure of patients to appear for surgical procedures as scheduled. Factors assessed included demographics, type of surgical procedure, compliance with previous healthcare visits, substance abuse, mental illness, travel distance, and neurologic problems. The authors reviewed their operating room utilization and found patient nonappearance rates to be a substantial source of surgical cancellations. Furthermore, multivariate analysis demonstrated that patient nonappearance could be strongly predicted from patient noncompliance with clinic visits and other clinical procedures without reference to the other variables assessed. Further analysis of data from an independent sample of patients confirmed this observation. Noncompliance with hospital visits for surgical procedures can be predicted from noncompliance with other healthcare encounters. Surgical procedures for previously noncompliant patients should be booked at the end of the operating room day, when the cancellation is least likely to interfere with operating room flow.
Full Text Available Background: Operating room personnel are at high risk of needlestick injuries (NSIs and exposure to blood and body fluids. Objective: To investigate the predictors of NSIs preventive behaviors during surgery among operating room personnel based on a health belief model (HBM. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 128 operating room personnel in Hamadan, western Iran. Participants were selected, by census sampling, from teaching hospitals, completed a self-reported questionnaire including demographic characteristics, knowledge and HBM constructs. Results: The levels of knowledge and perceived self-efficacy for the NSIs preventive behaviors among operating room personnel were not satisfactory. However, the levels of perceived benefits, susceptibility and severity were reported to be relatively good. The results showed that the perceived susceptibility (β ‑0.627 and cues to action (β 0.695 were the most important predictors of the NSIs preventive behaviors. Conclusion: The framework of the HBM is useful to predict the NSIs preventive behaviors among operating room personnel.
Basques, Bryce A; Golinvaux, Nicholas S; Bohl, Daniel D; Yacob, Alem; Toy, Jason O; Varthi, Arya G; Grauer, Jonathan N
Retrospective database review. To evaluate whether microscope use during spine procedures is associated with increased operating room times or increased risk of infection. Operating microscopes are commonly used in spine procedures. It is debated whether the use of an operating microscope increases operating room time or confers increased risk of infection. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database, which includes data from more than 370 participating hospitals, was used to identify patients undergoing elective spinal procedures with and without the use of an operating microscope for the years 2011 and 2012. Bivariate and multivariate linear regressions were used to test the association between microscope use and operating room times. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were similarly conducted to test the association between microscope use and infection occurrence within 30 days of surgery. A total of 23,670 elective spine procedures were identified, of which 2226 (9.4%) used an operating microscope. The average patient age was 55.1±14.4 years. The average operative time (incision to closure) was 125.7±82.0 minutes.Microscope use was associated with minor increases in preoperative room time (+2.9 min, P=0.013), operative time (+13.2 min, Pspine surgery. 3.
van 't Veen, Annemarie; van der Zee, Anneke; Nelson, Jolande; Speelberg, Ben; Kluytmans, Jan A J W; Buiting, Anton G M
An outbreak with a multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (MRKP) strain among seven patients admitted to the adult intensive care unit (ICU) of a regional teaching hospital in The Netherlands was investigated. Epidemiologic investigations revealed a short delay between an operation and the acquisition of the MRKP strain. A case-control study comprising 7 cases and 14 controls was conducted to identify the risk factors associated with the acquisition of the MRKP strain. An operation at each of two operation rooms was strongly associated with the acquisition of the MRKP strain: odds ratio of 36 (95% confidence interval, 2.7 to 481.2; P=0.003, Fisher exact two-tailed test). Cultures of environmental specimens of the operation rooms revealed contamination of the roll boards used to transport patients from the bed to the operation table with the MRKP strains. Molecular genotyping of the isolates revealed clonal similarity between the isolates of the seven cases, isolates from environmental specimen cultures, and in addition, an MRKP isolate from a re-patriated ICU patient from earlier that year. The outbreak ended after cleaning and replacement of the roll boards in the operation rooms and implementation of additional barrier precautions for colonized or infected patients. It was concluded that two operation rooms played a significant role in the transmission of an MRKP strain between ICU patients during the presented outbreak.
Yule, Steven; Parker, Sarah Henrickson; Wilkinson, Jill; McKinley, Aileen; MacDonald, Jamie; Neill, Adrian; McAdam, Tim
To investigate the effect of coaching on non-technical skills and performance during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated operating room (OR). Non-technical skills (situation awareness, decision making, teamwork, and leadership) underpin technical ability and are critical to the success of operations and the safety of patients in the OR. The rate of developing assessment tools in this area has outpaced development of workable interventions to improve non-technical skills in surgical training and beyond. A randomized trial was conducted with senior surgical residents (n = 16). Participants were randomized to receive either non-technical skills coaching (intervention) or to self-reflect (control) after each of 5 simulated operations. Coaching was based on the Non-Technical Skills For Surgeons (NOTSS) behavior observation system. Surgeon-coaches trained in this method coached participants in the intervention group for 10 minutes after each simulation. Primary outcome measure was non-technical skills, assessed from video by a surgeon using the NOTSS system. Secondary outcomes were time to call for help during bleeding, operative time, and path length of laparoscopic instruments. Non-technical skills improved in the intervention group from scenario 1 to scenario 5 compared with those in the control group (p = 0.04). The intervention group was faster to call for help when faced with unstoppable bleeding in the final scenario (no. 5; p = 0.03). Coaching improved residents' non-technical skills in the simulated OR compared with those in the control group. Important next steps are to implement non-technical skills coaching in the real OR and assess effect on clinically important process measures and patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Si On Kim
Full Text Available Background: External ventricular drainage (EVD is an important procedure for draining excessive cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and monitoring intracranial pressure. Generally, EVD is performed in the operating room (OR under aseptic conditions. However, in emergency circumstances, the operation may be performed in the intensive care unit (ICU to save neuro-critical time and to avoid the unnecessary transfer of patients. In this study, we retrospectively analyzed the risk of EVD-induced CNS infections and their outcomes according to the operating place (ICU versus OR. In addition, we compared mortalities as well as hospital and ICU days between the CNS infection and non-CNS infection groups. Methods: We reviewed medical records, laboratory data and radiographic images of patients who had received EVD operations between January, 2013 and March, 2015. Results: A total of 75 patients (45 men and 30 women, mean age: 58.7 ± 15.6 years were enrolled in this study. An average of 1.4 catheters were used for each patient and the mean period of the indwelling catheter was 7.5 ± 5.0 days. Twenty-six patients were included in the ICU group, and EVD-induced CNS infection had occurred in 3 (11.5% patients. For the OR group, forty-nine patients were included and EVD-induced CNS infection had occurred in 7 (14.3% patients. The EVD-induced CNS infection of the ICU group did not increase above that of the OR group. The ICU days and mortality rate were higher in the CNS infection group compared to the non-CNS infection group. The period of the indwelling EVD catheter and the number of inserted EVD catheters were both higher in the CNS infection group. Conclusions: If the aseptic protocols and barrier precautions are strictly kept, EVD in the ICU does not have a higher risk of CNS infections compared to the OR. In addition, EVD in the ICU can decrease the hospital and ICU days by saving neuro-critical time and avoiding the unnecessary transfer of patients. Therefore
Wachs, Juan P; Gomez, Gerardo
This paper discusses the challenges and innovations related to the use of telementoring systems in the operating room. Most of the systems presented leverage on three types of interaction channels: audio, visual and physical. The audio channel enables the mentor to verbally instruct the trainee, and allows the trainee to ask questions. The visual channel is used to deliver annotations, alerts and other messages graphically to the trainee during the surgery. These visual representations are often displayed through a telestrator. The physical channel has been used in laparoscopic procedures by partially controlling the laparoscope through force-feedback. While in face to face instruction, the mentor produces gestures to convey certain aspects of the surgical instruction, there is not equivalent of this form of physical interaction between the mentor and trainee in open surgical procedures in telementoring systems. Even that the trend is to perform more minimally invasive surgery (MIS), trauma surgeries are still necessary, where initial resuscitation and stabilization of the patient in a timely manner is crucial. This paper presents a preliminary study conducted at the Indiana University Medical School and Purdue University, where initial lexicons of surgical instructive gestures (SIGs) were determined through systematic observation when mentor and trainee operate together. The paper concludes with potential ways to convey gestural information through surgical robots.
Clark, Nicholas; Schneider, David F; Vrabec, Sara; Bauer, Philip S; Chen, Herbert; Sippel, Rebecca S
Thyroid and parathyroid procedures historically have been viewed as inpatient procedures. Because of the advancements in surgical techniques, these procedures were transferred from the inpatient operating room (OR) to the outpatient OR at a single academic institution approximately 7 y ago. The goal of this study was to determine whether this change has decreased turnover times and maximized OR utilization. We performed a retrospective review of 707 patients undergoing thyroid (34%) and parathyroid (66%) procedures by a single surgeon at our academic institution between 2005 and 2008. Inpatient and outpatient groups were compared using Student t-test, chi-square test, or the Kruskal-Wallis test where appropriate. Multiple regression analysis was used to determine how patient and hospital factors influenced turnover times. Turnover times were significantly lower in the outpatient OR (mean 18 ± 0.7 min) when compared with the inpatient OR (mean 36 ± 1.4 min) (P operative indication of cancer (23.1% versus 9.2%, P < 0.001). Using multiple regression, the inpatient OR remained highly significantly associated with higher turnover times when controlling for these small differences (P < 0.001). Endocrine procedures performed in the outpatient OR have significantly faster turnover times leading to cost savings and greater OR utilization for hospitals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Welker, A; Wolcke, B; Schleppers, A; Schmeck, S B; Focke, U; Gervais, H W; Schmeck, J
The introduction of the diagnosis-related groups reimbursement system has increased cost pressures. Due to the interaction of many different professional groups, analysis and optimization of internal coordination and scheduling in the operating room (OR) is mandatory. The aim of this study was to analyze the processes at a university hospital in order to optimize strategies by identifying potential weak points. Over a period 6 weeks before and 4 weeks after intervention processes time intervals in the OR of a tertiary care hospital (university hospital) were documented in a structured data collection sheet. The main reason for lack of efficiency of labor was underused OR utilization. Multifactorial reasons, particularly in the management of perioperative interfaces, led to vacant ORs. A significant deficit was in the use of OR capacity at the end of the daily OR schedule. After harmonization of working hours of different staff groups and implementation of several other changes an increase in efficiency could be verified. These results indicate that optimization of perioperative processes considerably contribute to the success of OR organization. Additionally, the implementation of standard operating procedures and a generally accepted OR statute are mandatory. In this way an efficient OR management can contribute to the economic success of a hospital.
Tanaka, Masayuki; Lee, Jason; Ikai, Hiroshi; Imanaka, Yuichi
The efficiency of a hospital's operating room (OR) management can affect its overall profitability. However, existing indicators that assess OR management efficiency do not take into account differences in hospital size, manpower and functional characteristics, thereby rendering them unsuitable for multi-institutional comparisons. The aim of this study was to develop indicators of OR management efficiency that would take into account differences in hospital size and manpower, which may then be applied to multi-institutional comparisons. Using administrative data from 224 hospitals in Japan from 2008 to 2010, we performed four multiple linear regression analyses at the hospital level, in which the dependent variables were the number of operations per OR per month, procedural fees per OR per month, total utilization times per OR per month and total fees per OR per month for each of the models. The expected values of these four indicators were produced using multiple regression analysis results, adjusting for differences in hospital size and manpower, which are beyond the control of process owners' management. However, more than half of the variations in three of these four indicators were shown to be explained by differences in hospital size and manpower. Using the ratio of observed to expected values (OE ratio), as well as the difference between the two values (OE difference) allows hospitals to identify weaknesses in efficiency with more validity when compared to unadjusted indicators. The new indicators may support the improvement and sustainment of a high-quality health care system. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Gabriel, Allen; Maxwell, G Patrick; Griffin, Leah; Champaneria, Manish C; Parekh, Mousam; Macarios, David
Centrifugation (Cf) is a common method of fat processing but may be time consuming, especially when processing large volumes. To determine the effects on fat grafting time, volume efficiency, reoperations, and complication rates of Cf vs an autologous fat processing system (Rv) that incorporates fat harvesting and processing in a single unit. We performed a retrospective cohort study of consecutive patients who underwent autologous fat grafting during reconstructive breast surgery with Rv or Cf. Endpoints measured were volume of fat harvested (lipoaspirate) and volume injected after processing, time to complete processing, reoperations, and complications. A budget impact model was used to estimate cost of Rv vs Cf. Ninety-eight patients underwent fat grafting with Rv, and 96 patients received Cf. Mean volumes of lipoaspirate (506.0 vs 126.1 mL) and fat injected (177.3 vs 79.2 mL) were significantly higher (P operating room cost, an average per patient cost savings of $2,870.08 was estimated with Rv vs Cf. Compared to Cf, the Rv fat processing system allowed for a larger volume of fat to be processed for injection and decreased operative time in these patients, potentially translating to cost savings. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE 3. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.
Grzebyk, Wiesław; Stolecki, Lech
The copper ore deposit of the Legnica-Głogów Copper Mining District a one-deck bed formed from the contact of weak sandstone rocks, and solid, durable dolomite rocks, separated by a layer of copper slate. The bed operation is carried out using the room and pillar system. The course of deformation in such bed operation systems is determined by the mutual interaction of particular elements of the geo-mechanical system which include: the roof slab, the pillars and the excavation bed. Due to the possibility of human intervention, structural pillars - whose strength properties can be determined by the appropriate selection of their dimensions and shape - play a particular role in this system. The optimization of the properties of these pillars is mainly based on the results of laboratory tests of rock samples in the strength test machine and on the basis of visual observations of their behavior in situ. The article presents the experimental results carried out under pit conditions in order to determine the rock pillar reaction. Suitable observations were made using the so-called volumetric method. The obtained results were discussed in relation to the results of strength tests on rock samples, indicating the limited similarity to the deformation characteristics.
Lembo, M; Cannatà, V; Militello, A; Ritrovato, M; Zaffina, S; Derrico, P; Borra, MassimoM
Lighting in operating rooms must ensure conditions of visual comfort, wellbeing and safety when procedures are being carried out, so as to preserve the health of both workers and patients. In this study we attempted to develop a methodology for specifically assessing the risk for surgeons of exposure to blue light, simulating the surgeon's real working conditions. Visual comfort was also assessed by measuring maintained illuminance (Em) and the luminance levels in the visual task area within the operating field. Blue light exposure was measured by an OCEAN OPTICS-QE65000 spectroradiometer and a LSI-Lastem model Z-Lux radiometer, while for lighting measurements, a videophotometer and luxmeter were used. Results show that the surgeons were exposed to blue light values lower than the limit of effective radiance LB= 100 W m-2 sr-1 foreseen by European Directive 2006/25/EC. For visual comfort, significant differences in illumination were observed between surrounding areas and the visual task areas, with very high luminance values measured in most of the observation points. In this case the measured values confirm that the workers were daily exposed to unsuitable luminance contrasts that can cause eyestrain. Given such results and considering the task analysis, we proposed to extend health surveillance to workers performing activities such as precision surgery for prolonged periods.
Taaffe, Kevin; Lee, Brandon; Ferrand, Yann; Fredendall, Lawrence; San, Dee; Salgado, Cassandra; Shvorin, Dotan; Khoshkenar, Amin; Reeves, Scott
OBJECTIVE To determine how the movement of patients, equipment, materials, staff, and door openings within the operating room (OR) affect microbial loads at various locations within the OR. DESIGN Observation and sampling study. SETTING Academic health center, public hospital. METHODS We first analyzed 27 videotaped procedures to determine the areas in the OR with high and low numbers of people in transit. We then placed air samplers and settle plates in representative locations during 21 procedures in 4 different ORs during 2 different seasons of the year to measure microbial load in colony-forming units (CFU). The temperature and humidity, number of door openings, physical movement, and the number of people in the OR were measured for each procedure. Statistical analysis was conducted using hierarchical regression. RESULTS The microbial load was affected by the time of year that the samples were taken. Both microbial load measured by the air samplers and by settle plates in 1 area of the OR was correlated with the physical movement of people in the same area but not with the number of door openings and the number of people in the OR. CONCLUSIONS Movement in the OR is correlated with the microbial load. Establishing operational guidelines or developing OR layouts that focus on minimizing movement by incorporating desirable internal storage points and workstations can potentially reduce microbial load, thereby potentially reducing surgical site infection risk. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2018;1-7.
Juan P. Wachs
Full Text Available This paper discusses the challenges and innovations related to the use of telementoring systems in the operating room. Most of the systems presented leverage on three types of interaction channels: audio, visual and physical. The audio channel enables the mentor to verbally instruct the trainee, and allows the trainee to ask questions. The visual channel is used to deliver annotations, alerts and other messages graphically to the trainee during the surgery. These visual representations are often displayed through a telestrator. The physical channel has been used in laparoscopic procedures by partially controlling the laparoscope through force-feedback. While in face to face instruction, the mentor produces gestures to convey certain aspects of the surgical instruction, there is not equivalent of this form of physical interaction between the mentor and trainee in open surgical procedures in telementoring systems. Even that the trend is to perform more minimally invasive surgery (MIS, trauma surgeries are still necessary, where initial resuscitation and stabilization of the patient in a timely manner is crucial. This paper presents a preliminary study conducted at the Indiana University Medical School and Purdue University, where initial lexicons of surgical instructive gestures (SIGs were determined through systematic observation when mentor and trainee operate together. The paper concludes with potential ways to convey gestural information through surgical robots.
A real case reported to the SENSAR database of incidents is presented. In a patient scheduled for nose fracture repair surgery an unexpected atrial fibrillation was found when monitored in the operating room. The operation was not delayed. After induction of general anaesthesia heart rate suddenly increased and hemodinamic situation was impaired. Cardioversion was required. Two electric countershocks were given but sinus rhythm was not restored. Heart rate was controlled with amiodarone infusion. Optimal defibrillation characteristics are described in these cases. Increased risk of thromboembolism (1-2%) following cardioversion is present even if atrial thrombi are ruled out. The mainstay therapies of are rhythm and rate control and prevention of thromboembolic complications. We describe recommendations on the management of these critical situations with emphasis in learning through the creation of protocols and training practice in simulation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Thomsen, Ann Sofia Skou; Bach-Holm, Daniella; Kjærbo, Hadi; Højgaard-Olsen, Klavs; Subhi, Yousif; Saleh, George M; Park, Yoon Soo; la Cour, Morten; Konge, Lars
To investigate the effect of virtual reality proficiency-based training on actual cataract surgery performance. The secondary purpose of the study was to define which surgeons benefit from virtual reality training. Multicenter masked clinical trial. Eighteen cataract surgeons with different levels of experience. Cataract surgical training on a virtual reality simulator (EyeSi) until a proficiency-based test was passed. Technical performance in the operating room (OR) assessed by 3 independent, masked raters using a previously validated task-specific assessment tool for cataract surgery (Objective Structured Assessment of Cataract Surgical Skill). Three surgeries before and 3 surgeries after the virtual reality training were video-recorded, anonymized, and presented to the raters in random order. Novices (non-independently operating surgeons) and surgeons having performed fewer than 75 independent cataract surgeries showed significant improvements in the OR-32% and 38%, respectively-after virtual reality training (P = 0.008 and P = 0.018). More experienced cataract surgeons did not benefit from simulator training. The reliability of the assessments was high with a generalizability coefficient of 0.92 and 0.86 before and after the virtual reality training, respectively. Clinically relevant cataract surgical skills can be improved by proficiency-based training on a virtual reality simulator. Novices as well as surgeons with an intermediate level of experience showed improvement in OR performance score. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saito, Yuhei; Yasuhara, Hiroshi; Murakoshi, Satoshi; Komatsu, Takami; Fukatsu, Kazuhiko; Uetera, Yushi
There is no established method to assess the contamination of environmental surfaces because the results change with time. We evaluated current methods for assessment of contamination of environmental surfaces in the operating room (OR). Contamination of environmental surfaces in the OR was assessed using an adenosine triphosphate (ATP) test and bacterial culture. We collected 480 ATP test samples from 17 surfaces in 6 ORs to determine the influence of surface features, including frequency of touching and surface orientation on contamination, after completion of daily scheduled operations. Another 54 pairs of ATP and microbial samples were taken from 3 surfaces in each of the same OR except 1 to determine the time course of the results of ATP and microbial tests when ORs were not used. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that the ATP results were strongly influenced by frequency of touching and orientation of environmental surfaces. The microbial counts declined over time, whereas the ATP results remained at a high level. The ATP test result could be used as a relatively stable trace of contamination of environmental surfaces; however, it is not a surrogate indicator of the number of viable microbes which declines over time. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Renson, Luc; Poilvache, Pascal; Van den Wyngaert, Hans
Achieving accurate alignment in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains a concern. Patient-specific instrumentation (PSI) produced using preoperative 3D models was developed to offer surgeons a simplified, reliable, efficient and customised TKA procedure. In this prospective study, 60 patients underwent TKA with conventional instrumentation and 71 patients were operated on using PSI. The primary endpoint was surgical time. Secondary endpoints included operating room (OR) time, the number of instrument trays used and postoperative radiographic limb alignment. Compared to conventional instrumentation, PSI significantly reduced total surgical time by 8.9 ± 3.3 min (p=0.038), OR time by 8.6 ± 4.2 min (p=0.043), and the number of instrument trays by six trays (p3° was observed in 13% of PSI patients versus 29% with conventional instrumentation (p=0.043). PSI predicted the size of the femoral and tibial components actually used in 85.9% and 78.9% of cases, respectively. PSI improves alignment, surgical and OR time, reduces the number of instruments trays used compared to conventional instrumentation in patients undergoing TKA and results in fewer outliers in overall mechanical alignment in the coronal plane. Prospective comparative therapeutic study. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Read-Brown, Sarah; Sanders, David S.; Brown, Anna S.; Yackel, Thomas R.; Choi, Dongseok; Tu, Daniel C.; Chiang, Michael F.
Efficiency and quality of documentation are critical in surgical settings because operating rooms are a major source of revenue, and because adverse events may have enormous consequences. Electronic health records (EHRs) have potential to impact surgical volume, quality, and documentation time. Ophthalmology is an ideal domain to examine these issues because procedures are high-throughput and demand efficient documentation. This time-motion study examines nursing documentation during implementation of an EHR operating room management system in an ophthalmology department. Key findings are: (1) EHR nursing documentation time was significantly worse during early implementation, but improved to a level near but slightly worse than paper baseline, (2) Mean documentation time varied significantly among nurses during early implementation, and (3) There was no decrease in operating room turnover time or surgical volume after implementation. These findings have important implications for ambulatory surgery departments planning EHR implementation, and for research in system design. PMID:24551402
Read-Brown, Sarah; Sanders, David S; Brown, Anna S; Yackel, Thomas R; Choi, Dongseok; Tu, Daniel C; Chiang, Michael F
Efficiency and quality of documentation are critical in surgical settings because operating rooms are a major source of revenue, and because adverse events may have enormous consequences. Electronic health records (EHRs) have potential to impact surgical volume, quality, and documentation time. Ophthalmology is an ideal domain to examine these issues because procedures are high-throughput and demand efficient documentation. This time-motion study examines nursing documentation during implementation of an EHR operating room management system in an ophthalmology department. Key findings are: (1) EHR nursing documentation time was significantly worse during early implementation, but improved to a level near but slightly worse than paper baseline, (2) Mean documentation time varied significantly among nurses during early implementation, and (3) There was no decrease in operating room turnover time or surgical volume after implementation. These findings have important implications for ambulatory surgery departments planning EHR implementation, and for research in system design.
Gioffrè, A; Dragone, M; Ammoscato, I; Iannò, A; Marramao, A; Samele, P; Sorrentino, D
The operating room is a complex environment, traditionally considered at high infectious risk, for both the patients and the health care workers, they can contract diseases, because of the exposure for relatively long times to various dangerous chemical, physical and biological factors. The biological contamination in the operating rooms is mostly imputable to airborne and bloodborne microorganisms, whose primary source represent the staff: patients and operating team, while either secondary sources are the contaminate air introduced from the VCCC system and the use of the infect instruments. About 10% of the hospital infections are determined by airborne bacteria and a variable fraction of these, not only in immunocompromised patients but also in healthy people, may cause the respirators pathologies. The aim of this paper was to estimate the microbial contamination, in 20 hospitals located in three regions of the South Italy, for a total 81 operating rooms. The results show that 17 of the 20 operating units and 45 out of 81 operating rooms examined are contaminated. Periodic inspections should be carried out in order to control and lower the biological risk for both the patients and the health care workers.
Chen, Xiaodong Phoenix; Williams, Reed G; Smink, Douglas S
The amount of guidance provided by the attending surgeon in the operating room (OR) is a key element in developing residents' autonomy. The purpose of this study is to explore factors that affect attending surgeons' decision making regarding OR guidance provided to the resident. We used video-stimulated recall interviews (VSRI) throughout this 2-phase study. In Phase 1, 3 attending surgeons were invited to review separately 30 to 45 minute video segments of their prerecorded surgical operations to explore factors that influenced their OR guidance decision making. In Phase 2, 3 attending surgeons were observed and documented in the OR (4 operations, 341min). Each operating surgeon reviewed their videotaped surgical performance within 5 days of the operation to reflect on factors that affected their decision making during the targeted guidance events. All VSRI were recorded. Thematic analysis and manual coding were used to synthesize and analyze data from VSRI transcripts, OR observation documents, and field notes. A total of 255 minutes of VSRI involving 6 surgeons and 7 surgical operations from 5 different procedures were conducted. A total of 13 guidance decision-making influence factors from 4 categories were identified (Cohen's κ = 0.674): Setting (case schedule and patient morbidity), content (procedure attributes and case progress), resident (current competency level, trustworthiness, self-confidence, and personal traits), and attending surgeon (level of experience, level of comfort, preferred surgical technique, OR training philosophy, and responsibility as surgeon). A total of 5 factors (case schedule, patient morbidity, procedure attributes, resident current competency level, and trustworthiness) influenced attending surgeons' pre-OR guidance plans. "OR training philosophy" and "responsibility as surgeon" were anchor factors that affected attending surgeons' OR guidance decision-making patterns. Surgeons' OR guidance decision making is a dynamic process
Lewis, Brian D; Spencer, Maureen; Rossi, Peter J; Lee, Cheong J; Brown, Kellie R; Malinowski, Michael; Seabrook, Gary R; Edmiston, Charles E
Terminal cleaning in the operating room is a critical step in preventing the transmission of health care-associated pathogens. The persistent disinfectant activity of a novel isopropyl alcohol/organofunctional silane solution (ISO) was evaluated in 4 operating rooms after terminal cleaning. Adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence documented a significant difference (P contamination on IOS-treated surfaces compared with controls. Further studies are warranted to validate the persistent disinfectant activity of ISO within selective health care settings. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bernalte-Martí, Vicente; Orts-Cortés, María Isabel; Maciá-Soler, Loreto
To assess nursing professionals and health care assistants' perceptions, opinions and behaviours on patient safety culture in the operating room of a public hospital of the Spanish National Health Service. To describe strengths and weaknesses or opportunities for improvement according to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality criteria, as well as to determine the number of events reported. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted using the Spanish version of the questionnaire Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture. The sample consisted of nursing professionals, who agreed to participate voluntarily in this study and met the selection criteria. A descriptive and inferential analysis was performed depending on the nature of the variables and the application conditions of statistical tests. Significance if p < .05. In total, 74 nursing professionals responded (63.2%). No strengths were found in the operating theatre, and improvements are needed concerning staffing (64.0%), and hospital management support for patient safety (52.9%). A total of 52.3% (n = 65) gave patient safety a score from 7 to 8.99 (on a 10 point scale); 79.7% (n = 72) reported no events last year. The total variance explained by the regression model was 0.56 for "Frequency of incident reporting" and 0.26 for "Overall perception of safety". There was a more positive perception of patient safety culture at unit level. Weaknesses have been identified, and they can be used to design specific intervention activities to improve patient safety culture in other nearby operating theatres. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Scalea, Thomas M; Carco, Darlene; Reece, Melissa; Fouche, Yvette L; Pollak, Andrew N; Nagarkatti, Sushruta S
Operating room (OR) turnaround times (TATs) and on-time first-case starts (FCSs) are commonly used measures of OR efficiency. Prolonged TATs and late FCSs occur frequently at academic medical centers. To test the hypothesis that establishing a financial incentive program (FIP) for OR teams would improve efficiency, leading to decreased TATs and improved on-time FCSs. Prospective study to evaluate the effect of an FIP on OR efficiency between March 1, 2013, and December 31, 2013, at a freestanding academic trauma hospital. Participants were all OR team members and included anesthesiologists, certified registered nurse anesthetists, nurses, and technicians. Operating room efficiency awareness education was conducted before FIP implementation beginning in February 2013. Each eligible OR team member achieving a TAT of 60 minutes or less or an on-time FCS was awarded 1 point. Reports listing individual performances were posted. Pay bonuses were awarded for achieving 1 of 3 progressive point totals in any month. Outcomeswere TAT, whichwas defined as “wheels out” to “wheels in,” and on-time FCS, which was defined as “wheels in” within 6 minutes of the scheduled start time. Before FIP implementation, the mean TAT varied between 77 and 83 minutes, with only 18%to 26%of TATs being 60 minutes or less; on-time FCSs averaged 29% to 34%. After FIP implementation, on-time FCSs improved from 31% to 64%(P < .001), and TATs of 60 minutes or less increased from 24%to 52%(P < .001). The cost of a 2-month FIP was $8340. We saved 13 minutes per TAT, for an estimated savings of $177 000.We estimate an additional savings of $33 000 for on-time FCSs, for a total hospital savings of $210 000. A novel FIP improved OR efficiency. Given the small amount of money involved, it seems unlikely that financial incentives were solely responsible. Effectively communicating the importance of TATs and on-time FCSs and publishing individual results more likely increased staff awareness
Tsai, Mitchell H; Cipri, Leah A; O'Donnell, Stephen E; Matthew Fisher, J; Andritsos, Dimitrios A
For many hospitals, the non-operating room anesthesia (NORA) workload continues to expand. We developed a new NORA scheduling process with shared block time - a sandbox - amongst all of the gastroenterology groups and measured the efficacy of the intervention using basic operating room management metrics. Prospective analysis, statistical process control. Academic, rural hospital; endoscopy suite; postoperative recovery area. Adults and pediatric patients undergoing elective and/or urgent endoscopic procedures. In 2014, we divided the NORA block allocations on Thursdays into one afternoon block for pediatric GI, and 1.5 blocks to be shared between the two adult GI groups. We made a provision for an additional afternoon block available if necessary. No changes were made in the release policy. For scheduling, shared block time was released between the three endoscopy groups at 7days and then opened to the general pool at 48h. Case volumes, under-utilized time (opportunity-unused), elective time-in-block, over-utilized time. With the addition of a pediatric gastroenterologist, the number of cases per month increased after the change in scheduling procedure from a mean of 107 cases per month to 131, an increase of 23% (p=Chart 1). Elective time-in-block increased after the intervention by 13% (p=0.09), while under-utilized time (opportunity-unused time) decreased in a reciprocal fashion (15%, p=0.03). Pre-intervention mean over-utilized time was 101min/month, while post-intervention over-utilized time decreased by 84.5% (99% CI ±3.29) to a mean of 16min/month. By using a multi-disciplinary, team-based approach, we were able to increase throughput without increasing under-utilized or over-utilized time, thereby increasing efficiency. Despite the additional cases brought in by the pediatric gastroenterologist, opportunity-unused time decreased only moderately-lending support to our prediction that opening an additional NORA block was not only unnecessary to accommodate
Ronald Boring; Roger Lew; Thomas Ulrich; Jeffrey Joe
As control rooms are modernized with new digital systems at nuclear power plants, it is necessary to evaluate the operator performance using these systems as part of a verification and validation process. There are no standard, predefined metrics available for assessing what is satisfactory operator interaction with new systems, especially during the early design stages of a new system. This report identifies the process and metrics for evaluating human system interfaces as part of control room modernization. The report includes background information on design and evaluation, a thorough discussion of human performance measures, and a practical example of how the process and metrics have been used as part of a turbine control system upgrade during the formative stages of design. The process and metrics are geared toward generalizability to other applications and serve as a template for utilities undertaking their own control room modernization activities.
Sadrizadeh, Sasan; Holmberg, Sture
This study compared two different laminar airflow distribution strategies - horizontal and vertical - and investigated the effectiveness of both ventilation systems in terms of reducing the sedimentation and distribution of bacteria-carrying particles. Three different staff clothing systems, which resulted in source strengths of 1.5, 4 and 5 CFU/s per person, were considered. The exploration was conducted numerically using a computational fluid dynamics technique. Active and passive air sampling methods were simulated in addition to recovery tests, and the results were compared. Model validation was performed through comparisons with measurement data from the published literature. The recovery test yielded a value of 8.1 min for the horizontal ventilation scenario and 11.9 min for the vertical ventilation system. Fewer particles were captured by the slit sampler and in sedimentation areas with the horizontal ventilation system. The simulated results revealed that under identical conditions in the examined operating room, the horizontal laminar ventilation system performed better than the vertical option. The internal constellation of lamps, the surgical team and objects could have a serious effect on the movement of infectious particles and therefore on postoperative surgical site infections. Copyright © 2014 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Avery, Daniel M; Matullo, Kristofer S
To evaluate the effect of orthopedic and nonorthopedic operating room (OR) staff on the efficiency of turnover time in a hand surgery practice. A total of 621 sequential hand surgery cases were retrospectively reviewed. Turnover times for sequential cases were calculated and analyzed with regard to the characteristics of the OR staff being primarily orthopedic or nonorthopedic. A total of 227 turnover times were analyzed. The average turnover time with all nonorthopedic staff was 31 minutes, for having only an orthopedic surgical technician was 32 minutes, for having only an orthopedic circulator was 25 minutes, and for having both an orthopedic surgical technician and a circulator was 20 minutes. Statistical significance was seen when comparing only an orthopedic surgical technician versus both an orthopedic circulator and a surgical technician and when comparing both nonorthopedic staff versus both an orthopedic circulator and a surgical technician. OR efficiency is being increasingly evaluated for its effect on hospital revenue and OR staff costs. Reducing turnover time is one aspect of a multifaceted solution in increasing efficiency. Our study showed that, for hand surgery, orthopedic-specific staff can reduce turnover time. Economic/Decision Analysis III. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pedron, Sara; Winter, Vera; Oppel, Eva-Maria; Bialas, Enno
Operating room (OR) efficiency continues to be a high priority for hospitals. In this context the concept of benchmarking has gained increasing importance as a means to improve OR performance. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how participation in a benchmarking and reporting program for surgical process data was associated with a change in OR efficiency, measured through raw utilization, turnover times, and first-case tardiness. The main analysis is based on panel data from 202 surgical departments in German hospitals, which were derived from the largest database for surgical process data in Germany. Panel regression modelling was applied. Results revealed no clear and univocal trend of participation in a benchmarking and reporting program for surgical process data. The largest trend was observed for first-case tardiness. In contrast to expectations, turnover times showed a generally increasing trend during participation. For raw utilization no clear and statistically significant trend could be evidenced. Subgroup analyses revealed differences in effects across different hospital types and department specialties. Participation in a benchmarking and reporting program and thus the availability of reliable, timely and detailed analysis tools to support the OR management seemed to be correlated especially with an increase in the timeliness of staff members regarding first-case starts. The increasing trend in turnover time revealed the absence of effective strategies to improve this aspect of OR efficiency in German hospitals and could have meaningful consequences for the medium- and long-run capacity planning in the OR.
Kissane-Lee, Nicole A; Yule, Steven; Pozner, Charles N; Smink, Douglas S
Recent studies have focused on surgeons' nontechnical skills in the operating room (OR), especially leadership. In an attempt to identify trainee preferences, we explored junior residents' opinions about the OR leadership style of teaching faculty. Overall, 20 interns and 20 mid-level residents completed a previously validated survey on the style of leadership they encountered, the style they preferred to receive, and the style they personally employed in the OR. In all, 4 styles were explored; authoritative: leader makes decisions and communicates them firmly; explanatory: leader makes decisions promptly, but explains them fully; consultative: leader consults with trainees when important decisions are made, and delegative: leader puts the problem before the group and makes decisions by majority opinion. Comparisons were completed using chi-square analysis. Junior resident preference for leadership style of attending surgeons in the OR differed from what they encountered. Overall, 62% of residents encountered an authoritative leadership style; however, only 9% preferred this (p leadership. Junior resident preference of leadership style in the OR differs from what they actually encounter. This has the potential to create unwanted tension and may erode team performance. Awareness of this difference provides an opportunity for an educational intervention directed at both attendings and trainees. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Voruganti, Arun Kumar Raj; Mayoral, Rafael; Vazquez, Adrian; Burgert, Oliver
Continuous video is used with increasing frequency in the operating room for minimally invasive laparoscopic and endoscopic procedures. Video data communication in the OR requires device interoperability, efficient data transfer methods, and specialized IT infrastructure. A framework for digital video communication based on a two channel client-server architecture was developed and tested. One channel is used for stream handling and the second channel is used for data streaming. A video stream description (VSD) specification is defined to negotiate video stream characteristics and ensure semantic interoperability. Quality assessment of the streamed data employs an image-based structural quality measure called the Structural Similarity (SSIM) Index. By introducing the stream description and a quality metric, the stream parameters can be modified as needed. The video communication framework ensures interoperability by defining interfaces for each of the streaming architecture modules. To prove the framework's feasibility, two prototype applications were developed and performance tests were performed on a dedicated OR network. The results showed acceptable network performance for streaming video in the OR network under clinically realistic conditions. An OR video communications framework was developed that uses existing OR network infrastructure as an economical alternative to dedicated integrated OR solutions. This framework provides functional and semantic interoperability among imaging modalities for continuous video data communication.
Jacob, Mithun; Li, Yu-Ting; Akingba, George; Wachs, Juan P
While surgeon-scrub nurse collaboration provides a fast, straightforward and inexpensive method of delivering surgical instruments to the surgeon, it often results in "mistakes" (e.g. missing information, ambiguity of instructions and delays). It has been shown that these errors can have a negative impact on the outcome of the surgery. These errors could potentially be reduced or eliminated by introducing robotics into the operating room. Gesture control is a natural and fundamentally sound alternative that allows interaction without disturbing the normal flow of surgery. This paper describes the development of a robotic scrub nurse Gestonurse to support surgeons by passing surgical instruments during surgery as required. The robot responds to recognized hand signals detected through sophisticated computer vision and pattern recognition techniques. Experimental results show that 95% of the gestures were recognized correctly. The gesture recognition algorithm presented is robust to changes in scale and rotation of the hand gestures. The system was compared to human task performance and was found to be only 0.83 s slower on average.
Vansteenkiste, Nancy; Lamote, Christian; Vandersmissen, Jo; Luysmans, Pierre; Monnens, Philip; De Voldere, Guido; Kips, Johan; Rademakers, Frank E
Demand for surgical treatment is rising while operating room (OR) resources are limited. Requests for more resources therefore can only be partly met by repartitioning the existing sparse resources. Our goal is to define a method to allocate OR block times among surgical disciplines in such a way that patients can be treated within an acceptable time after the need for surgery is established. In this paper, we introduce and explore the potential of the concept of the individual patient deviation from the optimal due time (DT) as a potential driver for OR (re-) allocation. Using retrospective data for abdominal and gynecologic surgery, we analyzed DT deviation and 3 additional modifiers. From this analysis, a reallocation of OR time to the different (sub-) specialties was calculated using a simple model. The results show the capability of measuring and visualizing relative overcapacity versus undercapacity of OR resources with respect to this patient-centered metric of DT. The reallocation results from the model show a potentially significant shift between programs. We propose the "due-time" concept as a valid measure to quantify OR resource use. The use of a DT-based model provides a transparent, acceptable system for regular reallocation of OR times between and within specialties.
Daumer, V.; Gramich, V.; Müller, R.; Schmidt, J.; Rutz, F.; Stadelmann, T.; Wörl, A.; Rehm, R.
Photodetectors in the non-visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum are essential for security, defense and space science as well as industrial and scientific applications. The research activities at Fraunhofer IAF cover a broad range in the infrared (IR) regime. Whereas short-wavelength IR (SWIR, InGaAs/InP structures, InAs/GaSb type-II superlattice (T2SL) infrared detectors are developed for the spectral bands from mid- (MWIR, 3-5 μm) to long-wavelength IR (LWIR, 8-12 μm). We report on the extension of the superlattice empirical pseudopotential method (SEPM) to 300 K for the design of LWIR heterostructures for operation near room temperature. Recently, we have also adapted heterostructure concepts to our well established bi-spectral T2SL MWIR detector resulting in a dark current density below 2 × 10-9 A/cm2 for a cut-off wavelength close to 5 μm. Finally, we present first results obtained with a gated viewing system based on our InGaAs/InAlAs/InP avalanche photodiode arrays.
Seymour, Neal E; Gallagher, Anthony G; Roman, Sanziana A; O'Brien, Michael K; Bansal, Vipin K; Andersen, Dana K; Satava, Richard M
To demonstrate that virtual reality (VR) training transfers technical skills to the operating room (OR) environment. The use of VR surgical simulation to train skills and reduce error risk in the OR has never been demonstrated in a prospective, randomized, blinded study. Sixteen surgical residents (PGY 1-4) had baseline psychomotor abilities assessed, then were randomized to either VR training (MIST VR simulator diathermy task) until expert criterion levels established by experienced laparoscopists were achieved (n = 8), or control non-VR-trained (n = 8). All subjects performed laparoscopic cholecystectomy with an attending surgeon blinded to training status. Videotapes of gallbladder dissection were reviewed independently by two investigators blinded to subject identity and training, and scored for eight predefined errors for each procedure minute (interrater reliability of error assessment r > 0.80). No differences in baseline assessments were found between groups. Gallbladder dissection was 29% faster for VR-trained residents. Non-VR-trained residents were nine times more likely to transiently fail to make progress (P trained group (1.19 vs. 7.38 errors per case; P training skills from VR to OR sets the stage for more sophisticated uses of VR in assessment, training, error reduction, and certification of surgeons.
Linda S. G. L. Wauben
Full Text Available Lessons learned from other high-risk industries could improve patient safety in the operating room (OR. This review describes similarities and differences between high-risk industries and describes current methods and solutions within a system approach to reduce errors in the OR. PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched for relevant articles written in the English language published between 2000 and 2011. In total, 25 articles were included, all within the medical domain focusing on the comparison between surgery and aviation. In order to improve safety in the OR, multiple interventions have to be implemented. Additionally, the healthcare organization has to become a ‘learning organization’ and the OR team has to become a team with shared responsibilities and flat hierarchies. Interpersonal and technical skills can be trained by means of simulation and can be supported by implementing team briefings, debriefings and cross-checks. However, further development and research is needed to prove if these solutions are useful, practical, and actually increase safety.
Cheriyan, Salim; Mowery, Hayley; Ruckle, David; Keheila, Mohamed; Myklak, Kristene; Alysouf, Muhannad; Atiga, Chase; Khuri, Jacob; Khater, Nazih; Faaborg, Daniel; Ruckle, Herbert C; Baldwin, D Daniel; Baldwin, D Duane
Equipment and personnel contribute to the overall noise level in the operating room (OR). This study aims to determine intraoperative noise levels during percutaneous nephrostolithotomy (PCNL) and the effects of this noise upon intraoperative communication. A PCNL benchtop model was used to measure intraoperative noise and determine its effect upon communication in three progressively increasing sound environments (baseline ambient noise, ambient noise with PCNL equipment, and ambient noise with both PCNL equipment and music). Five trials with 20 different medical words/phrases were spoken by the surgeon and responses were recorded by the first assistant, anesthesiologist, and circulating nurse. In addition, noise levels during PCNL were compared to common environmental noise levels. In the bench top model, noise levels were 53.49 A-weighted decibels (dBA) with ambient noise, 78.79 dBA with equipment in use, and 81.78 dBA with equipment and music. At the ambient noise level, the first assistant, anesthesiologist, and circulator correctly recorded 100%, 100%, and 96% of the words, respectively. The correct response rate by the subjects decreased to 97% (p = 0.208), 81% (p = 0.012), and 56% (p methods to decrease intraoperative noise pollution and improve communication in the OR could improve patient safety and outcomes.
Haga, Yoshihiro; Chida, Kouichi; Kaga, Yuji; Saitou, Kazuhisa; Arai, Takeshi; Suzuki, Shinichi; Iwaya, Yoshimi; Kumasaka, Eriko; Kataoka, Nozomi; Satou, Naoto; Abe, Mitsuya
In recent years, aortic aneurysm treatment with stent graft grafting in the X-ray fluoroscopy is increasing. This is an endovascular therapy, because it is a treatment which includes the risk of radiation damage, having to deal with radiation damage, to know in advance is important. In this study, in order to grasp the trend of exposure stent graft implantation in a hybrid operating room (OR) system, focusing on clinical data (entrance skin dose and fluoroscopy time), was to count the total. In TEVAR and EVAR, fluoroscopy time became 13.40 ± 7.27 minutes, 23.67 ± 11.76 minutes, ESD became 0.87 ± 0.41 mGy, 1.11 ± 0.57 mGy. (fluoroscopy time of EVAR was 2.0 times than TEVAR. DAP of EVAR was 1.2 times than TEVAR.) When using the device, adapted lesions and usage are different. This means that care changes in exposure-related factors. In this study, exposure trends of the stent graft implantation was able to grasp. It can be a helpful way to reduce/optimize the radiation dose in a hybrid OR system.
Darouiche, Rabih O; Green, David M; Harrington, Melvyn A; Ehni, Bruce L; Kougias, Panagiotis; Bechara, Carlos F; O'Connor, Daniel P
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association of airborne colony-forming units (CFU) at incision sites during implantation of prostheses with the incidence of either incisional or prosthesis-related surgical site infections. DESIGN Randomized, controlled trial. SETTING Primary, public institution. PATIENTS Three hundred patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty, instrumented spinal procedures, or vascular bypass graft implantation. METHODS Patients were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to either the intervention group or the control group. A novel device (Air Barrier System), previously shown to reduce airborne CFU at incision sites, was utilized in the intervention group. Procedures assigned to the control group were performed without the device, under routine operating room atmospheric conditions. Patients were followed up for 12 months to determine whether airborne CFU levels at the incision sites predicted the incidence of incisional or prosthesis-related infection. RESULTS Data were available for 294 patients, 148 in the intervention group and 146 in the control group. CFU density at the incision site was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (Poperations may be an effective strategy to reduce prosthesis-related infections. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01610271 Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-8.
Emeka B. Kesieme
Full Text Available Background. Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection is a well recognised occupational health hazard preventable by vaccination. Objectives. To determine the knowledge of operating room personnel (ORP in Nigeria about the Hepatitis B vaccine, their perception of Hepatitis B vaccination and vaccination status against HBV. Methods. Four university hospitals were selected by simple random sampling. A structured questionnaire was administered to 228 ORP after obtaining consent. Result. Only 26.8% of ORP were vaccinated against HBV. The primary reason for not being vaccinated or for defaulting from vaccination was lack of time. Differences in age, sex, duration of practice and respondent's institution between vaccinated and unvaccinated ORP were not significant (P>0.05. The majority (86.8% had the awareness of the existence of Hepatitis B vaccine. 83.8% of respondents believed that the vaccine should be given to the ORP as part of work place safety measures. The majority were aware of the modes of transmission of HBV infection. 78.9% of respondents believed that Hepatitis B vaccine is safe and 81.1% would recommend it to another staff. Conclusion. Despite a good knowledge about HBV infection and vaccine, most of ORP are still not vaccinated. Hepatitis B vaccination should be a prerequisite for working in the theatre, hence putting surgical patients at reduced risk.
Rowlands, John; Yeager, Mark P; Beach, Michael; Patel, Hetal M; Huysman, Bridget C; Loftus, Randy W
Hand hygiene (HH) is considered a primary intervention to avoid transmission of bacteria in health care settings and to prevent health care-associated infections. Despite efforts to decrease the incidence of health care-associated infections by improving HH, HH compliance rates vary widely depending on the hospital environment. We used intraoperative video observation to map temporal patterns of anesthesia provider hand contact with anesthesia work environment (AWE) surfaces and to assess HH compliance. Serial bacterial cultures of high contact objects were subsequently used to characterize bacterial transmission over time. Using World Health Organization criteria, we found a large number of HH opportunities and a low rate of HH compliance by anesthesia providers (mean, 2.9%). We observed an inverse correlation between provider hand hygiene compliance during induction and emergence from anesthesia (3.2% and 4.1%, respectively) and the magnitude of AWE surface contamination (103 and 147 CFU, respectively) at these time points. We found no correlation between frequency of hand contact with the AWE and bacterial contamination. Compliance with current HH recommendations by anesthesia providers is not feasible. However, there does appear to be a correlation between HH compliance rates and bacterial contamination of the AWE, an observation that should stimulate further work to design new methods for control of bacterial transmission in operating rooms. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Hunter, S; Katz, D; Goldberg, A; Lin, H-M; Pasricha, R; Benesh, G; Le Grand, B; DeMaria, S
Strategies to achieve reductions in perioperative infections have focused on hand hygiene among anaesthestists but have been of limited efficacy. We performed a study in a simulated operating room to determine whether a barrier covering the anaesthesia workstation during induction and intubation might reduce the risk of contamination of the area and possibly, by extension, the patient. Forty-two attending and resident anaesthetists unaware of the study design were enrolled in individual simulation sessions in which they were asked to induce and intubate a human simulator that had been prepared with fluorescent marker in its oropharynx as a marker of potentially pathogenic bacteria. Twenty-one participants were assigned to a control group, whereas the other 21 performed the simulation with a barrier device covering the anaesthesia workstation. After the simulation, an investigator examined 14 target sites with an ultraviolet light to assess spread of the fluorescent marker of contamination to those sites. The difference in rates of contamination between the control group and the barrier group was highly significant, with 44.8% (2.5%) of sites contaminated in the control group vs 19.4% (2.6%) of sites in the barrier group ( P workstation during induction and intubation might reduce contamination of the intraoperative environment.
Björn, Catrine; Josephson, Malin; Wadensten, Barbro; Rissén, Dag
The shortage of nurses in operating room departments (ORs) in Sweden and other countries can lead to reduced capacity and quality in healthcare, as well as more intense work for those on the job. Little is known about what nurses in ORs perceive as crucial for their workplace to be attractive. To capture attractive qualities of nurses' work in Swedish ORs and take a first step in the process of adapting the Attractive Work Questionnaire for use in a health care context. The Attractive Work Questionnaire was completed by 147 (67% ) nurses in four Swedish ORs. Principal Component Analyses (PCA) were performed to determine the underlying structure of the data. Factors contributing to job attractiveness identified in the area "work conditions" were: relations, leadership, equipment, salary, organisation, physical work environment, location, and working hours; in the area "work content": mental work, autonomy and work rate; and in the area "job satisfaction": status and acknowledgement. The PCA showed consistency with the original Attractive Work Questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha varied between 0.57-0.90. Prominent attractive qualities for nurses' work in Swedish ORs were possible to identify through the Attractive Work Questionnaire and the results suggest that the questionnaire can be useful in a health care context.
Pan, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jun; Dai, Chen; Si, Yibing
Delays in starting first cases of the day are a common topic associated with high economic costs. This study aimed to determine if an operating room (OR) assistant using an instructional supervision program could reduce the tardiness of first-case starts. A prospective study was conducted. Data from four ORs were used to compare the effectiveness of an instructional intervention to reduce delays in starting first cases of the day. The first cases in two ORs received instructional supervision by an OR. The primary endpoint was the percentage of first cases that started on time. Other endpoints were the percentage of the team work score of OR staff and the percentage of patient satisfaction score. Over 48 weeks, the effect of instructional supervision was evaluated in 960 first-case starts. In the instructional supervision group (n = 480), the percentage of first cases that started on time increased significantly (92.1% vs 71.7%; P Instructional supervision by an OR assistant can make a potential improvement in our on-time first-case starts per day. Copyright Â© 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lin, Jesun; Pai, Jar-Yuan; Chen, Chih-Cheng
RFID technology, an automatic identification and data capture technology to provide identification, tracing, security and so on, was widely applied to healthcare industry in these years. Employing HEPA ventilation system in hospital is a way to ensure healthful indoor air quality to protect patients and healthcare workers against hospital-acquired infections. However, the system consumes lots of electricity which cost a lot. This study aims to apply the RFID technology to offer a unique medical staff and patient identification, and reacting HEPA air ventilation system in order to reduce the cost, save energy and prevent the prevalence of hospital-acquired infection. The system, reacting HEPA air ventilation system, contains RFID tags (for medical staffs and patients), sensor, and reacting system which receives the information regarding the number of medical staff and the status of the surgery, and controls the air volume of the HEPA air ventilation system accordingly. A pilot program was carried out in a unit of operation rooms of a medical center with 1,500 beds located in central Taiwan from Jan to Aug 2010. The results found the air ventilation system was able to function much more efficiently with less energy consumed. Furthermore, the indoor air quality could still keep qualified and hospital-acquired infection or other occupational diseases could be prevented.
Smallman, Bettina; Dexter, Franklin; Masursky, Danielle; Li, Fenghua; Gorji, Reza; George, Dave; Epstein, Richard H
Theoretically, communication systems have the potential to increase the productivity of anesthesiologists supervising anesthesia providers. We evaluated the maximal potential of communication systems to increase the productivity of anesthesia care by enhancing anesthesiologists' coordination of care (activities) among operating rooms (ORs). At hospital A, data for 13,368 pages were obtained from files recorded in the internal alphanumeric text paging system. Pages from the postanesthesia care unit were processed through a numeric paging system and thus not included. At hospital B, in a different US state, 3 of the authors categorized each of 898 calls received using the internal wireless audio system (Vocera(®)). Lower and upper 95% confidence limits for percentages are the values reported. At least 45% of pages originated from outside the ORs (e.g., 20% from holding area) at hospital A and at least 56% of calls (e.g., 30% administrative) at hospital B. In contrast, requests from ORs for urgent presence of the anesthesiologist were at most 0.2% of pages at hospital A and 1.8% of calls at hospital B. Approximately half of messages to supervising anesthesiologists are for activity originating outside the ORs being supervised. To use communication tools to increase anesthesia productivity on the day of surgery, their use should include a focus on care coordination outside ORs (e.g., holding area) and among ORs (e.g., at the control desk).
Mallouli, Manel; Tlili, Mohamed Ayoub; Aouicha, Wiem; Ben Rejeb, Mohamed; Zedini, Chekib; Salwa, Amrani; Mtiraoui, Ali; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed; Ajmi, Thouraya
To assess the patient safety culture (PSC) in operating rooms (ORs) and to determine influencing factors. A cross-sectional descriptive multicenter study which was conducted over a period of 7 months (October 2014-April 2015) using the French validated version of the Hospital Survey On Patient Safety Culture questionnaire. Of the note, 15 ORs of public and private healthcare institutions. In total, there were 368 participants including surgeons, anesthesiologists, surgical and anesthesia technicians, nurses and caregivers, divided into 316 professionals exercising in public sector and 52 working in private one. A self-administrated questionnaire investigating 10 dimensions of PSC (including 45 items), two items examining the staff perception of patient safety quality and reporting events, and five items regarding demographic characteristics of respondents. The participation rate in the study was 70.8%. All 10 dimensions were to be improved. The overall perception of patient safety had a score of 34.9%. The dimension that had the lowest score (20.5%) was the non-punitive response to error, and the one that had the highest score (41.67%) was teamwork in the ORs. Three dimensions were developed in private sector, and none in public hospitals. This study showed that the level of the PSC needs to be improved not only in public hospitals but also in private ones. The obtained results highlight the importance of implementing quality management systems and developing PSC.
Sutkin, Gary; Littleton, Eliza B; Kanter, Steven L
Surgeons who work with trainees must address their learning needs without compromising patient safety. We used a constructivist grounded theory approach to examine videos of five teaching surgeries. Attending surgeons were interviewed afterward while watching cued videos of their cases. Codes were iteratively refined into major themes, and then constructed into a larger framework. We present a novel framework, Intelligent Cooperation, which accounts for the highly adaptive, iterative features of surgical teaching in the operating room. Specifically, we define Intelligent Cooperation as a sequence of coordinated exchanges between attending and trainee that accomplishes small surgical steps while simultaneously uncovering the trainee's learning needs. Intelligent Cooperation requires the attending to accurately determine learning needs, perform real-time needs assessment, provide critical scaffolding, and work with the learner to accomplish the next step in the surgery. This is achieved through intense, coordinated verbal and physical cooperation. Intelligent Cooperation is defined as a sequence of coordinated exchanges between attending and trainee that accomplishes small surgical steps while simultaneously uncovering the trainee's learning needs. Intelligent Cooperation is achieved through intense, coordinated verbal and physical cooperation and requires the attending to accurately determine learning needs, perform real-time needs assessment, provide critical scaffolding, and work with the learner to accomplish the next step in the surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Desogus, G F
The medical staff which works in an operating room is exposed to danger due to the chemical contamination found in the air. The results of this research depend to hormonal and haematochemical variations. The chemical contamination can be the cause of pathologies of the respiratory organs, the skin, the mucosa and the immune system. After a preventive evaluation of the production processes and the working procedures, some researchers have estimated the environmental risk caused by low concentrations of chemical products. In order to control the levels of the chemical agents, they have used an integrated system set up by a gaschromatography-mass spectrometer that has found some levels of chemical agents peculiar to a low pollution, characterized by the low concentration under the levels of the so-called ACGIH (2006) of hesane, toluene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene and naphthalene. According to the latest studies is very important to develop working methods and scientific knowledges direct to environmental, medical and toxicological problems. They are necessary to guarantee a greater protection of the human health and the safety at work.
D'Alessandro, D; Fabiani, M; Pallottino, O A; Semeraro, V; Orsi, G B; Fara, G M
The objective of this study was to analyze the results of microbiological air sampling of operating rooms (OR) over the last two decades at the Sapienza University Hospital of Rome, in order to describe the time trends of contamination levels and to assess any significant changes. Microbiological air sampling carried out in 14 surgical units between 1992 and 2010 were examined. The sampling results have been aggregated into four time periods (prior to 1996, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010) and the time trend of sampling results was analyzed in comparison with the standard reported by ISPESL for OR at-rest (contamination levels higher of the standard (x2 for trend = 8.94, P < 0.025). This reduction mainly regards AR-OR (x2 for trend = 7.33, P < 0.05). The results suggest that the preventive measures performed in AR-OR have been effective. More attention must be given to BR-OR.
Schüpfer, G; Bauer, M
Operation room (OR) management is not an end in itself. The challenge is more to organize the complex, inhomogeneous and interference-prone machinery of intraoperative service provision according to business objectives. Although business objectives may differ in some details the ultimate consequence is always to assure the quality of medical care along with adhering to the general economic conditions. The narrower the economic framework the smaller the company's tolerance to unprofessional OR management. Consequently, it can be noticed that OR management has become of age. An internal socialization as frontline leader is no longer sufficient for taking over a job profile which, regarding the risks of revenues and costs belongs to the top management of a company. Prior to looking for a future OR manager it is mandatory to develop a profile of qualifications tailored to the company. In the following selection process the important thing is to identify the candidate who fits best to the developed profile. This paper sees itself as an assistance in the development of such a company-specific qualification profile for an OR manager. On the basis of knowledge, skills and characteristics, different manager typologies are developed, facilitating the successful evaluation in a selection process for both the company and the candidate.
Rodriguez Blanco, Yiliam F; Candiotti, Keith; Gologorsky, Angela; Tang, Fei; Giquel, Jadelis; Barron, Michael E; Salerno, Tomas A; Gologorsky, Edward
Extubation in the operating room (OR) after cardiac surgery is hampered by safety concerns, psychological reluctance, and uncertain economic benefit. We have studied the factors affecting the feasibility of extubation in the OR after cardiac surgery and its safety. The outcomes of 78 patients extubated in the OR after open heart surgery were retrospectively compared to a matched control group of 80 patients with similar demographics, co-morbidities, and operative procedures, that were performed over the same time period, but extubated in the intensive care unit (ICU) following a standard weaning protocol. Variables collected included the incidence of subsequent unplanned tracheal reintubation in the ICU, postoperative complications, need for mediastinal re-exploration, surgical and OR times, and ICU and hospital lengths of stay. Out of a total of 372 cardiac procedures performed during the designated time frame, 78 (21%) resulted in extubation in the OR, mostly after off-pump coronary revascularization (41%) and aortic valve replacement (19.4%). Preoperative hypertension, EF ≥30%, off-bypass revascularization and shorter surgical times increased the likelihood of extubation in the OR. Extubation in the OR did not increase perioperative morbidity and mortality rates, but decreased the length of ICU and hospital stays. The incidence of unanticipated subsequent tracheal intubation in the ICU was comparable to noncardiac high-risk procedures (2.5%). Extubation in the OR can be safely performed in a select group of cardiac surgery patients without any increase in postoperative morbidity or mortality. The proposed mathematical model performed reasonably well in predicting a successful extubation in the OR. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dexter, Franklin; Marcon, Eric; Aker, John; Epstein, Richard H
More personnel are needed to turn over operating rooms (ORs) promptly when there are more simultaneous turnovers. Anesthesia and/or OR information management system data can be analyzed statistically to quantify simultaneous turnovers to evaluate whether to add an additional turnover team. Data collected for each case at a six OR facility were room, date of surgery, time of patient entry into the OR, and time of patient exit from the OR. The number of simultaneous turnovers was calculated for each 1 min of 122 4-wk periods. Our end point was the reduction in the daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers exceeding the number of teams caused by the addition of a team. Increasing from two turnover teams to three teams reduced the mean daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers exceeding the numbers of teams by 19 min. The ratio of 19 min to 8 h valued the time of extra personnel as 4.0% of the time of OR staff, surgeons, and anesthesia providers. Validity was suggested by other methods of analyses also suggesting staffing for three simultaneous turnovers. Discrete-event simulation showed that the reduction in daily minutes of turnover times from the addition of a team would likely match or exceed the reduction in the daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers exceeding the numbers of teams. Confidence intervals for daily minutes of turnover times achieved by increasing from two to three teams were calculated using successive 4-wk periods. The distribution was sufficiently close to normal that accurate confidence intervals could be calculated using Student's t distribution (Lilliefors' test P = 0.58). Analysis generally should use 13 4-wk periods as increasing the number of periods from 6 to 13 significantly reduced the coefficient of variation of the averages but not increasing the number of periods from 6 to 9 or from 9 to 13. The number of simultaneous turnovers can be calculated for each 1 min over 1 yr. The reduction in the daily minutes of simultaneous turnovers
Buzink, S.N.; Van Lier, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.
Background - Awareness of the relative high rate of adverse events in laparoscopic surgery created a need to safeguard quality and safety of performance better. Technological innovations, such as integrated operating room (OR) systems and checklists, have the potential to improve patient safety, OR
Bos, Ellen; Krol, Boudien; van der Star, Lex; Groothoff, Johan
Objectives: To gain more insight into the prevalence rates of musculoskeletal complaints of neck-shoulder and low back and to determine the relation between physical and psychosocial work-related risk factors and the complaints mentioned in non-specialized nurses, operation room nurses, Intensive
Arjona, N; Palacios, A; Moreno-Zuria, A; Guerra-Balcázar, M; Ledesma-García, J; Arriaga, L G
AuPd/polyaniline was used for the first time, for ethylene glycol (EG) electrooxidation in a novel microfluidic fuel cell (MFC) operated at room temperature. The device exhibits high electrocatalytic performance and stability for the conversion of cheap and fully available EG as fuel.
Wubben, I.; van Manen, Jeanette Gabrielle; van den Akker, B.J.; Vaartjes, S.R.; van Harten, Willem H.
Background: Equipment-related incidents in the operating room (OR) can affect quality of care. In this study, the authors determined the occurrence and effects on the care process in a large teaching hospital. - Methods: During a 4-week period, OR nurses reported equipment-related incidents during
Wachs, Juan P; Frenkel, Boaz; Dori, Dov
Errors in the delivery of medical care are the principal cause of inpatient mortality and morbidity, accounting for around 98,000 deaths in the United States of America (USA) annually. Ineffective team communication, especially in the operation room (OR), is a major root of these errors. This miscommunication can be reduced by analyzing and constructing a conceptual model of communication and miscommunication in the OR. We introduce the principles underlying Object-Process Methodology (OPM)-based modeling of the intricate interactions between the surgeon and the surgical technician while handling surgical instruments in the OR. This model is a software- and hardware-independent description of the agents engaged in communication events, their physical activities, and their interactions. The model enables assessing whether the task-related objectives of the surgical procedure were achieved and completed successfully and what errors can occur during the communication. The facts used to construct the model were gathered from observations of various types of operations miscommunications in the operating room and its outcomes. The model takes advantage of the compact ontology of OPM, which is comprised of stateful objects - things that exist physically or informatically, and processes - things that transform objects by creating them, consuming them or changing their state. The modeled communication modalities are verbal and non-verbal, and errors are modeled as processes that deviate from the "sunny day" scenario. Using OPM refinement mechanism of in-zooming, key processes are drilled into and elaborated, along with the objects that are required as agents or instruments, or objects that these processes transform. The model was developed through an iterative process of observation, modeling, group discussions, and simplification. The model faithfully represents the processes related to tool handling that take place in an OR during an operation. The specification is at
Full Text Available Background Recently, X-rays radiation hazards rise with the exposure of patients and personnel. Exposure of people to radiation in the operating rooms is an important problem to study the safety of personnel and patients. To date, few studies are accomplished to evaluate knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP among personnel in hospitals. The current study aimed at evaluating KAP level of radiation hazards and protection amongst personnel in the operating room. Methods A questionnaire-based, cross sectional study was conducted in 11 provinces of Iran from 2014 to 2015. Respondents in the current study were 332 personnel of operating room, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy. Demographic characteristics, as well as knowledge, attitude, and practice levels of operating room personnel were collected. The selected hospitals were 3 types (educational, non-educational, and private clinics located in 5 different regions of Iran (Tehran, Center, East, North, and West. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and statistical analyses were accomplished with the one-way ANOVA. Results The current study results showed no statistically significant difference in the KAP level of operating room personnel towards radiation protection for both genders (P = 0.1, time since graduation (P = 0.4, and work experience (P = 0.1. According to the analyses, the highest level of KAP concerning radiation protection was observed in the personnel of private clinics (mean score = 53.60 and the lowest value was observed in non-educational hospitals (mean score = 45.61. Besides, the KAP level was significantly higher in the Northern region (P < 0.0001 and the lowest was observed in the hospital personnel of the Central region (mean score = 34.27. Conclusions The current study findings showed that the level of KAP regarding radiation protection among operating room personnel was inadequate and it is necessary to pay
Bauer, M; Scheithauer, S; Moerer, O; Pütz, H; Sliwa, B; Schmidt, C E; Russo, S G; Waeschle, R M
The assurance of high standards of care is a major requirement in German hospitals while cost reduction and efficient use of resources are mandatory. These requirements are particularly evident in the high-risk and cost-intensive operating theatre field with multiple process steps. The cleaning of operating rooms (OR) between surgical procedures is of major relevance for patient safety and requires time and human resources. The hygiene procedure plan for OR cleaning between operations at the university hospital in Göttingen was revised and optimized according to the plan-do-check-act principle due to not clearly defined specifications of responsibilities, use of resources, prolonged process times and increased staff engagement. The current status was evaluated in 2012 as part of the first step "plan". The subsequent step "do" included an expert symposium with external consultants, interdisciplinary consensus conferences with an actualization of the former hygiene procedure plan and the implementation process. All staff members involved were integrated into this management change process. The penetration rate of the training and information measures as well as the acceptance and compliance with the new hygiene procedure plan were reviewed within step "check". The rates of positive swabs and air sampling as well as of postoperative wound infections were analyzed for quality control and no evidence for a reduced effectiveness of the new hygiene plan was found. After the successful implementation of these measures the next improvement cycle ("act") was performed in 2014 which led to a simplification of the hygiene plan by reduction of the number of defined cleaning and disinfection programs for preparation of the OR. The reorganization measures described led to a comprehensive commitment of the hygiene procedure plan by distinct specifications for responsibilities, for the course of action and for the use of resources. Furthermore, a simplification of the plan, a
Feuchtinger, Johanna; de Bie, Rob; Dassen, Theo; Halfens, Ruud
In this experimental study, a 4-cm thermoactive viscoelastic foam overlay and a heating source on the operating room table was compared with the standard operating room table with a heating source for the effect on the postoperative pressure ulcer incidence in cardiac surgery patients. Pressure ulcer incidence in the cardiac surgery population is reported to be up to 29.5%. The prolonged compressive forces from lying on the operating room table are one source of pressure ulcer development in this population. Pressure-reducing devices on the operating room (OR)-table should reduce the patients' interface pressure and thus the hazard of skin breakdown. A randomized controlled trial was performed to test the effect of a 4-cm thermoactive viscoelastic foam overlay with a water-filled warming mattress on the OR-table (test OR-table) compared with the standard OR-table (a water-filled warming mattress, no pressure-reducing device) on the postoperative pressure ulcer incidence in cardiac surgery patients. The pressure ulcer classification system of the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (EPUAP) was used for pressure ulcer grading. The results show that patients lying on the 4-cm thermoactive viscoelastic foam overlay suffer slightly more pressure ulcer (17.6%) than patients on the standard OR-table without the foam overlay (11.1%). Because of the clinical relevance of the results, the randomized controlled trial was terminated after 175 patients at the interim analysis although the power calculation stated 350 patients. The combination of a 4-cm viscoelastic foam overlay and a warming source cannot be recommended for pressure ulcer prevention on the operating room table. Foam overlays are used to prevent pressure ulcers in patients. It is necessary to use such devices according to patient safety and use of resources.
Li, Xiangyong; Rafaliya, N; Baki, M Fazle; Chaouch, Ben A
Scheduling of surgeries in the operating rooms under limited competing resources such as surgical and nursing staff, anesthesiologist, medical equipment, and recovery beds in surgical wards is a complicated process. A well-designed schedule should be concerned with the welfare of the entire system by allocating the available resources in an efficient and effective manner. In this paper, we develop an integer linear programming model in a manner useful for multiple goals for optimally scheduling elective surgeries based on the availability of surgeons and operating rooms over a time horizon. In particular, the model is concerned with the minimization of the following important goals: (1) the anticipated number of patients waiting for service; (2) the underutilization of operating room time; (3) the maximum expected number of patients in the recovery unit; and (4) the expected range (the difference between maximum and minimum expected number) of patients in the recovery unit. We develop two goal programming (GP) models: lexicographic GP model and weighted GP model. The lexicographic GP model schedules operating rooms when various preemptive priority levels are given to these four goals. A numerical study is conducted to illustrate the optimal master-surgery schedule obtained from the models. The numerical results demonstrate that when the available number of surgeons and operating rooms is known without error over the planning horizon, the proposed models can produce good schedules and priority levels and preference weights of four goals affect the resulting schedules. The results quantify the tradeoffs that must take place as the preemptive-weights of the four goals are changed.
Full Text Available To evaluate the efficacy of the virtual reality training simulator Eyesi to prepare surgeons for performing pars plana vitrectomies and its potential to predict the surgeons' performance.In a preparation phase, four participating vitreoretinal surgeons performed repeated simulator training with predefined tasks. If a surgeon was assigned to perform a vitrectomy for the management of complex retinal detachment after a surgical break of at least 60 hours it was randomly decided whether a warmup training on the simulator was required (n = 9 or not (n = 12. Performance at the simulator was measured using the built-in scoring metrics. The surgical performance was determined by two blinded observers who analyzed the video-recorded interventions. One of them repeated the analysis to check for intra-observer consistency. The surgical performance of the interventions with and without simulator training was compared. In addition, for the surgeries with simulator training, the simulator performance was compared to the performance in the operating room.Comparing each surgeon's performance with and without warmup trainingshowed a significant effect of warmup training onto the final outcome in the operating room. For the surgeries that were preceeded by the warmup procedure, the performance at the simulator was compared with the operating room performance. We found that there is a significant relation. The governing factor of low scores in the simulator were iatrogenic retinal holes, bleedings and lens damage. Surgeons who caused minor damage in the simulation also performed well in the operating room.Despite the large variation of conditions, the effect of a warmup training as well as a relation between the performance at the simulator and in the operating room was found with statistical significance. Simulator training is able to serve as a warmup to increase the average performance.
Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Whitney, JoAnne D; Katechanok, Sadubporn; Ngamsakulrat, Sukanya; Malairungsakul, Benjawan; Sirikulsathean, Pinyo; Nuntawinit, Chutatip; Muangnart, Thanisara
Improper or inadequate actions taken after blood and body fluid exposures place individuals at risk for infection with bloodborne pathogens. This has potential, significant impact for health and well-being. To evaluate the practices and the personal impact experienced following blood and body fluid exposures among operating room nurses. A cross-sectional, multi-center study. Government and private hospitals from all parts of Thailand. Operating room nurses from 247 hospitals. A questionnaire eliciting responses on characteristics, post-exposure practices, and impacts was sent to 2500 operating room nurses. Usable questionnaires were returned by 2031 operating room nurses (81.2%). Of these 1270 had experience with blood and body fluid exposures (62.5%). Most operating room nurses did not report blood and body fluid exposures (60.9%). The major reasons of underreporting were low risk source (40.2%) and belief that they were not important to report (16.3%). Improper post-exposure practices were identified, 9.8% did not clean exposure area immediately, 18.0% squeezed out the wound, and 71.1% used antiseptic solution for cleansing a puncture wound. Post-exposure, 58.5% of them sought counseling, 16.3% took antiretroviral prophylaxis, 23.8% had serologic testing for hepatitis B and 43.1% for hepatitis C. The main personal impacts were anxiety (57.7%), stress (24.2%), and insomnia (10.2%). High underreporting, inappropriate post-exposure practices and impacts of exposure were identified from this study. Comprehensive education and effective training of post-exposure management may be keys to resolving these important problems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Allergic reactions to natural rubber latex have increased during past 10 years especially among health care workers and patients with high exposure to latex allergens. Allergic reaction to latex is related to many diseases like occupational asthma. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of allergy to natural rubber latex and potential cross reacting food in operation room staff in Shiraz hospitals. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study five hundred eighty operation room staff of ten private and state hospitals in Shiraz completed latex allergy questionnaire. They were questioned about personal history and previous history of latex sensitivity, symptoms of latex reactivity and about other allergies particularly to foods that may cross react with latex. Informed consent was obtained and skin prick testing was performed with natural rubber latex. Skin prick tests were done with three potentially cross reacting food (banana, Kiwi, and potato. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS software and Chi-square test. Results: Among the 580 operation room workers 104 (17.9 % of participants were positive to latex skin test. We found a significant association between positive skin test to latex in operation room staff and atopy, urticaria and food allergy. Positive skin test to latex related to positive kiwi skin test (p<0.05. The prevalence did not vary by sex, age, education, surgical and non surgical glove users, history of contact dermatitis or smoking status. Conclusion: Latex allergy has a high prevalence in personnel of operation room. Evaluation of present symptom and prediction of future disease necessitate screening test in individuals at risk.
Rockstroh, M; Franke, S; Hofer, M; Will, A; Kasparick, M; Andersen, B; Neumuth, T
Clinical working environments have become very complex imposing many different tasks in diagnosis, medical treatment, and care procedures. During the German flagship project OR.NET, more than 50 partners developed technologies for an open integration of medical devices and IT systems in the operating room. The aim of the present work was to evaluate a large set of the proposed concepts from the perspectives of various stakeholders. The demonstration OR is focused on interventions from the head and neck surgery and was developed in close cooperation with surgeons and numerous colleagues of the project partners. The demonstration OR was qualitatively evaluated including technical as well as clinical aspects. In the evaluation, a questionnaire was used to obtain feedback from hospital operators. The clinical implications were covered by structured interviews with surgeons, anesthesiologists and OR staff. In the present work, we qualitatively evaluate a subset of the proposed concepts from the perspectives of various stakeholders. The feedback of the clinicians indicates that there is a need for a flexible data and control integration. The hospital operators stress the need for tools to simplify risk management in openly integrated operating rooms. The implementation of openly integrated operating rooms will positively affect the surgeons, the anesthesiologists, the surgical nursing staff, as well as the technical personnel and the hospital operators. The evaluation demonstrated the need for OR integration technologies and identified the missing tools to support risk management and approval as the main barriers for future installments.
Rondon, F. C. M.; Bevilaqua, C.M.L.; Franke,C.R.; Barros, R. S.; Oliveira,F.R.; Alcântara, Adriano Costa de; Diniz, A. T.
Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 24-31 Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important reemerging parasitic disease in the world. The domestic dog is the main reservoir in urban environments. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge on canine Leishmania infection in the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil, identifying the risk factors inherent in dog susceptibility to the infection. Two populations were analyzed, domestic dogs from clinics and the Veterinary ...
Attarian, David E; Wahl, Jennie E; Wellman, Samuel S; Bolognesi, Michael P
Developing a high-efficiency operating room (OR) for total joint arthroplasty (TJA) in an academic setting is challenging given the preexisting work cultures, bureaucratic road blocks, and departmental silo mentalities. Also, academic institutions and aligned surgeons must have strategies to become more efficient and productive in the rapidly changing healthcare marketplace to ensure future financial viability. We identified specific resources and personnel dedicated to our OR for TJA, assessed the typical associated work process delays, and implemented changes and set goals to improve OR efficiencies, including more on-time starts and shorter turnover times, to perform more TJA cases per OR. We then compared these variables before and after project initiation to determine whether our goals were achieved. We gathered 1 year of retrospective TJA OR time data (starting, completion, turnover times) and combined these data with 1 month of prospective observations of the workflow (patient check-in, patient processing and preparation, OR setup, anesthesia, surgeon behaviors, patient pathway). The summarized information, including delays and inefficiencies, was presented to a multidisciplinary committee of stakeholders; recommendations were formulated, implemented, and revised quarterly. Key strategies included dedicated OR efficiency teams, parallel processing, dedicated hospital resources, and modified physician behavior. OR data were gathered and compared 3 years later. After project changes, on-time OR starts increased from less than 60% to greater than 90% and average turnover time decreased from greater than 60 minutes to 35 minutes. Our average number of TJA cases per OR increased by 29% during the course of this project. Our project achieved improved OR efficiency and productivity using strategies such as process and resource analysis, improved communication, elimination of silo mentalities, and team work.
Warner, Courtney J; Walsh, Daniel B; Horvath, Alexander J; Walsh, Teri R; Herrick, Daniel P; Prentiss, Steven J; Powell, Richard J
Lean process improvement techniques are used in industry to improve efficiency and quality while controlling costs. These techniques are less commonly applied in health care. This study assessed the effectiveness of Lean principles on first case on-time operating room starts and quantified effects on resident work hours. Standard process improvement techniques (DMAIC methodology: define, measure, analyze, improve, control) were used to identify causes of delayed vascular surgery first case starts. Value stream maps and process flow diagrams were created. Process data were analyzed with Pareto and control charts. High-yield changes were identified and simulated in computer and live settings prior to implementation. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of on-time first case starts; secondary outcomes included hospital costs, resident rounding time, and work hours. Data were compared with existing benchmarks. Prior to implementation, 39% of first cases started on time. Process mapping identified late resident arrival in preoperative holding as a cause of delayed first case starts. Resident rounding process inefficiencies were identified and changed through the use of checklists, standardization, and elimination of nonvalue-added activity. Following implementation of process improvements, first case on-time starts improved to 71% at 6 weeks (P = .002). Improvement was sustained with an 86% on-time rate at 1 year (P < .001). Resident rounding time was reduced by 33% (from 70 to 47 minutes). At 9 weeks following implementation, these changes generated an opportunity cost potential of $12,582. Use of Lean principles allowed rapid identification and implementation of perioperative process changes that improved efficiency and resulted in significant cost savings. This improvement was sustained at 1 year. Downstream effects included improved resident efficiency with decreased work hours. Copyright © 2013 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All
Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Chen, Szu-Yuan; Lu, Jang-Jih; Chang, Chee-Jen; Chang, Yuhan; Hsieh, Pang-Hsin
Mobile phones (MPs) have been an essential part of the lives of healthcare professionals and have improved communication, collaboration, and sharing of information. Nonetheless, the widespread use of MPs in hospitals has raised concerns of nosocomial infections, especially in areas requiring the highest hygienic standards such as operating rooms (ORs). This study evaluated the incidence of bacterial contamination of the MPs carried by medical staff working in the OR and determined its association with bacterial colonization of this personnel. This is an observational cohort study. Medical staffs working in the OR were asked to take bacterial cultures from their MPs, anterior nares, and dominant hands. To identify the relation between MP contamination and bacterial colonization of the medical staff, genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus (SA) was done via Staphylococcus protein A gene (spa) typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). A total of 216 swab samples taken from 72 medical-staff members were analyzed. The culture-positive rate was 98.1% (212/216). In 59 (27.3%) samples, the bacteria were possible clinical pathogens. The anterior nares were the most common site of colonization by clinical pathogens (58.3%, 42/72), followed by MPs (13.9%, 10/72) and the dominant hand (9.7%, 7/72). SA was the most commonly isolated clinical pathogen and was found in 43 (19.9%) samples. In 66 (94.3%) of the 70 staff members for whom bacteria were detected on their MPs, the same bacteria were detected in nares or hand. Among 31 medical staff who were carriers of SA in the anterior nares or dominant hand, 8 (25.8%) were found to have SA on their MPs, and genotyping confirmed the same SA strain in 7 (87.5%) of them. A high rate of bacterial nasal colonization and MPs contamination were found among the OR medical staff. An MP may be a reservoir for pathogen contamination in the OR.
Wong, Helen W L; Forrest, Damien; Healey, Andrew; Shirafkan, Hanieh; Hanna, George B; Vincent, Charles A; Sevdalis, Nick
Safe surgical care requires effective information transfer between members of the operating room (OR) team. The present study aims to assess directly, systematically, and comprehensively, information needs of all OR team-members. Thirty-three OR team-members (16 surgeons/anesthesiologists, 17 nurses) took part in a mixed-method interview. Participants indicated what information they need, their problems accessing it, and potential interventions to improve information transfer. They also rated the importance of different sources of information and the quality (accuracy, availability, timeliness, completeness, and clarity) of the information that they typically receive. Theme extraction and statistical analyses (descriptive and inferential) were used to analyze the data. The patient emerged as the top source of information. Surgeons and anesthesiologists relied more on information from fellow clinicians, as well as information originating from diagnostic and imaging labs. They were also more critical about the quality of the information than nursing personnel. Anesthesiologists emerged as the most reliable source of information, whereas information coming from surgeons was deemed lacking in quality (even by surgeons themselves). Finally, the more time participants had spent working in ORs, the more negative views they had about the information that they receive-an unexpected finding. Communication skills training, standardized communication protocols, and information technology (IT) systems to function as a central information repository were the top three proposed interventions. This study comprehensively maps information sources, problems, and solutions expressed by OR end-users. Recent developments in skills training modules and patient safety interventions for the OR (Surgical Safety Checklist) are discussed as potential interventions that will ameliorate communication in ORs, with a view to enhance patient safety and surgical care.
Cumin, David; Skilton, Carmen; Weller, Jennifer
Communication of clinically relevant information between members of the operating room (OR) team is critical for safe patient care. Formal communication processes, such as briefing, sign in and time out, are designed to promote this. We investigated patterns of communication of clinically relevant information between OR staff in simulated surgical scenarios, to identify factors associated with effective information sharing. We focused on the influence of precase briefing, sign in and time out, which we defined as formal team communications. Twenty teams of six participated in two scenarios during a day-long course. Participants each received unique, clinically relevant items of information (information probes) prior to simulations and were tested postscenario on recall of the information in the probe. Using videos of the simulations, we coded each time an information probe was mentioned against a structured framework. Of the 145 instances where a probe was mentioned at least once, 75 (51.7%) were mentioned during a formal team communication. However, there were 89 instances of a possible 234 (38%) where a probe was never mentioned. Some team members were more likely to mention the information than others. When probes were mentioned during formal team communications, significantly more team members were attentive (1.4 vs 2.3; ptime out in the Surgical Safety Checklist, our findings suggest suboptimal transmission of information between team members and unequal contributions of information by different professional groups. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Calatayud, Dan; Arora, Sonal; Aggarwal, Rajesh; Kruglikova, Irina; Schulze, Svend; Funch-Jensen, Peter; Grantcharov, Teodor
To assess the impact of warm-up on laparoscopic performance in the operating room (OR). Implementation of simulation-based training into clinical practice remains limited despite evidence to show that the improvement in skills is transferred to the OR. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a short virtual reality warm-up training program on laparoscopic performance in the OP. Sixteen Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies were performed by 8 surgeons in the OR. Participants were randomized to a group which received a preprocedure warm-up using a virtual reality simulator and no warm-up group. After the initial laparoscopic cholecystectomy all surgeons served as their own controls by performing another procedure with or without preoperative warm-up. All OR procedures were videotaped and assessed by 2 independent observers using the generic OSATS global rating scale (from 7 to 35). There was significantly better surgical performance on the laparoscopic Cholecystectomy following preoperative warm-up, median 28.5 (range = 18.5-32.0) versus median 19.25 (range = 15-31.5), P = 0.042. The results demonstrated excellent reliability of the assessment tool used (Cronbach's alpha = 0.92). This study showed a significant beneficial impact of warm-up on laparoscopic performance in the OP. The suggested program is short, easy to perform, and therefore realistic to implement in the daily life in a busy surgical department. This will potentially improve the procedural outcome and contribute to improved patient safety and better utilization of OR resources.
Segall, Noa; Bonifacio, Alberto S; Barbeito, Atilio; Schroeder, Rebecca A; Perfect, Sharon R; Wright, Melanie C; Emery, James D; Atkins, B Zane; Taekman, Jeffrey M; Mark, Jonathan B
Patient handovers (handoffs) following surgery have often been characterized by poor teamwork, unclear procedures, unstructured processes, and distractions. A study was conducted to apply a human-centered approach to the redesign of operating room (OR)-to-ICU patient handovers in a broad surgical ICU (SICU) population. This approach entailed (1) the study of existing practices, (2) the redesign of the handover on the basis of the input of hand over participants and evidence in the medical literature, and (3) the study of the effects of this change on processes and communication. The Durham [North Carolina] Veterans Affairs Medical Center SICU is an 11-bed mixed surgical specialty unit. To understand the existing process for receiving postoperative patients in the SICU, ethnographic methods-a series of observations, surveys, interviews, and focus groups-were used. The handover process was redesigned to better address providers' work flow, information needs, and expectations, as well as concerns identified in the literature. Technical and communication flaws were uncovered, and the handover was redesigned to address them. For the 49 preintervention and 49 postintervention handovers, the information transfer score and number of interruptions were not significantly different. However, staff workload and team behaviors scores improved significantly, while the hand over duration was not prolonged by the new process. Handover participants were also significantly more satisfied with the new handover method. An HCD approach led to improvements in the patient handover process from the OR to the ICU in a mixed adult surgical population. Although the specific handover process would unlikely be optimal in another clinical setting if replicated exactly, the HCD foundation behind the redesign process is widely applicable.
Arevalo, Michelle K; Sheth, Kunj R; Menon, Vani S; Ostrov, Lauren; Hennes, Halim; Singla, Nirmish; Koral, Korgun; Schlomer, Bruce J; Baker, Linda A
To assess the effect of implementing an emergency surgery track for testicular torsion transfers. We hypothesized that transferring children from other facilities diagnosed with torsion straight to the operating room (STOR) would decrease ischemia time, lower costs, and reduce testicular loss. Demographics, arrival to incision time, hospital cost in dollars, and testicular outcome (determined by testicular ultrasound) at follow-up were retrospectively compared in all patients transferred to our tertiary care children's hospital with a diagnosis of testicular torsion from 2012 to 2016. Clinical data for STOR and non-STOR patients were compared by Wilcoxon rank-sum, 2-tailed t test, or Fisher exact test as appropriate. Sixty-eight patients met inclusion criteria: 35 STOR and 33 non-STOR. Children taken STOR had a shorter median arrival to incision time (STOR: 54 minutes vs non-STOR: 94 minutes, P STOR: $3882 vs non-STOR: $4419, P STOR patients and 48.4% of non-STOR patients achieved surgery within 6 hours of symptom onset. Testicular salvage rates in STOR and non-STOR patients were not significantly different (STOR: 68.4% vs non-STOR: 36.8%, P = .1), but follow-up was poor. STOR decreased arrival to incision time and hospital cost but did not affect testicular loss. The bulk of ischemia time in torsion transfers occurred before arrival at our tertiary care center. Further interventions addressing delays in diagnosis and transfer are needed to truly improve testicular salvage rates in these patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wan, Wenshuai; Le, Thuan; Riskin, Loren; Macario, Alex
Gossypibomas are surgical sponges that are unintentionally left inside a patient during a surgical procedure. To improve this patient safety indicator, anesthesiologists will need to work with operating room personnel. This study's goal was to systematically review the literature on retained sponges to identify body location, time to discovery, methods for detection, and risk factors. Two hundred and fifty-four gossypiboma cases (147 reports from the period 1963-2008) were identified via the National Library of Medicine's Medline and the Cochrane Library. Gossypibomas (mean patient age 49 years, range 6-92 years) were most commonly found in the abdomen (56%), pelvis (18%), and thorax (11%). Average discovery time equaled 6.9 years (SD 10.2 years) with a median (quartiles) of 2.2 years (0.3-8.4 years). The most common detection methods were computed tomography (61%), radiography (35%), and ultrasound (34%). Pain/irritation (42%), palpable mass (27%), and fever (12%) were the leading signs and symptoms, but 6% of cases were asymptomatic. Complications included adhesion (31%), abscess (24%), and fistula (20%). Risk factors were case specific (e.g. emergency) or related to the surgical environment (e.g. poor communication). Most gossypibomas occurred when the sponge count was falsely pronounced correct at the end of surgery. More is being discovered about the patterns leading to a retained sponge. Multidisciplinary approaches and new technologies may help reduce this low frequency but clinically significant event. However, given the complexity of surgical care, eliminating retained sponges may prove elusive.
Acero, Natalia Martinez; Motuk, Gregory; Luba, Josef; Murphy, Michael; McKelvey, Susan; Kolb, Gretchen; Dumon, Kristoffel R; Resnick, Andrew S
Operating room (OR) emergencies, such as fire, anaphylaxis, cardiac arrest, and exsanguination, are infrequent, but high-risk situations that can result in significant morbidity and mortality. An exsanguination scenario involving a pregnant trauma patient in the OR was developed for surgery residents with the objectives of improving overall team performance when activating an emergency response system, identifying a team leader, initiating an exsanguination protocol, following advanced cardiac life support guidelines, and recognizing the mother as the first patient. During 6 months, 171 OR staff members of the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania participated in a prospective study in which randomly selected groups of surgery residents, anesthesia residents, and perioperative nurses were trained in a simulated exsanguination and cardiac arrest emergency. Upon arrival to the simulation center, groups of trainees were assigned to a simulated OR equipped with a SimMan 3G (Laerdal, Norway) and a session moderator. The scenario started with a pregnant patient in hemorrhagic shock, bleeding from a carotid injury, ultimately leading to cardiac arrest. Each group did an initial "cold" simulation without any prior training or knowledge of the scenario, followed by a didactic training session, and ending with a "warm" simulation. Penn Medicine Clinical Simulation Center at 1800 Lombard Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Among 156 participants, 50% reported understanding their role in an OR exsanguination emergency pretraining, compared with 98% who understood it posttraining (p < 0.001). For activation of the exsanguination protocol, 50% understood how to do it pretraining, compared with 98% posttraining (p = 0.004). The time needed to complete 8 clinically significant tasks was documented pre- and posttraining, with a statistically significant improvement in all tasks. The results of this simulated exsanguination emergency demonstrate that team training using a high
Sundin, Courtney Stanley; Mazac, Lauren Bradham
After vaginal birth, newborns who have been skin-to-skin (STS) with their mother have greater temperature and glucose stability and higher exclusive breastfeeding rates at discharge. There are minimal data about STS in the operating room (OR) after cesarean birth. Although implementing STS in the OR can be challenging, it may promote positive maternal and infant outcomes. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to evaluate maternal satisfaction and maternal perception of pain when babies were placed STS immediately after cesarean birth in the OR. This quality improvement project was conducted at Baylor All Saints Medical Center-Andrews Women's Hospital, an urban, nonprofit, private hospital with an average of 5,000 births per year. Over a 90-day period, all women having cesarean birth were evaluated for two outcomes, maternal birth experience and pain perception during surgery. Following scheduled repeat cesarean, satisfaction of the birth experience was compared to the previous birth experience. Pain control during surgery of women having cesarean birth with and without STS was evaluated. Postpartum interviews with the new mothers and review of their anesthesia records were used to determine project findings. Maternal satisfaction was higher and maternal perception of pain was lower for women who experienced STS in the OR when compared to women where STS was not performed. Babies can be placed STS in the OR with positive implications for mothers' satisfaction with the birth experience and their perception of pain during the surgical procedure. Infant safety should be supported by a nurse with the mother and baby during the STS process.
Full Text Available Aim: In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in our hospital staff, and antibiotic susceptibility of these strains to methicillin and some other antibiotics. Methods: In this study, involving personnel working in operating room, neonatal and intensive care units of our hospital, nose cavity swab samples were taken from 81 subjects using cotton swabs soaked into serum physiologic. Single colony inoculation was performed on 5% sheep blood agar. The samples were incubated at 37oC for 24 hours. The Catalase and coagulase tests were performed on the strains which showed gram-positive cocci. We evaluated antimicrobial susceptibility of all S. aureus strains to oxacillin and several other antibiotics by disc diffusion method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI recommendations.. Results: Nasal S. aureus carrier was detected in 21 subjects (25.9%. Among all S. aureus isolated from nasal area, nine (11.1% were methicillin-resistance and 12 (14.8% were methicillin-susceptible S. aureus. When the occupation was considered, the carriage rates were 20.8% among doctors, 25% among auxiliary health-care workers and 29.7% among health-care workers other than doctors. There was no significant difference in carriage rate between these groups (p=0.239. The isolated strains showed no resistance to mupirocin and teicoplanin. Intranasal administration of mupirocin to all carriers for five days resulted in elimination of staphylococci with a success rate of 100%. Conclusion: According to these results, we assume that the nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant S. aureus is not an important issue in our hospital. However, it was concluded that topical mupirocin is an effective agent to be used securely in the elimination of S. aureus colonization in nasal carriers. (The Me di - cal Bul le tin of Ha se ki 2012; 50: 48-52
Torbjörnsson, Eva; Olivecrona, Charlotta; Sonden, Anders
Every semester, the operating room (OR) ward receives students from different educational programmes. Although interprofessional knowledge is essential for OR teamwork, students have traditionally been prepared in an uniprofessional manner, with no focus on interprofessional learning outcomes. This report describes the work process of an interprofessional initiative undertaken to create a common learning resource aimed at preparing students for OR practice. With a focus on interprofessional learning, shared and profession-specific learning outcomes, which are needed to prepare for practice, were identified by an interprofessional faculty. To avoid timetabling and geographic barriers, learning outcomes and constructed learning activities were packaged into an e-module and delivered on-line as an adjunct to existing lectures and workshops. A survey was administered to 4th year medical (n = 42) and 1st year OR nurse students (n = 4) to evaluate their perceptions of the e-module. We found that most learning outcomes from the different syllabuses were common for all professions. The overall response rate of the survey was 59% (27 of 46 students). Eighteen of the 27 responding students had used the learning resource, of which 15 students considered it to be of 'high' or 'very high' value. In summary, this interprofessional initiative resulted in a new common learning resource for the OR, which was used and perceived valuable by a majority of the students. The learning outcomes needed to prepare students from different educational programmes for OR practice are, to a great extent, generic and interprofessional and we thus argue that the interprofessional nature of the faculty was essential for the success of the initiative.
Magill, Stephen T; Wang, Doris D; Rutledge, W Caleb; Lau, Darryl; Berger, Mitchel S; Sankaran, Sujatha; Lau, Catherine Y; Imershein, Sarah G
Patient safety is foundational to neurosurgical care. Postprocedural "debrief" checklists have been proposed to improve patient safety, but data about their use in neurosurgery are limited. Here, we implemented an initiative to routinely perform postoperative debriefs and evaluated the impact of debriefing on operating room (OR) safety culture. A 10-question safety attitude questionnaire (SAQ) was sent to neurosurgical OR staff at a major academic medical center before and 18 months after the implementation of a postoperative debriefing initiative. Rates of debrief compliance and changes in attitudes before and after the survey were evaluated. The survey used a Likert scale and analyzed with standard statistical methods. After the debrief initiative, the rate of debriefing increased from 51% to 86% of cases for the neurosurgery service. Baseline SAQ responses found that neurosurgeons had a more favorable perception of OR safety than did anesthesiologists and nurses. After implementation of the postoperative debriefing process, perceptions of OR safety significantly improved for neurosurgeons, anesthesiologists, and nurses. Furthermore, the disparity between nurses and surgeons was no longer significant. After debrief implementation, neurosurgical OR staff had improved perceptions of patient safety compared with surgical services that did not commonly perform debriefing. Debriefing identified OR efficiency concerns in 26.9% of cases, and prevention of potential adverse events/near misses was reported in 8% of cases. Postoperative debriefing can be effectively introduced into the OR and improves the safety culture after implementation. Debriefing is an effective tool to identify OR inefficiencies and potential adverse events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Medical staff working in surgical wards of hospitals, people that work on transport or storaging of gases and liquids, employees working on gas tanks and gas installations, mechanics for anesthetic devices and employees in the process of production of these substances are professionally exposed to anesthetic gases or and fumes that are released in their working environment. It has been confirmed that there were some deviations of indicators of the liver function after a long term exposure of the medical staff (surgeons, anesthesiologists, instrument nurses and anesthetists) to halothane and it has been notified that the level of wasted-halothane in the indoor air of the surgical theaters should be measured in order to get a correct and complete evaluation of the professional risk. The term "wasted-halothane" in this research means fumes of halothane that leave a closed circle: anesthetic device--respiratory organs (patient)--indoor air of the workplace (operating room). Tests were done in the theaters of the surgical wards of the Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics of Novi Sad. During the testing period no ventilation system was used in any of the theaters. Tested groups included anesthesiologists, instrument nurses and anesthetists who were the members of the surgical team. Tests have not been done on same individuals, but the same workplace. Samples were taken using the "individual sample" method from the breathing zone of the tested person using a rubber pipe fixed on the shoulder. Pumps (personal samplers--"Casella") were set to absorb 0.2 liters of air per minute. Laboratory analyses of these samples were done using a method of desorption of the halothane fumes from the active coal with benzyl-alcohol, and their evaluation on gaschromatograph (Electron-Capture-Detector). The threshold Limit Value (TLV) of halothane fumes at the workplace is 40 mg/m3. During three days of sampling 32 samples of indoor air were taken from the surgical wards of the Department
Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohamadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohamad Reza
Shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers...
Sadrizadeh, Sasan; Holmberg, Sture; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
Two types of mobile screens producing ultraclean local laminar airflow were investigated as an addition to turbulent mixing operating room ventilation. The exploration was carried out numerically using computational fluid dynamics. Surface and volumetric particle counts were simulated on the oper......Two types of mobile screens producing ultraclean local laminar airflow were investigated as an addition to turbulent mixing operating room ventilation. The exploration was carried out numerically using computational fluid dynamics. Surface and volumetric particle counts were simulated...... on the operating and instrument tables with and without the additional mobile airflow screen. Three different source strengths (the mean bacteria-carrying particle value emitted from one person per second) due to staff clothing variety were considered. Model validation was performed through result comparisons...... with experimental data from the literature. Results confirmed that the mobile screen units reduced the airborne bacteria to an acceptable level for infection-prone surgeries. No significant particle concentration differences existed in the periphery of the operating room. Lower source strength resulting from...
Twinanda, Andru P; Alkan, Emre O; Gangi, Afshin; de Mathelin, Michel; Padoy, Nicolas
Context-aware systems for the operating room (OR) provide the possibility to significantly improve surgical workflow through various applications such as efficient OR scheduling, context-sensitive user interfaces, and automatic transcription of medical procedures. Being an essential element of such a system, surgical action recognition is thus an important research area. In this paper, we tackle the problem of classifying surgical actions from video clips that capture the activities taking place in the OR. We acquire recordings using a multi-view RGBD camera system mounted on the ceiling of a hybrid OR dedicated to X-ray-based procedures and annotate clips of the recordings with the corresponding actions. To recognize the surgical actions from the video clips, we use a classification pipeline based on the bag-of-words (BoW) approach. We propose a novel feature encoding method that extends the classical BoW approach. Instead of using the typical rigid grid layout to divide the space of the feature locations, we propose to learn the layout from the actual 4D spatio-temporal locations of the visual features. This results in a data-driven and non-rigid layout which retains more spatio-temporal information compared to the rigid counterpart. We classify multi-view video clips from a new dataset generated from 11-day recordings of real operations. This dataset is composed of 1734 video clips of 15 actions. These include generic actions (e.g., moving patient to the OR bed) and actions specific to the vertebroplasty procedure (e.g., hammering). The experiments show that the proposed non-rigid feature encoding method performs better than the rigid encoding one. The classifier's accuracy is increased by over 4 %, from 81.08 to 85.53 %. The combination of both intensity and depth information from the RGBD data provides more discriminative power in carrying out the surgical action recognition task as compared to using either one of them alone. Furthermore, the proposed non
Genet, Chalachew; Kibru, Gebre; Tsegaye, Wondewosen
Background Surgical site infection is the second most common health care associated infection. One of the risk factors for such infection is bacterial contamination of operating rooms' and surgical wards' indoor air. In view of that, the microbiological quality of air can be considered as a mirror of the hygienic condition of these rooms. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the bacterial load and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of isolates in operating rooms' and surgical war...
Sandhu, Gurjit; Magas, Christopher P; Robinson, Adina B; Scally, Christopher P; Minter, Rebecca M
The purpose of this study was to identify behaviors that faculty and residents exhibit during intraoperative interactions, which support or inhibit progressive entrustment leading to operative autonomy. In the operating room, a critical balance is sought between direct faculty supervision and appropriate increase in resident autonomy with indirect faculty supervision. Little is known regarding perspectives of faculty and residents about how attendings increasingly step back and safely delegate autonomy to trainees. Understanding the context in which these decisions are made is critical to achieving a safe strategy for imparting progressive responsibility. A qualitative study was undertaken from January 2014 to February 2015. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 37 faculty and 59 residents from 14 and 41 institutions, respectively. Participants were selected using stratified random sampling from general surgery residency programs across the United States to represent a range of university, university-affiliated, and community programs, and geographic regions. Audio recordings of interviews were transcribed, iteratively analyzed, and emergent themes identified. Six themes were identified as influencing progressive entrustment in the operating room: optimizing faculty intraoperative feedback; policies and regulations affecting role of resident in the operating room; flexible faculty teaching strategies; context-specific variables; leadership opportunities for resident in the case; and safe struggle for resident when appropriate. Perspectives of faculty and residents while overlapping were different in emphasis. Better understanding faculty-resident interactions, individual behaviors, contextual influences, and national regulations that influence intraoperative education have the potential to significantly affect progressive entrustment in training paradigms.
Cole, Devon C; Giordano, Christopher R; Vasilopoulos, Terrie; Fahy, Brenda G
Anesthesiology residency primarily emphasizes the development of medical knowledge and technical skills. Yet, nontechnical skills (NTS) are also vital to successful clinical practice. Elements of NTS are communication, teamwork, situational awareness, and decision making. The first 10 consecutive senior residents who chose to participate in this 2-week elective rotation of operating room (OR) management and leadership training were enrolled in this study, which spanned from March 2013 to March 2015. Each resident served as the anesthesiology officer of the day (AOD) and was tasked with coordinating OR assignments, managing care for 2 to 4 ORs, and being on call for the trauma OR; all residents were supervised by an attending AOD. Leadership and NTS techniques were taught via a standardized curriculum consisting of leadership and team training articles, crisis management text, and daily debriefings. Resident self-ratings and attending AOD and charge nurse raters used the Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) scoring system, which involved task management, situational awareness, teamwork, and decision making. For each of the 10 residents in their third year of clinical anesthesiology training (CA-3) who participated in this elective rotation, there were 14 items that required feedback from resident self-assessment and OR raters, including the daily attending AOD and charge nurse. Results for each of the items on the questionnaire were compared between the beginning and the end of the rotation with the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for matched samples. Comparisons were run separately for attending AOD and charge nurse assessments and resident self-assessments. Scaled rankings were analyzed for the Kendall coefficient of concordance (ω) for rater agreement with associated χ and P value. Common themes identified by the residents during debriefings were recurrence of challenging situations and the skills residents needed to instruct and manage clinical teams. For
Birnbach, David J; Rosen, Lisa F; Fitzpatrick, Maureen; Carling, Philip; Arheart, Kristopher L; Munoz-Price, L Silvia
Anesthesiologists may contribute to postoperative infections by means of the transmission of blood and pathogens to the patient and the environment in the operating room (OR). Our primary aims were to determine whether contamination of the IV hub, the anesthesia work area, and the patient could be reduced after induction of anesthesia by removing the risk associated with contaminants on the laryngoscope handle and blade. Therefore, we conducted a study in a simulated OR where some of the participants sheathed the laryngoscope handle and blade in a glove immediately after it was used to perform an endotracheal intubation. Forty-five anesthesiology residents (postgraduate year 2-4) were enrolled in a study consisting of identical simulation sessions. On entry to the simulated OR, the residents were asked to perform an anesthetic, including induction and endotracheal intubation timed to approximately 6 minutes. Of the 45 simulation sessions, 15 were with a control group conducted with the intubating resident wearing single gloves, 15 with the intubating resident using double gloves with the outer pair removed and discarded after verified intubation, and 15 wearing double gloves and sheathing the laryngoscope in one of the outer gloves after intubation. Before the start of the scenario, the lips and inside of the mouth of the mannequin were coated with a fluorescent marking gel. After each of the 45 simulations, an observer examined the OR using an ultraviolet light to determine the presence of fluorescence on 25 sites: 7 on the patient and 18 in the anesthesia environment. Of the 7 sites on the patient, ultraviolet light detected contamination on an average of 5.7 (95% confidence interval, 4.4-7.2) sites under the single-glove condition, 2.1 (1.5-3.1) sites with double gloves, and 0.4 (0.2-1.0) sites with double gloves with sheathing. All 3 conditions were significantly different from one another at P contamination of the IV hub, patient, and intraoperative
Full Text Available Mobile phones (MPs have been an essential part of the lives of healthcare professionals and have improved communication, collaboration, and sharing of information. Nonetheless, the widespread use of MPs in hospitals has raised concerns of nosocomial infections, especially in areas requiring the highest hygienic standards such as operating rooms (ORs. This study evaluated the incidence of bacterial contamination of the MPs carried by medical staff working in the OR and determined its association with bacterial colonization of this personnel.This is an observational cohort study. Medical staffs working in the OR were asked to take bacterial cultures from their MPs, anterior nares, and dominant hands. To identify the relation between MP contamination and bacterial colonization of the medical staff, genotyping of Staphylococcus aureus (SA was done via Staphylococcus protein A gene (spa typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE.A total of 216 swab samples taken from 72 medical-staff members were analyzed. The culture-positive rate was 98.1% (212/216. In 59 (27.3% samples, the bacteria were possible clinical pathogens. The anterior nares were the most common site of colonization by clinical pathogens (58.3%, 42/72, followed by MPs (13.9%, 10/72 and the dominant hand (9.7%, 7/72. SA was the most commonly isolated clinical pathogen and was found in 43 (19.9% samples. In 66 (94.3% of the 70 staff members for whom bacteria were detected on their MPs, the same bacteria were detected in nares or hand. Among 31 medical staff who were carriers of SA in the anterior nares or dominant hand, 8 (25.8% were found to have SA on their MPs, and genotyping confirmed the same SA strain in 7 (87.5% of them.A high rate of bacterial nasal colonization and MPs contamination were found among the OR medical staff. An MP may be a reservoir for pathogen contamination in the OR.
Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian
. The increase of ozone level in the clean room was more than that was measured in the duct. Additionally, it was found that the number of ultrafine particles in the room increased due to the generated ozone. The number of generated particles changed with the season. The study leads to the recommendation...... that air cleaners should be evaluated in a clean room about generation of ozone to get more reliable evaluation.......The use of portable air cleaners is becoming increasingly popular in many countries including Denmark. Portable air cleaners are known for not only removing but also generating particles and gases. To clarify this, three air cleaning technologies were evaluated. They were nonthermal plasma...
Full Text Available The paper argues for the necessity of a combination MMR methods (questionnaire, interview and sentiment/opinion techniques to personal satisfaction analysis at the maritime and training education and proposes a generic, but practical research approach for this purpose. The proposed approach concerns the personal satisfaction evaluation of Engine Room simulator systems and combines the speech recording (sentiment/opinion analysis for measuring emotional user responses with usability testing (SUS tool. The experimental procedure presented here is a primary effort to research the emotion analysis (satisfaction of the users-students in Engine Room Simulators. Finally, the ultimate goal of this research is to find and test the critical factors that influence the educational practice and user’s satisfaction of Engine Room Simulator Systems and the ability to conduct full-time system control by the marine crew.
Fink, E.; Wiemuth, M.; Burgert, O.
An operating room is a stressful work environment. Nevertheless, all involved persons have to work safely as there is no space for mistakes. To ensure a high level of concentration and seamless interaction, all involved persons have to know their own tasks and the tasks of their colleagues. The entire team must work synchronously at all times. To optimize the overall workflow, a task manager supporting the team was developed. In parallel, a common conceptual design of a business process visualization was developed, which makes all relevant information accessible in real-time during a surgery. In this context an overview of all processes in the operating room was created and different concepts for the graphical representation of these user-dependent processes were developed. This paper describes the concept of the task manager as well as the general concept in the field of surgery.
Pertl, Michael; Rezkalla, Michel M.N.; Marinelli, Mattia
is derived. Moreover, it is shown that the method facilitates the visual examination of transient stability. It provides control room operators with essential information about the state of the system and enables them to take appropriate preventive actions if insufficient transient stability margins......The aim of the paper is to introduce a grid-wide assessment method to determine the transient stability margin and visualize it effectively to increase the situation awareness of control room operators. Critical area(s) with insufficient transient stability margin have to be identified in order...... to be able to take appropriate preventive actions. The introduced method evaluates the transient stability margin with a time-domain approach by using the voltage angle of several buses across the power system. Information about the severity of a contingency and the location of the most critical buses...
Korniewicz, Denise M; Chookaew, Nantiya; Brown, Jeanine; Bookhamer, Nichol; Mudd, Kim; Bollinger, Mary Elizabeth
This study examined health care worker satisfaction with the use of non-powdered natural rubber latex (NRL) surgical gloves to determine the impact of non-powdered NRL gloves on the NRL sensitization of operating room personnel. The study used a 1-year longitudinal design to obtain recall information from employees about their NRL exposure. Additionally, a survey was completed by participants related to their satisfaction with non-powdered NRL gloves. Informed consent was obtained from 103 employees. After conversion to an operating room using non-powdered NRL, there was a significant decrease in reported symptoms with NRL exposure (42% pre- and 29% post-conversion, Fisher's exact, two-tailed, p = .0001). This study demonstrated that the conversion to non-powdered low-protein NRL gloves resulted in decreased symptoms because of NRL exposure.
Hasibe Baytan Yildiz
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this randomized, single-blinded study was to evaluate the effects of noise on hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress response by measuring the level of noise in the surgery rooms of patients undergoing knee operations under neuroaxial anesthesia. Gerec ve Yontem: We compared patient responses from two groups of patients: those undergoing knee operations in a surgery room where the noise level (measured in decibels is high, and those undergoing meniscus operations in a surgery room with lower noise levels. The STAI, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-1, and the anxiety test (STAI-2wereperformed at preoperative and postoperative periods. 20 ml of blood sample was taken for basal, intraoperative 30th minute, and postoperative 1st hour measurements. Systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressures were found to be higher in the high noise level group. ACTH levels were increased during the early postoperative period and became normal during the late postoperative period in the high noise level group whereas ACTH levels were significantly decreased in the low-noise level group. Basal cortisol levels were significantly higher in the high noise level group. HCRP, an inflammatory response mediator was found to be decreased in both groups. Early and late blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the high noise group. There was a greater increase in early and late blood glucose levels in the high noise group. In the postoperative period, although the state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI-2 levels being higher in patients subject to noisier environment determines how people feel independent of the conditions and state they are in, this result made us consider that the noise the patients were subjected to in the intraoperative period may cause a stress response. Discussion: As a result we believe that standard noise levels should be achieved by reducing the factors causing high noise levels in the operating room. This will
Cattaneo, A.D.; Ferraiolo, G.; Rovatti, M.; Zattoni, J.; Donato, A.
The contamination by nitrous oxide of an operating room atmosphere was studied in a number of experiments, in the absence of personnel and using a gaschromatographic method. The evacuating device of the anesthesia machine proved to be ineffective to overcome the hazard of leaks in the breathing system, whereas the air conditioning flow rates (12 outside air changes per hour) minimized waste anesthetic gas concentrations.
Zhou, Yong; Mu, Haiying; Jiang, Jianjun; Zhang, Li
Currently, there is a trend in nuclear power plants (NPPs) toward introducing digital and computer technologies into main control rooms (MCRs). Safe generation of electric power in NPPs requires reliable performance of cognitive tasks such as fault detection, diagnosis, and response planning. The digitalization of MCRs has dramatically changed the whole operating environment, and the ways operators interact with the plant systems. If the design and implementation of the digital technology is incompatible with operators' cognitive characteristics, it may have negative effects on operators' cognitive reliability. Firstly, on the basis of three essential prerequisites for successful cognitive tasks, a causal model is constructed to reveal the typical human performance issues arising from digitalization. The cognitive mechanisms which they impact cognitive reliability are analyzed in detail. Then, Bayesian inference is used to quantify and prioritize the influences of these factors. It suggests that interface management and unbalanced workload distribution have more significant impacts on operators' cognitive reliability.
Communication variables that are associated with face-negotiation theory were examined in a sample of operating-room physicians. A survey was administered to anesthesiologists and surgeons at a teaching hospital in the southwestern United States to measure three variables commonly associated with face-negotiation theory: conflict-management style, face concern, and self-construal. The survey instrument that was administered to physicians includes items that measured these three variables in previous face-negotiation research with slight modification of item wording for relevance in the medical setting. The physician data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, Pearson's correlations, and t-tests. Results of this initial investigation showed that variables associated with face-negotiation theory were evident in the sample physician population. In addition, the correlations were similar among variables in the medical sample as those found in previous face-negotiation research. Finally, t-tests suggest variance between anesthesiologists and surgeons on specific communication variables. These findings suggest three implications that warrant further investigation with expanded sample size: (1) An intercultural communication theory and instrument can be utilized for health communication research; (2) as applied in a medical context, face-negotiation theory can be expanded beyond traditional intercultural communication boundaries; and (3) theoretically based communication structures applied in a medical context could help explain physician miscommunication in the operating room to assist future design of communication training programs for operating-room physicians.
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Nursing students are exposed to clinical environmental stresses in addition to educational environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to assessment of clinical stressful factors among Academic Students of Nursing and Operating Room of Dezful University of Medical Sciences in 2015.Materials and Methods: This study was a description-analytical study with 234 students of nursing and operation room up to two semesters for enrolled. Data was using a self-made researcher Questionnaire consisted of demographic information and clinical stressful factors. Data analysis was performed by descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS-PC (v.20.Results: The findings showed that the main stressors in students of nursing and operation room were unpleasant emotions and least stressful areas were interpersonal communication in a clinical environment. The results showed that the average score of the field of education and humiliating experiences using Spearman correlation test (P=0/045 (r=0/16.Conclusion: Study showed, the mean stress is the moderate level. Stressful areas obtained in the four areas of personal communication, clinical practice stressful, unpleasant feelings and humiliating experience that fortunately, in many cases reform and change.
Weinstein, Brielle; Kumar, Ambuj; Smith, Paul; Dayicioglu, Deniz
Tissue expander and implant remains the most common technique for breast reconstruction. A controversial topic within this method is routine use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM). Acellular dermal matrices have increased risks of infection, seroma, hematoma, skin flap necrosis, and total complications. After an institutional review board approval, a retrospective chart review was conducted of 756 tissue expander with implant cases from November 2010 to November 2016 at Moffitt Cancer Center with 2 breast reconstruction surgeons. Patients were grouped in 2 groups: tissue expander alone reconstruction (TE) and tissue expander with ADM (TE + ADM). Complications were defined by return visits to the operating room for irrigation and debridement as well as for subsequent tissue expander placement. There were 703 patients in the TE group and 53 in the TE + ADM group. Patients undergoing TE + ADM reconstruction were 3 times more likely to experience return to operating room compared with patients undergoing TE alone (7.5% vs 2.4%). Patients were significantly more likely to undergo 3 or more subsequent tissue expander placement procedures with TE + ADM (54.7%) compared with TE alone (4.8%) (P < 0.0001). Although ADM may be appropriate for specific patients, its use in tissue expander breast reconstruction should be judiciously selected, because there is an observed increase in complications needing return to the operating room.
Balakrishnan, Karthik; Goico, Brian; Arjmand, Ellis M
(1) To describe the application of a detailed cost-accounting method (time-driven activity-cased costing) to operating room personnel costs, avoiding the proxy use of hospital and provider charges. (2) To model potential cost efficiencies using different staffing models with the case study of outpatient adenotonsillectomy. Prospective cost analysis case study. Tertiary pediatric hospital. All otolaryngology providers and otolaryngology operating room staff at our institution. Time-driven activity-based costing demonstrated precise per-case and per-minute calculation of personnel costs. We identified several areas of unused personnel capacity in a basic staffing model. Per-case personnel costs decreased by 23.2% by allowing a surgeon to run 2 operating rooms, despite doubling all other staff. Further cost reductions up to a total of 26.4% were predicted with additional staffing rearrangements. Time-driven activity-based costing allows detailed understanding of not only personnel costs but also how personnel time is used. This in turn allows testing of alternative staffing models to decrease unused personnel capacity and increase efficiency. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.
Chen, Yulong; Cai, Alice; Dexter, Franklin; Pryor, Kane O; Jacobsohn, Eric M B; Glick, David B; Willingham, Mark D; Escallier, Krisztina; Winter, Anke; Avidan, Michael S
Patient memories of the operating room (OR) may serve as the informational basis for assessing satisfaction with individual anesthesiologists. Furthermore, the provision of clinically important information may assume that perioperative memories are retained. Studies assessing the extent of perioperative amnesia and factors associated with perioperative amnesia are sparse. Therefore, we assessed patient amnesia of the OR and of the preoperative holding area in hospitals where midazolam is typically administered in the preoperative holding area and evaluated whether midazolam dose administered in the preoperative holding area and patient age were associated with amnesia of the OR before induction of anesthesia. This was a retrospective study among 7750 adult patients who had general anesthesia and participated in the B-Unaware and Bispectral Index or Anesthetic Gas to Reduce Explicit Recall (BAG-RECALL) clinical trials. The last location the patient remembered before induction of anesthesia and the first location they remembered after induction of anesthesia were determined through a modified Brice questionnaire administered over the phone 30 days postoperatively. Regarding the preoperative period, patients were excluded if their last memory was unclear with respect to location before induction of anesthesia or if they were recruited at Winnipeg, where midazolam was typically first administered in the OR. Midazolam dose (mg/kg) administered in the preoperative holding area was divided into quartiles. Poisson regression models were used to calculate age- and multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for the association between midazolam dose and amnesia of the OR before induction of anesthesia. Of the 5339 patients included, 59.5% (95% CI, 58.2–60.9) of patients had amnesia of the OR before induction of anesthesia. In addition, 44.1% (95% CI, 42.8–45.7) last remembered the preoperative holding area, and 15.4% (95% CI, 14.4–16.4) only
Kazemi, Reza; Haidarimoghadam, Rashid; Motamedzadeh, Majid; Golmohammadi, Rostam; Soltanian, Alireza; Zoghipaydar, Mohammad Reza
Background: shift work is associated with both sleepiness and reduced performance. The aim of this study was to examine cognitive performance, sleepiness, and sleep quality among petrochemical control room shift workers. Method: Sixty shift workers participated in this study. Cognitive performance was evaluated using the objective test such as continuous performance test, n-back test, and simple reaction time test; sleepiness scale was measured using the subjective Karolinska Sleepiness Scale...
May Socorro Martinez Afonso; Adenicia Custodia Silva e Souza; Anaclara Ferreira Veiga Tipple; Eliene Aparecida Machado; Eliane Alves Lucas
ABSTRACT: This bibliographic survey in data banks such as MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO, Ministry of Health, among others aims at identifying what makes air conditioners a source of environmental contamination. The air is contaminated by particles which transport microorganisms. The sources of particles include patients and surgical staff. The control of the temperature, relative humidity, pressure, number of changes of air accomplished per hour, clothes, traffic, number of people in the rooms, mai...
Wenner, L; Pauli, U; Summermatter, K; Gantenbein, H; Vidondo, B; Posthaus, H
Bone-sawing procedures are routinely performed during veterinary and human autopsies and represent an important source for infectious aerosols. Here we investigate the generation of aerosols during bone-sawing procedures using 5 different saws regularly used in veterinary and human pathology. In particular, the electrical bone band saw produced vast amounts of aerosolized particles less than 5 µm in diameter, which spread rapidly throughout the entire autopsy hall, leading to an exposure of all personnel. Other sawing devices tested were a diamond-coated cut grinder, an oscillating saw, a reciprocating saw, and a hand bone saw. Although these saws, especially the handsaw, generated fewer aerosolized particles than the band saw, the level of exposure of the saw operator would still be of concern in cases where infectious material would require sawing. Contamination of the entire autopsy area was successfully prevented by the construction of a separately ventilated sawing cabin inside the existing autopsy room. Saw operators in this cabin, however, were exposed to even higher aerosol concentrations. Protection of saw operators was achieved by using a powered air-purifying respirator. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that all bone-sawing procedures applied in veterinary and human pathology can generate aerosols that are of concern for the health of autopsy personnel. To reduce the risk of aerosol infections from bone-sawing procedures, efficient and properly designed ventilation systems to limit the spread of aerosols and appropriate personal protective equipment against aerosols for exposed personnel should be implemented.
Bowermaster, Rebecca; Miller, Megan; Ashcraft, Traci; Boyd, Michael; Brar, Anoop; Manning, Peter; Eghtesady, Pirooz
Cardiac surgical procedures are complex and require the coordinated action of many. This creates the potential for small failures that could be the substrate for subsequent morbidity or mortality. High-reliability science suggests that preoccupation with small failures can lead to improved outcomes. Failures of all magnitudes (ie, events) were captured within the pediatric cardiac operating room starting with a single surgeon in April 2008. As the surgical team became more familiar with the process, failure recording was extended to all surgeons and all surgical procedures performed until the conclusion of the study in December 2010. New recording processes were developed and used on a rolling basis during this study. With systematic capture, event rates increased (from occurring within 20% to 50% of operative procedures). Although we identified 9 recurrent patterns, 2 categories (ie, Equipment and Patient Instability) accounted for almost half of the events (45%). The greatest number of events occurred during the prebypass period (40.2%), compared with bypass (20.1%) and postbypass (32.3%) periods. These events were mainly difficulties in access (31.8%), equipment (42.4%), and patient instability (33.3%) in each of the epochs, respectively. Of all events, 7.3% occurred during nonbypass cases, 30.6% of these were communication events. Implementation of this initiative led to recognition of major system-wide issues (eg, need for change in the blood-product acquisition process). Preoccupation with all failures in the operating room can reveal important information about the operating room and perioperative microenvironment that can prompt substantive process changes both locally and within the larger health system. Copyright © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Okorie-Kanu et al. 160. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): ... Nigeria; 3Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu state,. Nigeria. ...... (ASVCP), International Veterinary.
1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.. 2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Abeokuta, Ogun State,. Nigeria. *Corresponding Authors: .... medial and lateral canthi of each eye. Philtrum Height (PH). Measured ...
Jul 2, 2000 ... Nigerian Veterinary Journal 36(4). 2015. Owoyemi et al. 1341. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., December 2015 ... medicine, 3Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. .... in wound or burn healing, internal intake of.
Siu, Joey; Maran, Nikki; Paterson-Brown, Simon
The importance of non-technical skills in improving surgical safety and performance is now well recognised. Better understanding is needed of the impact that non-technical skills of the multi-disciplinary theatre team have on intra-operative incidents in the operating room (OR) using structured theatre-based assessment. The interaction of non-technical skills that influence surgical safety of the OR team will be explored and made more transparent. Between May-August 2013, a range of procedures in general and vascular surgery in the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh were performed. Non-technical skills behavioural markers and associated intra-operative incidents were recorded using established behavioural marking systems (NOTSS, ANTS and SPLINTS). Adherence to the surgical safety checklist was also observed. A total of 51 procedures were observed, with 90 recorded incidents - 57 of which were considered avoidable. Poor situational awareness was a common area for surgeons and anaesthetists leading to most intra-operative incidents. Poor communication and teamwork across the whole OR team had a generally large impact on intra-operative incidents. Leadership was shown to be an essential set of skills for the surgeons as demonstrated by the high correlation of poor leadership with intra-operative incidents. Team-working and management skills appeared to be especially important for anaesthetists in the recovery from an intra-operative incident. A significant number of avoidable incidents occur during operative procedures. These can all be linked to failures in non-technical skills. Better training of both individual and team in non-technical skills is needed in order to improve patient safety in the operating room. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Chien-Ching; Lin, Shih-Pin; Yang, Shu-Ling; Tsou, Mei-Yung; Chang, Kuang-Yi
Medical institutions are eager to introduce new information technology to improve patient safety and clinical efficiency. However, the acceptance of new information technology by medical personnel plays a key role in its adoption and application. This study aims to investigate whether perceived organizational learning capability (OLC) is associated with user acceptance of information technology among operating room nurse staff. Nurse anesthetists and operating room nurses were recruited in this questionnaire survey. A pilot study was performed to ensure the reliability and validity of the translated questionnaire, which consisted of 14 items from the four dimensions of OLC, and 16 items from the four constructs of user acceptance of information technology, including performance expectancy, effort expectancy, social influence, and behavioral intention. Confirmatory factor analysis was applied in the main survey to evaluate the construct validity of the questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was used to test the hypothetical relationships between the four dimensions of user acceptance of information technology and the second-ordered OLC. Goodness of fit of the hypothetic model was also assessed. Performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence positively influenced behavioral intention of users of the clinical information system (all p perceived OLC and behavioral intention was not significant (p = 0.87). The fit statistical analysis indicated reasonable model fit to data (root mean square error of approximation = 0.07 and comparative fit index = 0.91). Perceived OLC indirectly affects user behavioral intention through the mediation of performance expectancy, effort expectancy, and social influence in the operating room setting. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Riratanapong, Saowaluck; Sroihin, Waranya; Kotepat, Kingkan; Volrathongchai, Kanittha
For a successful surgical outcome for patients with cleft lip/palate (CLP), the attending nurses must continuously develop their potential, knowledge, capacity and skills. The goal is to meet international standards of patient safety and efficiency. To assess and improve the nursing care system for patients with CLP and craniofacial deformities at the operating room (OR), Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University. Data were collected for two months (between March 1, 2011 and April 30, 2011). Part I was an enquiry regarding the attitude of OR staff on serving patients with CLP; and, Part 2.1) patient and caregiver satisfaction with service from the OR staff and 2.2) patient and caregiver satisfaction with the OR transfer service. The authors interviewed 28 staff in OR unit 2 of the OR nursing division and 30 patients with CLP and his/her caregiver. The respective validity according to the Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.87 and 0.93. The OR staff attitude visa-vis service provision for patients with CLP service was middling. Patient and caregiver satisfaction with both OR staff and the transfer service was very satisfactory. Active development of the nursing care system for patients with CLP and craniofacial deformities in the operating room, Srinagarind Hospital improved staff motivation with respect to serving patients with CLP. The operating theater staff was able to co-ordinate the multidisciplinary team through the provision of surgical service for patients with CLP.
Biais, Matthieu; Larghi, Mathilde; Henriot, Jeremy; de Courson, Hugues; Sesay, Musa; Nouette-Gaulain, Karine
End-expiratory occlusion test (EEOT) has been proposed to predict fluid responsiveness in mechanically ventilated intensive care unit patients. The utility of this test during low-tidal-volume ventilation remains uncertain. This study aimed to determine whether hemodynamic variations induced by EEOT could predict the effect of volume expansion in patients with protective ventilation in the operating room. Forty-one patients undergoing neurosurgery were included. Stroke volume and pulse pressure variations were continuously recorded using pulse contour analysis before and immediately after a 30-second EEOT and after volume expansion (250 mL saline 0.9% given over 10 minutes). Patients with an increase in stroke volume ≥ 10% after volume expansion were defined as responders. Twenty patients were responders to fluid administration. EEOT induced a significant increase in stroke volume, which was correlated with the stroke volume changes induced by volume expansion (r = 0.55, P variation threshold was 9%, with a sensitivity of 60% (95% CI, 36%-81%) and specificity of 86% (95% CI, 64%-97%). The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve generated for changes in stroke volume induced by EEOT (0.91, 95% CI, 0.81-1.00) was significantly higher than the one obtained for pulse pressure variations (0.75, 95% CI, 0.60-0.90); P ventilation in the operating room. This test may have potential applications.
Mitello, Lucia; D'Alba, Fabrizio; Milito, Francesca; Monaco, Cinzia; Orazi, Daniela; Battilana, Daniela; Marucci, Anna Rita; Longo, Angelo; Latina, Roberto
The management of operating rooms (ORs) is a complex process which requires an effective organizational scheme. In order to amore convinient allocation of resources a rigorous monitoring plan is needed to ensure operating rooms performances. All the necessary actions should be taken to improve the quality of the planning and scheduling procedure. Between April-December, 2016 an organizational analysis has been carried out on the performances of the A.O. S. Camillo-Forlanini Hospital Operating Block applying the "process management" approach to the ORs efficiency. The project involved two different surgical areas of the same operating block the multi-specialist and elective surgery and cardio-vascular surgery . The analyses of the processes was made through the product, patient and safety approach and from different points of view: the "asis", process and stakeholder perspectives. Descriptive statistics was used to process raw data and Student's t-distribution was used to assess the difference between the two means (significant p value ˂0,05). The Coefficient of Variation (CV) was used to describe the variabilityamong data. The asis approach allowed us to describe the ORs inbound activities. For both operating block the most demanding weekly commitments in terms of time turned out to be the inventory management procedures of controlling and stocking medicines, general medical supplies and instruments (130[DS=±14] for BOE and 30[DS=±18] for CCH. The average time spent on preparing the operating room, separately calculated starting from the first surgical case, was of 27 minutes (SD=± 17) while for the following surgical procedures preparation time decreased to 15 minutes (SD= ± 10), which highlighted a meaningful difference of 12 minutes. A great variability was registered in CCH due to the unpredictability of these operations (CV 82%). The stakeholders' perspective revealed a reasonable level of satisfaction among nurses and surgeons (2.9 vs 2.3, respectively