Babica, Jan; Rusek, Václav
In the 1920s Czechoslovakia, an increased attention was paid to the new ideas of scientific management (Taylorism), work rationalization and standardization. This was reflected in the foundation of the Masaryk Academy of Work in 1920. An effort to implement the new principles into health care led to the establishment of the Commission for Rationalization and Standardization in Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (RANOK) within the Department of Natural Science and Medicine of the Academy. Within RANOK, the group for pharmacy worked between 1928-1932. The first part of the paper describes the scientific management and standardization movement in interwar Czechoslovakia, and the establishment of Masaryk Academy of Work and RANOK, including the group for pharmacy. The paper discusses the work objectives of the commission and presents concise biographies of the group for pharmacy members, too. The second part will be focused on the work results, relative failure and role of the group. Masaryk Academy of Work Comission for Rationalization and Standardization in Medicine Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (RANOK) work rationalization standardization pharmacy practice.
Babica, Jan; Rusek, Václav
In interwar Czechoslovakia health care, an increased attention paid to the new ideas of scientific management (Taylorism), work rationalization and standardization led to the establishment of the Commission for Rationalization and Standardization in Medicine, Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy (RANOK) within the Department of Natural Science and Medicine of the Masaryk Academy of Work. Within RANOK, the group for pharmacy worked between 1928 and 1932. The first part of the paper described the scientific management and standardization movement in interwar Czechoslovakia, the establishment of Masaryk Academy of Work and RANOK, and work objectives of RANOK and its group for pharmacy. The second part deals with the work results, relative failure and importance of the group for pharmacy.
A. A. Deltsov
Full Text Available Nowadays there is an active growth of veterinary pharmacy organizations and consumed medicinal drugs for veterinary use. Content-analysis showed that there was an insufficient number of studies devoted to the activity of veterinary pharmacies. The purpose of our work was the analysis of correspondence of range fullness of veterinary pharmacies to the contemporary state of pharmaceutical market of drugs for veterinary use. Veterinary clinics and pharmacies of Moscow and Moscow oblast were the object of our study. We have applied sociological methods (questionnaire, interview, marketing and statistic analysis methods. We have established that liquid dosage forms (53% occupy the biggest part of drugs in the State Registry of Veterinary Drugs. Solutions occupy 68% of this amount. Antimicrobial drugs for systematic use (40% are the most numerous drugs from pharmacotheraperutic group represented in the State Registry. Assortment of veterinary drugs is targeted mainly on a farm livestock (more than 50%. 58% of the market share is domestic drugs. Principal commodity groups which are released by veterinary pharmacies are feed-stuff (31% and drugs (30%. Pharmacy organizations does not have sufficient number of drugs in their assortment (fullness coefficient 7.9% which speaks about nonconformity of the assortment fullness.
Report on Health Manpower and Programs in Ohio: Part Two. Allied Health, Area Health Education Centers, Dentistry, Emergency Medical Services, Nursing, Optometry, Pharmacy, Podiatry, and Veterinary Medicine.
Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.
Information on health occupations educational programs in Ohio and current and projected employment needs for health professionals are presented. The following health fields are examined: allied health, dentistry, emergency medical service, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine. Issues and trends affecting each field are…
Krzeminski, M.; Lass, P.; Teodorczyk, J.; Krajka, J.
The veterinary use of radionuclide techniques dates back to the mid-sixties, but its more extensive use dates back to the past two decades. Veterinary nuclear medicine is focused mainly on four major issues: bone scintigraphy - with the majority of applications in horses, veterinary endocrinology - dealing mainly with the problems of hyperthyreosis in cats and hyperthyreosis in dogs, portosystemic shunts in small animals and veterinary oncology, however, most radionuclide techniques applied to humans can be applied to most animals. (author)
Kallfelz, F.A.; Comar, C.L.; Wentworth, R.A.
A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)
Hrusovsky, J.; Benes, J.
A textbook is presented for pregraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary medicine, offering an extensive review of all aspects of radiology as applied in veterinary sciences. Based on findings published in the literature and the authors' own research, the textbook familiarizes the reader with the problems of nuclear physics, biological effects of ionizing radiation on animals, the principles of biological cycles of radionuclides in the atmosphere, the fundamentals of radiochemistry, dosimetry, radiometry and nuclear medicine. Radiation protection of animals, raw materials, feeds, foodstuff and water, and the questions of the aplications of ionizing radiation and of radionuclides in veterinary medicine are discussed in great detail. The publication is complemented with numerous photographs, figures and graphs. (L.O.)
Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hudak, R.; Zivcak, J.; Sevcik, A.; Danko, J.
The use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine has been practiced since at least the 1960's, but it is only now, in approximately the last 5 years, that it has been viewed with a reasonably open mind in the veterinary community at large. One of the reasons is progress in sensors technology, which contributed for an outstanding improvement of the thermal imager parameters. Paper deals with veterinary thermography and with description of applications at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice. (authors)
In this presentation history of radiobiology in University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice from 1949 is presented. Scientific and pedagogic programs, role of veterinary physician as well as concept of radiobiology and cooperation are reviewed. Changes in Poecilia reticulata and Artemia franciscana after gamma radiation are presented.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...
Weese, J Scott; Jack, Douglas C
Needlestick injuries are an inherent risk of handling needles during the course of veterinary practice. While significant effort has been expended to reduce needlestick injuries in human medicine, a relatively lax approach seems to be prevalent in veterinary medicine. It appears that needlestick injuries are very common among veterinary personnel and that serious adverse effects, while uncommon, do occur. Clients may also receive injuries in clinics during the course of animal restraint, and at home following prescription of injectable medications or fluids. Because of occupational health, personal health, and liability concerns, veterinary practices should review the measures they are taking to reduce the likelihood of needlestick injuries and develop written needlestick injury avoidance protocols.
... become essential tools in almost every field of research and applied technology. ... Computers in veterinary medicine have been used for veterinary education; ... agro-veterinary project design, monitoring and implementation; preparation of ...
Diana L. Eubanks
Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.
Boxall, A B A; Fogg, L A; Blackwell, P A; Kay, P; Pemberton, E J; Croxford, A
The impact of veterinary medicines on the environment will depend on a number of factors including physicochemical properties, amount used and method of administration, treatment type and dose, animal husbandry practices, manure storage and handling practices, metabolism within the animal, and degradation rates in manure and slurry. Once released to the environment, other factors such as soil type, climate, and ecotoxicity also determine the environmental impact of the compound. The importance of individual routes into the environment for different types of veterinary medicines varies according to the type of treatment and livestock category. Treatments used in aquaculture have a high potential to reach the aquatic environment. The main routes of entry to the terrestrial environment are from the use of veterinary medicines in intensively reared livestock, via the application of slurry and manure to land, and by the use of veterinary medicines in pasture-reared animals where pharmaceutical residues are excreted directly into the environment. Veterinary medicines applied to land via spreading of slurry may also enter the aquatic environment indirectly via surface runoff or leaching to groundwater. It is likely that topical treatments have greater potential to be released to the environment than treatments administered orally or by injection. Inputs from the manufacturing process, companion animal treatments, and disposal are likely to be minimal in comparison. Monitoring studies demonstrate that veterinary medicines do enter the environment, with sheep dip chemicals, antibiotics, sealice treatments, and anthelmintics being measured in soils, groundwater, surface waters, sediment, or biota. Maximum concentrations vary across chemical classes, with very high concentrations being reported for the sheep dip chemicals. The degree to which veterinary medicines may adsorb to particulates varies widely. Partition coefficients (K(d)) range from low (0.61 L kg(-1)) to high
Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection
Gerald, Michael C.
A study assessed and compared the current status of undergraduate, nonprofessional pharmacology courses as taught in the U. S. and Canadian colleges of pharmacy and medicine; courses offered by veterinary medicine are also noted. Pharmacy courses seek to increase general drug knowledge and promote rational drug use. (Author/MLW)
In Sweden 300 veterinary clinics have a license for x-ray diagnostics. Six of them also have a license for nuclear medicine. During 2005 eight clinics were inspected and the results show that the radiation protection in veterinary medicine can be improved. No clinic fulfilled the regulations of categorization of workplaces and workers (SSI FS 1998:3). Half of the clinics had no Swedish manual to the x-ray equipment and just as many had not performed the annual function check. Obviously, there is a need for more information to staff in veterinary medicine.
This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).
Hubbert, William T.
The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)
K.Šliogeryte`s master thesis. Master thesis supervisor associate professor Jonas Grincevičius (2015/2016), lecturer J. Daukšienė(2016/2017); Lithuanian University of Health Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical technology and Social pharmacy department. – Kaunas. Master thesis: prescription medicine sharing experience among pharmacy students. The aim: to evaluate LUHS Pharmacy faculty students` experience in prescription drugs` sharing. Methods: empirical qualitative method...
Blach, Edward L
This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.
Kerby, Erin E
The study investigated veterinary medicine librarians' experience with and perceptions of research data services. Many academic libraries have begun to offer research data services in response to researchers' increased need for data management support. To date, such services have typically been generic, rather than discipline-specific, to appeal to a wide variety of researchers. An online survey was deployed to identify trends regarding research data services in veterinary medicine libraries. Participants were identified from a list of contacts from the MLA Veterinary Medical Libraries Section. Although many respondents indicated that they have a professional interest in research data services, the majority of veterinary medicine librarians only rarely or occasionally provide data management support as part of their regular job responsibilities. There was little consensus as to whether research data services should be core to a library's mission despite their perceived importance to the advancement of veterinary research. Furthermore, most respondents stated that research data services are just as or somewhat less important than the other services that they provide and feel only slightly or somewhat prepared to offer such services. Lacking a standard definition of "research data" and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.
Smith, Donald F
The future of veterinary medicine is best understood in the context of history. What began as a profession rooted in urban centers in proximity to horses, physicians, and medical schools, was transformed into a land grant-based agricultural profession with the arrival of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century. Most of the United States' current veterinary colleges are still located in towns or small cities in the middle section of the country, outside the largest metropolitan areas where most veterinarians practice companion-animal medicine. Throughout veterinarian history, substantial numbers of US students have been educated in foreign colleges and this continues today, creating an even greater geographic imbalance between the veterinary educational process and US population centers and major medical schools. Three themes deserve special attention as we celebrate the profession's 150th anniversary. We must first move beyond the land-grant culture and develop a more geographically balanced approach to establishing new veterinary colleges that are also in closer association with schools of medicine and public health. We must also facilitate more opportunities for women leadership in organized veterinary medicine, in practice ownership, in academia, and in the corporate structures that educate, hire, and interface with veterinarians. Finally, we need to expand our understanding of One Health to include the concept of zooeyia (the role of animals in promoting human health), as well as continue to emphasize veterinarians' special roles in the control and management of zoonotic diseases and in advancing comparative medicine in the age of the genome.
Morgan, Carol A; McDonald, Michael
Veterinarians frequently encounter situations that are morally charged and potentially difficult to manage. Situation involving euthanasia, end-of-life care, economics, and inadequate provision of care create practical and moral dilemmas. Ethical tension may be attributable to differences in beliefs regarding the moral value of animals, client and veterinary responsibilities, and deciding what is best for an animal. Veterinarians can employ communication skills used in medical situations to explore the reasons underpinning ethical dilemmas and to search for solutions with clients, staff, and colleagues.
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…
Erin E. Kerby, MSI
Conclusions: Lacking a standard definition of ‘‘research data’’ and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.
Cancer constitutes the major health problem both in human and veterinary medicine. Comparative oncology as an integrative approach offers to learn more about naturally occurring cancers across different species. Canine models have many advantages as they experience spontaneous disease, have many genes similar ...
In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...
Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270
...] Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory... Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl...
...] Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory..., Rockville, MD 20852, 301-468-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3...
Khan, M O Faruk; Deimling, Michael J; Philip, Ashok
The origins and advancements of pharmacy, medicinal chemistry, and drug discovery are interwoven in nature. Medicinal chemistry provides pharmacy students with a thorough understanding of drug mechanisms of action, structure-activity relationships (SAR), acid-base and physicochemical properties, and absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity (ADMET) profiles. A comprehensive understanding of the chemical basis of drug action equips pharmacy students with the ability to answer rationally the "why" and "how" questions related to drug action and it sets the pharmacist apart as the chemical expert among health care professionals. By imparting an exclusive knowledge base, medicinal chemistry plays a vital role in providing critical thinking and evidence-based problem-solving skills to pharmacy students, enabling them to make optimal patient-specific therapeutic decisions. This review highlights the parallel nature of the history of pharmacy and medicinal chemistry, as well as the key elements of medicinal chemistry and drug discovery that make it an indispensable component of the pharmacy curriculum.
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute... information collection for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). This notice initiates a 30...
Galambos, Eva C.
Expansion in the South for providing professional education in medicine, veterinary medicine, and law was undertaken to extend access to desirable professionals to young people and to increase the supply of needed professionals in underserved areas. How these objectives have been met is analyzed from an economist's perspective by relating supply…
Fernandes, Marco A.R.; Andrade, Alexandre L.; Luvizoto, Maria C.R.; Piero, Juliana R.; Ciarlini, Luciana D.R.P.
This work presents a brief historical about the use of ionizing radiations in Veterinary Medicine, instructing the physical beginnings and techniques wrapped in the realization of the proceedings of radiotherapy in animals, illustrating some treated cases, highlighting the difficulties and pointing to the perspectives and importance of the acting of the medical physics in this kind of therapeutic still little used in the national scenery. (author)
.... FDA-2013-N-1380] Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination AGENCY: Food... announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. This document removes the Veterinary Advisory Committee from the Agency's list of standing advisory committees. DATES: This rule is...
Full Text Available Given that: (1 the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2 the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR of animal origin; (3 alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed green antibiotics, having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes.We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a turnstile exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s. For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem.
Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W
Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Chaney, Kristin P; Macik, Maria L; Turner, Jacqueline S; Korich, Jodi A; Rogers, Kenita S; Fowler, Debra; Scallan, Elizabeth M; Keefe, Lisa M
Curricular review is considered a necessary component for growth and enhancement of academic programs and requires time, energy, creativity, and persistence from both faculty and administration. At Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (TAMU), the faculty and administration partnered with the university's Center for Teaching Excellence to create a faculty-driven, data-enhanced curricular redesign process. The 8-step process begins with the formation of a dedicated faculty curriculum design team to drive the redesign process and to support the college curriculum committee. The next steps include defining graduate outcomes and mapping the current curriculum to identify gaps and redundancies across the curriculum. Data are collected from internal and external stakeholders including veterinary students, faculty, alumni, and employers of graduates. Data collected through curriculum mapping and stakeholder engagement substantiate the curriculum redesign. The guidelines, supporting documents, and 8-step process developed at TAMU are provided to assist other veterinary schools in successful curricular redesign. This is the first of a two-part report that provides the background, context, and description of the process for charting the course for curricular change. The process involves defining expected learning outcomes for new graduates, conducting a curriculum mapping exercise, and collecting stakeholder data for curricular evaluation (steps 1-4). The second part of the report describes the development of rubrics that were applied to the graduate learning outcomes (steps 5-8) and engagement of faculty during the implementation phases of data-driven curriculum change.
Djuric, G.; Popovic, D.
The education of radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists on the University of Belgrade is integrated both in regular graduate studies and in postgraduate studies. Within the graduate studies, students attend courses in physics and biophysics and in radiation hygiene. During postgraduate or specialistic veterinary medicine studies, veterinary medicine specialists expand their knowledge in radiation protection through a number of courses on radiation biophysics, radioecology, nuclear instrumentation and environmental protection. (author)
Henry, Colette; Treanor, Lorna
Purpose: This paper has the purpose of exploring the potential for entrepreneurship education within veterinary medicine. It aims to examine some of the key themes in the entrepreneurship education literature, discuss the make-up of the UK veterinary sector, consider veterinary curricula requirements and illustrate how entrepreneurship education…
Simpraga, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Dodig, D.
X-radiography and ultrasound imaging are well established and widely used in veterinary practice, but it is not the same situation with radioisotope imaging. In veterinary practice the above mentioned methods of nuclear medicine are developed only in two countries in Europe. That is not doubt due, so bar, to the difficulties in obtaining satisfactory supply of radioisotopes and to the relatively high cost of scanning equipment. However, in collaboration with the Department of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Medicine of the Medical Faculty in Zagreb, Croatia, we have chance to develop the use of those methods in clinical veterinary practice in Zagreb. That is way in this paper an overview of the application of radioisotopes imaging in veterinary medicine is given. In small animals skeletal changes, lung perusions, brain lesions, space occupying lesions in the liver and its function and hearth function can be usefully searched by a gamma camera and its associated computer. In equine practice scintigraphy of bones, liver, hearth, pulmonary circulation and ventilation is described. The largest amount of radioactive material is used during gamma camera scanning of the skeletons of horses. In this cases the radiation dose 1-2 m from the animal is approximately 3 μSv/h. That is why the protection of personal involved in radioisotope scanning in veterinary medicine must be also regulated by low of radiation protection. Also, the animals should be confined to a controlled area for 2-3 days after scanning before being returned to their owners. After this period the area must be cleaned. (author)
Full Text Available To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK.Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning.80% (112/140 of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%. 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%, followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9% and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%. The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3% programmes included all recommended principles.Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.
Popovic, D.; Djuric, G.
Medical and veterinary medicine staff and specialists represent an important decision making group in national administration and institutions dealing with radiation protection and environmental protection matters in general. Still, their education in physics, especially in radiation physics is fragmentary and loose, both from technical and theoretical point of view. Within medicine and veterinary medicine studies as well as within other biomedical sciences (biology, pharmacology, biotechnology) radiation physics is usually incorporated in the first year curricula as a part of general physics or biophysics course. Some segments of radiation physics mainly as a technical base for different instrumentation methods and techniques could be also found within different graduate and post-graduate courses of radiology, physical therapy, radiation hygiene, environmental protection, etc. But the traditional approach in presenting the matter and inflexibility of the educational system strongly confront the growing public concern for the environmental problems dealing with radiation and demands for better informing and technical education for those involved in informing and administration. This paper considers some of these problems presenting a new approach in education in radiation physics for medical and veterinary medicine students based on education through student projects and work in the field, as well as on the strong collaboration among administration, universities and professional societies on the national and international level. (author)
Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake
Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234
In this presentation author deals with history of the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice as well as with the status and role of radiobiology in veterinary medicine. Some results of gamma irradiation of Pecilia reticulata are presented. Activity levels of cesium-137 in contaminated mushrooms gathered in Slovakia in 2001 are presented.
...] Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for... Requirements for the Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH) has developed a draft guideline titled ``Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for Transfer of Data...
Full Text Available Fosfomycin (FOS is a natural bactericidal broad-spectrum antibiotic which acts on proliferating bacteria by inhibiting cell wall and early murein/peptidoglycan synthesis. Bactericidal activity is evident against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and can also act synergistically with other antibiotics. Bacterial resistance to FOS may be natural or acquired. Other properties of this drug include inhibition of bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells, exopolysaccharide biofilm penetration, immunomodulatory effect, phagocytosis promotion and protection against the nephrotoxicity caused by other drugs. FOS has chemical characteristics not typically observed in organic phosphoric compounds and its molecular weight is almost the lowest of all the antimicrobials. It tends to form salts easily due to its acidic nature (disodium salt, for intravenous (IV, intramuscular (IM and subcutaneous (SC administration; calcium and trometamol salt: for oral (PO administration. FOS has a very low protein binding (<0.5% which, along with its low molecular weight and water solubility, contributes to its good diffusion into fluids (cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous and vitreous humor, interstitial fluid and tissues (placenta, bone, muscle, liver, kidney and skin/fat. In all species, important differences in the bioavailability have been found after administration in relation to the various derivatives of FOS salts. Pharmacokinetic profiles have been described in humans, chickens, rabbits, cows, dogs, horses and weaning piglets. The low toxicity and potential efficacy of FOS are the main factors that contribute to its use in humans and animals. Thus, it has been used to treat a broad variety of bacterial infections in humans, such as localized peritonitis, brain abscesses, severe soft tissue infections, cystitis and other conditions. In veterinary medicine, FOS is used to treat infectious diseases of broiler chickens and pigs. In broilers, it is administered for the
Baars, J C
Veterinary medicines constitute an unescapable element in the scheme of animal health and welfare. Nowadays, they are used more and more to improve health and productivity in farm animals. When a veterinary medicine is prescribed it must not only be effective but must also be safe for both animals and humans. Due to ever changing regulations and constant improvements in residue detection techniques it is necessary to conduct new investigations with existing products. It therefore costs a great deal of time and money to introduce, and maintain, a product in the market. In future, therefore, fewer medicines with more limited indications will be introduced and these will be to combat important production disorders in the more significant species only. In view of the above, research and production will be restricted to large, international, concerns. Due to our well structured agricultural industry and the existence of well organized and equipped veterinary research institutions, and practitioners, Holland is able to play an important role in the development of veterinary medicines. Close co-operation between all involved parties coupled with an efficient registration procedure is not ony of benefit to the veterinary pharmaceutical industry but also for international recognition of our national animal husbandry industry, ancillary industries and veterinary and other consultants. In this scheme of things the accent is not upon qualifications but upon the skills of veterinarians - wherever placed - who are involved in the administration of veterinary medicines.
Irwin Jane A
Full Text Available Extremophiles are organisms that can grow and thrive in harsh conditions, e.g., extremes of temperature, pH, salinity, radiation, pressure and oxygen tension. Thermophilic, halophilic and radiation-resistant organisms are all microbes, some of which are able to withstand multiple extremes. Psychrophiles, or cold-loving organisms, include not only microbes, but fish that live in polar waters and animals that can withstand freezing. Extremophiles are structurally adapted at a molecular level to withstand these conditions. Thermophiles have particularly stable proteins and cell membranes, psychrophiles have flexible cellular proteins and membranes and/or antifreeze proteins, salt-resistant halophiles contain compatible solutes or high concentrations of inorganic ions, and acidophiles and alkaliphiles are able to pump ions to keep their internal pH close to neutrality. Their interest to veterinary medicine resides in their capacity to be pathogenic, and as sources of enzymes and other molecules for diagnostic and pharmaceutical purposes. In particular, thermostable DNA polymerases are a mainstay of PCR-based diagnostics.
Nešić Ksenija D.
Full Text Available The problem of mycotoxin presence in animal feed and the consequences that arise due to this, represent a great challenge for anyone encountering them. In the chain which includes studies from prevention to treatment, a very important place and a frequent source of confusion is the process of diagnosing diseases caused by mycotoxins. The aim of this paper is to present a long experience of the team of experts at the Institute of Veterinary Medicine of Serbia in Belgrade, who follows this issue in terms of clinical manifestations of mycotoxicoses in different animal species, pathomorphological and pathohistological changes that characterize them, and laboratory analysis of feed which is the source of those biological hazards and natural contaminants. Based on the findings it could be concluded that mycotoxin contamination is common. Although these levels usually do not exceed the limits laid by the legislation, considering the cumulative effects and possible chronic exposure of animals to their harmful influence, appropriate and competent approach is necessary. Namely, even when direct losses, such as animals’ mortality, are not present, indirect losses, due to a drop of animal performances and production, as well as the occurrence of secondary infections, should not be neglected.
Kahn, Laura H; Kaplan, Bruce; Steele, James H
In the 19th century, the concept of 'one medicine' was embraced by leaders in the medical and veterinary medical communities. In the 20th century, collaborative efforts between medicine and veterinary medicine diminished considerably. While there have been some notable exceptions, such as Calvin W. Schwabe's proposal for unifying human and veterinary medicine and joint efforts by the Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization to control zoonotic diseases, 'one medicine' has languished in the modern milieu of clinical care, public health, and biomedical research. Risks of zoonotic disease transmission are rarely discussed in clinical care which is of particular concern if humans and/or animals are immunosuppressed. Physicians and veterinarians should advise their patients and pet-owning clients that some animals should not be pets. The risk of zoonotic disease acquisition can be considerable in the occupational setting. Collaborative efforts in biomedical research could do much to improve human and animal health. As the threat of zoonotic diseases continues to increase in the 21st century, medicine and veterinary medicine must revive 'one medicine' in order to adequately address these challenges. 'One medicine' revival strategies must involve medical and veterinary medical education, clinical care, public health and biomedical research.
This chapter provides a critical evaluation of prospective and retrospective risk assessment approaches for veterinary medicines in aquatic ecosystems and provides recommendations for possible alternative approaches for hazard characterization.
Full Text Available Carbon nanotubes (CNTs are allotropes of carbon, made of graphite and constructed in cylindrical tubes with nanometer in diameter and several millimeters in length. Their impressive structural, mechanical, and electronic properties are due to their small size and mass, their strong mechanical potency, and their high electrical and thermal conductivity. CNTs have been successfully applied in pharmacy and medicine due to their high surface area that is capable of adsorbing or conjugating with a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines, antibodies, biosensors, etc.. They have been first proven to be an excellent vehicle for drug delivery directly into cells without metabolism by the body. Then other applications of CNTs have been extensively performed not only for drug and gene therapies but also for tissue regeneration, biosensor diagnosis, enantiomer separation of chiral drugs, extraction and analysis of drugs and pollutants. Moreover, CNTs have been recently revealed as a promising antioxidant. This minireview focuses the applications of CNTs in all fields of pharmacy and medicine from therapeutics to analysis and diagnosis as cited above. It also examines the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity of different forms of CNTs and discusses the perspectives, the advantages and the obstacles of this promising bionanotechnology in the future.
He, Hua; Pham-Huy, Lien Ai; Dramou, Pierre; Xiao, Deli; Zuo, Pengli
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon, made of graphite and constructed in cylindrical tubes with nanometer in diameter and several millimeters in length. Their impressive structural, mechanical, and electronic properties are due to their small size and mass, their strong mechanical potency, and their high electrical and thermal conductivity. CNTs have been successfully applied in pharmacy and medicine due to their high surface area that is capable of adsorbing or conjugating with a wide variety of therapeutic and diagnostic agents (drugs, genes, vaccines, antibodies, biosensors, etc.). They have been first proven to be an excellent vehicle for drug delivery directly into cells without metabolism by the body. Then other applications of CNTs have been extensively performed not only for drug and gene therapies but also for tissue regeneration, biosensor diagnosis, enantiomer separation of chiral drugs, extraction and analysis of drugs and pollutants. Moreover, CNTs have been recently revealed as a promising antioxidant. This minireview focuses the applications of CNTs in all fields of pharmacy and medicine from therapeutics to analysis and diagnosis as cited above. It also examines the pharmacokinetics, metabolism and toxicity of different forms of CNTs and discusses the perspectives, the advantages and the obstacles of this promising bionanotechnology in the future. PMID:24195076
The availability of Misoprostol in pharmacies and patent medicine stores in two Nigerian ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... pharmacists or vendors of pharmaceutical and patent medicine outlets in two ...
Full Text Available Veterinary medicinal products that are subject to authorization via the centralized procedure according to Regulation (EC no. 726/2004 are included in the Community register of veterinary medicines, that is published on the European Commission website and product information of them are published on the website of the European Medicines Agency. Each competent authority involved in the linguistic review process of product information annexed to the Marketing Authorization for medicinal products authorized centrally (SPC, leaflet, information about the marketing authorization holder, product labeling conditions, approve the version in the language mother of each Member State. In the second half of 2011 have received marketing authorization via the centralized procedure a total of four veterinary medicinal products, presented above.
Paulsen, Lynn Mulcahy
A one-semester, two-credit course is described that was developed cooperatively by the colleges of pharmacy and veterinary medicine at Washington State University to help resolve an acute shortage of clinical pharmacologists in veterinary medicine and veterinary medical education. Course procedures, content, and evaluation are outlined (MSE)
Duffy, J.; Fenton, D.; McGarry, A.; McAllister, H.; Skelly, C
This Code of Practice updates the Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in Veterinary Radiology prepared by the Nuclear Energy Board in June 1989. The Code is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons to ensure that they, their employees and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of X-ray equipment and radioactive substances in the practice of veterinary medicine. It reflects the regulations as specified in the Radiological Protection Act, 1991, (Ionising Radiation) Order, 2000 (S.I. No. 125 of 2000)
Full Text Available Abstract Background The concept of health, as well as the concept of disease, is central in veterinary medicine. However, the definitions "health" and "disease" are not generally acknowledged by veterinarians. The aim of this study was to examine how the concepts "health" and "disease" are defined in veterinary textbooks. Methods Veterinary textbooks in several disciplines were investigated, but only textbooks with explicit definitions of the concepts were selected for examination. Results Eighty out of the 500 relevant books within veterinary medicine were written for non-veterinarians. Eight percent of the books had an explicit definition of health and/or disease. More frequently, textbooks written for non veterinarians did have definitions of health or disease, compared to textbooks written for professionals. A division of health definitions in five different categories was suggested, namely: 1. Health as normality, 2. Health as biological function, 3. Health as homeostasis, 4. Health as physical and psychological well-being and 5. Health as productivity including reproduction. Conclusion Few veterinary textbooks had any health or disease definition at all. Furthermore, explicit definitions of health stated by the authors seemed to have little impact on how health and disease are handled within the profession. Veterinary medicine would probably gain from theoretical discussions about health and disease.
Horzinek, M.C.; Venker-van Haagen, Anjop
On November 19, the Federation of Veterinarians in Europe (FVE) issued a policy statement urging its 200,000 members "to work only on the basis of scientifically proven and evidence-based methods and to stay away from non-evidence-based methods." The Swedish Veterinary Association banned its members
Vanel, Maïa, E-mail: email@example.com [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Blond, Laurent [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Vanel, Daniel [The Rizzoli Institute, Via del Barbiano 1-10, 40136, Bologna (Italy)
Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all.
Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel
Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all
... Science; National Institute of Food and Agriculture; U.S. Department of Agriculture; STOP 2220; 1400... and State Allocation Method 4. State Allocation of Nominations 5. FY 2011 Shortage Situation..., Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1997 (NARETPA). This law established a new Veterinary Medicine Loan...
Medicinal Plant Research Group, School of Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, University of Nairobi,. P.O. Box 19676-00202, ... of plant used, the dosage form and procedures for preparation and ... by thermal gravimetric methods. In finely.
Weisman, James L; Amass, Sandra F; Warren, Joshua D
To assess whether Boiler Vet Camp, a 7-day residential summer camp for students entering eighth or ninth grade in the fall, would increase participants' understanding of career options in the veterinary profession, increase understanding of the science of veterinary medicine, or increase the number of students stating that they intended to apply to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine. Survey. 48 individuals attending the 2009 Boiler Vet Camp. Information on participant demographics was obtained from camp applications. A questionnaire was administered on the first and sixth days of camp, and results were analyzed to identify changes in responses over time. More campers correctly answered questions designed to evaluate knowledge of the veterinary profession and 10 of 12 questions designed to evaluate specific knowledge of the science of veterinary medicine on day 6, compared with day 1. Remarkable differences were not observed among gender or race-ethnicity groups for these questions. There was no significant difference between percentages of campers who stated that they would apply to Purdue before and after camp. Significantly more Caucasian campers stated they would apply to Purdue on both day 1 and day 6, compared with campers from under-represented minority groups. Results indicated that the Boiler Vet Camp accomplished 2 of its 3 planned objectives, suggesting that such camps can be successfully used to increase knowledge of the veterinary profession among middle school students. Reasons for the low percentage of participants from underrepresented minorities who indicated they would apply to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine require further exploration.
One of the major constraints for the development and expansion of the Asian aquaculture industry has been the proliferation of disease outbreaks. To overcome this issue, a wide range of veterinary medicines including antibiotics, parasiticides and medical disinfectants have been
This study documents the use of ethno-veterinary medicine to treat livestock in Nhema communal area in the Midlands province of Zimbabwe. This study employed oral interviews and detailed discussions with 69 smallholder farmers and 3 traditional healers. The local people use 23 plant species belonging to 16 families ...
Braun, Lesley A; Tiralongo, Evelin; Wilkinson, Jenny M; Spitzer, Ondine; Bailey, Michael; Poole, Susan; Dooley, Michael
Complementary medicines (CMs) are popular amongst Australians and community pharmacy is a major supplier of these products. This study explores pharmacy customer use, attitudes and perceptions of complementary medicines, and their expectations of pharmacists as they relate to these products. Pharmacy customers randomly selected from sixty large and small, metropolitan and rural pharmacies in three Australian states completed an anonymous, self administered questionnaire that had been pre-tested and validated. 1,121 customers participated (response rate 62%). 72% had used CMs within the previous 12 months, 61% used prescription medicines daily and 43% had used both concomitantly. Multivitamins, fish oils, vitamin C, glucosamine and probiotics were the five most popular CMs. 72% of people using CMs rated their products as 'very effective' or 'effective enough'. CMs were as frequently used by customers aged 60 years or older as younger customers (69% vs. 72%) although the pattern of use shifted with older age. Most customers (92%) thought pharmacists should provide safety information about CMs, 90% thought they should routinely check for interactions, 87% thought they should recommend effective CMs, 78% thought CMs should be recorded in customer's medication profile and 58% thought pharmacies stocking CMs should also employ a complementary medicine practitioner. Of those using CMs, 93% thought it important for pharmacists to be knowledgeable about CMs and 48% felt their pharmacist provides useful information about CMs. CMs are widely used by pharmacy customers of all ages who want pharmacists to be more involved in providing advice about these products.
Halliwell, R E W
It is an unfortunate fact that not only has veterinary education failed to adapt in the face of likely future needs, but it has also failed to respond to societal changes that have already taken place and that have affected the requirements for veterinary services and veterinary capability. The responsibility is primarily that of educators, although vision and foresight require a co-ordinated approach involving national and international veterinary organisations. Once it is accepted by all parties that change is essential, the implementation will fail unless there is a unified programme involving the schools and colleges, the accrediting agencies, the licensing authorities, governments, the professional organisations and corporate veterinary medicine. All have a role to play, and any one can readily block progress. A unified approach is an absolute requirement. The developed countries must take a leading role, but the issues are global, and ways must be found to facilitate change in all parts of the world. Disease knows no boundaries, and any strategy is only as strong as its weakest link.
Full Text Available The concepts of ‘one medicine’ and 'one ‘health’ are supported and visualised as a tree (medicine, placed on the fertile soil (basic sciences, which divides into the two major branches of human and veterinary medicine, connected by the large branch of public health; minor branches (specialisations depart from the three larger ones. The synergy between human and veterinary medicine is not only a must for public health, but also implies ethical considerations. The basic reasons requiring synergy are found in the common sharing of the environment, in the use of animal products by humans, in the common culture and in the many problems to be faced together. The long list of adversities requiring synergy is topped by zoonoses (intended both in the classic and in the extended sense and food safety that extends to many other items connected with nutrition, environment, human/animal coexistence and the management of public health; the entire quality of human life is affected. Human and veterinary medicine have a strong cultural background (many subject matters in common, but unfortunately the undergraduate and postgraduate education programme (with few important exceptions do not offer training in cooperation. The synergy between human and veterinary medicines is an indicator of 'good public health practice' and any obstacles to this collaboration should be identified and eliminated. The logo for a public health founded on synergy is drawn as an umbrella formed by the medical and veterinary activities, protecting the population (consumers and producers, the animals and their products and the environment from the possible adversities linked to health.
...] Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food... Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Center for Veterinary Medicine... be emailed to all registrants. Contact Person: Charles Andres, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV...
... Applications for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... announcing the release of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) Request for Applications (RFA) at www.nifa.usda.gov/vmlrp . DATES: The fiscal year (FY) 2013 Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment...
... Applications for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program AGENCY: National Institute of Food and... announcing the release of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) Request for Applications (RFA) at www.nifa.usda.gov/vmlrp . DATES: The FY 2012 Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP...
Iyer, Priya; McFarland, Reanna; La Caze, Adam
Most sales of complementary medicines within pharmacies are conducted by pharmacy support staff. The absence of rigorous evidence for the effectiveness of many complementary medicines raises a number of ethical questions regarding the sale of complementary medicines in pharmacies. Explore (1) what consumers expect from pharmacists/pharmacies with regard to the sale of complementary medicines, and (2) how pharmacy support staff perceive their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of pharmacy support staff and consumers in pharmacies in Brisbane. Consumers were asked to describe their expectations when purchasing complementary medicines. Pharmacy support staff were asked to describe their responsibilities when selling complementary medicines. Interviews were conducted and analysed using the techniques developed within Grounded Theory. Thirty-three consumers were recruited from three pharmacies. Consumers described complementary medicine use as a personal health choice. Consumer expectations on the pharmacist included: select the right product for the right person, expert product knowledge and maintaining a wide range of good quality stock. Twenty pharmacy support staff were recruited from four pharmacies. Pharmacy support staff employed processes to ensure consumers receive the right product for the right person. Pharmacy support staff expressed a commitment to aiding consumers, but few evaluated the reliability of effectiveness claims regarding complementary medicines. Pharmacists need to respect the personal health choices of consumers while also putting procedures in place to ensure safe and appropriate use of complementary medicines. This includes providing appropriate support to pharmacy support staff. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
The application of radionuclides for diagnostic and therapy in veterinary medicine requires permission by terms of German radiation protection ordinance. Conditions for granting this licence are described. Preconditions are the requisite qualification of the veterinarian and the structural conditions of radiation protection. It is necessary to consider the possible exposure of the public by radioactive waste and by animals after their discharge from treatment. (orig.)
Zimmel, Dana N; Lloyd, James W
The fiscal environment for academic veterinary medicine has changed substantially over the past 50 years. Understanding the flux of state and federal government support and the implications for student debt, academic programs, and scholarly work is critical for planning for the future. The recent precipitous decline in public funding highlights the urgent need to develop and maintain an economically sustainable model that can adapt to the changing landscape and serve societal needs.
... Input From Stakeholders Regarding the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY... administration of the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) authorized under section 1415A of the... agreement, veterinary services in veterinarian shortage situations. As part of the stakeholder input process...
...] Revised Guidance for Industry on Impurities: Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products... Veterinary Medicinal Products, Active Substances and Excipients (Revision)'' VICH GL18(R). This revised guidance has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of...
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data. (a) An ad hoc committee, Committee on the Veterinary...
Thrusfield, M.; Ortega, C.; Blas, de I.; Noordhuizen, J.P.; Frankena, K.
Recent changes in veterinary medicine have required quantitative epidemiological techniques for designing field surveys, identifying risk factors for multifactorial diseases, and assessing diagnostic tests. Several relevant techniques are brought together in the package of veterinary epidemiological
South African Medical Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 45, No 1 (1971) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Plastics in Pharmacy and Medicine. TJ McCarthy. Abstract.
Schwarz, S; Chaslus-Dancla, E
This review deals with the application of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine and food animal production and the possible consequences arising from the widespread and multipurpose use of antimicrobials. The various mechanisms that bacteria have developed to escape the inhibitory effects of the antimicrobials most frequently used in the veterinary field are reported in detail. Resistance of bacteria to tetracyclines, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics, beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol/florfenicol is described with regard to enzymatic inactivation, decreased intracellular drug accumulation and modification/protection/replacement of the target sites. In addition, basic information is given about mobile genetic elements which carry the respective resistance genes, such as plasmids, transposons, and gene cassettes/integrons, and their ways of spreading via conjugation, mobilisation, transduction, and transformation.
Thomas L. Lenz
Full Text Available Chronic diseases continue to be a significant burden to the health care system. Pharmacists have been able to show that drug therapy for patients with chronic diseases can be improved through medication therapy management (MTM services but have yet to become significantly involved in implementing lifestyle modification programs to further control and prevent chronic conditions. A novel and innovative lifestyle medicine program was started by pharmacists in a community pharmacy in 2008 to more comprehensively prevent and manage chronic conditions. The lifestyle medicine program consists of designing seven personalized programs for patients to address physical activity, nutrition, alcohol consumption, weight control, stress management, sleep success, and tobacco cessation (if needed. The lifestyle medicine program complements existing MTM services for patients with hypertension, dyslipidemia, and/or diabetes. This program is innovative because pharmacists have developed and implemented a method to combine lifestyle medicine with MTM services to not only manage chronic conditions, but prevent the progression of those conditions and others. Several innovative tools have also been developed to enhance the effectiveness of a lifestyle medicine program. This manuscript describes the program's pharmacy setting, pharmacy personnel, participants and program details as well as the tools used to integrate a lifestyle medicine program with MTM services. Type: Clinical Experience
Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to produce current data regarding behavioural aspects of non-prescription (over-the-counter medicine purchases, in light of changes in the pharmaceutical market and increasing provision of professional services in pharmacies.Methods: Data were collected in 15 community pharmacies in South-East Queensland, Australia, over 540 hours in five days in August, 2006. The method, previously validated, involved documentation of both observational and interview data. Fifteen trained researchers were stationed in a selected pharmacy each to unobtrusively observe all eligible sales of non-prescription medicines, and, where possible, interview the purchasers post-sale. Non-response was supplemented by observational data and recall by the salesperson. The data included details of the purchase and purchasing behaviour, while new questions addressed issues of topical importance, including customers’ privacy concerns. A selection of the analyses is reported here.Results: In total, 3470 purchases were documented (135-479 per pharmacy, with customers of 67.5% of purchases (74.7% excluding an outlier pharmacy participating in the survey. Customers averaged 1.2 non-prescription medicines per transaction. Two-thirds (67.2% of customers were female, and 38.8% of the customers were aged 31-45 years. Analgesics and respiratory medicines accounted for two-thirds of the sales data (33.4% and 32.4%, respectively. Intended-brand purchases comprised 71% of purchases (2004/2824; in-store substitution then occurred in 8.8% of these cases, mainly following recommendations by pharmacy staff. Medicines intended for self-use comprised 62.9% of purchases (1752/2785. First-time purchases (30.8%, 799/2594 were more commonly influenced by pharmacy staff than by advertising.Conclusions: This study used validated methods adapted to a changing marketplace, thus providing data that both confirm and add to knowledge surrounding medicine purchases. Despite the
Nemes-Nagy, Enikő; Fazakas, Zita; Preg, Zoltán; László, Mihály; Fogarasi, Erzsébet; Germán-Salló, Márta; Bálint-Szentendrey, Dalma; Ianosi, Edith Simona; Ábrám, Zoltán; Balázs, Péter; Kristie, Foley; Pái, István Kikeli
Smoking is common among health professional students. The aim of this study was to assess the smoking habits of the pharmacy students attending the University of Medicine and Pharmacy in Târgu Mureș (UMPh TM), Romania. Smoking habits and attitudes toward smoking among 414 pharmacy students attending UMPh TM (86% female) were evaluated using a self-completed questionnaire. The rate of smoking increases during the time students attend the university (24.1% to 33.3% from 1st to 5th year) and males are significantly are more likely to smoke than females (41.4% vs. 27.3%, p=0.042). 36.9% of the smoking pharmacy students are tobacco-dependent, and 40.4% of smokers started daily smoking at the age of 16-19. We found significant differences between smoker and non-smoker pharmacy students regarding their attitudes toward smoking and tobacco control policies, with non-smokers being more supportive of smoke-free policies. Prevention programs and education have a very important role in decreasing the percentage of smokers and support for smokefree policies, but it is critical to begin such programs early in their university training.
Khattak, Noor Saeed; Nouroz, Faisal; Inayat Ur Rahman; Noreen, Shumaila
In the study area, the traditional knowledge regarding the uses of local wild medicinal plants for treating diseases of domestic animals and birds is totally in the custody of elders of the existing community. The young ones are not much aware about such important practices. The main aim of the study was to document and to release this knowledge from the custody of elders and share with the community. Total 115 people between 20 and 80 years of age were interviewed and information was collected through semi-structured questionnaires. The data obtained were quantitatively analyzed using the use value (UV) formula. The collected specimens were pressed, dried, preserved, mounted on Herbarium sheets, identified properly and were submitted in the Herbarium, Department of Botany, Hazara University, Mansehra, Pakistan. With the co-ordination and cooperation of the local people, 46 plant species of 42 genera belonging to 31 families were collected, 3 were monocotyledons while 43 plant species belonged to dicotyledonae class. Considering taxonomic characteristics, it was confirmed that 12 trees, 10 shrubs and 22 herbs were commonly used by the local people in ethno veterinary practices. Two plants like Cistanche tubulosa and Cuscuta reflexa from family Orobanchaceae and family Cuscutaceae respectively lack chlorophyll and are parasites on host plants like Doedonia, Ziziphus, Calligonum and Calotropis. The powder of both plants showed great ethno veterinary value. The parts of 46 plant species commonly used for ethno veterinary practices were whole plants (32.60%), leaves (26.08%), fruits (17.39%), stems (13.04%) and roots (10.86%). Medicinal plants were administered through various routes i.e. oral (78.26%), skin (17.21%) and smoke (4.34%). The traditional knowledge of local plants of ethno veterinary values is mainly possessed by elders and transmitted from generation to generation with chances of elimination of such traditional knowledge due to less awareness. The present
...] (formerly Docket No. 1999D-4071) Draft Revised Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in New Veterinary...) entitled ``Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products, Active Substances and Excipients... 2001 final guidance), has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on...
Samadi, Sadegh; Spithoven, Jack; Jamshidifard, Ali-Reza; Berends, Boyd R; Lipman, Len; Heederik, Dick J J; Wouters, Inge M
Veterinary medicine students who practice with animals are potentially exposed to many occupational agents, yet sensitisation and allergic symptoms among this group have not been studied extensively. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of sensitisation and allergic symptoms in veterinary medicine students in association with study specialisation over time. A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study was conducted. Blood was collected and tested for total and specific serum IgE for 16 different common and study-specific allergens using enzyme immunoassay. New development of self-reported allergic symptoms to various allergens occurred in 8.7%, of which 44% was deducted against animals. Handling farm animals was strongly associated with self-reported allergies to various allergens (OR=6.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 25) and animal allergens (OR=12, 95% CI 1.4 to 103). Sensitisation to at least one allergen occurred in 33.1%. Sensitisation prevalence tended to be elevated in later years of the equine study program. In contrast to self-reported allergies, the prevalence of sensitisation to any allergen decreased with prolonged study duration for those specialising in farm animal health (years 3-5: OR=0.5, 95% CI 0.3 to 1.1; year 6: OR=0.2, 95% CI 0.1 to 0.5). This was independent of whether people were raised on a farm, which is in itself a protective factor for allergy and sensitisation. This study provides evidence of an elevated prevalence of allergic symptoms with increasing years of veterinary study, suggesting that contact with animals, more specifically contact to farm animals, is a risk factor for the development of symptoms.
Boxall, Alistair B A; Fogg, Lindsay A; Kay, Paul; Blackwel, Paul A; Pemberton, Emma J; Croxford, Andy
A wide range of veterinary medicines is used to treat animals in the UK. Whilst the environmental impact of selected substances (particulary the sheep dip chemicals, anthelmintics and fish farm chemicals) has been well studied, limited information is available in the public domain on the other groups of substances (e.g. antifungals, coccidiostats, antiprotozoals, hormones and growth promoters). There is therefore a need to identify other substances that may impact the environment in order to design national monitoring programmes, target experimental work and develop pollution prevention methodologies. In this study, a simple two-stage prioritisation scheme was developed and applied to veterinary medicines in use in the UK. In the first stage, those substances that have high potential to enter the environment in significant amounts were identified on the basis of amounts used in the UK, treatment type and metabolism. In stage 2, the hazard of the identified substances to terrestrial and aquatic organisms was assessed. Using the approach, a total of 56 substances or groups were assigned to a 'high priority' category. For eleven of these substances, sufficient data were available to characterise their risk, these were: oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, tetracycline, sulphadiazine, amoxicillin, diazinon, tylosin, dihydrostreptomycin, apramycin, cypermethrin and sarafloxicin. For the remaining 45 substances, full datasets were not available and it is recommended that in the first instance, attempts are made to fill these data gaps.
Whittlesea, C. (2013). The impact of automation on workload and dispensing errors in a hospital pharmacy . International Journal of Pharmacy Practice , 21...Welsh NHS hospitals. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice , 16, 175–188. Lin, A. C., Huang, Y.-C., Punches, G., & Chen, Y. (2007). Effect of a...expectations of outpatient pharmacy services in a teaching hospital. International Journal of Pharmacy Medicine , 5(3), 128–132. 79 INITIAL
Moulin, Gérard; Cavalié, Philippe; Pellanne, Isabelle; Chevance, Anne; Laval, Arlette; Millemann, Yves; Colin, Pierre; Chauvin, Claire
The antimicrobials allowed and amounts sold in veterinary and human medicine in France were compared to see if the same antimicrobial drugs are used in veterinary and human medicine, and to the same extent. Registers of all approved antimicrobial commercial products, kept by the French Agency for Veterinary Medicinal Products (AFSSA ANMV) for animals and the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) for humans, were compared to determine whether the same antimicrobials were approved in 2007 for use in both human and animal populations. Sales data were collected from pharmaceutical companies between 1999 and 2005 by the AFSSA ANMV and AFSSAPS. Usage of the different antimicrobial anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classes in human and veterinary medicines was recorded. Data were expressed in tonnes of active ingredients and were then related to the animal and human biomasses to compare usages expressed in mg/kg. All antimicrobial ATC classes were used in both human and veterinary medicine. Tetracyclines accounted for the most sales in veterinary medicine. beta-Lactams predominated in human medicine. A decrease in the amounts consumed by both human and animal populations was observed during the study. In 2005, 760 tonnes were used in human medicine and 1320 tonnes in veterinary medicine, corresponding to 199 and 84 mg/kg of live weight in human and animal populations, respectively. The same antimicrobial drugs were used in human and veterinary medicines but the quantitative patterns of use were different. Expression of antimicrobial usage is a key point to address when comparing usage trends.
Lerner, Henrik; Hofmann, Bjørn
This article analyses the different connotations of "normality" and "being natural," bringing together the theoretical discussion from both human medicine and veterinary medicine. We show how the interpretations of the concepts in the different areas could be mutually fruitful. It appears that the conceptions of "natural" are more elaborate in veterinary medicine, and can be of value to human medicine. In particular they can nuance and correct conceptions of nature in human medicine that may be too idealistic. Correspondingly, the wide ranging conceptions of "normal" in human medicine may enrich conceptions in veterinary medicine, where the discussions seem to be sparse. We do not argue that conceptions from veterinary medicine should be used in human medicine and vice versa, but only that it could be done and that it may well be fruitful. Moreover, there are overlaps between some notions of normal and natural, and further conceptual analysis on this overlap is needed.
Stanicova, J.; Lohajova, L.
Diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionising radiation is very important in all of branches of medicine including veterinary medicine. In veterinary training at University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice (UVM), biophysics is a basic subject and it grants physical basis necessary for understanding subsequent subjects such as veterinary surgery, roentgenology, orthopedics. In view of this, traditional methods of radiology such as fluoroscopy, skiagraphy and tomography are explaining. The appearance and application of the theory so called reconstruction of image and also computers led to qualitatively new solutions via the development of modern methods in radiology. Explaining of physical principles, advantages or disadvantages of these new methods is also important in veterinary training although some of them do not use in veterinary practice yet. Two modern methods of nuclear medicine using in diagnostic (SPECT and PET) are discussed bellow. (authors)
Farenga, Stephen J.; Niess, Daniel; Hutchinson, Michael
Learning about stem cells within the context of treating pet illness or injury is an additional way for teachers to discuss the integration of science, technology, and veterinary medicine. We explain how practitioners in veterinary medicine harvest animal stem cells from adipose (fat) tissue in treating pet illness or injury. Further, we narrate…
Rico, A.; Brink, van den P.J.
Aquaculture production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary medicines into the environment. About 90% of the global aquaculture production is produced in Asia and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of veterinary medicines in Asian aquaculture have
Boyd, C. Trenton
Objective: The objective of this study was to survey holdings of ephemeral veterinary literature. Methods: WorldCat OCLC catalog, the Library of Congress online catalog, the US National Agricultural Library online catalog, and the Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862–1965, were used to determine current library holdings of materials published by veterinary schools that are no longer in existence and veterinary associations that are defunct, veterinary supply catalogs, veterinary house organs, patent medicine publications, and veterinary advertisements. Individual library catalogs were also consulted. In addition, the practice of removing advertisements from bound volumes was examined. Results: There are many gaps in the cataloged library holdings of primary source materials relating to the history of the education of veterinarians in the United States. Conclusions: A proactive action plan needs to be designed and activated to locate, catalog, and preserve this primary source material of veterinary medicine for posterity. PMID:21243050
Lochmann, E H
In 1964 the first symposium on history of veterinary medicine was organised in Hanover by the section "History of Veterinary Medicine" of the German Society of Veterinary Medicine. During the 6th symposium in Hanover the World Association for the History of Veterinary Medicine (WAHVM) was created. In the following years further symposiums, called later on congresses took place almost every year. In 2001 the 32nd congress will be held. The Association gave herself in 1973 a distinguishing mark, the Cheiron Emblem. Sixteen years later, the Cheiron Medal was endowed to allow the World Association to express thanks and acknowledgement for special achievements in the field of history of veterinary medicine. The Cheiron Medal was bestowed for the first time on May 26th, 1989.
Jacob M. Shivley
Full Text Available Referral-level medicine is important in the veterinary curriculum, however veterinary students also need a solid base knowledge of clinically relevant, routine surgical and diagnostic skills to be clinically prepared after graduation. Exposure to a referral-only, or primarily referral caseload, does not always provide veterinary students with the routine hands-on experiences and competencies expected by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education, the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, the Australian Veterinary Boards Council, or prospective employers. The aim of this descriptive study was to assess how a shelter medicine program can fill the companion animal caseload gap and create the necessary hands-on experiences considered essential in the veterinary curriculum. Pedagogical frameworks, course curriculum and design, student experiences, and student assessments were described for three core curricular areas (surgery, medical days, population medicine of the Shelter Medicine Program at Mississippi State University. The shelter surgery experience provided a high-quality, high-volume spay/neuter environment where fourth-year students averaged 65 sterilization surgeries in two weeks and demonstrated a quantifiable decrease in surgical time. The shelter surgery experience added on average 9,000 small animal cases per year to the overall hospital caseload. Shelter medical days, where students provide veterinary care during on-site shelter visits, created opportunities for third-year students to directly interact with shelter animals by performing physical examinations and diagnostic testing, and to gain experience in developing treatment protocols and recommendations for commonly encountered problems. The shelter medical days experience averaged over 700 small animal cases per year and over 1,500 diagnostic procedures. Finally, students participated in 15 onsite shelter consultations where they obtained a working knowledge
Shivley, Jacob M; Brookshire, Wilson C; Bushby, Philip A; Woodruff, Kimberly A
Referral-level medicine is important in the veterinary curriculum, however veterinary students also need a solid base knowledge of clinically relevant, routine surgical and diagnostic skills to be clinically prepared after graduation. Exposure to a referral-only, or primarily referral caseload, does not always provide veterinary students with the routine hands-on experiences and competencies expected by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education, the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, the Australian Veterinary Boards Council, or prospective employers. The aim of this descriptive study was to assess how a shelter medicine program can fill the companion animal caseload gap and create the necessary hands-on experiences considered essential in the veterinary curriculum. Pedagogical frameworks, course curriculum and design, student experiences, and student assessments were described for three core curricular areas (surgery, medical days, population medicine) of the Shelter Medicine Program at Mississippi State University. The shelter surgery experience provided a high-quality, high-volume spay/neuter environment where fourth-year students averaged 65 sterilization surgeries in two weeks and demonstrated a quantifiable decrease in surgical time. The shelter surgery experience added on average 9,000 small animal cases per year to the overall hospital caseload. Shelter medical days, where students provide veterinary care during on-site shelter visits, created opportunities for third-year students to directly interact with shelter animals by performing physical examinations and diagnostic testing, and to gain experience in developing treatment protocols and recommendations for commonly encountered problems. The shelter medical days experience averaged over 700 small animal cases per year and over 1,500 diagnostic procedures. Finally, students participated in 15 onsite shelter consultations where they obtained a working knowledge of biosecurity at a
Dasta, J F
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a branch of computer science dealing with solving problems using symbolic programming. It has evolved into a problem solving science with applications in business, engineering, and health care. One application of AI is expert system development. An expert system consists of a knowledge base and inference engine, coupled with a user interface. A crucial aspect of expert system development is knowledge acquisition and implementing computable ways to solve problems. There have been several expert systems developed in medicine to assist physicians with medical diagnosis. Recently, several programs focusing on drug therapy have been described. They provide guidance on drug interactions, drug therapy monitoring, and drug formulary selection. There are many aspects of pharmacy that AI can have an impact on and the reader is challenged to consider these possibilities because they may some day become a reality in pharmacy.
A well-attended session at this year's joint SPVS/VPMA congress considered what lessons the medical and veterinary professions might learn from one another. Laura Honey reports. British Veterinary Association.
In human medicine, the information infrastructure that supports the knowledge translation processes of exchange, synthesis, dissemination, and application of the best clinical intervention research has developed significantly in the past 15 years, facilitating the uptake of research evidence by clinicians as well as the practice of evidence-based medicine. Seven of the key elements of this improved information infrastructure are clinical trial registries, research reporting standards, systematic reviews, organizations that support the production of systematic reviews, the indexing of clinical intervention research in MEDLINE, clinical search filters for MEDLINE, and point-of-care decision support information resources. The objective of this paper is to describe why these elements are important for evidence-based medicine, the key developments and issues related to these seven information infrastructure elements in human medicine, how these 7 elements compare with the corresponding infrastructure elements in veterinary medicine, and how all of these factors affect the translation of clinical intervention research into clinical practice. A focused search of the Ovid MEDLINE database was conducted for English language journal literature published between 2000 and 2010. Two bibliographies were consulted and selected national and international Web sites were searched using Google. The literature reviewed indicates that the information infrastructure supporting evidence-based veterinary medicine practice in all of the 7 elements reviewed is significantly underdeveloped in relation to the corresponding information infrastructure in human medicine. This lack of development creates barriers to the timely translation of veterinary medicine research into clinical practice and also to the conduct of both primary clinical intervention research and synthesis research.
Ribitsch, I.; Burk, J.; Delling, U.; Geißler, C.; Gittel, C.; Jülke, H.; Brehm, W.
Stem cells play an important role in veterinary medicine in different ways. Currently several stem cell therapies for animal patients are being developed and some, like the treatment of equine tendinopathies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have already successfully entered the market. Moreover, animal models are widely used to study the properties and potential of stem cells for possible future applications in human medicine. Therefore, in the young and emerging field of stem cell research, human and veterinary medicine are intrinsically tied to one another. Many of the pioneering innovations in the field of stem cell research are achieved by cooperating teams of human and veterinary medical scientists.
Nowik, N; Podlasz, P; Jakimiuk, A; Kasica, N; Sienkiewicz, W; Kaleczyc, J
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become known as an excellent model organism for studies of vertebrate biology, vertebrate genetics, embryonal development, diseases and drug screening. Nevertheless, there is still lack of detailed reports about usage of the zebrafish as a model in veterinary medicine. Comparing to other vertebrates, they can lay hundreds of eggs at weekly intervals, externally fertilized zebrafish embryos are accessible to observation and manipulation at all stages of their development, which makes possible to simplify the research techniques such as fate mapping, fluorescent tracer time-lapse lineage analysis and single cell transplantation. Although zebrafish are only 2.5 cm long, they are easy to maintain. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections, blood sampling and measurement of food intake are possible to be carry out in adult zebrafish. Danio rerio is a useful animal model for neurobiology, developmental biology, drug research, virology, microbiology and genetics. A lot of diseases, for which the zebrafish is a perfect model organism, affect aquatic animals. For a part of them, like those caused by Mycobacterium marinum or Pseudoloma neutrophila, Danio rerio is a natural host, but the zebrafish is also susceptible to the most of fish diseases including Itch, Spring viraemia of carp and Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis. The zebrafish is commonly used in research of bacterial virulence. The zebrafish embryo allows for rapid, non-invasive and real time analysis of bacterial infections in a vertebrate host. Plenty of common pathogens can be examined using zebrafish model: Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio anguillarum or Listeria monocytogenes. The steps are taken to use the zebrafish also in fungal research, especially that dealing with Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although, the zebrafish is used commonly as an animal model to study diseases caused by external agents, it is also useful in studies of metabolic
Mitchell, G; Clarke, A S
Behavioral primatology is a subdiscipline of the research area referred to as primatology. Like primatology, behavioral primatology is an eclectic field of study made up of researchers from diverse basic disciplines having very different historical roots and employing extremely different methodologies biased by emphases and assumptions dictated by their histories. Psychologists, zoologists, anthropologists, and psychiatrists make up the majority of those currently active in behavioral primatology, but others, including those in veterinary science, are active in research in the area. Behavioral data can be useful to veterinary scientists and to those in comparative medicine and are interesting in their own right. Veterinarians and medical scientists may specialize in behavioral disorders. In addition, those not directly interested in behavior itself may still make use of behavioral indices of potential physiologic and morphologic abnormality. Often an animal may be inadvertently stressed by social and nonsocial environmental factors, and such stress effects may be first and best recognized by behavioral means. A recognition by those not in the behavioral sciences of the basic feral behavior of primates can go a long way toward prevention or alleviation of both behavioral and physical stress of primates in captivity. Studies of free-ranging but captive troops are sources of information almost as good as, and sometimes even better than, field studies. In addition, there is a growing realization that "natural experiments" on primates in zoos can be of value, especially since many species held in zoologic parks are those least well known in more traditional captive research settings. It must be recognized that the findings from research done on captive primates living in large field cages are not directly comparable to those derived from more directly invasive but more experimental laboratory settings. A comparative perspective on captive environments, as well as on
Balogh, L.; Mathe, D.; Andocs, G.; Polyak, A.; Kiraly, R.; Janoki, G.A.; Szilagyi, J.; Thuroczy, J.; Chaudhari, P.
Veterinary nuclear medicine is somehow similar to its roots, Human Nuclear Medicine, but certainly there are a few basic differences. Patients sent by veterinary clinicians could be members of exotic species (birds, reptiles, rodents) and even the most often treated dog, cat, and horse patients vary in a pretty wide scale in weight, size and anatomical, physiological features. As there are no veterinary radiopharmaceuticals in the market, vets use human registered products, therefore applied radioactive doses are often calculated on an empirical manner. As opposed to humans, animal subjects almost always need to be sedated or anaesthetised for scintigraphical protocols. We vets, frequently perform bone and thyroid scintigraphy in the everyday clinical routine and oncological applications are more and more common in the veterinary field as well. But in contrast with human practice, our animal patients suffer very rarely from cardiovascular diseases, so heart and brain perfusion studies are less frequently performed at veterinary clinics. (author)Veterinary nuclear medicine is somehow similar to its roots,
Kuhlmann-Gottke, Johanna; Duchow, Karin
At present, there is no separate regulatory framework for cell-based medicinal products (CBMP) for veterinary use at the European or German level. Current European and national regulations exclusively apply to the corresponding medicinal products for human use. An increasing number of requests for the regulatory classification of CBMP for veterinary use, such as allogeneic stem cell preparations and dendritic cell-based autologous tumour vaccines, and a rise in scientific advice for companies developing these products, illustrate the need for adequate legislation. Currently, advice is given and decisions are made on a case-by-case basis regarding the regulatory classification and authorisation requirements.Since some of the CBMP - in particular in the area of stem-cell products - are developed in parallel for human and veterinary use, there is an urgent need to create specific legal definitions, regulations, and guidelines for these complex innovative products in the veterinary sector as well. Otherwise, there is a risk that that the current legal grey area regarding veterinary medicinal products will impede therapeutic innovations in the long run. A harmonised EU-wide approach is desirable. Currently the European legislation on veterinary medicinal products is under revision. In this context, veterinary therapeutics based on allogeneic cells and tissues will be defined and regulated. Certainly, the legal framework does not have to be as comprehensive as for human CBMP; a leaner solution is conceivable, similar to the special provisions for advanced-therapy medicinal products laid down in the German Medicines Act.
Tahir Mehmood Khan
Full Text Available According to an estimate by 2020 Muslim population, will be almost a quarter of the world population. Pharmaceuticals business sector estimates "Halal Pharmaceuticals" to be multimillion dollars industry. Keeping in view the religious preference of Muslim consumers, many developing and developed countries have taken initiative to establish "halal certification centers" and "halal certification guidelines." However, till to date it is hard to find any contents in medicine or pharmacy curriculums that aims to develop understanding among pharmacy and medical graduates about the halal and non-halal (haram animal sources, processing and manufacturing techniques and halal excipients. The current article will aim, to summarize, the concept of halal and non-halal sources of medicines or drugs in the light of recommendation from "Quran and Hadith." By adding basic contents in pharmacy and medicine curriculum, future graduates will be in a position to distinguish between the non-halal and halal sources of medicine and alternates. Thus, empowering medical and pharmacy graduates will assist them understanding the needs of Muslim patients′ needs in the line with the Islamic regulations outlined in Quran.
Kevrekidis, Dimitrios Phaedon; Minarikova, Daniela; Markos, Angelos; Malovecka, Ivona; Minarik, Peter
Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. This study aimed to investigate the consumers' preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2016 on a convenient quota sample of 300 participants recruited in the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The main instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire with close-ended, multiple choice questions. To identify customer segments, Two-Step cluster analysis was conducted. Three distinct pharmacy customer clusters emerged. Customers of the largest cluster (49%; 'convenience customers') were mostly younger consumers. They gave moderate to positive ratings to factors affecting the selection of pharmacy and OTCs; convenience, and previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion, received the highest ratings. Customers of the second cluster (35%; 'loyal customers') were mainly retired; most of them reported visiting a single pharmacy. They gave high ratings to all factors that influence pharmacy selection, especially the pharmacy's staff, and factors influencing the purchase of OTCs, particularly previous experience and the pharmacist's opinion. Customers of the smallest cluster (16%; 'convenience and price-sensitive customers') were mainly retired or unemployed with low to moderate education, and low personal income. They gave the lowest ratings to most of the examined factors; convenience among factors influencing pharmacy selection, whereas previous experience, the pharmacist's opinion and product price among those affecting the purchase of OTCs, received the highest ratings. The community pharmacy market comprised of distinct
Zhao, Ming; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Sen; Guo, Sheng; Su, Shu-Lan; Wu, Qi-Nan; Tang, Yu-Ping; Zeng, Jian-Guo
The global antimicrobial resistance has been a big challenge to the human health for years. It has to make balance between the safety of animal products and the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry. Any methods that can minimize or even phase out the use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry should be encouraged. We herein describe the research strategies for feed additives and veterinary medicines from the side products of Chinese medicine resources industrialization. Killing two birds with one stone-besides the major purposes, the rational utilization of non-medicinal parts and wastes of industrialization of Chinese herbal medicines is also achieved under the proposed strategies. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
... clients can reasonably be expected to pay for professional veterinary services and where food animal... the event of a discrepancy between the primary reviewer's scoring and the panel poll results, the...
...; Proposed New System of Records; Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program AGENCY: National Institute of..., ``Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program Records System, USDA/NIFA-1.'' This newly established system will... Sherman; National Program Leader, Veterinary Science; National Institute of Food and Agriculture...
Popovic, D.; Djuric, G.; Andric, S.
Education in Nuclear Physics, Medical Physics and Radiation Protection in medicine and veterinary medicine studies on Belgrade University is an integral part of the curriculum, incorporated in different courses of graduate and post-graduate studies. During graduate studies students get basic elements of Nuclear Physics through Physics and/or Biophysics courses in the 1 st year, while basic knowledge in Medical Physics and Radiation Protection is implemented in the courses of Radiology, Physical Therapy, Radiation Hygiene, Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Therapy in the 4 th or 5 th year. Postgraduate studies offer MSc degree in Radiology, Physical Therapy, while courses in Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Instrumentation, Radiation Protection and Radiology are core or optional. On the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine graduated students may continue their professional education and obtain specialization degree in Radiology, Physical Therapy or Radiation Protection. On the Faculty of Medicine there are specialization degrees in Medical Nuclear Physics. Still, a closer analysis reveals a number of problems both from methodological and cognitive point of view. They are related mostly to graduate students ability to apply their knowledge in practise and with the qualifications of the educators, as those engaged in graduate studies lack basic knowledge in biological and medical sciences, while those engaged in post graduate studies mostly lack basic education in physics. Therefore, a reformed curricula resulting from much closer collaboration among educators, universities and professional societies at the national level should be considered. (author)
Department of Homeland Security — Pharmacies in the United States and Territories A pharmacy is a facility whose primary function is to store, prepare and legally dispense prescription drugs under...
McMillan, Sara S; Thangarajah, Thachaayini; Anderson, Claire; Kelly, Fiona
Various factors influence decision making in over-the-counter (OTC) medicine consultations, yet limited studies have focused, in-depth, on the thought process of pharmacy staff. This includes pharmacy students as pharmacists-in-training. To explore the factors that influence pharmacy students' decisions in relation to OTC consultations and choice of OTC medicine/s. Semi-structured interviews using the critical incident technique were undertaken with ten pharmacy students in Australia, who also worked as part-time pharmacy staff. Nine key themes were identified to influence pharmacy student decision making in OTC consultations, including customer response, confidence and scope of practice. Product requests were reported as more challenging due to customer expectations and experiences in other pharmacies, states or countries. Although negative customer response influenced some students to supply medicines in contradiction of evidence, an overarching concern for safety meant that a medicine was only supplied if unlikely to cause harm. Students reported developing confidence in OTC decision making more from real-life practice than university training; greater confidence was identified for inquiries more frequently experienced in the pharmacy. Students perceived that customers had assumptions around support staff, and were happier to talk to students than assistants. This study further identified that OTC decision making is a complex process for pharmacy students. Additional opportunities for experiential learning within this area are suggested, such as work-based placements or in-class activities such as role-plays with simulated patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Prudent use of antimicrobial medicine is an imperative in both human and veterinary medicine today. Antibiotic usage in humans and animals has increased over the years, consequently giving rise to antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. Mastitis is one of the most common conditions in bovine species, and intramammary antibacterial medicinal products are used in animal husbandry for mastitis treatment and prophylaxis.
Full Text Available Background: Over-the-counter medicines (OTC are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. Objective: This study aimed to examine customers’ key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour. Methods: Customers from two metropolitan pharmacies across two different suburbs in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection was conducted over a six-week period. The questionnaire examined demographics, current level of health and stress, as well as a range of questions (seven-point Likert-scale examining perceived benefits and risks, what they value, trust and expect when purchasing OTC. Results: A total of 86 customers from a broad range of demographics were captured in this study. When asked about their current health state, 41% and 23% respectively indicated that they were stressed and tense when they arrived at the pharmacy but many were feeling well (38%. Most customers strongly agreed/agreed that trust in the advice from a pharmacy (96%, trust in the products (73%, and the altruistic approach of a pharmacy (95% were critical to them. Further, 82% and 78% respectively disagreed that time pressures or costs were concerns, despite many feeling tense and stressed when they came in. When asked where they intend to buy their future OTC, 89% indicated pharmacy instead of a supermarket. Conclusions: High levels of trust, confidence and sense of altruism and care were key factors for customers buying OTC from a pharmacy, regardless of time pressures, costs or
Chan, Vincent; Tran, Hung
Over-the-counter medicines (OTC) are widely available and can be purchased without a prescription. Their availability means that a customer may choose to purchase them without the involvement of a pharmacy/pharmacist. It is important to understand customer OTC purchasing perceptions and behaviour from a pharmacy to better understand the needs and opportunities in this space. This study aimed to examine customers' key expectations and what they value when purchasing OTC and how the effect of health status/stress and perceived risks/benefits of purchasing OTCs from a pharmacy may influence their OTC shopping behaviour. Customers from two metropolitan pharmacies across two different suburbs in Brisbane, Queensland, Australia completed a self-administered questionnaire. Data collection was conducted over a six-week period. The questionnaire examined demographics, current level of health and stress, as well as a range of questions (seven-point Likert-scale) examining perceived benefits and risks, what they value, trust and expect when purchasing OTC. A total of 86 customers from a broad range of demographics were captured in this study. When asked about their current health state, 41% and 23% respectively indicated that they were stressed and tense when they arrived at the pharmacy but many were feeling well (38%). Most customers strongly agreed/agreed that trust in the advice from a pharmacy (96%), trust in the products (73%), and the altruistic approach of a pharmacy (95%) were critical to them. Further, 82% and 78% respectively disagreed that time pressures or costs were concerns, despite many feeling tense and stressed when they came in. When asked where they intend to buy their future OTC, 89% indicated pharmacy instead of a supermarket. High levels of trust, confidence and sense of altruism and care were key factors for customers buying OTC from a pharmacy, regardless of time pressures, costs or existing levels of stress and health.
Oyama, M A; Ellenberg, S S; Shaw, P A
Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are among the most rigorous ways to determine the causal relationship between an intervention and important clinical outcome. Their use in veterinary medicine has become increasingly common, and as is often the case, with progress comes new challenges. Randomized clinical trials yield important answers, but results from these studies can be unhelpful or even misleading unless the study design and reporting are carried out with care. Herein, we offer some perspective on several emerging challenges associated with RCTs, including use of composite endpoints, the reporting of different forms of risk, analysis in the presence of missing data, and issues of reporting and safety assessment. These topics are explored in the context of previously reported veterinary internal medicine studies as well as through illustrative examples with hypothetical data sets. Moreover, many insights germane to RCTs in veterinary internal medicine can be drawn from the wealth of experience with RCTs in the human medical field. A better understanding of the issues presented here can help improve the design, interpretation, and reporting of veterinary RCTs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
... INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary Sherman; National Program Leader, Veterinary Science; National Institute of Food and... of Consultation 3. Rationale for Capping Nominations and State Allocation Method 4. State Allocation... adding section 1415A to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1997...
Dimitrios Phaedon Kevrekidis
Full Text Available Background: Within the competitive pharmacy market environment, community pharmacies are required to develop efficient marketing strategies based on contemporary information about consumer behavior in order to attract clients and develop customer loyalty. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the consumers’ preferences concerning the selection of pharmacy and over-the-counter (OTC medicines, and to identify customer segments in relation to these preferences. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2016 on a convenient quota sample of 300 participants recruited in the metropolitan area of Thessaloniki, Greece. The main instrument used for data collection was a structured questionnaire with close-ended, multiple choice questions. To identify customer segments, Two-Step cluster analysis was conducted. Results: Three distinct pharmacy customer clusters emerged. Customers of the largest cluster (49%; ‘convenience customers’ were mostly younger consumers. They gave moderate to positive ratings to factors affecting the selection of pharmacy and OTCs; convenience, and previous experience and the pharmacist’s opinion, received the highest ratings. Customers of the second cluster (35%; ‘loyal customers’ were mainly retired; most of them reported visiting a single pharmacy. They gave high ratings to all factors that influence pharmacy selection, especially the pharmacy’s staff, and factors influencing the purchase of OTCs, particularly previous experience and the pharmacist’s opinion. Customers of the smallest cluster (16%; ‘convenience and price-sensitive customers’ were mainly retired or unemployed with low to moderate education, and low personal income. They gave the lowest ratings to most of the examined factors; convenience among factors influencing pharmacy selection, whereas previous experience, the pharmacist’s opinion and product price among those affecting the purchase of OTCs
Boughen, Melanie; Sutton, Jane; Fenn, Tess
Background: Traditionally, pharmacy technicians have worked alongside pharmacists in community and hospital pharmacy. Changes within pharmacy provide opportunity for role expansion and with no apparent career pathway, there is a need to define the current pharmacy technician role and role in medicines optimisation. Aim: To capture the current roles of pharmacy technicians and identify how their future role will contribute to medicines optimisation. Methods: Following ethical approval and piloting, an online survey to ascertain pharmacy technicians’ views about their roles was undertaken. Recruitment took place in collaboration with the Association of Pharmacy Technicians UK. Data were exported to SPSS, data screened and descriptive statistics produced. Free text responses were analysed and tasks collated into categories reflecting the type of work involved in each task. Results: Responses received were 393 (28%, n = 1380). Results were organised into five groups: i.e., hospital, community, primary care, General Practitioner (GP) practice and other (which included HM Prison Service). Thirty tasks were reported as commonly undertaken in three or more settings and 206 (84.7%, n = 243) pharmacy technicians reported they would like to expand their role. Conclusions: Tasks core to hospital and community pharmacy should be considered for inclusion to initial education standards to reflect current practice. Post qualification, pharmacy technicians indicate a significant desire to expand clinically and managerially allowing pharmacists more time in patient-facing/clinical roles. PMID:28970452
Boughen, Melanie; Sutton, Jane; Fenn, Tess; Wright, David
Traditionally, pharmacy technicians have worked alongside pharmacists in community and hospital pharmacy. Changes within pharmacy provide opportunity for role expansion and with no apparent career pathway, there is a need to define the current pharmacy technician role and role in medicines optimisation. To capture the current roles of pharmacy technicians and identify how their future role will contribute to medicines optimisation. Following ethical approval and piloting, an online survey to ascertain pharmacy technicians' views about their roles was undertaken. Recruitment took place in collaboration with the Association of Pharmacy Technicians UK. Data were exported to SPSS, data screened and descriptive statistics produced. Free text responses were analysed and tasks collated into categories reflecting the type of work involved in each task. Responses received were 393 (28%, n = 1380). Results were organised into five groups: i.e., hospital, community, primary care, General Practitioner (GP) practice and other (which included HM Prison Service). Thirty tasks were reported as commonly undertaken in three or more settings and 206 (84.7%, n = 243) pharmacy technicians reported they would like to expand their role. Tasks core to hospital and community pharmacy should be considered for inclusion to initial education standards to reflect current practice. Post qualification, pharmacy technicians indicate a significant desire to expand clinically and managerially allowing pharmacists more time in patient-facing/clinical roles.
Bonet, M Angels; Vallès, Joan
The present paper deals with plants used in veterinary medicine in Montseny. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in the Montseny massif, which is situated in north-east Catalonia (Iberian Peninsula), covers 826 km(2) and has a population of 80,000. The information was obtained through 120 ethnobotanical interviews to 180 informants. Out of 584 species reported, 351 are claimed to be used in the health field (human and veterinary medicine), 280 in human and animal food and 236 have another kind of popular use. Medicinal species represent around 16.5% of Montseny's vascular flora. In a previous paper we addressed plant use in human medicine, and the present paper deals with veterinarian uses. As a reflection of the importance of rural life in the region, at least until recent times, a substantial number of medicinal plants (89 species, representing 6% of the flora of the territory and 6.4% of all medicinal use-reports in the region) is used in veterinary medicine. These remedies are mostly for cows, calves, sheep, pigs and horses, and secondarily, to poultry, rabbits and dogs. The main ailments treated are postnatal problems, intestinal troubles, wounds and dermatological problems. In many cases, the use of these remedies in veterinary medicine is fully consistent with their use in human medicine.
To determine the number of interventions made by pharmacy students at an urban family medicine clinic and the acceptance rate of these recommendations by the healthcare providers. The secondary objective was to investigate the cost avoidance value of the interventions. A prospective, unblinded study was conducted to determine the number and cost avoidance value of clinical interventions made by pharmacy students completing advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs) in an urban family medicine clinic. Eighteen students completed this experience in the 8 months studied. Of the 718 interventions performed, 77% were accepted by physicians, including 58% of the 200 interventions that required immediate action. Projected avoidance was estimated at $61,855. The clinical interventions by pharmacy students were generally well received by healthcare providers and resulted in significant cost savings. Pharmacy students can play an important role in a family medicine clinic.
Kang, JeongWoo; Park, Hae-Chul; Jang, Yang Ho; Hossain, Md Akil; Jeong, Kyunghun; Jeong, Mi Young; Yun, Seon-Jong; Park, Sung-Won; Kim, Dae Gyun; Lee, Kwang-Jick
Veterinary medicines have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of diseases, growth promotion, and to promote feeding efficacy in livestock. As the veterinary medicine industry has steadily grown, it is crucial to set up a baseline for the quality of medicine as well as the insufficiency or excessiveness of the active ingredients in drug products to ensure the compliance, safety and efficacy of these medicines. Thus, the 10 years data of post-marketing quality control study was summarized to determine the rate and extent of non-compliance of these medicines and to establish baseline data for future quality control measures of veterinary medicine. In this study, 1650 drugs for veterinary use were collected per year from each city and province in Korea and analysed for the quantity of active ingredients according to the "national post-market surveillance (NPMS) system" over the past decade. The NPMS assessment was performed using liquid and gas chromatography, titration, UV/Vis spectrophotometry, and bioassays. A total of 358 cases were deemed noncompliant, with the average noncompliance rate for all medicine types being 2.0%. The average noncompliance rates for antibiotics, biologics and other chemical drugs except antibiotics (OCD) were 1.1%, 1.2%, and 3.0%, respectively. The first leading cause for noncompliant products was insufficient quantity of major ingredients (283 cases), and the second leading cause was the existence of excess amount of active ingredients (60 cases). Tylosin, spiramycin, ampicillin, tetracyclines and penicillins were most frequently found to be noncompliant among antibiotics. Among the OCD, the noncompliance was found commonly in vitamin A. The overall trend presented gradually decreasing violation rates, suggesting that the quality of veterinary medicines has improved. Consistent application of the NPMS assessment and the establishment of the Korea Veterinary Good Manufacturing Practice (KVGMP) will help to maintain the good
Wirtz, Veronika J.; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi
To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico.
Shi Wei Lee
Conclusion: The findings highlight that pharmacy students needs a better understanding of the principles and concepts of bioavailability and bioequivalence if they are to contribute appropriately to generic medicine use.
Background Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines “the Basel Statements”. Method We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements. Results Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors’ prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies’ marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none. Conclusions Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in
Full Text Available Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements".We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements.Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors' prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none.Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal
Shrestha, Mina; Moles, Rebekah; Ranjit, Eurek; Chaar, Betty
Accessibility and affordability of evidence-based medicines are issues of global concern. For low-income countries like Nepal, it is crucial to have easy and reliable access to affordable, good-quality, evidence-based medicines, especially in the aftermath of natural or manmade disasters. Availability of affordable and evidence-based high quality medicines depends on the medicine procurement procedure, which makes it an important aspect of healthcare delivery. In this study, we aimed to investigate medicine procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal within the framework of International Pharmaceutical Federation [FIP] hospital pharmacy guidelines "the Basel Statements". We conducted semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists or procurement officers in hospital pharmacies of four major regions in Nepal to explore procurement practices. Data were collected until saturation of themes, analysed using the framework approach, and organised around the statements within the procurement theme of the Basel Statements. Interviews conducted with 53 participants revealed that the procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were adopted to a certain extent in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. It was found that the majority of hospital pharmacies in Nepal reported using an expensive direct-procurement model for purchasing medicines. Most had no formulary and procured medicines solely based on doctors' prescriptions, which were heavily influenced by pharmaceutical companies' marketing strategies. Whilst most procured only registered medicines, a minority reported purchasing unregistered medicines through unauthorised supply-chains. And although the majority of hospital pharmacies had some contingency plans for managing medicine shortages, a few had none. Procurement guidelines of the Basel Statements were thus found to be partially adopted; however, there is room for improvement in current procurement practices in hospital pharmacies of Nepal. Adoption and
Benrimoj, Shalom Charlie I; Gilbert, Andrew; Quintrell, Neil; Neto, Abilio C de Almeida
The objective of the study was to develop and test standards of practice for handling non-prescription medicines. In consultation with pharmacy registering authorities, key professional and consumer groups and selected community pharmacists, standards of practice were developed in the areas of Resource Management; Professional Practice; Pharmacy Design and Environment; and Rights and Needs of Customers. These standards defined and described minimum professional activities required in the provision of non-prescription medicines at a consistent and measurable level of practice. Seven standards were described and further defined by 20 criteria, including practice indicators. The Standards were tested in 40 community pharmacies in two States and after further adaptation, endorsed by all Australian pharmacy registering authorities and major Australian pharmacy and consumer organisations. The consultation process effectively engaged practicing pharmacists in developing standards to enable community pharmacists meet their legislative and professional responsibilities. Community pharmacies were audited against a set of standards of practice for handling non-prescription medicines developed in this project. Pharmacies were audited on the Standards at baseline, mid-intervention and post-intervention. Behavior of community pharmacists and their staff in relation to these standards was measured by conducting pseudo-patron visits to participating pharmacies. The testing process demonstrated a significant improvement in the quality of service delivered by staff in community pharmacies in the management of requests involving non-prescription medicines. The use of pseudo-patron visits, as a training tool with immediate feedback, was an acceptable and effective method of achieving changes in practice. Feedback from staff in the pharmacies regarding the pseudo-patron visits was very positive. Results demonstrated the methodology employed was effective in increasing overall
de Rooij, Myrna M. T.; Schimmer, Barbara; Versteeg, Bart; Schneeberger, Peter; Berends, Boyd R.; Heederik, Dick; van der Hoek, Wim; Wouters, Inge M.
Background Q fever is an occupational risk for veterinarians, however little is known about the risk for veterinary medicine students. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii among veterinary medicine students and to identify associated risk factors. Methods A cross-sectional study with questionnaire and blood sample collection was performed among all veterinary medicine students studying in the Netherlands in 2006. Serum samples (n = 674), representative of all study years and study directions, were analyzed for C. burnetii IgG and IgM phase I and II antibodies with an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Seropositivity was defined as IgG phase I and/or II titer of 1∶32 and above. Results Of the veterinary medicine students 126 (18.7%) had IgG antibodies against C. burnetii. Seropositivity associated risk factors identified were the study direction ‘farm animals’ (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.27 [95% CI 2.14–5.02]), advanced year of study (OR year 6: 2.31 [1.22–4.39] OR year 3–5 1.83 [1.07–3.10]) having had a zoonosis during the study (OR 1.74 [1.07–2.82]) and ever lived on a ruminant farm (OR 2.73 [1.59–4.67]). Stratified analysis revealed study direction ‘farm animals’ to be a study-related risk factor apart from ever living on a farm. In addition we identified a clear dose-response relation for the number of years lived on a farm with C. burnetii seropositivity. Conclusions C. burnetii seroprevalence is considerable among veterinary medicine students and study related risk factors were identified. This indicates Q fever as an occupational risk for veterinary medicine students. PMID:22363803
de Rooij, Myrna M T; Schimmer, Barbara; Versteeg, Bart; Schneeberger, Peter; Berends, Boyd R; Heederik, Dick; van der Hoek, Wim; Wouters, Inge M
Q fever is an occupational risk for veterinarians, however little is known about the risk for veterinary medicine students. This study aimed to assess the seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii among veterinary medicine students and to identify associated risk factors. A cross-sectional study with questionnaire and blood sample collection was performed among all veterinary medicine students studying in The Netherlands in 2006. Serum samples (n = 674), representative of all study years and study directions, were analyzed for C. burnetii IgG and IgM phase I and II antibodies with an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Seropositivity was defined as IgG phase I and/or II titer of 1:32 and above. Of the veterinary medicine students 126 (18.7%) had IgG antibodies against C. burnetii. Seropositivity associated risk factors identified were the study direction 'farm animals' (Odds Ratio (OR) 3.27 [95% CI 2.14-5.02]), advanced year of study (OR year 6: 2.31 [1.22-4.39] OR year 3-5 1.83 [1.07-3.10]) having had a zoonosis during the study (OR 1.74 [1.07-2.82]) and ever lived on a ruminant farm (OR 2.73 [1.59-4.67]). Stratified analysis revealed study direction 'farm animals' to be a study-related risk factor apart from ever living on a farm. In addition we identified a clear dose-response relation for the number of years lived on a farm with C. burnetii seropositivity. C. burnetii seroprevalence is considerable among veterinary medicine students and study related risk factors were identified. This indicates Q fever as an occupational risk for veterinary medicine students.
Santos HonshoI, Cristiane dos; Pontes Oriá, Arianne; Laus, José Luiz; Dorea Neto, Francisco; Veiga Monteiro Lazaro Júnior, Luiz Paulo da
Electroretinography is the technique that allows the evaluation of changes in electrical potential that occur when the eye is stimulated by light. Such changes reflect the response of several retinal cells including photoreceptors (cones and rods). Thus it evaluates the retinal functionality and can diagnose abnormalities in retinas seem to be normal by ophthalmoscopy. Due to the constant evolution in veterinary ophthalmology, new centers of retinal electrophysiology have been introduced around the world either for early diagnosis of retinopathies or for preoperative evaluation of animals with cataracts and glaucoma, as well as for continuing research. The Ophthalmology Unit of the “Governador Laudo Natel” Veterinary Teaching Hospital, in the Faculty of Agronomic and Veterinary Sciences (FCAV) – Sao Paulo State University (UNESP) – Jaboticabal Campus, Brazil, supported by the Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo – FAPESP (Sao Paulo State Foundation for Research), set up the Unit of Ocular Electrophysiology for animals in order to provide conditions for the diagnosis of retinopathies. As a pioneering venture in Brazil, the organization of the services faced many challenges till the moment it was set up: the organization and arrangement of appropriate rooms, independent electrical distribution for the installation of separate pieces of equipment, adaptation of containment tables, training and qualification of the staff, and the elaboration and standardization of anesthetic and stimulation protocols. The wealth of information generated by our experience gave us the inspiration to write this paper, which aims to contribute to the work of researchers and veterinary ophthalmologists in this new and opportune field of specialization
This paper examines the turn toward the small companion animal that occurred in British veterinary medicine in the twentieth century. The change in species emphasis is usually attributed to post-war socioeconomic factors, however this explanation ignores the extensive small animal treatment that was occurring outwith the veterinary profession in the interwar period. The success of this unqualified practice caused the veterinary profession to rethink attitudes to small animals (dogs initially, later cats) upon the decline of horse practice. This paper argues that a shift toward seeing the small animal as a legitimate veterinary patient was necessary before the specialty could become mainstream in the post-war years, and that this occurred between the wars as a result of the activities of British animal welfare charities, especially the People's Dispensary for Sick Animals of the Poor. PMID:25067889
Mårdby, Ann-Charlotte; Akerlind, Ingemar; Jörgensen, Tove
To analyse any association between general beliefs about medicines and self-reported adherence among pharmacy clients. Further, to examine general beliefs about medicines by background variables. The data were collected by questionnaires including the general section of the Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire (BMQ), the self-reporting Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) and the following background variables: gender, age, education, country of birth and medicine use. The General BMQ measures beliefs about medicines as something harmful (General-Harm), beneficial (General-Benefit) and beliefs about how doctors prescribe medicines (General-Overuse). Of the 324 participating pharmacy clients, 54% were considered non-adherent. An association was found between General-Harm and adherence. Adherent behaviour and higher level of education were associated respectively with more beneficial and less harmful beliefs about medicines. Those born in the Nordic countries regarded medicines as more beneficial. Current users of herbal medicines and non-users of medicines were more likely to believe that doctors overprescribed medicines. General-Harm was associated with adherence to medication among Swedish pharmacy clients. Country of birth, education and medicine use influenced beliefs about medicines. Increased awareness of the patient's beliefs about medicines is needed among healthcare providers. We should encourage patients to express their views about medicines in order to optimize and personalize the information process. This can stimulate concordance and adherence to medication.
Davó-Blanes, María Del Carmen; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Huerta, Belén
To reach a consensus among public health faculty from various Spanish universities about the core public health competencies that should be integrated into the Veterinary Medicine degree training. The 3rd Forum of University Professors of Public Health was held at the School of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Cordoba (12-13 January 2016). Forty-two university professors and lecturers from nine Spanish universities with veterinary degrees participated in the forum. They were divided into five working groups during three working sessions to identify and classify core public health competencies for the Veterinary Medicine degree, propose public health contents for the identified competencies and organize such contents in thematic blocks. The results were discussed in different plenary sessions. The highest number of core competencies was identified in the activities related to the following public health functions: «Assessment of the population's health needs» and «Developing health policies». The final programme included basic contents organized into five units: 1) Fundamentals of public health; 2) Study and research in public health; 3) Production, animal health and environment; 4) Food security; and 5) Health education. The public health core competencies and contents identified in this Forum may be considered as a starting point to update public health training programmes for future veterinary professionals. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Golden, Olwen; Hanlon, Alison J
Veterinary behaviour medicine should be a foundation subject of the veterinary curriculum because of its wide scope of applications to veterinary practice. Private practitioners are likely to be the primary source of information on animal behaviour for most pet owners, however studies indicate that behavioural issues are not frequently discussed during companion animal consultations and many practitioners lack confidence in dealing with behavioural problems, likely due to poor coverage of this subject in veterinary education.There is a need to identify learning outcomes to support day one competences in veterinary behaviour medicine and these should be informed by practice-based evidence. This study aimed to investigate the nature and frequency of behavioural queries experienced by veterinary professionals in Ireland, the provision of behavioural services at companion animal practices, behaviour referral practices and challenges associated with providing a behaviour service. Two online surveys were developed, one for private veterinary practitioners (PVP) and one for veterinary nurses (VN). Invitations to participate were distributed using contact details from the Premises Accreditation Scheme database on the Veterinary Council of Ireland website. Thirty-eight PVPs and 69 VNs completed the survey. Results indicated that less than half of companion animal practices offer behavioural consults and under a third of practices provide training and socialization events. Over half of the practices surveyed have referred cases to a behavioural specialist.The majority of respondents encountered behavioural queries weekly. Ninety-eight percent reported receiving queries regarding dog behaviour. Toilet training and unruly behaviour were two issues encountered frequently. Behavioural issues in cats were also common. House soiling and destructive behaviour were the problems most frequently encountered by respondents.The two most commonly cited barriers to providing behavioural
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION[|]Although the concept of professionalism is widely used in all over the world, there is no clear definition that describes exactly what it is. This is thought to result from different meanings which are attributed to the concept of profession. The number of researches and publications on medical professionalism has increased rapidly in recent years. In this sources some definitions reveal a detailed list of keywords. Compared with medicine, veterinary medicine has still got limited studies on this subject. This research was carried out to determine how veterinarians conceptualize professionalism in the field of veterinary medicine.[¤]METHODS[|]This qualitative study was designed as an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA. The sample was consisted of veterinarians who have carried out their duties at the Veterinary School of Ankara University. The sampling strategy was purposive sampling. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews then content analysis was applied. During this process, internal and external consistencies were checked with an expert's help. As a result of the analysis the meaning units were created and classified. Results were shown in the tables, interpreted and then discussed.[¤]RESULTS[|]In this study it is found that veterinary and human medicines have many common terms for conceptualization of professionalism. Veterinary professionalism were conceptualized with similar approaches by experienced and inexperienced veterinarians. Ethics and moral values were expressed primarily and together in participant's approaches to this concept. The definition of good veterinarians is generally consistent with the definition of veterinary professionalism.[¤]DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION[|]Compared with medicine, veterinary medicine has still got limited studies about professionalizm. This research shows that veterinarians conceptialize professionalism by using some terms and explanations related to some values
Joan Hendricks, VMD, PhD
Full Text Available The University of Pennsylvania's School of Veterinary Medicine (Penn Vet, in partnership with other veterinary schools and health professions, is positioned well to advance an international ‘One Medicine - One Health’ initiative. Founded in 1884 by the University's Medical Faculty, the School has been a leader in moulding the education and practice of veterinary medicine in the nation and the world. Successfully integrating biomedical research into all aspects of veterinary medical education, the School has made significant contributions to basic and clinical research by exemplifying ‘One Medicine’. In looking to the future, Penn Vet will embrace the broader ‘One Health’ mission as well.
Milligan, J. E.; And Others
Pregnant women, especially those working in veterinary medicine, face occupational health/disease risks from mutagens, teratogens, and carcinogens. These hazards can be placed into three categories: physical, chemical, and biological. Each of these hazards is discussed with examples. (Author/JN)
Ward, Billy C.; Niec, Alphonsus P.
This report describes a study of factors which appear to influence the "shareability" of audiovisual materials in the field of veterinary medicine. Specific factors addressed are content quality, instructional effectiveness, technical quality, institutional support, organization, logistics, and personal attitudes toward audiovisuals. (Author/CO)
... (RFA) at http://www.nifa.usda.gov/vmlrp . DATES: The FY 2010 Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) application package has been made available at http://www.nifa.usda.gov/vmlrp and applications... http://www.nslds.ed.gov . Individuals who consolidated their DVM loans with non-educational loans or...
Hughes, Kirsty Jean; McCune, Velda; Rhind, Susan
This study analysed the expectations and experiences of students on a five-year undergraduate ("n"?=?91) and four-year graduate entry ("n"?=?47) veterinary medicine degree programme relating to academic feedback. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to explore new students' expectations and prior experiences of…
Lahr, J.; Bondt, N.; Koeijer, de Tanja; Wipfler, E.L.; Berendsen, Bjorn; Hoeksma, Paul; Overbeek, van Leo; Mevius, D.J.
Animal manure from intensive livestock farming is spread on arable fields and grassland on a large scale in the Netherlands. This manure can contain residues of veterinary medicines that have been given to livestock. Some of these substances are increasingly found in groundwater and surface water.
Rico Artero, A.; Geng, Y.; Focks, A.; Brink, van den P.J.
Veterinary medicinal products are applied in aquaculture production for treating and preventing diseases in the cultured species. Veterinary medicines may enter the environment by effluent discharges, posing a potential risk for surrounding aquatic ecosystems. Furthermore, human health and the trade
Engelskirchen, Simon; Ehlers, Jan; Kirk, Ansgar T; Tipold, Andrea; Dilly, Marc
During five and a half years of studying veterinary medicine, students should in addition to theoretical knowledge acquire sufficient practical skills. Considering animal welfare and ethical aspects, opportunities for hands-on learning on living animals are limited because of the high annual number of students. The first German veterinary clinical-skills lab, established in 2013 at the University for Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation (TiHo), offers opportunities for all students to learn, train and repeat clinical skills on simulators and models as frequently as they would like, until they feel sufficiently confident to transfer these skills to living animals. This study describes the establishment of clinical-skills lab training within the students' practical education, using the example of the small-animal clinic of the TiHo. Two groups of students were compared: without skills lab training (control group K) and with skills lab training (intervention group I). At the end of both the training and a subsequent 10-week clinical rotation in different sections of the clinic, an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was performed, testing the students' practical skills at 15 stations. An additional multiple-choice test was performed before and after the clinical rotation to evaluate the increased theoretical knowledge. Students of group I achieved significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better results in eight of the 15 tested skills. The multiple-choice test revealed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) gain of theoretical knowledge in both groups without any differences between the groups. Students displayed a high degree of acceptance of the skills lab training. Using simulators and models in veterinary education is an efficient teaching concept, and should be used continually and integrated in the curriculum.
Khongsomboon, K.; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Shozo
3D reconstruction from ordinary X-ray equipment which is not CT or MRI is required in clinical veterinary medicine. Authors have already proposed a 3D reconstruction technique from X-ray photograph to present bone structure. Although the reconstruction is useful for veterinary medicine, the technique has two problems. One is about exposure of X-ray and the other is about data acquisition process. An x-ray equipment which is not special one but can solve the problems is X-ray fluoroscopy. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for 3D-reconstruction from X-ray fluoroscopy for clinical veterinary medicine. Fluoroscopy is usually used to observe a movement of organ or to identify a position of organ for surgery by weak X-ray intensity. Since fluoroscopy can output a observed result as movie, the previous two problems which are caused by use of X-ray photograph can be solved. However, a new problem arises due to weak X-ray intensity. Although fluoroscopy can present information of not only bone structure but soft tissues, the contrast is very low and it is very difficult to recognize some soft tissues. It is very useful to be able to observe not only bone structure but soft tissues clearly by ordinary X-ray equipment in the field of clinical veterinary medicine. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new method to determine opacity in volume rendering process. The opacity is determined according to 3D differential coefficient of 3D reconstruction. This differential volume rendering can present a 3D structure image of multiple organs volumetrically and clearly for clinical veterinary medicine. This paper shows results of simulation and experimental investigation of small dog and evaluation by veterinarians. (author)
French, Brigitte C; Hird, David W; Romano, Patrick S; Hayes, Rick H; Nijhof, Ard M; Jongejan, Frans; Mellor, Dominic J; Singer, Randall S; Fine, Amanda E; Gay, John M; Davis, Radford G; Conrad, Patricia A
While many studies have evaluated whether or not factual information can be effectively communicated using computer-aided tools, none has focused on establishing and changing students' attitudes toward international animal-health issues. The study reported here was designed to assess whether educational modules on an interactive computer CD elicited a change in veterinary students' interest in and attitudes toward international animal-health issues. Volunteer veterinary students at seven universities (first-year students at three universities, second-year at one, third-year at one, and fourth-year at two) were given by random assignment either an International Animal Health (IAH) CD or a control CD, ParasitoLog (PL). Participants completed a pre-CD survey to establish baseline information on interest and attitudes toward both computers and international animal-health issues. Four weeks later, a post-CD questionnaire was distributed. On the initial survey, most students expressed an interest in working in the field of veterinary medicine in another country. Responses to the three pre-CD questions relating to attitudes toward the globalization of veterinary medicine, interest in foreign animal disease, and inclusion of a core course on international health issues in the veterinary curriculum were all positive, with average values above 3 (on a five-point scale where 5 represented strong agreement or interest). Almost all students considered it beneficial to learn about animal-health issues in other countries. After students reviewed the IAH CD, we found a decrease at four universities, an increase at one university, and no change at the remaining two universities in students' interest in working in some area of international veterinary medicine. However, none of the differences was statistically significant.
The article analyses the importance of laboratory test methods, namely pathomorfological at conduct of clinical trials. The article focuses on complex laboratory diagnostics at determination of clinical condition of animals, safety and efficacy of tested medicinal product.
The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from community pharmacies offers important opportunities for members of the public to access medicines and self-treat conditions. They are increasingly recognised, however, as having the potential for abuse and harm despite their perceived relative safety. This study reports on a qualitative study that explored the experiences and views of community pharmacy staff in relation to current practices and concerns, management and support relating to OTC medicine abuse. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of ten pharmacists and seven medicines counter assistants in the United Kingdom. Analysis of interviews indicated that a range of medicines was implicated, including opiates, sedative antihistamines, laxatives and decongestants. A surveillance role was apparent for assistants, who placed emphasis on regulations, procedure and monitoring frequency of purchases to manage abuse, with referral on to pharmacists. Frequency of purchase was central to assistants' definition of those suspected of OTC medicine abuse, which pharmacists also utilised as well as a distinction between intentional abuse and unintentional medicine misuse. A lack of information about customers, easy access to, and poor communication between community pharmacies were emergent barriers to pharmacists providing more support. Many appeared uncertain of referral options or how pharmacists could effectively stop the problem of abuse. The commercial environment was a particular concern, in relation to customer expectations, medicine advertising and easy access to different community pharmacies. A key tension emerged between providing medicine supplies that permitted consumer freedom, with the needs of healthcare professionals to understand more about those consumers qua patients. Policy implications include the need for improved knowledge for community pharmacy staff about signposting to relevant services, increased awareness of who
Kuhlmann, W; Schäffer, J
German schools and faculties of veterinary medicine did not receive the sovereign right to award the degree "Doctor medicinae veterinarae" until the early twentieth century. Until then, in the nineteenth century there were two possibilities for veterinarians to earn a doctoral degree, usually referred to as the title of "Doctor": 1. On the basis of an exceptionally excellent dissertation and after very stringent examination a candidate could be awarded the degree "Dr. med." by the faculty of a medical school, or, if the candidate had studied at a philosophical faculty, the degree "Dr. phil." 2. A doctoral degree specifically in veterinary medicine could be earned only at a medical faculty. The Medical Faculty of the University of Giessen awarded the degree "Doctor in arte veterinaria" for the first time in 1832. In this study we prove that Giessen was not the first German university to award a doctorate in veterinary medicine, a priority which has never been questioned in the literature. As early as 1829, veterinarians could earn the degree "Doctor artis veterinariae" at the Medical Faculty of the University of Rostock, where three such awards are documented between 1829 and 1831. The designation "medicina" was also intially avoided in Rostock. Therefore, of particular significance is the discovery of a fourth such document from the Rostock University Archives, the doctoral diploma of Carl Jacob Friedrich Gillmeister, who at the age of 22 was awarded the degree "Doctor medicinae veterinariae" in Rostock after a successful defense. This is the earliest, but also the last archival record of the German doctoral degree in veterinary medicine in the modern sense, because after Gillmeister no veterinarian could earn a doctoral degree in Rostock further more. Gillmeisters vita sheds light on the times and the difficulties of the veterinary profession in the poor agricultural area of Mecklenburg.
Rose, Nicole; Toews, Lorraine; Pang, Daniel S J
Clinical audit is a quality improvement process with the goal of continuously improving quality of patient care as assessed by explicit criteria. In human medicine clinical audit has become an integral and required component of the standard of care. In contrast, in veterinary medicine there appear to have been a limited number of clinical audits published, indicating that while clinical audit is recognised, its adoption in veterinary medicine is still in its infancy. A systematic review was designed to report and evaluate the veterinary literature on clinical audit in companion animal species (dog, cat, horse). A systematic search of English and French articles using Proquest Dissertations and Theses database (February 6, 2014), CAB Abstracts (March 21, 2014 and April 4, 2014), Scopus (March 21, 2014), Web of Science Citation index (March 21, 2014) and OVID Medline (March 21, 2014) was performed. Included articles were those either discussing clinical audit (such as review articles and editorials) or reporting parts of, or complete, audit cycles. The majority of articles describing clinical audit were reviews. From 89 articles identified, twenty-one articles were included and available for review. Twelve articles were reviews of clinical audit in veterinary medicine, five articles included at least one veterinary clinical audit, one thesis was identified, one report was of a veterinary clinical audit website and two articles reported incomplete clinical audits. There was no indication of an increase in the number of published clinical audits since the first report in 1998. However, there was evidence of article misclassification, with studies fulfilling the criteria of clinical audit not appropriately recognised. Quality of study design and reporting of findings varied considerably, with information missing on key components, including duration of study, changes in practice implemented between audits, development of explicit criteria and appropriate statistical
Cipolla, Micaela; Bonizzi, Luigi; Zecconi, Alfonso
Despite the fact that health communication is a discipline developed only recently, its importance in human medicine is well recognized. However, it is less considered in veterinary medicine, even if it has the potential to improve public health because of the role of veterinary medicine in public health. For this reason, an One Health approach is useful for communication as well. This approach leads to a “One Communication” concept, which is the result of the synergy in communicative efforts...
Full Text Available Rapid reduction in natural resources as a consequence to the expanded urbanization, global warming and reduced natural habitat posed a considerable threat to the sustainability of traditional medicine. Being completely dependent upon natural resources like herbs, minerals and animal products, traditional medicine would possibly rank first in order of extinction of heritage if an alternative way is not considered well in time. In reference to the use of animal products, Ayurveda presents some unique examples where animals are used without causing harm to them and so without posing a threat to their existence. In the current context, when natural resources are facing a threat to their existence, a revisit to these ideas may give us a new insight to refine our look at natural resources used in traditional medicine.
Full Text Available The concept of ‘one medicine’ and its evolution are discussed and some considerations on the relationship between ‘one medicine’ and veterinary profession are made, with particular reference to Italy. The concept of ‘one medicine’ is mainly associated with public health and has its roots in the Italian tradition and health organisation. In a future which is already with us, the veterinary profession will be called upon to deal with many problems at worldwide level (e.g. the emergence/re-emergence of new/old zoonotic pathogens, biological and chemical contaminants in food, bacterial resistance to antibiotics, non-epidemic emergencies associated with natural or man-made disasters, animal well-being, etc., integrating with other professions. In Italy, most of these problems find the Veterinary Services prepared, but not homogeneously throughout the country. At the present time, doubts are expressed on maintaining and improving these services, mainly due to the lack of students interested in veterinary public health (VPH training. The globalisation of the veterinary profession imposes changes, in both culture and training. The expertise required for ‘one medicine’ must be considered and aspects of veterinary training should be changed to promote sharing expertise with other professionals, mainly within the Italian Health Service. The public should be informed about professional competence and activities of veterinarians, in both the private and public sectors, in order to offer a true picture of the profession, one that is not limited to the conventional model which the public generally has of veterinary medicine.
Methods: A validated questionnaire was designed to explore pharmacy students understanding of MC courses ... Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research is indexed by Science Citation Index (SciSearch), Scopus, .... structure activity relationship (SAR) of major drug ... collate data regarding the students' perspectives,.
Full Text Available Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.
Fernandes, Marco A.R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquisa Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Dept. de Dermatologia e Radioterapia; Andrade, Alexandre L.; Luvizoto, Maria C.R.; Piero, Juliana R.; Ciarlini, Luciana D.R.P. [UNESP, Aracatuba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Clinica Animal. Curso de Medicina Veterinaria
This work presents a brief historical about the use of ionizing radiations in Veterinary Medicine, instructing the physical beginnings and techniques wrapped in the realization of the proceedings of radiotherapy in animals, illustrating some treated cases, highlighting the difficulties and pointing to the perspectives and importance of the acting of the medical physics in this kind of therapeutic still little used in the national scenery. (author)
Wound healing in both human and veterinary medicine is essential physological process important for the survival of any species. Not only the internal (nutritional status, age, tissue hypoxia, etc.) and external (infections, medication, physical - chemical external influences, etc.) factors affect each stage of wound healing and its success, but also the overall treatment and choice of covering material. Wound healing is a natural process and sometimes takes place without any problems, themse...
Komatsubara, N.; Ito, N.; Natsuhori, M.; Sano, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Futatsugawa, S.; Terasaki, K.; Hirayama, H.
Veterinary nuclear medicine has been widely applied in the US and Europe, especially for dogs, cats, and horses. The needs of the nuclear medicine in veterinary practice are also growing in Japan. This study was performed in order to make a safety guideline for veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Two sorts of well often medically used radionuclide, 18 F and 99m Tc were chosen for evaluating the exposed doses of the veterinarian, the animal owner, and the general public. Air absorption doses around a physical phantom containing radioactive materials ( 18 F or 99m Tc) were measured by glass dosimeters. (Asahi Techno Glass Ltd.) It was verified that the measurement values were corresponding to the calculation values using EGS4. Then, canine pectoral and abdominal mathematical phantom was designed, external radiation exposure of the veterinarian, the animal owner and the public from the phantom containing radioactive materials were calculated by using EGS4. Calculated exposure doses were compared with the dose limit or the dose constraint. (20mSv/yr for the veterinarian: ICRP, 5mSv/yr for the animal owner: IAEA, and 1mSv/yr for the general public: ICRP 2 ). The future integration exposed doses of the animal owner and the public didn't exceed the dose constraint or the dose limit at the release after 24 hours of the radiopharmaceutical administering. In this study, all the calculation conditions were set up on the safety side. Therefore, it is thought that actual exposed doses lower considerably. The safety guideline for the veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan will be established by further application of this type of research. (author)
Rush, Bonnie R; Elmore, Ronnie G; Sanderson, Michael W
Grade inflation, an upward shift in student grade-point averages without a similar rise in achievement, is considered pervasive by most experts in post-secondary education in the United States. Grade-point averages (GPAs) at US universities have increased by roughly 0.15 points per decade since the 1960s, with a 0.6-point increase since 1967. In medical education, grade inflation has been documented and is particularly evident in the clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to evaluate grade inflation over a 22-year period in a college of veterinary medicine. Academic records from 2,060 students who graduated from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Kansas State University between 1985 and 2006 were evaluated, including cumulative GPAs earned during pre-clinical professional coursework, during clinical rotations, and at graduation. Grade inflation was documented at a rate of approximately 0.2 points per decade at this college of veterinary medicine. The difference in mean final GPA between the minimum (1986) and maximum (2003) years of graduation was 0.47 points. Grade inflation was similar for didactic coursework (years 1-3) and clinical rotations (final year). Demographic shifts, student qualifications, and tuition do not appear to have contributed to grade inflation over time. A change in academic standards and student evaluation of teaching may have contributed to relaxed grading standards, and technology in the classroom may have led to higher (earned) grades as a result of improved student learning.
Wells, Katharine M; Boyd, Matthew J; Thornley, Tracey; Boardman, Helen F
The payment structure for the New Medicine Service (NMS) in England is based on the assumption that 0.5% of prescription items dispensed in community pharmacies are eligible for the service. This assumption is based on a theoretical calculation. This study aimed to find out the actual proportion of prescription items eligible for the NMS dispensed in community pharmacies in order to compare this with the theoretical assumption. The study also aimed to investigate whether the proportion of prescription items eligible for the NMS is affected by pharmacies' proximity to GP practices. The study collected data from eight pharmacies in Nottingham belonging to the same large chain of pharmacies. Pharmacies were grouped by distance from the nearest GP practice and sampled to reflect the distribution by distance of all pharmacies in Nottingham. Data on one thousand consecutive prescription items were collected from each pharmacy and the number of NMS eligible items recorded. All NHS prescriptions were included in the sample. Data were analysed and proportions calculated with 95% confidence intervals used to compare the study results against the theoretical figure of 0.5% of prescription items being eligible for the NMS. A total of 8005 prescription items were collected (a minimum of 1000 items per pharmacy) of which 17 items were eligible to receive the service. The study found that 0.25% (95% confidence intervals: 0.14% to 0.36%) of prescription items were eligible for the NMS which differs significantly from the theoretical assumption of 0.5%. The opportunity rate for the service was lower, 0.21% (95% confidence intervals: 0.10% to 0.32%) of items, as some items eligible for the NMS did not translate into opportunities to offer the service. Of all the prescription items collected in the pharmacies, 28% were collected by patient representatives. The results of this study show that the proportion of items eligible for the NMS dispensed in community pharmacies is lower than
Drake, Adryanna A S; Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R
Much has been discussed about the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary medical students. Studies investigating general samples of veterinary medical students indicate that, on average, depression and anxiety symptoms are present at higher rates than in comparison samples. However, little is known about veterinary medical students who seek counseling. This study intends to expand the literature on veterinary student well-being, as the first to examine a sample of veterinary medical students seeking counseling services. It offers an overview of student distress and help-seeking trends from a decade of counseling services provided in one College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) in the US. The sample includes data from 279 participants. Results indicate a steady increase in students seeking counseling over the last decade. First-year students sought services at higher rates but second-year students experienced the greatest distress when compared to other cohorts. Students seeking counseling services experienced levels of overall distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social role concerns that were, on average, above cut-off scores. Physical health was significantly associated with student distress, suggesting opportunities for intervention.
Folitse, R D; Agyemang, T Opoku; Emikpe, B O; Evarefe, O D; Atawalna, J
Veterinary education in West Africa had been skewed over decades with Nigeria and Senegal leading in the training of veterinarians in the subregion. Most nationals from Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gambia as well as francophone countries within the subregion were trained in East Africa, Europe and South America. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the need for veterinary education in other West African countries including Ghana Information was sourced from individuals, literatures and other relevant archives on the history, current state and future approaches to veterinary education in Ghana. The advantages, challenges and coping strategies for application of the Principles of "The One World One Health concept" to veterinary education with the use of the medical professionals in the delivery were presented. This approach to veterinary education by Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology School of Veterinary Medicine showcases a means to meet the health challenges of the twenty first century which demand pragmatic innovation to solve disease challenges.
Objectives. To determine the number of interventions made by pharmacy students at an urban family medicine clinic and the acceptance rate of these recommendations by the healthcare providers. The secondary objective was to investigate the cost avoidance value of the interventions.
James, K. Lynette; Davies, J. Graham; Kinchin, Ian; Patel, Jignesh P.; Whittlesea, Cate
Ensuring the competence of healthcare professionals' is core to undergraduate and post-graduate education. Undergraduate pharmacy students and pre-registration graduates are required to demonstrate competence at dispensing and accuracy checking medicines. However, competence differs from understanding. This study determined the competence and…
Marziani, Jessica A
The nontraditional therapies of Traditional Chinese Veterinary Medicine and chiropractic care are adjunct treatments that can be used in conjunction with more conventional therapies to treat a variety of medical conditions. Nontraditional therapies do not need to be alternatives to Western medicine but, instead, can be used simultaneously. Exotic animal practitioners should have a basic understanding of nontraditional therapies for both client education and patient referral because they can enhance the quality of life, longevity, and positive outcomes for various cases across multiple taxa. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kaae, Susanne; Saleem, Sahdia; Kristiansen, Maria
Background Counter counseling is an important part of community pharmacies service delivery. Difficulties arise because customers appear less interested than the staff in discussing their medicine. It is unclear how individual pharmacies differ with regard to overcoming these obstacles. Objective This study explores differences in the communication practices of pharmacies with regard to engaging customers in medicine dialogues. Methods The work of Stevenson et al. describing five types of interaction scenarios at the counter was used for structured overt non-participant observations of 100 encounters in each of five Danish pharmacies. Variation in pharmacies success in engaging customers in medicine dialogues were calculated using descriptive statistics, and the statistical significance of observed differences across pharmacies was analyzed using odds ratios (OR). Results Considerable differences between the pharmacies were identified. Differences exist in how often pharmacy staff attempts to encourage customers to participate in medication dialogues and how often they succeed. The pharmacies serving the most customers per day were the most successful. A possible link between a low number of refill customers offered counseling and ‘success rate’ was identified. Conclusions The pharmacies showed considerable variation in attempts to engage customers in medication dialogues at the counter and success in doing so. The reasons for the identified patterns are unclear. PMID:25243031
Kaae, Susanne; Saleem, Sahdia; Kristiansen, Maria
Counter counseling is an important part of community pharmacies service delivery. Difficulties arise because customers appear less interested than the staff in discussing their medicine. It is unclear how individual pharmacies differ with regard to overcoming these obstacles. This study explores differences in the communication practices of pharmacies with regard to engaging customers in medicine dialogues. The work of Stevenson et al. describing five types of interaction scenarios at the counter was used for structured overt non-participant observations of 100 encounters in each of five Danish pharmacies. Variation in pharmacies success in engaging customers in medicine dialogues were calculated using descriptive statistics, and the statistical significance of observed differences across pharmacies was analyzed using odds ratios (OR). Considerable differences between the pharmacies were identified. Differences exist in how often pharmacy staff attempts to encourage customers to participate in medication dialogues and how often they succeed. The pharmacies serving the most customers per day were the most successful. A possible link between a low number of refill customers offered counseling and 'success rate' was identified. The pharmacies showed considerable variation in attempts to engage customers in medication dialogues at the counter and success in doing so. The reasons for the identified patterns are unclear.
Greenhill, Lisa M; Carmichael, K Paige
In April 2011, a nationwide survey of all 28 US veterinary schools was conducted to determine the comfort level (college climate) of veterinary medical students with people from whom they are different. The original hypothesis was that some historically underrepresented students, especially those who may exhibit differences from the predominant race, ethnicity, religion, gender, or sexual orientation, experience a less welcoming college climate. Nearly half of all US students responded to the survey, allowing investigators to make conclusions from the resulting data at a 99% CI with an error rate of less than 2% using Fowler's sample-size formula. Valuable information was captured despite a few study limitations, such as occasional spurious data reporting and little ability to respond in an open-ended manner (most questions had a finite number of allowed responses). The data suggest that while overall the majority of the student population is comfortable in American colleges, some individuals who are underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM) may not feel the same level of acceptance or inclusivity on veterinary school campuses. Further examination of these data sets may explain some of the unacceptably lower retention rates of some of these URVM students on campuses.
Muma, John B; Mwacalimba, Kennedy K; Munang'andu, Hetron M; Matope, Gift; Jenkins, Akinbowale; Siamudaala, Victor; Mweene, Aaron S; Marcotty, Tanguy
Few studies have explicitly examined the linkages between human health, animal disease control and poverty alleviation. This paper reviews the contribution that veterinary medicine can make to poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our analysis attempts to explore aspects of this contribution under five themes: food production; food safety; impact and control of zoonotic infections; promotion of ecotourism; and environmental protection. While these areas of human activity have, more or less, fallen under the influence of the veterinary profession to varying degrees, we attempt to unify this mandate using a 'One Health' narrative, for the purpose of providing clarity on the linkages between the veterinary and other professions, livestock production and poverty alleviation. Future opportunities for improving health and reducing poverty in the context of developing African countries are also discussed. We conclude that veterinary science is uniquely positioned to play a key role in both poverty reduction and the promotion of health, a role that can be enhanced through the reorientation of the profession's goals and the creation of synergies with allied and related professions.
John B. Muma
Full Text Available Few studies have explicitly examined the linkages between human health, animal disease control and poverty alleviation. This paper reviews the contribution that veterinary medicine can make to poverty alleviation in sub-Saharan Africa. Our analysis attempts to explore aspects of this contribution under five themes: food production; food safety; impact and control of zoonotic infections; promotion of ecotourism; and environmental protection. While these areas of human activity have, more or less, fallen under the influence of the veterinary profession to varying degrees, we attempt to unify this mandate using a 'One Health' narrative, for the purpose of providing clarity on the linkages between the veterinary and other professions, livestock production and poverty alleviation. Future opportunities for improving health and reducing poverty in the context of developing African countries are also discussed. We conclude that veterinary science is uniquely positioned to play a key role in both poverty reduction and the promotion of health, a role that can be enhanced through the reorientation of the profession's goals and the creation of synergies with allied and related professions.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. Methods We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007. Results Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Conclusion Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals
Waning, Brenda; Maddix, Jason; Soucy, Lyne
Numerous not-for-profit pharmacies have been created to improve access to medicines for the poor, but many have failed due to insufficient financial planning and management. These pharmacies are not well described in health services literature despite strong demand from policy makers, implementers, and researchers. Surveys reporting unaffordable medicine prices and high mark-ups have spurred efforts to reduce medicine prices, but price reduction goals are arbitrary in the absence of information on pharmacy costs, revenues, and profit structures. Health services research is needed to develop sustainable and "reasonable" medicine price goals and strategic initiatives to reach them. We utilized cost accounting methods on inventory and financial information obtained from a not-for-profit rural pharmacy network in mountainous Kyrgyzstan to quantify costs, revenues, profits and medicine mark-ups during establishment and maintenance periods (October 2004-December 2007). Twelve pharmacies and one warehouse were established in remote Kyrgyzstan with 100%, respectively. Annual mark-ups increased dramatically each year to cover increasing recurrent costs, and by 2007, only 19% and 46% of products revealed mark-ups of 100%. 2007 medicine mark-ups varied substantially across these products, ranging from 32% to 244%. Mark-ups needed to sustain private pharmacies would be even higher in the absence of government subsidies. Pharmacy networks can be established in hard-to-reach regions with little funding using public-private partnership, resource-sharing models. Medicine prices and mark-ups must be interpreted with consideration for regional costs of business. Mark-ups vary dramatically across medicines. Some mark-ups appear "excessive" but are likely necessary for pharmacy viability. Pharmacy financial data is available in remote settings and can be used towards determination of "reasonable" medicine price goals. Health systems researchers must document the positive and negative
Derek A. Rosenfield
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Empirical studies proved that C-peptides are performing numerous intrinsic biological roles, and serve as a marker for pancreatic performance analysis. Since the last decade, C-peptide assays for differential diagnosis in veterinary diabetic patients are becoming more available, but still only for a very limited number of species. Studies on C-peptide as a diagnostic tool, therapy for associated complications, or as replacement therapies for C-peptide deficiency still showed not to be a common practice in veterinary medicine. This review was conducted to determine the potential importance of C-peptide in Veterinary Medicine, relevant in the diagnosis of diabetes and for other metabolic processes, as well as its proposed therapeutic benefits. Numerous articles were identified that reported positive results in their experimental studies, whether C-peptide as a biomarker for pancreatic performance in dogs, cats, and horses, as a non-invasive method to monitor nutritional status in primates, or to investigate its potential therapeutic benefits for diabetes-related illnesses.
¹Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ABU Zaria, Nigeria, ²Department of. Veterinary Physiology ... dogs, AGRs have a highly sensitive sense of smell. The rats ..... Gonadal Axis and thyroid Activity in. Male rats.
Heinrich, Ellen R E; KuKanich, Kate S; Davis, Elizabeth; White, Brad J
Veterinary students can be exposed to environmental infectious agents in school that may include zoonotic pathogens. Encouraging effective hand hygiene can minimize the spread of zoonoses and promote public health and the One Health concept among veterinary students. The purpose of this study was to determine if a campaign could improve hand hygiene among veterinary students at extracurricular meetings serving meals. Nine Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine (KSU-CVM) extracurricular organizations participated in the study, sanitizer was provided at each meeting, and baseline hand-hygiene data were observed. A hand-hygiene opportunity was defined as any student observed to approach the buffet food line. Sanitizer use (yes/no) and gender (male/female) were recorded. Campaign interventions included a 3.5-minute educational video and a novel motivational poster. The video was presented to all first-year, second-year, and third-year veterinary students. Posters encouraging hand sanitization were displayed on doors and tables alongside sanitizers at each meeting. Observational hand-hygiene data were collected immediately after introduction of interventions and again 3 months later. Environmental sampling for presence of bacteria in and around meeting locations was also performed. Observed hand hygiene was lowest during baseline (11.0% ± 1.7), improved significantly post-intervention (48.8% ± 3.2), and remained improved at 3-month follow-up (33.5% ± 4.0). Females had higher probability of hand sanitizing (35.9% ± 2.2) than males (21.4% ± 2.4) (phand hygiene before meals.
Full Text Available Despite the fact that health communication is a discipline developed only recently, its importance in human medicine is well recognized. However, it is less considered in veterinary medicine, even if it has the potential to improve public health because of the role of veterinary medicine in public health. For this reason, an One Health approach is useful for communication as well. This approach leads to a “One Communication” concept, which is the result of the synergy in communicative efforts both in human and in veterinary medicine. Our analysis explores the potential of communication in several veterinary fields: institutions, food safety, companion animal and food-producing animal practice, pharmacology and drugs, wildlife fauna and environment. In almost all the areas of veterinary activity communication can contribute to human health. It takes many forms and use several channels, and this variety of communicative opportunities represent a challenge for veterinarians. For this reason, the communication course should be included in the curricula of Veterinary Medicine Schools. As One Health, One Communication is a strategy for expanding collaborations in health communication and it will enhance public health.
Aziz, Muhammad Abdul; Khan, Amir Hasan; Adnan, Muhammad; Ullah, Habib
The pastoral lifestyle of Indigenous communities of Bajaur Agency is bringing them close to natural remedies for treating their domestic animals. Several studies have been conducted across the globe describing the importance of traditional knowledge in veterinary care. Therefore, this study was planned with the aim to record knowledge on ethnoveterinary practices from the remote areas and share sit with other communities through published literature. Data was gathered from community members through semi-structured interviews and analyzed through informant consensus factor (Fic) to evaluate the consent of current ethnoveterinary practices among the local people. In total, 73 medicinal plants were recorded under the ethnoveterinary practices. Most widely used medicinal plants with maximum use reports (URs) were Visnaga daucoides Gaertn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Solanum virginianum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, Glycyrrhiza glabra L., and Curcuma longa L. New medicinal values were found with confidential level of citations for species including Heracleum candicans and Glycerhiza glabra. Family Apiaceae was the utmost family with high number (7 species) of medicinal plants. Maximum number of medicinal plants (32) was used for gastric problems. High Fic was recorded for dermatological (0.97) followed by reproductive (0.93) and gastrointestinal disorders (0.92). The main route of remedies administration was oral. Current study revealed that the study area has sufficient knowledge on ethnoveterinary medicinal plants. This knowledge is in the custody of nomadic grazers, herders, and aged community members. Plants with new medicinal uses need to be validated phytochemically and pharmacologically for the development of new alternative drugs for veterinary purposes.
Gascoyne, Alexandra; Beyene, Kebede; Stewart, Joanna; Aspden, Trudi; Sheridan, Janie
The practice of medication sharing, the lending (giving) or borrowing (taking) of prescription medicines, has been reported increasingly in the literature. This study aimed to investigate prescription medication sharing practices among adults in Auckland, New Zealand. Community pharmacies in Auckland. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in ten community pharmacies in Auckland during March, 2012. Clients were invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire to assess their medication sharing practices. Proportion of respondents reporting lending or borrowing; information provided or received. Of all participants (N = 642), 25.5% reported borrowing, and 24.1% reported lending prescribed medicines in the past year. Furthermore, 14.8% of participants reported ever giving a child's prescribed medicine to another child in their care, and 49.8% reported having leftover prescription medicines at home. Of those who borrowed medicines (n = 164), 56.1% received written medication instructions from the lender, and of the lenders (n = 155), 47.1% provided verbal instructions with the lent medicines. The sharing of prescription medicines in Auckland appears to be similar to that reported in other developed countries, and it is now clear that information provision while sharing does not always occur. Approaches to reduce harm resulting from sharing medicines should be explored.
Priest, H L; Hume, K R; Killick, D; Kozicki, A; Rizzo, V L; Seelig, D; Snyder, L A; Springer, N L; Wright, Z M; Robat, C
One of the primary objectives of the Oncology Pathology Working Group (OPWG), a joint initiative of the Veterinary Cancer Society and the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, is for oncologists and pathologists to collaboratively generate consensus documents to standardize aspects of and provide guidelines for oncologic pathology. Consensus is established through review of relevant peer-reviewed literature relative to a subgroup's particular focus. In this document, the authors provide descriptions of the literature reviewed, the review process, and a summary of the information gathered on immunocytochemistry. The intent of this publication is to help educate practitioners and pathologists on the process of immunocytochemistry and to provide a guide for the use of this technique in veterinary medicine. This document represents the opinions of the working group and the authors and does not constitute a formal endorsement by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists or the Veterinary Cancer Society. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
McDowell, Arlene; Beard, Rebekah; Brightmore, Anna; Lu, Lisa W; McKay, Amelia; Mistry, Maadhuri; Owen, Kate; Swan, Emma; Young, Jessica
Globally pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in veterinary medicine; however, little is known about the level of interest for pharmacists playing a larger role in animal treatment in New Zealand. A key stakeholder in any progression of pharmacists becoming more involved in the practice of veterinary pharmacy is the veterinary profession. The aim of this study was to investigate views of veterinarians and veterinary students on the role of pharmacists supporting veterinarians with advice on animal medicines. Open interviews were conducted with veterinarians in Dunedin, New Zealand. Veterinary students at Massey University completed an online survey. Most veterinarians do not have regular communication with pharmacists regarding animal care, but believe it may be beneficial. In order to support veterinarians, pharmacists would need further education in veterinary medicine. Veterinary students believe there is opportunity for collaboration between professions provided that pharmacists have a better working knowledge of animal treatment. Most of the veterinary students surveyed perceive a gap in their knowledge concerning animal medicines, specifically pharmacology and compounding. While there is support for pharmacists contributing to veterinary medicine, particularly in the area of pharmaceutics, this is currently limited in New Zealand due to a lack of specialized education opportunities.
Bugnon, O; Buchmann, M
The medicines give some symptoms relief and save lives every day. However, the responsible use of medicines is not definitively attained for the modern health systems. The shortcomings in this area are the cause of major negative clinical outcomes for the patients and the cause of additional cost for the health financing system. The two centenarians, as the International Pharmaceutical Federation (FIP) and the "Policlinique Médicale Universitaire (PMU)" in Lausanne, preview the solutions from now on for reversing this trend, such as the interdisciplinary collaborative approaches, the introduction of adequate financial incentives and the strengthening of education and research in community medicine, pharmacy and health.
Belshaw, Zoe; Robinson, Natalie J; Dean, Rachel S; Brennan, Marnie L
Routine use of preventative medicines is advocated as part of responsible dog and cat ownership. However, it has been suggested that the number of owners in the United Kingdom (UK) using preventative medicines to protect their pets is in decline. The aim of this novel study was to use a qualitative methodology to explore the attitudes of pet owners and veterinary surgeons in the UK to using preventative medicine products in dogs and cats. Preventative medicine was defined as "a drug or any other preparation used to prevent disease, illness or injury." Semi-structured interviews were conducted by telephone with owners and veterinary surgeons who had recently participated in a preventative healthcare consultation. Thematic analysis of transcribed recordings of these interviews identified four themes. This paper reports the theme related to motivators and barriers to using preventative medicines. Owners' understanding varied widely about the importance of preventative medicines for pets, as did their confidence in the safety of prescription products. A good relationship with their veterinary surgeon or practice, seeing adverts on the television about specific diseases, advice from a breeder and having personally seen infected animals appeared to be motivators for owners to use preventative medicines. Concern about adverse events and uncertainty about the necessity of using preventative medicines were barriers. Owners who trusted their veterinary surgeons to advise them on preventative medicine products described little use of alternative information sources when making preventative medicine choices. However, owners who preferred to do their own research described reading online opinions, particular in relation to the safety of preventative medicines, which they found confusing. In contrast, veterinary surgeons described broad confidence in the safety and efficacy of prescription preventative medicines and described protection of pet health as a strong motivator for
Elena Gabriela Oltean
Full Text Available The organic or inorganic impurities in the veterinary medicinal product can derive from starting materials, manufacturing process, incomplete purification, inappropriate storage. The acceptable levels of impurities in pharmaceuticals are estimated by comparison with standard solutions, according to the appropriate monographs. Forced degradation studies determine the stability of the method of dosage for the active compounds and for the entire finished product under excessive accelerated degradation conditions. They also provide information on degradation pathways and selectivity of analytical methods applied. The information provided by the degradation studies on the active compound and finished pharmaceutical product should demonstrate the specificity of the analytical method regarding impurities. Forced degradation studies should demonstrate that the impurities and degradation products generated do not interfere with the active compound. The current forced degradation methods consist of acid hydrolysis, basic hydrolysis, oxidation, exposure of the medicinal product to temperature and light. HPLC methods are an integral analytical instrument for the analysis of the medicinal product. The HPLC method should be able to separate, detect and quantify various specific degradation products that can appear after manufacture or storage of the medicinal product, as well as new elements appearing after synthesis. FDA and ICH guidelines recommend the enclosure of the results, including the chromatograms specific to the forced degradation-subjected medicinal product, in the documentation for marketing authorization. Using HPLC methods in forced degradation studies on medicinal products provides relevant information on the method of determination for the formulation of the medicinal product, synthesis product, packaging methods and storage.
Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, the feasibility of a systematic record of clinical study data from marketing authorisation applications for veterinary medicinal products (VMP and benefits of the selected approach were investigated.Background: Drug registration dossiers for veterinary medicinal products contain extensive data from drug studies, which are not easily accessible to assessors.Evidentiary value: Fast access to these data including specific search tools could facilitate a meaningful use of the data and allow assessors for comparison of test and studies from different dossiers.Methods: First, pivotal test parameters and their mutual relationships were identified. Second, a data model was developed and implemented in a relational database management system, including a data entry form and various reports for database searches. Compilation of study data in the database was demonstrated using all available clinical studies involving VMPs containing the anthelmintic drug Praziquantel. By means of descriptive data analysis possibilities of data evaluation including graphical presentation were shown. Suitability of the database to support the performance of meta-analyses was tentatively validated.Results: The data model was designed to cover the specific requirements arising from study data. A total of 308 clinical studies related to 95 VMPs containing Praziquantel (single agent and combination drugs was selected for prototype testing. The relevant data extracted from these studies were appropriately structured and shown to be basically suitable for descriptive data analyses as well as for meta-analyses.Conclusion: The database-supported collection of study data would provide users with easy access to the continuously increasing pool of scientific information held by competent authorities. It enables specific data analyses. Database design allows expanding the data model to all types of studies and classes of drugs registered in veterinary
Full Text Available Carvacrol is an active ingredient of essential oils from different plants, mainly from oregano and thyme species. It poseses biocidal activity agains many artropodes of the importance for veterinary and human medicine. Carvacrol acts as repelent, larvicide, insecticide and acaricide. It acts against pest artropodes such as those that serve as mechanical or biological vectors for many causal agents of viral, bacterial and parasitic diseases for animals and humans. Therefore, it may be used not only in pest arthropodes control but in vector borne diseases control, too. In the paper carvacrol bioactivity against mosquitoes, house flies, cockroaches, ticks and mites are described. Potencial modes of carvacrol action on artropodes are given, too. Carvacrol reachs its biotoxicity against arthropodes alone or in combination with other active ingredients from the same plant of its origin, such as tymol, cymen or others. The paper explains reasons for frequently investigations on essential oils and other natural products of plant origin to their biotoxicity against food stored pest or pest of medicinal importance, as well as, needs for their use in agriculture, veterinary and human medicine.
Mochel, J P; Tyden, E; Hellmann, K; Vendrig, J C; Şenel, S; Dencker, L; Cristina, R T; Linden, H; Schmerold, I
The European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) was founded 25 years ago by more than 20 national pharmaceutical societies and faculty members. As a pan-European organization, it brings together pharmaceutical societies as well as academic, industrial and regulatory scientists engaged in drug research and development, drug regulation and education of professionals working in these fields. EUFEPS represents pharmaceutical sciences in Europe and is recognized as such by both the European Commission and the European Medicines Agency. EUFEPS cooperates with the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and other European organizations and maintains global connections with agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. EUFEPS has established specified networks forming the basis of its activities. The creation of a Network on Veterinary Medicines is prompted by the manifold problems resulting from the use of veterinary drugs and its inherent interconnections with human medicine, environmental and public health. A long-term goal of this initiative was to expand the spectrum of available therapeutics for use in animals, including the development of innovative delivery systems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Carmen Lidia Chitescu,
Full Text Available The release of pharmaceuticals into environment has become an increasing concern in recent years. Fungi are part of the microbial flora of many animals, humans and foodstuffs, and some species can cause disease. An antimycotic or antifungal product is one that is used in the treatment of fungal infections. Even at low concentrations, antifungals exert an action against micro-organisms and exhibit selective toxicity towards them. The use of antimicrobials selects for resistant populations of micro-organisms. Development of resistance to antifungals is an increasing problem in veterinary and human medicine.
Wirtz, Veronika J; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi
To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico. Customers were included if they were older than 18 years, bought at least one drug either with or without medical prescription, and agreed to take part in the survey. Data were analysed using a multinomial logistic regression model. A total of 1445 customers buying 1946 drugs were surveyed (age 42.9 +/- 15.7 years, 56.9% female); 627 (59%) of 1055 customers who purchased prescription-only medicines (POM) did so without a prescription. Of all customers interviewed, 172 (11.9%) affirmed that the bought medicine(s) could cause harm. Only half of those (87 or 6%) were able to identify correctly at least one side effect of the purchased medicines. The majority received the information about side effects from a physician. Customers in semirural areas knew less about side effects (odds ratio: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.11-0.61; P = 0.00); whereas customers buying medicines for chronic pain, hypertension or diabetes knew more (odds ratio 2.63; 95% CI: 1.44-4.80; P = 0.00). The overall majority of customers did not know that medicines they bought could be harmful. This is particularly alarming because they frequently used POM without consulting a physician.
Montforts MHMM; SEC
A critical appraisal of the data used for the establishment of the trigger values for the exposure of the aquatic environment to human medicines and the terrestrial environment to veterinary medicines leads to the recommendation to change these values. The (draft) technical guidance documents in
Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre is responsible for the monitoring of veterinary adverse drug reactions in South Africa. An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the centre during the period March 2002 to February 2003 is given. In total, 40 reports were received. This had declined from the previous year. Most reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most of the products implicated were Stock Remedies. The animal owner predominantly administered these products. Only 1 report was received from a veterinary pharmaceutical company. Increasing numbers of reports are being received from veterinarians.
Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Fraile, Lorenzo
The emergence of resistance in food animals has been associated to the consumption of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine. Consequently, monitoring programs have been designed to monitor the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. This study analyses the amount of antimicrobial agents...... antimicrobial classes. Substantial differences between countries were observed in the amount of antimicrobials used to produce 1kg of meat. Moreover, large variations in proportions of resistant bacteria were reported by the different countries, suggesting differences in veterinary practice. Despite...
Emma K Read
Full Text Available OSCEs (Objective Structured Clinical Examinations are widely used in health professions to assess clinical skills competence. Raters use standardized binary checklists (CL or multi-dimensional global rating scales (GRS to score candidates performing specific tasks. This study assessed the reliability of CL and GRS scores in the assessment of veterinary students, and is the first study to demonstrate the reliability of GRS within veterinary medical education. Twelve raters from two different schools (6 from University of Calgary [UCVM] and 6 from Royal (Dick School of Veterinary Studies [R(DSVS] were asked to score 12 students (6 from each school. All raters assessed all students (video recordings during 4 OSCE stations (bovine haltering, gowning and gloving, equine bandaging and skin suturing. Raters scored students using a CL, followed by the GRS. Novice raters (6 R(DSVS were assessed independently of expert raters (6 UCVM. Generalizability theory (G theory, analysis of variance (ANOVA and t-tests were used to determine the reliability of rater scores, assess any between school differences (by student, by rater, and determine if there were differences between CL and GRS scores. There was no significant difference in rater performance with use of the CL or the GRS. Scores from the CL were significantly higher than scores from the GRS. The reliability of checklist scores were .42 and .76 for novice and expert raters respectively. The reliability of the global rating scale scores were .7 and .86 for novice and expert raters respectively. A decision study (D-study showed that once trained using CL, GRS could be utilized to reliably score clinical skills in veterinary medicine with both novice and experienced raters.
Arias Cruz, Alfredo; Monsiváis Toscano, Gina; Gallardo Martínez, Gabriela; González Díaz, Sandra Nora; Galindo Rodríguez, Gabriela
The reported prevalence of allergic systemic reactions to hymenoptera venom occur in up to 3.3% and large local reactions occur in 17% in the general population. To investigate the prevalence of hymenoptera sting allergy in a group of veterinary medicine students from Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico. A transverse and observational study was done with 64 students of veterinary medicine. We conducted a questionnaire about the students' history of insect allergy and atopy. Skin test with allergenic extracts of bee and ant were practiced to all subjects. We performed aeroallergen skin prick test to the subjets with suspected atopy. Students age ranged from 17 to 25 years (mean 20.2) and 37 were males. Twenty students (31.3%) had clinical history of atopy and positive skin tests to aeroallergens. On the other hand, 5 students (7.8%), including 2 atopic, had suffered large local reactions, but none of them had suffered systemic reactions. Bee and ant skin tests were positive in 15.6% and 31.3% of the students respectively. There was no difference in the prevalence of hymenoptera allergy between atopic and non atopic subjects (p < 0.05). Further, the frequency of atopy in subjects with positive skin tests for bee and ant was 50%. The prevalence of large local reactions and hymenoptera sensitization found in this group was similar to that found in other epidemiologic studies.
Stratev, Deyan; Odeyemi, Olumide A; Pavlov, Alexander; Kyuchukova, Ralica; Fatehi, Foad; Bamidele, Florence A
The results from the first survey on food safety knowledge, attitudes and hygiene practices (KAP) among veterinary medicine students in Bulgaria are reported in this study. It was designed and conducted from September to December 2015 using structured questionnaires on food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. Data were collected from 100 undergraduate veterinary medicine students from the Trakia University, Bulgaria. It was observed that the age and the gender did not affect food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) on food safety knowledge and practices among students based on the years of study. A high level of food safety knowledge was observed among the participants (85.06%), however, the practice of food safety was above average (65.28%) while attitude toward food safety was high (70%). Although there was a significant awareness of food safety knowledge among respondents, there is a need for improvement on food safety practices, interventions on food safety and foodborne diseases. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Okuda, J; Kiyokawa, R
The snake and snake venoms have stimulated the mind and imagination of humankind since the beginning of records about society. No animal has been more worshipped yet more cast out, more loved yet more despised than the snake. The essence of the fascination with fear of the snake lies within the creature's venom. Snakes have been used for worship, magic potions and, medicine, and they have been the symbol of love, health, disease, medicine, pharmacy, immortality, death and even wisdom. In the Sumer civilization (B.C. 2350-2150), designs with 2 snakes appeared. In Greek mythology (B.C. 2000-400), statues of Asclepius (God of Medicine), with "Caduceus" (made of two snakes and a staff), and his daughter Hygeia (God of Health), holding a snake and bowl, were created as symbols for medicine and health, respectively. A kind of Caduceus (1 snake and 1 staff) has been used as a symbol by the World Health Organization (WHO) and a snake and bowl as a symbol of pharmacies in Europe. Snakes have also been worshipped by old Indian peoples involved in Hinduism since 6-4th century B.C. In ancient Egypt, snake designs were used in hieroglyphs. In China, dried bodies of about 30 species of snakes are still using as Chinese medicines. In Japan, a painting of the symbol of "Genbu" (snake with tortoise) was found recently on the north wall of the Takamatsuzuka ancient tomb (7-8th century A.D.), however it is a symbol of a compass direction, and has probably less relation to medicine and pharmacy.
von den Driesch, A
This short paragraph tries to identify the camel diseases compiled in the old chinese text according to modern veterinary terms. Due to the specific terminology of the camel treatise and its overall scarce symptomatology the diseases are difficult to evaluate. The majority of them obviously deal with acute infectious diseases which manifest themselves under such symptoms as high fever, depression, anorexia, cachexia, diarrhoea, general weakness, etc. But there are some diseases and ailments which can be interpreted in modern terms my means of the symptoms, descriptions and cures, e.g. mange, paradontosis and wry-neck syndrome.
Cuzzolin, Laura; Benoni, Giuseppina
A survey was designed to investigate customers attitudes and knowledge toward non-prescription medicines taken on a self-medication basis but not devoid of risks. Community pharmacies in Italy. Forty-four pharmacies participated in the project. On the basis of an anonymous questionnaire, face-to-face interviews were made to customers buying a non-prescription medicine over a 2-month period. The questionnaire included information about socio-demographic characteristics of the interviewed subjects and 18 items designed to elicit information about the kind of medicine purchased and reason of use, general product knowledge in relation to quality and risks, attitudes toward this kind of drugs, concurrent prescription drug use and the quality of relationship with the pharmacist. During the study period, 613 interviews were collected. The most frequently non-prescription medicines purchased by customers were non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, paracetamol and medicines for gastrointestinal problems. The most of interviewees referred to read carefully the package inserts or to ask information to pharmacists. Moreover, they reported to consider non-prescription medicines easy to manage and to be used only for minor ailments and for short periods. 55.3% of customers reported to have been taking at least a prescription drug, mostly antihypertensives or other cardiovascular medicines, in association with non-prescription medicines. In this situation, interviewees often did not inform pharmacists about chronic therapies. Our interviews demonstrate that, in general, Italian customers have a cautious approach toward non-prescription medicines and are informed on their use. However, in case of a long-term use, interviewees underestimate risks related to possible physiological/pathological changes in their organism or to interactions with other drugs.
Huda, Fauzia A; Ngo, Thoai D; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Alam, Anadil; Reichenbach, Laura
To explore the availability and provision of misoprostol and other medicines for menstrual regulation (MR) among pharmacies in Bangladesh. Between March and November 2011, a cross-sectional study using mystery client visits was conducted among pharmacy workers in Dhaka and Gazipur Districts, Bangladesh. Mystery clients were trained to present 1 of 4 pre-developed situations to pharmacy workers to elicit information on the regimen, adverse effects, and complications of misoprostol use. Mystery clients visited 331 pharmacies. Among the 331 pharmacy workers, 45.8% offered the mystery clients misoprostol and/or other medicines for MR; 25.7% referred them to private clinics or hospitals. Only 7% recommended an effective regimen of misoprostol for MR; 65% suggested administering vaginal and oral misoprostol together. Overall, 72.4% did not provide any advice on complications; the remainder suggested visiting trained providers for complications. Counseling on excessive bleeding as a danger sign was provided by 46% of pharmacy workers. Most (94%) did not provide or refer for post-MR family planning. Pharmacy workers in urban Bangladesh are providing ineffective drugs and regimens for MR. A training package is needed to strengthen service delivery by providing accurate information, high-quality products, and referral mechanisms for women seeking MR through pharmacies. © 2013.
Paterniani, Valentina; Grolli, Stefano
The Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) is an innovative and increasing therapeutic technique in Veterinary Medicine. As in Human Medicine, the low power red/near-infrared laser light could be used to reduce inflammatory conditions, induce analgesia and promote damaged tissues repair, both in conventional animals like horses, dogs and cats and in unconventional ones, including reptiles, birds and exotic mammals. Since A.Eistein (1917) and E.Mester (1968) built its physical and biochemical fundamentals, a growing number of researches, over the years, have expanded the knowledge of the molecular process considered today at the basis of the macroscopic therapeutic effects. Producing a photochemical tissue interaction, laser light is absorbed by the mitochondrial respiratory chain stimulating the generation of ATP, ROS and NO; this determines a modulation in gene expression of proteins playing key roles in cellular processes as tissue repair, inflammatory response and pain control. Different animal pathological conditions could significantly benefit from this therapy, such as acute/chronic muscle-skeletal disorders, dental afflictions, dermatitis, otitis, stomatitis and different kind of skin lesions, as traumatic or post-operative ones. Furthermore, other significant applications are developing scientifically: the treatment of internal organ diseases, the regenerative effects on nervous tissue and the possibility of a beneficial cell-specific cytotoxicity, relevant for oncological cases, are some of these. A high-quality research is therefore crucial for this quickly expanding field of Veterinary Medicine, in order to find the most effective protocols and the ideal doses for each pathological conditions, aiming to always ensure the best and up-todate animal care.
Varanasi, Subhose; Narayana, A
The history of veterinary medicine is closely tied to the development of human medicine. Evidence of animal medicine has been found in ancient civilizations, such as those of the Hindu, Babylonians, Hebrews, Arabs, Greeks, and Romans. Ancient Indian literature in the form of the holy Vĕda, Purăna, Brăhmaņa, epics, etc. is flooded with information on animal care. The Purăņa are ancient scriptures discuss varied topics like devotion to God and his various aspects, traditional sciences like Ayurvĕda, Jyŏtişa (Astrology), cosmology, concepts like dharma, karma, reincarnation and many others. The treatment of animal diseases using Ayurvedic medicine has been mentioned in Garudapurăna, Agnipurăņa, Atri-samhită, Matsyapurăņa and many other texts. The Garudapurăņa is one of the important Săttvika purăna, the subject matter is divided into two parts, viz. Pŭrvakhaņda (first part) and an Uttarakhaņda (subsequent part). Gavăyurvĕda, Gajăyurvĕda narrated briefly and Aśvăyurvĕda described detailly in Pŭrvakhaņda.
DellaVecchia, Matthew J; Claudio, Alyssa M; Fairclough, Jamie L
To describe 1) a pharmacy student's teaching assistant (TA) role in an undergraduate medicinal chemistry course, 2) an active learning module co-developed by the TA and instructor, and 3) the unexpected opportunities for pharmacy educational outreach that resulted from this collaboration. Medicinal Chemistry (CHM3413) is an undergraduate course offered each fall at Palm Beach Atlantic University (PBA). As a TA for CHM3413, a pharmacy student from the Gregory School of Pharmacy (GSOP) at PBA co-developed and implemented an active learning module emphasizing foundational medicinal chemistry concepts as they pertain to performance enhancing drugs (PEDs). Surveys assessed undergraduate students' perceived knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts, PEDs, and TA involvement. Students' (total n = 60, three fall semesters) perceived confidence in knowledge of medicinal chemistry concepts and PEDs increased significantly (p medicinal chemistry course. An advanced pharmacy practice experience elective in sports pharmacy (based on Ambrose's model) begins Fall 2017. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mauldin Pereira, Mary; Artemiou, Elpida; McGonigle, Dee; Conan, Anne; Sithole, Fortune; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathleen
Virtual worlds are emerging technologies that can enhance student learning by encouraging active participation through simulation in immersive environments. At Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM), the virtual world of Second Life was piloted as an educational platform for first-semester students to practice clinical reasoning in a simulated veterinary clinical setting. Under the supervision of one facilitator, four groups of nine students met three times to process a clinical case using Second Life. In addition, three groups of four clinical faculty observed one Second Life meeting. Questionnaires using a 4-point Likert scale (1=strongly disagree to 4=strongly agree) and open-ended questions were used to assess student and clinical faculty perceptions of the Second Life platform. Perception scores of students (M=2.7, SD=0.7) and clinical faculty (M=2.7, SD=0.5) indicate that Second Life provides authentic and realistic learning experiences. In fact, students (M=3.4, SD=0.6) and clinical faculty (M=2.9, SD=1.0) indicate that Second Life should be offered to future students. Moreover, content analyses of open-ended responses from students and faculty support the use of Second Life based on reported advantages indicating that Second Life offers a novel and effective instructional method. Ultimately, results indicate that students and clinical faculty had positive educational experiences using Second Life, suggesting the need for further investigation into its application within the curriculum.
Schaper, Elisabeth; Forrest, Neil D; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P
NOVICE (Network Of Veterinary ICT in Education, http://www.noviceproject.eu/), is a professional online social network for veterinarians, lecturers and students of veterinary medicine as well as for e-Learning advisers and others working in establishments that teach veterinary medicine. This study sets out to investigate to what extent German veterinarians, lecturers, students of veterinary medicine and e-Learning representatives would accept a specialist network, what requirements would have to be met by an online social network, how to use web 2.0 tools ,  and what advantages a specialist network could offer. The investigation was carried out by analysing data from the Elgg platform database as well as using Google Analytics. Annual focus group surveys and individual interviews were carried out in order to perform an analysis of acceptance among network users. 1961 users from 73 different countries registered on the NOVICE site between 1 September 2010 and 21 March 2012. Germany represents the biggest user group, with 565 users (28.81%). During this period, most individual hits on the website came from Germany too. In total, 24.83% of all members are active, while 19.22% of German members participate actively. In terms of gender, there are significantly more female members than male members, both in the NOVICE network as a whole as well as in Germany. The most used web 2.0 tools are chat and email messaging services as well as writing wikis and contributing to forum discussions. The focus group surveys showed that respondents generally make use of other online communities too. Active members generally use more web 2.0 tools than in other networks, while passive members are generally more reluctant in all networks. All participants of the survey welcomed the idea of having a network specifically set up for the profession and believe that it could be very useful for veterinary medicine. The network and its membership figures developed very positively during
Müntener, C R; Bruckner, L; Stürer, A; Althaus, F R; Caduff-Janosa, P
During the year 2009, 134 reports of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) were received (106 in the year 2008). The distribution according to species and drug classes remained in line with previous years. Companion animals were involved in most of the reports (46 % dogs, 19 % cats), followed by cattle or calves (22 %). Antiparasitic drugs made the biggest part with 30 % of the reports, followed by antiinfectives (19 %) and hormones (13 %). Some reactions following their use are specifically discussed. 95 additional enquiries about ADRs of VMPs were received by the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre in Zürich. Most of them concerned dogs or cats and antiparasitics or anti-inflammatory drugs. In the vaccinovigilance program, a total of 1020 reports were received, of which 1000 were related to the vaccination against blue tongue disease. The most frequently reported adverse reactions were aborts, mastitis or alterations of milk quality and they are specifically discussed.
Slana, Marko; Dolenc, Marija Sollner
The fate and environmental risk of antimicrobial compounds of different groups of veterinary medicine pharmaceuticals (VMP's) have been compared. The aim was to demonstrate a correlation between the physical and chemical properties of active compounds and their metabolism in target animals, as well as their fate in the environment. In addition, the importance of techniques for manure management and agricultural practice and their influence on the fate of active compounds is discussed. The selected active compounds are shown to be susceptible to at least one environmental factor (sun, water, bacterial or fungal degradation) to which they are exposed during their life cycle, which contributes to its degradation. Degradation under a number of environmental factors has also to be considered as authentic information additional to that observed in the limited conditions in laboratory studies and in Environmental Risk Assessment calculations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Flávia Inoue Andrade
Full Text Available Upon undergoing biomonitoring, the most active dichloromethane extract retrieved from Senna macranthera roots led to the isolation of three main compounds: emodine, physione, and chrysophanol. In this sequence, these compounds revealed a potential antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from animals with mastitis infections with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of 20, 90, and 90 μg mL−1, respectively. Therefore, an herbal soap was also produced from this same active extract. This soap was tested in vitro using gloves contaminated by animals with bovine mastitis that had been discarded after use by milkers and showed similar results to previously tested compounds. These results indicate the potential of this plant as an alternative veterinary medicine for the production of antibacterial soaps that aimed at controlling bovine mastitis infections in small Brazilian farms.
Reinartz, P.; Sabri, O.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U.
A nine-year-old cat with symptoms of a distinct hyperthyroidism was presented at the University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen. The clinical symptoms as well as the diagnostic procedures performed at the hospital confirmed the diagnosis. After five weeks of thyreostatic medication a regular metabolism of the thyroid gland was established, followed by a radioiodine therapy with 70.3 MBq 131-iodine. Subsequently, the cat was hospitalized for two days before it could be released in good condition. Six weeks after treatment the former drastically reduced weight of the cat recovered to near normal. Even though the chemical analysis detected a discrete hyperthyroidism, clinical symptoms were no longer prominent. Three months after treatment, the final examination showed a regular metabolism of the thyroid gland without a specific thyroidal medication. The presented case illustrates that radioiodine therapy is a safe and efficient treatment of thyroidal dysfunctions in veterinary medicine. (orig.) [de
Regier, Yvonne; O Rourke, Fiona; Kempf, Volkhard A J
Infectious diseases remain a remarkable health threat for humans and animals. In the past, the epidemiology, etiology and pathology of infectious agents affecting humans and animals have mostly been investigated in separate studies. However, it is evident, that combined approaches are needed to understand geographical distribution, transmission and infection biology of "zoonotic agents". The genus Bartonella represents a congenial example of the synergistic benefits that can arise from such combined approaches: Bartonella spp. infect a broad variety of animals, are linked with a constantly increasing number of human diseases and are transmitted via arthropod vectors. As a result, the genus Bartonella is predestined to play a pivotal role in establishing a One Health concept combining veterinary and human medicine.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of a select group of medicines sold in accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs and pharmacies in different regions of Tanzania as part of an in-depth cross-sectional assessment of community access to medicines and community use of medicines.We collected 242 samples of amoxicillin trihydrate, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu, co-trimoxazole, ergometrine maleate, paracetamol, and quinine from selected ADDOs and pharmacies in Mbeya, Morogoro, Singida, and Tanga regions. The analysis included physical examination and testing with validated analytical techniques. Assays for eight of nine products were conducted using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC. For ALu tablets, we used a two-tiered approach, where tier 1 was a semi-quantitative Global Pharma Health Fund-Minilab® method and tier 2 was high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC as described in The International Pharmacopoeia's monograph for artemether-lumefantrine.The physical examination of samples revealed no defects in the solid and oral liquid dosage forms, but unusual discoloration in an injectable solution, ergometrine maleate. For ALu, the results showed that of 38 samples, 31 (81.6% passed tier 1 testing and 7 (18.4% gave inconclusive drug content results. The inconclusive ALu samples were submitted for tier 2 testing and all met the quality standards. The pass rate using the HPTLC and TLC/HPLC assays was 93.8%; the failures were the ergometrine maleate samples purchased from both ADDOs and pharmacies. The disintegration testing of the solid dosage forms was conducted in accordance with US Pharmacopeia monographs. Only two samples of paracetamol, 1.2% of the solid dosage forms, failed to comply to standards. The study revealed a high overall rate of 92.6% of samples that met the quality standards. Although the overall failure rate was 7.4%, it is important to note that this was largely limited to one product and
Kaale, Eliangiringa; Manyanga, Vicky; Chambuso, Mhina; Liana, Jafary; Rutta, Edmund; Embrey, Martha; Layloff, Thomas; Johnson, Keith
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of a select group of medicines sold in accredited drug dispensing outlets (ADDOs) and pharmacies in different regions of Tanzania as part of an in-depth cross-sectional assessment of community access to medicines and community use of medicines. We collected 242 samples of amoxicillin trihydrate, artemether-lumefantrine (ALu), co-trimoxazole, ergometrine maleate, paracetamol, and quinine from selected ADDOs and pharmacies in Mbeya, Morogoro, Singida, and Tanga regions. The analysis included physical examination and testing with validated analytical techniques. Assays for eight of nine products were conducted using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). For ALu tablets, we used a two-tiered approach, where tier 1 was a semi-quantitative Global Pharma Health Fund-Minilab® method and tier 2 was high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) as described in The International Pharmacopoeia's monograph for artemether-lumefantrine. The physical examination of samples revealed no defects in the solid and oral liquid dosage forms, but unusual discoloration in an injectable solution, ergometrine maleate. For ALu, the results showed that of 38 samples, 31 (81.6%) passed tier 1 testing and 7 (18.4%) gave inconclusive drug content results. The inconclusive ALu samples were submitted for tier 2 testing and all met the quality standards. The pass rate using the HPTLC and TLC/HPLC assays was 93.8%; the failures were the ergometrine maleate samples purchased from both ADDOs and pharmacies. The disintegration testing of the solid dosage forms was conducted in accordance with US Pharmacopeia monographs. Only two samples of paracetamol, 1.2% of the solid dosage forms, failed to comply to standards. The study revealed a high overall rate of 92.6% of samples that met the quality standards. Although the overall failure rate was 7.4%, it is important to note that this was largely limited to one product and likely due to
Davis, Greg E; Baik, Fred M; Liddell, Robert M; Ayars, Andrew G; Branch, Kelley R; Pottinger, Paul S; Hillel, Allen D; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin
Chronic rhinosinusitis is a common disease process in humans; however, in the primate population of gorillas, it has rarely been described. This case describes lifesaving sinus surgery on a critically ill gorilla performed by a human otolaryngology team in collaboration with the gorilla's veterinary medicine team. The 35-year-old western silverback gorilla was treated for 3 months with aggressive medical therapy for a worsening sinus infection. When his condition became severe, a computed tomography (CT) scan was performed showing advanced chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps vs other masses and some bone erosion. As his condition deteriorated further, a tertiary otolaryngology team performed sinus surgery using the latest technology available, including image guidance, steroid-eluting sinus stents, and balloon sinus dilation. The postoperative course was complicated by subcutaneous infection and eventual fistulization. Fortunately, with culture-directed antibiotic therapy his condition gradually improved. One year later he required revision sinus surgery. At that point allergy testing was performed followed by appropriate allergy medical therapy. Now, 3 years out from his initial surgery, he continues to do well and has fathered a young female gorilla. This case represents a unique collaboration between human physicians and veterinarians. The combined medical approach was critical to heal this ailing gorilla. This case discusses many of the challenges and offers recommendations for physicians who may be involved with similar care of animals in the future. The success of the surgical and medical treatment of this gorilla's life-threatening sinus infection required many experts, careful planning, and corporate generosity. The interaction between human and animal medicine would not have been successful without the close and trusting collaborations between human and veterinary health providers. We encourage human healthcare providers to seek volunteer
Brink, van den P.J.; Tarzona, J.V.; Solomon, K.R.; Knacker, T.; Brink, van den N.W.; Brock, T.C.M.; Hoogland, J.P.
In this paper, we investigate the applicability of experimental model ecosystems (microcosms and mesocosms) for the ecological risk assessment of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs). VMPs are used in large quantities, but the assessment of associated risks to the environment is limited, although
Full Text Available The paper reviews the latest studies on possible applications of oregano essential oil in veterinary medicine and animal livestock production. The first part of the paper deals with the definition of essential oils, possibilities for their extraction from plants, possibilities for their application in human and veterinary medicine, the interest of a science in essential oils, and, essential oils classification based on their use in human and veterinary medicine. The second part of the review deals with the properties of oregano essential oil, its main active principles, carvacrol and thymol and its application in veterinary medicine and animal livestock production. Oregano essential oil may be applied in animal feed, in the treatment of coccidiosis of domestic animals and candidiasis. It can be applied as a larvicide, repellent, insecticide and acaricide. It is used in aquaculture to treat fish diseases caused by bacteria and parasites or in the hatchery industry as a disinfectant for eggs or for disinfection of manure. The greatest potential of oregano essential oil is the possibility of its application in organic agriculture and organic animal husbandry. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31087
Molenaar, Willemina M Ineke; Zanting, Anneke
In 2008, a compulsory national basic teaching qualification was introduced for all university teachers in the Netherlands. At that time all eight University Medical Centres (UMCs) and the only Faculty of Veterinary Medicine had adopted or were setting up teacher development programmes. This study explores how these programmes relate to each other and to the basic teaching qualification. To gather information on teacher development programmes in the UMCs and the Veterinary Medicine Faculty an online survey was filled out by teacher development representatives from each of them. The programmes had main features in common (e.g. competency based and portfolio assessment), but differed somewhat in contents according to the local situation. Importantly, they had all been formally accepted as equivalent to the basic teaching qualification. We consider the freedom to tailor the qualifications to the medical context as well as to the local situation of the UMCs and the Veterinary Medicine Faculty one of the major success factors and the well-established collaboration between teacher development representatives of the UMCs and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine as another. Challenges for the future include embedding the teacher development programmes in the institutional organizations and maintaining and further developing the programmes and the competencies of the qualified teachers, e.g. in a senior qualification.
Loomans, J.B.A.; Waaijer, P.G.; Maree, J.T.M.; Weeren, van P.R.; Barneveld, A.
The aim of this study was to evaluate systematically the quality of equine veterinary top sports medicine in The Netherlands and the degree to which the expectations in the field are met. Focus was on structure, process and outcome of care. The structure of care is generally satisfactory but there
Montforts MHMM; CSR
The EC has issued directives (1981, 1992) requesting for registration of veterinary medicinal product information to enable an assessment of the product's safety for the environment. As a whole, the risk assessment is structured around the hazard quotient approach used in USES (1994). Predicted
Eckersall, P D; Bell, R
Acute phase proteins (APPs) have been used as biomarkers of inflammation, infection and trauma for decades in human medicine but have been relatively under-utilised in the context of veterinary medicine. However, significant progress has been made in the detection, measurement and application of APPs as biomarkers in both companion and farm animal medicine over recent years. In the dog, C-reactive protein, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A have been identified as significant diagnostic 'markers' of steroid-responsive meningitis-arteritis, while in cats and cattle haptoglobin and alpha(1) acid glycoprotein and haptoglobin and serum amyloid A have proved valuable biomarkers of disease, respectively. In dairy cattle, haptoglobin and a mammary-associated serum amyloid A3 isoform, produced by the inflamed mammary gland during episodes of mastitis, have great potential as biomarkers of this economically important disease. Understanding the use of APP as biomarkers of inflammatory conditions of domestic animals has expanded significantly over recent years, and, with the insights provided by ongoing research, it is likely that these compounds will be increasingly used in the future in the diagnosis and prognosis of both companion and farm animal disease. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese
The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services among refugees in Queensland, Australia, from the perspectives of resettled African refugees. A generic qualitative approach was used in this study. Resettled African refugees were recruited via a purposive snowball sampling method. The researcher collected data from different African refugee communities, specifically those from Sudanese, Congolese and Somalian communities. Participants were invited by a community health leader to participate in the study; a community health leader is a trained member of the refugee community who acts as a 'health information conduit' between refugees and the health system. Invitations were done either face-to-face, telephonically or by email. The focus groups were digitally recorded in English and transcribed verbatim by the researcher. Transcripts were entered into NVIVO© 11 and the data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. Four focus groups were conducted between October and November 2014 in the city of Brisbane with African refugees, one with five Somali refugees, one with five Congolese refugees, one with three refugee community health leaders from South Sudan, Liberia and Eritrea and one with three refugee community health leaders from Uganda, Burundi and South Sudan. Eleven sub-themes emerged through the coding process, which resulted in four overarching themes: health system differences, navigating the Australian health system, communication barriers and health care-seeking behaviour. With regard to accessing medicines and pharmacy services, this study has shown that there is a gap between resettled refugees' expectations of health services and the reality of the Australian health system. Access barriers identified included language barriers, issues with the Translating and Interpreter Service, a lack of professional communication and cultural beliefs affecting health care-seeking behaviour. This exploratory study has
Hasan, Syed S; Yong, Chew S; Babar, Muneer G; Naing, Cho M; Hameed, Abdul; Baig, Mirza R; Iqbal, Shahid M; Kairuz, Therese
In recent times the basic understanding, perceptions and CAM use among undergraduate health sciences students have become a topic of interest. This study was aimed to investigate the understanding, perceptions and self-use of CAM among pharmacy students in Malaysia. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 systematically sampled pharmacy students from two private and one public university. A validated, self-administered questionnaire comprised of seven sections was used to gather the data. A systematic sampling was applied to recruit the students. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using SPSS® version 18. Overall, the students tend to disagree that complementary therapies (CM) are a threat to public health (mean score = 3.6) and agreed that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit (mean score = 4.7). More than half (57.8%) of the participants were currently using CAM while 77.6% had used it previously. Among the current CAM modalities used by the students, CM (21.9%) was found to be the most frequently used CAM followed by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) (21%). Most of the students (74.8%) believed that lack of scientific evidence is one of the most important barriers obstructing them to use CAM. More than half of the students perceived TCM (62.8%) and music therapy (53.8%) to be effective. Majority of them (69.3%) asserted that CAM knowledge is necessary to be a well-rounded professional. This study reveals a high-percentage of pharmacy students who were using or had previously used at least one type of CAM. Students of higher professional years tend to agree that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit.
Baig Mirza R
Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent times the basic understanding, perceptions and CAM use among undergraduate health sciences students have become a topic of interest. This study was aimed to investigate the understanding, perceptions and self-use of CAM among pharmacy students in Malaysia. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 systematically sampled pharmacy students from two private and one public university. A validated, self-administered questionnaire comprised of seven sections was used to gather the data. A systematic sampling was applied to recruit the students. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were applied using SPSS® version 18. Results Overall, the students tend to disagree that complementary therapies (CM are a threat to public health (mean score = 3.6 and agreed that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit (mean score = 4.7. More than half (57.8% of the participants were currently using CAM while 77.6% had used it previously. Among the current CAM modalities used by the students, CM (21.9% was found to be the most frequently used CAM followed by Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM (21%. Most of the students (74.8% believed that lack of scientific evidence is one of the most important barriers obstructing them to use CAM. More than half of the students perceived TCM (62.8% and music therapy (53.8% to be effective. Majority of them (69.3% asserted that CAM knowledge is necessary to be a well-rounded professional. Conclusions This study reveals a high-percentage of pharmacy students who were using or had previously used at least one type of CAM. Students of higher professional years tend to agree that CMs include ideas and methods from which conventional medicine could benefit.
Berry, Clifford R; Garg, Predeep
The concept of molecular imaging has taken off over the past 15 years to the point of the renaming of the Society of Nuclear Medicine (Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and Journals (European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging) and offering of medical fellowships specific to this area of study. Molecular imaging has always been at the core of functional imaging related to nuclear medicine. Even before the phrase molecular imaging came into vogue, radionuclides and radiopharmaceuticals were developed that targeted select physiological processes, proteins, receptor analogs, antibody-antigen interactions, metabolites and specific metabolic pathways. In addition, with the advent of genomic imaging, targeted genomic therapy, and theranostics, a number of novel radiopharmaceuticals for the detection and therapy of specific tumor types based on unique biological and cellular properties of the tumor itself have been realized. However, molecular imaging and therapeutics as well as the concept of theranostics are yet to be fully realized. The purpose of this review article is to present an overview of the translational approaches to targeted molecular imaging with application to some naturally occurring animal models of human disease. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mohammad, Annim; Saini, Bandana; Chaar, Betty Bouad
Low health literacy may result in adverse health outcomes for patients and is a problem faced by countries with multi-ethnic demography. For those of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds, this problem can be compounded by language barriers such as low English proficiency (LEP). The pharmacy is often the last point of health-care provider contact before patients begin taking their medicines and the first point of care for minor ailments. There is a paucity of data exploring or establishing the needs of this population with respect to general medicine use/health information and pharmacist assistance. This study aimed to investigate the needs of CALD Australians with low or negligible English proficiency, specifically in regards to their understanding of health and medicines and the role of pharmacy in achieving best medicine use outcomes for this population. A qualitative method was employed. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with individuals of CALD backgrounds with a self-reported low or negligible English proficiency. The interviews explored past experiences with medicines use and interaction with health care professionals. A grounded theory approach with the method of constant comparison was undertaken for analyzing the data. Interviews were conducted until there was a saturation of themes. Thirty-one interviews were conducted, and data analyses identified themes relating to medicine use of CALD community members which were broadly categorized into: (1) health information, (2) interactions with health care professionals, (3) social networks and (4) perceptions and beliefs influencing health-related behavior. In CALD communities there are significant barriers to patient understanding and optimal use of medicines. There is significant potential for pharmacy to facilitate in addressing these issues as currently pharmacy is largely playing the role of dispenser of medicines. Whilst timely access of medicines is being ensured, there seems
Lombardo, Simona; Cosentino, Marco
The Internet is increasingly used as a source of health-related information, and a vast majority of Internet users are performing health-related searches in the United States and Europe, with wide differences among countries. Health information searching behavior on the Internet is affected by multiple factors, including demographics, socioeconomic factors, education, employment, attitudes toward the Internet, and health conditions, and their knowledge may help to promote a safer use of the Internet. Limited information however exists so far about Internet use to search for medical information in Italy. The objective of this study was to investigate the use of the Internet for searching for information on medicines and disease in adult subjects in Northern Italy. Survey in randomly selected community pharmacies, using a self-administered questionnaire, with open and multiple choices questions, was conducted. A total of 1008 participants were enrolled (59.5% women; median age: 43 years; range: 14-88 years). Previous use of the Internet to search for information about medicines or dietary supplements was reported by 26.0% of respondents, more commonly by women (30.00% vs 20.10% men, Punmarried subjects (32.9% vs 17.4% widowed subjects, P=.022), and employed people (29.1% vs 10.4% retired people, P=.002). Use was highest in the age range of 26 to 35 (40.0% users vs 19.6% and 12.3% in the age range ≤25 and ≥56, respectively, Pvs 51.0% males, Punmarried subjects (64.2% vs 58.5% married or divorced subjects and 30.4% widowed subjects, P=.012), unemployed people (66.7% vs 64.0% workers and 29.9% retired people, Pvs 64.4% in both 36-45 and 46-55 ranges and 35.1% in ≥56, P<.001) and increased with years of education (from 12.5% with 5 years up to 66.7% with 13 years and 68.6% with a university degree, P<.001). Retrieved information was rated as satisfactory by about 87.5% (88.1% women and 86.2% men, P=.562). Recent use of medicines or dietary supplements was
Full Text Available An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre during the period March 2001 to February 2002 is given. A total of 77 reports were received. The majority of reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most products implicated in the reports were Stock Remedies. The products were predominantly administered either by veterinarians or trained paraveterinary professionals. Although the majority of reports were received from veterinary pharmaceutical companies, the proportion of reports received directly from veterinarians increased compared with previous years.
Background Bibliographic data can be used to map the research quality and productivity of a discipline. We hypothesized that bibliographic data would identify geographic differences in research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships within the veterinary profession that corresponded with demographic and economic indices. Results Using the SCImago portal, we retrieved veterinary journal, article, and citation data in the Scopus database by year (1996–2011), region, country, and publication in species-specific journals (food animal, small animal, equine, miscellaneous), as designated by Scopus. In 2011, Scopus indexed 165 journals in the veterinary subject area, an increase from 111 in 1996. As a percentage of veterinary research output between 1996 and 2010, Western Europe and North America (US and Canada) together accounted for 60.9% of articles and 73.0% of citations. The number of veterinary articles increased from 8815 in 1996 to 19,077 in 2010 (net increase 66.6%). During this time, publications increased by 21.0% in Asia, 17.2% in Western Europe, and 17.0% in Latin America, led by Brazil, China, India, and Turkey. The United States had the highest number of articles in species-specific journals. As a percentage of regional output, the proportion of articles in small animal and equine journals was highest in North America and the proportion of articles in food animal journals was highest in Africa. Based on principal component analysis, total articles were highly correlated with gross domestic product (based on World Bank data). The proportion of articles in small animal and equine journals was associated with gross national income, research and development, and % urban population, as opposed to the proportion of food animal articles, agricultural output, and % rural population. Co-citations linked veterinary medicine with medicine in the United States, with basic sciences in Eastern Europe and the Far East, and with agriculture
Stevens, Brenda J; Gruen, Margaret E
Shelter medicine is a rapidly developing field of great importance, and shelters themselves provide abundant training opportunities for veterinary medical students. Students trained in shelter medicine have opportunities to practice zoonotic and species-specific infectious disease control, behavioral evaluation and management, primary care, animal welfare, ethics, and public policy issues. A range of sheltering systems now exists, from brick-and-mortar facilities to networks of foster homes with no centralized facility. Exposure to a single shelter setting may not allow students to understand the full range of sheltering systems that exist; a community-classroom approach introduces students to a diverse array of sheltering systems while providing practical experience. This article presents the details and results of a series of 2-week elective clinical rotations with a focus on field and service learning in animal shelters. The overall aim was to provide opportunities that familiarized students with sheltering systems and delivered primary-care training. Other priorities included increasing awareness of public health concerns and equipping students to evaluate shelters on design, operating protocols, infectious disease control, animal enrichment, and community outreach. Students were required to participate in rounds and complete a project that addressed a need recognized by them during the rotation. This article includes costs associated with the rotation, a blueprint for how the rotation was carried out at our institution, and details of shelters visited and animals treated, including a breakdown of treatments provided. Also discussed are the student projects and student feedback on this valuable clinical experience.
Full Text Available Objective: As little prior research exists about the non-clinical benefits of evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM, this exploratory study was conducted to identify non-clinical benefits of EBVM to veterinary practices, as well as highlighting the barriers to further implementation, and ways to overcome them.Background: A PICO-based literature review (Hauser and Jackson, 2016 was conducted to establish current knowledge about the non-clinical benefits of EBVM. It found that while there are some papers suggesting a link between the practice of EBVM and better non-clinical benefits such as client satisfaction and client retention, a single study, focusing on the non-clinical benefits of EBVM, had yet to be conducted.Evidentiary value: This exploratory study provides a solid basis for the further development of a confirmatory study of the themes identified in the interviews. The impact on practice from our findings is significant as it details the key areas where the use of EBVM can yield commercial benefits from the perspective of a group of EBVM experts via interview. It is entirely possible that international veterinary environments which mirror that of the UK will find this research beneficial.Methods: Due to the paucity of data about the non-clinical benefits of EBVM, an exploratory, qualitative approach was taken to this research in order to build a platform for further confirmatory, quantitative investigation (Zikmund, 2003. In February and March 2016 interviews with 16 RCVS Knowledge Group chairs were conducted. The interview guide contained broad, open-ended questions to explore existing tacit knowledge about the non-commercial benefits of EBVM. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and subsequently analysed using NVivo 11 software.Results: This qualitative enquiry showed that the key areas where the use of EBVM can yield non-clinical benefits are through increased client satisfaction and retention, improved
The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.
Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre is responsible for the monitoring of veterinary adverse drug reactions in South Africa. An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the centre during the period March 2004 to February 2006 is presented. A total of 21 reports was received in the 2-year period, continuing the decline in the number of reports to a lower figure than in any previous year. This is surprising considering the legal obligation of the veterinary professionals to report all adverse drug reactions. Once again the majority of reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most of the products implicated were stock remedies. Veterinarians predominantly administered these products.
Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin ... One of these mutations led to an amino acid exchange at position 544 ... organs such as comb, wattle, brain, heart, .... congestion in various tissues and edema of.
and Aji, T. G.. 1. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. ... limited nervous, muscle and skeletal systems development ... samples. Colloid area/volume and perimeter: This ..... BANKS, W. J., (1993): Applied Veterinary.
2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 3Veterinary. Teaching ... salivation, cornea opacity, haematuria and convulsion were observed in 20, 8, 2, 4, 1 and 3 of the patients ... intravenous fluid administration either for.
Milanov Dubravka S.
Full Text Available Prototheca spp. are strange algae, assigned to the genus Prototheca, family Chlorelaceae. They are ubiquitous in nature, living predominantly in aqueous locales containing decomposing plant material. Prototheca spp. were isolated from skin scarificates, sputum and feces of humans in absence of infection as well as in a variety of domestic and some wild animals. Prototheca spp. are unicellular organisms, oval or spheric in shape. They differ from bacteria and fungi in size, shape and reproductive characteristics. Of the five known species of the genus, only P. wickerhamii and P. zopfii are considered pathogenic, and they are the only known plant causative agents of human and animal infections. Over the past 25 years medical references reported more than 100 cases of human protothecoses, mostly induced by P. wickerhamii and rarely by P. zopfii. A half of the reports on human protothecoses relates to localized cutaneous infections and oleocranon bursitis. The rarest and most severe form of the infection is disseminated or systemic protothecosis, described in patients with durable course of primary disease or immune disfunction. In veterinary medicine, Prototheca zopfii and rarely also P. wickerhamii are reported as causative agents of cutaneous protothecosis in dogs and cats, systemic protothecosis in dogs and mastitis in dairy cows. Protothecal infections are diagnosed by histopathology examination or, more exactly, by isolation of the agent, although the organism cannot be distinguished from the yeasts by its cultural characteristics. Final diagnosis is made by the carbon-hydrate assimilation test. Protothecal infections are easily missed in routine practice. Pharmacological protocol for therapy of this rare infection has not been developed yet either in human or in veterinary medicine. Several antifungal agents are applied for treatment; however, the effects are variable. Where possible, surgical excision is treatment of choice. Prognosis is
Medicinal plants are registered on the French Pharmacopoeia in its successive editions, the first dated 1818. The edition which is currently in force, the XIth (2012), comprises two plant lists drawn up by a working group of experts belonging to the ANSM: List A (medicinal plants traditionally used [365 plants]) and list B (medicinal plants with the ratio benefit/risk's evaluation negative [123 plants]). Moreover, a list of medicinal plants with non exclusive therapeutic use has been established. This last list is composed of 147 plants which are thus liberated from the pharmaceutical monopoly, in application of decrees n(o) 2008-839 and 2008-841 dated August 22nd 2008. Medicinal plants are a matter, in France, from pharmaceutical monopoly, which means that they can only be dispensed to public in pharmacy, according to article L. 4211-1/5° of the Public Health Code, except however for a certain number of plants "liberated" from this monopoly. Nevertheless, besides officinal pharmacists, herbalists who obtained their diploma as far as 1941, were habilitated to deliver medicinal plants, even non "liberated", on condition that they are not registered on a list of venomous substances nor classified among the stupefacients, according to the article L. 4211-7 of Public Health Code. Concerning plants for herbal teas, which should be differentiated from herbal teas classified among the herbal medicines, they can be delivered in mixtures form, which are considered as officinal preparations, according to the new French Pharmacopoeia monography of August 1st 2013. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
To implement and assess the effectiveness of an assignment requiring doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students to write examination questions for the medicinal chemistry sections of a pharmacotherapeutics course. Students were divided into groups of 5-6 and given detailed instructions and grading rubrics for writing multiple-choice examination questions on medicinal chemistry topics. The compiled student-written questions for each examination were provided to the entire class as a study aid. Approximately 5% of the student-written questions were used in course examinations. Student appreciation of and performance in the medicinal chemistry portion of the course was significantly better than that of the previous year's class. Also, students' responses on a qualitative survey instrument indicated that the assignment provided students' guidance on which concepts to focus on, helped them retain knowledge better, and fostered personal exploration of the content, which led to better performance on examinations. Adding an active-learning assignment in which students write examination questions for the medicinal chemistry portion of a pharmacotherapeutics course was an effective means of increasing students engagement in the class and knowledge of the course material.
FRAZ M. KHAN
Full Text Available A study on the ethno-veterinary usage of wild medicinal plants of Greater Cholistan desert of Pakistan was conducted from January, 2007 to December, 2008. Information regarding 35 plant species was collected. According to the results, Blepharis sindica was used as galactagogue. Butea monosperma, Calotropis procera and Phyllanthus nirurii were used as emollient, demulcent and antiphlogistic. Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua, Clerodendron phlomoides, Phyllanthus nirurii and Ricinus communis were used as carminative and stomachic. Capparis decidua and Calotropis procera were used as appetizer. Prosopis glandulosa had anodyne properties, Achyranthes aspera had antilithic, while Pedalium murex, Tribulus terrestris and Barleria prionites had diuretic value. Achyranthes aspera, Argemone mexicana, Balanites aegyptiaca, Butea monosperma, Cassia senna, Citrullus colocynthis and Vitex negundo were used as vermifuge. Alhagi camelorum and Balanites aegyptiaca had aperient properties. Barleria prionites and Mollugo nudicaulis had their role in the ripening of an abscess. Ricinus communis and Salvadora oleoides aided in the removal of placenta and lochia. Anamitra cocculus and Argemone mexicana were used as febrifuge. Aerva javanica, Ailanthus excelsa, Amaranthus trilocular, Capparis decidua were used in diarrhoea and dysentery. Argemone mexicana and Ailanthus excelsa were used in ague.
Pollanen, M S
The rise of forensic pathology in human medicine has greatly contributed to the administration of justice, public safety and security, and medical knowledge. However, the evolution of human forensic pathology has been challenging. Veterinary forensic pathologists can learn from some of the lessons that have informed the growth and development of human forensic pathology. Three main observations have emerged in the past decade. First, wrongful convictions tell us to use a truth-seeking stance rather than an a priori "think dirty" stance when investigating obscure death. Second, missed homicides and concealed homicides tell us that training and certification are the beginning of reliable forensic pathology. Third, failure of a sustainable institutional arrangement that fosters a combination of service, research, and teaching will lead to stagnation of knowledge. Forensic pathology of humans and animals will flourish, help protect society, and support justice if we embrace a modern biomedical scientific model for our practice. We must build training programs, contribute to the published literature, and forge strong collaborative institutions. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available The use of antimicrobial agents is the key risk factor for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. It is therefore generally recognized that data on the usage of antimicrobial agents in food-producing animals are essential for identifying and quantifying the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance in the food-chain. According to the WHO guidelines, the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical system for the classification of veterinary medicines (ATC-vet is widely recognized as a classification tool. The aim of this work is to analyze the list of registered veterinary medicinal products in R. Macedonia and to evaluate the quality and practical use of this list according to the ATC-vet classification in order to identify the risk of developing and spreading of antimicrobial resistance.
Lima, G.; Braz, D.; Lopez, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, COPPE (Brazil); Mauricia, C. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Brazil); Barroso, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
The absorbed ionizing radiation outside of the permissible limits, can cause biological damages e, therefore it must necessarily be monitored. The dosimetry thermoluminescent is a technique very used to detect expositions in operatorserefore they are sensible crystals the ionizing radiation and allows to evaluate if the dose of radiation is or not below of the restriction levels. In scientific literature many information do not exist on the exposition of a medical veterinarian, with this do not have many data of the individual monitoring of these workers, becoming the work it important for posterior studies. Ahead of this, it was carried through measured of the doses, using the thermoluminescence dosemeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100 H) in the position of the crystalline lens, thyroid, hand and thorax, in three clinics of radiology veterinary medicine, different, having the objective to determine the dose distribution that the workers of radiology veterinary medicine are submitted in one day of work. (authors)
Lima, G.; Braz, D.; Lopez, R.; Mauricia, C.; Barroso, R.
The absorbed ionizing radiation outside of the permissible limits, can cause biological damages e, therefore it must necessarily be monitored. The dosimetry thermoluminescent is a technique very used to detect expositions in operators, therefore they are sensible crystals the ionizing radiation and allows to evaluate if the dose of radiation is or not below of the restriction levels. In scientific literature many information do not exist on the exposition of a medical veterinarian, with this do not have many data of the individual monitoring of these workers, becoming the work it important for posterior studies. Ahead of this, it was carried through measured of the doses, using the thermoluminescence dosemeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100 H) in the position of the crystalline lens, thyroid, hand and thorax, in three clinics of radiology veterinary medicine, different, having the objective to determine the dose distribution that the workers of radiology veterinary medicine are submitted in one day of work. (authors)
Full Text Available Possibilities of edible insect use in Western countries is now increasingly debated issue. Insects in Asian, African, American and South Central American cultures are mainly nutritional components. In Europe and other developed countries, however, insect is used in different ways, and this issue is viewed from a different angle. Insects are mainly used as feed for animals, in the organic waste recycling systems, in human and veterinary medicine, material production (such as silk etc. This review summarizes up-to-date knowledge about using edible insects in human, veterinary medicine and agriculture, especially from the viewpoint of the biological and chemical content of active substances and the possibilities of further use in these areas.
Watson, M C; Bond, C M; Johnston, M; Mearns, K
The importance of theory in underpinning interventions to promote effective professional practice is gaining recognition. The Medical Research Council framework for complex interventions has assisted in promoting awareness and adoption of theory into study design. Human error theory has previously been used by high risk industries but its relevance to healthcare settings and patient safety requires further investigation. This study used this theory as a framework to explore non-prescription medicine supply from community pharmacies. The relevance to other healthcare settings and behaviours is discussed. A 25% random sample was made of 364 observed consultations for non-prescription medicines. Each of the 91 consultations was assessed by two groups: a consensus group (stage 1) to identify common problems with the consultation process, and an expert group (stages 2 and 3) to apply human error theory to these consultations. Paired assessors (most of whom were pharmacists) categorised the perceived problems occurring in each consultation (stage 1). During stage 2 paired assessors from an expert group (comprising patient safety experts, community pharmacists and psychologists) considered whether each consultation was compliant with professional guidelines for the supply of pharmacy medicines. Each non-compliant consultation identified during stage 2 was then categorised as a slip/lapse, mistake, or violation using human error theory (stage 3). During stage 1 most consultations (n = 75, 83%) were deemed deficient in information exchange. At stage 2, paired assessors varied in attributing non-compliance to specific error types. Where agreement was achieved, the error type most often selected was "violation" (n = 27, 51.9%, stage 3). Consultations involving product requests were less likely to be guideline compliant than symptom presentations (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.95, p = 0.05). The large proportion of consultations classified as violations suggests that either
Brühschwein, Andreas; Klever, Julius; Wilkinson, Tom; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea
In 2016, the recommendations of the DICOM Standards Committee for the use of veterinary identification DICOM tags had its 10th anniversary. The goal of our study was to survey veterinary DICOM standard conformance in Germany regarding the specific identification tags veterinarians should use in veterinary diagnostic imaging. We hypothesized that most veterinarians in Germany do not follow the guidelines of the DICOM Standards Committee. We analyzed the metadata of 488 imaging studies of referral cases from 115 different veterinary institutions in Germany by computer-aided DICOM header readout. We found that 25 (5.1%) of the imaging studies fully complied with the "veterinary DICOM standard" in this survey. The results confirmed our hypothesis that the recommendations of the DICOM Standards Committee for the consistent and advantageous use of veterinary identification tags have found minimal acceptance amongst German veterinarians. DICOM does not only enable connectivity between machines, DICOM also improves communication between veterinarians by sharing correct and valuable metadata for better patient care. Therefore, we recommend that lecturers, universities, societies, authorities, vendors, and other stakeholders should increase their effort to improve the spread of the veterinary DICOM standard in the veterinary world.
Matuszak, Alice Jean; Sarnoff, Darwin
An American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy survey of medicinal/pharmaceutical chemistry faculty is reported. Data, including academic and experience backgrounds of faculty and their teaching load, are presented. Differences in training are noted in comparing the average chemistry professor to the average assistant professor. (Author/MLW)
Kreuzig, Robert [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik
The technical protocol under consideration describes a laboratory test method to evaluate the transformation of chemicals in liquid bovine and pig manures under anaerobic conditions and primarily is designed for veterinary medicinal products and biocides. The environmentally relevant entry routes into liquid manures occur via urine and feces of cattle and pigs in stable housings after excretion of veterinary medicinal products as parent compounds or metabolites and after the application of biocides in animal housings. Further entry routes such as solid dung application and direct dung pat deposition by production animals on pasture are not considered by this technical protocol. Thus, this technical protocol focused on the sampling of excrements from cattles and pigs kept in stables and fed under standard nutrition conditions. This approach additionally ensures that excrement samples are operationally free of any contamination by veterinary medicinal products and biocides. After the matrix characterization, reference-manure samples are prepared from the excrement samples by adding tap water to adjust defined dry substance contents typical for bovine or pig manures. This technical protocol comprehends a tiered experimental design in two parts: (a) Sampling of excrements and preparation of reference bovine and pig manures; (b) Testing of anaerobic transformation of chemicals in reference manures.
Waning, Brenda; Maddix, Jason; Tripodis, Yorghos; Laing, Richard; Leufkens, Hubert Gm; Gokhale, Manjusha
A rural pharmacy initiative (RPI) designed to increase access to medicines in rural Kyrgyzstan created a network of 12 pharmacies using a revolving drug fund mechanism in 12 villages where no pharmacies previously existed. The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of the RPI resulted in the unforeseen benefit of triggering medicine price competition in pre-existing (non-RPI) private pharmacies located in the region. We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses on medicine insurance claims data from Kyrgyzstan's Mandatory Health Insurance Fund for the Jumgal District of Naryn Province from October 2003 to December 2007. We compared average quarterly medicine prices in competitor pharmacies before and after the introduction of the rural pharmacy initiative in October 2004 to determine the RPI impact on price competition. Descriptive analyses suggest competitors reacted to RPI prices for 21 of 30 (70%) medicines. Competitor medicine prices from the quarter before RPI introduction to the end of the study period decreased for 17 of 30 (57%) medicines, increased for 4 of 30 (13%) medicines, and remained unchanged for 9 of 30 (30%) medicines. Among the 9 competitor medicines with unchanged prices, five initially decreased in price but later reverted back to baseline prices. Multivariate analyses on 19 medicines that met sample size criteria confirm these findings. Fourteen of these 19 (74%) competitor medicines changed significantly in price from the quarter before RPI introduction to the quarter after RPI introduction, with 9 of 19 (47%) decreasing in price and 5 of 19 (26%) increasing in price. The RPI served as a market driver, spurring competition in medicine prices in competitor pharmacies, even when they were located in different villages. Initiatives designed to increase equitable access to medicines in rural regions of developing and transitional countries should consider the potential to leverage medicine price competition as a means
Speedie, Marilyn K.
Biotechnology is defined, and its impact on pharmacy practice, the professional curriculum (clinical pharmacy, pharmacy administration, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, pharmaceutics, basic sciences, and continuing education), research in pharmacy schools, and graduate education are discussed. Resulting faculty, library, and research resource…
Khosa, Deep K; Volet, Simone E; Bolton, John R
The value of collaborative concept mapping in assisting students to develop an understanding of complex concepts across a broad range of basic and applied science subjects is well documented. Less is known about students' learning processes that occur during the construction of a concept map, especially in the context of clinical cases in veterinary medicine. This study investigated the unfolding collaborative learning processes that took place in real-time concept mapping of a clinical case by veterinary medical students and explored students' and their teacher's reflections on the value of this activity. This study had two parts. The first part investigated the cognitive and metacognitive learning processes of two groups of students who displayed divergent learning outcomes in a concept mapping task. Meaningful group differences were found in their level of learning engagement in terms of the extent to which they spent time understanding and co-constructing knowledge along with completing the task at hand. The second part explored students' and their teacher's views on the value of concept mapping as a learning and teaching tool. The students' and their teacher's perceptions revealed congruent and contrasting notions about the usefulness of concept mapping. The relevance of concept mapping to clinical case-based learning in veterinary medicine is discussed, along with directions for future research.
Mohamed Azmi Hassali
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The study aims to evaluate the predictors of non-prescription medicine purchasing patterns among pharmacy patrons in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional nationwide study was undertaken in 2011 in sixty randomly selected community pharmacies across 14 Malaysian states. A pharmacy exit survey was conducted over a 6-month period across Malaysia. A one-stage random cluster sampling technique was employed as there was no national sampling framework available for conducting this survey. Face-to-face interviews using a validated and pre-tested questionnaire were conducted by trained data collectors. The non-prescription medicine purchasing pattern was explored and analysed descriptively. Chi-square/Fisher exact test was used to determine the association between study variables. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of type of non-prescription medicine purchased. RESULTS: A total of 2729 pharmacy patrons agreed to participate in 60 selected pharmacy outlets. A total of 3462 non-prescription medicine were purchased during the study period with an average of 1.3 medicines per participant. Most of the non-prescription medicine purchased was meant for alimentary tract and metabolism (31.8%, followed by respiratory system (19.4% and musculoskeletal system (15.8% usage. Factors found to be associated with the choice of non-prescription medicine purchased were age group [χ2 = 170.75, (df = 57, p<0.01], locality [χ2 = 48.16, (df = 19, p<0.01], gender [χ2 = 32.93, (df = 13, p = 0.002], ethnic group [χ2 = 118.89, (df = 39, p<0.01] and type of occupation [χ2 = 222.434, (df = 117, p<0.01]. Non-prescription medicine purchased defined about 20% of the variance in the combination of predictors such as locality, gender, age, ethnicity, type of occupation and household income. CONCLUSION: The predictors for selection of non-prescription medicine were locality (urban or rural, gender, age, ethnicity, type of
Preliminary investigation of the possibility for implementation of modified pharmacopoeial HPLC methods for quality control of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin in medicinal products used in veterinary medicine
Full Text Available Quality control of veterinary medicine products containing two different frequently used antibiotics metronidazole and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, was considered and performed, using modified pharmacopoeial HPLC methods. Three different HPLC systems were used: Varian ProStar, Perkin Elmer Series and UPLC Shimadzu Prominence XR. The chromatographic columns used were LiChropher RP Select B 75 mm x 4 mm with 5 μm particles and Discovery C18 100 mm x 4,6 mm with 5 μm particles. Chromatographic methods used for both analytes were compendial, with minor modifications made for experimental purposes. Minor modifications of the pharmacopoeia prescribed chromatographic conditions, in both cases, led to better chromatographic parameters, good resolution and shorter analysis times. Optimized methods can be used for: determination of metronidazole in gel formulation, for its simultaneous quantification with preservatives present in the formulation and even for identification and quantification of its specified impurity, 2-methyl-5-nitroimidazole; determination of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride in film coated tablets and eye drops and identification and quantification of its specified impurities. These slightly modified and optimized pharmacopoeial methods for quality control of metronidazole and ciprofloxacin dosage forms used in veterinary medicine can be successfully applied in laboratories for quality control of veterinary medicines.
The International Cooperation on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH) is an international tripartite cooperation programme that brings together regulatory authorities and industry representatives from the European Union, Japan and the United States, with Australia, New Zealand and Canada as observers. VICH aims to improve international coordination and cooperation to achieve greater harmonisation of the requirements for veterinary product registration in the regions concerned. VICH develops harmonised data requirements, i.e., standards for the scientific studies on quality, safety and efficacy that are required to obtain a marketing authorisation for a veterinary medicinal product. It does this by publishing guidelines that provide uniform and consistent guidance for sponsors to follow in developing data for application dossiers as well as for post-marketing safety monitoring of veterinary medicinal products. Of the 49 VICH guidelines that have been developed so far, two guidelines in particular address issues related to antimicrobial resistance.
Among the German pioneers of Western medicine in Japan (8, 12) during the Meiji period (1868-1912), veterinary officer Johannes Ludwig Janson (1849-1914) was one of the most important figures. He arrived in Tokyo in October 1880 and taught at the Veterinary School in Komaba. During his tenure, the school in Komaba was integrated into the School of Agriculture of the Imperial University of Tokyo. Numerous of his graduates occupied high public offices. Among his publications, those about domestic animals and veterinary medicine in Japan deserve special attention. He married a Japanese girl and continued teaching in Komaba until 1902. He found his last resting place in Kagoshima, the native place of his wife. To this day, the Japanese consider Janson the founder of modern veterinary medicine in their country.
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We will see that to develop and update preventive and therapeutic interventions, a critical, unbiased approach is essential to deliver professional veterinary support to patients and owners coherent with the rapidly-evolving state of art.
da S Mourão José
Full Text Available Abstract Background The present work addresses the use of zootherapy in folk veterinary medicine (ethnoveterinary by the residents of the municipal district of Cubati, microregion of Seridó, Paraíba State, Brazil. It sought to identify the principal animals used as medicinal sources for zootherapeutics and to contribute to the preservation and sustainability of this traditional knowledge. Methods Field research was undertaken on a weekly or biweekly basis during the period November, 2006, to January, 2007. Free, semi-structured, and open interviews were made with local residents of the municipal district of Cubati (in both urban and rural settings as well as with venders in public markets. A total of 25 individuals of both sexes were interviewed (with ages varying from 26 to 78 years although only 16 were finally chosen as informants as these people demonstrated the greatest degree of knowledge concerning zootherapeutics. Graphs and percentages were generated using Microsoft© Excel 2007 software, and the species were identified by photographic registration and subsequent bibliographical surveys. Results Mammals constitute the main medicinal zootherapeutic source for folk veterinary medicines in the studied area, both in terms of the total number of species used and the frequency of their citation. Sheep (Ovis aries, pigs (Sus scrofa, cattle (Bos taurus, and foxes (Cerdocyon thous were mentioned by 62.5, 43.75, 37.5, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively, as being used in folk veterinary medicine. Additionally, chameleons (Iguana iguana, chickens (Gallus domesticus, and rattlesnakes (Crotalus durissus were mentioned by 75, 43.75, and 31.25% of the informants, respectively. Relatively simple animal illnesses, such as furuncles, or injuries resulting from embedded thorns or skin eruptions are responsible for the largest number of zootherapeutic treatment, while, diseases of greater complexity, such as rabies and brucellosis, were not even
Börchers, M; Tipold, A; Pfarrer, Ch; Fischer, M R; Ehlers, J P
New teaching methods such as e-learning, are increasingly used to support common methods such as lectures, seminars and practical training in universities providing education in veterinary medicine. In the current study, the acceptance of e-learning in the example of the CASUS system by veterinarians as well as students of veterinary medicine of all German-speaking universities was analyzed. Material und methods: For this purpose an online evaluation questionnaire was developed. Members of the target groups were informed by e-mail and references in professional journals, as well as through veterinarian exchange platforms on the internet. Additionally, 224 students' final anatomy marks were compared and correlated to the utilization of CASUS to gain an important insight for the development of new teaching practices in the teaching of veterinary medicine. In total 1581 questionnaires were evaluated. A good acceptance regarding new teaching practices was found, although the classical textbook is still the most important instrument for imparting knowledge. The degree of utilization of e-learning strongly depends on its integration into the teaching content. CASUS is regarded as an efficient teaching method, with over 90% of the respondents indicating a strong desire to expand the number of case studies. Due to the present low degree of integration into the teaching content, no significant correlation could be found between the utilization of anatomy case studies and the final anatomy mark. However, based on their subjective perception, the students reported a high level of success in their study results with the likely effect of supporting increasing self-assurance in the situation of examinations. With the help of e-learning, educational objectives can be achieved that are not attainable by traditional teaching methods, e.g. the review of individual improvements by using the integrated feedback-function of e-learning programs. However, e-learning is not able to
Martinez, M; Blondeau, J; Cerniglia, C E; Fink-Gremmels, J; Guenther, S; Hunter, R P; Li, X-Z; Papich, M; Silley, P; Soback, S; Toutain, P-L; Zhang, Q
Antimicrobial resistance is a global challenge that impacts both human and veterinary health care. The resilience of microbes is reflected in their ability to adapt and survive in spite of our best efforts to constrain their infectious capabilities. As science advances, many of the mechanisms for microbial survival and resistance element transfer have been identified. During the 2012 meeting of Antimicrobial Agents in Veterinary Medicine (AAVM), experts provided insights on such issues as use vs. resistance, the available tools for supporting appropriate drug use, the importance of meeting the therapeutic needs within the domestic animal health care, and the requirements associated with food safety and food security. This report aims to provide a summary of the presentations and discussions occurring during the 2012 AAVM with the goal of stimulating future discussions and enhancing the opportunity to establish creative and sustainable solutions that will guarantee the availability of an effective therapeutic arsenal for veterinary species. © Published (2014). This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Selene J Huntley
Full Text Available Veterinarians are encouraged to use evidence to inform their practice, but it is unknown what resources (e.g. journals, electronic sources are accessed by them globally. Understanding the key places veterinarians seek information can inform where new clinically relevant evidence should most effectively be placed. An international survey was conducted to gain understanding of how veterinary information is accessed by veterinarians worldwide. There were 2137 useable responses to the questionnaire from veterinarians in 78 countries. The majority of respondents (n = 1835/2137, 85.9% undertook clinical work and worked in a high income country (n = 1576/1762, 89.4%. Respondents heard about the survey via national veterinary organisations or regulatory bodies (31.5%, online veterinary forums and websites (22.7%, regional, discipline-based or international veterinary organisations (22.7% or by direct invitation from the researchers or via friends, colleagues or social media (7.6%. Clinicians and non-clinicians reportedly used journals most commonly (65.8%, n = 1207/1835; 75.6%, n = 216/286 followed by electronic resources (58.7%, n = 1077/1835; 55.9%, n = 160/286, respectively. Respondents listed a total of 518 journals and 567 electronic sources that they read. Differences in veterinarian preference for resources in developed, and developing countries, were found. The nominated journals most read were the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (12.7% of nominations for clinicians and the Veterinary Record (5.7% for non-clinicians. The most accessed electronic resource reported was the Veterinary Information Network (25.6% for clinicians and PubMed (7.4% for non-clinicians. In conclusion, a wide array of journals and electronic resources appear to be accessed by veterinarians worldwide. Veterinary organisations appear to play an important role in global communication and outreach to veterinarians and consideration should be given to how
Ezeala, Christian Chinyere; Siyanga, Nalucha
It aimed to compare the study skills of two groups of undergraduate pharmacy students in the School of Medicine, University of Zambia using the Study Skills Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ), with the goal of analysing students’ study skills and identifying factors that affect study skills. A questionnaire was distributed to 67 participants from both programs using stratified random sampling. Completed questionnaires were rated according to participants study skill. The total scores and scores ...
Mathematical modeling and simulation in animal health - Part II: principles, methods, applications, and value of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in veterinary medicine and food safety assessment.
Lin, Z; Gehring, R; Mochel, J P; Lavé, T; Riviere, J E
This review provides a tutorial for individuals interested in quantitative veterinary pharmacology and toxicology and offers a basis for establishing guidelines for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development and application in veterinary medicine. This is important as the application of PBPK modeling in veterinary medicine has evolved over the past two decades. PBPK models can be used to predict drug tissue residues and withdrawal times in food-producing animals, to estimate chemical concentrations at the site of action and target organ toxicity to aid risk assessment of environmental contaminants and/or drugs in both domestic animals and wildlife, as well as to help design therapeutic regimens for veterinary drugs. This review provides a comprehensive summary of PBPK modeling principles, model development methodology, and the current applications in veterinary medicine, with a focus on predictions of drug tissue residues and withdrawal times in food-producing animals. The advantages and disadvantages of PBPK modeling compared to other pharmacokinetic modeling approaches (i.e., classical compartmental/noncompartmental modeling, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, and interspecies allometric scaling) are further presented. The review finally discusses contemporary challenges and our perspectives on model documentation, evaluation criteria, quality improvement, and offers solutions to increase model acceptance and applications in veterinary pharmacology and toxicology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
... following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Follow the instructions for... Leader, Veterinary Science; National Institute of Food and Agriculture; U.S. Department of Agriculture..., Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (NARETPA). This information collection applies to Subpart B of 7...
Viegi, L.; Pieroni, A.; Guarrera, P.M.; Vangelisti, R.
We report folk veterinary phytotherapy in Italy collected from ethnobotanical scientific literature of the second half of the 20th Century. References are cited together with unpublished data gathered recently in the field by the authors. The data have been placed in two databases: one organized by
Staton, Amy J.; Boyd, Christine B.
This capstone addresses an instructional gap in the Morehead State University Veterinary Technology Program and in other similar programs around the globe. Students do not retain the knowledge needed to proficiently complete suture patterns nor do students receive sufficient instructional time during the year to master each suture pattern that is…
Gamal M. H. Rakha
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (% of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (% respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p0.05 on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools
Seitz, Maren; Valentin-Weigand, Peter; Willenborg, Jörg
Use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is essential to control infectious diseases, thereby keeping animals healthy and animal products safe for the consumer. On the other hand, development and spread of antimicrobial resistance is of major concern for public health. Streptococcus (S.) suis reflects a typical bacterial pathogen in modern swine production due to its facultative pathogenic nature and wide spread in the pig population. Thus, in the present review we focus on certain current aspects and problems related to antimicrobial use and resistance in S. suis as a paradigm for a bacterial pathogen affecting swine husbandry worldwide. The review includes (i) general aspects of antimicrobial use and resistance in veterinary medicine with emphasis on swine, (ii) genetic resistance mechanisms of S. suis known to contribute to bacterial survival under antibiotic selection pressure, and (iii) possible other factors which may contribute to problems in antimicrobial therapy of S. suis infections, such as bacterial persister cell formation, biofilm production, and co-infections. The latter shows that we hardly understand the complexity of factors affecting the success of antimicrobial treatment of (porcine) infectious diseases and underlines the need for further research in this field.
Lane, India F; Bogue, E Grady
To explore perceptions of faculty educators regarding the importance of nontechnical competencies in veterinary graduates and the placement of nontechnical competency development in veterinary education. Survey. All faculty members at 5 North American veterinary medical institutions. Participants rated the importance of 14 nontechnical competencies and indicated in which phase or phases of veterinary education such competencies should be developed (ie, curriculum placement). Differences in mean ratings were statistically evaluated, as were associations between ratings or curriculum placement and respondent institution, gender, experience, and discipline. Mean ratings of importance were above neutral for all competencies and were highest for ethical, critical thinking, and interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies; development of these competencies was favored in preveterinary and veterinary training. Ratings were lower for management and business competencies; development of these and other competencies was placed primarily in the clinical phase of the veterinary curriculum. Basic science, nonveterinarian, and junior faculty appeared to more strongly appreciate the importance of nontechnical skills, whereas large animal and midcareer faculty reported a more reserved degree of support. Female faculty were more likely to place nontechnical competency development throughout the educational process. Participants agreed nontechnical competencies are important for veterinary graduates; however, faculty perceptions differed from previously published findings regarding the relative importance of business and management skills. Those involved in faculty hiring, faculty development, and curricular planning should also be aware of disciplinary and career stage differences affecting faculty perspectives.
Ober, Christopher P
Second-year veterinary students are often challenged by concepts in veterinary radiology, including the fundamentals of image quality and generation of differential lists. Four card games were developed to provide veterinary students with a supplemental means of learning about radiographic image quality and differential diagnoses in urogenital imaging. Students played these games and completed assessments of their subject knowledge before and after playing. The hypothesis was that playing each game would improve students' understanding of the topic area. For each game, students who played the game performed better on the post-test than students who did not play that game (all pgames, students who played each respective game demonstrated significant improvement in scores between the pre-test and the post-test (pgames were both helpful and enjoyable. Educationally focused games can help students learn classroom and laboratory material. However, game design is important, as the game using the most passive learning process also demonstrated the weakest results. In addition, based on participants' comments, the games were very useful in improving student engagement in the learning process. Thus, use of games in the classroom and laboratory setting seems to benefit the learning process.
Mergel, E.; Feige, S.; Haeusler, U.
The implementation of the Council directive 96/29 EURATOM and the corresponding national Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Protection Ordinance coming subsequently into effect led to a changed situation regarding the occupational radiation protection in the medical sector. To reduce the occupational exposure of veterinarians and assisting staff in veterinary radiography is particularly challenging as, in opposite to human radiological examination, the presence of staff is indispensable to restrain the patient. Beyond that the relevant literature reports about too high and/or about unnecessary radiation exposures. To gain a comprehensive knowledge upon the possible exposure of involved staff, the variety of typical examination methods in veterinary clinics and at practitioners had been investigated during the daily routine. Dose measurements were performed for different employees during the examinations taking into account several places of exposure (lens, thyroid, chest, hand, gonad, and feet). Veterinary X-ray diagnostic examinations for pets as well as in equine radiography had been accounted for this study. In total, 101 examination methods, 4.484 accompanied examinations and 53.892 single dose readings resulted in a reliable statistical base to set up a 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' allowing the dose assessment for a variable number and kind of examinations. The 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' is believed to be a useful tool for optimization of occupational radiation exposure of veterinarians by appraising the height of a possible dose, forcing a review of the status quo and triggering the improvement of personal protection by establishing adequate measures. (orig.)
Bertram, Christof A; Klopfleisch, Robert
Using light microscopy to describe the microarchitecture of normal and diseased tissues has changed very little since the middle of the 19th century. While the premise of histologic analysis remains intact, our relationship with the microscope is changing dramatically. Digital pathology offers new forms of visualization, and delivery of images is facilitated in unprecedented ways. This new technology can untether us entirely from our light microscopes, with many pathologists already performing their jobs using virtual microscopy. Several veterinary colleges have integrated virtual microscopy in their curriculum, and some diagnostic histopathology labs are switching to virtual microscopy as their main tool for the assessment of histologic specimens. Considering recent technical advancements of slide scanner and viewing software, digital pathology should now be considered a serious alternative to traditional light microscopy. This review therefore intends to give an overview of the current digital pathology technologies and their potential in all fields of veterinary pathology (ie, research, diagnostic service, and education). A future integration of digital pathology in the veterinary pathologist's workflow seems to be inevitable, and therefore it is proposed that trainees should be taught in digital pathology to keep up with the unavoidable digitization of the profession.
Taha, Nur Akmar; See, Yee Lian
The risk for travel-related illnesses has increased with significant growth in international travel, but very few travellers seek travel advice. Community pharmacists can play a vital role in the provision of travel medicine advice due to their accessibility. This study aimed to assess travel medicine knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) among community pharmacists in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A self-administered KAP questionnaire was distributed to a convenience sample of pharmacists in Kuala Lumpur identified from the list of licensed community pharmacists in Malaysia year 2014. Questionnaires were returned by 111 pharmacists of 143 distributed (response rate, 78%). Most of the respondents (82%) were not trained in travel medicine. Overall, mean knowledge score was 4.4 ( ± 1.7), indicating a moderate level of knowledge on a variety of travel-related health issues. Community pharmacists who graduated from foreign universities possessed significantly higher knowledge scores than did those who graduated locally (P pharmacy curricula, continuous pharmacy education or certified training may improve the quality of travel advice given and allow pharmacists to be recognised as a credible source of information on travel medicine. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Ahmad, Akram; Elkalmi, Ramadan M.
Background: The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is consistently on the rise worldwide. Consumers often consider pharmacists as a major source of information about CAM products and their safety. Due to the limitation of data, it is worth exploring the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students toward CAM. Objective: The objective of this study was to explore the knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes of pharmacy students regarding the use of CAM in Malaysia. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted for 3 months among Bachelor of Pharmacy students in a public sector University of Malaysia. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire, comprised four sections, was used to collect the data from 440 participants. Descriptive analysis was used, and Chi-square test was used to test the association between dependent and independent variables. Results: Of 440 questionnaire distributed, 287 were returned giving a response rate of (65.2%). The results showed that 38.6% participants gave correct answers when asked about the use of herbal products with digoxin. Majority of the participants were knowledgeable about supplementary therapy (25.3%) while the lack of knowledge was mostly evident in traditional Chinese medicines (73.7%). Majority of the students were either neutral (49.5%) or disagreed that (42.8%) CAM use is unsafe. Females were more in disagreement to the statements than males (P = 0.007). Majority of students also agreed to use CAM therapies for their health and well-being (51.2%). Conclusion: The study revealed that pharmacy students did not have adequate knowledge of CAM though their attitudes and perceptions were relatively positive. PMID:26957866
Meursinge Reynders, Reint
The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2–58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5–89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4–24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45–2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187
Leufkens Hubert GM
Full Text Available Abstract Background A rural pharmacy initiative (RPI designed to increase access to medicines in rural Kyrgyzstan created a network of 12 pharmacies using a revolving drug fund mechanism in 12 villages where no pharmacies previously existed. The objective of this study was to determine if the establishment of the RPI resulted in the unforeseen benefit of triggering medicine price competition in pre-existing (non-RPI private pharmacies located in the region. Methods We conducted descriptive and multivariate analyses on medicine insurance claims data from Kyrgyzstan's Mandatory Health Insurance Fund for the Jumgal District of Naryn Province from October 2003 to December 2007. We compared average quarterly medicine prices in competitor pharmacies before and after the introduction of the rural pharmacy initiative in October 2004 to determine the RPI impact on price competition. Results Descriptive analyses suggest competitors reacted to RPI prices for 21 of 30 (70% medicines. Competitor medicine prices from the quarter before RPI introduction to the end of the study period decreased for 17 of 30 (57% medicines, increased for 4 of 30 (13% medicines, and remained unchanged for 9 of 30 (30% medicines. Among the 9 competitor medicines with unchanged prices, five initially decreased in price but later reverted back to baseline prices. Multivariate analyses on 19 medicines that met sample size criteria confirm these findings. Fourteen of these 19 (74% competitor medicines changed significantly in price from the quarter before RPI introduction to the quarter after RPI introduction, with 9 of 19 (47% decreasing in price and 5 of 19 (26% increasing in price. Conclusions The RPI served as a market driver, spurring competition in medicine prices in competitor pharmacies, even when they were located in different villages. Initiatives designed to increase equitable access to medicines in rural regions of developing and transitional countries should consider the
Baig Mirza R; Hameed Abdul; Naing Cho M; Babar Muneer G; Yong Chew S; Hasan Syed S; Iqbal Shahid M; Kairuz Therese
Abstract Background In recent times the basic understanding, perceptions and CAM use among undergraduate health sciences students have become a topic of interest. This study was aimed to investigate the understanding, perceptions and self-use of CAM among pharmacy students in Malaysia. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 500 systematically sampled pharmacy students from two private and one public university. A validated, self-administered questionnaire comprised of seven secti...
Mergel, E.; Feige, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany); Haeusler, U. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)
The implementation of the Council directive 96/29 EURATOM and the corresponding national Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Protection Ordinance coming subsequently into effect led to a changed situation regarding the occupational radiation protection in the medical sector. To reduce the occupational exposure of veterinarians and assisting staff in veterinary radiography is particularly challenging as, in opposite to human radiological examination, the presence of staff is indispensable to restrain the patient. Beyond that the relevant literature reports about too high and/or about unnecessary radiation exposures. To gain a comprehensive knowledge upon the possible exposure of involved staff, the variety of typical examination methods in veterinary clinics and at practitioners had been investigated during the daily routine. Dose measurements were performed for different employees during the examinations taking into account several places of exposure (lens, thyroid, chest, hand, gonad, and feet). Veterinary X-ray diagnostic examinations for pets as well as in equine radiography had been accounted for this study. In total, 101 examination methods, 4.484 accompanied examinations and 53.892 single dose readings resulted in a reliable statistical base to set up a 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' allowing the dose assessment for a variable number and kind of examinations. The 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' is believed to be a useful tool for optimization of occupational radiation exposure of veterinarians by appraising the height of a possible dose, forcing a review of the status quo and triggering the improvement of personal protection by establishing adequate measures. (orig.)
Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Hendriksen, Rene S; Fraile, Lorenzo; Aarestrup, Frank M
The emergence of resistance in food animals has been associated to the consumption of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine. Consequently, monitoring programs have been designed to monitor the occurrence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria. This study analyses the amount of antimicrobial agents used in nine European countries from 2005 to 2011, and compares by univariate analysis the correlations between consumptions of each of the following antimicrobial classes; tetracycline, penicillins, cephalosporins, quinolones and macrolides. An overview of resistance in zoonotic and commensal bacteria in Europe focusing on Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter sp. and Enterococcus sp., during the same period of time based on monitoring programs is also assessed. With the exception of cephalosporins, linear regressions showed strong positive associations between the consumption of the four different antimicrobial classes. Substantial differences between countries were observed in the amount of antimicrobials used to produce 1 kg of meat. Moreover, large variations in proportions of resistant bacteria were reported by the different countries, suggesting differences in veterinary practice. Despite the withdrawn of a specific antimicrobial from "on farm" use, persistence over the years of bacteria resistant to this particular antimicrobial agent, was still observed. There were also differences in trends of resistance associated to specific animal species. In order to correlate the use of antimicrobial agents to the presence of resistance, surveillance of antimicrobial consumption by animal species should be established. Subsequently, intervention strategies could be designed to minimize the occurrence of resistance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Angelo Pasquale Giannuzzi
Full Text Available In human medicine, central nervous system (CNS concussion is defined as a transient neurological dysfunction following a traumatic event, without evidence of structural abnormalities of the affected region on advanced diagnostic imaging. Depending on the anatomical region involved, three forms of concussive syndromes are described: brain concussion, spinal concussion and cerebellar concussion. Although major textbooks of veterinary neurology admit the existence of canine brain concussion, spontaneous cases of this pathological condition have not been reported in small animals so far. This report describes two cases of concussion in dogs: a 9-month-old, intact male, shih-tzu with brain concussion; and a 10-month-old, intact male, poodle with cerebellar concussion. In addition, a brief review of the definition of the term “concussion” in the veterinary medical literature is provided, in comparison to its meaning in the human medical literature. Finally, this paper proposes an appropriate definition of “concussion” in dogs, that may facilitate clinicians in the recognition of such an elusive syndrome.
Parkes, Rebecca; Forrest, Neil; Baillie, Sarah
The opportunities for veterinary students to practice feline abdominal palpation are limited as cats have a low tolerance to being examined. Therefore, a mixed reality simulator was developed to complement clinical training. Two PHANToM premium haptic devices were positioned either side of a modified toy cat. Virtual models of the chest and some abdominal contents were superimposed on the physical model. The haptic properties of the virtual models were set by seven veterinarians; values were adjusted while the simulation was being palpated until the representation was satisfactory. Feedback from the veterinarians was encouraging suggesting that the simulator has a potential role in student training.
Sanders, W.M.; Saunders, G.C.; Bartlett, M.L.; Holm, D.M.; Payne, R.J.; Lester, J.V.
Small-scale experiments and feasibility studies were performed for the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Included were computer support for the payment of indemnity for brucellosis in Texas; the measurement of cattle ear canal temperatures and its automation was continued at the Veterinary Services Laboratory (VSL), Ames, IA; and two short serological probes experiments were supported. Also funds were transferred to support the Electronic Identification Project to enable this work to continue without interruption.
Phillips, Alexandra M; Coe, Jason B; Rock, Melanie J; Adams, Cindy L
Feline obesity has become a common disease and important animal welfare issue. Little is known about how, or how often, veterinarians and feline-owning clients are addressing obesity during clinical appointments. The purpose of this qualitative study was to characterize verbal and non-verbal communication between veterinarians and clients regarding feline obesity. The sample consisted of video-recordings of 17 veterinarians during 284 actual appointments in companion animal patients in Eastern Ontario. This audio-visual dataset served to identify 123 feline appointments. Of these, only 25 appointments were identified in which 12 veterinarians and their clients spoke about feline obesity. Thematic analysis of the videos and transcripts revealed inconsistencies in the depth of address of feline obesity and its prevention by participating veterinarians. In particular, in-depth nutritional history taking and clear recommendations of management rarely took place. Veterinarians appeared to attempt to strengthen the veterinary-client relationship and cope with ambiguity in their role managing obesity with humor and by speaking directly to their animal patients. Clients also appeared to use humor to deal with discomfort surrounding the topic. Our findings have implications for communication skills training within veterinary curricula and professional development among practicing veterinarians. As obesity is complex and potentially sensitive subject matter, we suggest a need for veterinarians to have further intentionality and training toward in-depth nutritional history gathering and information sharing while navigating obesity management discussions to more completely address client perspective and patient needs.
Eveillard, Matthieu; Pouliquen, Hervé; Ruvoen, Nathalie; Couvreur, Sébastien; Krempf, Michel; Magras, Catherine; Lepelletier, Didier
This report describes a problem-based learning activity concerning antibiotic exposure and bacterial resistance in human and veterinary medicine. In addition, learning outcomes and satisfaction of students were recorded by the supervisors of the activity. The students all participated actively in the group work and considered that the small size of the group facilitated interpersonal communication. They believed that working in an interdisciplinary group helped them learn better than if they were following specific courses. They also reported that their mid-term meeting with one of the supervisors was a catalyst for the initiation of a real work group. Concerning the evaluation of the activity itself, the supervisors considered that the group provided a relevant analysis of the issue. These characteristics should encourage teachers to test this method of learning certain aspects of microbiology and infectious diseases with their students. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Pearson, R A; Lawrence, P R; Smith, A J
Draught animal research carried out by scientists at the Centre for Topical Veterinary Medicine (CTVM) in Edinburgh and overseas is reviewed and the major findings are reported. The remit for the work has been to provide basic information on draught animals which can be applied by researchers and extension workers to their own geographic situations. Instrumentation is described which has been designed and manufactured to assist in the measurement of draught animal performance, particularly work output and energy consumption. Energy requirements of cattle, buffaloes and equids for work and ways in which these can be met from feed intake and body reserves reported. Studies on heat stress and diseases, 2 of the constraints to work performance, are also described.
Abu-Gharbieh, Eman; Khalidi, Doaa Al; Baig, Mirza R; Khan, Saeed A
Practicing evidence based medicine (EBM) is a professional need for the future clinical pharmacist in UAE and around the world. An attempt was made to evaluate pharmacy student's knowledge, attitude and proficiency in the practice of EBM. A within-subject study design with pre and post survey and skill test were conducted using case based practice of EBM through a validated questionnaire. The results were tabulated and there was a statistically significant increase in pharmacy students' perceived ability to go through steps of EBM, namely: formulating PICO questions (95.3%), searching for evidence (97%), appraising the evidence (81%), understanding statistics (78.1%), and applying evidence at point of care (81.2%). In this study, workshops and (Problem Based Learning) PBLs were used as a module of EBM teaching and practices, which has been shown to be an effective educational method in terms of improving students' skills, knowledge and attitude toward EBM. Incorporating hands on experience, PBLs will become an impetus for developing EBM skills and critical appraisal of research evidence alongside routine clinical practice. This integration would constitute the cornerstone in lifting EBM in UAE up to the needed standards and would enable pharmacy students to become efficient pharmacists that rely on evidence in their health practice.
McFee, Renee M.; Cupp, Andrea S.; Wood, Jennifer R.
Didactic lectures are prevalent in physiology courses within veterinary medicine programs, but more active learning methods have also been utilized. Our goal was to identify the most appropriate learning method to augment the lecture component of our physiology course. We hypothesized that case-based learning would be well received by students and…
Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.
Full Text Available Refer-to-Pharmacy is the first fully integrated hospital to community pharmacy referral system. This article explains the importance of these referrals for patients and health economies to improve medicines optimisation, and how Refer-to-Pharmacy works in both hospital and community pharmacies.
'Central Diagnostic, National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, 'Department of Veterinary Medicine. Ahmadu Bello ..... environment as reported by (Olabode et al., 2009; Okwor and Eze, 2011;Jwander et al., 2013b). Farmers who had the same complaints of. Marek's disease from the same source of.
Full Text Available Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs represent a vast array of molecules produced by virtually all living organisms as natural barriers against infection. Among AMP sources, an interesting class regards the food-derived bioactive agents. The whey protein lactoferrin (Lf is an iron-binding glycoprotein that plays a significant role in the innate immune system, and is considered as an important host defense molecule. In search for novel antimicrobial agents, Lf offers a new source with potential pharmaceutical applications. The Lf-derived peptides Lf(1–11, lactoferricin (Lfcin and lactoferrampin exhibit interesting and more potent antimicrobial actions than intact protein. Particularly, Lfcin has demonstrated strong antibacterial, anti-fungal and antiparasitic activity with promising applications both in human and veterinary diseases (from ocular infections to osteo-articular, gastrointestinal and dermatological diseases.
Ioana Valentina Tihulca
Full Text Available Environmental risk assessment (ERA is mandatory for all new applications for centralized marketing authorization or national regardless of their legal basis. ERA aims to protect the environment. Risk assessment has two phases of veterinary product evaluation possible role of exposure and its effects. Phase I of the ERA isbased on filling a decision tree with 19 questions. If the answers to these questions do not stop the assessment at this stage then is advancing to Phase II. It uses a two stage approach stage A and stage B. The first stage, stage A, studies using simple, less expensive studies. I f the assessment is not complete, then is appealed to Step B to drill ERA. If there is still a risk indicator after filling and assessment in stage B, then, to mitigate risk, is recommended the file discussing and of the proposals for additional data.
Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint
The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI
In its formative days the Cape was dependent upon 'ignorant and unskilled' barbers for medical attention. Efforts by the Government to regularise the profession met with little success; physicians and surgeons kept pharmacies and 'pharmacists' visited patients in their homes. Medical chaos ruled for many years. S. Afr. Med.
Since its coming out (1754) until the publication of the Annales de chimie (1789), the Journal de Médecine, Chirurgie, Pharmacie, &c. received papers and pieces of news from chemists; many of them cultivated their love for chemistry while they practised health professions.
Focus and Scope. The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the ...
Fejzić, N.; Šerić-Haračić, S.
Animals have always been a source of food, materials, protection and wellbeing for humans; however, animal diseases, including zoonoses, have both direct and indirect negative effects on human health, economy and the society. Since its establishment, the veterinary profession has provided crucial input in eradicating disease, increasing animal production and reducing losses due to diseases. Currently, foodborne diseases and zoonoses have raised awareness in developed countries, which have excellent systems for disease surveillance and reporting both in humans and animal populations. Due to lack of modern, integrated surveillance and reporting, the burden of zoonoses and foodborne diseases in developing European countries is much harder to assess. Differences in countries’ animal health status (demonstrated through disease surveillance) have been a main pivot point for international trade of animals and animal products. However, rapid and dramatic evolvement of the health trends in the world changed the principles of animal disease surveillance. Approaches requiring lower cost (i.e. risk-based surveillance) are now proposed, not only due to less available public funding, but also because the costs are harder to justify to policy makers if a disease is exotic and/or rare. Therefore, the veterinary profession has faced insufficient interest of governments and funds for further research into many persistent endemic animal diseases and zoonoses. On the other hand, eradication of selected diseases in some areas while elsewhere they still persist, and the continuous emergence of new diseases, cannot guarantee permanent epidemiological stability. As food safety and security become more important, global trends and events have highlighted the biological, health and economic inseparability of the relationships between humans, animals as pets and/or food sources and wildlife within the social and ecological framework of living space that these species share. Veterinarians
Corresponding author: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel No:+2348037811882 ... and veterinary medicine as potent anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and .... steroid skeleton, similar to hydrocortisone. ... for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth.
Rafaela Alves Dias
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Dias R.A., Souza A.P. & Garino Júnior F. [Assessment of bacterial contamination in the sectors of Clinical Medicine and Surgery Small Animal Veterinary Hospital, UFCG, PB.] Avaliação da contaminação bacteriana nos setores de Clínica e Cirurgia de Pequenos Animais do Hospital Veterinário da UFCG, PB. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:173-177, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Av. Universitária, s/n, Bairro Santa Cecília, Patos, PB 58708-110, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com With this study aimed to evaluate bacterial contamination sectors Clinic and Surgery Small Animal Veterinary Hospital UFCG, in order to prevent infections in patients attending hospital. An assessment of the environmental contamination of sectors before and after disinfection, where was collected samples of air, surfaces and hands of people who deal directly with the animals. Then the test was made of the effectiveness of disinfectants used. Of the 40 samples collected, was identified in 5 of them (12.5% Enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebisiella pneumoniae and in 22 samples (55% was identified Staphylococcus coagulase negative and positive. Was seen in the quantitative analysis that the number of cfu in some sample was above the indicated. The test showed that the disinfectant solution was effective against all micro-organisms found in the environments. The results indicate that more attention to procedures performed in the disinfection of areas evaluated, and also include measures to prevent contamination at these sites.
Kwiatkowski, Alison C; Demirbilek, Muhammet
Lecture capture technology is becoming more pervasive in today's classrooms. Students are demanding their lectures be recorded, but many instructors remain resistant. The goal of this study was to investigate faculty perceptions of lecture capture and to understand their concerns with the technology. Through a review of the existing literature, three common reasons for not recording were identified: impact on class attendance, incompatible pedagogy, and technical concerns. To test the hypotheses, an electronic survey was created and distributed to the faculty of a veterinary college in the southeastern US. The survey included both quantitative and qualitative questions. An invitation was emailed to all 134 faculty members, garnering 50 responses. Results were consistent with the hypotheses. Impact on class attendance, teaching styles, and technical considerations have dissuaded many instructors from adopting lecture capture technology. However, a fourth theme that emerged was faculty lack of awareness/familiarity. According to the qualitative responses, many faculty either did not know lecture recording was available in their teaching spaces or were not trained in how to use the technology. Recommendations for future research include distributing the survey campus-wide and providing more opportunities for faculty training. It would also be worthwhile to repeat the survey after providing more information and training materials to faculty, or after switching from an opt-in to an opt-out approach, to see whether perceptions have changed among the college's faculty.
Alexandra M. Phillips
Full Text Available Feline obesity has become a common disease and important animal welfare issue. Little is known about how, or how often, veterinarians and feline-owning clients are addressing obesity during clinical appointments. The purpose of this qualitative study was to characterize verbal and non-verbal communication between veterinarians and clients regarding feline obesity. The sample consisted of video-recordings of 17 veterinarians during 284 actual appointments in companion animal patients in Eastern Ontario. This audio-visual dataset served to identify 123 feline appointments. Of these, only 25 appointments were identified in which 12 veterinarians and their clients spoke about feline obesity. Thematic analysis of the videos and transcripts revealed inconsistencies in the depth of address of feline obesity and its prevention by participating veterinarians. In particular, in-depth nutritional history taking and clear recommendations of management rarely took place. Veterinarians appeared to attempt to strengthen the veterinary–client relationship and cope with ambiguity in their role managing obesity with humor and by speaking directly to their animal patients. Clients also appeared to use humor to deal with discomfort surrounding the topic. Our findings have implications for communication skills training within veterinary curricula and professional development among practicing veterinarians. As obesity is complex and potentially sensitive subject matter, we suggest a need for veterinarians to have further intentionality and training toward in-depth nutritional history gathering and information sharing while navigating obesity management discussions to more completely address client perspective and patient needs.
Patchanee, Prapas; Tadee, Pakpoom; Ingkaninan, Pimlada; Tankaew, Pallop; Hoet, Armando E; Chupia, Vena
Of 416 samples taken from veterinary staff (n = 30), dogs (n = 356) and various environmental sites (n = 30) at the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Chiang Mai University, Thailand, 13 samples contained methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), of which 1 (SCCmec type II) came from veterinarian, 9 (SCCmec types I, III, IVa, V and untypeable) from dogs, and 3 (SCCmec types I, III, and IVb) from environmental samples. The MRSA isolates were 100% susceptible to vancomycin (100%), 69% to cephazolin and 62% to gentamicin, but were up to 92% resistant to tetracycline group, 69% to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazoles and 62% to ceftriaxone. In addition, all MRSA isolates showed multidrug resistance. As the MRSA isolates from the veterinary staff and dogs were of different SCCmec types, this suggests there were no cross-infections. However, environmental contamination appears to have come from dogs, and appropriate hygienic practices should be introduced to solve this problem.
Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E
Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.
Raal, Ain; Volmer, Daisy; Sõukand, Renata; Hratkevitš, Sofia; Kalle, Raivo
The aim of the current survey was to investigate the complementary self-treatment of the common cold and flu with medicinal plants among pharmacy customers in Estonia. A multiple-choice questionnaire listing 10 plants and posing questions on the perceived characteristics of cold and flu, the effectiveness of plants, help-seeking behaviour, self-treatment and sources of information, was distributed to a sample of participants in two medium size pharmacies. The participants were pharmacy customers: 150 in Tallinn (mostly Russian speaking) and 150 in Kuressaare (mostly Estonian speaking). The mean number of plants used by participants was 4.1. Of the respondents, 69% self-treated the common cold and flu and 28% consulted with a general practitioner. In general, medicinal plants were considered effective in the treatment of the above-mentioned illnesses and 56% of the respondents had used exclusively medicinal plants or their combination with OTC medicines and other means of folk medicine for treatment. The use of medicinal plants increased with age and was more frequent among female than male respondents. Among Estonian-speaking customers lime flowers, blackcurrant and camomile were more frequently used, and among Russian speaking customers raspberry and lemon fruits. Regardless of some statistically significant differences in preferred species among different age, education, sex and nationality groups, the general attitude towards medicinal plants for self-treatment of the common cold and flu in Estonia was very favourable.
Teshima, Mugen; Nakashima, Mikiro; Hatakeyama, Susumi
The Nagasaki University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences has conducted a project concerning "development of an advanced education program for community medicine" for its students in collaboration with the University's School of Nursing Sciences, the University of Nagasaki School of Nursing Sciences, and the Nagasaki International University School of Pharmaceutical Sciences. The project was named "formation of a strategic base for the integrated education of pharmacy and nursing science specially focused on home-healthcare and welfare", that has been adopted at "Strategic University Cooperative Support Program for Improving Graduate" by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan from the 2009 academic year to the 2011 academic year. Our project is a novel education program about team medical care in collaboration with pharmacist and nurse. In order to perform this program smoothly, we established "Nagasaki pharmacy and nursing science union consortium (Nagasaki University, The University of Nagasaki, Nagasaki International University, Nagasaki Pharmaceutical Association, Nagasaki Society of Hospital Pharmacists, Nagasaki Nursing Association, Nagasaki Medical Association, Nagasaki Prefectural Government)". In this symposium, we introduce contents about university education program and life learning program of the project.
Rushworth, Gordon F; Cunningham, Scott; Pfleger, Sharon; Hall, Jenny; Stewart, Derek
Access to medicines and healthcare is more problematic in remote and rural areas. To quantify issues of access to general practitioners (GPs), community pharmacies and prescribed medicines in older people resident in the Scottish Highlands. Anonymized questionnaires were mailed to a random sample of 2000 older people (≥60 years) resident in the Scottish Highlands. Questionnaire items were: access and convenience to GP and pharmacy services (10 items); prescribed medicines (13 items); attitudinal statements based on the Theoretical Domains Framework (12 items); quality of life (SF8, 8 items); and demographics (12 items). Results were analysed using descriptive, inferential and spatial statistics, and principal component analysis (PCA) of attitudinal items. With a response rate of 54.2%, the majority reported convenient access to GPs (89.1%) and community pharmacies (84.3%). Older age respondents (p rural areas to community pharmacies (p rural areas and taking five or more prescribed medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kedrowicz, April A; Royal, Kenneth; Flammer, Keven
While social media has the potential to be used to make professional and personal connections, it can also be used inappropriately, with detrimental ramifications for the individual in terms of their professional reputation and even hiring decisions. This research explored students' and faculty members' perceptions of the acceptability of various social media postings. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. All students and faculty members at the College of Veterinary Medicine were invited to participate. The sample size included 140 students and 69 faculty members who completed the Social Media Scale (SMS), a 7-point semantic differential scale. The SMS consisted of 12 items that measured the extent to which a variety of behaviors, using social media, constituted acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Items appearing on the SMS were an amalgamation of modified items previously presented by Coe, Weijs, Muise et al. (2012) and new items generated specifically for this study. The data were collected during the spring semester of 2015 using Qualtrics online survey software and analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA. The results showed that statistically significant differences existed between the students' and faculty members' ratings of acceptable behavior, as well as gender differences and differences across class years. These findings have implications for the development of policy and educational initiatives around professional identity management in the social sphere.
Hajian, Reza; Mousavi, Esmat; Shams, Nafiseh
Net analyte signal standard addition method has been used for the simultaneous determination of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim by spectrophotometry in some bovine milk and veterinary medicines. The method combines the advantages of standard addition method with the net analyte signal concept which enables the extraction of information concerning a certain analyte from spectra of multi-component mixtures. This method has some advantages such as the use of a full spectrum realisation, therefore it does not require calibration and prediction step and only a few measurements require for the determination. Cloud point extraction based on the phenomenon of solubilisation used for extraction of sulphadiazine and trimethoprim in bovine milk. It is based on the induction of micellar organised media by using Triton X-100 as an extraction solvent. At the optimum conditions, the norm of NAS vectors increased linearly with concentrations in the range of 1.0-150.0 μmolL(-1) for both sulphadiazine and trimethoprim. The limits of detection (LOD) for sulphadiazine and trimethoprim were 0.86 and 0.92 μmolL(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Raboisson, Didier; Barbier, Maxime; Maigné, Elise
Decreasing the use of antimicrobials has become a primary objective for both human and veterinary medicine in many countries. Medical prevention and good nutrition are seen as key parameters for reducing antimicrobial use. However, little consideration has been given to how metabolic diseases may influence the use of antimicrobials in humans and animals through limiting the prevalence and severity of infectious diseases. To quantify this relationship using the example of a common metabolic disease in dairy cows (subclinical ketosis, SCK), we constructed a stochastic model reporting the total quantity of curative antimicrobials for a given population with the prevalence of cows at risk for SCK. We considered the prevalence of SCK, the relative risk of the disease in cases of SCK compared to no SCK and the use of antimicrobials to treat SCK-induced infectious diseases. Reducing the percentage of cows at risk for SCK from 80% to 10% was associated with an average decrease in the use of antimicrobials of 11% (prevalence of SCK from 34% to 17%, respectively) or 25% (prevalence of SCK from 68% to 22%, respectively), depending on the relative risk to contract SCK if risk was present. For a large percentage of the cows at risk for SCK, using a preventive bolus of monensin reduced the use of curative antimicrobials to the same level that was observed when the percentage of cows at risk for SCK was low. The present work suggests similar approaches for obesity and diabetes.
APRIL A. KEDROWICZ
Full Text Available Introduction: While social media has the potential to be used to make professional and personal connections, it can also be used inappropriately, with detrimental ramifications for the individual in terms of their professional reputation and even hiring decisions. This research explored students’ and faculty members’ perceptions of the acceptability of various social media postings. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015. All students and faculty members at the College of Veterinary Medicine were invited to participate. The sample size included 140 students and 69 faculty members who completed the Social Media Scale (SMS, a 7-point semantic differential scale. The SMS consisted of 12 items that measured the extent to which a variety of behaviors, using social media, constituted acceptable and unacceptable behaviors. Items appearing on the SMS were an amalgamation of modified items previously presented by Coe, Weijs, Muise et al. (2012 and new items generated specifically for this study. The data were collected during the spring semester of 2015 using Qualtrics online survey software and analyzed using t-tests and ANOVA. Results: The results showed that statistically significant differences existed between the students’ and faculty members’ ratings of acceptable behavior, as well as gender differences and differences across class years. Conclusion: These findings have implications for the development of policy and educational initiatives around professional identity management in the social sphere.
Lombardi, Nicola; Wei, Li; Ghaleb, Maisoon; Pasut, Enrico; Leschiutta, Silvia; Rossi, Paolo; Troncon, Maria Grazia
Successful implementation of clinical pharmacy services is associated with improvement of appropriateness of prescribing. Both high clinical significance of pharmacist interventions and their high acceptance rate mean that potential harm to patients could be avoided. Evidence shows that low acceptance rate of pharmacist interventions can be associated with lack of communication between pharmacists and the rest of the healthcare team. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a structured communication strategy on acceptance rate of interventions made by a clinical pharmacist implementing a ward-based clinical pharmacy service targeting elderly patients at high risk of drug-related problems. Characteristics of interventions made to improve appropriateness of prescribing, their clinical significance and intervention acceptance rate by doctors were recorded. A clinical pharmacy intervention study was conducted between September 2013 and December 2013 in an internal medicine ward of a teaching hospital. A trained clinical pharmacist provided pharmaceutical care to 94 patients aged over 70 years. The clinical pharmacist used the following communication and marketing tools to implement the service described: Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis; Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Timely (SMART) goals; Awareness, Interest, Desire, Action (AIDA) model. A total of 740 interventions were made by the clinical pharmacist. The most common drug classes involved in interventions were: antibacterials for systemic use (11.1%) and anti-parkinson drugs (10.8%). The main drug-related problem categories triggering interventions were: no specific problem (15.9%) and prescription writing error (12.0%). A total of 93.2% of interventions were fully accepted by physicians. After assessment by an external panel 63.2% of interventions (96 interventions/ per month) were considered of moderate clinical significance and 23.4% (36
Ushie, Boniface Ayanbekongshie; Ugal, David Betelwhobel; Ingwu, Justin Agorye
Lower availability of medicines in Nigerian public health facilities-the most affordable option for the masses-undermines global health reforms to improve access to health for all, especially the chronically ill and poor. Thus, a sizeable proportion of healthcare users, irrespective of purchasing power, buy medicines at higher costs from for-profit pharmacies. We examined user evaluation of medicine availability in public facilities and how this influences their choice of where to buy medicines in selected states-Cross River, Enugu and Oyo-in Nigeria. We approached and interviewed 1711 healthcare users using a semi-structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire as they exited for-profit pharmacies after purchasing medicines. This ensured that both clients who had presented at health facilities (private/public) and those who did not were included. Information was collected on why respondents could not buy medicines at the hospitals they attended, their views of medicine availability and whether their choice of where to buy medicines is influenced by non-availability. Respondents' mean age was 37.7±14.4 years; 52% were males, 59% were married, 82% earned ≥NGN18, 000 (US$57.19) per month, and 72% were not insured. Majority (66%) had prescriptions; of this, 70% were from public facilities. Eighteen percent of all respondents indicated that all their medicines were usually available at the public facilities, most (29%), some (44%) and not always available (10%). Reasons for using for-profit pharmacies included: health workers attitudes (43%), referral by providers (43%); inadequate money to purchase all prescribed drugs (42%) and cumbersome processes for obtaining medicines. Lower availability of medicines has serious implications for healthcare behavior, especially because of poverty. It is crucial for government to fulfill its mandate of equitable access to care for all by making medicines available and cheap through reviving and sustaining the drug revolving
Santiago Pérez, A; Peña Pedrosa, J A; Alguacil Pau, A I; Pérez Morales, A; Molina Muñoz, P; Benítez Giménez, M T
Pharmaceutical care to outpatients is currently one of the main occupations of hospital pharmacy services (PEX). There are several questionnaires to measure the satisfaction of the PEX of a pharmacy service, and the results of these questionnaires can generate improvement actions that result in satisfaction. To verify if a satisfaction questionnaire for outpatients is valid for the generation of improvements in the care provided, and if after its implementation, the same questionnaire is able to detect changes in satisfaction. Prospective study of a single center carried out in a tertiary hospital in 2015 and 2016. A questionnaire previously validated with 16 Likert-type items was used. Demographic and classification data were collected. A descriptive analysis was performed and the internal consistency was calculated using the Cronbach's α value. A total of 258 questionnaires were collected in 2015 and 493 in 2016. There were no differences in the baseline characteristics of the patients and users of the service. The items with the lowest satisfaction scores in 2015 (comfort of the waiting room, dispensing privacy, drug pick-up time and medication pick-up time) guided the improvement actions to be implemented. In 2016 there was an improvement in the waiting time until collection in 12.3% (p = 0.002); in the comfort of the waiting room 4.9% (p = 0.304); business hours for medication collection, 10.7% (p = 0.013); and in the confidentiality of the dispensation 4% (p = 0.292). The remaining scores fluctuated minimally, with no statistical significance at all. A 5.1% improvement in overall satisfaction was found (p improve the care received in an outpatient unit of a pharmacy service. This same questionnaire is a tool to monitor the changes implemented to improve the care received. Copyright © 2018 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Wolfesberger, B; Fuchs-Baumgartinger, A; Greß, V; Hammer, S E; Gradner, G; Knödl, K; Tichy, A; Rütgen, B C; Beham-Schmid, C
To diagnose and classify the various entities of lymphomas, the World Health Organisation (WHO) classification is applied in human as well as in veterinary medicine. We validated the concordance of these classification systems by having a veterinary and human pathologist evaluate gastrointestinal lymphoma tissue from 61 cats. In 59% of all cases, there was a match between their respective diagnoses of the lymphoma subtype. A complete consensus between the two evaluators was obtained for all samples with a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, T-cell anaplastic large cell lymphoma and extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. A corresponding diagnosis was also made in the majority of samples with enteropathy associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) type II, although this subtype in cats has similarities to the 'indolent T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder of the gastrointestinal tract', a provisional entity newly added to the revised human WHO classification in 2016. Very little consensus has been found with cases of EATL type I due to the fact that most did not meet all of the criteria of human EATL I. Hence, the human pathologist assigned them to the heterogeneous group of peripheral T-cell lymphomas (not otherwise specified). Consequently, concrete guidelines and advanced immunophenotyping based on the model of human medicine are essential to differentiate these challenging entities in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available [english] The Free University’s Veterinary Clinic of Reproduction in the Department of Veterinary Medicine, Berlin, has been offering courses on alternative and complementary veterinary medicine to its students for several years. Due to time constraints and shortages in teaching staff, it has not been possible to satisfy student demand for instruction in these areas. To provide more detailed information as well as more opportunities for discussion and practica, subject area courses were modified in two steps. Initially, blended learning was implemented to include e-learning and in-class formats of instruction. Subsequently, an entire block of courses offered were transferred to e-learning format. Students may now voluntarily register for the e-learning course entitled “Introduction of alternative and complementary veterinary medicine” via the Internet and learn the basic principles of homoeopathy, herbal medicine, acupuncture and other alternative methods in veterinary medicine. After passing this basic course, blended learning courses enable advanced students to learn more about fundamentals of methods in greater detail as well as to perform practica with animal subjects. The evaluation of these courses showed that students rated e-learning to be a reasonable addendum to in-class instruction. More than two thirds of the students recommended an increased integration of e-learning into veterinary education. [german] Die Tierklinik für Fortpflanzung in Berlin bietet den Studierenden der Veterinärmedizin seit einigen Semestern Wahlpflichtkurse zu den Naturheilverfahren an. Der enormen Nachfrage seitens der Studierenden standen personelle und zeitliche Begrenzungen des Lehrpersonals gegenüber. Um den Interessenten dennoch umfangreiche Informationen zu bieten sowie Freiräume für Diskussionen und praktische Übungen zu schaffen, wurde das Ausbildungsangebot in zwei Projektphasen ausgebaut. Zunächst wurde dabei die Methode des Blended
Full Text Available A 2015 survey of veterinary educators at AVMA accredited veterinary colleges indicated use of a wide variety of teaching modalities and a broad disparity among colleges about the amount of EBVM skills taught and their place in the curriculum. Evidence in learning theory suggests that teaching the skills of EBVM requires consideration of ways to optimise the transfer of skills from the didactic or pre-clinical to the clinical setting. We partnered to successfully integrate asking a clinical question, searching the literature, appraising the literature, and applying evidence to the clinical question to make a clinical recommendation in a pre-clinical, 2nd year, course (pharmacology and two 4th year clinical rotations (Small Animal Dermatology and Food Animal. We use lecture and paired work to introduce identifying knowledge gaps and writing background and PICO questions. Searching the biomedical literature is taught in hands-on labs with lecture followed up with open tutorial hands-on lab opportunities. Students initially work in small groups to learn critical appraisal using a literature evaluation form we created, and then learn to apply the evidence in order to make a clinical recommendation. We will report on the learning activities, assignments, rubrics, and student outcomes. Teaching materials are Creative Commons licensed and will be distributed. We will also describe challenges and recommendations for integrating EBVM skills into other disciplines.
After the collapse of the Arab rule, the Arab territorial expanses and cultural heritage were taken over by the Turks. Although scientific progress in the Turkish period slowed down due to numerous unfavorable political-economic and other circumstances. Thanks to the Turks, Arabic culture and useful Islamic principles expanded to the territory of our homeland of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Significant role in the transfer of Arabic pharmaceutical knowledge was also attributed to the Sephardic Jews who, with their arrival, continued to perform their attar activities, which were largely based on Arab achievements. However, insufficiently elaborated, rich funds of oriental medical and pharmaceutical handwriting testify that Oriental science has nurtured in these areas as well, and that the Arabic component in a specific way was intertwined with other cultures and traditions of B&H. The Franciscan monasteries in Bosnia and Herzegovina have museums which contain important exhibits and libraries rich in books, among which many from the field of medicine and pharmacy. Muslim mosques, also, had small libraries with Arabic books used for spreading medical knowledge. The second category was folk doctors and practitioners who were on disposition to the people of any religion. Some of them listened to lectures in medicine during the studies of theology and philosophy. However, most did not have any medical education, but by reading books and teaching experience they made their own recipe collection. Special books, called "Ljekaruše" (Books of recipes) were also born during the study when they came into contact with an even larger number of health books. However, it should not be neglected that a lot of them contained folk medicines that were used in some environments depending on the habits and available herbs. Although it has been proven that many recipes from Ljekaruše are pharmacologically and medically justified, one should not ignore the knowledge and skill behind
Wietholter, Jon P; Ponte, Charles D; Long, Dustin M
Few publications have addressed the perceptions of pharmacists and physicians regarding the value of clinical pharmacist services. A survey-based study was conducted to determine whether Internal Medicine (IM) and Family Medicine (FM) pharmacists and physicians differed in their attitudes regarding the benefits of collaboration in an acute care setting. The primary objective was to evaluate perceived differences regarding self-assessment of value between IM and FM pharmacists. The secondary objective was to evaluate perceived differences of clinical pharmacist benefit between IM and FM physicians. An eight-item questionnaire assessed the attitudes and beliefs of pharmacists and physicians regarding the value of clinical pharmacy services. Surveys were emailed and participants marked their responses using a 7-point Likert scale for each item. Demographic data and overall comments were collected from each participant. Overall, 167 surveys were completed. When comparing cumulative physician and pharmacist responses, none of the eight questions showed significant differences. Statistically significant differences were noted when comparing IM and FM clinical pharmacists on five of the eight survey items; for each of these items, FM pharmacists had more favourable perceptions than their IM counterparts. No statistically significant differences were noted when comparing responses of IM and FM physicians. This study found that FM pharmacists perceived a greater benefit regarding participation in inpatient acute care rounds when compared to their IM pharmacist counterparts. Future studies are necessary to determine if other medical specialties' perceptions of clinical pharmacy provision differ from our findings and to evaluate the rationale behind specific attitudes and behaviours. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Lubinga, Solomon J; Jenny, Alisa M; Larsen-Cooper, Erin; Crawford, Jessica; Matemba, Charles; Stergachis, Andy; Babigumira, Joseph B
Access to essential medicines is core to saving lives and improving health outcomes of people worldwide, particularly in the low- and middle-income countries. Having a trained pharmacy workforce to manage the supply chain and safely dispense medicines is critical to ensuring timely access to quality pharmaceuticals and improving child health outcomes. This study measures the impact of an innovative pharmacy assistant training program in the low-income country of Malawi on access to medicines and health outcomes. We employ a cluster quasi-experimental design with pre-and post-samples and decision analytic modeling to examine access to and the use of medicines for malaria, pneumonia, and diarrhea for children less than 5 years of age. Two intervention districts, with newly trained and deployed pharmacy assistants, and two usual care comparison districts, matched on socio-economic, geographic, and health-care utilization indicators, were selected for the study. A baseline household survey was conducted in March 2014, prior to the deployment of pharmacy assistants to the intervention district health centers. Follow-up surveys are planned at 12- and 24-months post-deployment. In addition, interviews are planned with caregivers, and time-motion studies will be conducted with health-care providers at the health centers to estimate costs and resources use. This impact evaluation is designed to provide data on the effects of a novel pharmacy assistant program on pharmaceutical systems performance, and morbidity and mortality for the most common causes of death for children under five. The results of this study should contribute to policy decisions about whether and how to scale up the health systems strengthening workforce development program to have the greatest impact on the supply chain and health outcomes in Malawi.
Full Text Available Integrative veterinary medicine, the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care, is increasingly prevalent in veterinary practice and a focus of clinical instruction in many academic teaching institutions. However, the presenting complaints, therapeutic modalities, and patient population in an integrative medicine service have not been described. A retrospective analysis of 5,195 integrative patient treatment sessions in a veterinary academic teaching hospital demonstrated that patients most commonly received a combination of therapeutic modalities (39% of all treatment sessions. The 274 patients receiving multiple modalities were most frequently treated for neurologic and orthopedic disease (50.7% versus 49.6% of all presenting complaints, resp.. Older neutered or spayed dogs (mean age = 9.0 years and Dachshunds were treated more often than expected based on general population statistics. Acupuncture, laser therapy, electroacupuncture, and hydrotherapy were frequently administered (>50% patients. Neurologic patients were more likely to receive acupuncture, electroacupuncture, and therapeutic exercises but less likely than orthopedic patients to receive laser, hydrotherapy, or therapeutic ultrasound treatments (P<0.05. The results suggest that the application of these specific modalities to orthopedic and neurologic diseases should be subjected to increased evidence-based investigations. A review of current knowledge in core areas is presented.
Peter Bai James
Full Text Available Most low-income nations have national medicine policy that emphasized the use of generic medicines in the public health sector. However, the use of generics is often debatable as there are concerns over its efficacy, quality, and safety compared to their branded counterparts. This study was conducted to compare the knowledge and perception of generic medicines among final year undergraduate medical, pharmacy, and nursing students in Sierra Leone. We conducted a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study among these students at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences University of Sierra Leone. Out of the 62 students, only two (2/62, 3.2% knew about the acceptable bioequivalence limit. At least half of respondents in all three groups agreed that all generics are therapeutically equivalent to their innovator brand. At least half of the medicine (21/42, 50% and nursing (6/9, 66.6% students, compared to pharmacy students (5/11, 45.5%, believed that higher safety standards are required for proprietary medicines than for generic medicines. Most of them agreed that they need more information on the safety, quality, and efficacy aspects of generics (59/62, 95.2%. All three groups of healthcare students, despite variations in their responses, demonstrated a deficiency in knowledge and misconception regarding generic medicines. Training on issues surrounding generic drugs in healthcare training institutions is highly needed among future healthcare providers in Sierra Leone.
Watson, Margaret C; Johnston, Marie; Entwistle, Vikki; Lee, Amanda J; Bond, Christine M; Fielding, Shona
To identify modifiable factors that influence patients' information-giving behaviour about their health during consultations with pharmacy staff. A theory of planned behaviour questionnaire was posted to 3000 individuals randomly selected from the Scottish Electoral Register. The 927 respondents confirmed a low rate of disclosure of information about their health to pharmacy staff during their last pharmacy visit. Individuals who intended to give information about their health during pharmacy consultations were more likely to do so. Those who intended to give information during consultations had higher subjective norms than those who did not (i.e. intentions were associated with beliefs that people who were important to them, e.g. family members, doctors, thought they should give information during these consultations). Control beliefs, e.g. 'I am confident that I will give information if I have received good advice in the past', and behavioural beliefs, e.g. 'If I give information I will be sold an appropriate medicine', were not associated with intention or behaviour. Future interventions to promote relevant communication between patients and pharmacy staff should target patients' subjective norms rather than control beliefs or behavioural beliefs. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Fatimah Ali Albusalih
Full Text Available Pharmacy and medical students are expected to be more knowledgeable regarding rational use of medications as compared to the general public. A cross-sectional study was conducted among students of pharmacy and medicine colleges of Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University in Dammam, Saudi Arabia using a survey questionnaire. The duration of the study was six months. The aim was to report self-medication prevalence of prescription and non-prescription drugs among pharmacy and medical students. The prevalence of self-medication in the pharmacy college was reported at 19.61%. Prevalence of self-medication at the medical college was documented at 49.3%. The prevalence of multivitamin use was reported at 30.53%, analgesics; 72.35%, antihistamines; 39.16%, and antibiotic use at 16.59%. The prevalence of anti-diarrheal medicines and antacids use among students was found to be 8.63% and 6.64%, respectively. The variable of college and study year was statistically associated with the nature of the medicines. The most common justifications given by students indulging in self-medication were ‘mild problems’ and ‘previous experience with medicines’. Our study reported that prevalence of self-medication in the College of Clinical Pharmacy was low, i.e., 19.61%. The figure has been reported for the first time. Students were mostly observed self-medicating with OTC drugs, however, some reported using corticosteroids and isotretenoin, which are quite dangerous if self-medicated. Students have a positive outlook towards pharmacists as drug information experts.
Bedouch, Pierrick; Nguyen, Thi-Hoai; Nguyen, Thi-Lien-Huong; Hoang, Thi-Kim-Huyen; Calop, Jean; Allenet, Benoît
Pharmacy education programs in Vietnam are complex and offer various career pathways. All include theory and laboratory modules in general, foundation, and pharmaceutical knowledge; placements in health facilities; and a final examination. The various pharmacy degree programs allow specialization in 1 or more of 5 main fields: (1) drug management and supply, (2) drug development and production, (3) pharmacology and clinical pharmacy, (4) traditional medicine and pharmacognosy, and (5) drug quality control, which are offered as main specialization options during the reformed undergraduate and postgraduate programs. However, pharmacy education in Vietnam in general remains product oriented and clinical pharmacy training has not received adequate attention. Only students who have obtained the bachelor of pharmacy degree, which requires a minimum of 5 years of study, are considered as fully qualified pharmacists. In contrast, an elementary diploma in pharmacy awarded after 1 year of pharmacy study permits entry into more junior pharmacy positions. Since the 2000s, there has been a surge in the number and types of schools offering pharmacy qualifications at various levels. PMID:23966717
Access to quality medicines is a universal human right which featured prominently on the agenda of the World Health Organisation (WHO) over the past decades. Hospital pharmacists play a pivotal role in ensuring that treatment outcomes are optimal. This thesis studied pharmaceutical policies and
Linear tomography has been well known since the thirties of the last century. Before and alter World War II attempts of taking cross sections were done radiographically, but image quality was extremely poor. About 1960 A.M. Cormack developed a possibility to measure body densities for radiation therapy. After having attempted digitization of x-ray intensities during tissue penetration, G.N. Hounsfield constructed the first scanner in 1972 - in the first run only to examine the head. Improvements of technology lead to a series of generations of scanners which ended in the development of spiral CT and multi-slice detectors. In veterinary medicine the first papers on the use of CT in small animals were published by clinicians in the United States and in Germany nearly at the same time in 1980. A number of reports appeared afterwards from clinicians worldwide. The technique for examination of the horse was first described in the United States in 1986; in Europe the first CT scanner examining horses was established in Utrecht. At the Radiology Clinic of the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna, the first scanner for clinical use started to operate in summer 1993. The diagnostic possibilities improved in 1997 by introduction of a large animal weight bearing table. A new spiral CT has been put into operation in February 2001. CT has dramatically improved diagnostic accuracy in diagnostic imaging and lead to advanced therapy and prognosis for the patient in many specialist fields of veterinary medicine, e.g. neurosurgery, neurology, oncology, or orthopedics. (author)
Christian Chinyere Ezeala
Full Text Available It aimed to compare the study skills of two groups of undergraduate pharmacy students in the School of Medicine, University of Zambia using the Study Skills Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ, with the goal of analysing students’ study skills and identifying factors that affect study skills. A questionnaire was distributed to 67 participants from both programs using stratified random sampling. Completed questionnaires were rated according to participants study skill. The total scores and scores within subscales were analysed and compared quantitatively. Questionnaires were distributed to 37 students in the regular program, and to 30 students in the parallel program. The response rate was 100%. Students had moderate to good study skills: 22 respondents (32.8% showed good study skills, while 45 respondents (67.2% were found to have moderate study skills. Students in the parallel program demonstrated significantly better study skills (mean SSAQ score, 185.4±14.5, particularly in time management and writing, than the students in the regular program (mean SSAQ score 175±25.4; P<0.05. No significant differences were found according to age, gender, residential or marital status, or level of study. The students in the parallel program had better time management and writing skills, probably due to their prior work experience. The more intensive training to students in regular program is needed in improving time management and writing skills.
Ezeala, Christian Chinyere; Siyanga, Nalucha
It aimed to compare the study skills of two groups of undergraduate pharmacy students in the School of Medicine, University of Zambia using the Study Skills Assessment Questionnaire (SSAQ), with the goal of analysing students' study skills and identifying factors that affect study skills. A questionnaire was distributed to 67 participants from both programs using stratified random sampling. Completed questionnaires were rated according to participants study skill. The total scores and scores within subscales were analysed and compared quantitatively. Questionnaires were distributed to 37 students in the regular program, and to 30 students in the parallel program. The response rate was 100%. Students had moderate to good study skills: 22 respondents (32.8%) showed good study skills, while 45 respondents (67.2%) were found to have moderate study skills. Students in the parallel program demonstrated significantly better study skills (mean SSAQ score, 185.4±14.5), particularly in time management and writing, than the students in the regular program (mean SSAQ score 175±25.4; Pstudy. The students in the parallel program had better time management and writing skills, probably due to their prior work experience. The more intensive training to students in regular program is needed in improving time management and writing skills.
Schrader, Susan L; Brechtelsbauer, David; Heins, Jodi; Holland, Peter; Schroeder, Pamela A
Interdisciplinary education among health professions has been recommended, and related evaluation can be found in the literature. However questions remain on how effective interdisciplinary education is and what impact it has. The objective of this study was to determine changes in student attitudes and perceptions upon completion of a 5-week interdisciplinary palliative care seminar. Pre-test and post-test instruments were administered at three five-week Interdisciplinary Palliative Care Seminars in Sioux Falls, SD during 2009-2010. The central hypotheses were that, at the conclusion of the seminar, students will have greater familiarity with their role in a team and more understanding of the roles of other disciplines in palliative care, and will identify positive contributions to professional practice and patient care using the team approach. Both quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed. Participating students in medicine, nursing, pharmacy, social work, and chaplaincy (N = 88) completed surveys. Quantitative data suggest that interdisciplinary education enhances students' understanding of their discipline and the work of other disciplines. Data show students perceive the team approach as enhancing patient outcomes, goal setting, and communication among colleagues. Qualitative data reinforced the importance of interdisciplinary education while revealing strains among disciplines in hierarchy and valuing. Playing one's part in the team strengthens students' confidence and comfort in interdisciplinary settings. Yet, the hazard of experiencing the limitations of teamwork in action must be acknowledged for some.
Bellamy, Kim; Ostini, Remo; Martini, Nataly; Kairuz, Therese
Introduction There are challenges associated with selecting a qualitative research approach. In a field abundant with terminology and theories, it may be difficult for a pharmacist to know where and how to begin a qualitative research journey. The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into generic qualitative research and to describe the journey of data collection of a novice qualitative researcher in the quest to answer her research question: 'What are the barriers to accessing medicines and pharmacy services for resettled refugees in Queensland, Australia?' Methodology Generic qualitative research draws on the strengths of one or more qualitative approaches. The aim is to draw out participants' ideas about things that are 'outside themselves'; rather than focussing on their inner feelings the research seeks to understand a phenomenon, a process, or the perspectives of participants. Sampling is designed to obtain a broad range of opinions about events and experiences and data collection includes interviews, questionnaires or surveys; thematic analysis is often used to analyse data. When to use Generic qualitative research provides an opportunity to develop research designs that fit researchers' epistemological stance and discipline, with research choices, including methodology and methods, being informed by the research question. Limitations Generic qualitative research is one of many methodologies that may be used to answer a research question and there is a paucity of literature about how to do it well. There is also debate about its validity as a qualitative methodology.
Beyers, Christiaan Frederick
The South African pharmaceutical market is seen as part of the so called "pharmerging" markets, together with countries like India, China and Brazil. These "pharmerging" markets are the fastest growing markets within the global pharmaceutical industry. The distribution of chronic medicine in South Africa is a growing market, as the disease burden in South Africa continues to escalate, with the incidence of chronic conditions growing at a rapid rate. The study will focus on one of South Afr...
Buiuc, D; Pânzaru, Carmen
Today we commemorate a century from the death of two Romanian loving scientists: Antoine Béchamp (1816- March 31 1908), pharmacist, chemist and physician, professor at the Universities of Strasbourg, Montpellier and Lille, and Victor Cornil (1837- April 14 1908), physician, histopathologist and bacteriologist, professor of the University of Medicine in Paris, co-author with Victor Babeş on the first ever Bacteriological Treaty.
Keith A. Wilson; Yvonne Perrie
Pharmacy (ISSN 2226-4787) — A journal of pharmacy education and practice is an international scientific open access journal on pharmacy education and practice, and is published by MDPI online quarterly. The practice of pharmacy is changing at an unprecedented rate as the profession moves from a focus upon preparation and supply of medicines to a clinical patient-facing role. While an understanding of the science related to medicines remains core to pharmacy education, the changes in practice ...
Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...
Pastoret, P P
Veterinary vaccinology is a very interesting and rapidly developing field. In fact veterinary vaccines are not only used for the prevention of infectious diseases in the animal health sector, but also help to solve problems of public health, to reduce detrimental environmental impact of the use of some veterinary drugs and prevent the emergence of resistance of micro-organisms or parasites. After a short introduction, this paper will deal with the use of vaccines for animal health and welfare, including new developments in the veterinary field such as marker vaccines and vectored vaccines, the special case of equine influenza-inactivated vaccines and the use of veterinary vaccines in public health. The conclusions will analyse the reasons as to why develop veterinary vaccines and the obstacles to their development.
Nga, LE Thi Quynh; Goto, Aya; Trung, Tran The; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Khue, Nguyen Thy
Research capacity development enhances a country's ownership of activities aimed at strengthening its health system. In Vietnam, continuing medical education (CME) is attracting increasing attention with the establishment of legal and policy frameworks. During 2010-2013, the Japan International Cooperation Agency funded a research capacity building project targeting physicians in Ho Chi Minh City. The project had been developed in four previous courses that were conducted in collaboration with Fukushima Medical University and Ho Chi Minh City University of Medicine and Pharmacy (UMP). The project succeeded in obtaining accreditation as the city's CME course. A total of 262 physicians attended three courses that have a divided set of research competencies. Following the Kirkpatrick Model for evaluating the effectiveness of training programs, we confirmed the participants' positive reaction to the courses (Level 1 evaluation), their perceived increase in knowledge and confidence in research skills (Level 2 evaluation), and application of learned knowledge in their practice (Level 3 evaluation). Presented here is a step-by-step scaling-up model of health research capacity building. Strategies for the further expansion include: further capacity building of instructors; responding to clinicians' specific needs; building a recruiting system with authorization; and improving the Level 3 training evaluation.
Gonçalves, Vagner; Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Queiroz; de Siqueira, Adriana; Florio, Jorge Camilo; Ciscato, Claudia Helena Pastor; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; de Souza Spinosa, Helenice
Agricultural pesticides used with the criminal intent to intoxicate domestic and wild animals are a serious concern in Veterinary Medicine. In order to identify the pesticide carbofuran and its metabolite 3- hydroxycarbofuran in animals suspected of exogenous intoxication a high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated in stomach contents, liver, vitreous humor and blood. The method was evaluated using biological samples from seven different animal species. The following parameters of analytical validation were evaluated: linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity, recovery and matrix effect. The method was linear at the range of 6.25-100μg/mL and the correlation coefficient (r 2 ) values were >0.9811 for all matrices. The precision and accuracy of the method was determined by coefficient of variation (CV) and the relative standard deviation error (RSE), and both were less than 15%. Recovery ranged from 74.29 to 100.1% for carbofuran and from 64.72 to 100.61% for 3-hydroxycarbofuran. There were no significant interfering peaks or matrix effects. This method was suitable for detecting 25 positive cases for carbofuran amongst a total of 64 animal samples suspected of poisoning brought to the Toxicology Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Sao Paulo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, ... firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel No:+2348038352906. ... in-contact humans from pig farms and abattoir. ... Momoh et al. 141 and may enhance the distribution of resistance genes into ... treating clinical infections in both man and.
xyphoid cartilage to the pelvic area and aquasonic gel applied. The uterus was ... is used in both veterinary and human medicine ... Idris et al. 135 the pelvic region was gently made wet, with ... showing multiple fetuses (blue arrow). Plate IV: ... The beginning of bone formation which appears as hyperechoic structures ...
This article traces the development of agricultural science at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, near Pretoria, from its founding in 1908 until the 1950s, by which time many enzootic and epizootic diseases had either been eradicated, or were largely controllable through various forms of prophylaxis. The Institute demonstrated the political and economic significance attributed to the pastoral industry in South Africa and the conviction that scientific discoveries could increase output. During this period, researchers explicated the aetiology and provenance of hitherto mysterious diseases such as lamsiekte, geeldikkop and African horsesickness. They developed vaccines, some of which were adopted internationally. The nature of their investigations showed that veterinary science increasingly entailed more than just progress in biomedical procedures. Ecological factors, in particular the nutritional state of the veld, became a priority from the 1920s onwards as veterinarians saw their function as promoting animal health as well as eliminating disease. Dealing with contagious infections also incorporated less welcome, and at times controversial, approaches to disease control. The imposition of pastoral regulations illustrated the expanding powers of the South African state, founded on presumptions of scientific legitimacy. The article also explores the contribution made by African communities and settler farmers to the institutionalisation of veterinary knowledge, as well as the role South African researchers played in the evolution of a colonial, as well as an increasingly international, scientific culture.
The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to ...
Full Text Available Adriano Mantovani was born in 1926 in Altedo, Malalbergo (Bologna. After graduating in veterinary medicine from Bologna University in 1948, he gained his Masters in public health from the University of Minnesota in 1952 and qualified to lecture in microbiology and immunology in 1957 and in parasitology in 1963.He held numerous positions over the years: Assistant, Aide and Vice‐Director of the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale di Teramo(1949‐1962, Researcher at the Faculty of Medicine in Rome (1962-1965, Professor of Infectious Diseases, Prophylaxis and Veterinary Police Work at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Bologna, Director of the Institute of the same name (1965-1982 and Research Manager and Director of the Parasitology Laboratory at the Italian National Institute of Health and the WHO/FAO Collaboration Centre for Veterinary Public Health in Rome (1983-1991.He was active in numerous national and international organisations, including as a member of the National Health Council (1974-1982, Secretary of the World Federation of Parasitologists (1971-1987 and from 1972 President, Vice President or presenter in various WHO, FAO and OIE working groups. He worked in numerous countries in Africa, Asia, Europe, Latin America and North America as an expert, presenter and lecturer. From 1978, the year in which the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Plan was established, he was one of the major collaborators of the WHO Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre in Athens (MZCC. In 1989, he was the first Italian to be awarded the OIE’s international award for contributions to veterinary public health and in 2001 was publicly recognised by the MZCC for his many years of activities carried out to support the zoonoses control plan and promote well-being in the Mediterranean. He had been a member of the Italian National Guard’s Commission for Predicting and Preventing Great Risks since 1994. In 2002, he was presented with the Italian Parasitology
Welsh, C E; Parkin, T D H; Marshall, J F
As antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains continue to emerge and spread in human and animal populations, understanding prescription practices is key in benchmarking current performance and setting goals. Antimicrobial prescription (AP) in companion veterinary species is widespread, but is neither monitored nor restricted in the USA and Canada. The veterinary use of certain antimicrobial classes is discouraged in some countries, in the hope of preserving efficacy for serious human infections. The aim of this study was to ascertain the rate of prescription of a number of 'reserved' antimicrobials in a first-opinion US and Canadian horse cohort, and identify trends in their empirical use. Retrospective cohort study. A large convenience sample of electronic medical records (2006-2012) was interrogated using text mining to identify enrofloxacin, clarithromycin and ceftiofur prescriptions. Time series analysis and logistic regression were used to identify trends and risk factors for prescription. Prescription of these antimicrobials as a first-line intervention, without culture and sensitivity testing (CST), was common in this population. Enrofloxacin prescriptions were found to increase over the study period, and there was evidence of either a reducing, or static trend in the proportion of reserved APs informed by CST. Dose adequacy could not be included due to the nature of the data used. Empirical use of reserved antimicrobials was common in this population, and further advice and guidance should be issued to first-opinion veterinarians to safeguard antimicrobial efficacy. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.
Nicholas E. Hagemeier
Full Text Available Purpose: Practice-based research networks (PBRN seek to shorten the gap between research and application in primary patient care settings. Inclusion of community pharmacies in primary care PBRNs is relatively unexplored. Such a PBRN model could improve care coordination and community-based research, especially in rural and underserved areas. The objectives of this study were to: 1 evaluate rural Appalachian community pharmacy key informants’ perceptions of PBRNs and practice-based research; 2 explore key informants’ perceptions of perceived applicability of practice-based research domains; and 3 explore pharmacy key informant interest in PBRN participation. Methods: The sample consisted of community pharmacies within city limits of all Appalachian Research Network (AppNET PBRN communities in South Central Appalachia. A descriptive, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted from November 2013 to February 2014. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine associations between key informant and practice characteristics, and PBRN interest and perceptions. Findings: A 47.8% response rate was obtained. Most key informants (88% were very or somewhat interested in participating in AppNET. Enrichment of patient care (82.8%, improved relationships with providers in the community (75.9%, and professional development opportunities (69.0% were perceived by more than two-thirds of respondents to be very beneficial outcomes of PBRN participation. Respondents ranked time constraints (63% and workflow disruptions (20% as the biggest barriers to PBRN participation. Conclusion: Key informants in rural Appalachian community pharmacies indicated interest in PBRN participation. Integration of community pharmacies into existing rural PBRNs could advance community level care coordination and promote improved health outcomes in rural and underserved areas. Type: Original Research
This Order specifies the conditions for applications for licences for the import, manufacture, preparation, putting up for sale or sale of unsealed radioisotopes used in human or veterinary medicine, in accordance with the Royal Order of 23 February 1963 laying down General Regulations for Protection of the Population and Workers against the Hazards of Ionizing Radiation. (NEA) [fr
van Eikenhorst, Linda; Salema, Nde-Eshimuni; Anderson, Claire
Much has been studied in regard to non-prescription medicines (NPMs), but the impact of greater emphasis toward patient self-selection of such agents is still not well understood, and evidence in the literature might be equivocal. The aim was to examine whether or not pharmacist interventions are important in the sale of NPMs and to summarize the evidence of pharmacists' contribution in maintaining patient safety and improving the quality of consultations involving NPMs. Seven online databases were searched to identify the literature on studies conducted within the UK and in countries comparable to the UK reporting on consultations and selling of NPMs published between 1980 and 2013. All study designs except for quantitative surveys were eligible for inclusion into the review. The data extraction and quality assessment were performed according to the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines. The data extracted from the studies were analyzed and presented qualitatively. Eighty-three studies from an original 12,879 citations were included in this review. Just under half of the studies were published between 2000 and 2009 (n = 38; 46%). Thirty-three (44%) of the studies were conducted in the UK. The review showed that in terms of the contribution of community pharmacy staff in consultations for NPMs, non-pharmacist staff dealt with a large proportion of the consultations and pharmacists were usually involved in the consultation through referral from non-pharmacist staff member. Counseling was not consistently offered to everyone. Where counseling was provided it was not always of sufficient quality. Consultations were performed much better when symptoms were presented compared to when people made a direct product request. Pharmacists were reported to conduct better consultations than non-pharmacist staff. There was evidence to suggest that where counseling was appropriately provided this afforded the person a safe environment to utilize their
Vockeroth, W G
Complementary and alternative therapies, including homeopathy, have a definite place in veterinary medicine today. The public is demanding access to a full range of conventional and complementary therapies, and the best scenario is to have all therapies available, for there is a place and a need for all of them in the right situation. In my own practice, I use both alternative and conventional therapies, as well as referring patients to specialists, for services such as ultrasound and surgery...
Babigumira, Joseph B; Lubinga, Solomon J; Jenny, Alisa M; Larsen-Cooper, Erin; Crawford, Jessica; Matemba, Charles; Stergachis, Andy
Poor access to essential medicines is common in many low- and middle-income countries, partly due to an insufficient and inadequately trained workforce to manage the medicines supply chain. We conducted a prospective impact evaluation of the training and deployment of pharmacy assistants (PAs) to rural health centers in Malawi. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare access to medicines in two districts where newly trained PAs were deployed to health centers (intervention) and two districts with no trained PAs at health centers (comparison). A baseline household survey and two annual post-intervention household surveys were conducted. We studied children under five years with a history of fever, cough and difficulty in breathing, and diarrhea in the previous two weeks. We collected data on access to antimalarials, antibiotics and oral rehydration salts (ORS) during the childrens' symptomatic periods. We used difference-in-differences regression models to estimate the impact of PA training and deployment on access to medicines. We included 3974 children across the three rounds of annual surveys: 1840 (46%) in the districts with PAs deployed at health centers and 2096 (53%) in districts with no PAs deployed at health centers. Approximately 80% of children had a fever, nearly 30% had a cough, and 43% had diarrhea in the previous two weeks. In the first year of the program, the presence of a PA led to a significant 74% increase in the odds of access to any antimalarial, and a significant 49% increase in the odds of access to artemisinin combination therapies. This effect was restricted to the first year post-intervention. There was no effect of presence of a PA on access to antibiotics or ORS. The training and deployment of pharmacy assistants to rural health centers in Malawi increased access to antimalarial medications over the first year, but the effect was attenuated over the second year. Pharmacy assistants training and deployment demonstrated no impact on
Shrestha, Rajeev; Ghale, Anish; Chapagain, Bijay Raj; Gyawali, Mahasagar; Acharya, Trishna
The access to essential medicines for non-communicable disease treatment is unacceptably low worldwide. The fundamental right to health cannot be fulfilled without equitable access to essential medicines. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 94 community pharmacies of Kathmandu valley. Non-probability quota sampling method was adopted for the purpose. Village Development Committees with more than 5000 populations were included in the study. The availability of the selected essential medicines, their price and producer identity were observed. Data entry and analysis were carried out in Microsoft Excel and Statistical package for social science. The availability of the essential medicines was not 100% in Kathmandu valley. High competition and high price variation were seen in metformin 500 mg (254.6%) and atorvastatin 10 mg (327.6%). The study showed that maximum (54.7%) brands were manufactured in Nepal. Furthermore, atorvastatin 10 mg (0.6 day wage) was found to be quite expensive, and glibenclamide 5 mg (0.1 day wage) was the cheapest one for diabetes mellitus treatment for 1 month of treatment period compared to daily wages of other essential medicines. The availability of the selected essential medicines was found to be ununiform and insufficient in the entire region. High competition was observed in the products with high price variation, and the access to cost-effective brand was poor. Furthermore, it was found that government salary is affordable to treat non-communicable disease with the help of the essential medicines.
Pichini, Simona; Rotolo, Maria Concetta; Bellotti, Pasquale; Minutillo, Adele; Mastrobattista, Luisa; Pacifici, Roberta
A pilot study of market surveillance in Senegal has been performed analyzing best selling drugs from an official pharmacy and a street market in two principal cities of Senegal and some traditional preparations from herbal medicine from the same market. A simple and rapid gas chromatography method with mass spectrometry detection has been applied after a liquid-liquid extraction of pharmaceutical products and traditional preparations at acidic, neutral and basic pH with chloroform-isopropanol (9:1, v/v). The assay was validated in the range from 10mg to 250 mg/g powder preparations with good determination coefficients (r(2)≥ 0.99) for the calibration curves. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of the calibration curves, mean recoveries of substances under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy were always better than 15%. The four best selling drugs purchased from a Dakar local pharmacy exactly contained the amount of active principles reported in the respective labels while the best selling drugs freely purchased from Kaolack market contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label. No pharmacological active compound, but salicylic acid was found in one of the traditional herbal preparations. This pilot study showed that whereas official drugs sold in pharmacies at prices accessible for a very few portion of the population contained the amount of active principles as reported in the labels, those from street market bought by the majority of population contained an amount of active ingredients lower than that declared on the label and finally traditional herbal preparations seldom contain pharmacological active principles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Liao, Xing; Xie, Yan-Ming; Yang, Wei; Chang, Yan-Peng
There is a new research model named 'registry study/patient registry' in Western medicine, which could be referred to by Chinese medicine researchers, such as active safety surveillance. This article will introduce registry study from different aspects as the developing history, features, and application in order to inform Chinese medicine researchers of future studies.
Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei
Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Fernanda C Dórea
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent focus on earlier detection of pathogen introduction in human and animal populations has led to the development of surveillance systems based on automated monitoring of health data. Real- or near real-time monitoring of pre-diagnostic data requires automated classification of records into syndromes--syndromic surveillance--using algorithms that incorporate medical knowledge in a reliable and efficient way, while remaining comprehensible to end users. METHODS: This paper describes the application of two of machine learning (Naïve Bayes and Decision Trees and rule-based methods to extract syndromic information from laboratory test requests submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. RESULTS: High performance (F1-macro = 0.9995 was achieved through the use of a rule-based syndrome classifier, based on rule induction followed by manual modification during the construction phase, which also resulted in clear interpretability of the resulting classification process. An unmodified rule induction algorithm achieved an F(1-micro score of 0.979 though this fell to 0.677 when performance for individual classes was averaged in an unweighted manner (F(1-macro, due to the fact that the algorithm failed to learn 3 of the 16 classes from the training set. Decision Trees showed equal interpretability to the rule-based approaches, but achieved an F(1-micro score of 0.923 (falling to 0.311 when classes are given equal weight. A Naïve Bayes classifier learned all classes and achieved high performance (F(1-micro= 0.994 and F(1-macro = .955, however the classification process is not transparent to the domain experts. CONCLUSION: The use of a manually customised rule set allowed for the development of a system for classification of laboratory tests into syndromic groups with very high performance, and high interpretability by the domain experts. Further research is required to develop internal validation rules in order to establish
Kirshin, V.A.; Belov, A.D.; Budarkov, V.A.; Prochazka, Z.
The monograph summarizes the authors' experience and data from Soviet and foreign scientific literature. It consists of the following chapters: radioactive sources; utilization of ionizing radiation and radioactive isotopes; biological effects of ionizing radiation; radiation sickness in animals; combined post-irradiation syndromes; prophylaxis of radiation injury; therapy of irradiated animals; and veterinary radiation hygiene control of the environment, fodder, animals and animal products. (P.A.)
Alina Karina Draghici,
Full Text Available To analyze the current situation and future issues relating to health and treatment options bees, bee breeders in Europe, agencies and drug manufacturers in Europe have held several meetings. One of thesetook place last year in December at the EMEA (European Medicines Agency in London, United Kingdom. The purpose of this meeting was to consider the current situation of pathology in bees to identify the most common diseases found in this species, identification and lack of treatment options for some diseases, and identifying solutions to improve the situation.
Welfare Pharmacy contains medical formulas documented by the government and official prescriptions used by the official pharmacy in the pharmaceutical process. In the last years of Southern Song Dynasty, anonyms gave a lot of prescription annotations, made textual researches for the name, source, composition and origin of the prescriptions, and supplemented important historical data of medical cases and researched historical facts. The annotations of Welfare Pharmacy gathered the essence of medical theory, and can be used as precious materials to correctly understand the syndrome differentiation, compatibility regularity and clinical application of prescriptions. This article deeply investigated the style and form of the prescription annotations in Welfare Pharmacy, the name of prescriptions and the evolution of terminology, the major functions of the prescriptions, processing methods, instructions for taking medicine and taboos of prescriptions, the medical cases and clinical efficacy of prescriptions, the backgrounds, sources, composition and cultural meanings of prescriptions, proposed that the prescription annotations played an active role in the textual dissemination, patent medicine production and clinical diagnosis and treatment of Welfare Pharmacy. This not only helps understand the changes in the names and terms of traditional Chinese medicines in Welfare Pharmacy, but also provides the basis for understanding the knowledge sources, compatibility regularity, important drug innovations and clinical medications of prescriptions in Welfare Pharmacy. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
An investigation on the level of awareness, attitude, and interest among medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students toward their majors on entering university: The case of Islamic Azad University, Tehran medical sciences branch
Farhad Adhami Moghadam
Full Text Available Introduction: Having awareness, interest, and positive attitude toward one's fields of study leads to the development of a compatibility between demands and expectations on the one hand and future career on the other hand. This study was carried out to determine the level of awareness, attitude, and interest of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy students of Islamic Azad University, Tehran Medical Sciences Branch toward their own field of study on entering university. Materials and Methods: This research is a basic descriptive study conducted on 273 students who had just entered university. This study was performed using census. Data collection instrument was a four-part questionnaire which included demographic information, and questions measuring students' awareness, attitude, and interest. Results: With regard to their field of study, there was no statistically significant difference in the average of students' awareness (P = 0.731. The attitude of medicine students was significantly more positive than pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.001, and the attitude of dentistry students was significantly more positive than that of pharmacy students (P = 0.460. Medical students' interest level was significantly higher than that of pharmacy and dentistry students (P < 0.05, and the interest level of dentistry students was significantly greater than the interest level of pharmacy students (P = 024/0. There was a statistically significant positive relationship between awareness and attitude and between awareness and interest in all of the study subjects (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The study results indicated that having a high level of awareness toward one's major led students studying in medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy to experience a more positive attitude and a higher level of interest. Thus, before entering the university, academic counseling will be beneficial for acquiring a better understanding of most majors, a goal which could be provided
Törneke, K; Torren-Edo, J; Grave, K; Mackay, D K J
Antimicrobials are essential medicines for the treatment of many microbial infections in humans and animals. Only a small number of antimicrobial agents with new mechanisms of action have been authorized in recent years for use in either humans or animals. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) arising from the use of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine is a concern for public health due to the detection of increasing levels of resistance in foodborne zoonotic bacteria, particularly gram-negative bacteria, and due to the detection of determinants of resistance such as Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) in bacteria from animals and in foodstuffs of animal origin. The importance and the extent of the emergence and spread of AMR from animals to humans has yet to be quantified. Likewise, the relative contribution that the use of antimicrobial agents in animals makes to the overall risk to human from AMR is currently a subject of debate that can only be resolved through further research. Nevertheless, risk managers have agreed that the impact on public health of the use of antimicrobials in animals should be minimized as far as possible and a variety of measures have been introduced by different authorities in the EU to achieve this objective. This article reviews a range of measures that have been implemented within European countries to reduce the occurrence and the risk of transmission of AMR to humans following the use of antimicrobial agents in animals and briefly describes some of the alternatives to the use of antimicrobial agents that are being developed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Funmilayo A. Okanlawon, RN, PhD, FWACN
Full Text Available Traditionally, nursing care has been identified as an integral part of human medicine but is not well recognised in veterinary medicine as practised in Nigeria. In caring for human beings, a nurse is expected to have the fundamental understanding of disease aetiology, manifestations, diagnosis, manage-ment, rehabilitation, prevention and control. This is equally applicable to the care of animals. The role of veterinary nursing in veterinary medicine is significant considering the multitude of issues involved in the care of animals. The keeping of domestic animals is becoming popular and consequently the spread of infectious diseases from animals to human beings is on the increase. It is vital for human beings and animals to coexist in a healthy environment. The authors examine the importance of nursing care in veterinary medicine, the current situation in Nigeria, the role of veterinary nurses, the inter-professional approach to veterinary medicine, preparedness for the emergence of infectious diseases and career opportunities for veterinary nurses. This premise falls within the context of the ‘One Health’ concept.
Exploring self-use, attitude and interest to study complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) among final year undergraduate medical, pharmacy and nursing students in Sierra Leone: a comparative study.
James, Peter Bai; Bah, Abdulai Jawo; Kondorvoh, Idrissa Momoh
CAM inclusion into the curricula of health training institutions, a strategy for its integration into the main stream healthcare delivery system is growing globally. Future healthcare professionals knowledge and perception of CAM are key determinants to its successful integration. Thus, the main objective of this study was to compare the use, attitude and interest to study CAM among final year undergraduate medical, pharmacy and nursing students at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences University of Sierra Leone (COMAHS-USL). A questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was carried out among final year medical, pharmacy and nursing students enrolled at the College of Medicine and Allied Health Sciences University of Sierra Leone (COMAHS-USL). Chi square, fisher exact two tailed test and Kruskal-wallis test were used to analyze data collected. Close to two-thirds (61 %) of all the three groups of final year students used one form of CAM or the other with pharmacy (72.7 %) and nursing (55.6 %) students being the highest and least users respectively. No significant difference was observed among the three groups. In general, final year students in all three cadres demonstrated a positive attitude toward CAM (33.80 ± 3. 2) with medical students showing more positive attitude than pharmacy (p = 0.022) and nursing student (p = 0.008). No significant difference in attitude was observed between students in pharmacy and nursing programs (p = 0.354). More than three quarter (76.6 %) of the students in all the three groups indicated their interest in studying CAM, with preference for the subject to be taught as an elective module (81.6 %). An appreciable number of final year medical, pharmacy and nursing students at COMAHS-USL have used at least one CAM modality and demonstrated an overall positive attitude towards CAM. Interest to study CAM was also observed among most of them even though they preferred it to be taught as an elective module.
... 558 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0155] Veterinary Feed Directive; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food... veterinary feed directive (VFD) regulation. The agency is taking this action in response to requests for an... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration, 7500...
Bergman, Philip J
The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Recently, the European Union has introduced the Falsified Medicines Directive (FMD. Additionally, in early 2016, a Delegated Act (DA related to the FMD was published. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of external audits in the context of implementing new regulations provided by the FMD in the secondary care environment. Methods: The external, in-person workflow audits were performed by an authentication company in three Polish hospital pharmacies. Each audit consisted of a combination of supervision (non-participant observation, secondary data analysis, and expert interviews with the use of an independently designed authorial Diagnostic Questionnaire. The questionnaire included information about hospital drug distribution procedures, data concerning drug usage, IT systems, medication order systems, the processes of medication dispensing, and the preparation and administration of hazardous drugs. Data analysis included a thorough examination of hospital documentation in regard to drug management. All data were subjected to qualitative analysis, with the aim of generating meaningful information through inductive inference. Results: Only one dispensing location in the Polish hospitals studied has the potential to be a primary authentication area. In the audited hospitals, an Automated Drug Dispensing System and unit dose were not identified during the study. Hospital wards contained an enclosed place within the department dedicated to drug storage under the direct supervision of senior nursing staff. An electronic order system was not available. In the largest center, unused medications are re-dispensed to different hospital departments, or may be sold to various institutions. Additionally, in one hospital pharmacy, pharmacists prepared parenteral nutrition and chemotherapeutic drugs for patients admitted to the hospital. Conclusions: External audits might prove beneficial in the course of introducing new
Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M
Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.
Gharpure, Kunda; Thawani, Vijay; Sontakke, Smita; Chaudhari, Kiran; Bankar, Mangesh; Diwe, Rajendra
Background: There is a growing indifference among the pharmacy practitioners towards their duty as information providers to the patients. The patients do not always get enough desired information about proper use of medicines from the prescribers also. This contributes to improper use of medicines by the patients. Objectives: To bring about awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students for better service to the patients. Material and Methods: The final year students o...
Reinartz, P.; Sabri, O.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Kinzel, S.; Kuepper, W. [Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Versuchstierkunde; Bachmann, T. [Tierarztpraxis Dr. med. vet. Thomas Bachmann, Glashhuetten (Germany)
A nine-year-old cat with symptoms of a distinct hyperthyroidism was presented at the University Hospital of the RWTH Aachen. The clinical symptoms as well as the diagnostic procedures performed at the hospital confirmed the diagnosis. After five weeks of thyreostatic medication a regular metabolism of the thyroid gland was established, followed by a radioiodine therapy with 70.3 MBq 131-iodine. Subsequently, the cat was hospitalized for two days before it could be released in good condition. Six weeks after treatment the former drastically reduced weight of the cat recovered to near normal. Even though the chemical analysis detected a discrete hyperthyroidism, clinical symptoms were no longer prominent. Three months after treatment, the final examination showed a regular metabolism of the thyroid gland without a specific thyroidal medication. The presented case illustrates that radioiodine therapy is a safe and efficient treatment of thyroidal dysfunctions in veterinary medicine. (orig.) [Deutsch] Eine neun Jahre alte, europaeische Langhaarkatze wurde mit Symptomen einer ausgepraegten Schilddruesenueberfunktion im Universitaetsklinikum der RWTH Aachen vorgestellt. Sowohl die klinische Symptomatik als auch die Labordiagnostik und die apparativ erhobenen Befunde belegten das Vorliegen einer Hyperthyreose. Im Anschluss an eine fuenfwoechige thyreostatische Therapie, mit der eine euthyreote Stoffwechsellage erreicht werden konnte, wurde eine Radioiodtherapie mit 70,3 MBq 131-Iod durchgefuehrt. Nach einer nur zweitaegigen komplikationslosen Hospitalisierung konnte die Katze in gutem Allgemeinzustand entlassen werden. Sechs Wochen nach der Therapie hatte sich das zuvor deutlich reduzierte Koerpergewicht auf nahezu normgerechte Werte erhoeht; klinische Symptome der Schilddruesenueberfunktion liessen sich trotz einer laborchemisch diagnostizierten diskreten Gesamtthyroxiderhoehung nicht mehr nachweisen. Bei einer abschliessenden Kontrolle drei Monate nach Entlassung wies
Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.
Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael
A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system
... common source for obtaining prescriptions is the local pharmacy. Usually the pharmacy is located in a drug or grocery store. ... some insurance companies have chosen is mail-order pharmacy. Once a pharmacy has been chosen it is ...
Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. PMID:28801498
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M; Nørgaard, Lotte S
Despite pharmacists' extensive knowledge in the optimization of patients' medical treatments, community pharmacies are still fighting to earn patients' trust with respect to medicinal counselling at the counter. The aim was to investigate how patients perceive pharmacy counselling at the present time, in order to develop the patient-pharmacy relationship for the benefit of both patients and pharmacies. Short semi-structured interviews were carried out with pharmacy customers by pharmacy internship students. One hundred and eight customers in 35 independent pharmacies across Denmark were interviewed during the spring of 2011. Customers were interviewed about their expectations of pharmacies in general and their experiences with medical counselling in particular. Customers perceive community pharmacies very differently in terms of both expectations of and positive experiences with counselling. They appear to be in favour of pharmacy counselling with respect to over-the-counter medicine and first-time prescription medicine in contrast to refills. Customers find it difficult to express the health-care role of pharmacies even when experiencing and appreciating it. Lack of appreciation of pharmacy counselling for refill prescription medicine and the difficulty in defining the role of pharmacies might stem from the difficulties that customers have in understanding medicine and thus the role of counselling services with respect to medicine. The pharmacy staff does not seem to realize these barriers. For pharmacies to encourage customer interest in pharmacy counselling, the staff should start taking the identified barriers into account when planning communication strategies. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Onda, Mitsuko; Takagaki, Nobumasa
Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences has included an evidence-based medicine (EBM) exercise in the introductory education for clinical practice for 4th-year pharmacy students since 2015. The purpose of this exercise is to learn the process of practice and basic concepts of EBM, especially to cultivate the practical ability to solve patients' problems and answer their questions. Additionally, in 2016, we have attempted flipped teaching. The students are instructed to review the basic knowledge necessary for active learning in this exercise by watching video teaching materials and to bring reports summarizing the contents on the flipped teaching days. The program includes short lectures [overview of EBM, document retrieval, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and systematic review], exercises [patient, intervention, comparison, outcome (PICO) structuring, critical appraisal of papers in small groups with tutors], and presentations. The program includes: step 1, PICO structuring based on scenarios; step 2, critical appraisal of English-language papers on RCTs using evaluation worksheets; and step 3, reviewing the results of the PICO exercise with patients. The results of the review are shared among groups through general discussion. In this symposium, I discuss students' attitudes, the effectiveness of small group discussions using flipped teaching, and future challenges to be addressed in this program.
Boland, Daubney Harper; Scott, Mary Alice; Kim, Helen; White, Traci; Adams, Eve
While supported by the Affordable Care Act, in the United States, interprofessional training often takes place after healthcare providers graduate and are practicing in the field. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of an interprofessional training for graduate-level healthcare trainees. A group of interprofessional healthcare faculty provided a weeklong interprofessional immersion for doctoral-level healthcare trainees (n = 24) in Pharmacy, Counselling Psychology, Nursing, and Family Medicine residents. Healthcare faculty and staff from each profession worked side-by-side to provide integrated training utilising the Interprofessional Education Collaborative core competency domains. Trainees were placed into small teams with representatives from each profession; each team observed, learned, and practiced working within teams to provide quality patient care. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected to identify the effect of the training on trainees' self-reported team skills, as well as the extent to which the trainees learned and utilised the competencies. The results suggest that after completing the training, trainees felt more confident in their ability to work within an interprofessional team and more likely to utilise a team-based approach in the future.
Full Text Available In his report on the state of livestock breeding, dr Vukovic reported about the problems related to infectious diseases of domestic animals in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH, the dynamics of their appearance as well as the methods and the speed of disease suppression. The author stated that soon the Law on Cattle Pest was adopted stipulating provisions to prevent occurrence and spreading of infectious diseases of domestic animals. Considering the historic organization of veterinary activities in this region, the author listed names of meritorious veterinarians. Despite almost 90 years passed from the publication of his paper, described were the timings of the outbrakes of infectious diseases in BiH, their rapid suppression, and separation of the veterinary service from the sanitary service.Key words: livestock breeding, veterinary service, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Shah, Rita; Blustein, Leona; Kuffner, Ed; Davis, Lisa
To identify and compare volumetric measures used by healthcare providers in communicating dosing instructions for pediatric liquid prescriptions to parents/caregivers. Dosing instructions were retrospectively reviewed for the 10 most frequently prescribed liquid medications dispensed from 4 community pharmacies for patients aged ≤ 12 years during a 3-month period. Volumetric measures on original prescriptions (ie, milliliters, teaspoons) were compared with those utilized by the pharmacist on the pharmacy label dispensed to the parent/caregiver. Of 649 prescriptions and corresponding pharmacy labels evaluated, 68% of prescriptions and 62% of pharmacy labels communicated dosing in milliliters, 24% of prescriptions and 29% of pharmacy labels communicated dosing in teaspoonfuls, 7% of prescriptions and 0% of pharmacy labels communicated dosing in other measures (ie, milligrams, cubic centimeters, "dose"), and 25% of dispensed pharmacy labels did not reflect units as written in the prescription. Volumetric measures utilized by healthcare professionals in dosing instructions for prescription pediatric oral liquid medications are not consistent. Healthcare professionals and parents/caregivers should be educated on safe dosing practices for liquid pediatric medications. Generalizability to the larger pediatric population may vary depending on pharmacy chain, location, and medications evaluated. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Guideline for radiation protection in veterinary medicine. Guideline relating to the Ordinance for Protection Against Damage Through Ionising Radiation (Radiation Protection Ordinance - StrlSchV) and the Ordinance for Protection Against X-Ray Radiation (X-Ray Ordinance - RoeV)
The Guideline on ''Radiation Protection in Veterinary Medicine'' primarily addresses the supreme Land authorities that are responsible for radiation protection. Its purpose is to harmonise the radiation protection procedures employed by the Laender, thus establishing a nationwide uniform system for monitoring the handling of radioactive substances and ionising radiation applications in veterinary medicine on the basis of the legal regulations in force. In addition the guideline is intended to serve veterinary staff as a source of practical information which explains the radiation protection requirements stipulated by the legal regulations and technical rules. This concerns in particular the rules for the acquisition of the necessary radiation protection skills or the necessary knowledge of radiation protection by the veterinary surgeon performing the application or the staff cooperation in the application
Peter Bai James
Full Text Available Background: There is a dearth of skilled pharmaceutical workforce in the African region, and this is partly due to a limited number of prospective students entering the profession. An understanding of the factors that influence the choice of pharmacy as a career is needed to attract highly motivated and skilled individuals into the profession. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess pharmacy students’ motivation to study pharmacy, their attitude and future career intentions in Sierra Leone. Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey of undergraduate pharmacy students enrolled at the College of Medicine, and Allied Health Sciences, University of Sierra Leone (COMAHS – USL was carried out between May and June 2015. Descriptive statistics, as well as chi-square and Fisher exact two-tailed tests were used to analyze the data. Results: Close to a quarter (24.3% of pharmacy students surveyed chose pharmacy as their preferred major. The choice of pharmacy as a preferred major was common among first-year students, (p=0.001, those who were married (p<0.001 and have had pharmacy practice experience (p<0.001. Motivation for choosing pharmacy was assessed based on three domains (education, personal and career-related factors.Students cited a subject teacher at school ̸ College (66.7% as the most education-related influence, while friends and family members (61.1% was the major personal-related factor. Also, students considered the desire for self-employment in a healthcare related job (27.8%, and excellent career opportunities (27.8% as the major career-related factors that influenced their choice of pharmacy as a preferred major. Medicine was the first choice of study among the majority (95% of students that chose pharmacy as a second choice when seeking admission into the university. Pharmacy students demonstrated a positive attitude toward the profession, and considered drug manufacturing (47.3% and hospital pharmacy (43
Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, ... control ticks by regular use of acaricide and timely treatment of affected horses in ... enlarged spleen and liver, pale kidney and oedema in lungs. Babesiosis is usually diagnosed by .... Journal of Animal and Plant.
Wie nutzen deutsche Tiermedizinerinnen und Tiermediziner soziale Netzwerke? Eine Untersuchung am Beispiel des tiermedizinischen Netzwerks „NOVICE“ [How do German veterinarians use social networks? A study, using the example of the 'NOVICE' veterinary medicine network
Full Text Available [english] Objective: NOVICE (Network Of Veterinary ICT in Education, , is a professional online social network for veterinarians, lecturers and students of veterinary medicine as well as for e-Learning advisers and others working in establishments that teach veterinary medicine. This study sets out to investigate to what extent German veterinarians, lecturers, students of veterinary medicine and e-Learning representatives would accept a specialist network, what requirements would have to be met by an online social network, how to use web 2.0 tools , and what advantages a specialist network could offer. Methodology: The investigation was carried out by analysing data from the Elgg platform database as well as using Google Analytics. Annual focus group surveys and individual interviews were carried out in order to perform an analysis of acceptance among network users.Results: 1961 users from 73 different countries registered on the NOVICE site between 1 September 2010 and 21 March 2012. Germany represents the biggest user group, with 565 users (28.81%. During this period, most individual hits on the website came from Germany too. In total, 24.83% of all members are active, while 19.22% of German members participate actively. In terms of gender, there are significantly more female members than male members, both in the NOVICE network as a whole as well as in Germany. The most used web 2.0 tools are chat and email messaging services as well as writing wikis and contributing to forum discussions. The focus group surveys showed that respondents generally make use of other online communities too. Active members generally use more web 2.0 tools than in other networks, while passive members are generally more reluctant in all networks. All participants of the survey welcomed the idea of having a network specifically set up for the profession and believe that it could be very useful for veterinary medicine.Conclusions: The network and its membership
Erstad, Brian L; Mann, Henry J; Weber, Robert J
Critical care medicine has grown from a small group of physicians participating in patient care rounds in surgical and medical intensive care units (ICUs) to a highly technical, interdisciplinary team. Pharmacy's growth in the area of critical care is as exponential. Today's ICU requires a comprehensive pharmaceutical service that includes both operational and clinical services to meet patient medication needs. This article provides the elements for a business plan to justify critical care pharmacy services by describing the pertinent background and benefit of ICU pharmacy services, detailing a current assessment of ICU pharmacy services, listing the essential ICU pharmacy services, describing service metrics, and delineating an appropriate timeline for implementing an ICU pharmacy service. The structure and approach of this business plan can be applied to a variety of pharmacy services. By following the format and information listed in this article, the pharmacy director can move closer to developing patient-centered pharmacy services for ICU patients.
Dupont, Nana Hee; Fertner, Mette; Birkegård, Anna Camilla
With the increasing occurrence of antimicrobial resistance, more attention has been directed towards surveillance of both human and veterinary antimicrobial use. Since the early 2000s, several research papers on Danish pig antimicrobial usage have been published, based on data from the Danish...
Veneziani, Glauco Rogerio
The primary goal in veterinary radiography is to produce radiographs of diagnostic quality on the first attempt. This goal serves three purposes: (1) to decrease radiation exposure to the patient and veterinary personnel; (2) to decrease the cost of the study for the client; and (3) to produce diagnostic data for rapid interpretation and treatment of the patient. This work aimed to determine the doses in dogs submitted to chest and abdomen X rays using the technique of thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry. The radiation doses were assessed using thermoluminescent dosimeters of calcium sulphate doped with dysprosium (CaSO 4 :Dy) and lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti). The obtained results indicate that is extremely important the assessment of radiation doses involved in veterinary diagnostic radiology procedures, to evaluate the delivered doses to the animals, to be used as a parameter in the individual monitoring of pet's owners, who assist the animal positioning, and to protect occupationally exposed workers at the Veterinary Radiology Clinics. (author)
Royal, Kenneth D; Hunt, Suzanne A; Borst, Luke B; Gerard, Mathew
The objective of this study was to better understand veterinary medical students' sleep hygiene and identify the extent to which sleep hygiene behaviors may result in consequences (either positive or negative) for students. A total of 187 doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) program students at a large College of Veterinary Medicine in the United States. The Epworth Sleep Scale and Daytime Sleepiness Scale were administered to 393 students enrolled in the DVM program. About 55.1% of students reported sleep per night, 28.9% reported having trouble sleeping, and 50.3% reported feeling sleepy all day. With respect to sleep quality, 5.3% described it as excellent, 52.4% as good, 34.2% as fair, and 8.0% as poor. A significant percentage of veterinary medical students exhibit poor sleep hygiene habits that may be detrimental to both their health and academic endeavors.
Petkova, Valentina; Atkinson, Jeffrey
Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists) act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists) follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital) pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union. PMID:28970446
Full Text Available Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm. degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.
Petkova, Valentina; Atkinson, Jeffrey
Pharmacies in Bulgaria have a monopoly on the dispensing of medicinal products that are authorized in the Republic of Bulgaria, as well as medical devices, food additives, cosmetics, and sanitary/hygienic articles. Aptekari (pharmacists) act as responsible pharmacists, pharmacy owners, and managers. They follow a five year Masters of Science in Pharmacy (M.Sc. Pharm.) degree course with a six month traineeship. Pomoshnik-farmacevti (assistant pharmacists) follow a three year degree with a six month traineeship. They can prepare medicines and dispense OTC medicines under the supervision of a pharmacist. The first and second year of the M.Sc. Pharm. degree are devoted to chemical sciences, mathematics, botany and medical sciences. Years three and four center on pharmaceutical technology, pharmacology, pharmacognosy, pharmaco-economics, and social pharmacy, while year five focuses on pharmaceutical care, patient counselling, pharmacotherapy, and medical sciences. A six month traineeship finishes the fifth year together with redaction of a master thesis, and the four state examinations with which university studies end. Industrial pharmacy and clinical (hospital) pharmacy practice are integrated disciplines in some Bulgarian higher education institutions such as the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Sofia. Pharmacy practice and education in Bulgaria are organized in a fashion very similar to that in most member states of the European Union.
Full Text Available The contemporary trends and concepts in pharmacy are widely affected by the emergence of Nano-, Bio- or Info- technologies (NBI as an attempt to develop different principles of medicine. This commentary is trying to make a think tank room for 50 years ahead of today’s pharmacy, where the ambience of pharmacy will be affected by such technologies together with cognition (NBIC to achieve intelligent, low adverse reaction and holistic action medicals.
Control of the development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of food animal origin in Japan: a new approach for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products in Japan.
Asai, Tetsuo; Hiki, Mototaka; Ozawa, Manao; Koike, Ryoji; Eguchi, Kaoru; Kawanishi, Michiko; Kojima, Akemi; Endoh, Yuuko S; Hamamoto, Shuichi; Sakai, Masato; Sekiya, Tatsuro
Antimicrobial agents are essential for controlling bacterial disease in food-producing animals and contribute to the stable production of safe animal products. The use of antimicrobial agents in these animals affects the emergence and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria isolated from animals and animal products. As disease-causing bacteria are often transferred from food-producing animals to humans, the food chain is considered a route of transmission for the resistant bacteria and/or resistance genes. The Food Safety Commission of Japan (FSC) has been assessing the risk posed to human health by the transmission of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria from livestock products via the food chain. In addition to the FSC's risk assessments, the Japanese Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has developed risk-management guidelines to determine feasible risk-management options for the use of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products during farming practices. This report includes information on risk assessment and novel approaches for risk management of antimicrobial veterinary medicinal products for mitigating the risk of development and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria originating from food-producing animals in Japan.
Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.
Part 2 of this narrative review outlines the theoretical and practical bases for assessing the efficacy and effectiveness of conventional medicines and homeopathic products. Known and postulated mechanisms of action are critically reviewed. The evidence for clinical efficacy of products in both categories, in the form of practitioner experience, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of clinical trial results, is discussed. The review also addresses problems and pitfalls in assessing data, and the ethical and negative aspects of pharmacology and homeopathy in veterinary medicine. PMID:28821700
Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.
Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.
Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.
Kumar, Rishi; Kalaiselvan, Vivekanandan; Verma, Ravendra; Kaur, Ismeet; Kumar, Pranay; Singh, G N
Veterinary pharmacovigilance (PV) is important for the Medicine which are used for treating disease in animals. It becomes more important when these animals are further used for producing food. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have a direct impact on animals and indirect impact on human beings, for example, through milk products, other animal producing food products. Currently, PV program of India is playing a vital role in assessing the safety of medicines in Indian Population. The safety of medicine in animals can be assessed by veterinary PV. The research institutes involved in animal research and veterinary hospitals can be considered as ADR monitoring centers to assess the safety of medicines on animals.
The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. ... dogs diagnosed with parvovirus enteritis in some veterinary clinics in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Rabies vaccination status among occupationally exposed humans in Nigeria ...
... free client handout to share with them. Compounding Veterinary Compounding FDA has withdrawn its draft guidance for ... new guidance, the AVMA is working to ensure veterinary access and animal health are protected. NEWS & ALERTS ...
Redman, B K
The pharmacy profession's responsibility to provide ethical leadership to its members is explained, and areas where pharmacy should take a leadership role are described. Changes taking place in health care offer many opportunities for pharmacy in its transformation into a fully clinical discipline. The profession needs to address the ethical issues that will affect it as part of this revolution. The role pharmacy is taking to eliminate medication misadventuring will be a test case for the profession's ability to exert the leadership it must, as part of its new definition of itself. Pharmacy needs to define the structure, process, and outcomes necessary to improve its own practice to avoid drug misadventuring, with a clear set of practice and ethical standards, and engage medicine and nursing to adopt similar standards. Pharmacy should also take a leadership role in health care reform, working with other clinicians to ensure that the changes provide better outcomes for patients. Health care professionals are bound together by a common moral purpose: to act in the patient's best interest. Thus, each health profession is a moral community, which must determine and promote ethical behavior among its members. Pharmacy must practice ethical leadership: it must define and prove its contribution to patient outcomes, further develop legal and ethical standards, and examine its responsibilities for vulnerable patient groups such as children. It must work to overcome the traditional dominance of medicine; pharmacy, nursing, and medicine must come together in service of the patient and develop a cross-professional conception of ethics. Pharmacy also must participate in the broader debate about health care. Pharmacy has begun to take a leadership role among the health professions through its efforts to eliminate medication misadventuring. Additional leadership challenges for the profession are suggested.
Full Text Available Background. In African settings, where there is a high disease burden, there is a need to improve the science of documenting and analysing accurate information regarding medicine exposures in women immediately before and during pregnancy to assess the extent of use and safety in pregnant women and their unborn children.Objectives. To compare evidence of medicine use during pregnancy, as documented in paper-based clinical records (maternity case records (MCRs against electronic health information resources (Provincial Health Data Centre (PHDC and assess the level of concordance between the two as part of baseline investigations before piloting a provincial pregnancy exposure registry and birth defect surveillance system. The PHDC consolidates electronic clinical and pharmacy data.Methods. A folder review of completed pregnancies between November 2013 and January 2016 was conducted on randomly selected MCRs from midwife-run obstetric units and a secondary maternity hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Medication exposures in the MCR were captured and compared with a customised PHDC data extract. The type and timing of drug exposures were compared. Total exposures were compiled from all data sources.Results. Two hundred and six MCRs from three facilities were sampled: 83 women had documented antiretroviral therapy (ART exposure; all but 1 (1% had been recorded in the PHDC extract. There was no evidence of ART use in the MCRs of 4 (5% cases, despite evidence in the PHDC. There were imprecise drug names in the MCRs of 14 (17% ART patients, discordant dates of onset between the MCRs and PHDC extracts in 10/83 (12% and inaccurate medicine names and incorrect dates in 1 (1% case each. Nine of 10 (90% women who were administered antituberculosis medication were recorded in the PHDC extract. Ten of 21 (48% isoniazid preventive therapy treatments appeared in the MCRs and PHDC; 9 (42% in the PHDC only and 2 (10% in the MCRs only. Half (n=18/36 of all
A. SICEANU; AGRIPINA SAPCALIU; I. RADOI; D. CONDUR; ELIZA CAUIA; CRENGUTA PAVEL
The main objective of this clinical study consisted in evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the propolis extract used in different disorders at company animals, thus being improved the palette of the apitherapeutical products used in veterinary purposes. The experiments were carried out on company animals (two experimental groups) during the 2007-2008 period, in the frame of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty – Bucharest and the University - Spiru Haret, at the veterinary departments: Parasi...
Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded, and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.
...] Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... entitled ``Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary...
Gharpure, Kunda; Thawani, Vijay; Sontakke, Smita; Chaudhari, Kiran; Bankar, Mangesh; Diwe, Rajendra
There is a growing indifference among the pharmacy practitioners towards their duty as information providers to the patients. The patients do not always get enough desired information about proper use of medicines from the prescribers also. This contributes to improper use of medicines by the patients. To bring about awareness about rational pharmacy practice in pharmacy students for better service to the patients. The final year students of Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm) from four colleges of Nagpur were enrolled for the study after informed consent. Their base knowledge was assessed through a written test which comprised of 27 objective questions related to rational pharmacy practice. This was followed by a series of seven articles on rational medicine use, published in leading local English news daily. The participants were reminded to read them on the day of publication of each article. As a backup, the articles were displayed on the notice board of respective colleges. Second intervention was a half day interactive session where series of six lectures were delivered to the participants on the right and wrong approaches in pharmacy practice. Posters about the do's and dont's of rational pharmacy practice were also displayed at the venue. The session was followed by a repeat test using the same pre-test to assess the change. Pre and post intervention data was compared using Fisher's Exact test. It was observed that the intervention did bring about a positive change in the attitude and knowledge of the final year Pharmacy students about rational pharmacy practice. The role of a pharmacist in health care provision is usually overlooked in India. Hence there is strong need for reinforcement in final year B. Pharm when most of the students go in for community service. Such interventions will be helpful in bringing about a positive change towards rational practice of pharmacy. This study showed that a properly timed and meticulously implemented intervention brings
Whittick, William G.
The undergraduate surgery course of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, is described with focus on its experential method of teaching surgical techniques. Also discussed are the benefits of veterinary school cooperation with a large city Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). (JMD)
Although the intervention of conventional veterinary medicine is pervasive in Toteng, and many livestock owners are resorting to it, there is evidence, however, of generalized ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases. Local farmers and their herders in Ngamiland are not only knowledgeable ...
Nigeria. 2. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Sokoto, Nigeria ... from three different small ruminant farms with birth record within Sokoto metropolis,. Nigeria. They were ... animals, one of which is the use of epiphyseal plate closure (Choi et al., ...
Trinh, Hieu T; Nguyen, Huong T L; Pham, Van T T; Ba, Hai L; Dong, Phuong T X; Cao, Thao T B; Nguyen, Hanh T H; Brien, Jo-Anne
Background Clinical pharmacy is key to the quality use of medicines. While there are different approaches in different countries, international perspectives may inform health service development. The Vietnamese Ministry of Health introduced a legal regulation of clinical pharmacy services in December 2012. Objective To describe the services, and to explore reported barriers and facilitators in implementing clinical pharmacy activities in Vietnamese hospitals after the introduction of Vietnamese Ministry of Health legal regulation. Setting Thirty-nine hospitals in Hanoi, Vietnam, including 22 provincial and 17 district hospitals. Method A mixed methods study was utilized. An online questionnaire was sent to the hospitals. In-depth interviews were conducted with pairs of nominated pharmacists at ten of these hospitals. The questionnaire focused on four areas: facilities, workforce, policies and clinical pharmacy activities. Main outcome measure Proportion of clinical pharmacy activities in hospitals. Themes in clinical pharmacy practice. Results 34/39 (87%) hospitals had established clinical pharmacy teams. Most activities were non-patient-specific (87%) while the preliminary patient-specific clinical pharmacy services were available in only 8/39 hospitals (21%). The most common non-patient-specific activities were providing medicines information (97%), reporting adverse drug reactions (97%), monitoring medication usage (97%). The patient specific activities varied widely between hospitals and were ad hoc. The main challenges reported were: lack of workforce and qualified clinical pharmacists. Conclusion While most hospitals had hospital-based pharmacy activities, the direct patient care was limited. Training, education and an expanded work forces are needed to improve clinical pharmacy services.
Brayan Alexander Fonseca Martinez
Full Text Available One of the most commonly observational study designs employed in veterinary is the cross-sectional study with binary outcomes. To measure an association with exposure, the use of prevalence ratios (PR or odds ratios (OR are possible. In human epidemiology, much has been discussed about the use of the OR exclusively for case–control studies and some authors reported that there is no good justification for fitting logistic regression when the prevalence of the disease is high, in which OR overestimate the PR. Nonetheless, interpretation of OR is difficult since confusing between risk and odds can lead to incorrect quantitative interpretation of data such as “the risk is X times greater,” commonly reported in studies that use OR. The aims of this study were (1 to review articles with cross-sectional designs to assess the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association and (2 to illustrate the use of alternative statistical methods that estimate PR directly. An overview of statistical methods and its interpretation using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guidelines was conducted and included a diverse set of peer-reviewed journals among the veterinary science field using PubMed as the search engine. From each article, the statistical method used and the appropriateness of the interpretation of the estimated measure of association were registered. Additionally, four alternative models for logistic regression that estimate directly PR were tested using our own dataset from a cross-sectional study on bovine viral diarrhea virus. The initial search strategy found 62 articles, in which 6 articles were excluded and therefore 56 studies were used for the overall analysis. The review showed that independent of the level of prevalence reported, 96% of articles employed logistic regression, thus estimating the OR. Results of the multivariate models
Benrimoj, Shalom I; Roberts, Alison S
To describe Australia's community pharmacy network in the context of the health system and outline the provision of services. The 5000 community pharmacies form a key component of the healthcare system for Australians, for whom health expenditures represent 9% of the Gross Domestic Product. A typical community pharmacy dispenses 880 prescriptions per week. Pharmacists are key partners in the Government's National Medicines Policy and contribute to its objectives through the provision of cognitive pharmaceutical services (CPS). The Third Community Pharmacy Agreement included funding for CPS including medication review and the provision of written drug information. Funding is also provided for a quality assurance platform with which the majority of pharmacies are accredited. Fifteen million dollars (Australian) have been allocated to research in community pharmacy, which has focused on achieving quality use of medicines (QUM), as well as developing new CPS and facilitating change. Elements of the Agreements have taken into account QUM principles and are now significant drivers of practice change. Although accounting for 10% of remuneration for community pharmacy, the provision of CPS represents a significant shift in focus to view pharmacy as a service provider. Delivery of CPS through the community pharmacy network provides sustainability for primary health care due to improvement in quality presumably associated with a reduction in healthcare costs. Australian pharmacy practice is moving strongly in the direction of CPS provision; however, change does not occur easily. The development of a change management strategy is underway to improve the uptake of professional and business opportunities in community pharmacy.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...
Yeates, J W
To present insights to aid decision-making about novel veterinary treatments from regulations concerning animal experimentation and human clinical medical trials. EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes and EU Regulation 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use were analysed, evaluated and "translated" into relevant principles for veterinary surgeons. A number of principles are relevant, relating to treatment expectations, thresholds and objectives; client consent; minimising harms; personnel; review committees; assessment and publication. These principles should assist veterinary surgeons to make good ethical decisions about novel treatments. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Suspension or revocation of veterinary... REVOCATION OF SUCH ACCREDITATION § 161.4 Suspension or revocation of veterinary accreditation; criminal and... to practice veterinary medicine in at least one State. (c) Accreditation shall be automatically...
Harkness, John E.
A prose text in veterinary medicine can be arranged and supplemented to facilitate efficient and effective acquisition into short-term memory. Methods include: variation in textual format; relating new information to previous knowledge and future goals; providing specific, test-relevant objectives or introductions, describing mnemonic devices; and…
Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, ...
Quinn, P. J
"Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...
Hashizume, Cary T; Woloschuk, Wayne; Hecker, Kent G
There is a paucity of research regarding veterinary students' attitudes toward the rural environment and rural veterinary practice and how these attitudes might change over the course of a veterinary medicine program that includes rural clinical experience. Using a 23-item questionnaire, attitudes toward rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, opportunities for career and skill development in rural veterinary practice, and inter-professional teamwork in the rural environment were assessed at the beginning and completion of a four-year veterinary medicine program. Eighty-six students (74.4% female) were included in this Canadian study over a six-year period. Thirty-one participants (36.1%) were rural students. Overall, students' attitudes toward the rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, and inter-professional teamwork in rural veterinary practice all significantly decreased (pstudents, rural students had significantly higher rural lifestyle scores at both the beginning (pworking in a rural environment could influence students to exclude rural veterinary practice as a career choice. Rural clinical experiences designed to sustain or increase veterinary student interest in rural practice may not be sufficient to support positive rural attitudes. Given the demand for rural veterinary services in developed countries, the implications of this study may extend beyond Canada.
Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...
Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 16 of 16 Items ...
Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine M; Nørgaard, Lotte S
of counselling services with respect to medicine. The pharmacy staff does not seem to realize these barriers. CONCLUSIONS: For pharmacies to encourage customer interest in pharmacy counselling, the staff should start taking the identified barriers into account when planning communication strategies....... counselling at the present time, in order to develop the patient-pharmacy relationship for the benefit of both patients and pharmacies. DESIGN: Short semi-structured interviews were carried out with pharmacy customers by pharmacy internship students. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and eight customers...... in 35 independent pharmacies across Denmark were interviewed during the spring of 2011. MAIN VARIABLES STUDIED: Customers were interviewed about their expectations of pharmacies in general and their experiences with medical counselling in particular. RESULTS: Customers perceive community pharmacies very...
Flábio Ribeiro de Araújo
Full Text Available Amostras de soro obtidas de estudantes do curso de Medicina Veteriná ria da Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Região do Pantanal, Campo Grande, MS, Brasil, foram examinadas para a presença de anticorpos contra Toxoplasma gondii. Dos 145 soros testados, 44 (30,34% foram positivos na hemaglutinação, com título igual ou superior a 1:16. Não foram observadas associações entre as caracterí sticas epidemiológicas examinadas, tais como hábitos alimentares (ingestão de carne bovina crua ou malpassada, vegetais crus/não lavados, produtos lácteos não pasteurizados ou contato constante com cães e a presença de anticorpos contra T. gondii, exceto pelo percentual significativamente maior de estudantes soropositivos que relataram ter contato freqüente com gatos (P=0,03.Serum samples obtained from students of the School of Veterinary Medicine, Universidade para o Desenvolvimento do Estado e da Região do Pantanal, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil, were examined for Toxoplasma gondii gondii antibodies. Serum samples from 44 (30.34% of the 145 veterinary students examined were positive on the hemagglutination test, yielding a titer of 1:16 or greater. There were no relations between the epidemiological characteristics examined, such as food habits (eating of raw or rare-cooked cattle meat, raw/uncleaned vegetables, unpasteurized dairy products, frequent contact with dogs and the presence of T. gondii antibodies, except for a significantly higher percentual of seropositive students that reported frequent contact with cats (P=0.03.
The Use of Antibiotics Based on Prescriptions Dispenced in Pharmacies SUMMARY Baronienė J., Vadapalaitė-Mašalienė V. The use of antibiotics based on prescriptions dispenced in pharmacies: pharmacy master's thesis. Vilnius University, faculty of medicine – Vilnius, 2017. – 43 p. Antibiotics are not a cure-all. There are many diseases that are insurmountable without antibiotics: these diseases are caused by bacteria. Antibacterial therapy prevents from complications and sometimes saves lives. H...
Li, Qinghong; Freeman, Lisa M; Rush, John E; Huggins, Gordon S; Kennedy, Adam D; Labuda, Jeffrey A; Laflamme, Dorothy P; Hannah, Steven S
Canine degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD) is the most common form of heart disease in dogs. The objective of this study was to identify cellular and metabolic pathways that play a role in DMVD by performing metabolomics and transcriptomics analyses on serum and tissue (mitral valve and left ventricle) samples previously collected from dogs with DMVD or healthy hearts. Gas or liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrophotometry were used to identify metabolites in serum. Transcriptomics analysis of tissue samples was completed using RNA-seq, and selected targets were confirmed by RT-qPCR. Random Forest analysis was used to classify the metabolites that best predicted the presence of DMVD. Results identified 41 known and 13 unknown serum metabolites that were significantly different between healthy and DMVD dogs, representing alterations in fat and glucose energy metabolism, oxidative stress, and other pathways. The three metabolites with the greatest single effect in the Random Forest analysis were γ-glutamylmethionine, oxidized glutathione, and asymmetric dimethylarginine. Transcriptomics analysis identified 812 differentially expressed transcripts in left ventricle samples and 263 in mitral valve samples, representing changes in energy metabolism, antioxidant function, nitric oxide signaling, and extracellular matrix homeostasis pathways. Many of the identified alterations may benefit from nutritional or medical management. Our study provides evidence of the growing importance of integrative approaches in multi-omics research in veterinary and nutritional sciences.
Medicines can treat diseases and improve your health. If you are like most people, you need to take medicine at some point in your life. You may need to take medicine every day, or you may only need to ...
Backues, Kay; Clyde, Vickie; Denver, Mary; Fiorello, Christine; Hilsenroth, Rob; Lamberski, Nadine; Larson, Scott; Meehan, Tom; Murray, Mike; Ramer, Jan; Ramsay, Ed; Suedmeyer, Kirk; Whiteside, Doug
These guidelines for veterinary medical care and veterinary hospitals are written to conform with the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act, which states that programs of disease prevention and parasite control, euthanasia, and adequate veterinary care shall be established and maintained under the supervision of a veterinarian. Ideally the zoo and aquarium should be providing the best possible veterinary medical care for the animals in their collections. Many of these animals are rare and endangered and the institutions should endeavor both to provide for the long term health and well being of these animals and to advance the field of non-domestic animal medicine. It is hoped that this publication will aid in this process.
Cordina, Maria; Journal of the Malta College of Pharmacy Practice Editorial Board
The Malta College of Pharmacy Practice, will be hosting the 13th International Social Pharmacy Workshop next summer. The concept of social pharmacy is very clearly explained in the article by Professor Ellen West Sørensen and colleagues, who are considered to be pioneers in this field. Malta has successfully hosted a number of pharmacy conferences, however this one is somewhat different and rather special.
This article argues that existing Australian regulations do not adequately cover online pharmacies or Internet advertising of medicines and that existing penalties and sanctions are often ineffective, potentially placing public health and safety at risk. Suggestions are made for future regulatory approaches. It is concluded that as well as an effective program of public education, cautious domestic legislative reform is necessary to ensure specific regulation of Australian online pharmacy practice and Internet advertising of medicines. In addition, the global nature of the Internet demands international co-operation and increased regulator and consumer vigilance.
Erika Helena Salles de Brito
Full Text Available O gênero Candida é composto por leveduras que vivem como comensais na microbiota de homens e animais. Em geral, não causam nenhum dano aos seus hospedeiros, entretanto, em virtude de desequilíbrios nas defesas química, física e imunológica, esses microrganismos podem se tornar patogênicos. Infecções por Candida spp. são pouco frequentes na Medicina Veterinária no entanto, nos últimos anos, tem sido observado aumento considerável de relatos de enfermidades causadas por essas leveduras, acometendo diferentes animais. Várias espécies do gênero são implicadas em quadros infecciosos, sendo a C. albicans a principal delas, seguida por C. tropicalis e C. parapsilosis. Considerando-se o potencial patogênico do gênero Candida, aliado ao surgimento de cepas resistentes a derivados azólicos, in vitro, o presente trabalho se propôs a realizar detalhada revisão de literatura, abordando os aspectos clínico-laboratoriais, etiológicos e terapêuticos da candidose na Medicina Veterinária.The Candida genus is composed by yeasts that live as commmensal on human and animals' microbiota. In general, they do not cause any damage to their hosts. However, due instability on chemical, physical and immunological defenses, these microorganisms can become pathogens. Candida spp. infections are rare on Veterinary Medicine. However, on the last years, a considerable raise of illness caused by these yeasts has been related on varied animal species. Several species of this genus has been mentioned as responsible for infectious diseases in animals, being C. albicans the main of them, followed by C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. Considering the pathogenic role of the genus Candida, allied to the emerging of resistant strains to the azole derivatives, in vitro, the present research proposed to perform a detailed review, approaching clinic-laboratorial, etiologic and therapeutic aspects of the candidosis on Veterinary medicine.
... Journal are the Research Workers, Veterinary Clinicians, Animal Scientists, Field Officers ... Prevalence and risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infestations in ... Mastitis pathogens prevalent in dairy cattle at Magadu farm, Morogoro- ...
Also, the advantage of ... antibodies. The major disadvantage of the polyclonal ... advantage of a monoclonal antibody over .... department in the veterinary school was obtained from the ..... methodology for both routine diagnostic and research ...
Control Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Abuja; 9National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B 01 Vom,. Nigeria. *Corresponding ... because the poultry industry contributes ..... holidays have been identified as source of transmission ...
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
James, Chris D; Peabody, John; Solon, Orville; Quimbo, Stella; Hanson, Kara
Physicians' links with pharmacies may create perverse financial incentives to overprescribe, prescribe products with higher profit margins, and direct patients to their pharmacy. Interviews with pharmacy customers in the Philippines show that those who use pharmacies linked to public-sector physicians had 5.4 greater odds of having a prescription from such physicians and spent 49.3 percent more than customers using other pharmacies. For customers purchasing brand-name medicines, switching to generics would reduce drug spending by 58 percent. Controlling out-of-pocket spending on drugs requires policies to control financial links between doctors and pharmacies, as well as tighter regulation of nongeneric prescribing.
The history of parasitology and the teaching of veterinary parasitology in South Africa are reviewed briefly. Courses in veterinary parasitology are presented at the faculties of veterinary science at the University of Pretoria and the Medical University of South Africa as well as at the Pretoria Technicon. At the University of Pretoria, the three disciplines of veterinary parasitology, entomology, helminthology and protozoology, are covered in 330 core lectures; from 13 to 40% of the contact time is devoted to practical classes. Teaching veterinary parasitology is both labour intensive and costly, viz. R1700 (US$570) per student per annum. Such costs are justified by the R148.8 million (US$49.6 million) spent every year in South Africa on anthelmintics, ectoparasiticides and vaccines to control parasites. Veterinary parasitology is a dynamic subject and the curriculum must be revised regularly to incorporate new information. Because the parasite faunas are so diverse no single textbook can satisfy the requirements of the various institutions worldwide which teach the subject, with the result that extensive use is made of notes. In Australia and in Europe, ticks and tick-borne diseases are less important than they are in Africa; consequently insufficient space is devoted to them in textbooks to satisfy the requirements of the subject in African countries. Parasite control under extensive and intensive conditions is dealt with adequately at the University of Pretoria, but increasing emphasis will be given to small-scale farming systems, particularly if alternative food animals are to be kept.
P Ravi Shankar
Full Text Available In Nepal, a developing country in South Asia, hospital pharmacies in teaching hospitals faces a number of challenges. Design and location of the pharmacy is inadequate, the pharmacy is often rented out to private parties, there may be a lack of separation of outpatient and inpatient pharmacy services, medicines are not selected based on objective criteria, too many brands are stocked, pharmaceutical care services are not provided, and pharmaceutical promotion is not regulated within the hospital premises. Furthermore, there is often a lack of pharmacy management software to help dispensing, continuing pharmacy education is not provided, medicines are not compounded or packaged in house, there are problems with medicines availability and medicine quality, and drug utilization studies are not linked with initiatives to promote the rational use of medicines. In this article, the authors examine these challenges and put forward possible solutions.
Next generation sequencing technology has become widely available and it offers many new opportunities in vaccine technology. Both human and veterinary medicine has numerous examples of adventitious agents being found in live vaccines. In veterinary medicine a continuing trend is the use of viral ...
Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R
Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.
Kaae, Susanne; Traulsen, Janine Morgall; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig
Challenges to engage pharmacy customers in medicine dialogues at the counter have been identified comprising a new and extended clinical role for pharmacists in the health care system. This article seeks to expand understanding of factors involved in successful interaction at the pharmacy counter...... between customers and pharmacy staff to develop their relationship further. Practical challenges to customer encounters experienced by community pharmacists are discussed using theory from the field of mainly inter-relational communication and particular studies on pharmacy communication. Preconceived...
Gyawali, Sudesh; Rathore, Devendra Singh; Adhikari, Kishor; Shankar, Pathiyil Ravi; K C, Vikash Kumar; Basnet, Suyog
Community pharmacies in Nepal serve as the first point of contact for the public with the health care system and provide many services, including administering injections. However, there is a general lack of documented information on pharmacy practice and injection use in these pharmacies. This study aims to provide information about pharmacy practice in terms of service and drug information sources, and injection use, including the disposal of used injection equipment. A mixed method, cross-sectional study was conducted in 54 community pharmacies in Pokhara city. Data was collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire, and also by the direct observation of pharmacy premises. Interviews with pharmacy supervisors (proprietors) were also conducted to obtain additional information about certain points. Interviews were carried out with 54 pharmacy supervisors/proprietors (47 males and 7 females) with a mean age and experience of 35.54 and 11.73 years, respectively. Approximately a half of the studied premises were operated by legally recognized pharmaceutical personnel, while the remainder was run by people who did not have the legal authority to operate pharmacies independently. About a quarter of pharmacies were providing services such as the administration of injections, wound dressing, and laboratory and consultation services in addition to medicine dispensing and counseling services. The 'Current Index of Medical Specialties' was the most commonly used source for drug information. Almost two-thirds of patients visiting the pharmacies were dispensed medicines without a prescription. Tetanus Toxoid, Depot-Medroxy Progesterone Acetate, and Diclofenac were the most commonly-used/administered injections. Most of the generated waste (including sharps) was disposed of in a municipal dump without adhering to the proper procedures for the disposal of hazardous waste. Community pharmacies in Pokhara offer a wide range of services including, but not limited to
Weidmann, Anita Elaine; MacLure, Katie; Marshall, Sarah; Gray, Gwen; Stewart, Derek
Obesity has reached pandemic levels with more than 1.4 billion adults affected worldwide. While there is a need to systematically develop and evaluate community pharmacy based models of weight management, it is imperative to describe and understand the perspectives of pharmacy staff. In the UK, trained and accredited community pharmacy medicines counter assistants (MCAs) are commonly the front line staff involved in patient consultations and sale of over-the-counter medicines. To explore the beliefs and experiences of pharmacists and MCAs in the North-East of Scotland on community pharmacy weight management. All 135 community pharmacies in the North-East of Scotland. A qualitative approach of semi-structured telephone interviews with 31 pharmacists and 20 MCAs in the North-East of Scotland. The semi-structured interview schedule was developed with reference to key domains describing professional practice (i.e. awareness and knowledge, skills, practicalities, motivation, acceptance and beliefs) and contextualised with policy documents and published research on community pharmacy based weight management. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Pharmacists' and MCAs' beliefs and experiences with delivering weight management services in community pharmacy. There were mixed responses from pharmacists and MCAs around pharmacy based weight management services from positive views of providing the service in community pharmacy to those more reticent who would always favour patients visiting their physician. While all described similar services e.g. measurement of weight, healthy eating advice, supply of products, they acknowledged that support was often opportunistic at the request of customers, with little integration of other providers. Roles described varied from pharmacist only functions to any staff member. While pharmacists generally felt comfortable and confident, MCAs gave more diverse responses. Both Pharmacist and MCAs highlighted
Full Text Available Community pharmacies in Nepal and other South Asian countries are in a mediocre state due to poor regulation and the fact that many pharmacies are run by people with insufficient training in dispensing. This has led to the inappropriate use of medicines. The problems due to poor regulation and the mediocre state of community pharmacies in South Asia encompass both academia and clinical practice. In this paper, a 2-week community pharmacy internship programme completed by 2 graduating pharmacy students of Pokhara University (a Nepalese public university at Sankalpa Pharmacy, Pokhara, Nepal is illustrated. During the internship, they were systematically trained on store management, pharmaceutical care, counselling skills, the use of medical devices, pharmaceutical business plans, medicine information sources, and adverse drug reaction reporting. An orientation, observations and hands-on training, case presentation, discussion, and feedback from 2 senior pharmacists were used as the training method. A proper community pharmacy internship format, good pharmacy practice standards, and a better work environment for pharmacists may improve the quality of community pharmacies.
Timsina, Sangita; K C, Bhuvan; Adhikari, Dristi; Alrasheedy, Alian A; Mohamed Ibrahim, Mohamed Izham; Kaundinnyayana, Atisammodavardhana
Community pharmacies in Nepal and other South Asian countries are in a mediocre state due to poor regulation and the fact that many pharmacies are run by people with insufficient training in dispensing. This has led to the inappropriate use of medicines. The problems due to poor regulation and the mediocre state of community pharmacies in South Asia encompass both academia and clinical practice. In this paper, a 2-week community pharmacy internship programme completed by 2 graduating pharmacy students of Pokhara University (a Nepalese public university) at Sankalpa Pharmacy, Pokhara, Nepal is illustrated. During the internship, they were systematically trained on store management, pharmaceutical care, counselling skills, the use of medical devices, pharmaceutical business plans, medicine information sources, and adverse drug reaction reporting. An orientation, observations and hands-on training, case presentation, discussion, and feedback from 2 senior pharmacists were used as the training method. A proper community pharmacy internship format, good pharmacy practice standards, and a better work environment for pharmacists may improve the quality of community pharmacies.
Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F
Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.
35.9% (631/1756) of the total publications followed by Pediatrics and Parasitology. The median number of ... for example, publications belonging to veterinary, dentistry, nursing, and pharmacy .... General surgery. 60. 3.4 ... Anesthesia. 33. 1.9.
Dinkelman, Andrea L; Viera, Ann R; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle A
This qualitative study seeks to determine the nature of the instruction librarians provide to veterinary medical students at all 28 United States veterinary colleges. A secondary goal of the study was to determine in what ways and to what extent librarians participated in other instructional activities at their colleges. Over half of the librarians formally taught in one or more courses, predominantly in the first two years of the veterinary curriculum. One presentation per course was most common. Over half of the librarians interviewed stated that evidence-based veterinary medicine was taught at their colleges, and about half of these librarians collaborated with veterinary faculty in this instruction. Many librarians participated in orientation for first-year veterinary students. The librarians also taught instructional sessions for residents, interns, faculty, graduate students, and practicing veterinarians. This study found that librarians teach information literacy skills both formally and informally, but, in general, instruction by librarians was not well integrated into the curriculum. This study advances several recommendations to help veterinary students develop information literacy skills. These include: encourage veterinary faculty and administrators to collaborate more closely with librarians, incorporate a broader array of information literacy skills into assignments, and add a literature evaluation course to the curriculum.
Kamaldeep; Bhaktivinayagam, A.; Singh, Sanjay Kumar
Radioisotopes have found wide applications in the field of biomedical veterinary nuclear medicine and research. Radiation safety issues during internal administration of radioisotopes to laboratory animals, unlike human use, are far more challenging and requires stringent, well planned and an organized system of radiation protection in the animal house facility. In this paper, we discuss our experience during veterinary research experiments involving use, handling and administration of liquid sources of 131 I. With extensive radiation protection surveillance and application of practical and essential radiation safety and hygiene practices, the radiation exposure and contamination levels during the veterinary application of isotopes can be kept ALARA
...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... industry 188 entitled ``Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for...
Gwaltney-Brant, S M
Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.
... medicine, dentistry, osteopathy, pharmacy, optometry, podiatry, veterinary medicine, or public health which... equivalent degree, doctor of podiatry or an equivalent degree, bachelor of science in pharmacy or an...
Wilson, Charles Owens; Beale, John Marlowe; Block, John H
"For over half a century, Wilson and Gisvold's Textbook of Organic Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry has served the discipline of medicinal chemistry for both graduate and undergraduate pharmacy...
Claudia CIULCA-VLADAIA; Călin MUNTEAN
Objective: Describing a model of evaluation seen from a customer’s point of view for the current needed pharmacy computer system. Data Sources: literature research, ATTOFARM, WINFARM P.N.S., NETFARM, Info World - PHARMACY MANAGER and HIPOCRATE FARMACIE. Study Selection: Five Pharmacy Computer Systems were selected due to their high rates of implementing at a national level. We used the new criteria recommended by EUROREC Institute in EHR that modifies the model of data exchanges between the E...
Kälvemark Sporrong, Sofia; Nørgaard, Lotte Stig; Kildemoes, Helle Wallach
Social Pharmacy (SP) is a multidisciplinary field to promote the adequate use of medicine. The field of SP is increasingly important due to a numbers of new trends all posing challenges to society. The SP group at the University of Copenhagen has for several years used a broad approach to SP...... teaching and research, often illustrated by the four levels: individual, group, organizational, and societal. In this paper the relevance of maintaining a broad approach to SP research is argued for and examples of the importance of such type of research is presented....
Hamood, Wendy J; Chur-Hansen, Anna; McArthur, Michelle L
To explore and gain an understanding of what "clinical communication skills" mean to veterinarians working in private practice and what implications this might have for veterinary medical education. Qualitative research methods were used to purposefully sample a range of veterinary practitioners from a pool of South Australian veterinary practices who were interviewed to determine their understanding of what communication skills mean in the context of veterinary practice. Interviews were conducted with fourteen veterinary practitioners. Participants were sampled from a range of ages, veterinary schools of graduation plus urban and rural locations. Interview transcripts were analysed for themes, definitions and contexts. Participants' accounts included a number of skills which they considered to be "communication". Some of the definitions of these skills parallel communication skills and competencies for human medicine on which communication skills training incorporated into veterinary curricula to date have largely been based. However, the veterinarians in this study also raised interesting contextual differences unique to the veterinary profession, such as communication with the animal, selling service, discussing money in relation to decisions for care, and communicating about euthanasia. Veterinary practitioners require high level communication skills. Education and training in veterinary medicine may be better tailored to reflect the unique context of the veterinary profession.
The Accumulation and Management of Pharmaceutical Waste in the Community Pharmacy Authors: students Diana Patašienė and Rima Latožienė, pharmacy master program at Vilnius University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pathology, Forensic Medicine and Pharmacology. Work Leader: Dr. Kristina Garuolienė. The aim of the study: to determine pharmaceutical waste formation causes and to assess pharmaceutical waste management problems at community pharmacies. Materials and methods: The study was condu...
Ciarleglio, Anita E; Ma, Carolyn
The precision medicine initiative brought forth by President Barack Obama in 2015 is an important step on the journey to truly personalized medicine. A broad knowledge and understanding of the implications of the pharmacogenomic literature will be critical to the achievement of this goal. While a great amount of data has been published in the areas of pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics, there are still relatively few instances in which the need for clinical intervention can be stated without doubt, and which are widely accepted and practiced by the medical community. As our knowledge base rapidly expands, issues such as insurance reimbursement for genetic testing and education of the health care workforce will be paramount to achieving the goal of precision medicine for all patients.
Full Text Available The role of pharmacies in the social and health systems has gone through significant changes in the last decades of the twentieth century. From the place for the production of medicines, through procurement and distribution, pharmacy eventually became the modern health care facilities that participates in the health system and the retail pharmaceutical market. The dualistic role of pharmacy requires adjustment to the demands of contemporary health policy and market principles. Implementation of modern tools of business, such as marketing, was not present to a greater extent until recently in pharmacies, so this study is focused on the example of Pharmacy Subotica, which emphasizes the practical importance and specifics of marketing in pharmaceutical practice. Activities in the implementation of the marketing mix in the period 2009-2012 will be shown in this paper, as well as indicators of business success of Pharmacies Subotica in the same period. Following a four-year period in which strategy related to elements of the marketing mix strategy (4P, was implemented the growth of financial performance indicators (number of issued fiscal receipt and financially volume of business. At the same time, due to the more rigid regulations, the number of prescriptions in 2012 declined in amount. Pharmacy Subotica is one of the first pharmacies in Serbia, which has structured and implemented marketing planning tools for the purpose of positioning in the retail pharmaceutical market. By modeling business policy in line with modern market principles, developments of information technology and the ethics of health care workers, this institution has made pioneering steps in pharmaceutical marketing in the Serbian pharmacy.
Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain. Meseko, C. A.. 1. ; Shittu, I. 1. ; Bwala, D. G.. 2. ; Joannis, T. M.. 1 and Nwosuh, C. I.. 2. 1Regional Laboratory For Animal Influenza and Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Veterinary ...
Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...
Roest, H.I.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weesendorp, E.; Bossers, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.
In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this
Sonographic Measurements of Ocular Biometry of Indigenous Nigerian. Dogs in Zaria ..... between L2 and R) anesthetic risks and additional costs were ... prevalent worldwide problem (Toni et al.,. 2013). Paunknis and ... correlation with refractive error is larger for axial length than .... Veterinary Medical Association. 207:12.
Thierry F Vandamme
Full Text Available Thierry F Vandamme, Nicolas Anton, University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Pharmacy, Illkirch Cedex, France; UMR CNRS 7199, Laboratoire de Conception et Application de Molécules Bioactives, équipe de Pharmacie Biogalénique, Illkirch Cedex, France, This work is selected as Controlled Release Society Outstanding Veterinary Paper Award 2010Abstract: The unique properties of nanomaterials related to structural stability and quantum-scale reactive properties open up a world of possibilities that could be exploited to design and to target drug delivery or create truly microscale biological sensors for veterinary applications. We developed cost-saving and solvent-free nanoemulsions. Formulated with a low-energy method, these nanoemulsions can find application in the delivery of controlled amounts of drugs into the beverage of breeding animals (such as poultry, cattle, pigs or be used for the controlled release of injectable poorly water-soluble drugs.Keywords: nanoemulsion, nanomedicine, low-energy emulsification, veterinary, ketoprofen, sulfamethazine
Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise
In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.
A suit was filed by an HIV-positive man against a pharmacy that inadvertently disclosed his HIV status to his ex-wife and children. His ex-wife tried to use the information in a custody battle for their two children. The suit against the pharmacy was settled, but the terms of the settlement remain confidential.
Shiyanbola, Olayinka O; Mott, David A; Croes, Kenneth D
To describe older adults' perceptions of evaluating and comparing pharmacies based on the Consumer Experience with Pharmacy Services Survey (CEPSS), describe older adults' perceived importance of the CEPSS and its specific domains, and explore older adults' perceptions of the influence of specific CEPSS domains in choosing/switching pharmacies. Focus group methodology was combined with the administration of a questionnaire. The focus groups explored participants' perceived importance of the CEPSS and their perception of using the CEPSS to choose and/or switch pharmacies. Then, using the questionnaire, participants rated their perceived importance of each CEPSS domain in evaluating a pharmacy, and the likelihood of using CEPSS to switch pharmacies if their current pharmacy had low ratings. Descriptive and thematic analyses were done. 6 semistructured focus groups were conducted in a private meeting room in a Mid-Western state in the USA. 60 English-speaking adults who were at least 65 years, and had filled a prescription at a retail pharmacy within 90 days. During the focus groups, the older adults perceived the CEPSS to have advantages and disadvantages in evaluating and comparing pharmacies. Older adults thought the CEPSS was important in choosing the best pharmacies and avoiding the worst pharmacies. The perceived influence of the CEPSS in switching pharmacies varied depending on the older adult's personal experience or trust of other consumers' experience. Questionnaire results showed that participants perceived health/medication-focused communication as very important or extremely important (n=47, 82.5%) in evaluating pharmacies and would be extremely likely (n=21, 36.8%) to switch pharmacies if their pharmacy had low ratings in this domain. The older adults in this study are interested in using patient experiences as a quality metric for avoiding the worst pharmacies. Pharmacists' communication about health and medicines is perceived important and likely
Ferreira, T B; Alves, P M; Aunins, J G; Carrondo, M J T
Vaccines are the most effective and inexpensive prophylactic tool in veterinary medicine. Ideally, vaccines should induce a lifelong protective immunity against the target pathogen while not causing clinical or pathological signs of diseases in the vaccinated animals. However, such ideal vaccines are rare in the veterinary field. Many vaccines are either of limited effectiveness or have harmful side effects. In addition, there are still severe diseases with no effective vaccines. A very important criterion for an ideal vaccine in veterinary medicine is low cost; this is especially important in developing countries and even more so for poultry vaccination, where vaccines must sell for a few cents a dose. Traditional approaches include inactivated vaccines, attenuated live vaccines and subunit vaccines. Recently, genetic engineering has been applied to design new, improved vaccines. Adenovirus vectors are highly efficient for gene transfer in a broad spectrum of cell types and species. Moreover, adenoviruses often induce humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted foreign genes. Thus, adenoviruses have become a vector of choice for delivery and expression of foreign proteins for vaccination. Consequently, the market requirements for adenovirus vaccines are increasing, creating a need for production methodologies of concentrated vectors with warranted purity and efficacy. This review summarizes recent developments and approaches of adenovirus production and purification as the application of these vectors, including successes and failures in clinical applications to date.
Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone
As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.
Kurtz, S M; Adams, C L
In the practise of veterinary medicine and global public health, communication skill is as critical as clinical reasoning and an extensive knowledge base. Effective communication skills and cross-cultural sensitivity are essential across the board for interdisciplinary, international, and local veterinary medicine. This paper offers an evidence-based, three-part framework for developing and sustaining curricula that enhance communication skills and cross-cultural sensitivity so that students are better prepared to practise veterinary medicine in an evolving world. These curricula may well also serve as a conduit for encouraging more veterinary graduates to choose global public health as a career path.
The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research.
Full Text Available Objective: A simulation process known as objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was applied to assess pharmacy practice performed by senior pharmacy students.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted based on documentary analysis of performance evaluation records of pharmacy practice simulations that occurred between 2005 and 2009. These simulations were related to the process of self-medication and dispensing, and were performed with the use of patients simulated. The simulations were filmed to facilitate the evaluation process. It presents the OSCE educational experience performed by pharmacy trainees of the University of Southern Santa Catarina and experienced by two evaluators. The student general performance was analyzed, and the criteria for pharmacy practice assessment often identified trainees in difficulty.Results: The results of 291 simulations showed that students have an average yield performance of 70.0%. Several difficulties were encountered, such as the lack of information about the selected/prescribed treatment regimen (65.1%; inadequate communication style (21.9%; lack of identification of patients’ needs (7.7% and inappropriate drug selection for self-medication (5.3%.Conclusions: These data show that there is a need for reorientation of clinical pharmacy students because they need to improve their communication skills, and have a deeper knowledge of medicines and health problems in order to properly orient their patients.
Jacobi, Judith; Ray, Shaunta'; Danelich, Ilya; Dodds Ashley, Elizabeth; Eckel, Stephen; Guharoy, Roy; Militello, Michael; O'Donnell, Paul; Sam, Teena; Crist, Stephanie M; Smidt, Danielle
This paper describes the goals of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists' Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI) and its recommendations for health-system pharmacy practice transformation to meet future patient care needs and elevate the role of pharmacists as patient care providers. PPMI envisions a future in which pharmacists have greater responsibility for medication-related outcomes and technicians assume greater responsibility for product-related activities. Although the PPMI recommendations have elevated the level of practice in many settings, they also potentially affect existing clinical pharmacists, in general, and clinical pharmacy specialists, in particular. Moreover, although more consistent patient care can be achieved with an expanded team of pharmacist providers, the role of clinical pharmacy specialists must not be diminished, especially in the care of complex patients and populations. Specialist practitioners with advanced training and credentials must be available to model and train pharmacists in generalist positions, residents, and students. Indeed, specialist practitioners are often the innovators and practice leaders. Negotiation between hospitals and pharmacy schools is needed to ensure a continuing role for academic clinical pharmacists and their contributions as educators and researchers. Lessons can be applied from disciplines such as nursing and medicine, which have developed new models of care involving effective collaboration between generalists and specialists. Several different pharmacy practice models have been described to meet the PPMI goals, based on available personnel and local goals. Studies measuring the impact of these new practice models are needed. © 2016 Pharmacotherapy Publications, Inc.
Romeo T. Cristina
Full Text Available Homeopathy therapeutic means are more significantly considered as an animals treatment alternative. This because homeopathy has in its view not only the fact that is harmless for animals, but also the important aspect of lack presence of residues in animal origin products. The paper makes a short presentation of the advantages and disadvantages of this therapeutic alternative and also propose a short description of the three Hahnemian principles: of similitude, of dilutions and of individualization, with them specific aspects (decimal and centesimal dilutions, influence of constitution andtemperament, the organic and functional signs analysis.
Feb 22, 2014 ... Proteus vulgaris. Salmonella spp. Shigella spp. Aeromonas spp. Yersinia enterocolitica. Corynebacterium spp. Brucella spp. Microaerophilic bacteria. Campylobacter jejuni. Anaerobic Gram-negative ..... administration of FOS in drinking water at a dose of. 150 pg/mL for 5 consecutive days provides ...
Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists' roles are evolving from that of compounders and dispensers of medicines to that of experts on medicines within multidisciplinary health care teams. In the developing country context, the pharmacy is often the most accessible or even the sole point of access to health care advice and services. Because of their knowledge of medicines and clinical therapeutics, pharmacists are suitably placed for task shifting in health care and could be further trained to undertake functions such as clinical management and laboratory diagnostics. Indeed, pharmacists have been shown to be willing, competent, and cost-effective providers of what the professional literature calls "pharmaceutical care interventions"; however, internationally, there is an underuse of pharmacists for patient care and public health efforts. A coordinated and multifaceted effort to advance workforce planning, training and education is needed in order to prepare an adequate number of well-trained pharmacists for such roles. Acknowledging that health care needs can vary across geography and culture, an international group of key stakeholders in pharmacy education and global health has reached unanimous agreement that pharmacy education must be quality-driven and directed towards societal health care needs, the services required to meet those needs, the competences necessary to provide these services and the education needed to ensure those competences. Using that framework, this commentary describes the Pharmacy Education Taskforce of the World Health Organization, United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization and the International Pharmaceutical Federation Global Pharmacy and the Education Action Plan 2008–2010, including the foundation, domains, objectives and outcome measures, and includes several examples of current activities within this scope.
Svensberg, Karin; Brandlistuen, Ragnhild Eek; Björnsdottir, Ingunn; Sporrong, Sofia Kälvemark
Good communication skills are essential for pharmacy students to help patients with their medicines. Students' attitudes towards communication skills learning will influence their willingness to engage in communication training, and their skills when dealing with patients later on in their professional life. The aim of this study was to explore Nordic pharmacy students' attitudes to communication skills learning, and the associations between those attitudes and various student characteristics. A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study was conducted in 11 Nordic pharmacy schools between April 2015 and January 2016. The overall response rate for the final study population was 77% (367 out of 479 students). Pharmacy students who had fulfilled all mandatory communication training and most of their pharmacy practical experience periods were included. The communication skills attitudes scale was the main outcome. Linear regression models were fitted with the outcome variable and various student characteristics as the predictors, using generalized estimating equations to account for clustering within pharmacy schools. Nordic pharmacy students in general have moderately positive attitudes towards learning communication skills. Positive attitudes towards learning communication skills among pharmacy students were associated with being female (β adjusted 0.42, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.63, p skills improvement (β adjusted 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.71, pskills are not the result of personality (β adjusted -0.24, 95% CI -0.44 to -0.04, p=0.017). The study provides important information for faculty members responsible for curriculum improvements and teachers to refine their teaching of communication skills. From this, the teaching can be better tailored to suit different students. The students' chances of being able to effectively help patients in the future will be increased by that. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martins, Sílvia Filipa; van Mil, J W Foppe; da Costa, Filipa Alves
The role of the pharmacist has undergone profound changes over the recent years. In most European countries, the tendency seems to be that pharmacists are moving from being product-oriented to service-oriented. An interesting series of papers describing care related services of pharmacy in various countries has been published in 2006, but much has changed since then. This paper aims to provide an updated view on the overall health care sector in Europe, with a special focus on services in community pharmacy. To list and compare health care and community pharmacy structure in Europe; and to discuss the facilitators and barriers that can be found in health care systems and may promote or hinder the implementation of new community pharmacy services. European community pharmacy practice. A cross-sectional study was undertaken where data were collected using an online survey sent to a purposive sample of representatives from 27 European countries. Main outcome measure variation in professional community pharmacy services across Europe. Data were obtained from 22 respondents in 19 countries (70.4%). Health care is mainly provided by a form of public National Health Services in 17 of the 19 countries. Demographic criteria for founding new pharmacies were present in 17 countries. Medicines are exclusively available in pharmacies in approximately one third of the countries. Smoking cessation (93.8%), drug waste management (81.3%) and pharmaceutical care programmes for specific diseases (77.8%) were reported as the most widely disseminated services in European pharmacies. There are still major differences between community pharmacy practice in Europe. Differences are mostly due to the legal framework and remuneration issues, which impact on the range of services available from pharmacies to the community of each country.
Marilda Carlos Vidotto
Full Text Available The vaccination with DNA is one of the most promising immunization techniques against a pathogens variety and tumors, for which the conventional methods have not been efficient. DNA vaccines are capable to induce immune humoral and cellular response, directed to lymphocytes CD4+ and CD8+, without the necessity of live microorganisms. In spite of the great potential of inducing protective immunity, the DNA vaccine not always has success. The immunity depends on several factors such as the selection of the target gene, construction of the expression vector, frequency and via of administration of the vaccine, amount of DNA, location of the antigen codified by the plasmid and age, health and species of vaccinated animals. This revision shows the development of some vaccines of DNA for diseases of interest in the veterinary and human medicine.A vacinação com DNA é uma das mais promissoras técnicas de imunização contra uma variedade de patógenos e tumores, para os quais os métodos convencionais não tem sido eficientes. Vacinas de DNA são capazes de induzir resposta imune humoral e celular, tanto para resposta de linfócitos CD4+ quanto CD8+, sem a necessidade de microrganismos vivos. Apesar do grande potencial de induzir imunidade protetora, a vacina de DNA nem sempre apresenta bons resultados. A imunidade depende de vários fatores como a seleção do gene alvo, construção do vetor de expressão, freqüência e via de administração da vacina, quantidade de DNA, localização do antígeno codificado pelo plasmídio e idade, saúde e espécies de animais vacinados. Esta revisão relata o desenvolvimento de algumas vacinas de DNA para doenças de interesse na medicina veterinária e humana.
Full Text Available [english] Practising veterinarians in Germany are obliged to take part in continuing education. Due to high expenses which are incurred while taking part in continuing education, such as replacement of personnel, travel costs, conference fees, etc., it is important that efforts toward achievement of learning objectives are maximized. Through the introduction of rapid e-learning techniques, several conferences have been digitised and made available via the internet including publication of CD-ROMs to give participants the possibility of repeated learning. The acceptability of this technique was tested via utilisation data and a survey of participants. It was found that 83.3% of lecturers provided their talks (i.e., a total of approximately 196 lectures for digital distribution. The website featuring the on-line lectures recorded an average of 22 visits per day during a 12-month period. The survey conducted on 82 participants showed a high level of acceptance toward the e-learning technique. In conclusion, there is evidence of a great demand for using new media in continuing education for practitioners of veterinary medicine. [german] Die Tierärztinnen und Tierärzte in Deutschland sind gesetzlich zur Fortbildung verpflichtet. Da die Gesamtkosten für die Fortbildung sehr hoch sind (Praxisvertreter, Reisekosten, Tagungsbeitrag, sollte der Lernerfolg möglichst ergiebig sein. Durch Rapid-eLearning wurden mehrere Vortragsveranstaltungen digitalisiert und per Internet und CD verbreitet, um die Möglichkeiten der Nacharbeitung zu verbessern. Anhand der Nutzungszahlen und einer Nutzerbefragung wurde die Akzeptanz dieser Technik überprüft. 83,3% der Referenten stellten ihre Vorträge für eine digitale Verbreitung zur Verfügung, sodass insgesamt 196 online-Vorträge entstanden sind. Die Internetseiten verzeichneten innerhalb von 12 Monaten durchschnittlich 22 Besuche (visits am Tag. In der Befragung von 82 Tagungsteilnehmern konnte eine hohe
O'Brien, P.J.; Fournel-Fleury, C.; Bolliger, Adrian Marc
congresses and a joint journal (with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology) for communication of scientific research and information; the College also maintains a website, a joint listserv, and a newsletter; 6) collaboration in training and continuing education with relevant colleges......After 5 years of development, the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP)was formally recognized and approved on July 4, 2007 by the European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS), the European regulatory body that oversees specialization in veterinary medicine and which has......; currently there are 18 resident trainingprograms inEurope; 3) administration of 3 annual board-certifying examinations thus far,with an overall pass rate of 70%; 4) European consensus criteria for assessing the continuing education of specialists every 5 ears; 5) organization of 8 annual scientific...
小武家, 優子; 吉田, 健; 吉武, 毅人
The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011. At the time of the earthquake, pharmacist and pharmacy students engaged in volunteer activities such as providing disaster medicine and relief supplies to disaster areas. Questionnaire survey for pharmacy students were carried out in order to clarify awareness to volunteer activities for disaster areas and to use data as a basis of Service-Learning in the 6 years pharmacy education. We divided subjects into pharmacy students those wo...
Some thoughts on training and recruitment of academic teachers and future trends in teaching veterinary parasitology are presented with emphasis on the European situation. It is underlined that research is an indispensable basis for academic teaching. Besides a broad scientific background of the teacher, motivation and teaching methods are also important. Many academic teachers do not receive formal training in teaching methods. In order to improve future education, training of staff members in teaching methods should be promoted. Quality control of teaching and research, already established in many schools, should generally be introduced. Teaching is mostly underestimated in relation to research. Therefore, more weight should be placed on the former both in selecting scientists for the career as academic teachers and in evaluating and ranking departments for their academic activities. In the future veterinary medicine will have to cope with profound changes in the society and the veterinary profession, and the progressing European unification will enhance trends for internationalizing teaching curricula. Therefore, veterinary medicine has to reconsider the teaching subjects and methods and to lay more emphasis on flexibility, skills of problem-solving and self-learning and on training for life-long learning. At present there is an ongoing discussion on the question how to teach veterinary medicine, including veterinary parasitology. There are various options, and some of them are discussed, namely, the disciplinary and the problem-based/organ-focussed approaches. It is concluded that for teaching of veterinary parasitology and related disciplines a combined disciplinary and problem-based approach offers the best chances for fulfilling the requirements of teaching for the future. In the curriculum of undergraduate teaching of veterinary medicine at least 70-90 h should be dedicated to veterinary parasitology using a disciplinary and taxonomic approach. Additional
van Doorn, D.C.K.
The Faculty of Veterinary Medicine at Utrecht University has seen three major curriculum changes, in 1995, 2001 and 2007. The last change was made because of the European change to a Bachelor-Master system. Almost each time teaching hours tagged for veterinary parasitology have been reduced to
Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A.; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T.; Lees, Peter
VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve
Huella fundacional española de la salud animal en la Octava Villa de Cuba: San Juan de los Remedios - Foundations of the Spanish roots of the Veterinary Medicine in the Eighth Village of Cuba: San Juan de los Remedios
Rojas Lleonart, Isaías; Silveira Prado, Enrique A
ResumenEn el presente artículo se realiza un análisis histórico de los acontecimientos que permiten fundamentar las raíces españolas de la Veterinaria en la Octava Villa de Cuba, San Juan de los Remedios, actualmente municipio de Remedios, en la provincia de Villa Clara.SummaryIn this article a historical analysis of the events that allow to lay the foundations of the Spanish roots of the Veterinary medicine in the Eighth Village of Cuba, San Juan de los Remedios, nowadays municipality of Rem...
their innovator and/or generic equivalents) in both private retail and public pharmacies. Setting: Private and public sector retail pharmacies in Harare metropolitan province, Zimbabwe. Materials and Methods: Forty medicines were selected for ...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The OneVA Pharmacy application design consists of 3 main components: VistA Medication Profile screen, Health Data Record Clinical Data Service (HDR/CDS), and OneVA...
Nittari, Giulio; Peretti, Alessandro; Sibilio, Fabio; Ioannidis, Nicholas; Amenta, Francesco
Ships are required to carry a given amount of medicinal products and medications depending on the flag and the type of vessel. These medicines are stored in the so called ship's "medicine chest" or more properly - a ship pharmacy. Owing to the progress of medical sciences and to the increase in the mean age of seafarers employed on board ships, the number of pharmaceutical products and medical devices required by regulations to be carried on board ships is increasing. This may make handling of the ship's medicine chest a problem primarily on large ships sailing on intercontinental routes due to the difficulty in identifying the correspondence between medicines obtained abroad with those available at the national market. To minimise these problems a tool named Pharmacy Ship (acronym: PARSI) has been developed. The application PARSI is based on a database containing the information about medicines and medical devices required by different countries regulations. In the first application the system was standardised to comply with the Italian regulations issued on the 1st October, 2015 which entered into force on the 18 January 2016. Thanks to PARSI it was possible to standardize the inventory procedures, facilitate the work of maritime health authorities and make it easier for the crew, not professional in the field, to handle the 'medicine chest' correctly by automating the procedures for medicines management. As far as we know there are no other similar tools available at the moment. The application of the software, as well as the automation of different activities, currently carried out manually, will help manage (qualitatively and quantitatively) the ship's pharmacy. The system developed in this study has proved to be an effective tool which serves to guarantee the compliance of the ship pharmacy with regulations of the flag state in terms of medicinal products and medications. Sharing the system with the Telemedical Maritime Assistance Service may result in
Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A.
This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.)
Jonjić, Danijela; Vitale, Ksenija
Croatian regulations mandate pharmacies to receive unused medicines from households. Pharmacies are considered as producers and holders of pharmaceutical waste and are obliged to finance this service. Model where pharmacies are responsible for financing disposal of unused medicines without reimbursement is not common in Europe. Present service was not tested before implementation. To investigate the elements of the pharmaceutical waste disposal service provided by pharmacies, and to gain insight into the factors that might influence the effectiveness of the service. Setting All pharmacies in the city of Zagreb. Each pharmacy was asked to weigh the collected waste from the public during a period of 30 days, between June 1st and July 10th of 2011, absent from any media advertisement and answer a specifically designed questionnaire that was exploring possible connections between the amount of collected waste, type of pharmacy ownership, discretion while disposing, location of the container, appropriate labeling and to compare the amount of collected waste between neighborhoods. Quantity of collected unused medicines from the public. Of 210 pharmacies, 91 participated completing the questionnaire (43 % response rate). The total amount of collected waste was 505 kg. Pharmacies owned by the city of Zagreb had higher response rate (74 %) than privately owned pharmacies (36 %), and collected significantly higher amount of waste. Anonymity when disposing influenced collected quantity, while labelling and location of the container did not. There were differences in the amount of collected waste between neighborhoods due to the demographic characteristics and number of pharmacies per capita. The effectiveness of the pharmacy service of collecting unused medicines in Croatia shows a number of weaknesses. The amount of collected medicines is below the European average. Functioning of the service seems to be negatively influenced by the type of pharmacy ownership, distribution
The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.
Burns, Gilbert A; Ruby, Kathleen L; Debowes, Richard M; Seaman, Susan J; Brannan, Julia K
Data from focused studies and comprehensive surveys suggest that developing or enhancing non-technical (professional) skills will result in a more satisfied and successful veterinary student or veterinary graduate. The College of Veterinary Medicine at Washington State University has devoted considerable time, effort, and resources to augmenting the non-technical aspects of its curriculum while maintaining the traditional strengths of its DVM program. Here we summarize pertinent research and best-practice recommendations from a variety of sources and outline the steps that have been taken, with the underlying rationales, to integrate the teaching and modeling of non-technical (professional) competence throughout a four-year course of veterinary study.
Pelzer, Nancy L; Wiese, William H
Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5-3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature.
Palmeiro, Brian S
Cyclosporine is an immunomodulatory medication that is efficacious and approved for atopic dermatitis in dogs and allergic dermatitis in cats; it has also been used to successfully manage a variety of immune-mediated dermatoses in dogs and cats. This article reviews the use of cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology including its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, side effects, and relevant clinical updates. Dermatologic indications including atopic/allergic dermatitis, perianal fistulas, sebaceous adenitis, and other immune-mediated skin diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria ... on clinical signs, 6.5% of the offending dogs were suspected to be rabid with 2.4% ... In addition to the severe physical trauma and potentially ...
A case series of three dogs that underwent OFA for canine ovariohysterectomy is reported. The authors conclude OFA is possible in veterinary medicine; however the move away from the familiar effects of opioids perioperatively is challenging. Gaining experience with these types of protocols for standard procedures in ...
Holt, Elsbeth; And Others
Reviews a course in Food Hygiene and Public Health at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine in which students are sequenced through a series of computer-based lessons or autotutorial slide-tape lessons, the computer also being used to route, test, and keep records. Since grades indicated mastery of the subject, the course will…
Survey of ethno-veterinary medicinal plants at selected districts of Harari Regional State, Eastern Ethiopia · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Akil Usmane, Tadesse Birhanu, Mohammed Redwan, Edao Sado, Dereje Abera, 1-22.
Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah
Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international
Jonckheer-Sheehy, Valerie; Endenburg, Nienke
An enquiry into the requirement of a university veterinary behaviour clinic in The Netherlands revealed that there is a clear call for such a service. The specific demands and wishes of first line practicing veterinarians and companion animal owners were investigated. The research revealed that veterinarians are regular confronted with behaviour problems in companion animals and that they are willing to refer these cases to the University. They also expressed their need for access to continuing professional development opportunities in the field of veterinary behavioural medicine (which is something that most veterinary behaviour clinics associated with veterinary faculties provide). The demand from companion animal owners was also examined. It can be concluded that a large number of them had animals with behaviour problems and that they were willing to seek veterinary advice on these matters. In response to the above mentioned demands the University of Utrecht will open a veterinary behaviour clinic, providing high quality service for animals, their owners and the referring veterinarians. This service will be based on sound scientific practice and delivered by both veterinarians specialised in this field and recognised animal behaviour therapists.
Vinten, Claire E K; Cobb, Kate A; Freeman, Sarah L; Mossop, Liz H
Clinical reasoning is a fundamental skill for veterinary clinicians and a competency required of graduates by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons. However, it is unknown how veterinary students develop reasoning skills and where strengths and shortcomings of curricula lie. This research aimed to use the University of Nottingham School of Veterinary Medicine and Science (SVMS) as a case study to investigate the development of clinical reasoning among veterinary students. The analysis was framed in consideration of the taught, learned, and declared curricula. Sixteen staff and sixteen students from the SVMS participated separately in a total of four focus groups. In addition, five interviews were conducted with recent SVMS graduates. Audio transcriptions were used to conduct a thematic analysis. A content analysis was performed on all curriculum documentation. It was found that SVMS graduates feel they have a good level of reasoning ability, but they still experience a deficit in their reasoning capabilities when starting their first job. Overarching themes arising from the data suggest that a lack of responsibility for clinical decisions during the program and the embedded nature of the clinical reasoning skill within the curriculum could be restricting development. In addition, SVMS students would benefit from clinical reasoning training where factors influencing "real life" decisions (e.g., finances) are explored in more depth. Integrating these factors into the curriculum could lead to improved decision-making ability among SVMS graduates and better prepare students for the stressful transition to practice. These findings are likely to have implications for other veterinary curricula.
Kinnison, Tierney; Lumbis, Rachel; Orpet, Hilary; Welsh, Perdi; Gregory, Sue; Baillie, Sarah
Interprofessional education (IPE) has received little attention in veterinary education even though members of the veterinary and nursing professions work closely together. The present study investigates veterinary and veterinary nursing students' and practitioners' experiences with interprofessional issues and the potential benefits of IPE. Based on stakeholder consultations, two teaching interventions were modified or developed for use with veterinary and veterinary nursing students: Talking Walls, which aimed to increase individuals' understanding of each other's roles, and an Emergency-Case Role-Play Scenario, which aimed to improve teamwork. These interventions were piloted with volunteer veterinary and veterinary nursing students who were recruited through convenience sampling. A questionnaire (the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [RIPLS]) was modified for use in veterinary education and used to investigate changes in attitudes toward IPE over time (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and four to five months afterward). The results showed an immediate and significant positive change in attitude after the intervention, highlighting the students' willingness to learn collaboratively, their ability to recognize the benefits of IPE, a decreased sense of professional isolation, and reduced hierarchical views. Although nearly half of the students felt concerned about learning with students from another profession before the intervention, the majority (97%) enjoyed learning together. However, the positive change in attitude was not evident four to five months after the intervention, though attitudes remained above pre-intervention levels. The results of the pilot study were encouraging and emphasize the relevance and importance of veterinary IPE as well as the need for further investigation to explore methods of sustaining a change in attitude over time.
Faltus, Timo; Brehm, Walter
Cell-based therapies have been in use in veterinary medicine for years. However, the legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are not as well developed as the respective requirements of chemical pharmaceuticals. Cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are medicinal products in the sense of the pharmaceutical law of the European Union (EU). For that reason, such medicinal products principally require official approval for their manufacture and an official marketing authorization for their placement on the market before being used by the veterinarian. The manufacture, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals without manufacturing approval and marketing authorization is permitted only in certain exceptional cases determined by EU and individual Member State law. Violations of this requirement may have consequences for the respective veterinarian under criminal law and under the code of professional conduct in the respective Member State. The regular use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the scope of a therapeutic emergency as well as the import of such veterinary pharmaceuticals from non-European countries for use in the EU are currently out of the question in the EU because of a lack of legal bases. Here, we review the general legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the EU and point out different implementations of EU law within the different Member States.
Faltus, Timo; Brehm, Walter
Cell-based therapies have been in use in veterinary medicine for years. However, the legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are not as well developed as the respective requirements of chemical pharmaceuticals. Cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals are medicinal products in the sense of the pharmaceutical law of the European Union (EU). For that reason, such medicinal products principally require official approval for their manufacture and an official marketing authorization for their placement on the market before being used by the veterinarian. The manufacture, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals without manufacturing approval and marketing authorization is permitted only in certain exceptional cases determined by EU and individual Member State law. Violations of this requirement may have consequences for the respective veterinarian under criminal law and under the code of professional conduct in the respective Member State. The regular use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the scope of a therapeutic emergency as well as the import of such veterinary pharmaceuticals from non-European countries for use in the EU are currently out of the question in the EU because of a lack of legal bases. Here, we review the general legal requirement of manufacturing, placing on the market, and use of cell-based veterinary pharmaceuticals within the EU and point out different implementations of EU law within the different Member States. PMID:27965965