Dinkelman, Andrea L; Viera, Ann R; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle A
This qualitative study seeks to determine the nature of the instruction librarians provide to veterinary medical students at all 28 United States veterinary colleges. A secondary goal of the study was to determine in what ways and to what extent librarians participated in other instructional activities at their colleges. Over half of the librarians formally taught in one or more courses, predominantly in the first two years of the veterinary curriculum. One presentation per course was most common. Over half of the librarians interviewed stated that evidence-based veterinary medicine was taught at their colleges, and about half of these librarians collaborated with veterinary faculty in this instruction. Many librarians participated in orientation for first-year veterinary students. The librarians also taught instructional sessions for residents, interns, faculty, graduate students, and practicing veterinarians. This study found that librarians teach information literacy skills both formally and informally, but, in general, instruction by librarians was not well integrated into the curriculum. This study advances several recommendations to help veterinary students develop information literacy skills. These include: encourage veterinary faculty and administrators to collaborate more closely with librarians, incorporate a broader array of information literacy skills into assignments, and add a literature evaluation course to the curriculum.
Beran, Tanya N; Donnon, Tyrone; Hecker, Kent
Student evaluation of teaching is ubiquitous to teaching in colleges and universities around the world. Since the implementation of student evaluations in the 1970s in the US, considerable research has been devoted to their appropriate use as a means of judging the effectiveness of teaching. The present article aims to (1) examine the evidence for the reliability, validity, and utility of student ratings; (2) provide seven guidelines for ways to identify effective instruction, given that the purpose of student evaluation is to assess effective teaching; and (3) conclude with recommendations for the integration of student ratings into the continuous evaluation of veterinary medical education.
Artemiou, Elpida; Adams, Cindy L; Toews, Lorraine; Violato, Claudio; Coe, Jason B
We determined the Web-based configurations that are applied to teach medical and veterinary communication skills, evaluated their effectiveness, and suggested future educational directions for Web-based communication teaching in veterinary education. We performed a systematic search of CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ERIC limited to articles published in English between 2000 and 2012. The review focused on medical or veterinary undergraduate to clinical- or residency-level students. We selected studies for which the study population was randomized to the Web-based learning (WBL) intervention with a post-test comparison with another WBL or non-WBL method and that reported at least one empirical outcome. Two independent reviewers completed relevancy screening, data extraction, and synthesis of results using Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's framework. The search retrieved 1,583 articles, and 10 met the final inclusion criteria. We identified no published articles on Web based communication platforms in veterinary medicine; however, publications summarized from human medicine demonstrated that WBL provides a potentially reliable and valid approach for teaching and assessing communication skills. Student feedback on the use of virtual patients for teaching clinical communication skills has been positive,though evidence has suggested that practice with virtual patients prompted lower relation-building responses.Empirical outcomes indicate that WBL is a viable method for expanding the approach to teaching history taking and possibly to additional tasks of the veterinary medical interview.
Li, Jiakui; Guo, Dingzong; Zhou, Donghai; Wu, Xiaoxiong
Veterinary internal medicine (VIM) is a core subject and important clinical discipline for undergraduate students of veterinary science. The present paper reviews current information about the teaching of VIM, presents a description of the veterinary science curriculum, suggests methods to improve the quality of VIM teaching in China, and describes difficulties, problems, and trends in veterinary education in China.
Mossop, Liz H; Cobb, Kate
The teaching and assessment of professional behaviors and attitudes are important components of veterinary curricula. This article aims to outline some important considerations and concepts which will be useful for veterinary educators reviewing or developing this topic. A definition or framework of veterinary professionalism must be decided upon before educators can develop relevant learning outcomes. The interface between ethics and professionalism should be considered, and both clinicians and ethicists should deliver professionalism teaching. The influence of the hidden curriculum on student development as professionals should also be discussed during curriculum planning because it has the potential to undermine a formal curriculum of professionalism. There are several learning theories that have relevance to the teaching and learning of professionalism; situated learning theory, social cognitive theory, adult learning theory, reflective practice and experiential learning, and social constructivism must all be considered as a curriculum is designed. Delivery methods to teach professionalism are diverse, but the teaching of reflective skills and the use of early clinical experience to deliver valid learning opportunities are essential. Curricula should be longitudinal and integrated with other aspects of teaching and learning. Professionalism should also be assessed, and a wide range of methods have the potential to do so, including multisource feedback and portfolios. Validity, reliability, and feasibility are all important considerations. The above outlined approach to the teaching and assessment of professionalism will help ensure that institutions produce graduates who are ready for the workplace.
In their practice, physicians and veterinarians need to resort to an array of ethical competences. As a teaching topic, however, there is no accepted gold standard for human medical ethics, and veterinary medical ethics is not yet well established. This paper provides a reflection on the underlying aims of human and veterinary medical ethics…
Levi, Ohad; Michelotti, Kurt; Schmidt, Peggy; Lagman, Minette; Fahie, Maria; Griffon, Dominique
The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two different laparoscopic training models in preparing veterinary students to perform basic laparoscopic skills. Sixteen first- and second-year veterinary students were randomly assigned to a box trainer (Group B) or tablet trainer (Group T). Training and assessment for both groups included two tasks, "peg transfer" and "pattern cutting," derived from the well-validated McGill University Inanimate System for Training and Evaluation of Laparoscopic Skills. Confidence levels were compared by evaluating pre- and post-training questionnaires. Performance of laparoscopic tasks was scored pre- and post-training using a rubric for precision and speed. Results revealed a significant improvement in student confidence for basic laparoscopic skills (pstudents to perform basic laparoscopic skills on a model.
Nault, Andre J.
Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…
The undergraduate teaching of veterinary parasitology in an African perspective is reviewed. Information was gathered from 8 of approximately 20 veterinary schools/faculties in Africa. In order to compare teaching in the different schools a standard questionnaire was designed for collecting data on different aspects of the curriculum, including the curriculum structure, the year(s) in which veterinary parasitology is taught, the contact hours allocated to teaching and the methods of teaching. The results of the eight faculties/schools reveal that veterinary parasitology is taught in a disciplinary approach allocating a total of 90-198 h to lectures (46-75%) and practicals 38-196 h (25-54%) during the full curriculum. There are considerable differences in structure of the curricula and methods of teaching undergraduate veterinary parasitology between the various schools/faculties. Availability of teaching staff and the cost of running practical classes are the most limiting factors in teaching of veterinary parasitology. There is a need to constantly review the curriculum of undergraduate veterinary parasitology and to standardise the materials and methods in light of new knowledge. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.
Killinger, Stacy L; Flanagan, Sean; Castine, Eleanor; Howard, Kimberly A S
While existing literature suggests that professional students (e.g., medical, dental, law, nursing, etc.) experience high levels of stress and depression, the experiences of veterinary medical students have been less well examined. The purpose of this study was to explore the levels of stress and depression among veterinary medical students and to examine the relationship between these variables. Study participants were 1,245 veterinary medical students from North America. The findings provide support for the assertion that veterinary medical students experience high levels of stress and depression. Results also indicated that there is a correlation between stress and depression for veterinary medical students and that female students experience higher levels of stress and depression than their male counterparts.
Sisk, Dudley B.; And Others
Members of the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges-Council of Educators were surveyed in an attempt to measure their opinions and feelings towards veterinary medical education. Their opinions on such topics as relationships between students, faculty, the curriculum, and the identity of veterinary medicine are reported. (LBH)
Hubbell, John A E
University-based veterinary teaching hospitals must change to maintain their viability. A number of factors both internal and external to universities and the veterinary profession have contributed to the need for change. A task force formed by the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges and the American Association of Veterinary Clinicians was convened to identify the issues and propose individual and collective strategies for the future. Primary issues include a shortage of faculty and staff, the nature of the case load, the need for fiscal management strategies, and the need to manage stakeholder expectations. The majority of the proposed strategies for the future will be managed individually by the colleges. Proposed collective strategies center on increasing the number of specialists and improving recruitment and retention of faculty and staff.
Womack, James E.; Templeton, Joe W.
Areas that will influence the development of veterinary medical genetics as a clinical discipline are discussed, some critical research areas of immediate concern are suggested, and misconceptions held by many practicing veterinarians which must be corrected at the level of veterinary education are identified. (JMD)
Black, Leslie S.; Turnwald, Grant H.; Meldrum, James B.
Describes the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's use of outcomes assessment (OA) as part of the accreditation review process for the American Veterinary Medical Association. Discusses its nine OA survey instruments and use of resulting data during accreditation. (EV)
Animal use resulting in harm or death has historically played an integral role in veterinary education, in disciplines such as surgery, physiology, biochemistry, anatomy, pharmacology, and parasitology. However, many non-harmful alternatives now exist, including computer simulations, high quality videos, ''ethically-sourced cadavers'' such as from animals euthanased for medical reasons, preserved specimens, models and surgical simulators, non-invasive self-experimentation, and supervised clinical experiences. Veterinary students seeking to use such methods often face strong opposition from faculty members, who usually cite concerns about their teaching efficacy. Consequently, studies of veterinary students were reviewed comparing learning outcomes generated by non-harmful teaching methods with those achieved by harmful animal use. Of eleven published from 1989 to 2006, nine assessed surgical training--historically the discipline involving greatest harmful animal use. 45.5% (5/11) demonstrated superior learning outcomes using more humane alternatives. Another 45.5% (5/11) demonstrated equivalent learning outcomes, and 9.1% (1/11) demonstrated inferior learning outcomes. Twenty one studies of non-veterinary students in related academic disciplines were also published from 1968 to 2004. 38.1% (8/21) demonstrated superior, 52.4% (11/21) demonstrated equivalent, and 9.5% (2/21) demonstrated inferior learning outcomes using humane alternatives. Twenty nine papers in which comparison with harmful animal use did not occur illustrated additional benefits of humane teaching methods in veterinary education, including: time and cost savings, enhanced potential for customisation and repeatability of the learning exercise, increased student confidence and satisfaction, increased compliance with animal use legislation, elimination of objections to the use of purpose-killed animals, and integration of clinical perspectives and ethics early in the curriculum. The evidence
Dilly, Marc; Gruber, Christian
Since 2012, skills labs have been set up to teach practical skills at veterinary training facilities in the German-speaking world. In addition to didactic considerations, ethical points of view in terms of animal protection form the basis of the increasing significance of skills labs in veterinary medicine. Not least because of the quality standards in veterinary medicine training which apply across Europe, the link between veterinary medicine training facilities is particularly significant when it comes to the setting up and development of skills labs. The Committee on Veterinary Medicine is therefore not only interested in exchange and cooperation within veterinary medicine, but also sees an opportunity for mutual gain in the link with the Society for Medical Education Committee "Practical Skills".
Bartlett, Paul C; Van Buren, James W; Neterer, Margaret; Zhou, Chun
The Veterinary Medical Database (VMDB) is a summary of veterinary medical records from North American veterinary schools, and is a potential source of disease surveillance information for companion animals. A retrospective record search from four U.S. university veterinary teaching hospitals was used to calculate crude disease rates. Our objectives were to evaluate the utility of the database for disease surveillance purposes by comparing the utility of two methodologies for creating disease categories, and to evaluate the database for evidence of referral bias. Summaries of the medical records from November 2006 to October 2007 for 9577 dogs and 4445 cats were retrieved from VMDB for all canines and felines treated at Kansas State University, Colorado State University, Purdue University and Ohio State University. Disease frequency, computed as apparent period-prevalence and as the percentage of veterinary visits, was compiled for 30 disease categories that were formulated by one of two methods. To assess the possible impact of referral bias, disease rates were compared between animals residing in zip codes within 5 miles of the hospitals (zone 1) and those animals living at more distant locations (zone 2). When compared to zone 1 animals, disease conditions commonly associated with primary veterinary care were reduced by 29-76% within zone 2, and selected diseases generally associated with more specialized care were increased from 46 to 80% among zone 2 animals. The major differences in disease prevalence seen between zones suggests that substantial referral bias may exist, and that adjustment on the basis of geographical proximity to the university teaching hospitals may be useful in reducing this type of selection bias in the VMDB, thereby improve the accuracy of prevalence estimates and enhancing the utility of this database for purposes of disease surveillance. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Prasse, Keith W
Dr. Keith Prasse is a very distinguished leader in veterinary education. He started his career achieving his BS and DVM degrees from Iowa State University (ISU). He returned to ISU after a brief period in private practice in Illinois. His well-recognized career in veterinary pathology began with his MS and PhD degrees, followed by a five-year period of teaching at ISU. Dr. Prasse joined the faculty of the University of Georgia in 1972, and thus began a long-term partnership with Dr. Bob Duncan that is arguably the foundation of veterinary clinical pathology. The textbook they authored, Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, or "Duncan and Prasse" as it is known, remains the standard today, with later participation from Dr. Ed Mahaffey and most recently Dr. Ken Latimer. Dr. Prasse has mentored numerous graduate students and received many awards over his 23-year career in teaching, including the Norden Distinguished Teaching award twice, once at ISU and once at Georgia. His leadership as President of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists was greatly acknowledged and appreciated. Dr. Prasse's administrative service at the University of Georgia spanned 14 years, first as Associate Dean for Public Service and Outreach and later as Dean for eight years, during which time he served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC). The growth of the College of Veterinary Medicine under Dean Prasse's visionary leadership was extraordinary. He led through difficult economic and political times, yet the college and its community continued to prosper. His legacy at the University of Georgia is indelible and perpetual. His outstanding leadership of the college was recognized by the Georgia Veterinary Medical Association in 2004, when he was given the Georgia Veterinarian of the Year award. Since his retirement from Georgia, Dr. Prasse has contributed greatly to the profession and to the AAVMC by leading the Foresight project
Bauer, Elizabeth K.
Traces the development, since its founding in 1863, of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) influence over the standards of training required in the veterinary profession. Attention is focused on the roles of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the military, and the land-grant colleges in that development. (JT)
Veterinary ethics is recognised as a relevant topic in the undergraduate veterinary curriculum. However, there appears to be no widely agreed view on which contents are best suited for veterinary ethics teaching and there is limited information on the teaching approaches adopted by veterinary schools. This paper provides an inside perspective on the diversity of veterinary ethics teaching topics, based on an in-depth analysis of three European veterinary schools: Copenhagen, Lisbon and Nottingham. The case study approach integrated information from the analysis of syllabi contents and interviews with educators (curricular year 2010-2011). These results show that the curriculum of veterinary ethics is multidimensional and can combine a wide range of scientific, regulatory, professional and philosophical subjects, some of which may not be explicitly set out in the course descriptors. A conceptual model for veterinary ethics teaching is proposed comprising prominent topics included within four overarching concepts: animal welfare science, laws/regulations, professionalism, and theories/concepts. It is intended that this work should inform future curriculum development of veterinary ethics in European schools and assist ethical deliberation in veterinary practice. British Veterinary Association.
... and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. Keywords: Complementary and alternative veterinary medicine, Integrative veterinary course, Integrative veterinary curriculum, Integrative veterinary medicine, ...
Douglas, Jeffrey S.
The Virginia Veterinary Medical Association (VVMA) recently honored three professors from the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine (VMRCVM) during its annual meeting at the Hotel Roanoke.
Ortega S, César
This article analyzes curriculum offerings related to aquaculture and/or aquatic-animal health taught in veterinary medical schools or colleges in Mexico. The information database of the Mexican Association of Schools and Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and the Web sites of veterinary institutions indicate that 60% of veterinary colleges include courses related to aquaculture in their curriculum, but most of these are optional courses. There are few specialized continuing education programs or graduate level courses. There is also a lack of veterinary participation, in both public and private sectors, in aquatic-animal health. It is evident that there should be a greater involvement by the veterinary profession in Mexico's aquaculture to ensure food production in a safe and sustainable manner; to achieve this, veterinary medical institutions must include more aquaculture and aquatic-animal health courses in their curricula.
Lindstrom, U. B.
A survey of graduates from the University of Nairobi, Kenya in the field of veterinary medicine is reported. Areas covered include curriculum; teaching techniques; quality of faculty; and examinations. (JMF)
Dalley, Jessica S; Creary, Patricia R; Durzi, Tiffany; McMurtry, C Meghan
Although there are existing guidelines for teaching and learning skillful client communication, there remains a need to integrate a developmental focus into veterinary medical curricula to prepare students for interactions with children who accompany their companion animals. The objectives of this teaching tip are (1) to describe the use of a Teddy Bear Clinic Tour as an innovative, applied practice method for teaching veterinary students about clinical communication with children, and (2) to provide accompanying resources to enable use of this method to teach clinical communication at other facilities. This paper includes practical guidelines for organizing a Teddy Bear Clinic Tour at training clinics or colleges of veterinary medicine; an anecdotal description of a pilot study at the Ontario Veterinary College Smith Lane Animal Hospital; and printable resources, including a list of specific clinical communication skills, a sample evaluation sheet for supervisors and students, recommendations for creating a child-friendly environment, examples of child-friendly veterinary vocabulary, and a sample script for a Teddy Bear Clinic Tour. Informed by the resources provided in this teaching tip paper, the Teddy Bear Clinic Tour can be used at your facility as a unique teaching method for clinical communication with children and as a community outreach program to advertise the services at the facility.
The objective of this study was to evaluate a non animal teaching model referred as surgical dummy, for teaching surgery, to novice veterinary students. Students' confidence level and experience in surgical practice was evaluated via questionnaire. In addition student observation was done during the practices by the ...
Kogan, Lori R.; Dowers, Kristy L.; Cerda, Jacey R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.; Stewart, Sherry M.
Veterinary schools, similar to many professional health programs, face a myriad of evolving challenges in delivering their professional curricula including expansion of class size, costs to maintain expensive laboratories, and increased demands on veterinary educators to use curricular time efficiently and creatively. Additionally, exponential expansion of the knowledge base through ongoing biomedical research, educational goals to increase student engagement and clinical reasoning earlier in the curriculum, and students' desire to access course materials and enhance their educational experience through the use of technology all support the need to reassess traditional microscope laboratories within Professional Veterinary Medical (PVM) educational programs. While there is clear justification for teaching veterinary students how to use a microscope for clinical evaluation of cytological preparations (i.e., complete blood count, urinalysis, fecal analysis, fine needle aspirates, etc.), virtual microscopy may be a viable alternative to using light microscopy for teaching and learning fundamental histological concepts. This article discusses results of a survey given to assess Professional Veterinary Medical students' perceptions of using virtual microscope for learning basic histology/microscopic anatomy and implications of these results for using virtual microscopy as a pedagogical tool in teaching first-year Professional Veterinary Medical students' basic histology.
Huang, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ming; Suo, Xun; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Many parasites of domestic animals in China are of major socioeconomic and medical importance. Hence, veterinary parasitology is one of the core subjects for undergraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary science. Here, we review the teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities, including a description of the veterinary science curricula and measures to improve the quality of veterinary parasitology teaching in China.
White, Stephen D; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Hawkins, Michelle G
Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are popular companion animals with reported skin diseases, but most reports are accessed from textbooks or review articles. To document skin diseases and their prevalence in companion guinea pigs in northern California, USA, and to investigate predilections for the most common conditions over a 25 year period. Two hundred and ninety three guinea pigs from the hospital population met inclusion criteria. A retrospective study was performed by searching computerized medical records seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California from 1 January 1990 to 31 July 2015 using key words relevant to dermatology. Of the 580 guinea pigs seen at the VMTH, 50% (293) had skin disease. Of the 293 cases, 154 (52%) presented for nondermatological reasons. Guinea pigs with skin disease were significantly older than those without skin disease (P = 0.0002); females with skin disease were more likely to have cystic ovaries (P = 0.0203), although these were not always associated with alopecia. Pododermatitis and infestation with Trixacarus caviae or lice were the most common skin diseases. Ivermectin or selamectin was used for ectoparasite treatment. Abscesses unassociated with pododermatitis were the most common nodules. Benign follicular tumours were the most common neoplasm. Despite the frequent mention of dermatophytosis in the veterinary literature, only two cases of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were diagnosed. Cutaneous conditions in companion guinea pigs in the USA are common. Clinicians should include a dermatological examination when examining these rodents regardless of the reason for presentation. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.
Kochevar, Deborah T
The Association of American Veterinary Medical College's (AAVMC's) role in the progression of academic veterinary medical education has been about building successful partnerships in the US and internationally. Membership in the association has evolved over the past 50 years, as have traditions of collaboration that strengthen veterinary medical education and the association. The AAVMC has become a source of information and a place for debate on educational trends, innovative pedagogy, and the value of a diverse learning environment. The AAVMC's relationship with the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education (AVMA COE), the accreditor of veterinary medical education recognized by the United Sates Department of Education (DOE), is highlighted here because of the key role that AAVMC members have played in the evolution of veterinary accreditation. The AAVMC has also been a partner in the expansion of veterinary medical education to include global health and One Health and in the engagement of international partners around shared educational opportunities and challenges. Recently, the association has reinforced its desire to be a truly international organization rather than an American organization with international members. To that end, strategic AAVMC initiatives aim to expand and connect the global community of veterinary educators to the benefit of students and the profession around the world. Tables in this article are intended to provide historical context, chronology, and an accessible way to view highlights.
Gage, E. Dean; And Others
The Advanced Studies Committee of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges addresses these questions: What are the responsibilities of the school of veterinary science department in continuing education? How should continuing education be funded? What are the appropriate mechanisms for recognizing or rewarding faculty participation…
Taylor, Kay Ann; Robinson, Daniel C
Women now dominate student enrollment in colleges of veterinary medicine in the USA, as well as in other countries. Projections indicate that this will remain a constant. The implications for teaching, learning, mentoring, leadership, professional development, student and faculty diversity, and curriculum structure are enormous. This article provides the groundwork for examining gender diversity in veterinary medical education. Women's development and ways of knowing are identified as paramount for understanding and benefiting students and faculty in their higher education experiences and in their professional lives. Seminal research focusing on women's development and ways of knowing is introduced, summarized, and contrasted to male-centered models, and implications for teaching practice are considered. Our underlying premise is that research about women's moral and intellectual development is relevant to veterinary education and supports the adoption of student-centered approaches to teaching and learning.
Backues, Kay; Clyde, Vickie; Denver, Mary; Fiorello, Christine; Hilsenroth, Rob; Lamberski, Nadine; Larson, Scott; Meehan, Tom; Murray, Mike; Ramer, Jan; Ramsay, Ed; Suedmeyer, Kirk; Whiteside, Doug
These guidelines for veterinary medical care and veterinary hospitals are written to conform with the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act, which states that programs of disease prevention and parasite control, euthanasia, and adequate veterinary care shall be established and maintained under the supervision of a veterinarian. Ideally the zoo and aquarium should be providing the best possible veterinary medical care for the animals in their collections. Many of these animals are rare and endangered and the institutions should endeavor both to provide for the long term health and well being of these animals and to advance the field of non-domestic animal medicine. It is hoped that this publication will aid in this process.
Knowledge of common diseases is important for effective disease control and management programme. This retrospective study was designed to identify the common equine diseases and clinical conditions observed at the Large Animal Clinics of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, using ...
Mar 28, 2016 ... and sports medicine and herbal therapy. Current curricular trends ..... competitive pursuits and in the demand from veterinary clients for accelerated ..... Effects of nutrition choices and lifestyle changes on the well- being of cats ...
A Veterinary Advisory Board, comprised of Virginia- and Maryland-based equine practitioners, has been established to help the Marion duPont Scott Equine Medical Center continue its quest to provide excellence in equine healthcare for the region.
Hancock, Jason; Hammond, Jennifer A; Roberts, Martin; Mattick, Karen
Current guidelines suggest that educators in both medical and veterinary professions should do more to ensure that students can tolerate ambiguity. Designing curricula to achieve this requires the ability to measure and understand differences in ambiguity tolerance among and within professional groups. Although scales have been developed to measure tolerance of ambiguity in both medical and veterinary professions, no comparative studies have been reported. We compared the tolerance of ambiguity of medical and veterinary students, hypothesizing that veterinary students would have higher tolerance of ambiguity, given the greater patient diversity and less well-established evidence base underpinning practice. We conducted a secondary analysis of questionnaire data from first- to fourth-year medical and veterinary students. Tolerance of ambiguity scores were calculated and compared using the TAMSAD scale (29 items validated for the medical student population), the TAVS scale (27 items validated for the veterinary student population), and a scale comprising the 22 items common to both scales. Using the TAMSAD and TAVS scales, medical students had a significantly higher mean tolerance of ambiguity score than veterinary students (56.1 vs. 54.1, p<.001 and 60.4 vs. 58.5, p=.002, respectively) but no difference was seen when only the 22 shared items were compared (56.1 vs. 57.2, p=.513). The results do not support our hypothesis and highlight that different findings can result when different tools are used. Medical students may have slightly higher tolerance of ambiguity than veterinary students, although this depends on the scale used.
Lust, Elaine Blythe; Barthold, Claudia; Malesker, Mark A; Wichman, Tammy O
There are over 5000 approved prescription and over-the-counter medications, as well as vaccines, with labeled indications for veterinary patients. Of these, there are several products that have significant human health hazards upon accidental or intentional exposure or ingestion in humans: carfentanil, clenbuterol (Ventipulmin), ketamine, tilmicosin (Micotil), testosterone/estradiol (Component E-H and Synovex H), dinoprost (Lutalyse/Prostamate), and cloprostenol (Estromate/EstroPlan). The hazards range from mild to life-threatening in terms of severity, and include bronchospasm, central nervous system stimulation, induction of miscarriage, and sudden death. To report medication descriptions, human toxicity information, and medical management for the emergent care of patients who may have had exposure to veterinary medications when they present to an emergency department (ED). The intended use of this article is to inform and support ED personnel, drug information centers, and poison control centers on veterinary medication hazards. There is a need for increased awareness of the potential hazards of veterinary medications within human medicine circles. Timely reporting of veterinary medication hazards and their medical management may help to prepare the human medical community to deal with such exposures or abuses when time is of the essence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Memon, M A; Shmalberg, J; Adair, H S; Allweiler, S; Bryan, J N; Cantwell, S; Carr, E; Chrisman, C; Egger, C M; Greene, S; Haussler, K K; Hershey, B; Holyoak, G R; Johnson, M; Jeune, S Le; Looney, A; McConnico, R S; Medina, C; Morton, A J; Munsterman, A; Nie, G J; Park, N; Parsons-Doherty, M; Perdrizet, J A; Peyton, J L; Raditic, D; Ramirez, H P; Saik, J; Robertson, S; Sleeper, M; Dyke, J Van; Wakshlag, J
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative.
Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270
Nappier, Michael T; Corrigan, Virginia K; Bartl-Wilson, Lara E; Freeman, Mark; Werre, Stephen; Tempel, Eric
The number of companion animal wellness visits in private practice has been decreasing, and one important factor cited is the lack of effective communication between veterinarians and pet owners regarding the importance of preventive care. Checklists have been widely used in many fields and are especially useful in areas where a complex task must be completed with multiple small steps, or when cognitive fatigue is evident. The use of checklists in veterinary medical education has not yet been thoroughly evaluated as a potential strategy to improve communication with pet owners regarding preventive care. The authors explored whether the use of a checklist based on the American Animal Hospital Association/American Veterinary Medical Association canine and feline preventive care guidelines would benefit senior veterinary students in accomplishing more complete canine and feline wellness visits. A group of students using provided checklists was compared to a control group of students who did not use checklists on the basis of their medical record notes from the visits. The students using the checklists were routinely more complete in several areas of a wellness visit vs. those who did not use the checklists. However, neither group of students routinely discussed follow-up care recommendations such as frequency or timing of follow-up visits. The study authors recommend considering checklist use for teaching and implementing wellness in companion animal primary care veterinary clinical teaching settings.
Michael T. Nappier
Full Text Available The number of companion animal wellness visits in private practice has been decreasing, and one important factor cited is the lack of effective communication between veterinarians and pet owners regarding the importance of preventive care. Checklists have been widely used in many fields and are especially useful in areas where a complex task must be completed with multiple small steps, or when cognitive fatigue is evident. The use of checklists in veterinary medical education has not yet been thoroughly evaluated as a potential strategy to improve communication with pet owners regarding preventive care. The authors explored whether the use of a checklist based on the American Animal Hospital Association/American Veterinary Medical Association canine and feline preventive care guidelines would benefit senior veterinary students in accomplishing more complete canine and feline wellness visits. A group of students using provided checklists was compared to a control group of students who did not use checklists on the basis of their medical record notes from the visits. The students using the checklists were routinely more complete in several areas of a wellness visit vs. those who did not use the checklists. However, neither group of students routinely discussed follow-up care recommendations such as frequency or timing of follow-up visits. The study authors recommend considering checklist use for teaching and implementing wellness in companion animal primary care veterinary clinical teaching settings.
Pereira, Mary Mauldin; Yvorchuk-St Jean, Kathleen E; Wallace, Charles E; Krecek, Rosina C
A student-centered innovative method of teaching veterinary parasitology was launched and evaluated at the Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine (RUSVM) in St. Kitts, where Parasitology is a required course for second-semester veterinary students. A novel method, named Iron Parasitology, compared lecturer-centered teaching with student-centered teaching and assessed the retention of parasitology knowledge of students in their second semester and again when they reached their seventh semester. Members of five consecutive classes chose to participate in Iron Parasitology with the opportunity to earn an additional 10 points toward their final grade by demonstrating their knowledge, communication skills, clarity of message, and creativity in the Iron Parasitology exercise. The participants and nonparticipants were assessed using seven parameters. The initial short-term study parameters used to evaluate lecturer- versus student-centered teaching were age, gender, final Parasitology course grade without Iron Parasitology, RUSVM overall grade point average (GPA), RUSVM second-semester GPA, overall GPA before RUSVM, and prerequisite GPA before RUSVM. The long-term reassessment study assessed retention of parasitology knowledge in members of the seventh-semester class who had Iron Parasitology as a tool in their second semester. These students were invited to complete a parasitology final examination during their seventh semester. There were no statistically significant differences for the parameters measured in the initial study. In addition, Iron Parasitology did not have an effect on the retention scores in the reassessment study.
Wang, Hong; Rush, Bonnie R; Wilkerson, Melinda; Herman, Cheryl; Miesner, Matt; Renter, David; Gehring, Ronette
Technology has changed the landscape of teaching and learning. The integration of instructional technology into teaching for meaningful learning is an issue for all educators to consider. In this article, we introduce educational theories including constructivism, information-processing theory, and dual-coding theory, along with the seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education. We also discuss five practical instructional strategies and the relationship of these strategies to the educational theories. From theory to practice, the purpose of the article is to share our application of educational theory and practice to work toward more innovative teaching in veterinary medical education.
Dantas-Torres, F; Cameron, M M; Colwell, D D; Otranto, D
Medical and Veterinary Entomology (MVE) represents a leading periodical in its field and covers many aspects of the biology and control of insects, ticks, mites and other arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. Since the first issue of the journal, researchers working in both developed and developing countries have published in MVE, with direct impact on current knowledge in the field. An increasing number of articles dealing with the epidemiology and transmission of vector-borne pathogens have been published in MVE, reflecting rapid changes in vector distribution, pathogen transmission and host-arthropod interactions. This article represents a gaze into the crystal ball in which we identify areas of increasing interest, discuss the main changes that have occurred in the epidemiology of parasitic arthropods since the first issue of MVE, and predict the principal scientific topics that might arise in the next 25 years for scientists working in medical and veterinary entomology. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.
Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt
Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned.
Timmins, Richard P
The term ''emotional intelligence'' (EI) has become very popular in the business world and has recently infiltrated veterinary medical education. The term purports to encompass those qualities and skills that are not measured by IQ tests but do play an important role in achieving success in life. Veterinary medical educators often incorporate these in a category called ''non-technical competencies'' (which includes, for example, communication skills) and acknowledge that veterinarians need more training in this area in order to be successful. Although EI looks promising as a means for teaching these non-technical competencies to students and practitioners, there are some challenges to its application. To begin with, there are three competing models of EI that differ in definition and measuring instruments. Although some research has suggested that high EI is associated with success in school and in business, there are no studies directly correlating high EI with greater success in the veterinary profession. Nor have any studies confirmed that increasing a student's EI will improve eventual outcomes for that student. It is important that educators approach the implementation of new techniques and concepts for teaching non-technical competencies the same way they would approach teaching a new surgical technique or drug therapy. EI is an intriguing and promising construct and deserves dedicated research to assess its relevance to veterinary medical education. There are opportunities to investigate EI using case control studies that will either confirm or discredit the benefits of incorporating EI into the veterinary curriculum. Implementing EI training without assessment risks wasting limited resources and alienating students.
Brown, Peter J; Fews, Debra; Bell, Nick J
Virtual microscopy using digitized slides has become more widespread in teaching in recent years. There have been no direct comparisons of the use of virtual microscopy and the use of microscopes and glass slides. Third-year veterinary students from two different schools completed a simple objective test, covering aspects of histology and histopathology, before and after a practical class covering relevant material presented as either glass slides viewed with a microscope or as digital slides. There was an overall improvement in performance by students at both veterinary schools using both practical formats. Neither format was consistently better than the other, and neither school consistently outperformed the other. In a comparison of student appraisal of use of digital slides and microscopes, the digital technology was identified as having many advantages.
Miller, RoseAnn; Mavis, Brian E; Lloyd, James W; Grabill, Chandra M; Henry, Rebecca C; Patterson, Coretta C
Veterinary medical school challenges students academically and personally, and some students report depression and anxiety at rates higher than the general population and other medical students. This study describes changes in veterinary medical student self-esteem (SE) over four years of professional education, attending to differences between high and low SE students and the characteristics specific to low SE veterinary medical students. The study population was students enrolled at the Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine from 2006 to 2012. We used data from the annual anonymous survey administered college-wide that is used to monitor the curriculum and learning environment. The survey asked respondents to rate their knowledge and skill development, learning environment, perceptions of stress, skill development, and SE. Participants also provided information on their academic performance and demographics. A contrasting groups design was used: high and low SE students were compared using logistic regression to identify factors associated with low SE. A total of 1,653 respondents met inclusion criteria: 789 low SE and 864 high SE students. The proportion of high and low SE students varied over time, with the greatest proportion of low SE students during the second-year of the program. Perceived stress was associated with low SE, whereas perceived supportive learning environment and skill development were associated with high SE. These data have provided impetus for curricular and learning environment changes to enhance student support. They also provide guidance for additional research to better understand various student academic trajectories and their implications for success.
Degernes, Laurel A; Osborne, Julie A Nettifee
Injured or sick wild avian species, especially raptors (birds of prey, including hawks, owls, falcons, and eagles), can present different challenges to veterinary students and veterinarians who are trained in companion avian medicine (e.g., parrot medicine). Proper capture and restraint, feeding, housing, and certain diagnostic and treatment techniques involving raptors require different skills, knowledge, and resources than working with parrots. We developed an innovative raptor medicine program that enables students to acquire proficiency in safe capture, restraint, and examination techniques and in common diagnostic and treatment procedures. A self-assessment survey was developed to determine students' confidence and proficiency in 10 procedures taught in the lab. Groups were compared by class status (Year 1 vs. Year 2 and 3) and level of prior raptor experience (non-experienced or experienced). In surveys conducted before and after teaching two sets of raptor training labs, students rated themselves significantly more proficient in all 10 diagnostic and treatment procedures after completing the two raptor laboratories. The greatest improvements were observed in technical skill procedures such as fluid administration, intramuscular injections, cloacal swabs, venipuncture, and bandaging. Our approach to incorporating elective wildlife learning experiences into the veterinary curriculum may be replicable in other veterinary schools, with or without a wildlife rehabilitation program.
Estrada, Amara H; Behar-Horenstein, Linda; Estrada, Daniel J; Black, Erik; Kwiatkowski, Alison; Bzoch, Annie; Blue, Amy
Inter-professional education (IPE) is identified as an important component of health profession training and is listed in the accreditation requirements for many fields, including veterinary medicine. The goals of IPE are to develop inter-professional skills and to improve patient-oriented care and community health outcomes. To meet these goals, IPE relies on enhanced teamwork, a high level of communication, mutual planning, collective decision making, and shared responsibilities. One Health initiatives have also become integral parts of core competencies for veterinary curricular development. While the overall objectives of an IPE program are similar to those of a One Health initiative, they are not identical. There are unique differences in expectations and outcomes for an IPE program. The purpose of this study was to explore veterinary medical students' perceptions of their interprofessional experiences following participation in a required IPE course that brought together beginning health profession students from the colleges of medicine, dentistry, nursing, pharmacy, nutrition, public health and health professions, and veterinary medicine. Using qualitative research methods, we found that there is powerful experiential learning that occurs for both the veterinary students and the other health profession students when they work together at the beginning of their curriculum as an inter-professional team.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital-associated infections are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in veterinary patients. With the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, these infections can be particularly difficult to eradicate. Sources of hospital-associated infections can include the patients own flora, medical staff and inanimate hospital objects. Cellular phones are becoming an invaluable feature of communication within hospitals, and since they are frequently handled by healthcare personnel, there may be a potential for contamination with various pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of contamination of cellular phones (hospital issued and personal carried by personnel at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Results MRSP was isolated from 1.6% (2/123 and MRSA was isolated from 0.8% (1/123 of cellular phones. Only 21.9% (27/123 of participants in the study indicated that they routinely cleaned their cellular phone. Conclusions Cellular phones in a veterinary teaching hospital can harbour MRSP and MRSA, two opportunistic pathogens of significant concern. While the contamination rate was low, cellular phones could represent a potential source for infection of patients as well as infection of veterinary personnel and other people that might have contact with them. Regardless of the low incidence of contamination of cellular phones found in this study, a disinfection protocol for hospital-issued and personal cellular phones used in veterinary teaching hospitals should be in place to reduce the potential of cross-contamination.
Steele, Michael; Crabb, Nicholas P; Moore, Lynda J; Reyher, Kristen K; Baillie, Sarah; Eisler, Mark C
Evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) is of interest and relevance to veterinary practitioners. Consequently, veterinary schools take responsibility for teaching students how to appraise scientific articles and for equipping them with the skills needed to obtain and evaluate the best evidence and to apply this approach to their own cases. As part of our farm animal clinical rotation, we train students in qualitative and quantitative EBVM methods using an e-learning environment, online teaching materials, a wiki (a Web site that allows its users to edit its content via a Web browser), and face-to-face tutorials that support learning. Students working in small groups use a wiki to record details of the history, clinical presentation, diagnostic tests, herd data, and management plans for their chosen farm animal clinical cases. Using a standardized patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) format, each group formulates a patient question based on either a proposed intervention or diagnostic procedure for the case and conducts an online scientific literature database search. The students appraise the articles retrieved using EBVM approaches and record the information in the wiki. The summation of this body of work, the group's critically appraised topic (CAT), includes the original PICO, a standardized table of the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention or diagnostic procedure, a summary statement in the form of a clinical bottom line, and their reflections upon the CAT. At the end of the rotation, students take part in a structured "CAT Club" where they present and discuss their findings with fellow students and clinicians.
Describes the results of the use of computer-based tutorials to teach the pathology of the cardiovascular system in a veterinary school in the United Kingdom. Concludes that the combined worksheet and computer based learning format is suitable for teaching veterinary pathology. (LRW)
Hafen, McArthur; Siqueira Drake, Adryanna A; Rush, Bonnie R; Sibley, D Scott
The present study evaluated third-year veterinary medical students' perceptions of a communication lab protocol. The protocol used clips of fourth-year veterinary medical students working with authentic clients. These clips supplemented course material. Clips showed examples of proficient communication as well as times of struggle for fourth-year students. Third-year students were asked to critique interactions during class. One hundred and eight third-year students provided feedback about the communication lab. While initial interest in communication proved low, interest in communication training at the end of the course increased substantially. The majority of students cited watching videos clips of authentic client interactions as being an important teaching tool.
van Luijk, S.J.; Gorter, R.C.; van Mook, W.N.K.A.
Background: From 2002 onwards, a nationwide working group of representatives from all medical (8), dental (3) and veterinary medicine (1) schools collaborated in order to develop and implement recommendations for teaching and assessing professional behaviour. Aim: The aim of this article is to
Fletcher, Oscar J; Hooper, Billy E; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina
Our knowledge of veterinary medicine has expanded greatly over the past 50 years. To keep pace with these changes and produce competent professionals ready to meet evolving societal needs, instruction within veterinary medical curricula has undergone a parallel evolution. The curriculum of 1966 has given way, shifting away from lecture-laboratory model with few visual aids to a program of active learning, significant increases in case- or problem-based activities, and applications of technology, including computers, that were unimaginable 50 years ago. Curricula in veterinary colleges no longer keep all students in lockstep or limit clinical experiences to the fourth year, and instead have moved towards core electives with clinical activities provided from year 1. Provided here are examples of change within veterinary medical education that, in the view of the authors, had positive impacts on the evolution of instruction and curriculum. These improvements in both how and what we teach are now being made at a more rapid pace than at any other time in history and are based on the work of many faculty and administrators over the past 50 years.
Dean, R; Brennan, M; Ewers, R; Hudson, C; Daly, J M; Baillie, S; Eisler, M C; Place, E J; Brearley, J; Holmes, M; Handel, I; Shaw, D; McLauchlan, G; McBrearty, A; Cripps, P; Jones, P; Smith, R; Verheyen, K
The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons now lists 'How to evaluate evidence' as a day one competence for newly qualified vets. In this article, representatives from each of the veterinary schools in the UK discuss how the challenge of delivering and assessing the concepts of evidence-based veterinary medicine in a crowded undergraduate curriculum can be met. British Veterinary Association.
Erzinclioglu, Y Z
Diagnostic features are described as a series of couplets that enable separation of the third instar larvae of the following pairs of closely related forms of blowflies of medical and veterinary importance: Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann) and Ch.putoria (Wiedemann), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Ch.rufifacies (Macquart), Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) and Co.macellaria (Fabricius), Lucilia sericata (Mergen) and L. cuprina (Wiedemann), Calliphora augur (Fabricius) and C. stygia (Fabricius).
Fletcher, Oscar J; Hooper, Billy E; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina
The Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME), with the leadership of seven editors and two interim editors, grew from 33 pages of mostly news and commentary to become the premier source for information exchange in veterinary medical education. The first national publication of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) was a 21-page newsletter published in December 1973. This one-time newsletter was followed by volume 1, issue 1 of JVME, published in spring 1974 and edited by William W. Armistead. Richard Talbot was the second and longest serving editor, and under his leadership, JVME grew in the number and quality of papers. Lester Crawford and John Hubbell served as interim editors, maintaining quality and keeping JVME on track until a new editor was in place. Robert Wilson, Billy Hooper, Donal Walsh, Henry Baker, and the current editor, Daryl Buss, are major contributors to the success of JVME. The early history of the journal is described by Billy Hooper and followed by a brief history of the periods of each of the editors. This history concludes with objective and subjective evaluations of the impacts of JVME.
Krone, Lauren M.; Brown, Catherine M.; Lindenmayer, Joann M.
Objective To estimate the proportion of independent small animal veterinary medical practices in Massachusetts that use electronic veterinary medical records (EVMRs), determine the purposes for which EVMRs are used, and identify perceived barriers to their use. Design Survey. Sample 100 veterinarians. Procedures 213 of 517 independent small animal veterinary practices operating in Massachusetts were randomly chosen for study recruitment. One veterinarian at each practice was invited by telephone to answer a hardcopy survey regarding practice demographics, medical records type (electronic, paper, or both), purposes of EVMR use, and perceived barriers to adoption. Surveys were mailed to the first 100 veterinarians who agreed to participate. Practices were categorized by record type and size (large [≥ 5 veterinarians], medium [3 to 4 veterinarians], or small [1 to 2 veterinarians]). Results 84 surveys were returned; overall response was 84 of 213 (39.4%). The EVMRs were used alone or together with paper records in 66 of 82 (80.5%) practices. Large and medium-sized practices were significantly more likely to use EVMRs combined with paper records than were small practices. The EVMRs were most commonly used for ensuring billing, automating reminders, providing cost estimates, scheduling, recording medical and surgical information, and tracking patient health. Least common uses were identifying emerging infectious diseases, research, and insurance. Eleven veterinarians in paper record–only practices indicated reluctance to change, anticipated technological problems, time constraints, and cost were barriers to EVMR use. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results indicated EVMRs were underutilized as a tool for tracking and improving population health and identifying emerging infectious diseases. Efforts to facilitate adoption of EVMRs for these purposes should be strengthened by the veterinary medical, human health, and public health professions. PMID:25029312
Full Text Available In order to achieve the goal of medical education, medicine and adapt to changes in the way doctors work, with the rapid medical teaching methods of modern science and technology must be reformed. Based on the current status of teaching in medical colleges method to analyze the formation and development of medical teaching methods, characteristics, about how to achieve optimal medical teaching methods for medical education teachers and management workers comprehensive and thorough change teaching ideas and teaching concepts provide a theoretical basis.
Harris, Donna L; Lloyd, James W; Marrinan, Mike
The Skills, Knowledge, Aptitude, and Attitude (SKA) Subcommittee of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues (NCVEI) has identified the need for veterinary teaching hospitals (VTH) to be at the forefront of progressive business management to serve as a model for both students and practitioners to emulate. To provide a foundation for developing a model, this study reviewed pertinent literature applicable to the management of a VTH. Much of the literature relevant to VTH management relates to work completed for the human side of medicine (academic health centers, or AHCs) or to the private sector. This review explores management practices in strategic planning, financial management, human resource management, marketing, pricing, operations, and legal issues. It is concluded that strategic management is important to provide the foundation for success in the VTH. In addition, periodic financial reports are recommended, as are the development and use of benchmarks for financial management. Establishing positive, motivating human resource practices is also suggested, along with development of a marketing plan based on a clear understanding of VTH core competencies and the market's specific needs.
Jones Michael A
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of our study was to use a student-centred approach to develop an online video learning resource (called 'Moo Tube' at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, UK and also to provide guidance for other academics in the School wishing to develop a similar resource in the future. Methods A focus group in the format of the nominal group technique was used to garner the opinions of 12 undergraduate students (3 from year-1, 4 from year-2 and 5 from year-3. Students generated lists of items in response to key questions, these responses were thematically analysed to generate key themes which were compared between the different year groups. The number of visits to 'Moo Tube' before and after an objective structured practical examination (OSPE was also analysed to provide data on video usage. Results Students highlighted a number of strengths of video resources which can be grouped into four overarching themes: (1 teaching enhancement, (2 accessibility, (3 technical quality and (4 video content. Of these themes, students rated teaching enhancement and accessibility most highly. Video usage was seen to significantly increase (P Conclusions The students had a positive perception of video usage in higher education. Video usage increases prior to practical examinations. Image quality was a greater concern with year-3 students than with either year-1 or 2 students but all groups highlighted the following as important issues: i good sound quality, ii accessibility, including location of videos within electronic libraries, and iii video content. Based on the findings from this study, guidelines are suggested for those developing undergraduate veterinary videos. We believe that many aspects of our list will have resonance in other areas of medicine education and higher education.
Roshier, Amanda L; Foster, Neil; Jones, Michael A
The purpose of our study was to use a student-centred approach to develop an online video learning resource (called 'Moo Tube') at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, University of Nottingham, UK and also to provide guidance for other academics in the School wishing to develop a similar resource in the future. A focus group in the format of the nominal group technique was used to garner the opinions of 12 undergraduate students (3 from year-1, 4 from year-2 and 5 from year-3). Students generated lists of items in response to key questions, these responses were thematically analysed to generate key themes which were compared between the different year groups. The number of visits to 'Moo Tube' before and after an objective structured practical examination (OSPE) was also analysed to provide data on video usage. Students highlighted a number of strengths of video resources which can be grouped into four overarching themes: (1) teaching enhancement, (2) accessibility, (3) technical quality and (4) video content. Of these themes, students rated teaching enhancement and accessibility most highly. Video usage was seen to significantly increase (P students had a positive perception of video usage in higher education. Video usage increases prior to practical examinations. Image quality was a greater concern with year-3 students than with either year-1 or 2 students but all groups highlighted the following as important issues: i) good sound quality, ii) accessibility, including location of videos within electronic libraries, and iii) video content. Based on the findings from this study, guidelines are suggested for those developing undergraduate veterinary videos. We believe that many aspects of our list will have resonance in other areas of medicine education and higher education.
Translational research serves as a bench-to-field "translation" of basic scientific research into practical diagnostic procedures and therapies useful in human and veterinary clinical services. The productivity of translational research involving infectious diseases relevant to both human and animal health (e.g., influenza diagnosis and epidemiology using emerging molecular detection and identification methods) can be maximized when both human and veterinary medical virology disciplines are integrated. Influenza viruses are continually evolving through site-specific mutation and segment reassortment, and these processes occur in all potential carrier species - including birds, humans, and many agriculturally important animals. This evolutionary plasticity occasionally allows "novel" influenzas to move from animal hosts to humans, potentially causing destructive pandemics; therefore, a rapid laboratory technique that can detect and identify "novel" influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A technique-focused translational research approach is pursued to enhance detection and characterization of emerging influenza viruses circulating in both humans and other animal hosts. The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bombi, Josep Antoni
Assesses the current situation of medical teaching, available healthcare facilities, and teaching staff employed at Spanish medical schools. Response rate was 100% from 27 schools surveyed. (Author/NB)
Englar, Ryane E
Experiential learning through the use of standardized patients (SPs) is the primary way by which human medical schools teach clinical communication. The profession of veterinary medicine has followed suit in response to new graduates' and their employers' concerns that veterinary interpersonal skills are weak and unsatisfactory. As a result, standardized clients (SCs) are increasingly relied upon as invaluable teaching tools within veterinary curricula to advance relationship-centered care in the context of a clinical scenario. However, there is little to no uniformity in the approach that various colleges of veterinary medicine take when designing simulation-based education (SBE). A further complication is that programs with pre-conceived curricula must now make room for training in clinical communication. Curricular time constraints challenge veterinary colleges to individually decide how best to utilize SCs in what time is available. Because it is a new program, Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) has had the flexibility and the freedom to prioritize an innovative approach to SBE. The author discusses the SBE that is currently underway at MWU CVM, which incorporates 27 standardized client encounters over eight consecutive pre-clinical quarters. Prior to entering clinical rotations, MWU CVM students are exposed to a variety of simulation formats, species, clients, settings, presenting complaints, and communication tasks. These represent key learning opportunities for students to practice clinical communication, develop self-awareness, and strategize their approach to future clinical experiences.
Hashizume, Cary T; Myhre, Douglas L; Hecker, Kent G; Bailey, Jeremy V; Lockyer, Jocelyn M
Optimization of clinical veterinary education requires an understanding of what compels veterinary preceptors in their role as clinical educators, what satisfaction they receive from the teaching experience, and what struggles they encounter while supervising students in private practice. We explored veterinary preceptors' teaching motivations, enjoyment, and challenges by undertaking a thematic content analysis of 97 questionnaires and 17 semi-structured telephone interviews. Preceptor motivations included intrinsic factors (obligation to the profession, maintenance of competence, satisfaction) and extrinsic factors (promotion of the veterinary field, recruitment). Veterinarians enjoyed observing the learner (motivation and enthusiasm, skill development) and engaging with the learner (sharing their passion for the profession, developing professional relationships). Challenges for veterinary preceptors included variability in learner interest and engagement, time management, and lack of guidance from the veterinary medicine program. We found dynamic interactions among the teaching motivations, enjoyment, and challenges for preceptors. Our findings suggest that in order to sustain the veterinary preceptor, there is a need to recognize the interplay between the incentives and disincentives for teaching, to foster the motivations and enjoyment for teaching, and to mitigate the challenges of teaching in community private practice.
Lane, India F; Strand, Elizabeth
Missing in the recent calls for accountability and assurance of veterinary students' clinical competence are similar calls for competence in clinical teaching. Most clinician educators have no formal training in teaching theory or method. At the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM), we have initiated multiple strategies to enhance the quality of teaching in our curriculum and in clinical settings. An interview study of veterinary faculty was completed to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of clinical education; findings were used in part to prepare a professional development program in clinical teaching. Centered on principles of effective feedback, the program prepares participants to organize clinical rotation structure and orientation, maximize teaching moments, improve teaching and participation during formal rounds, and provide clearer summative feedback to students at the end of a rotation. The program benefits from being situated within a larger college-wide focus on teaching improvement. We expect the program's audience and scope to continue to expand.
Gough, Kevin C.
The teaching of biochemistry within medical disciplines presents certain challenges; firstly to relay a large body of complex facts and abstract concepts, and secondly to motivate students that this relatively difficult topic is worth their time to study. Here, nutrient biochemistry was taught within a multidisciplinary module as part of an…
Jacob, Megan E; Hoppin, Jane A; Steers, Nicola; Davis, Jennifer L; Davidson, Gigi; Hansen, Bernie; Lunn, Katharine F; Murphy, K Marcia; Papich, Mark G
To determine opinions of faculty members with clinical appointments, clinical veterinarians, residents, and interns at a US veterinary teaching hospital regarding antimicrobial use and antimicrobial-resistant infections. Cross-sectional survey. 71 veterinarians. An online questionnaire was sent to all veterinarians with clinical service responsibilities at the North Carolina State University veterinary teaching hospital (n = 167). The survey included 23 questions regarding demographic information, educational experiences, current prescribing practices, and personal opinions related to antimicrobial selection, antimicrobial use, restrictions on antimicrobial use, and antimicrobial resistance. Of the 167 veterinarians eligible to participate, 71 (43%) responded. When respondents were asked to rate their level of concern (very concerned = 1; not concerned = 5) about antimicrobial-resistant infections, most (41/70 [59%]) assigned a score of 1, with mean score for all respondents being 1.5. Most survey participants rated their immediate colleagues (mean score, 1.9) as more concerned than other veterinary medical professionals (mean score, 2.3) and their clients (mean score, 3.4). Fifty-nine of 67 (88%) respondents felt that antimicrobials were overprescribed at the hospital, and 32 of 69 (46%) respondents felt uncomfortable prescribing at least one class of antimicrobials (eg, carbapenems or glycopeptides) because of public health concerns. Findings indicated that veterinarians at this teaching hospital were concerned about antimicrobial resistance, thought antimicrobials were overprescribed, and supported restricting use of certain antimicrobial classes in companion animals. Findings may be useful in educating future veterinarians and altering prescribing habits and antimicrobial distribution systems in veterinary hospitals.
Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Weir, Heather; Kogan, Lori R
Cognitive functioning is often compromised with increasing levels of stress and fatigue, both of which are often experienced by veterinarians. Many high-stress fields have implemented checklists to reduce human error. The use of these checklists has been shown to improve the quality of medical care, including adherence to evidence-based best practices and improvement of patient safety. Although it has been recognized that veterinary medicine would likely demonstrate similar benefits, there have been no published studies to date evaluating the use of checklists for improving quality of care in veterinary medicine. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of checklists during wellness and post-elective surgery appointments conducted by fourth-year veterinary students within their Community Practice rotation at a US veterinary teaching hospital. Students were randomly assigned to one of two groups: those who were specifically asked to use the provided checklists during appointments, and those who were not asked to use the checklists but had them available. Two individuals blinded to the study reviewed the tapes of all appointments in each study group to determine the amount and type of medical information offered by veterinary students. Students who were specifically asked to use the checklists provided significantly more information to owners, with the exception of keeping the incision clean. Results indicate the use of checklists helps students provide more complete information to their clients, thereby potentially enhancing animal care.
Animal use resulting in harm or death has historically played an integral role in veterinary education, in disciplines such as surgery, physiology, biochemistry, anatomy, pharmacology, and parasitology...
Whitcomb, Tiffany L
The hidden curriculum is characterized by information that is tacitly conveyed to and among students about the cultural and moral environment in which they find themselves. Although the hidden curriculum is often defined as a distinct entity, tacit information is conveyed to students throughout all aspects of formal and informal curricula. This unconsciously communicated knowledge has been identified across a wide spectrum of educational environments and is known to have lasting and powerful impacts, both positive and negative. Recently, medical education research on the hidden curriculum of becoming a doctor has come to the forefront as institutions struggle with inconsistencies between formal and hidden curricula that hinder the practice of patient-centered medicine. Similarly, the complex ethical questions that arise during the practice and teaching of veterinary medicine have the potential to cause disagreement between what the institution sets out to teach and what is actually learned. However, the hidden curriculum remains largely unexplored for this field. Because the hidden curriculum is retained effectively by students, elucidating its underlying messages can be a key component of program refinement. A review of recent literature about the hidden curriculum in a variety of fields, including medical education, will be used to explore potential hidden curricula in veterinary medicine and draw attention to the need for further investigation.
Hendricks, Joan C
Point 1: the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education's (AVMA COE's) accreditation pro-cess is aimed at minimum training for entry-level veterinarians. This has a two-fold consequence: 1. The opportunity to discover the absolute minimum number of necessary resources is opened. While this is a threat to the standard model of veterinary education, it might have value if it is cost-efficient and students graduate with minimal or no debt. 2. There is no mechanism to measure training,research, or service programs above the minimum or beyond the entry level. Point 2: the implication of the minimum entry-level general standard is also two-fold: 1. We must measure performance above the mini-mum. A separate process is necessary (a) to develop and implement objective metrics and (b) to publicize superior achievement as opposed to minimal performance. 2. We must measure and publicize institutions or programs that advance the field beyond training entry-level veterinarians. Service, research, and training aimed at advancing the field, providing leadership, and improving public health and safety(One Health) require separate measurement and advocacy in order to obtain and justify the necessary resources. I conclude that in the absence of a new process by which to measure excellence, market forces will push the entire profession toward the most cost-effective method of providing minimal training for entry-level veterinarians. But what about the far more expensive goal of providing a global public good of which our profession is so proud?The public health and safety mission of veterinary medi-cine, including the entire One Health initiative, requires separate measurement in order to give objective metrics to the institutions and components of the profession committed to those goals to pursue vigorous advocacy and obtain or retain the necessary resources.
Full Text Available Apart from approved or planned poisoning with agricultural purpose, an increase in the number of cases of intentional animal poisoning (primarily referring to cats and dogs has been detected in Serbia, and it is suspected that their number is significantly larger than the one shown by the official statistics data. Under the conditions prescribed by the Criminal Code of the Republic of Serbia, such activities may represent the crime of killing and torture of animals, but also the crime of causing a general danger. It would be impossible to conduct the procedure of discovering and proving these criminal offences and the responsibility of their perpetrators without findings and opinion of forensic veterinary-medicine experts. They play an important role when it comes to site inspection, crime scene processing, collecting the samples from the crime scene, processing of samples and autopsy and exhumation of a potentially poisoned animal body. Just like other evidence in criminal procedure, findings and opinion of experts of veterinary medicine are estimated in accordance with the principle of free assessment of evidence. However, due to the specificity of such cases of killing and torture of animals, their impact on court’s decision on the existence of criminal offence and perpetrator’s liability is crucial. In this paper, the authors discuss the scope of animal poisoning in Serbia, particularly in Belgrade, analyze possible criminal - legal consequences of these illegal activities and point out to a significant role that experts of veterinary medical profession have in discovering and proving such cases and the liability of their perpetrators.
Maccabe, Andrew T; Crawford, Lester; Heider, Lawrence E; Hooper, Billy; Mann, Curt J; Pappaioanou, Marguerite
The mission of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) is to advance the quality of academic veterinary medicine. Founded in 1966 by the 18 US colleges of veterinary medicine and 3 Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine then in existence, the AAVMC is celebrating 50 years of public service. Initially, the AAVMC comprised the Council of Deans, the Council of Educators, and the Council of Chairs. In 1984, the tri-cameral structure was abandoned and a new governing structure with a board of directors was created. In 1997, the AAVMC was incorporated in Washington, DC and a common application service was created. Matters such as workforce issues and the cost of veterinary medical education have persisted for decades. The AAVMC is a champion of diversity in the veterinary profession and a strong advocate for One Health. The AAVMC has adopted a global perspective as more international colleges of veterinary medicine have earned COE accreditation and become members.
Food-supply veterinary medicine has been an essential part of veterinary degree programs in Australia since the first veterinary school opened in the late nineteenth century. Australian veterinary schools, like others internationally, are being challenged by the relevance of material in current curricula for modern food-supply veterinary medicine. Additionally, student aspirations are a major issue, as curriculum designers balance companion-animal training with the herd/flock-based issues that focus on productivity and profitability. One of the challenges is to examine the relative balance of education in generic skills (self-knowledge, change management, teamwork, leadership, negotiation) with more technically or scientifically based education. An ongoing process of curriculum review and renewal, which involves input from both external and internal stakeholders and allows regular review and assessment, is needed to ensure continuing curriculum relevance.
... the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition SUMMARY: The National Institutes of Health...
Wagner, Roy M. K.
The paper describes an auto-tutorial methodology for training veterinary medical practitioners to perform differential diagnoses. It describes in detail the three phases of differential diagnosis: sensory pick-up, a combination of cognition and memory; categorization, the process by which diagnosticians group symptoms and signs prior to diagnosis;…
Main, David C J; Thornton, P; Kerr, K
Teaching veterinary students about animal welfare science, ethics, and law has been identified as a priority of the veterinary curriculum. Suggested content for such a course, the stage at which it should be taught, and possible methods of teaching and assessing the subject have been outlined. Critically, such a course needs to address the quantification of the impact of humans on animals (welfare science), the analysis of our moral obligations (welfare ethics), and knowledge of minimum welfare standards (welfare legislation). A mixture of both teaching methods and assessment techniques is needed to ensure that sufficient skills and knowledge and a deeper understanding are achieved.
Colonius, Tristan; Swoboda, Jamie
Animal welfare is a subject of increasing interest to society, and the veterinary medical profession has an opportunity--and a duty--to provide leadership and expertise. This commentary presents the view of two veterinary students at the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine and the University of Missouri College of Veterinary Medicine on the current state of animal-welfare education in American veterinary colleges. In our experience, animal welfare and its related disciplines are underemphasized in current American professional curricula. We present a case for why animal welfare must be a cardinal subject of instruction in veterinary colleges, detail the essential components of sufficient animal-welfare education, and discuss specific methods for integrating animal welfare into the current curricula. We strongly encourage veterinary colleges to identify animal-welfare education as a priority and to work toward increasing instruction and educational resources in this critical topic area.
Stone, Elizabeth A; Reimann, Jessica; Greenhill, Lisa M; Dewey, Cate E
Three milestone educational planning initiatives engaged the veterinary medical profession in the United States and Canada between 1987 and 2011, namely the Pew National Veterinary Education Program, the Foresight Project, and the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. In a quantitative study, we investigated the impact of these initiatives on veterinary medical education through a survey of academic leaders (deans, previous deans, and associate deans for academics from veterinary medical schools that are members of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges) to assess their perspectives on the initiatives and eight recommendations that were common to all three initiatives. Two of the recommendations have in effect been implemented: enable students to elect in-depth instruction and experience within a practice theme or discipline area (tracking), and increase the number of graduating veterinarians. For three of the recommendations, awareness of the issues has increased but substantial progress has not been made: promote diversity in the veterinary profession, develop a plan to reduce student debt, and develop a North American strategic plan. Lastly, three recommendations have not been accomplished: emphasize use of information more than fact recall, share educational resources to enable a cost-effective education, and standardize core admissions requirements. The educational planning initiatives did provide collaborative opportunities to discuss and determine what needs to change within veterinary medical education. Future initiatives should explore how to avoid and overcome obstacles to successful implementation.
Hamood, Wendy J; Chur-Hansen, Anna; McArthur, Michelle L
To explore and gain an understanding of what "clinical communication skills" mean to veterinarians working in private practice and what implications this might have for veterinary medical education. Qualitative research methods were used to purposefully sample a range of veterinary practitioners from a pool of South Australian veterinary practices who were interviewed to determine their understanding of what communication skills mean in the context of veterinary practice. Interviews were conducted with fourteen veterinary practitioners. Participants were sampled from a range of ages, veterinary schools of graduation plus urban and rural locations. Interview transcripts were analysed for themes, definitions and contexts. Participants' accounts included a number of skills which they considered to be "communication". Some of the definitions of these skills parallel communication skills and competencies for human medicine on which communication skills training incorporated into veterinary curricula to date have largely been based. However, the veterinarians in this study also raised interesting contextual differences unique to the veterinary profession, such as communication with the animal, selling service, discussing money in relation to decisions for care, and communicating about euthanasia. Veterinary practitioners require high level communication skills. Education and training in veterinary medicine may be better tailored to reflect the unique context of the veterinary profession.
This article suggests that veterinary medicine has a leadership role to play in our society on ethical matters involving non-human animals. The article contrasts two trends within veterinary medicine; the first trend is a continuation of the avowedly utilitarian attitude toward non-humans that has its roots in Western veterinary medicine's eighteenth-century origins, and the second is the implicit view in veterinary practice that animals matter in and of themselves. Using the idea of alternatives in research and teaching, the article suggests that, in the years to come, veterinary medicine's answers to the relationships of these two trends will shape not only the soul of veterinary medicine, veterinary education, and the veterinary profession but, just as importantly, the larger society and culture themselves. This text is based on the keynote address delivered at the AAVMC Education Symposium in Washington, DC, on March 9, 2006, under the title "Ethical Issues Impacting Animal Use in Veterinary Medical Teaching."
Fajt, Virginia R; Scott, H Morgan; McIntosh, W Alex; Dean, Wesley R; Vincent, Virginia C
The objective of this study was to ascertain current teaching methods for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in veterinary professional curricula and to find out what veterinary instructors consider to be prioritized subtopics related to AMR. The sampling frame was instructors in veterinary professional programs at US colleges of veterinary medicine who provide instruction about antibiotics or AMR in the disciplines of microbiology, pharmacology, public health, epidemiology, internal medicine, surgery, or related subjects. Identified instructors were invited to participate in an online survey of current teaching methods related to subtopics of AMR. From 1,207 invitations, 306 completed surveys were available for analysis (25% response rate) with the largest number of respondents stating their contact hours about antibiotics occur in the discipline of "medicine-food animal." The median contact time suggested for AMR in the core veterinary curriculum was 3-5 hours, and for antibiotics in general, 16-20 hours. Subtopics of AMR were prioritized based on respondents' indication that they use or would use various teaching tools. The most common teaching tool for all topics was projected text (i.e., slides or PowerPoint slides) and the least common were video clips, non-course Web sites, online modules, and laboratory experiments. Recommendations for identifying the priorities of AMR content coverage and learning outcomes are made.
Analysis of the responses of 90 clinical veterinary students of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, on career motivation and specialization preference showed that 38% of the students choose veterinary medicine as a profession because of their love for animals. High income accounted for 32.3%, high status 22.2%, ...
Royal, Kenneth; Flammer, Keven; Borst, Luke; Huckle, Jeffrey; Barter, Hillary; Neel, Jennifer
Research in veterinary medical education has illustrated the challenges students face with respect to mental and emotional wellness, lack of attention to physical health, and limited opportunities to meaningfully engage with persons from different backgrounds. In response, the North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine has…
Schaffer, Caroline Brunsman
Instruction in animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and animal-assisted activities (AAAs) teaches veterinary medical students to confidently and assertively maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of this union of animals and people. Instruction in AAT/AAA also addresses requirements by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education that accredited schools/colleges of veterinary medicine include in their standard curriculum the topics of the human-animal bond, behavior, and the contributions of the veterinarian to the overall public and professional health care teams. Entry-level veterinarians should be prepared to: (1) assure that animals who provide AAT/AAA are healthy enough to visit nursing homes, hospitals, or other institutions; (2) promote behavior testing that selects animals who will feel safe, comfortable, and connected; (3) advise facilities regarding infection control and ways to provide a safe environment where the animals, their handlers, and the people being visited will not be injured or become ill; and (4) advocate for their patients and show compassion for their clients when animals are determined to be inappropriate participants in AAT/AAA programs. This article presents AAT/AAA terminology, ways in which veterinarians can advocate for AAT/AAA, the advantages of being involved in AAT/AAA, a model AAT/AAA practicum from Tuskegee University's School of Veterinary Medicine (TUSVM), and examples of co-curricular activities in AAT/AAA by TUSVM's student volunteers.
Hullinger, Ronald; Render, Gary F.
Students in microscopic anatomy at Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine selected a self-directed or teacher-directed approach to the course. Adoption of the experimental approach described here increased faculty time for evaluating student progress but was supportive of student development particularly in cognitive skills and affective…
Neel, Jennifer A; Grindem, Carol B
Awareness of student learning-style preferences is important for several reasons. Understanding differences in learning styles permits instructors to design course materials that allow all types of learners to absorb and process information. Students who know their own learning style are better able to help themselves in courses taught in a non-preferred method by developing study strategies in line with their preferred learning method. We used the Felder and Solomon Index of Learning Styles to assess the learning-style profiles of 150 veterinary students in three consecutive years. Students were predominantly active (56.7%), sensing (79.3%), visual (76.7%), and sequential (69.3%). Most were balanced on the active-reflective (59.3%) and global-sequential (50%) dimensions, and 61.3% and 54% were moderately to strongly sensing and visual, respectively. Small but significant numbers of students were moderately to strongly intuitive (8.7%), verbal (13%), and global (12%). The most common patterns were active-sensing-visual-sequential (26%), reflective-sensing-visual-sequential (19.3%), active-sensing-visual-global (8.7%), and active-sensing-verbal-sequential (8.7%). Although most students (65.3%) were balanced on one to two dimensions, 77.3% had one or more strong preferences. Our results show that although people have dominant learning-style preference and patterns, they have significant minor preferences and patterns across all dimensions with moderate to strong preferences on each scale. These results indicate that a balanced approach to teaching is essential to allow all students to learn optimally.
Yin, Jie-chao; Li, Guang-xing; Ren, Xiao-feng
Especially in developing countries, the profession of veterinary medicine is closely tied with agriculture and government economic development, the national structure of education, and national public health. Currently, the Chinese veterinary medical educational system and accreditation standards are distinctly different from those of some more developed countries, such as the United States, Japan, or the countries of the European Union. Chinese veterinary education is still closely based on traditional Chinese education approaches and standards, which has led to some deficiencies in the Chinese system. With the development of a stronger economy in China and the growing trend toward globalization, and particularly since China joined the World Trade Organization (WTO), some important questions about China's system of veterinary education are being raised: How can veterinary science develop more rapidly in China? How can it meet the needs of the growing Chinese society? How can China bring its veterinary medical practice more in line with that of other, more advanced countries? This article describes some of the realities of veterinary medical education in China, discusses several existing problems, and puts forward some ideas for possible reforms. It is hoped that by this means those outside China may gain insight into our veterinary education program and that this, in turn, will lead to helpful input from international educators and other professionals to help improve our programs.
Christopher, Mary M
Translating veterinary research to humans will require a "one literature" approach to break through species barriers in how we organize, retrieve, cite, and publish in biomedicine. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Shurtz, Suzanne; Fajt, Virginia; Heyns, Erla P; Norton, Hannah F; Weingart, Sandra
There is no comprehensive review of the extent to which evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) is taught in AVMA-accredited colleges of veterinary medicine in the US and Canada. We surveyed teaching faculty and librarians at these institutions to determine what EBVM skills are currently included in curricula, how they are taught, and to what extent librarians are involved in this process. Librarians appear to be an underused resource, as 59% of respondents did not use librarians/library resources in teaching EBVM. We discovered that there is no standard teaching methodology nor are there common learning activities for EBVM among our survey respondents, who represent 22 institutions. Respondents reported major barriers to inclusion such as a perceived shortage of time in an already-crowded course of study and a lack of high-quality evidence and point-of-care tools. Suggestions for overcoming these barriers include collaborating with librarians and using new EBVM online teaching resources.
Heddema, Edou R.; van Hannen, Erik J.; Duim, Birgitta; de Jongh, Bartelt M.; Kaan, Jan A.; van Kessel, Rob; Lumeij, Johannes T.; Visser, Caroline E.; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.
An outbreak of psittacosis in a veterinary teaching hospital was recognized in December 2004. Outbreak management was instituted to evaluate the extent of the outbreak and to determine the avian source. Real-time PCR, serologic testing and sequencing of the ompA gene of Chlamydophila psittaci were
Tyler, D. E.; Crowell, W. A.
A new approach for teaching veterinary pathology instituted at the University of Georgia in 1970 is evaluated. Each student was told what was required in the form of behavioral objectives, given alternate sources of information in the form of autotutorial minicourses, and evaluated by formative, summative and mastery means. (Author/MLW)
Lloyd, J W; Covert, B R
Most veterinary students enrolled at AAVMC member institutions take at least 1 VPM course prior to graduation. These courses are characterized by widespread involvement of outside lecturers with business expertise, which likely adds to their strength. However, it remains that wide variation in VPM education exists across the AAVMC with regard to the topics addressed, the specific business expertise of faculty and administrative course specifics. As such, the situation provides several key opportunities. Foremost among these is the immediate need for profession-wide discourse on VPM education to define reasonable expectations with regard to the business skills of veterinary graduates. In addition, outcomes assessment would provide information on which of the widely varying approaches to VPM education is most likely to produce successful graduates. The opportunity also exists for development of academic research programs to support VPM education directly by strengthening the related disciplinary knowledge base. Effective leadership for these efforts will be crucial to their success.
The teaching of medical ethics is not yet characterised by recognised, standard requirements for formal qualifications, training and experience; this is not surprising as the field is still relatively young and maturing. Under the broad issue of the requirements for teaching medical ethics are numerous more specific questions, one of which concerns whether medical ethics can be taught in isolation from considerations of the law, and vice versa. Ethics and law are cognate, though distinguishable, disciplines. In a practical, professional enterprise such as medicine, they cannot and should not be taught as separate subjects. One way of introducing students to the links and tensions between medical ethics and law is to consider the history of law via its natural and positive traditions. This encourages understanding of how medical practice is placed within the contexts of ethics and law in the pluralist societies in which most students will practise. Four examples of topics from medical ethics teaching are described to support this claim. Australasian medical ethics teachers have paid less attention to the role of law in their curricula than their United Kingdom counterparts. Questions like the one addressed here will help inform future deliberations concerning minimal requirements for teaching medical ethics.
Pelzer, Nancy L; Wiese, William H
Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5-3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature.
Zeimet, Ramona; Kreienbrock, Lothar; Doherr, Marcus G
In a thematically broad and highly condensed curriculum like veterinary medicine, it is essential to pay close attention to the didactic and methodical approaches used to deliver that content. The course topics ideally should be selected for their relevance but also for the target audience and their previous knowledge. The overall objective is to improve the long-term availability of what has been learned. For this reason, an evaluation among lecturers of German-speaking veterinary schools was carried out in 2012 to consider which topics in biometry and epidemiology they found relevant to other subject areas. Based on this survey, two veterinary schools (Berlin and Hannover) developed a structured approach for the introductory course in biometry and epidemiology. By means of an appropriate choice of topics and the use of adequate teaching methods, the quality of the lecture course could be significantly increased. Appropriately communicated learning objectives as well as a high rate of student activity resulted in increased student satisfaction. A certain degree of standardization of teaching approaches and material resulted in a comparison between the study sites and reduced variability in the content delivered at different schools. Part of this was confirmed by the high consistency in the multiple-choice examination results between the study sites. The results highlight the extent to which didactic and methodical restructuring of teaching affects the learning success and satisfaction of students. It can be of interest for other courses in veterinary medicine, human medicine, and biology.
Zamor, Eliza; Chigerwe, Munashe; Boudreaux, Karen A; Ilkiw, Jan E
The objective of this study was to determine if a revised, recently implemented curriculum, embracing an integrated block design with a focus on student-centered, inquiry-based learning, had a different effect on veterinary medical students' approaches to studying than the previous curriculum. A total of 577 students completed a questionnaire consisting of the short version of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST). It included questions relating to conceptions about learning, approaches to studying, and preferences for different types of courses and teaching. In addition, students were asked to respond to general questions regarding the design of the revised curriculum. The scores for the deep and strategic learning approaches were higher for students studying under the previous curriculum compared to the revised curriculum, despite the fact that the revised curriculum was specifically designed to foster deep learning. The scores for the surface learning approach were lower in the students studying the revised curriculum compared to students studying under the previous curriculum. We identified the following factors affecting student learning: alteration of learning activities, such as problem-based learning, from the recommended models; a lack of instructor support for the revised curriculum; assessments that were not aligned to encourage critical thinking; and directed self-learning activities that were too comprehensive to complete in the allotted time. The results of this study can be used to improve the implementation of student-centered and inquiry-based curricula by identifying potential problems that could prevent a deep learning approach in veterinary medical students.
Coe, Jason B; Weijs, Cynthia A; Muise, Amy; Christofides, Emily; Desmarais, Serge
Facebook has been identified as the preferred social networking site among postsecondary students. Repeated findings in the social networking literature have suggested that postsecondary students practice high personal self-disclosure on Facebook and tend not to use privacy settings that would limit public access. This study identified and reviewed Facebook profiles for 805 veterinarians-in-training enrolled at four veterinary colleges across Canada. Of these, 265 (32.9%) were categorized as having low exposure, 286 (35.5%) were categorized as having medium exposure, and 254 (31.6%) were categorized as having high exposure of information. Content analysis on a sub-sample (n=80) of the high-exposure profiles revealed publicly available unprofessional content, including indications of substance use and abuse, obscene comments, and breaches of client confidentiality. Regression analysis revealed that an increasing number of years to graduation and having a publicly visible wall were both positively associated with having a high-exposure profile. Given the rapid uptake of social media in recent years, veterinary educators should be aware of and begin to educate students on the associated risks and repercussions of blurring one's private life and one's emerging professional identity through personal online disclosures.
Hafen, McArthur; Ratcliffe, G Cole; Rush, Bonnie R
Existing research consistently connects higher relationship satisfaction with improved psychological and physical functioning. Investigations focusing on relational satisfaction within veterinary medicine have been sparse. This study evaluated 240 veterinary medical students at Kansas State University. Results indicate that students within higher-functioning relationships are more likely to report fewer depressive symptoms, lower stress associated with balancing their school and home lives, less relationship conflict, better physical health, and improved ability to cope with academic expectations, while at the same time experiencing more stress from being behind in studies. Based on these findings, Colleges of Veterinary Medicine (CVMs) are encouraged to institute policies and programs which foster relationship-building for students.
Greenhill, Lisa M
Now more than ever, colleges of veterinary medicine (CVMs) are challenged to improve the educational experience, build environments that support long-term student and faculty success, and create a diverse and competitive workforce. Additionally, the nation's fast-evolving racial and ethnic demographics demand that the veterinary medical profession be responsive to the emerging needs of this changing population. In March 2005, during the 15th Iverson Bell Symposium, the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) unveiled its DiVersity Matters (DVM) initiative, designed to bring the CVMs closer to achieving these goals. Several key objectives of the initiative and their possible long-term significance to success of the DiVersity Matters initiative are explored here, and CVMs are encouraged to expand efforts to increase racial and ethnic diversity in academic veterinary medicine.
Holmstrom, Steven E
Quality of life is an important issue for geriatric patients. Allowing periodontal disease, fractured teeth, and neoplasia to remain untreated decreases this quality of life. Age itself should be recognized; however, it should not be a deterrent to successful veterinary dental care.
Lee, S; Lee, J; Lee, A; Park, N; Lee, S; Song, S; Seo, A; Lee, H; Kim, J-I; Eom, K
Augmented reality (AR) is a technology which enables users to see the real world, with virtual objects superimposed upon or composited with it. AR simulators have been developed and used in human medicine, but not in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to develop an AR intravenous (IV) injection simulator to train veterinary and pre-veterinary students to perform canine venipuncture. Computed tomographic (CT) images of a beagle dog were scanned using a 64-channel multidetector. The CT images were transformed into volumetric data sets using an image segmentation method and were converted into a stereolithography format for creating 3D models. An AR-based interface was developed for an AR simulator for IV injection. Veterinary and pre-veterinary student volunteers were randomly assigned to an AR-trained group or a control group trained using more traditional methods (n = 20/group; n = 8 pre-veterinary students and n = 12 veterinary students in each group) and their proficiency at IV injection technique in live dogs was assessed after training was completed. Students were also asked to complete a questionnaire which was administered after using the simulator. The group that was trained using an AR simulator were more proficient at IV injection technique using real dogs than the control group (P ≤ 0.01). The students agreed that they learned the IV injection technique through the AR simulator. Although the system used in this study needs to be modified before it can be adopted for veterinary educational use, AR simulation has been shown to be a very effective tool for training medical personnel. Using the technology reported here, veterinary AR simulators could be developed for future use in veterinary education. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harris, Donna L; Lloyd, James W
To identify changes in the teaching of nontechnical skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and attitudes (SKAs) at US colleges and schools of veterinary medicine between 1999 and 2009. Design-Cross-sectional survey. All 28 US colleges and schools of veterinary medicine. Procedures-An electronic questionnaire was sent to the entire study population. Results were compared with published results of a similar survey performed in 1999 of colleges and schools of veterinary medicine in the United States and Canada. A 100% response rate was achieved. All respondents were found to offer at least 1 course related to SKAs in 2009, compared with 94% (29/31) of respondents in 1999. A total of 110 such courses were documented, compared with 47 in 1999. In 2009, 26 of the 28 (93%) colleges and schools had at least 1 course related to SKAs that was required, compared with 17 of the 31 (55%) respondents to the 1999 survey. Courses were most commonly incorporated in years 1 and 3 of the curriculum and were most often valued at 1 or 2 credit hours. Forty-one of 67 (61%) courses had been developed since 1999. The most common topics were communication and financial management. Results demonstrated an increased commitment to teaching the SKAs on the part of the US colleges and schools of veterinary medicine. However, the question remains as to how effective these initiatives will be in enhancing the economic success of graduates and the veterinary medical profession in general.
Jackson, Elizabeth L; Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth
Student retention and attainment has recently been identified as a key area for development in veterinary medical education enquiry. Woodfield's research on retention and attainment across the UK disciplines has yielded some unique information about the challenges and issues of students who study veterinary medicine and related subjects. The present literature review aims to expand on Woodfield's findings and explain important issues about retention and attainment across veterinary medicine. Overall, the subject of retention and attainment in undergraduate veterinary medical education needs a great deal more empirical attention, such as data on the retention and attainment of mature and widening access students, and the effects of students being placed at remote locations during their studies. Our findings also cover some unsurprising issues: the dominance of women in a profession that is principally lead by men, the underrepresentation of black and minority ethnic (BME) students in veterinary medicine, and the effects of content overload in the veterinary medical curriculum. Based on data gathered by Woodfield and our investigation of the scholarly and gray literatures, we offer an overview of gaps in current knowledge and recommendations for further research.
Community mental health services are evolving toward more holistic, patient-centered, recovery-based practices. This change necessitates an attitudinal shift from mental health workers, and training in recovery principles is helpful in achieving this change. Medical students often have narrow, doctor-centered concepts of mental health care. Traditional clinical placements in psychiatry do little to address this. We evaluated a recovery-focused teaching program for medical students in psychiatry.
The past decennia, veterinary medical education worldwide has gone through some rapid and major developments. Motivation for these developments were, among others, the explosion of (bio) medical knowledge, the related problem of curriculum overload and the mismatch between university and the
Dowers, Kristy L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Hellyer, Peter W; Kogan, Lori R
The ethics document of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges provides guiding principles for veterinary schools to develop conflict of interest policies. These policies regulate faculty and student interactions with industry, potentially reducing the influence companies have on students' perceptions and future prescribing practices. This paper examines the implementation of a conflict of interest policy and related instructional activities at one veterinary college in the US. To inform policy and curricular development, survey data were collected regarding veterinary students' attitudes toward pharmaceutical marketing, including their perceptions of their own susceptibility to bias in therapeutic decisions. Responses from this group of students later served as control data for assessing the effectiveness of educational programs in the content area. A conflict of interest policy was then implemented and presented to subsequent classes of entering students. Classroom instruction and relevant readings were provided on ethics, ethical decision making, corporate influences, and the issue of corporate influence in medical student training. Within seven days of completing a learning program on conflict of interest issues, another cohort of veterinary students (the treatment group) were administered the same survey that had been administered to the control group. When compared with the control group who received no instruction, survey results for the treatment group showed moderate shifts in opinion, with more students questioning the practice of industry-sponsored events and use of corporate funds to reduce tuition. However, many veterinary students in the treatment group still reported they would not be personally influenced by corporate gifts.
Reisbig, Allison M J; Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Hafen, McArthur; Krienert, Ashley; Girard, Destiny; Garlock, Jessica
This study builds on previous research on predictors of depression and anxiety in veterinary medical students and reports data on three veterinary cohorts from two universities through their first three semesters of study. Across all three semesters, 49%, 65%, and 69% of the participants reported depression levels at or above the clinical cut-off, suggesting a remarkably high percentage of students experiencing significant levels of depression symptoms. Further, this study investigated the relationship between common stressors experienced by veterinary students and mental health, general health, and academic performance. A factor analysis revealed four factors among stressors common to veterinary students: academic stress, transitional stress, family-health stress, and relationship stress. The results indicated that both academic stress and transitional stress had a robust impact on veterinary medical students' well-being during their first three semesters of study. As well, academic stress negatively impacted students in the areas of depression and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction, general health, perception of academic performance, and grade point average (GPA). Transitional stress predicted increased depression and anxiety symptoms and decreased life satisfaction. This study helped to further illuminate the magnitude of the problem of depression and anxiety symptoms in veterinary medical students and identified factors most predictive of poor outcomes in the areas of mental health, general health, and academic performance. The discussion provides recommendations for considering structural changes to veterinary educational curricula to reduce the magnitude of academic stressors. Concurrently, recommendations are suggested for mental health interventions to help increase students' resistance to environmental stressors.
Lloyd, J W; Dartt, B A
This study reaffirms the diversity and breadth of the veterinary profession. As it turns out, some of the furthest-reaching impacts of the veterinary medical profession were largely non-quantifiable. The veterinary medical profession had a substantial direct economic impact in Michigan during 1995. The total economic contribution of the veterinary medical profession to Michigan during 1995 that was attributable to expenditures on salaries, supplies, services, and their multiplier effect was approximately $500 million. In addition, the profession was associated with nearly 8,500 jobs (combined professional and lay positions). The veterinary medical profession was also considered to have an impact on the prosperity of the live-stock, equine, and pet food industries in Michigan, even though the economic contribution in these areas could not be directly quantified. Economic well-being of the individual businesses in these industries is directly related to the health and productivity of the associated animals, and improvements in output or productivity that accompany improved animal health likely carry substantial economic benefits in these sectors. In addition, progressive animal health management provides a crucial method of managing risk in the animal industries. Similarly, although the economic contribution could not be quantified, the veterinary medical profession enhances the safety and quality of human food through research, regulation, and quality assurance programs in livestock production, minimizing the risk of drug residues and microbial contamination. During 1995, approximately 5.3 million Michigan residents benefitted from the physical, psychological, and emotional well-being that accompanies companion animal ownership. By preserving the health and longevity of companion animals, veterinarians sustain and enhance these aspects of the human-animal bond. As Michigan enters a new century, it is likely that the state's veterinary medical profession will
Zeck, Steven; Wall, Judy A; Smith, Bradford P; Wilson, W David; Walsh, Donal A
This article describes an extensive online criterion-referenced evaluation system for the assessment of veterinary students' achievement during their final year's Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (or equivalent) clinical education. Data are reported for the 2001 to 2009 University of California at Davis veterinary graduates, for a total of more than 1,100 students. These criterion-referenced evaluations extensively document the level of clinical skills attained and demonstrated during the individual clinical rotations that comprise the fourth-year curriculum. On average, in each of the 17,500 clinical rotations undertaken during this time period, student performance was assessed in at least 11 separate areas of skills, knowledge, and professional attributes. This provided more than 200,000 criterion-referenced judgments of the individual clinical attributes of graduates over nine years. The system is based on a previously detailed and validated definition of the skills, knowledge, and professional attributes that students should have demonstrated before graduation. The extensive database that this system has provided has established that this system, termed VOLES (VMTH [Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital] On-Line Evaluation System), is an effective tool to assess the clinical capabilities of veterinary students and their achievement of the "Day One" skills required for entering clinical practice. These expected proficiencies are balanced according to the differing expectations that each area of veterinary clinical practice demands.
Drake, Adryanna A S; Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R
Much has been discussed about the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary medical students. Studies investigating general samples of veterinary medical students indicate that, on average, depression and anxiety symptoms are present at higher rates than in comparison samples. However, little is known about veterinary medical students who seek counseling. This study intends to expand the literature on veterinary student well-being, as the first to examine a sample of veterinary medical students seeking counseling services. It offers an overview of student distress and help-seeking trends from a decade of counseling services provided in one College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) in the US. The sample includes data from 279 participants. Results indicate a steady increase in students seeking counseling over the last decade. First-year students sought services at higher rates but second-year students experienced the greatest distress when compared to other cohorts. Students seeking counseling services experienced levels of overall distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social role concerns that were, on average, above cut-off scores. Physical health was significantly associated with student distress, suggesting opportunities for intervention.
Robbe-Austerman, Suelee; Strohbehn, Daryl R; Pence, Mel; Thomson, John U
Veterinary colleges face difficulties in meeting the demand for rural veterinarians with the scope to practice quality production medicine. Increasing population density around veterinary colleges, retaining the interest of students with a background in animal agriculture, and educating students without a farm background requires that veterinary colleges consider innovative ways to not only teach traditional food-animal practice but give future veterinarians the advanced skills the food industry demands. This article describes a three-year elective program, Beef Records Analysis, in which beef production medicine is taught by teaming a student and a beef producer together early in the student's veterinary education. These producer/student teams complete risk assessments, balance rations, collect financial and production information, and evaluate back-grounding and feedlot enterprises. Students learn how to evaluate their producers using industry benchmarks and past performance records and how to communicate their findings back to their producer. Producers often make management decisions based on the students' findings, and, because the students maintain their relationships with producers for three years, they can assess the outcomes of the producers who follow or ignore their recommendations and interventions. Students share recommendations and outcomes associated with their herd with the entire class. This allows students to learn how to establish best management practices through objective analysis of outcomes of recommended practices of all herds represented in the class. While a formal assessment of the course is needed, the students rate the program very high on evaluations.
Tanaka, Noriko; Takizawa, Tsuyoshi; Miyamoto, Nao; Funayama, Shinji; Tanaka, Ryo; Okano, Syozo; Iwasaki, Toshio
The prescription data from a digital accounting system of a veterinary teaching hospital collected between 2008 and 2011 in Japan were downloaded, stored in a database and analysed using a statistical analysis software, SAS. Seventy-six per cent of all prescriptions were drugs approved for human beings. The most frequently prescribed category was 'Agents against pathogenic organisms', such as antibiotics and chemotherapeutic agents, followed by 'Cardiovascular agents'. Seventy-five per cent of prescribed oral formulations in the category 'Agents against pathogenic organisms' were drugs approved for human beings, while 78 per cent of the injectable prescriptions were those for veterinary. A total of 36 oral antipathogenic products were prescribed, and among them amoxicillin was prescribed the most, followed by cephalexin for human beings and enrofloxacin for veterinary. The pattern of cyclosporin prescription, which is the most prescribed product other than 'Agents against pathogenic organisms', was surveyed. The capsule formulation was primarily used for dogs, while oral solutions were preferably used for cats. This pilot study is the first analytical data of real prescription in hospitals in Japan and one of the longest surveys in veterinary world.
Cuisance, Dominique; Antoine Rioux, Jean
Following alarming statements (French Senate, Académie des Sciences) on the present situation concerning entomology and systematics in France, the Conseil Général Vétérinaire designated one of us (D.C.) to carry out a survey on the status of medical and veterinary entomology (MVE) with respect to research orientations and university curricula. Around 100 participants, including scientists, teachers and several directors of research and educational bodies, were interviewed and filled in questionnaires for this survey. On the basis of the results, it was concluded that the deterioration of MVE in France is associated with: (1) the hasty reorganisation of training and research in the life sciences, leading to the disappearance of several disciplines. Hence, the postgraduate DEA degree in entomology was eliminated, and even the name 'entomology' no longer appears in teaching programmes or on research contracts; (2) France's withdrawal from action research programmes in developing countries. Although these programmes were efficient in controlling outbreaks of major endemic diseases, integrated pest and vector management programmes have been replaced by basic health care ('Health for everyone in 2000') and vaccination programmes; (3) the general shift from field to laboratory research, focused mainly on molecular mechanisms. The survey results confirmed generally acknowledged trends concerning many points and highlighted several specific problems, such as the disappearance of systematics experts. Several potential solutions are proposed.
Full Text Available The recent issue 1-2/2011 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information has a focus on hospital libraries, pharmaceutical libraries and veterinary medical libraries. The authors in this issue are Dagmar Nentwig (Hospital Fulda, Christa Giese (Klinikum Stuttgart, Marianne Gretz and Sascha Höning (The pharmacy library situation, Stefan Wulle (DFG-Special Subject Collection Pharmacy of Braunschweig University Library, Friedhelm O. Rump (Library of the Veterinary University Hannover Foundation and Doris Reinitzer (Library of the Veterinary University Vienna. Furthermore this focus issue features an article from Sünje Dallmeier-Tiessen and Anja Lengenfelder (Open Access in German Research – Results of the FP7 funded project Study of Open Access Publishing – SOAP, the Medical Librarian’s Bibliography 2010 and a product review from Katherine Forsythe (AAAS Special Collection on Cancer Research.
Labbafinejad, Yasser; Danesh, Hossein; Imanizade, Zahra
Medical and veterinary professional programs are demanding and may have an impact on a student's quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to compare the perceived QOL of these two groups. In this study, we used the SF-36 questionnaire in which higher scores mean a better perceived QOL. Only the students in the internship phase of their program were selected so that we could compare the two groups in a similar way. In total, 308 valid questionnaires were gathered. Apart from age and body mass index (BMI), the two groups were demographically similar. The scores of five domains (physical activity limitation due to health problems, usual role limitation due to emotional problems, vitality, general mental health, and general health perception) and also the total score were statistically higher in medical students. Only the score of one domain (social activity limitation due to physical or emotional problems) was statistically higher in veterinary students. BMI, physical activity limitation due to health problems, and vitality lost their significance after binomial logistic regression. We found that, in general, veterinary students have lower scores for the perceived QOL with social function being the only exception. It can be assumed that in medical students, interaction with human patients may have a negative impact in the score of this domain. Even though medical students have shown lower perceived QOL than the general population in previous studies, veterinary students appear to have slightly lower perceived QOL than medical students.
McCobb, Emily; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Malcolm, Elizabeth A; Wolfus, Gregory; Rush, John E
Providing veterinary students with opportunities to develop clinical skills in a realistic, hands-on environment remains a challenge for veterinary education. We have developed a novel approach to teaching clinical medicine to fourth-year veterinary students and technical high school students via development of a primary care clinic embedded within a technical high school. The primary care clinic targets an underserved area of the community, which includes many of the participating high school students. Support from the veterinary community for the project has been strong as a result of communication, the opportunity for veterinarians to volunteer in the clinic, and the careful targeting of services. Benefits to veterinary students include the opportunity to build clinical competencies and confidence, as well as the exposure to a diverse client population. The financial model of the clinic is described and initial data on outcomes for case load, clinic income, veterinary student evaluations, and high school students' success in passing the veterinary assisting examination are reported. This clinical model, involving a partnership between a veterinary school and a technical high school, may be adoptable to other clinical teaching situations.
Lane, India F; Bogue, E Grady
To explore perceptions of faculty educators regarding the importance of nontechnical competencies in veterinary graduates and the placement of nontechnical competency development in veterinary education. Survey. All faculty members at 5 North American veterinary medical institutions. Participants rated the importance of 14 nontechnical competencies and indicated in which phase or phases of veterinary education such competencies should be developed (ie, curriculum placement). Differences in mean ratings were statistically evaluated, as were associations between ratings or curriculum placement and respondent institution, gender, experience, and discipline. Mean ratings of importance were above neutral for all competencies and were highest for ethical, critical thinking, and interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies; development of these competencies was favored in preveterinary and veterinary training. Ratings were lower for management and business competencies; development of these and other competencies was placed primarily in the clinical phase of the veterinary curriculum. Basic science, nonveterinarian, and junior faculty appeared to more strongly appreciate the importance of nontechnical skills, whereas large animal and midcareer faculty reported a more reserved degree of support. Female faculty were more likely to place nontechnical competency development throughout the educational process. Participants agreed nontechnical competencies are important for veterinary graduates; however, faculty perceptions differed from previously published findings regarding the relative importance of business and management skills. Those involved in faculty hiring, faculty development, and curricular planning should also be aware of disciplinary and career stage differences affecting faculty perspectives.
The USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) has a history that starts in 1932 in Orlando to develop methods to control mosquitoes, including malaria vectors under conditions simulating those of the south Pacific jungles, and other insects affecting man and animals...
Within the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), National Program 104 conducts research on veterinary, medical, and urban entomology. The goal of this program is to develop more effective methods of preventing or suppressing insects, ticks, and mites that affect animal and human well-being....
All parts of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. (Fabaceae) is used in tropical Africa for numerous ethno-medical and traditional veterinary practices. The leaf is ichthyotoxic and has been used as insecticide, rodenticide and anthelminthic. It has also been used as abortifacient and to induce menses. The leaf macerate is purgative and ...
Meursinge Reynders, Reint
The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2–58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5–89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4–24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45–2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187
Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint
The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2-58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5-89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4-24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45-2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients.
Greenhill, Lisa M
In 2004, the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges took the bold step of prioritizing diversity as a core value through the hiring of a full-time staff person. The organization then pressed forward in 2005 by launching a national plan devoted to increasing diversity in academic veterinary medicine. In the years since its inception, the DiVersity Matters initiative has overseen significant diversity changes in US colleges of veterinary medicine. Dedicated diversity programming can have a positive impact on academic veterinary medicine and the larger veterinary profession. This paper provides an overview of DiVersity Matters since its 2005 launch and how the initiative is evolving under the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges' Strategic Plan.
Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Egmond, van H.J.; Deckers, E.R.; Herbes, R.; Hooglught, J.; Olde Heuvel, E.; Jong, de J.
Different compound feeds have to be manufactured in the same production line. As a consequence, traces of the first produced feed may remain in the production and get mixed with the next feed batches. This "carry-over" is unavoidable, and so non-medicated feed can be contaminated with veterinary
Burchell, Richard K; Schoeman, Johan
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease of dogs. The current management of MMVD in dogs is mostly pharmacological, and the recommendations for treatment are based on a number of veterinary studies. Notwithstanding the current consensus regarding the medical management of MMVD, there remains active debate as to which drugs are the most effective. In order to understand how recommendations are constructed in the pharmacological management of diseases, the veterinarian needs to understand the concept of evidence-based veterinary medicine, and how the findings of these studies can be applied in their own practices. This review summarises the current veterinary literature and explains how the consensus regarding the management of MMVD has been reached. This review highlights the limitations of veterinary studies in order to provide veterinary practitioners with a sense of the difficulty there is in establishing the benefit of one treatment over the other. Veterinarians should therefore apply treatment recommendations based on the best evidence, integrated with a pathomechanistic understanding of the disease process and clinical experience.
Lerner, Susan; Magrane, Diane; Friedman, Erica
Teamwork has become a major focus in healthcare. In part, this is the result of the Institute of Medicine report entitled To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System, which details the high rate of preventable medical errors, many of which are the result of dysfunctional or nonexistent teamwork. It has been proposed that a healthcare system that supports effective teamwork can improve the quality of patient care and reduce workload issues that cause burnout among healthcare professionals. Few clear guidelines exist to help guide the implementation of all these recommendations in healthcare settings. In general, training programs designed to improve team skills are a new concept for medicine, particularly for physicians who are trained largely to be self-sufficient and individually responsible for their actions. Outside of healthcare, research has shown that teams working together in high-risk and high-intensity work environments make fewer mistakes than individuals. This evidence originates from commercial aviation, the military, firefighting, and rapid-response police activities. Commercial aviation, an industry in which mistakes can result in unacceptable loss, has been at the forefront of risk reduction through teamwork training. The importance of teamwork has been recognized by some in the healthcare industry who have begun to develop their own specialty-driven programs. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current literature on teaching about teamwork in undergraduate medical education. We describe the science of teams, analyze the work in team training that has been done in other fields, and assess what work has been done in other fields about the importance of team training (ie, aviation, nonmedical education, and business). Additionally, it is vital to assess what work has already been done in medicine to advance the skills required for effective teamwork. Much of this work has been done in fields in which medical professionals deal with crisis
van Luijk, Scheltus J; Gorter, Ronald C; van Mook, Walther N K A
From 2002 onwards, a nationwide working group of representatives from all medical (8), dental (3) and veterinary medicine (1) schools collaborated in order to develop and implement recommendations for teaching and assessing professional behaviour. The aim of this article is to describe the outcomes of this process, including hurdles encountered and challenges to be met. By a qualitative survey, information was requested on teaching professional behaviour, assessment, instruments used, consequences of unprofessional behaviour and faculty training. All schools have adopted at least parts of the 2002 recommendations. Differences exist mainly in the organisational structure of teaching and assessment as well as in the assessment instruments used. In all schools a longitudinal assessment of professional behaviour was accomplished. All schools involved have made progress since 2002 with regard to teaching and assessment of professional behaviour, resulting in a shift from an instrumental to a cultural change for some schools. A stimulating factor was society's call to focus on patient safety and therefore on assessment of unprofessional behaviour. Hurdles yet to be taken are the involvement of students in the assessment process, teacher confidence in personal assessment capacities, remediation programmes and logistic and administrative support.
Rakha, Gamal M. H.; Abdl-Haleem, Mounir M.; Farghali, Haithem A. M.; Abdel-Saeed, Hitham
Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females) and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females) were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (%) of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (%) respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p0.05) on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools and medication
Gamal M. H. Rakha
Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain the prevalence of common digestive problems compared to other health problems among dogs that were admitted to the teaching veterinary hospital, faculty of veterinary medicine, Cairo University, Egypt during 1 year period from January to December 2013. Also, study the effect of age, sex, breeds, and season on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs. Materials and Methods: A total of 3864 dogs included 1488 apparently healthy (included 816 males and 672 females and 2376 diseased dogs (included 1542 males and 834 females were registered for age, sex, breed, and the main complaint from their owners. A complete history and detailed clinical examination of each case were applied to the aids of radiographic, ultrasonographic, and endoscopic examination tools. Fecal examination was applied for each admitted case. Rapid tests for parvovirus and canine distemper virus detection were also performed. Results: A five digestive problems were commonly recorded including vomiting, diarrhea, concurrent vomiting with diarrhea, anorexia, and constipation with a prevalence (% of 13.6, 19.1, 10.1, 13.1, and 0.5 respectively while that of dermatological, respiratory, urinary, neurological, cardiovascular, auditory, and ocular problems was 27.9, 10.5, 3.3, 0.84, 0.4, 0.25, and 0.17 (% respectively. This prevalence was obtained on the basis of the diseased cases. Age and breed had a significant effect on the distribution of digestive problems in dogs (p0.05 on the distribution of such problems. Conclusion: Digestive problems were the highest recorded problems among dogs, and this was the first records for such problems among dogs in Egypt. Age, gender, and breeds had a significant effect on the distribution of the digestive problems in dogs while season had a non-significant effect on the distribution of such problems. The present data enable veterinarians in Egypt to ascertain their needs for diagnostic tools
Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Drumright, Lydia N.; Gharbi, Myriam; Farrell, Susan; Holmes, Alison H.
Objectives To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK). Participants and Methods Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning. Results 80% (112/140) of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%). ‘Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions’ was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%), followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity’ (73/88, 82.9%) and ‘minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing’ (72/88, 81.8%). The ‘use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment’ was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3%) programmes included all recommended principles. Discussion Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles. PMID:26928009
Full Text Available To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK.Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning.80% (112/140 of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%. 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%, followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9% and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%. The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3% programmes included all recommended principles.Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.
Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Drumright, Lydia N; Gharbi, Myriam; Farrell, Susan; Holmes, Alison H
To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK). Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning. 80% (112/140) of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%). 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%), followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9%) and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%). The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3%) programmes included all recommended principles. Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.
Lane, India F; Bogue, E Grady
The development of non-technical competencies has become an important component of veterinary education. In this study, we determined faculty perspectives regarding their perceived involvement and ability in the cultivation of these competencies. A survey was administered to faculty members at five institutions. Respondents were asked whether the competency should be taught in their own courses and how prepared they felt to teach and evaluate the competency. Responses were analyzed by participant institution, gender, terminal degree and year, discipline, rank, and teaching experience. More than 90% of faculty respondents reported a personal responsibility to teach or cultivate critical thinking skills, communication skills, self-development skills, and ethical skills, with more than 85% also agreeing to a role in skills such as interpersonal skills, creativity, and self-management. The lowest percentages were seen for crisis and incident management (64%) and business skills (56%). Perceived preparedness to teach and evaluate these competencies paralleled the preceding findings, especially for the four consensus competencies and self-management. Faculty preparedness was lowest for business skills. Junior faculty were somewhat less likely than others to perceive a responsibility to teach non-technical competencies; however, instructors were more prepared to teach and evaluate business skills than were other faculty. Institutional trends were evident in faculty preparation. Although male faculty and non-DVM faculty tended to report a higher degree of preparedness, few differences reached statistical significance. Faculty perceptions of their responsibility to teach non-technical competencies vary by competency and parallel their perceived preparedness to teach and evaluate them.
Tayce, Jordan D; Burnham, Suzanne; Mays, Glennon; Robles, Juan Carlos; Brightsmith, Donald J; Fajt, Virginia R; Posey, Dan
The AAVMC has prioritized diversity as one of its core values. Its DiVersity Matters initiative is helping veterinary medicine prepare for the changing demographics of the United States. One example of the changing demographics is the growing Hispanic population. In 2013, the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences responded to the needs of this growing sector by introducing medical Spanish into the core curriculum for Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) students. The medical Spanish course takes place over 5 weeks during the second year of the curriculum, and is composed of lectures and group learning. While this may seem like a very compressed time frame for language learning, our goal is to provide students with basic medical vocabulary and a limited number of useful phrases. In this paper, we outline the implementation of a medical Spanish course in our curriculum, including our pedagogical approaches to the curricular design of the course, and an explanation of how we executed these approaches. We also discuss the successes and challenges that we have encountered, as well as our future plans for the course. We hope that the successes and challenges that we have encountered can serve as a model for others who plan to introduce a foreign language into their curriculum as a component of cultural competency.
Chieffo, Carla; Kelly, Alan M; Ferguson, James
To characterize trends in gender, employment, starting salaries, and educational debt of graduates of US veterinary medical schools and colleges from 1988 to 2007. Meta-analysis. Sample Population-Veterinary medical graduates from 26 or 27 of 27 US veterinary schools and colleges from 1988 through 2007. Data were obtained from surveys published in the JAVMA. A chi2 test for trend was used to analyze trends in choices of employment and educational indebtedness for the veterinary graduate populations over time. The greatest changes in employment occurred in predominantly large animal practice, which attracted 10.7% of new graduates in 1989 but only 2.2% in 2007, and in advanced study, which attracted 15.2% of new graduates in 1989 and 36.8% in 2007. In 2007, 75% of graduates were women, but this gender shift was not associated with the decline in the percentage of graduates entering rural practice. From 1989 through 2007, starting salaries in private practice increased at a rate of 4.60%/y. During the same period, educational debt increased at an annual rate of 7.36%, or 60% higher than the rate of increases for starting salaries. As a result, debt at graduation increased from 1.1 times the starting salary in 1989 to 2.0 times the starting salary in 2007. Veterinary students are now more in debt than they have ever been. This trend together with a substantial increase in the rate of interest charged for government-backed education loans create conditions for new graduates that appear unsustainable.
Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint
The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI
Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Bright, Janice M; McConnell, Sherry L; Marley, Wanda S; Kogan, Lori R
The objective of this investigation was to ascertain whether and how the introduction of a new technology (WebCT) influenced faculty teaching styles while facilitating small group problem-based learning (PBL) sessions in a professional veterinary medical (PVM) program. The following questions guided the study: (1) How does the use of technology affect faculty teaching behaviors? (2) Do the facilitators' interactions with WebCT technology change over the course of one semester? (3) What is the perceived impact of WebCT on facilitators' role in PBL? The study employed a combination of qualitative (case study) and semi-quantitative (survey) methods to explore these issues. Nine clinical sciences faculty members, leading a total of six PBL groups, were observed over the course of an academic semester for a total of 20 instructional sessions. The qualitative data gathered by observing faculty as they facilitated PBL sessions yielded three major themes: (1) How do PBL facilitators adapt to the addition of WebCT technology? (2) Does this technology affect teaching? and (3) How do PBL facilitators interact with their students and each other over the course of a semester? No direct evidence was found to suggest that use of WebCT affected teaching behaviors (e.g., student-centered vs. teacher-centered instruction). However, all facilitators showed a moderate increase in comfort with the technology during the semester, and one participant showed remarkable gains in technology skills. The teaching theme provided insight into how facilitators foster learning in a PBL setting as compared to a traditional lecture. A high degree of variability in teaching styles was observed, but individuals' styles tended to remain stable over the course of the semester. Nevertheless, all facilitators interacted similarly with students, in a more caring and approachable manner, when compared to the classroom or clinic atmospheres.
Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia Cornelia R. M. G.; Bolhuis, Sanneke; de Visser, Marieke; Laan, Roland F. J. M.
Within the unique and complex settings of university hospitals, it is difficult to implement policy initiatives aimed at developing careers in and improving the quality of academic medical teaching because of the competing domains of medical research and patient care. Factors that influence faculty in making use of teaching policy incentives have…
Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke; de Visser, Marieke; Laan, Roland F J M
Within the unique and complex settings of university hospitals, it is difficult to implement policy initiatives aimed at developing careers in and improving the quality of academic medical teaching because of the competing domains of medical research and patient care. Factors that influence faculty in making use of teaching policy incentives have remained underexplored. Knowledge of these factors is needed to develop theory on the successful implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals. To explore factors that influence faculty in making use of teaching policy incentives and to develop a conceptual model for implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals. We used the grounded theory methodology. We applied constant comparative analysis to qualitative data obtained from 12 semi-structured interviews conducted at the Radboud University Medical Center. We used a constructivist approach, in which data and theories are co-created through interaction between the researcher and the field and its participants. We constructed a model for the implementation of medical teaching policy in university hospitals, including five factors that were perceived to promote or inhibit faculty in a university hospital to make use of teaching policy incentives: Executive Board Strategy, Departmental Strategy, Departmental Structure, Departmental Culture, and Individual Strategy. Most factors we found to affect individual teachers' strategies and their use of medical teaching policy lie at the departmental level. If an individual teacher's strategy is focused on medical teaching and a medical teaching career, and the departmental context offers support and opportunity for his/her development, this promotes faculty's use of teaching policy incentives.
Kedrowicz, April A
This paper explores the impact of a group communication course on veterinary medical students' perceptions of communication competence and communication anxiety. Students enrolled in the Group Communication in Veterinary Medicine course completed the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension and the Communicative Competence Scale at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the semester. Results show that first-year veterinary students' self-perceptions of communication competence increased and their self-reported levels of communication apprehension decreased across multiple contexts from Time 1 to Time 2. This research provides support for experiential communication training fostering skill development and confidence.
Haarhuis, Jan C M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter
Interest in the areas of food animals (FA) and veterinary public health (VPH) appears to be declining among prospective students of veterinary medicine. To address the expected shortage of veterinarians in these areas, the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has developed an admissions procedure to select undergraduates whose aptitude and interests are suited to these areas. A study using expert meetings, open interviews, and document analysis identified personal characteristics that distinguished veterinarians working in the areas of FA and VPH from their colleagues who specialized in companion animals (CA) and equine medicine (E). The outcomes were used to create a written selection tool. We validated this tool in a study among undergraduate veterinary students in their final (sixth) year before graduation. The applicability of the tool was verified in a study among first-year students who had opted to pursue either FA/VPH or CA/E. The tool revealed statistically significant differences with acceptable effect sizes between the two student groups. Because the written selection tool did not cover all of the differences between the veterinarians who specialized in FA/VPH and those who specialized in CA/E, we developed a prestructured panel interview and added it to the questionnaire. The evaluation of the written component showed that it was suitable for selecting those students who were most likely to succeed in the FA/VPH track.
Gupta, Aakriti; Chong, Alvin H; Scarff, Catherine E; Huilgol, Shyamala C
Although skin disease and skin cancers cause significant morbidity and mortality in Australia, limited time is dedicated to dermatology teaching in most medical courses. The aim of this study was to define the current state of dermatology teaching in Australian medical schools with a view to developing a national core curriculum for dermatology. An electronic questionnaire was circulated to the dermatology teaching leads and relevant medical program coordinators of the 18 medical schools in Australia. Replies were received from 17 medical schools. Dermatology was included as part of the core curriculum in 15 schools. Time set aside for dermatology teaching varied, as reflected by the number of lectures delivered (0-21, mean 5, median 3) and minimum clinics attended (0-10, mean 1.2, median 0). Only four medical schools had a compulsory clinical attachment in dermatology. Furthermore, satisfying requirements in dermatology was mentioned in the university examination regulations in only six schools. Certain core learning outcomes were addressed in most schools, including the structure and function of the skin, common conditions such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis and cutaneous malignancies. However, there were important omissions, ranging from common problems like dermatophyte infections and drug reactions to the recognition of dermatological emergencies. These results are a compelling impetus to improve current standards of dermatology teaching, learning and assessment. The introduction of a national core curriculum would provide guidelines for dermatology teaching in medical schools, enabling the more effective utilisation of available time for key learning outcomes. © 2016 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.
Mileder, Lukas Peter
Junior medical staff provides a large proportion of undergraduate student education. However, despite increasing numbers of resident-as-teacher training programs, junior doctors may still not be sufficiently prepared to teach medical students. Hence, medical schools should consider implementing formal teaching skills training into undergraduate curricula.
Glick, Phillip Ray
Veterinary education must re-establish its teaching objectives. Students need practical knowledge in areas such as business management, communications, marketing, public relations, facility management, and personnel management. Industry must also meet its obligations to continue to provide safe, dependable products that fill a practice need. (MLW)
Krehbiel, Janver D
This article provides a brief overview of the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges' Foresight Project final report, Envisioning the Future of Veterinary Medical Education. Points of concern and recommendations specifically regarding animal-welfare education that surfaced in the final report are discussed. Also included is a summary of how six veterinary colleges are presently addressing animal welfare in their education and research programs.
Kalina, Robert E.; And Others
The results of two Association of University Professors of Ophthalmology (AUPO) surveys of ophthalmology teaching are reported. The results indicate that currently assigned time for teaching ophthalmology is limited and gradually declining. A main concern is that students learn proper diagnosis to avoid inappropriate referral. (Author/MLW)
Mariana Cristina Hoeppner Rondelli
Full Text Available Cutaneous food allergy is an adverse immunological response, triggered by antigenic dietary components that may escape the digestion process and are absorbed intact through the gastrointestinal mucosa. In Brazil, there are only a few reports on cutaneous food allergy and antigenicity of food components used in pet food production. Thus, the aim of this report was to assess and describe data from medical records of canine patients diagnosed with cutaneous food allergy at a Veterinary Teaching Hospital from Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, in order to evaluate epidemiological and clinical aspects related to this skin problem. From 2007 to 2012, 29 dogs received the diagnosis of cutaneous food allergy after an eight-week hypoallergenic elimination trial. Among them, purebred dogs were more frequent, as well as females, and their mean age was 50.4 months old. Pruritus was reported in all cases, especially in interdigital areas. In order to establish the diagnosis, most patients received home-cooked elimination diet, based on potato and lamb in approximately 80% of the cases. Besides, it was highlighted the importance of the hypoallergenic elimination diet being rigorously followed by dogs' owners, aiming the adequate control of the clinical signs related to cutaneous food allergy.
Recommendations of the German Society for Medical Education and the German Association of Medical Faculties regarding university-specific assessments during the study of human, dental and veterinary medicine.
Jünger, Jana; Just, Ingo
The practice of assessing student performance in human, dental and veterinary medicine at universities in German-speaking countries has undergone significant changes in the past decade. Turning the focus to practical requirements regarding medical practice during undergraduate study away from an often theory-dominated curriculum, the academic scrutiny of the basics of teaching medical knowledge and skills, and amendments to legislation, all require ongoing adjustments to curricula and the ways in which assessments are done during undergraduate medical education. To establish quality standards, the Gesellschaft für medizinische Ausbildung (GMA German Society for Medical Education) reached a consensus in 2008 on recommendations for administering medical school-specific exams which have now been updated and approved by the GMA assessments committee, together with the Medizinischer Fakultätentag (MFT German Association of Medical Faculties), as recommendations for the administration of high-quality assessments.
Fogelberg, Katherine; Farnsworth, Charles C
Client communication skills and professional ethics are areas that have received much attention in veterinary education in recent years. The objectives of this study were to: i) establish the confidence level of faculty teaching in three veterinary schools with regard to their client communication skills, ii) establish a baseline of professional ethics indicators in the same faculty, and iii) compare veterinary students of all levels to faculty in both areas. Students and faculty received identical questionnaires, including statements addressing client communication skills and professional ethics. The results indicate that students are generally comfortable with their communication skills, except in the areas of visual and/or audio aid use, handling emotional clients, and discussing costs of care and payment. Faculty were more comfortable than students in all areas of client communication, although they also had low confidence when dealing with costs of care and payment. Ethically, students and faculty answered similarly. Faculty showed a stronger belief that people are basically honest and ethical, but both cohorts responded similarly when asked about reporting an ethical violation admitted to them by their best friend. Further research is needed to determine whether students are communicating as effectively as they believe they are, with particular attention paid to improving communications with emotional clients and the business aspects of veterinary medicine. Additional work is needed to ensure that veterinary students are learning how to cope with ethical issues objectively. This may begin by ensuring that faculty are teaching and, more importantly, modeling these behaviors during the clinical year(s).
Shariq, Omair; Alexopoulos, Anastasia-Stefania; Razik, Fathima; Currie, Jane; Salooja, Nina
The UK General Medical Council has recommended that medical students be taught how to teach; however, the current state of teaching skills training in England has not yet been investigated. To explore the current state of undergraduate teaching skills training at medical schools in England. A questionnaire survey was sent to all 24 medical schools in England, enquiring about the basic structure, content areas, staffing, delivery and assessment methods of compulsory courses. A response rate of 22/24 (92%) was achieved, and 18/22 (82%) of the responding institutions offered some form of teaching skills training. The most frequently covered content areas were small group facilitation skills, large group teaching skills and use of effective feedback. Teaching was delivered by a combination of hospital doctors, non-physician educators or general practitioner educators in the majority of courses. Six of the nine (67%) compulsory courses featured student assessments. The main barriers to implementing these courses were staffing limitations, insufficient time and lack of student engagement. Our study demonstrates both the similarities and variation between undergraduate teaching skills courses across England. However, further research will be necessary to determine whether the long-term impact of such training will result in better educators, and ultimately in improved patient care. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Griffin, Brenda; Bushby, Philip A; McCobb, Emily; White, Sara C; Rigdon-Brestle, Y Karla; Appel, Leslie D; Makolinski, Kathleen V; Wilford, Christine L; Bohling, Mark W; Eddlestone, Susan M; Farrell, Kelly A; Ferguson, Nancy; Harrison, Kelly; Howe, Lisa M; Isaza, Natalie M; Levy, Julie K; Looney, Andrea; Moyer, Michael R; Robertson, Sheilah Ann; Tyson, Kathy
As community efforts to reduce the overpopulation and euthanasia of unwanted and unowned cats and dogs have increased, many veterinarians have increasingly focused their clinical efforts on the provision of spay-neuter services. Because of the wide range of geographic and demographic needs, a wide variety of spay-neuter programs have been developed to increase delivery of services to targeted populations of animals, including stationary and mobile clinics, MASH-style operations, shelter services, community cat programs, and services provided through private practitioners. In an effort to promote consistent, high-quality care across the broad range of these programs, the Association of Shelter Veterinarians convened a task force of veterinarians to develop veterinary medical care guidelines for spay-neuter programs. These guidelines consist of recommendations for general patient care and clinical procedures, preoperative care, anesthetic management, surgical procedures, postoperative care, and operations management. They were based on current principles of anesthesiology, critical care medicine, infection control, and surgical practice, as determined from published evidence and expert opinion. They represent acceptable practices that are attainable in spay-neuter programs regardless of location, facility, or type of program. The Association of Shelter Veterinarians envisions that these guidelines will be used by the profession to maintain consistent veterinary medical care in all settings where spay-neuter services are provided and to promote these services as a means of reducing sheltering and euthanasia of cats and dogs.
1288. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., December 2015. Vol. 36 (4): 1288-1298. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Anatomical Studies of ... 1Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; 2 Department of .... back, the internal organs were measured in.
The article reviews features of teaching Medical Informatics and Statistics. The course is referred to the disciplines of Mathematical and Natural sciences. The course is provided in all the faculties of I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University. For students of Preventive Medicine Department the time frame allotted for studying the…
Oluwatoyin O. Ajala; Adetunji P. Fayomi
We studied the distribution of reproductive cases presented at the University of Ibadan Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Nigeria for 15 years (1995 to 2009). Records of presented cases were sourced from the case files and subjected to descriptive analysis. The recorded reproduction cases were distributed by the reproductive condition, species, breed, sex and year of occurrence. Dystocia>pregnancy diagnosis>mastitis>transmissible venereal tumor>metritis were the most frequently presented conditio...
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Full Text Available Globally, patient safety and quality of health care services are the predominant challenges faced by the health care industry. To produce competent doctors it is essential to inculcate skills such as clinical reasoning, critical thinking, and self-directed learning among the medical students. Bedside teaching is a common teaching format in medical education where students are taught in an interactive manner with real patients in hospital wards which help them in acquiring the medical skills and interpersonal behavior necessary for their daily practice as doctors.
Mergel, E.; Feige, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany); Haeusler, U. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)
The implementation of the Council directive 96/29 EURATOM and the corresponding national Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Protection Ordinance coming subsequently into effect led to a changed situation regarding the occupational radiation protection in the medical sector. To reduce the occupational exposure of veterinarians and assisting staff in veterinary radiography is particularly challenging as, in opposite to human radiological examination, the presence of staff is indispensable to restrain the patient. Beyond that the relevant literature reports about too high and/or about unnecessary radiation exposures. To gain a comprehensive knowledge upon the possible exposure of involved staff, the variety of typical examination methods in veterinary clinics and at practitioners had been investigated during the daily routine. Dose measurements were performed for different employees during the examinations taking into account several places of exposure (lens, thyroid, chest, hand, gonad, and feet). Veterinary X-ray diagnostic examinations for pets as well as in equine radiography had been accounted for this study. In total, 101 examination methods, 4.484 accompanied examinations and 53.892 single dose readings resulted in a reliable statistical base to set up a 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' allowing the dose assessment for a variable number and kind of examinations. The 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' is believed to be a useful tool for optimization of occupational radiation exposure of veterinarians by appraising the height of a possible dose, forcing a review of the status quo and triggering the improvement of personal protection by establishing adequate measures. (orig.)
Beckles, Nancy María
Full Text Available This paper describes teaching-learning process shortcomings in the English for Medical Purposes, a subject of fourth-year medical student’s curriculum at the medical university of Camagüey. Its main objective is aimed at the elaboration of a Methodological Alternative distinguished by the use of the Project Method approach to favour the development of writing skills in English. This Methodological Alternative is characterized by being flexible, pertinent and able to develop and integrate knowledge of the English language and medicine. It has two main stages: Socio-affective dynamics for the production of written texts in English for medical purposes and the dynamics for the construction of written texts in English for medical purposes. The results of considering expertise’s’ opinion revealed the feasibility of the proposal as a fostering tool for teaching writing in medical sciences.
Root Kustritz, Margaret V
First-year veterinary students enrolled in a Professional Development course were invited to join a Facebook group with the goal of having the instructor use that tool to promote student practice of client communication skills. All members of the class were surveyed to determine any difference in educational outcomes between those students who joined the Facebook group (FB) and those who did not (non-FB). Fifty-one students joined the Facebook group out of a class of 99, and 33 responded to the survey. Forty-four of the non-FB students completed the survey, for a total response of 77%. There was no difference between groups in their general use of Facebook. The only educational outcome that differed between the groups was increased practice of communication skills outside of school by the FB group. Students in the FB group cited interest and desire to access all course materials as the most common reason for joining. They were much more likely to read postings than to post anything themselves. Barriers to greater use of the tool by the FB group included lack of time and hesitance to post when others were not. Students were ambivalent about the use of Facebook as an educational tool. The instructor was unaware of the extent of use of the tool until survey results were gathered and felt that it would be most useful as a teaching tool for those instructors who already used Facebook as part of their personal routine.
Molenaar, W M; Zanting, A; van Beukelen, P; de Grave, W; Baane, J A; Bustraan, J A; Engbers, R; Fick, Th E; Jacobs, J C G; Vervoorn, J M
The quality of teachers in higher education is subject of increasing attention, as exemplified by the development and implementation of guidelines for teacher qualifications at Universities in The Netherlands. Because medical education takes a special position in higher education the Council of Deans of Medical Schools in The Netherlands installed a national task force to explore a method to weigh criteria for teacher qualifications of medical teachers. A framework was developed covering competencies of teachers throughout the medical education continuum and including medicine, dentistry and veterinary medicine. The framework distinguishes 3 dimensions: (a) six domains of teaching (development - organization - execution - coaching - assessment - evaluation); (b) three levels in the organization at which teachers perform (micro, meso and macro level) and (c) competencies as integration of knowledge, skills and attitude and described as behaviour in specific context. The current framework is the result of several cycles of descriptions, feedback from the field and adaptations. It is meant as a guideline, leaving room for local detailing. The framework provides a common language that may be used not only by teachers and teacher trainers, but also by quality assurance committees, human resource managers and institutional boards.
Full Text Available Approximately 50% of cats admitted to Australian shelters are kittens, and 26% of dogs are puppies, and, particularly for cats, euthanasia rates are often high. Cats can be pregnant by 4 months of age, yet the traditional desexing age is 5–6 months, and studies in Australasia and Nth America reveal that only a minority of veterinarians routinely perform early age desexing (EAD of cats or dogs, suggesting they are not graduating with these skills. This study aimed to describe the attitudes of veterinary teaching staff in Australian and New Zealand universities towards EAD, and to determine if these changed from 2008 to 2015. It also aimed to identify students’ practical exposure to EAD. Most (64% of the 25 participants in 2015 did not advocate EAD in their teaching and, in their personal opinion, only 32% advocated it for cats. Concerns related to EAD cited by staff included anesthetic risk, orthopedic problems, hypoglycemia, and, in female dogs, urinary incontinence. Those who advocated EAD cited benefits of population control, ease of surgery and behavioral benefits. Only three of the eight universities provided a majority of students with an opportunity to gain exposure to EAD procedures before graduation, and in two of these, most students had an opportunity to perform EAD. In conclusion, most veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand are not graduating with the knowledge or skills to perform EAD, and have little opportunity while at university to gain practical exposure. Welfare agencies could partner with universities to enable students to experience EAD.
Lee, Gwi Hyang; Choe, Byung In; Kim, Jin Suk; Hart, Lynette A; Han, Jin Soo
Two new Korean laws regulating animal welfare and the humane use of animals in science came into effect in 2008 and 2009. Both these laws impose ethical committee review prior to the performance of animal experiments in research, testing and education. This study briefly summarises the new Korean laws, and investigates the current status regarding the numbers of animals used, the alternatives to animals which are used, the curricula relating to the humane use of animals, and ethical review practices in Korean veterinary education. Approximately 4,845 animals, representing 20 different species, were used in veterinary medical education in Korea in 2007. Korea has begun to introduce formal courses on animal welfare for the humane treatment of animals used in experiments, and an ethical protocol review system prior to animal use in education. Korea is moving toward better animal welfare, by incorporating practices consistent with international standards. The information presented represents the first such data gathered in Korea, which should prove useful for monitoring the implementation of replacement, reduction, and refinement measures in animal use for education purposes.
Full Text Available According to the WHO- “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”. The good health is the fundamental right of all the people on earth. The concept of ‘One Medicine’ coined by Calvin W. Schwabe evolves towards ’One Health’ which comprises collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines to achieve perfect health of people, animals, and our environment. ‘One Health’ deals with the challenges at the intersection of animal, human and environment health including the infectious diseases, the global food crises, and climate change due to global warming. The cordial and active association of various disciplines such as medicine, veterinary, public health, environment, wildlife, ecology, and food hygiene is highly emphasized in order to achieve the goal of ‘One Health’. This mini-review describes brief history of ‘one health’, the roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals, and developing collaboration with various concern professionals to achieve ‘one health’. In addition, the selected achievements of ‘one health’ in the past 10 years have been described along with the challenges ahead for the successful implementation of such concept.
Colgan, P.; Harrison, D. [NSW Environment Protection Authority, Lidcombe, NSW, (Australia). Radiation Control Centre; Moore, W. [NSW Environmental Protection Authority, Chatswood, NSW, (Australia). Economics and Environmental Reporting Branch
Under the NSW Radiation Control Act 1990, radiation apparatus used for diagnostic medical, dental and veterinary purposes will be required to become registered. The inspection required prior to registration will be conducted by a Consulting Radiation Expert who has been accredited by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) as being competent in the field of quality assurance assessment of radiation apparatus used for diagnostic medical, dental and veterinary purposes. When regulating any activity in NSW, there is a requirement to undertake a regulatory impact statement of the proposed regulation. In addition, the introduction of any accompanying guideline requires a cost-benefit analysis. Costs may include enforcement, administrative and compliance activities. The calculation of benefit relies heavily on the improvement in apparatus performance (and hence dose reduction) that can be obtained with the introduction of a mandatory practice such as apparatus registration. This paper discusses the development of the registration guideline for NSW, including a summary of the public comments received. It further discusses the methodology and data used for the accompanying cost-benefit analysis. Information in this paper is presented in three parts: EPA field survey, cost analysis, and benefit analysis. For NSW it was estimated that the introduction of registration of these apparatus, over a two year period, would result in early replacement and repair costs (present values) to the medical industry of between $5.7 and $11.0 million, with an additional $2.5 million in EPA enforcement costs. The introduction of the proposed system of registration is expected to result in an estimated savings in quantifiable health detriment costs to NSW of between $11.8 and $17.7 million, and reduce the risk of radiation induced mortality. (authors). 4 refs., 11 tabs.
Chatfield, Jenifer A; Dewell, Reneé; Miranda, Astrid J; Wilcox, Stefania; Vannieuwenhoven, Ty J
To describe on-site veterinary medical care for working dogs and horses deployed for the 2012 Republican National Convention (RNC) in Tampa, Fla, August 24 to 30, 2012. Retrospective case series. 130 dogs and 45 horses. Data collected included breed, age, history, task assignment, reason for evaluation, and physical examination findings. A patient encounter report was recorded each time an animal was seen by veterinary staff for a physical evaluation. 46 of the 130 (35%) dogs and all 45 (100%) horses underwent at least 1 on-site veterinary evaluation, for a total of 478 patient encounters. The most common reason for an on-site veterinary evaluation was a wellness check (446 patient encounters). On the basis of veterinary recommendations, 1 dog and 4 horses were removed from continued service for the duration of the event. In addition, 1 dog and 1 horse were removed from active service for 12 to 24 hours but allowed to return to service for the duration of the event following a veterinary reevaluation. Results suggested that working dogs and horses deployed for large planned events face different health concerns, compared with concerns previously reported for animals deployed following disasters. Pre-event planning and training of handlers and riders may have helped reduce the number of health concerns, particularly health concerns related to high heat.
Barron, Daniella; Khosa, Deep; Jones-Bitton, Andria
Experiential learning is essential in medical and veterinary student education and can improve students' communication with clients during medical appointments. There is limited research in veterinary education investigating the effectiveness of experiential learning environments to provide an "integrative approach" to teaching. The…
By judiciously selecting topics and reading materials, one can teach a full semester course on medical physics appropriate for college students not majoring in the natural sciences. This interdisciplinary field offers an opportunity to teach a great deal of basic physics at the freshman level in the context of explaining modern medical technologies such as ultrasound imaging, laser surgery, and positron emission tomography. This article describes one such course which combines lectures, outside visitors, varied readings, and laboratories to convey a select subset of physical principles and quantitative problem-solving skills. These resources are also valuable for enriching the standard freshman physics sequence for premedical students. PMID:8075355
Andrea S. Varela-Stokes
Full Text Available Interest in microbial communities, or microbiota, of blood-feeding arthropods such as ticks (order Parasitiformes, suborder Ixodida is increasing. Studies on tick microorganisms historically emphasized pathogens of high medical or veterinary importance. Current techniques allow for simultaneous detection of pathogens of interest, non-pathogenic symbionts, like Coxiella-LE and Francisella-LE, and microorganisms of unknown pathogenic potential. While each generation of ticks begins with a maternally acquired repertoire of microorganisms, microhabitats off and on vertebrate hosts can alter the microbiome during the life cycle. Further, blood-feeding may allow for horizontal exchange of various pathogenic microbiota that may or may not also be capable of vertical transmission. Thus, the tick microbiome may be in constant flux. The geographical spread of tick vector populations has resulted in a broader appreciation of tick-borne diseases and tick-associated microorganisms. Over the last decade, next-generation sequencing technology targeting the 16S rRNA gene led to documented snapshots of bacterial communities among life stages of laboratory and field-collected ticks, ticks in various feeding states, and tick tissues. Characterizing tick bacterial communities at population and individual tissue levels may lead to identification of markers for pathogen maintenance, and thus, indicators of disease “potential” rather than disease state. Defining the role of microbiota within the tick may lead to novel control measures targeting tick-bacterial interactions. Here, we review our current understanding of microbial communities for some vectors in the family Ixodidae (hard ticks in North America, and interpret published findings for audiences in veterinary and medical fields with an appreciation of tick-borne disease.
Mulla, M S; Su, T
Botanical insecticides are relatively safe and degradable, and are readily available sources of biopesticides. The most prominent phytochemical pesticides in recent years are those derived from neem trees, which have been studied extensively in the fields of entomology and phytochemistry, and have uses for medicinal and cosmetic purposes. The neem products have been obtained from several species of neem trees in the family Meliaceae. Six species in this family have been the subject of botanical pesticide research. They are Azadirachta indica A. Juss, Azadirachta excelsa Jack, Azadirachta siamens Valeton, Melia azedarach L., Melia toosendan Sieb. and Zucc., and Melia volkensii Gürke. The Meliaceae, especially A. indica (Indian neem tree), contains at least 35 biologically active principles. Azadirachtin is the predominant insecticidal active ingredient in the seed, leaves, and other parts of the neem tree. Azadirachtin and other compounds in neem products exhibit various modes of action against insects such as antifeedancy, growth regulation, fecundity suppression and sterilization, oviposition repellency or attractancy, changes in biological fitness, and blocking development of vector-borne pathogens. Some of these bioactivity parameters of neem products have been investigated at least in some species of insects of medical and veterinary importance, such as mosquitoes, flies, triatomines, cockroaches, fleas, lice, and others. Here we review, synthesize, and analyze published information on the activity, modes of action, and other biological effects of neem products against arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. The amount of information on the activity, use, and application of neem products for the control of disease vectors and human and animal pests is limited. Additional research is needed to determine the potential usefulness of neem products in vector control programs.
Campbell, Amy T
Law is now routinely included in the medical school curriculum, often incorporated into bioethics and/or practice of medicine coursework. There seems to lack, however, a systematic understanding of what works in terms of getting across an effective depth and breadth of legal knowledge for medical students - or what such would even look like. Moreover, and more critically, while some literature addresses these what, when, how, and who questions, a more fundamental question is left unanswered: why teach law in medical school? This article suggests a process to reveal a more consensual understanding of this latter question. The author highlights findings and recommendations of some of the leading literature to date related to teaching law in medical schools, and also recent U.K. projects addressing legal teaching in medical schools. Reflecting on these materials and activities, the author suggests that we take a "pause" before we argue for more or different legal topics within the medical curriculum. Before we alter the curricula for more and/or different "law," first, it is critical to have a meaningful, stakeholder-driven, consensus-seeking discussion of the goals of legal education: why do we think it matters that medical students learn about "the law"? © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Narváez, Yamile Reveiz
Biomedical advancements have evolved to the point where teaching software may be implemented to represent real-life scenarios. Virtual Patients or VPs are software programs that simulate clinical scenarios allowing students to generate a diagnosis and make treatment decisions. In this article, advantages and disadvantages regarding the use of this state-of-the-art technology are discussed. VP is a useful technique for psychiatry students. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Babyak, Jonathan M; Sharp, Claire R
OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN Observational study. ANIMALS 246 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES During a 3-month period, daily treatment records were evaluated for all hospitalized cats. Information extracted included signalment, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, diagnostic test results, diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and outcome (survival or death). Cats were classified into 1 of 4 disease categories (sepsis [confirmed infection and SIRS], infection [confirmed infection without SIRS], noninfectious SIRS [SIRS without a confirmed infection], and no SIRS [no SIRS or infection]). RESULTS Of the 246 cats, 26 and 3 were hospitalized 2 and 3 times, respectively; thus, 275 hospitalizations were evaluated. When SIRS was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 of 4 SIRS criteria, 17 cats had sepsis, 16 had infections, 81 had noninfectious SIRS, and 161 were classified in the no SIRS category at hospital admission. The prevalence of sepsis at hospital admission was 6.2 cases/100 admissions. Four cats developed sepsis while hospitalized, resulting in a sepsis incidence rate of 1.5 cases/100 hospital admissions. Four of 17 cats with sepsis at hospital admission and 3 of 4 cats that developed sepsis while hospitalized died or were euthanized, resulting in a mortality rate of 33.3% for septic cats; 239 hospitalizations resulted in survival, 28 resulted in euthanasia, and 8 resulted in death. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that many hospitalized cats have evidence of SIRS and some have sepsis. In cats, sepsis is an important clinical entity with a high mortality rate.
Adamowski, Tomasz; Piotrowski, Patryk; Ciałkowska, Magdalena; Kiejna, Andrzej
Teaching constitutes part of a psychiatrist's work. The essential determinants of best practice in psychiatric education as well as proven teaching methods are still lacking. The authors have presented the application of the Delphi technique to under- and postgraduate teaching programmes in diverse fields of medical knowledge. The Delphi method is based on systematic and anonymous refinement of expert opinion on defined scientific issues. The conventional approach of the method relies on questionnaires filled in by chosen experts in at least 3 or 4 rounds. Answers are assessed quantitatively and qualitatively during subsequent rounds in order to refine and specify opinions and--when expected--to achieve consensus. Innovative methods of the Delphi analysis have been presented. Patients' and physicians' opinions as well as electronic methods have been applied in curricula development. Both the positive experience of practical Delphi method application and methodological flexibility might be useful in construction of modern teaching programmes in psychiatry.
Kissinger, Jeanette F.; And Others
A medical-surgical nursing course was reorganized using seven key concepts (chronicity, mobility, body image, rehabilitation, acuteness, invasiveness, and depression of function) as a teaching base. Emphasis was given to nursing roles, interventions, and learning transfer to varied nursing situations. (EA)
Ravindran, Rahul; Kashyap, Mavin; Lilis, Lydia; Vivekanantham, Sayinthen; Phoenix, Gokulan
Social media is increasingly being used for teaching and assessment. We describe the design and implementation of a Facebook© teaching forum for medical students, and evaluate its effectiveness. A Facebook© teaching forum was set up in a London Hospital to assist with learning and assessment for undergraduate medical students. An independent online survey was used to collate their experiences. Accessibility to the forum, usefulness in stimulating peer-to-peer discussion and the use of weekly formative assessments were evaluated using a Likert scale. In total, 91 per cent (n=68/75) of students who had Facebook© joined the teaching forum. The majority of students completed the questionnaire (n=39/68, 57%). All students visited the teaching forum group at least once a week. A significant proportion attempted all 10 question sets (n=16/39, 41%). Students felt more comfortable asking questions in the forum than in ward rounds and clinics (n=22/39, 56%). The general consensus was that Facebook© could be used for educational purposes, with just 5 per cent of students (n=2/39) thinking that Facebook© should only be used socially and with 92 per cent believing that the forum helped to achieve the learning objectives of the curriculum (n=36/39). Facebook© provides a safe environment for learning and discussion amongst medical undergraduates undergoing their clinical attachments. Furthermore, through formative assessments set by a medical educator, it provides a useful revision tool for summative assessments and reinforces knowledge learned through conventional teaching methods. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Strand, Elizabeth B; Johnson, Beth; Thompson, James
Mounting research supports the use of peer-assisted learning (PAL) as a teaching method in human and veterinary medicine. PAL can be a cost-efficient educational tool, saving both financial resources and faculty time. This article reviews a PAL model for teaching communication skills to veterinary medical students. In this model, junior veterinary students served as simulated clients for sophomore veterinary students. Details regarding methods of program delivery as well as evaluation data are presented. Differences between two student cohorts who participated in the PAL educational model and their subsequent evaluation results are discussed. Overall, veterinary medical students reported that this approach was beneficial and that the topic was critical to their success as veterinarians. Students also showed improvement in communication knowledge and reported that peer feedback was a strength of the program. Finally, future directions to assess and strengthen the use of PAL for communication training in veterinary medical education are proposed.
Many postdoctoral fellows are considering an academic career at a medical school. In addition to conducting research, new faculty members must learn effective teaching methodologies. This course will focus on good teaching practices, including basic strategies for developing and organizing a course. The purpose of the "Teaching in Medical Education (TIME)" course is to increase the scientist's ability to teach in medical education. The course will provide basic knowledge in teaching methods, course planning, writing a syllabus and developing examinations.
The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of enhancing the livestock ...
Rojas, Alberto O
Medical education must ascribe to a curriculum but clinical teaching poses special difficulties that go beyond any programming attempt. Attitudes and skills learned during tutored clinical practice are called the "hidden curriculum". The figure and personal features of the teacher, his environment and the atmosphere that projects every particular medical school, are essential to shape the characteristics of the student. Paradoxically, it is almost impossible to measure the impact of this hidden curriculum. This article is a reflection on an issue that is acquiring special relevance in medical education.
Steinman, Amir; Masarwa, Samira; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Gleser, Dan; Kelmer, Gal; Adler, Amos; Carmeli, Yehuda; Schwaber, Mitchell J.
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and colonization, involving MRSA strains which differ from common human health care-associated clones, have become serious emerging conditions in equine veterinary hospitals. In 2010, MRSA spa type t535 caused an outbreak involving both horses and personnel in a veterinary teaching hospital in Israel. Since then, surveillance continued, and occasional MRSA isolation occurred. Two years later, MRSA of another spa type, t002, was isol...
Chen, H S; Guo, F R; Liu, C T; Lee, Y J; Chen, J H; Lin, C C; Hou, S M; Hsieh, B S
National Taiwan University College of Medicine (NTUCM) introduced small groups of teaching and basic-clinical integrated courses for medical students in 1992. By using computer network and multimedia techniques, this study tried to overcome barriers to learning in small group teaching. The Department of Medical Informatics of NTUCM established campus networking and computer classrooms and provided Internet and intranet network services including mail, netnews, bulletin board systems (BBS), world wide web (WWW), gopher, ftp and local file servers. To implement an interactive learning environment, the authors first tried mail lists, newsgroups and BBS. Next an integrated learning system prototype on the WWW was developed to provide functions including online syllabus, discussion boards simulated to BBS, online talk, interactive case studies, virtual classroom with video on demand (VOD) and Internet medical resources. The results showed that after the medical students completed the required course of medical informatics and had good network access using a network to communicate with each other became a daily practice. In the future, the system will extend to the tutoring of clinical practice and continuing medical education. The authors expect a national medical education network and more international cooperation and exchange.
Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R.; Damgaard, Morten
Quiz-based and collaborative teaching strategies have previously been found to be efficient for the improving meaningful learning of physiology during lectures. These approaches have, however, not been investigated during laboratory exercises. In the present study, we compared the impact of solving...... quizzes individually and in groups with conventional teaching on the immediate learning during a laboratory exercise. We implemented two quizzes in a mandatory 4-h laboratory exercise on baroreflex physiology. A total of 155 second-year medical students were randomized to solve quizzes individually...
Louisa Poon, W Y; Covington, Jennifer P; Dempsey, Lauren S; Goetgeluck, Scott L; Marscher, William F; Morelli, Sierra C; Powell, Jana E; Rivers, Elizabeth M; Roth, Ira G
This article provides an introduction to the use of students' business skills in optimizing teaching opportunities, student learning, and client satisfaction in a primary health care setting at a veterinary teaching hospital. Seven veterinary-student members of the local chapter of the Veterinary Business Management Association (VBMA) evaluated the primary-care service at the University of Georgia (UGA) veterinary teaching hospital and assessed six areas of focus: (1) branding and marketing, (2) client experience, (3) staff and staffing, (4) student experience, (5) time management, and (6) standard operating procedures and protocols. For each area of focus, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats were identified. Of the six areas, two were identified as areas in need of immediate improvement, the first being the updating of standard operating protocols and the second being time management and the flow of appointments. Recommendations made for these two areas were implemented. Overall, the staff and students provided positive feedback on the recommended changes. Through such a student-centered approach to improving the quality of their education, students are empowered and are held accountable for their learning environment. The fact that the VBMA functions without a parent organization and that the primary-care service at UGA functions primarily as a separate entity from the specialty services at the College of Veterinary Medicine allowed students to have a direct impact on their learning environment. We hope that this model for advancing business education will be studied and promoted to benefit both veterinary education and business practice within academia.
Jaarsma, Debbie A D C; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter
Over the past two decades, the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of Utrecht University (FVMU) has introduced major curriculum changes to keep pace with modern veterinary educational developments worldwide. Changes to program outcomes have been proposed according to professional and societal demands,
Kogan, Lori R.; Dowers, Kristy L.; Cerda, Jacey R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.; Stewart, Sherry M.
Veterinary schools, similar to many professional health programs, face a myriad of evolving challenges in delivering their professional curricula including expansion of class size, costs to maintain expensive laboratories, and increased demands on veterinary educators to use curricular time efficiently and creatively. Additionally, exponential…
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...
Cribb, A; Buntain, B
'One World, One Health' is a foundation concept in veterinary medicine, much like comparative medicine. However, teachers of veterinary medicine often fail to identify it or speak of its importance within the veterinary curriculum. The resurgence of interest in the 'One World, One Health' concept aligns well with the underlying principles on which the University of Calgary Faculty of Veterinary Medicine (UCVM) has been newly founded. This concept is therefore a key component of the UCVM programme, and one that is well highlighted for those studying in the Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) course and graduate students.
Lastein, Dorte B; Vaarst, Mette; Enevoldsen, Carsten
Background Results of analyses based on veterinary records of animal disease may be prone to variation and bias, because data collection for these registers relies on different observers in different settings as well as different treatment criteria. Understanding the human influence on data collection and the decisions related to this process may help veterinary and agricultural scientists motivate observers (veterinarians and farmers) to work more systematically, which may improve data quality. This study investigates qualitative relations between two types of records: 1) 'diagnostic data' as recordings of metritis scores and 2) 'intervention data' as recordings of medical treatment for metritis and the potential influence on quality of the data. Methods The study is based on observations in veterinary dairy practice combined with semi-structured research interviews of veterinarians working within a herd health concept where metritis diagnosis was described in detail. The observations and interviews were analysed by qualitative research methods to describe differences in the veterinarians' perceptions of metritis diagnosis (scores) and their own decisions related to diagnosis, treatment, and recording. Results The analysis demonstrates how data quality can be affected during the diagnostic procedures, as interaction occurs between diagnostics and decisions about medical treatments. Important findings were when scores lacked consistency within and between observers (variation) and when scores were adjusted to the treatment decision already made by the veterinarian (bias). The study further demonstrates that veterinarians made their decisions at 3 different levels of focus (cow, farm, population). Data quality was influenced by the veterinarians' perceptions of collection procedures, decision making and their different motivations to collect data systematically. Conclusion Both variation and bias were introduced into the data because of veterinarians' different
Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to improve communication skills and knowledge of bioethics of last year medical students doing clerkship and to evaluate the effectiveness of using workshops for this purpose from students’ point of view, in order to continue such programs in future. Methods: After Ethical approval for the study a two-day workshop on teaching effective communication skills and principles of medical ethics was planned and conducted by the department of Medical Education through multidisciplinary faculty of Foundation University Medical College, Pakistan. A total of 102 last year medical students participated in this workshop. The students were divided into 8 groups each containing 12 students. A team of pre trained facilitators for each group conducted the group activities. Teaching strategies including interactive discussions on basic principles of doctor-patient relationship, power point presentations, day to day case scenarios, video clips and presentations involving students in role plays were used. Pre and post workshop self evaluation proformas about knowledge and skills of communication and medical ethics were rated (0=none, 1=below average, 2=average, 3=above average, 4=very good, 5=excellent by the students. Results: 89 out of 102 participants returned the proformas. A significant percentage of students (%82 showed improvement in their knowledge and skills of appreciating bioethical issues like valid informed consent, patient confidentiality, end of life issues and breaking bad news by rating as “very good” after participation in the workshop. More than %70 students recommended this activity for other students. Conclusion: Teaching through interactive workshops was found to be an effective method as reflected by students’ feedback. Therefore, the program will be continued in future.
Miller, G Y; McSweeny, W T
The value of the marginal product (VMP) for veterinary services and medical supplies (VETMED), and the profit maximizing level of VETMED were estimated for dairy producers. Data from the Pennsylvania Farmers Association-Dairy Farm Business Analysis system during the years of 1986 to 1990 were used to evaluate the functional relationship between production and expenditures for VETMED. Other input variables examined were man-year equivalents of labor, asset values, value of feed fed, and culling rate. Data were screened to reflect economically viable dairy farms in Pennsylvania, and 173 such farms participated for each of the 5 years analyzed. The VMP was estimated for 1990. Profit maximizing levels for VETMED were estimated for 1990 holding other input variables at their mean values. Mean expenditures for VETMED were $2,606/farm, or $43/cow in 1990. The VMP for VETMED was estimated to be $3.22 or $4.98, depending on the method of calculation. In other words, the marginal dollar spent on VETMED generated $3.22 ($4.98) in additional revenue from milk production. The profit maximizing level of expenditures for VETMED was $138/cow, substantially more than the mean, indicating the potential for farms in this data set to improve profitability through additional expenditures on VETMED.
Steven Jason Crellin
Full Text Available Suicide attempt via sodium pentobarbital is uncommon. A 48-year-old woman with a history of depression and prior suicide attempt was found unresponsive by her veterinarian spouse near a syringe containing pink solution. Upon EMS’ arrival, the patient was experiencing apnea, hypoxemia, and miotic pupils; her blood glucose level measured 73 mg/dL. She was bradycardic and administered atropine with transient improvement in heart rate and transported to an emergency department; 2 mg of intravenous naloxone was administered without effect. She was endotracheally intubated via rapid sequence intubation. Rapid urine drug screening detected both benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit where she demonstrated a nearly absent radial pulse. Emergent fasciotomy to the left forearm and carpal tunnel was performed for acute compartment syndrome; “Euthasol” had been self-administered into the antecubital fossa. Expanded toxicological analysis via liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy detected caffeine, atropine, 7-aminoclonazepam, phenytoin, citalopram, and naproxen. The patient’s coma resolved over 48 hours and she was successfully extubated without complication. Emergency physicians must closely monitor patients exposed to veterinary euthanasia agents who develop central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, or skin injury. Consultation with a regional poison center and medical toxicologist is recommended.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Pathogens of veterinary and medical importance were investigated in 240 feral pigeons (Columba livia captured in warehouses in São Paulo State, Brazil for one year. Rapid serum agglutination test (RST was performed for the detection of antibodies against Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Salmonella Pullorum/Gallinarum. Positive samples were submitted to hemagglutination inhibition (HI and tube seroagglutination tests, respectively. Molecular techniques (RT-PCR and PCR were performed for Newcastle Diseases Virus (NDV and Chlamydia psittaci diagnosis. Additionally, HI test was applied to detect antibodies against NDV. Serological results by RST were 3.3% positive for M. synoviae, 2.5% for M. gallisepticum, and 0.4% for S. Pullorum/Gallinarum, all negative on the confirmatory tests performed. NDV RNA or antibodies were not detected. C. psittaci DNA was detected in 13% of the samples. Further research on pigeon health status should be conducted because this species is highly adaptable and their numbers are rapidly rising around the world, posing risks for animals and human beings.
Mendonça, Paloma Martins; Barbosa, Rodrigo Rocha; Cortinhas, Lucas Barbosa; dos Santos-Mallet, Jacenir Reis; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria
Cochliomyia macellaria (Diptera: Calliphoridae) is known as the secondary screwworm because it causes secondary or facultative myiasis when the larvae feed on necrotic tissues. This fly has a significant medical and veterinary importance since it has been reported to transport eggs of Dermatobia hominis (human botfly), which can cause significant economic losses to livestock. Since this screwworm has been collected colonizing both pig carcasses and human cadavers, it is considered one of the most important species for forensic entomology studies. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) gives detailed information on the morphological characteristics which can help identify the immature forms of the flies. The aim of this study was to describe and analyze the morphological characteristics of the eggs, all the larval instars, and the puparia of Cochliomyia macellaria using SEM. The egg is ellipsoid and the dorsal surface is concave. The islands inside the median area had no anastomosis, but some perforations could be observed. From the second larval instar onwards, besides the intersegmental spines, other bands of spines were observed at the abdominal segments. Two spiracular openings were visible on the first and second larval instars, which were not expected. These characteristics are specific to Cochliomyia genus. The number and the general aspect of the spine tips in the cephalic region, the intersegmental bands on the abdomen, and the number of the spiracular openings could together help identify C. macellaria.
... the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA), and sponsored by the Food Supply Veterinary... by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in the spring of 2009, the average educational... grateful to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the American Veterinary...
... the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA), and sponsored by the Food Supply Veterinary... by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in the spring of 2009, the average educational... grateful to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the American Veterinary...
Crowell, W. A.; And Others
The Year II pathology course presented to the first two classes of veterinary students at L.S.U. was favorably evaluated. The method of instruction included learner objectives, the autotutorial approach with minicourses, modified mastery evaluation, and the Postlethwait means of presentation. (Author/LBH)
Crowell, W. A.; And Others
The amounts, types and costs of materials used to initiate a Year II (sophomore) pathology course in the L.S.U. School of Veterinary Medicine were tabulated. Use of the autotutorial method resulted in slightly greater costs than the traditional method, but this was offset by general satisfaction with it. (Author/LBH)
Hoet, Armando E; Caswell, Robert J; DeGraves, Fred J; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi J; Gebreyes, Wondwossen A; Saville, William J A; Wittum, Thomas E
Public-health practitioners with expertise in the area of veterinary public health are expected to understand the prevention and control of zoonotic infectious diseases in both human and animal populations. This focus on multiple species is what makes the veterinary public health (VPH) official unique. The development of a new VPH specialization within the existing Master of Public Health (MPH) degree program at the Ohio State University represents a significant new collaboration between the College of Veterinary Medicine and the College of Public Health. The main objective of the VPH specialization is to educate and train professionals to provide them with the skills, knowledge, and resources necessary to protect and improve human health using a One Medicine approach. The program targets a population of students who will likely enter the professional veterinary medicine curriculum but have one year available to enhance their preparatory training in health sciences before beginning the program. A core series of VPH courses was initiated to complement the existing MPH course requirements. The program has been successful in attracting students from the primary target population, but it has also attracted students wanting the MPH as a terminal degree and veterinarians returning to school to expand their career options.
Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 45-53. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. A Retrospective Evaluation of Intravenous Fluid Usage in Animal. Patients Treated at Veterinary Teaching Hospital Nsukka, 2005-2015 ... 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. ... they carried with them their own internal sea.
Karara, Adel H; Hines, Ryan; Demir, Zehra; Nnorom, Bethran; Horsey, Robert; Twigg, Geoffrey
Extemporaneous drug formulation is essential to provide optimal pharmaceutical care to veterinary patients. The need for this is exacerbated by the fact that commercially produced veterinary-specific products, without a human indication, require specialty veterinary manufacturing facilities and a new animal drug application process to gain marketing approval. This study examined the prescription patterns of extemporaneously compounded veterinary preparations in the compounding department at a large independent community pharmacy. Data was obtained from a total of 1348 prescriptions requiring extemporaneous compounding over the course of a two-year period (2014-2015). A database was constructed and each compounded prescription was allocated to a therapeutic category based on the American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information. Data analysis showed that the most commonly prescribed preparations belonged to the central nervous system (39%), anti-infective agents (21%), and hormones (12%) therapeutic categories. Overall, suspensions were the most dispensed (47%), extemporaneously compounded dosage forms followed by solutions (28%), and capsules (10%). The majority (88%) of compounded preparations were administered by the oral route. The top three drugs that are compounded for veterinary medicine were (1) potassium bromide oral solution for canine epilepsy, (2) methimazole solution used to treat hyperthyroidism in cats, and (3) metronidazole suspension, an antibiotic for the treatment of diarrhea and other infections in dogs and cats. Remarkably, our findings are in good agreement with previously published survey data on the top drugs that are compounded for veterinary medicine. In the era of personalized medicine, veterinary extemporaneous compounding for specialized needs will continue to play an important role providing optimum therapy for veterinary patients. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.
Johnson, Jane; Collins, Teresa; Degeling, Christopher; Fawcett, Anne; Fisher, Andrew D; Freire, Rafael; Hazel, Susan J; Hood, Jennifer; Lloyd, Janice; Phillips, Clive J C; Stafford, Kevin; Tzioumis, Vicky; McGreevy, Paul D
The need for undergraduate teaching of Animal Welfare and Ethics (AWE) in Australian and New Zealand veterinary courses reflects increasing community concerns and expectations about AWE; global pressures regarding food security and sustainability; the demands of veterinary accreditation; and fears that, unless students encounter AWE as part of their formal education, as veterinarians they will be relatively unaware of the discipline of animal welfare science. To address this need we are developing online resources to ensure Australian and New Zealand veterinary graduates have the knowledge, and the research, communication and critical reasoning skills, to fulfill the AWE role demanded of them by contemporary society. To prioritize development of these resources we assembled leaders in the field of AWE education from the eight veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand and used modified deliberative polling. This paper describes the role of the poll in developing the first shared online curriculum resource for veterinary undergraduate learning and teaching in AWE in Australia and New Zealand. The learning and teaching strategies that ranked highest in the exercise were: scenario-based learning; a quality of animal life assessment tool; the so-called 'Human Continuum' discussion platform; and a negotiated curriculum.
Full Text Available The need for undergraduate teaching of Animal Welfare and Ethics (AWE in Australian and New Zealand veterinary courses reflects increasing community concerns and expectations about AWE; global pressures regarding food security and sustainability; the demands of veterinary accreditation; and fears that, unless students encounter AWE as part of their formal education, as veterinarians they will be relatively unaware of the discipline of animal welfare science. To address this need we are developing online resources to ensure Australian and New Zealand veterinary graduates have the knowledge, and the research, communication and critical reasoning skills, to fulfill the AWE role demanded of them by contemporary society. To prioritize development of these resources we assembled leaders in the field of AWE education from the eight veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand and used modified deliberative polling. This paper describes the role of the poll in developing the first shared online curriculum resource for veterinary undergraduate learning and teaching in AWE in Australia and New Zealand. The learning and teaching strategies that ranked highest in the exercise were: scenario-based learning; a quality of animal life assessment tool; the so-called ‘Human Continuum’ discussion platform; and a negotiated curriculum.
Frost, Katherine A; Metcalf, Elizabeth P; Brooks, Rachel; Kinnersley, Paul; Greenwood, Stephen R; Powell, Colin Ve
Delivering effective clinical pediatric communication skills training to undergraduate medical students is a distinct and important challenge. Pediatric-specific communication skills teaching is complex and under-researched. We report on the development of a scenario-based pediatric clinical communication skills program as well as students' assessment of this module. We designed a pediatric clinical communication skills program and delivered it five times during one academic year via small-group teaching. Students were asked to score the workshop in eight domains (learning objectives, complexity, interest, competencies, confidence, tutors, feedback, and discussion) using 5-point Likert scales, along with free text comments that were grouped and analyzed thematically, identifying both the strengths of the workshop and changes suggested to improve future delivery. Two hundred and twenty-one of 275 (80%) student feedback forms were returned. Ninety-six percent of students' comments were positive or very positive, highlighting themes such as the timing of teaching, relevance, group sizes, and the use of actors, tutors, and clinical scenarios. Scenario-based teaching of clinical communication skills is positively received by students. Studies need to demonstrate an impact on practice, performance, development, and sustainability of communications training.
There is deficiency and gaps among medical graduates in performing certain procedures and skills. Till recent years, some school used an apprenticeship model for teaching procedures. The way of teaching skills should be revised and reinforced. Medical schools showed adopt formal curricula based training for teaching ...
Chigerwe, Munashe; Boudreaux, Karen A; Ilkiw, Jan E
Burnout among veterinary students can result from known stressors in the absence of a support system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate use of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educator Survey (MBI-ES) to assess burnout in veterinary students and evaluate the factors that predict the MBI-ES scores. The MBI-ES was administered to first (Class of 2016) and second year (Class of 2015) veterinary medical students during the 2012-2013 academic year in the fall and spring semesters. Factor analysis and test reliability for the survey were determined. Mean scores for the subscales determining burnout namely emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and lack of personal accomplishment (PA) were calculated for both classes in the 2 semesters. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate other factors that predict the MBI-ES scores. A non-probability sampling method was implemented consisting of a voluntary sample of 170 and 123 students in the fall and spring semesters, respectively. Scores for EE, DP and PA were not different between the 2 classes within the same semester. Mean ± SD scores for EE, DP and PA for the fall semester were 22.9 ± 9.6, 5.0 ± 4.8 and 32.3 ± 6.7, respectively. Mean ± SD scores for EE, DP and PA the spring semester were 27.8 ± 10.7, 6.5 ± 6.1and 31.7 ± 6.8, respectively. The EE score was higher in spring compared to fall while DP and PA scores were not different between the 2 semesters. Living arrangements specifically as to whether or not a student lived with another veterinary medical students was the only variable significantly associated with the MBI-ES scores. Students in this study had moderate levels of burnout based on the MBI-ES scores. The MBI-ES was an acceptable instrument for assessing burnout in veterinary medical students. The EE scores were higher in the spring semester as compared to the fall semester. Thus students in the first and second years of veterinary school under the current curriculum
In racing and other equine sports, it is possible to increase artificially both the physical capability and the presence of a competitive instinct, using drugs, such as anabolic steroids and agents stimulating the central nervous system. The word doping describes this illegitimate use of drugs and the primary motivation of an equine anti-doping policy is to prevent the use of these substances. However, an anti-doping policy must not impede the use of legitimate veterinary medications and most regulatory bodies in the world now distinguish the control of illicit substances (doping control) from the control of therapeutic substances (medication control). For doping drugs, the objective is to detect any trace of drug exposure (parent drug or metabolites) using the most powerful analytical methods (generally chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques). This so-called "zero tolerance rule" is not suitable for medication control, because the high level of sensitivity of current screening methods allows the detection of totally irrelevant plasma or urine concentrations of legitimate drugs for long periods after their administration. Therefore, a new approach for these legitimate compounds, based upon pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) principles, has been developed. It involves estimating the order of magnitude of the irrelevant plasma concentration (IPC) and of the irrelevant urine concentration (IUC) in order to limit the impact of the high sensitivity of analytical techniques used for medication control. The European Horserace Scientific Liaison Committee (EHSLC), which is the European scientific committee in charge of harmonising sample testing and policies for racehorses in Europe, is responsible for estimating the IPCs and IUCs in the framework of a Risk Analysis. A Risk Analysis approach for doping/medication control involves three sequential steps, namely risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication. For medication control, the main task of
Ober, Christopher P
When confronted with various findings on thoracic radiographs, fourth-year veterinary students often have difficulty generating appropriate lists of differential diagnoses. The purpose of this one-group, pretest, posttest experimental study was to determine if a game could be used as an adjunct teaching method to improve students' understanding of connections between imaging findings and differential diagnoses. A novel board game focusing on differential diagnoses in thoracic radiography was developed. One hundred fourth-year veterinary students took a brief pretest, played the board game, and took a brief posttest as a part of their respective clinical radiology rotations. Pretest results were compared to posttest results using a paired t-test to determine if playing the game impacted student understanding. Students' mean scores on the posttest were significantly higher than mean pretest scores (P board game resulted in improved short-term understanding of thoracic differential diagnoses by fourth-year students, and use of the board game on a clinical rotation seems to be a beneficial part of the learning process. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Chudgar, Saumil M; Engle, Deborah L; Grochowski, Colleen O'Connor; Gagliardi, Jane P
Medical student performance in electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation at our institution could be improved. Varied resources exist to teach students this essential skill. We created an ECG teaching module (ECGTM) of 75 cases representing 15 diagnoses to improve medical students' performance and confidence in ECG interpretation. Students underwent pre- and post-clerkship testing to assess ECG interpretation skills and confidence and also end-of-clinical-year testing in ECG and laboratory interpretation. Performance was compared for the years before and during ECGTM availability. Eighty-four percent of students (total n=101) reported using the ECGTM; 98% of those who used it reported it was useful. Students' performance and confidence were higher on the post-test. Students with access to the ECGTM (n=101) performed significantly better than students from the previous year (n=90) on the end-of-year ECG test. The continuous availability of an ECGTM was associated with improved confidence and ability in ECG interpretation. The ECGTM may be another available tool to help students as they learn to read ECGs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Katherine A Frost,1,2 Elizabeth P Metcalf,3 Rachel Brooks,2,3 Paul Kinnersley,3 Stephen R Greenwood,3 Colin VE Powell1,2,4 1Noah’s Ark Children’s Hospital for Wales, 2Department of Pediatrics, 3Institute of Medical Education, 4Molecular and Experimental Medicine, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, Wales Background: Delivering effective clinical pediatric communication skills training to undergraduate medical students is a distinct and important challenge. Pediatric-specific communication skills teaching is complex and under-researched. We report on the development of a scenario-based pediatric clinical communication skills program as well as students’ assessment of this module. Methods: We designed a pediatric clinical communication skills program and delivered it five times during one academic year via small-group teaching. Students were asked to score the workshop in eight domains (learning objectives, complexity, interest, competencies, confidence, tutors, feedback, and discussion using 5-point Likert scales, along with free text comments that were grouped and analyzed thematically, identifying both the strengths of the workshop and changes suggested to improve future delivery. Results: Two hundred and twenty-one of 275 (80% student feedback forms were returned. Ninety-six percent of students' comments were positive or very positive, highlighting themes such as the timing of teaching, relevance, group sizes, and the use of actors, tutors, and clinical scenarios. Conclusion: Scenario-based teaching of clinical communication skills is positively received by students. Studies need to demonstrate an impact on practice, performance, development, and sustainability of communications training. Keywords: communication training, undergraduates, pediatrics, actors
Chen, Cao-Yi; Zhao, Xiang-Qiang; Xie, Xiao-Ling; Tan, Xiang-Ling
Medical education to international students has become an important part of higher education in China. Medical genetics is an essential and required course for international medical students. However, the internationalization of higher education in China has challenged the traditional teaching style of medical genetics. In this article, we discussed current situation and challenges in medical genetics teaching to international students, summarized special features and problems we encountered in teaching Indian students, and proposed some practical strategies to address these challenges and to improve the teaching.
Marton, Gregory E; McCullough, Brendan; Ramnanan, Christopher J
The CanMEDS role of Scholar requires that medical trainees develop their skills as medical educators. The development of teaching skills in undergraduate medical students is therefore desirable, especially in view of the teaching obligations in residency programmes. The goal of this review was to identify the characteristics and outcomes of programmes designed to develop the teaching skills of undergraduate medical students. The authors searched medical literature databases using combinations of the search terms 'medical student', 'teacher', 'teaching skills', 'peer teaching', 'near-peer teaching' and 'student as teacher'. Twenty papers fit the predetermined search criteria, which included original characterisations of specific programmes involving undergraduate medical students. Three types of initiative were identified in the reviewed articles: peer teaching programmes; teaching workshops, and community outreach programmes. The majority of study participants were students in Years 3 and 4. Subjective self-evaluation by participants using Likert scale-based surveys was by far the most commonly used method of measuring project outcomes. Objective, quantitative teaching-related outcomes were rarely noted in the reports reviewed. Self-perceived improvements in teaching skills were noted by participants in most of the reports. Other perceived benefits included increases in organisational skills, knowledge and confidence in giving feedback. Although several types of programmes have been shown to subjectively improve the teaching skills of undergraduate medical students, characterisation of the objective outcomes of these initiatives is lacking and requires further study. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Hongkui; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Longlu
Explorating reform of the teaching evaluation method for vocational competency-based education (CBE) curricula for medical students is a very important process in following international medical education standards, intensify ing education and teaching reforms, enhancing teaching management, and improving the quality of medical education. This…
Andresen, Nicholas S.; Olson, Tyler S.; Krasowski, Matthew D.
Background Attitudes towards conflict of interest (COI) and COI policy are shaped during medical school and influence both the education of medical students and their future medical practice. Understanding the current attitudes of medical students and medical school teaching faculty may provide insight into what is taught about COI and COI policy within the ?hidden? medical curriculum. Differences between medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of COI and COI policy ha...
Lima, G.; Braz, D.; Lopez, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, COPPE (Brazil); Mauricia, C. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Brazil); Barroso, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)
The absorbed ionizing radiation outside of the permissible limits, can cause biological damages e, therefore it must necessarily be monitored. The dosimetry thermoluminescent is a technique very used to detect expositions in operatorserefore they are sensible crystals the ionizing radiation and allows to evaluate if the dose of radiation is or not below of the restriction levels. In scientific literature many information do not exist on the exposition of a medical veterinarian, with this do not have many data of the individual monitoring of these workers, becoming the work it important for posterior studies. Ahead of this, it was carried through measured of the doses, using the thermoluminescence dosemeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100 H) in the position of the crystalline lens, thyroid, hand and thorax, in three clinics of radiology veterinary medicine, different, having the objective to determine the dose distribution that the workers of radiology veterinary medicine are submitted in one day of work. (authors)
Dingle, Arden D.
Objective: The author describes child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) undergraduate teaching in American and Canadian medical schools. Methods: A survey asking for information on CAP teaching, student interest in CAP, and opinions about the CAP importance was sent to the medical student psychiatry director at 142 accredited medical schools in the…
Jaqueline Brito Vidal Batista
Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the understanding of medical teaching professionals about Burnout Syndrome. This is a qualitative, exploratory study, consisting of ten teaching physicians, who work at the hospital of a higher education institution. The data were collected from May to June 2013, through a form with questions pertinent to the proposed research objective, after approval by the Research Ethics Committee (Protocol No. 84022, and analyzed qualitatively, through the content analysis technique (Bardin. Among the 10 participants in the study, eight had adequate knowledge about Burnout Syndrome, while others showed insufficient knowledge. From the empirical material analysis, five thematic categories emerged: Syndrome characterized by physical and psychological exhaustion due to work stress; Physical and psychological signs and symptoms of Burnout Syndrome; Burnout syndrome and its implications for the worker’s health; The most vulnerable workers who develop Burnout Syndrome and Relation of Burnout Syndrome to the work of the teaching physician. The study showed that most participants in the research adequately understand Burnout Syndrome, but the subject is still little explored in academia. Therefore, intervention measures are necessary with the professionals of the risk group and new studies that contribute to expand the knowledge about that syndrome, aiming to improve the quality of life of the workers. Keywords: Worker’s Health; Professional Exhaustion; Doctors; Professors; Work Conditions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3823/2397
Liu, Amy C; Liu, Michael; Dannaway, Jasan; Schoo, Adrian
The current global trend of growth in medical training is increasing the demand for the teaching and supervision of medical students and junior doctors. If well trained and supported, junior doctors and medical students represent an important teaching resource. Unfortunately, there is limited evidence available on whether Australian medical students are equipped with teaching skills. This study aimed to gain insight into the type and amount of teaching-skills training and peer-to-peer teaching present in Australian medical schools. A survey of Australian medical schools was conducted between May and December 2014. An online 22-item questionnaire was sent to all 19 Australian medical schools. The response rate to the questionnaire was 100 per cent. Eleven Australian medical schools reported offering a teaching-skills programme, of which five were described as compulsory formal programmes. Eight schools did not offer such a programme, citing time restraints and other subjects taking higher priority. Formal peer-to-peer teaching opportunities were described by 17 schools, with 13 offering this electively. Two schools reported that they did not offer such opportunities because of time restraints, the belief that the quality of expert teaching is superior and because of a lack of staffing. The demand for the teaching and supervision of medical students and junior doctors is increasing CONCLUSIONS: Despite the increasing number of medical students and subsequently junior doctors in Australia, a minority of Australian medical schools report including a formal, compulsory teaching-skills programme. These results may imply a lost opportunity to use the positive effects of teaching-skills programmes, and are in line with studies from other countries. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
DeSimone, Ariadne K; Haydek, John P; Sudduth, Christopher L; LaBarbera, Vincent; Desai, Yaanik; Reinertsen, Erik; Manning, Kimberly D
Clinician educators have realized the value not only of assigning teaching roles to medical students but also of offering explicit training in how to teach effectively. Despite this interest in the development of medical students' teaching skills, formal teaching instruction and opportunities for practice are lacking. To encourage medical student interest in teaching, the authors developed and implemented a medical student teaching competition (MSTC) at Emory University School of Medicine during the summers of 2014, 2015, and 2016. Each year, eight student finalists were each paired with a physician "teaching coach" and given one month to prepare for the MSTC. During the competition, each finalist delivered an eight-minute presentation to a panel of seven physician and resident judges. The authors describe the development, implementation, and assessment of the MSTC. Approximately 150 medical students and faculty members attended the MSTC each year. The students in attendance felt that the MSTC made them more likely to seek out opportunities to learn how to teach effectively and to practice teaching. Additionally, some students are now more interested in learning about a career in academic medicine than they were before the MSTC. Given the need for more formal initiatives dedicated to improving the teaching skills of doctors-in-training, including medical students, innovative solutions such as the MSTC may enhance a medical school's existing curriculum and encourage student interest in teaching. The MSTC model may be generalizable to other medical schools.
Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R
Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.
Zhao, Jin-Hong; Tang, Xiao-Niu; Gao, Xi-Yin; Wang, Shao-Sheng; Li, Chao-Pin
A new model of education is investigated to meet the new idea of experiment teaching in university. Therefore the establishment of experiment teaching model of medical parasitology needs to be correspondently reformed. A variety of new management measures are taken to raise the efficiency of experiment teaching in training the students in the College.
Dunn, Marian E.; Abulu, John
Objectives: This article addresses the potential role for psychiatrists in teaching sexuality to other medical disciplines. Methods: The authors searched PsycNet and PubMed/MEDLINE for pertinent articles and studies from the period between 1990 and 2009 using the terms human sexuality; teaching human sexuality; teaching methods; education and…
Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone
As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.
Gatumu, Margaret K.; MacMillan, Frances M.; Langton, Philip D.; Headley, P. Max; Harris, Judy R.
This article describes the introduction of a virtual microscope (VM) that has allowed preclinical histology teaching to be fashioned to better suit the needs of approximately 900 undergraduate students per year studying medicine, dentistry, or veterinary science at the University of Bristol, United Kingdom. Features of the VM implementation…
Cohen, Libby Gordon; Sherif, Youmna Ashraf
The teaching of humanistic values is recognized as an essential component of medical education and continuing professional development of physicians. The application of humanistic values in medical care can benefit medical students, clinicians and patients. This article presents 12 tips on fostering humanistic values in medical education. The authors reviewed the literature and present 12 practical tips that are relevant to contemporary practices. The tips can be used in teaching and sustaining humanistic values in medical education. Humanistic values can be incorporated in formal preclinical environments, the transition into clinical settings, medical curricula and clinical clerkships. Additionally, steps can be taken so that medical educators and institutions promote and sustain humanistic values.
Steggles, Allen W.
Discusses the teaching of biotechnology to medical students, undergraduate students and high school seniors. Suggests changes in how the basic sciences are taught in medical schools. Reviews the effects of teaching biotechnology at Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine (NEOUCOM). (CW)
Introduction: In the complex setting of a medical school it becomes essential to utilize an approach to teaching and learning that is best suited to the needs of the students. In developing countries like India, where there is an exponential increase of institutions catering to medical students, it becomes a challenge to teach to ...
Halliday, Amy C.; Devonshire, Ian M.; Greenfield, Susan A.; Dommett, Eleanor J.
Teaching pharmacology to medical students has long been seen as a challenge, and one to which a number of innovative approaches have been taken. In this article, we describe and evaluate the use of primary research articles in teaching second-year medical students both in terms of the information learned and the use of the papers themselves. We…
Garg, A. (Abhishek); Buckman, R.; Kason, Y
PROGRAM OBJECTIVE: To teach medical students to break bad news to patients and their families empathically and competently. SETTING: Seven teaching hospitals affiliated with the University of Toronto since 1987. PARTICIPANTS: All medical students in their third preclinical year. PROGRAM: The course presents a 6-point protocol to guide students in breaking bad news and comprises 2 half-day (3-hour) teaching sessions. Each session incorporates a video presentation, a discussion period and small...
Elms, Stephanie A; Chumley, Heidi
Medical education often uses a 'see one, do one, teach one' approach to teaching basic skills, whereas nursing education uses a more intense, competency based approach. Many nursing faculty become experts in teaching skills; however, there is little literature evaluating medical student skills training led by nursing faculty. The purpose of this paper is to describe and report initial evaluation data on an innovative teaching strategy using nursing faculty to teach specific skills to medical students. Nursing faculty designed a hands-on four hour clinical skills training laboratory for medical students. All (176) medical students completed and evaluated this skills laboratory and their own preparation for these skills. Medical students felt the laboratory was outstanding or good (94%), the content was at an appropriate level (94%) and the relevance was high or medium (96%). Medical students felt more prepared to perform the skills after completing the skills laboratory than before, and when compared to previous medical students without the skills laboratory. Many medical students commented positively about the nursing faculty. Nursing faculty teaching specific skills to medical students is acceptable and effective and provides medical students with positive exposure to nurses as experts.
Stansberry, Susan L; Harris, Edward L
Many predicted that in the latter part of the twentieth century modern technology would revolutionize higher education and "create a second Renaissance" (Sculley J. The relationship between business and higher education: A perspective on the 21st century. Commun ACM32:1056-1061, 1989 p1061). However, as the reality of the twenty-first century has set in, it is apparent that these revolutionary prophecies have fallen short. Using the lens of Douglas's Typology of Grid and Group, this case study examines (1) the organizational context of a veterinary medical college at a large Midwestern university; (2) individual faculty members' preferences toward instructional technology use; and (3) the interrelationship of culture and the decision process to implement instructional technology use in curricula. The study has several implications for instructional technology use in veterinary medical educational settings that help explain how cultural context can guide leadership decisions as well as influence faculty motivation and preference. The findings suggest that a key mitigating factor to instructional technology implementation is conflict or concord between the cultural biases of faculty members and actual cultural identity of the college (Stansberry S, Harris EL. Understanding why faculty use (or don't use) IT: Implementation of instructional technology from an organizational culture perspective. In Simonson M, Crawford M, eds. 25th Annual Proceedings: Selected Research and Development Papers Presented at the 2002 National Convention of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, vol. 1. North Miami Beach, FL: Nova Southeastern University:viii, 507).
Wilson, Sam; Denison, Alan R; McKenzie, Hamish
Undergraduate medical education in the UK has changed considerably over the last decade. One development has involved the creation of teaching-specific posts for junior doctors by medical schools. These posts are generally termed 'clinical teaching fellowships', but it is not known how many of them exist, or whether they are similar in terms of educational activities, professional development, and research and clinical experience opportunities. Teaching deans in all UK medical schools were sent a questionnaire relating to clinical teaching fellowships, and were asked to distribute a second set of different questionnaires to their clinical teaching fellows, which were to be returned to the authors separately. A total of 28 deans and 46 fellows responded. Fifteen medical schools had clinical teaching fellows and there appeared to be a total of 77 such posts in the UK. There was little uniformity in the activities undertaken within the posts. Deans who employed clinical teaching fellows were unanimously positive regarding the posts. Fellows were generally positive but expressed reservations relating to approval for postgraduate training, career development, deterioration in clinical skills, financial disincentives, credibility within one's own specialty, and provision of training and support. Clinical teaching fellow posts are generally enjoyed by fellows and valued by deans. Fellows carry out differing duties and their training in medical education is variable. The posts can be unstructured and may lack credibility to doctors outside medical education. Providing specific structured training in medical education, recognised at a national level, would help deal with these concerns.
Youn, Jung-Ho; Park, Yong Ho; Hang'ombe, Bernard; Sugimoto, Chihiro
The Republic of Zambia consists of only one veterinary teaching school at the University of Zambia (UNZA) where students and veterinarians are exposed to many bacterial pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP). The aim of this study was the characterization and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of eleven SA and 48 SP isolates from the veterinary hospitals' in- and outpatients and the environment. No isolate was resistant to cefoxitin by disk diffusion test and the corresponding resistance gene mecA was not found. In contrast, the resistance rates of SA to penicillin (63.6%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (36.4%) and SP to penicillin (52.1%) and tetracycline (25.0%) were the highest. A variety of sequence types (STs) without a predominant type including numerous novel types were determined, especially for SP (39.6%). The spa typing provided a clonal assignment for all SAs (100%) and 24 SPs (50%) with three and two novel types, respectively. This study has provided an overview of SA and SP in the veterinary teaching hospital at UNZA. However, for a better understanding of these species regarding pathogenesis and transmission, further studies on the prevalence and characterization of SA and SP from veterinary staff, pet owners, and farm animals in Zambia is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Al-Eraky, Mohamed Mostafa
Review of studies published in medical education journals over the last decade reveals that teaching medical professionalism is essential, yet challenging. According to a recent Best Evidence in Medical Education (BEME) guide, there is no consensus on a theoretical or practical model to integrate the teaching of professionalism into medical education. The aim of this article is to outline a practical manual for teaching professionalism at all levels of medical education. Drawing from research literature and author's experience, Twelve Tips are listed and organised in four clusters with relevance to (1) the context, (2) the teachers, (3) the curriculum, and (4) the networking. With a better understanding of the guiding educational principles for teaching medical professionalism, medical educators will be able to teach one of the most challenging constructs in medical education.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was designed to assess the motivations of senior medical clinicians to teach medical students. This understanding could improve the recruitment and retention of important clinical teachers. Methods The study group was 101 senior medical clinicians registered on a teaching list for a medical school teaching hospital (The Canberra Hospital, ACT, Australia. Their motivations to teach medical students were assessed applying Q methodology. Results Of the 75 participants, 18 (24% were female and 57 (76% were male. The age distribution was as follows: 30–40 years = 16 participants (21.3%, 41–55 years = 46 participants (61.3% and >55 years = 13 participants (17.3%. Most participants (n = 48, 64% were staff specialists and 27 (36% were visiting medical officers. Half of the participants were internists (n = 39, 52%, 12 (16% were surgeons, and 24 (32% were other sub-specialists. Of the 26 senior clinicians that did not participate, two were women; 15 were visiting medical officers and 11 were staff specialists; 16 were internists, 9 were surgeons and there was one other sub-specialist. The majority of these non-participating clinicians fell in the 41–55 year age group. The participating clinicians were moderately homogenous in their responses. Factor analysis produced 4 factors: one summarising positive motivations for teaching and three capturing impediments for teaching. The main factors influencing motivation to teach medical students were intrinsic issues such as altruism, intellectual satisfaction, personal skills and truth seeking. The reasons for not teaching included no strong involvement in course design, a heavy clinical load or feeling it was a waste of time. Conclusion This study provides some insights into factors that may be utilised in the design of teaching programs that meet teacher motivations and ultimately enhance the effectiveness of the medical teaching workforce.
Oguttu, James Wabwire; Qekwana, Daniel Nenene; Odoi, Agricola
Antimicrobial resistant Staphylococcus are becoming increasingly important in horses because of the zoonotic nature of the pathogens and the associated risks to caregivers and owners. Knowledge of the burden and their antimicrobial resistance patterns are important to inform control strategies. This study is an exploratory descriptive investigation of the burden and antimicrobial drug resistance patterns of Staphylococcus isolates from horses presented at a veterinary teaching hospital in South Africa. Retrospective laboratory clinical records of 1027 horses presented at the University of Pretoria veterinary teaching hospital between 2007 and 2012 were included in the study. Crude and factor-specific percentages of Staphylococcus positive samples, antimicrobial resistant (AMR) and multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates were computed and compared across Staphylococcus spp., geographic locations, seasons, years, breed and sex using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. Of the 1027 processed clinical samples, 12.0% were Staphylococcus positive. The majority of the isolates were S. aureus (41.5%) followed by S. pseudintermedius (14.6%). Fifty-two percent of the Staphylococcus positive isolates were AMR while 28.5% were MDR. Significant (p Staphylococcus spp. Summer season had the highest (64.3%) and autumn the lowest (29.6%) percentages of AMR isolates. Highest percentage of AMR samples were observed among the Boerperds (85.7%) followed by the American saddler (75%) and the European warm blood (73.9%). Significantly (p < 0.001) more S. aureus isolates (72.5%) were AMR than S. pseudintermedius isolates (38.9%). Similarly, significantly (p < 0.001) more S. aureus (52.9%) exhibited MDR than S. pseudintermedius (16.7%). The highest levels of AMR were towards β-lactams (84.5%) followed by trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (folate pathway inhibitors) (60.9%) while the lowest levels of resistance were towards amikacin (14.%). This exploratory study provides useful information to
Allibaih, Mohammad; Khan, Lateef M.
Objectives The current study aims at exploring the possibility of aligning peer assessment, audiovisuals, and medical case-report extracts (vignettes) in medical terminology teaching. In addition, the study wishes to highlight the effectiveness of audio materials and medical history vignettes in preventing medical students' comprehension, listening, writing, and pronunciation errors. The study also aims at reflecting the medical students' attitudes towards the teaching and learning process. M...
Engbers, Rik; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Sluiter, Roderick; Stuyt, Paul M J; Laan, Roland F J M
Policy initiatives that aim to elevate the position of medical teaching to that of medical research could influence the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs related to motivation for medical teaching. To explore relations between the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs towards medical teaching and two policy initiatives for medical teaching: (Junior) Principal Lecturer positions [(J)PL positions] and Subsidized Innovation and Research Projects in Medical Education (SIRPMEs). An online questionnaire was used to collect data about medical teaching in the setting of a university hospital. We adapted the Work-related Basic Need Satisfaction scale (Van den Broeck et al. in J Occup Organ Psychol, 83(4):981-1002, 2010), in order to measure feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in teaching. We examined the relations between (J)PL positions and SIRPMEs and the satisfaction of three basic psychological needs. A total of 767 medical teachers participated. The initiatives appear to be related to different beneficial outcomes in terms of feelings of autonomy, competence, and relatedness in medical teaching. Either a (J)PL position is obtained by teachers who feel competent and related towards medical teaching, or obtaining a (J)PL position makes teachers feel more competent and related towards teaching, or these relations could be interacting. Also, either a SIRPME is obtained by teachers who feel competent and autonomous towards medical teaching, or obtaining a SIRPME makes teachers feel more competent and autonomous towards teaching, or these relations could be interacting. Additional research needs to scrutinize the causal or interacting relations further and to determine optimal conditions for these policy initiatives more specifically. Implications for future research are discussed.
Richmond, Robyn; Zwar, Nicholas; Taylor, Rachel; Hunnisett, Joanne; Hyslop, Fran
As medical practitioners of the future, medical students should be taught about tobacco control strategies and smoking cessation interventions. By including education about tobacco in the medical curricula, they can be informed about the health effects of tobacco use and learn to assist smokers to quit. Our study aimed to estimate the extent of teaching about tobacco and smoking cessation techniques in medical schools worldwide and compare with results we reported 10 years ago, to determine the content of curricula and range of teaching formats and to identify barriers to teaching about tobacco in medical schools and solutions. A cross-sectional survey of all existing medical schools (n = 2090) in 171 countries was conducted. A questionnaire was designed, translated and sent to all medical schools. Main outcome measures included whether and how tobacco is taught; comparisons with the survey conducted 10 years ago; tobacco content in the curriculum; format of teaching; and barriers to teaching and solutions. 665 medical schools from 109 countries completed the full questionnaire, with a response rate of 31.8% from medical schools and 64% of countries and consisting of 39% of medical schools in developed and 28% in less developed countries. A further 67 medical schools responded to a single question on whether they taught about tobacco. The total response rate was 35%. Of 561 medical schools responding to questions on teaching options, 27% of medical schools taught a specific module on tobacco compared with only 11% in our survey of medical schools conducted a decade ago; 77% integrated teaching on tobacco with other topics compared with 40% 10 years ago; 31% taught about tobacco informally as the topic arose (vs. 58%) and 4% did not teach about tobacco (vs. 12%). Most common topics taught were: health effects of smoking (94%), health effects of passive smoking (84.5%), epidemiology of tobacco use (81%), nicotine dependence (78%) and taking a smoking history (75
Paulo Roberto Costa
Full Text Available Introduction:Brazil has seen a rise in the number of undergraduate courses in Medical Physics in recent years, as well as initiatives for the organization of graduation programs and clinical residencies in this multidisciplinary area. The purpose of the present study was to perform a data survey on academic training in Medical Physics in Brazil in the undergraduate, graduate, and residency levels until 2012.MethodsThe relevant information was requested for the leads of the training/teaching programs, which filled specific electronic forms. The data survey was accomplished by sending the forms to 38 educational institutions.ResultsThe majority (90% of the contacted institutions returned their specific requested information. It was estimated an offer of 400 enroll admissions per year in the group of institutions that offer undergraduate programs in Medical Physics. Federal or state public educational institutions offer around 61% of these admissions and 39% are offered by private universities. The average number of candidate competition was estimated on 3.6 ± 3.9 applicants per place in undergraduate programs, and the student’s complete the courses in 5.1 ± 0.7 years. The average number of undergraduate degrees awarded per year is 10.6 ± 7.3. At least 80% of educational programs have compulsory internships in their curricula with average duration of 307 ± 99 hours. In the graduation programs it was verified that the average time for concluding the programs were 2.2 ± 0.2 years, 4.1 ± 0.2 years and 4.7 ± 0.6 years for the MSc, PhD and direct-PhD, respectively. The programs have CAPES ratings varying from 4 to 7. Finally, until 2012 the residence programs offered 31 positions per year and the professional development programs (not residence provide 7 positions per year.ConclusionIt is understood that the presented numerical results offer a reliable scenario for the diagnosis of opportunities and scholarships distributions in each region of
Koskinen, Heli I
In this study, the social interactions between students and their teachers in an ambulatory clinic setting were investigated using Bales's interaction process analysis framework. Observational data were collected during five small-group sessions. The observations were quantified, and the behaviors of students and teachers were compared statistically. This study demonstrated that the interaction between students and their teachers was for the most part equal and could be characterized as "positively task oriented." The study has implications for veterinary educators wishing to use social psychology frameworks to assess the quality of learning in small-group clinical setting.
Moore, Dale A
Ideas about centers of emphasis and veterinary medical teaching consortia have resurfaced to attract students into food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). From 1988 to 2000 a multiple veterinary school consortium approach to food-animal production medicine (FAPM) teaching was conducted to handle regional differences in case load, faculty strengths, and student interests. Six universities developed a memorandum of understanding to provide a wide variety of in-depth, species-specific clinical experiences in FAPM to balance their individual strengths and weakness in addressing food-animal agriculture, to provide for student exchange and faculty development, and to conduct research in food safety. Changes in leadership, redirection of funds, failure to publicize the program to faculty and students, and a focus on research as opposed to teaching led to dissolution of the consortium. However, this approach could work to improve recruitment and retention of students in FSVM if it focused on student exchange, fostered a more integrated curriculum across schools, encouraged faculty involvement, garnered institutional support, and used modern technology in teaching. Private veterinary practices as well as public/corporate practices could be integrated into a broader food-animal curriculum directed at building competency among FSVM students by providing the in-depth training they require. Requirements for the success of this type of program will include funding, marketing, leadership, communication, coordination, integration, and dedicated people with the time to make it work.
Clark, Brenda; Andrews, Debra; Taghaddos, Soreh; Dinu, Irina
Several published strategies on teaching the screening of normal child development were integrated into a small group learning experience for second-year medical students to address practical and logistical problems of approaches used individually. This study examines the effectiveness of this integrated approach using student evaluations. A total of 191 second-year university medical and dental students were invited to participate. Well-described learning objectives, the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), live parent-child dyads and video backup were used. Students rotated through three small group stations. Feedback was provided using a Likert scale (from 1, low, to 5, high) and written comments. Consent was obtained. Live parent-child dyads versus video clip groups were analysed by averaging overall scores. Generalised estimating equation (GEE) analysis in stata (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas) was used for comparing the two groups. A total of 178 students (93%) agreed to participate and filled out the evaluation forms. The overall score on the Likert scale was 4.6 (range 4-5). On two occasions video clips were substituted for live parent-child dyad presentations in one of the three stations. These students (n=43, rating 4.61/5) rated their experience as comparable with those who had three live family stations (n=135, rating 4.56/5). Student comments were grouped into broad themes, with most being positive about their learning experience. This integrated approach is highly acceptable. Video clip usage, live dyads, clear written objectives and use of a standardised screening tool preserved the interaction and immediacy of a clinical encounter, while maintaining consistency in content. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.
Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Muñana, Karen; Penderis, Jacques; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Löscher, Wolfgang; Mandigers, Paul J J; Matiasek, Kaspar; Pakozdy, Akos; Patterson, Edward E; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Rusbridge, Clare; Volk, Holger A
In Europe, the number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) licensed for dogs has grown considerably over the last years. Nevertheless, the same questions remain, which include, 1) when to start treatment, 2) which drug is best used initially, 3) which adjunctive AED can be advised if treatment with the initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug treatment protocols, 1) is based on current published evidence-based literature, 2) considers the current legal framework of the cascade regulation for the prescription of veterinary drugs in Europe, and 3) reflects the authors' experience. With this paper it is aimed to provide a consensus for the management of canine idiopathic epilepsy. Furthermore, for the management of structural epilepsy AEDs are inevitable in addition to treating the underlying cause, if possible.
Wiese, Ashley J; Muir, William W; Wittum, Thomas E
To estimate the prevalence and characteristics of pain in dogs and cats examined by an emergency service at a veterinary teaching hospital and evaluate the response of dogs and cats with signs of pain to analgesic treatment. Cross-sectional study. 317 dogs and 112 cats. A questionnaire was used to categorize the characteristics of pain. The location, cause, and signs of pain were determined by obtaining a thorough history and conducting a physical examination. Pain was categorized by type (superficial somatic, deep somatic, or visceral), mechanism (inflammatory, neuropathic, or both), severity (mild, moderate, or severe), and duration. Evidence for primary or secondary hypersensitivity and hyposensitivity to manipulation was determined. The response to single or multiple analgesic drug administration was assessed. 179 (56%) dogs and 60 (54%) cats had signs of pain. In most of these dogs and cats, pain was classified as acute (dogs had deep somatic pain; most cats had visceral pain. Inflammation was the most common mechanism. One hundred nineteen (66%) dogs and 41 (68%) cats were treated with analgesic drugs. Analgesic treatment was considered effective in 73 (61%) dogs and 31 (76%) cats. Results suggest that moderate to severe acute somatic pain caused by inflammation is common in dogs and cats examined by an emergency service and that a combination of multiple analgesic drugs is more effective than any single analgesic drug in the treatment of pain in these dogs and cats.
Hamilton, Elizabeth; Kaneene, John B; May, Katherine J; Kruger, John M; Schall, William; Beal, Matthew W; Hauptman, Joe G; DeCamp, Charles E
To determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci and staphylococci collected from environmental surfaces at a veterinary teaching hospital (VTH). Longitudinal study. Samples collected from surfaces in 5 areas (emergency and critical care, soft tissue and internal medicine, and orthopedic wards; surgery preparation and recovery rooms; and surgery office and operating rooms) of a VTH. Selected surfaces were swabbed every 3 months during the 3-year study period (2007 to 2009). Isolates of enterococci and staphylococci were identified via biochemical tests, and antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated with a microbroth dilution technique. A subset of isolates was analyzed to assess clonality by use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. 430 samples were collected, and isolates of enterococci (n = 75) and staphylococci (110) were identified. Surfaces significantly associated with isolation of Enterococcus spp and Staphylococcus spp included cages and a weight scale. Fourteen Enterococcus spp isolates and 17 Staphylococcus spp isolates were resistant to ≥ 5 antimicrobials. Samples collected from the scale throughout the study suggested an overall increase in antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecium over time. Clonality was detected for E faecium isolates collected from 2 different surfaces on the same day. Although not surprising, the apparent increase in antimicrobial resistance of E faecium was of concern because of the organism's ability to transmit antimicrobial resistance genes to other pathogens. Results reported here may aid in identification of critical control points to help prevent the spread of pathogens in VTHs.
Hausmann, Jennifer C; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Hawkins, Michelle G; Kass, Philip H; Maggs, David J
To determine the distribution and clinical outcome of ocular lesions in snakes. Retrospective case series. 67 snakes with ocular lesions. Signalment, lesion duration, diagnosis, treatment, and clinical outcome were recorded for all snakes with ocular lesions that were examined at a veterinary teaching hospital from 1985 to 2010. 71 ocular lesions were detected in 67 of 508 (13%) snakes examined. Affected snakes were of the families Boidae, Pythonidae, Colubridae, and Viperidae. The distribution of ocular lesions did not vary by taxonomic family, age, or sex; however, snakes from the genus Epicrates with ocular lesions were overrepresented in the population. The most commonly diagnosed ocular lesions were retained spectacle (n = 41), pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess (13), trauma (8), and cataracts (4). Pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess developed more frequently in Colubridae than in non-Colubridae snakes. Of the 16 snakes with retained spectacles for which data were available, the lesion recurred once in 4 snakes and multiple times in 5 snakes. Results indicated that retained spectacle was the most common ocular lesion diagnosed in snakes. Compared with other snakes with ocular lesions, snakes of the genus Epicrates had a higher than expected frequency of ocular lesions in general and snakes of the family Colubridae had a higher than expected frequency of pseudobuphthalmos or subspectacular abscess.
Ugaz, Ana G
The paper analyzes the journal evaluation criteria used to create the third edition of a core list of veterinary serials to determine the impact of each criterion on the final composition of the list in order to assess the value of using multiple criteria in creating a core list. Three additional lists were generated from criteria that were previously combined to prepare the third edition of the "Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials": a list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations, another list based on journals selected by veterinary librarians, and a list based on both indexing coverage and scholarly rank. The top fifteen journals in each of the three lists were then compared to reveal potential biases. Subject representation on the full lists generated by each of these methods was also compared. The list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations exhibited a focus on clinically relevant titles. The list based on veterinary librarian recommendations resulted in the broadest subject coverage. The list based on indexing and scholarly rank, while emphasizing research titles, produced the largest number of unique titles. A combination approach that includes objective evaluation measures and practical input, whether from librarians or discipline experts, can improve coverage and can result in a list that balances research-based with clinical practice journals.
Ugaz, Ana G
Objective: The paper analyzes the journal evaluation criteria used to create the third edition of a core list of veterinary serials to determine the impact of each criterion on the final composition of the list in order to assess the value of using multiple criteria in creating a core list. Methods: Three additional lists were generated from criteria that were previously combined to prepare the third edition of the “Basic List of Veterinary Medical Serials”: a list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations, another list based on journals selected by veterinary librarians, and a list based on both indexing coverage and scholarly rank. The top fifteen journals in each of the three lists were then compared to reveal potential biases. Subject representation on the full lists generated by each of these methods was also compared. Results: The list based on journal recommendations from veterinary specialty organizations exhibited a focus on clinically relevant titles. The list based on veterinary librarian recommendations resulted in the broadest subject coverage. The list based on indexing and scholarly rank, while emphasizing research titles, produced the largest number of unique titles. Conclusion: A combination approach that includes objective evaluation measures and practical input, whether from librarians or discipline experts, can improve coverage and can result in a list that balances research-based with clinical practice journals. PMID:21464852
The definition, historical background, aims dimensions and the characteristics of medical audit as well as the indices to be measured in a medical audit exercise are highlighted. The preliminary experience of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) in the planning, implementation and monitoring of a viable medical ...
Meats, Emma; Heneghan, Carl; Crilly, Mike; Glasziou, Paul
It is recognized that clinicians need training in evidence-based medicine (EBM), however there is considerable variation in the content and methods of the EBM curriculum in UK medical schools. To determine current practice and variation in EBM undergraduate teaching in UK medical schools and inform the strategy of medical schools and the National Knowledge Service. We contacted all 32 medical schools in the UK and requested that the person primarily responsible for EBM undergraduate teaching complete a short online survey and provide their EBM curriculum. The survey was completed by representatives from 20 (63%) medical schools and curriculum details were received from 5 (16%). There is considerable variation in the methods and content of the EBM curriculum. Although the majority of schools teach core EBM topics, relatively few allow students to practice the skills or assess such skills. EBM teaching is restricted by lack of curriculum time, trained tutors and teaching materials. Key elements to progress include the integration of EBM with clinical specialties, tutor training and the availability of high-quality teaching resources. The development of a national undergraduate EBM curriculum may help in promoting progress in EBM teaching and assessment in UK medical schools.
Capilé, Karynn V; Campos, Gabriela M B; Stedile, Rafael; Oliveira, Simone T
Adult dogs, especially elderly ones, are commonly affected by prostate diseases. Performing rectal palpation during physical examination in dogs is important in small animal clinical diagnosis. Prostate palpation training allows students to learn how to correctly introduce the finger into the rectum and identify the location, size, symmetry, and consistency of the prostate. Alternative methods are needed to teach this technique without using live dogs. Thus, our aim was to develop a canine prostate palpation simulator to provide students with the opportunity to learn the prostate palpation technique in dogs and to assess their opinion of this simulator as a teaching tool. The inner part of the canine mannequin contains a rotation system with three types of prostates that can be exchanged during the exam. Of the 64 participating students, 81% had never used alternative methods and 92.2% had never performed any prostatic palpation. According to the students' opinions, performing a clinical examination on a simulator allowed them to be prepared and familiarized with the palpation technique. They felt satisfied learning a practical method in a harmless way. Both the 3R (replacement, reduction, and refinement) and dog welfare principles were present in most of the students' concerns. We conclude that the simulator can help students to develop clinical skills for prostate palpation in dogs.
Rojas, Irene; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; van Balen, Joany C; Rojas, Norman; Muñoz-Vargas, Lohendy; Hoet, Armando E
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen associated with severe infections in companion animals present in the community, and it is diagnosed in animals admitted to veterinary hospitals. However, reports that describe the circulation of MRSA in animal populations and veterinary settings in Latin America are scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and investigate the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in the environment of the largest veterinary teaching hospital in Costa Rica. Preselected contact surfaces were sampled twice within a 6-week period. Antimicrobial resistance, SCCmec type, Panton-Valentine leukocidin screening, USA type, and clonality were assessed in all recovered isolates. Overall, MRSA was isolated from 26.5% (27/102) of the surfaces sampled, with doors, desks, and examination tables most frequently contaminated. Molecular analysis demonstrated a variety of surfaces from different sections of the hospital contaminated by three highly related clones/pulsotypes. All, but one of the isolates were characterized as multidrug-resistant SCCmec type IV-USA700, a strain sporadically described in other countries and often classified as community acquired. The detection and frequency of this unique strain in this veterinary setting suggest Costa Rica has a distinctive MRSA ecology when compared with other countries/regions. The high level of environmental contamination highlights the necessity to establish and enforce standard cleaning and disinfection protocols to minimize further spread of this pathogen and reduce the risk of nosocomial and/or occupational transmission of MRSA.
Rojas, Irene; Barquero-Calvo, Elías; van Balen, Joany C.; Rojas, Norman; Muñoz-Vargas, Lohendy
Abstract Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a pathogen associated with severe infections in companion animals present in the community, and it is diagnosed in animals admitted to veterinary hospitals. However, reports that describe the circulation of MRSA in animal populations and veterinary settings in Latin America are scarce. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and investigate the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in the environment of the largest veterinary teaching hospital in Costa Rica. Preselected contact surfaces were sampled twice within a 6-week period. Antimicrobial resistance, SCCmec type, Panton-Valentine leukocidin screening, USA type, and clonality were assessed in all recovered isolates. Overall, MRSA was isolated from 26.5% (27/102) of the surfaces sampled, with doors, desks, and examination tables most frequently contaminated. Molecular analysis demonstrated a variety of surfaces from different sections of the hospital contaminated by three highly related clones/pulsotypes. All, but one of the isolates were characterized as multidrug-resistant SCCmec type IV-USA700, a strain sporadically described in other countries and often classified as community acquired. The detection and frequency of this unique strain in this veterinary setting suggest Costa Rica has a distinctive MRSA ecology when compared with other countries/regions. The high level of environmental contamination highlights the necessity to establish and enforce standard cleaning and disinfection protocols to minimize further spread of this pathogen and reduce the risk of nosocomial and/or occupational transmission of MRSA. PMID:28816638
Hazel, Susan J; Signal, Tania D; Taylor, Nicola
Attitudes toward animals are important in influencing how animals are treated. Few studies have investigated attitudes toward animals in veterinary or animal-science students, and no studies have compared attitudes to animals before and after a course teaching animal welfare and ethics. In this study, students enrolled in veterinary (first-year) or animal-science (first- and third-year) programs completed a questionnaire on attitudes toward different categories of animals before and after the course. Higher attitude scores suggest a person more concerned about how an animal is treated. Normally distributed data were compared using parametric statistics, and non-normally distributed data were compared using non-parametric tests, with significance p animals (30.3-32.1). Attitude scores increased from before to after the course in the veterinary cohort on the Pest (36.9 vs. 38.4, respectively, n = 27, p animal-science cohorts. Attitude scores in all categories were higher for women than for men. Currently having an animal was associated with higher pet scores (46.8 vs. 43.8, ns = 120 and 13, respectively, p animal as a child was associated with higher profit scores (31.0 vs. 26.6, ns = 129 and 8, respectively, p animal-welfare course, with significant increases in veterinary but not animal-science students.
Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.
The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…
Naqvi, Suhaib Haider; Mobasher, Fizza; Afzal, Muhammad Abdul Rehman; Umair, Muhammad; Kohli, Arooj Naeem; Bukhari, Mulazim Hussain
To discover the most effective mode of teaching from the perspective of medical students and to analyse their preferences for various pedagogical aids. The qualitative, descriptive survey designed as a cross-sectional study was conducted at the King Edward Medical University, Lahore, from April to June 2011. A 25-item questionnaire regarding perceptions towards teaching aids was handed out to 500 undergraduate medical students and the answers were analysed using SPSS 17. Of the 500 questionnaires, 8 (1.6%) were left out for being incomplete.The study sample size, as such, was 492 with a response rate of 98.4%. Out of the 492 students, 325 (66%) disagreed that the whole lecture should be delivered via PowerPoint slides.To understand complex concepts, 246 (50%) approved of animation based learning. For retaining and recalling facts, the combination of PowerPoint slides and animations was considered by 157 (32%) as most effective, while transparencies were considered to be the least effective (n=5; 1%). Regarding their attention span 357 (76%) students said they experienced the lowest attention span during Overhead Projector lectures. Irrespective of the method used, 225 (46%) students responded that visual aids of any sort increased their concentration 'a lot'. For small groups, 283 (58%) students considered blackboards optimal, while for a large group, 243 (49%) students considered animations to be optimal. As far as combinations went, 291 (59%) preferred blackboard plus animations, 148 (30%) preferred blackboard plus PowerPoint. The combination of animations alongside blackboard was preferred over other combinations. The subjects wanted animations to be incorporated frequently into medical pedagogy, while overhead projectors were clearly disliked by them.
Engbers, R.; Caluwe, L.I. de; Stuyt, P.M.J.; Fluit, C.R.M.G.; Bolhuis, S.
Literature shows that faculty development programmes are not organizationally embedded in academic hospitals. This leaves medical teaching a low and informal status. The purpose of this article is to explore how organizational literature can strengthen our understanding of embedding faculty
Engbers, Rik; de Caluwé, Léon I A; Stuyt, Paul M J; Fluit, Cornelia R M G; Bolhuis, Sanneke
Literature shows that faculty development programmes are not organizationally embedded in academic hospitals. This leaves medical teaching a low and informal status. The purpose of this article is to explore how organizational literature can strengthen our understanding of embedding faculty development in organizational development, and to provide a useful example of organizational development with regards to medical teaching and faculty development. Constructing a framework for organizational development from the literature, based on expert brainstorming. This framework is applied to a case study. A framework for organizational development is described. Applied in a context of medical teaching, these organizational insights show the process (and progress) of embedding faculty development in organizational development. Organizational development is a necessary condition for assuring sustainable faculty development for high-quality medical teaching. Organizational policies can only work in an organization that is developing. Recommendations for further development and future research are discussed.
Gilmour, Jean; Huntington, Annette; Bogossian, Fiona; Leadbitter, Bernadette; Turner, Catherine
The aim of this study was to examine the contribution of nurses and midwives to the education of medical colleagues in the clinical context. The research design was a cross-sectional survey using an online questionnaire. A subsample of 2906 respondents, from a total of 4763 nurses and midwives participating in a web-based study, had taught doctors in the 12 months prior to the survey. The questionnaire generated mainly categorical data analysed with descriptive statistics. In the group of respondents who taught doctors (n =2906), most provided informal teaching (92.9%, n=2677). Nearly a quarter (23.9%, n=695) self-rated the amount of time spent teaching as at least moderate in duration. The most common named teaching topics were documentation (74.8%, n=2005) and implementing unit procedures (74.3, n=1987), followed by medication charting (61.9%, n=1657) and choosing correct medications (55.8%, n=1493). Respondents felt their contributions were unrecognised by the doctors and students they taught (43.9%, n=1256). Educational contributions while unrecognised could be considered positively by the respondents. However, discussion of teaching responsibilities is necessary to support the development of teaching protocols and supervision responsibilities as respondents reported teaching clinical medical tasks related to medications, consent and other skills within the medical domain. Study limitations include the nature of self-reported responses which cannot be validated and data drawn from a survey concluded in 2009.
Floate, Kevin D.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Hanafi, Jamal; Jud, Priska; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Scheffczyk, Adam; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Sautot, Lucille; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.
Registration of veterinary medical products includes the provision that field tests may be required to assess potential nontarget effects associated with the excretion of product residues in dung of treated livestock (phase II, tier B testing). However, regulatory agencies provide no guidance on
Report on Health Manpower and Programs in Ohio: Part Two. Allied Health, Area Health Education Centers, Dentistry, Emergency Medical Services, Nursing, Optometry, Pharmacy, Podiatry, and Veterinary Medicine.
Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.
Information on health occupations educational programs in Ohio and current and projected employment needs for health professionals are presented. The following health fields are examined: allied health, dentistry, emergency medical service, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine. Issues and trends affecting each field are…
Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy
We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching phys...
Stothard, J Russell; Adams, Emily
There are many reasons why detection of parasites of medical and veterinary importance is vital and where novel diagnostic and surveillance tools are required. From a medical perspective alone, these originate from a desire for better clinical management and rational use of medications. Diagnosis can be at the individual-level, at close to patient settings in testing a clinical suspicion or at the community-level, perhaps in front of a computer screen, in classification of endemic areas and devising appropriate control interventions. Thus diagnostics for parasitic diseases has a broad remit as parasites are not only tied with their definitive hosts but also in some cases with their vectors/intermediate hosts. Application of current diagnostic tools and decision algorithms in sustaining control programmes, or in elimination settings, can be problematic and even ill-fitting. For example in resource-limited settings, are current diagnostic tools sufficiently robust for operational use at scale or are they confounded by on-the-ground realities; are the diagnostic algorithms underlying public health interventions always understood and well-received within communities which are targeted for control? Within this Special Issue (SI) covering a variety of diseases and diagnostic settings some answers are forthcoming. An important theme, however, throughout the SI is to acknowledge that cross-talk and continuous feedback between development and application of diagnostic tests is crucial if they are to be used effectively and appropriately.
Full Text Available The fifth general assembly meeting on cysticercosis/taeniosis was held at the Faculty of Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, in Maputo, Mozambique, from 11-13 October 2007. The meeting was organised by the Cysticercosis Working Group in Eastern and Southern Africa (CWGESA in cooperation with the Medical and Veterinary Faculties of Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique and the WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Parasitic Zoonoses in Denmark with support from DBL - Centre for Health Research and Development, Denmark, and the Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines (GALVmed based in Edinburgh, Scotland. Local support in Maputo was provided by Nestle, Medis Farmaceutica, Mcel and the Golden Travel Agency.
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Biochemistry is extremely difficult in preclinical medical education because of the monotonous use of lectures, tutorials, practical and end of semester load with end of semester examination. Although several studies have been carried out on learning biochemistry in Europe and America, Asian studies are very few and literature in the Sri Lankan context is lacking. We aimed to assess the best teaching tool for teaching Biochemistry in Medical Faculty is the main objective of this study. Methods: In this study, 177 second-year medical students of the Faculty of Medicine, University of Rajarata, Sri Lanka were enrolled. Using a self-administrated method, two non-compulsory evaluating questions were given to the candidates when they sat for the Objective Structured Practical Examination (OSPE in 2nd MBBS. Results: The students gave high positive ratings to the lectures. The preferred order of the teaching method included lectures followed by student-staff interaction, panel discussion and the least preference was seminar. Conclusions: The findings of our study highlight the large gap between lectures and seminars in teaching biochemistry. In light of these questions, we discussed and recommended alternative approaches to teach using a hybrid method. Sri Lankan medical faculty will need to make an effort to change this learning attitude by improving proper teaching methods in biochemistry. Keywords: BIOCHEMISTRY; OBJECTIVE STRUCTURED PRACTICAL EXAMINATION; TEACHING; LECTURER
de la Garza, Santiago; Phuoc, Vania; Throneberry, Steven; Blumenthal-Barby, Jennifer; McCullough, Laurence; Coverdale, John
One objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to psychiatry residents. In order to gain insights from other disciplines that have published research in this area, a second objective was to identify and review studies on teaching medical ethics to residents across all other specialties of training and on teaching medical students. PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were searched for controlled trials on teaching medical ethics with quantitative outcomes. Search terms included ethics, bioethics, medical ethics, medical students, residents/registrars, teaching, education, outcomes, and controlled trials. Nine studies were found that met inclusion criteria, including five randomized controlled trails and four controlled non-randomized trials. Subjects included medical students (5 studies), surgical residents (2 studies), internal medicine house officers (1 study), and family medicine preceptors and their medical students (1 study). Teaching methods, course content, and outcome measures varied considerably across studies. Common methodological issues included a lack of concealment of allocation, a lack of blinding, and generally low numbers of subjects as learners. One randomized controlled trial which taught surgical residents using a standardized patient was judged to be especially methodologically rigorous. None of the trials incorporated psychiatry residents. Ethics educators should undertake additional rigorously controlled trials in order to secure a strong evidence base for the design of medical ethics curricula. Psychiatry ethics educators can also benefit from the findings of trials in other disciplines and in undergraduate medical education.
Miller, David S; Weiser, Glen C; Ward, Alton C S; Drew, Mark L; Chapman, Phillip L
A retrospective study of Pasteurellaceae isolated from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) was conducted. The aim was to identify Pasteurellaceae present in animals that were clinically healthy and others with evidence of respiratory disease. The bacteria had been isolated from samples submitted to the University of Idaho Caine Veterinary Teaching Center as part of disease diagnostic testing. The 844 isolates identified mainly three species of Pasteurellaceae: Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Pasteurella (Bibersteinia) trehalosi. A total of 114 biovariants were identified among these three species. Individual biovariants were identified 1-180 times. Two of those (M. haemolytica 1 and P. (B.) trehalosi 2) constituted 36% of the isolates, and were the only biovariants sufficiently numerous to account for >7% of the total isolates. Samples were primarily submitted from sheep with signs of respiratory disease. Eighty percent of biovariants were identified most often in animals with signs of respiratory disease, but 26% of biovariants were isolated from both sheep with respiratory disease and apparently healthy sheep. P. multocida constituted 4.7% of isolates, and were exclusively associated with animals with respiratory disease. The ability of isolates to produce beta-hemolysis on culture media was not associated with animals with respiratory disease (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.50-1.19). The inference of this study is limited due to the retrospective study design. However, it is the first study that provides an extensive baseline list of biovariants associated with respiratory disease in domestic sheep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Al-Faris, Eiad A; Naeem, Naghma
Clinical teachers have high qualifications in their specialty, but some of them do not have training, or proficiency in teaching, and education. Therefore, they may face the challenge of effective teaching in their daily practice. The objective of this study is to present some basic guiding principles for novices and expert academic health professionals. An overview from the perspective of the authors on critical fields in education was conducted. Seventeen principles (supported by one or more relevant examples) are discussed. To improve the quality of their teaching practice, academic health professionals need to study the pedagogy of education, and to seek feedback from colleagues who have already studied and practiced the principles of learning and teaching.
%) first year females split in two groups and 81(22.2%) fifth year mixed male and ... However, the students' categorised the regulation of organ transplantation and tissue engineering has human rights followed by Religion Teachings bases.
Mary M Christopher
Full Text Available Authors face many choices when selecting a journal for publication. Prospective authors, especially trainees, may be unaware of predatory online journals or how to differentiate them from legitimate journals. In this study we assessed awareness of open-access and predatory journals among prospective authors attending scientific writing workshops; our long-term goal was to inform educational goals for the workshops. We surveyed participants of writing workshops at veterinary and medical schools and an international conference over a 1-year period. The survey included 14 statements for respondents to indicate agreement level on a Likert-like scale and four questions on awareness of resources about predatory journals; respondents also defined predatory journal. A total of 145 participants completed the survey: 106 (73.1% from veterinary schools and 86 (59.3% graduate students or residents. Fewer faculty (vs trainees agreed that open access was an important factor in deciding where to publish; faculty and postdoctoral researchers were more likely to expect to pay more to publish in an open-access journal. Most respondents (120/145, 82.7% agreed/strongly agreed that the decision to accept a manuscript should not be influenced by publication charges, but 50% (56/112 indicated they didn’t know how publishing costs were supported. Of the 142 respondents who answered, 33 (23.0% indicated awareness of the term predatory journal; 34 (23.9% were aware of the Directory of Open Access Journals; 24 (16.9% were aware of the Science sting article about predatory journals; and 7 (4.8% were aware of Beall’s list. Most (93/144, 64.5% definitions of predatory journals described poor but not predatory journal practices, and some respondents misunderstood the term completely. Mentors should help novice authors to be aware of predatory journals and to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate open-access journals, thus selecting the best journal for their
Retention of Medical Records in Ghanaian Teaching Hospitals: Some International Perspectives. ... The study revealed that the problems inherent in the retention of management of non-current medical records are due to the absence of formal guidelines and procedures, and to the fact that those that exist are not properly ...
Sep 3, 2013 ... Department of Community Medicine , Kasturba Medical College, Manipal University, Mangalore- 575001,. India. 2. Student ... Objectives: To understand the preferences and perception of medical students about the current methods of teaching, aids used for ..... modes for undergraduate evidence- based.
Sep 3, 2013 ... Abstract. Introduction: In the complex setting of a medical school it becomes essential to utilize an approach to teaching and learning that is best suited to the needs of the students. In developing countries like India, where there is an exponential increase of institutions catering to medical students, ...
Bell, Floyd E., III; Wilson, L. Britt; Hoppmann, Richard A.
Ultrasound is being incorporated more into undergraduate medical education. Studies have shown that medical students have positive perceptions about the value of ultrasound in teaching courses like anatomy and physiology. The purpose of the present study was to provide objective evidence of whether ultrasound helps students learn cardiac…
Objective: This study was aimed at determining the perception of the medical students of a relatively new medical school in Nigeria about the teaching of Pharmacology, the best way of learning and retaining the subject. Suggestions on the ways of making pharmacology more interesting to them were also sought. Methods: ...
Sato, Daisuke; Fushimi, Kiyohide
Teaching hospitals require excess medical resources to maintain high-quality care and medical education. To evaluate the appropriateness of such surplus costs, we examined the impact of teaching intensity defined as activities for postgraduate training, and academic status as functions of medical research and undergraduate teaching on medical resource utilization. Administrative data for 47,397 discharges from 40 academic and 12 non-academic teaching hospitals in Japan were collected. Hospitals were classified into three groups according to intern/resident-to-bed (IRB) ratio. Resource utilization of medical services was estimated using fee-for-service charge schedules and normalized with case mix grouping. 15-24% more resource utilization for laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications were observed in hospitals with higher IRB ratios. With multivariate adjustment for case mix and academic status, higher IRB ratios were associated with 10-15% more use of radiological imaging, injections, and medications; up to 5% shorter hospital stays; and not with total resource utilization. Conversely, academic status was associated with 21-33% more laboratory examinations, radiological imaging, and medications; 13% longer hospital stays; and 10% more total resource utilization. While differences in medical resource utilization by teaching intensity may not be associated with indirect educational costs, those by academic status may be. Therefore, academic hospitals may need efficiency improvement and financial compensation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E
Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.
Lempp, Heidi; Seale, Clive
To study medical students' views about the quality of the teaching they receive during their undergraduate training, especially in terms of the hidden curriculum. Semistructured interviews with individual students. One medical school in the United Kingdom. 36 undergraduate medical students, across all stages of their training, selected by random and quota sampling, stratified by sex and ethnicity, with the whole medical school population as a sampling frame. Medical students' experiences and perceptions of the quality of teaching received during their undergraduate training. Students reported many examples of positive role models and effective, approachable teachers, with valued characteristics perceived according to traditional gendered stereotypes. They also described a hierarchical and competitive atmosphere in the medical school, in which haphazard instruction and teaching by humiliation occur, especially during the clinical training years. Following on from the recent reforms of the manifest curriculum, the hidden curriculum now needs attention to produce the necessary fundamental changes in the culture of undergraduate medical education.
leptospirosis. Case report. An 1 1 year old male Alsatian dog was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the. University of lbadan (VTH-Ul) with a hist01y of anorexia, weakness and exercise intolerance of5 days duration. On clinical examination, the rectal temperature was normal andlung auscultation revealed a ...
Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…
SUMMARY. An audit of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, lbadan between 2008 and 2011 was conducted to evaluate the level of compliance with standard practices. The study involved retrospective case note audit of surgical procedures performed during the period. A total number of 108.
Full Text Available Pooja Nair, Ishani Barai, Sunila Prasad, Karishma Gadhvi Department of Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Guidelines in the UK require all doctors to actively take part in quality improvement. To ease future doctors into the process, formal quality improvement teaching can be delivered during medical school. Keywords: quality improvement, medical school, patient safety, patient satisfaction, medical student, clinical audit
Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy
We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching physics to the medical students of Taiwan. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Lynoe, N; Löfmark, R; Thulesius, H O
The goal of the present study was to elucidate what influences medical students' attitudes and interests in medical ethics. At the end of their first, fifth and last terms, 409 medical students from all six medical schools in Sweden participated in an attitude survey. The questions focused on the students' experience of good and poor role models, attitudes towards medical ethics in general and perceived effects of the teaching of medical ethics. Despite a low response rate at some schools, this study indicates that increased interest in medical ethics was related to encountering good physician role models, and decreased interest, to encountering poor role models. Physicians involved in the education of medical students seem to teach medical ethics as role models even when ethics is not on the schedule. The low response rate prevents us from drawing definite conclusions, but the results could be used as hypotheses to be further scrutinised.
Zhou, Hong-Chang; Shao, Sheng-Wen; Xu, Bo-Ying
To improve the teaching quality of medical parasitology, mind map, a simple and effective learning method, was introduced. The mind map of each chapter was drawn by teacher and distributed to students before the class. It was helpful for teacher to straighten out the teaching idea, and for students to grasp the important learning points, perfect the class notes and improve learning efficiency. The divergent characteristics of mind map can also help to develop the students' innovation ability.
Chervenak, Frank A; McCullough, Laurence B
The relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals involves a complex and variable mixture of monopoly and monopsony power, which has not been previously been ethically analyzed. As a consequence, there is currently no ethical framework to guide leaders of both institutions in the responsible management of this complex power relationship. The authors define these two forms of power and, using economic concepts, analyze the nature of such power in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship, emphasizing the potential for exploitation. Using concepts from both business ethics and medical ethics, the authors analyze the nature of transparency and co-fiduciary responsibility in this relationship. On the basis of both rational self-interest, drawn from business ethics, and co-fiduciary responsibility, drawn from medical ethics, they argue for the centrality of transparency in the medical school-teaching hospital relationship. Understanding the ethics of monopoly and monopsony power is essential for the responsible management of the complex relationship between medical schools and their teaching hospitals and can assist the leadership of academic health centers in carrying out one of their major responsibilities: to prevent the exploitation of monopoly power and monopsony power in this relationship.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the early 1990s there has been a burgeoning interest in global health teaching in undergraduate medical curricula. In this article we trace the evolution of this teaching and present recommendations for how the discipline might develop in future years. Discussion Undergraduate global health teaching has seen a marked growth over the past ten years, partly as a response to student demand and partly due to increasing globalization, cross-border movement of pathogens and international migration of health care workers. This teaching has many different strands and types in terms of topic focus, disciplinary background, the point in medical studies in which it is taught and whether it is compulsory or optional. We carried out a survey of medical schools across the world in an effort to analyse their teaching of global health. Results indicate that this teaching is rising in prominence, particularly through global health elective/exchange programmes and increasing teaching of subjects such as globalization and health and international comparison of health systems. Our findings indicate that global health teaching is moving away from its previous focus on tropical medicine towards issues of more global relevance. We suggest that there are three types of doctor who may wish to work in global health – the ‘globalised doctor’, ‘humanitarian doctor’ and ‘policy doctor’ – and that each of these three types will require different teaching in order to meet the required competencies. This teaching needs to be inserted into medical curricula in different ways, notably into core curricula, a special overseas doctor track, optional student selected components, elective programmes, optional intercalated degrees and postgraduate study. Summary We argue that teaching of global health in undergraduate medical curricula must respond to changing understandings of the term global health. In particular it must be taught from the
Gottlieb, Zoe; Epstein, Samantha; Richards, Jeremy
Near-peer teaching (NPT) is increasingly recognised as an effective method for teaching and learning within medical education. We describe a student-as-teacher programme developed for fourth-year students (MS4s) helping to deliver the second-year Respiratory Pathophysiology course at our medical school. Twelve MS4s were paired with faculty members to co-teach one or two small group case-based sessions for second-year students (MS2s). Beforehand, MS4s attended an orientation session and workshop, reviewing skills and strategies for teaching effectively. Following each teaching session co-taught by MS4s, both MS4s and MS2s completed multiple-choice surveys evaluating the MS4's teaching skills and the experience overall. MS4s also wrote reflection essays describing their experiences. Faculty member co-teachers completed a 12-question feedback form for MS4s during the session. We received 114 post-session MS2 surveys, 13 post-session MS4 surveys and 13 post-session faculty staff evaluations. The majority of MS2s reported that MS4s enhanced their understanding of the material, and considered the quality of MS4 teaching to be 'good' or 'outstanding'. Nearly all of the MS4s enjoyed their experiences and believed that the programme improved their teaching skills. Time management was the most common challenge cited by both MS4s and faculty member co-teachers. These data demonstrate that NPT is valuable for both MS2s and MS4s: MS2s benefited from the social and cognitive congruence afforded by near-peer teachers, whereas MS4s used this experience to build and enhance their skills as educators. These results support the continued involvement of MS4s in this second-year course, as well as broadening the scope of and opportunities for student teaching at our medical school and beyond. Near-peer teaching is recognised as an effective method for teaching and learning within medical education. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Klemenc-Ketis, Zalika; Kersnik, Janko
Professionalism topics are usually not covered as a separate lesson within formal curriculum, but in subtler and less officially recognized educational activities, which makes them difficult to teach and assess. Interactive methods (e.g. movies) could be efficient teaching methods but are rarely studied. The aims of this study were: 1) to test the relevance and usefulness of movies in teaching professionalism to fourth year medical students and, 2) to assess the impact of this teaching method on students' attitudes towards some professionalism topics. This was an education study with qualitative data analysis in a group of eleven fourth year medical students from the Medical School of University Maribor who attended an elective four month course on professionalism. There were 8 (66.7%) female students in the group. The mean age of the students was 21.9 ± 0.9 years. The authors used students' written reports and oral presentations as the basis for qualitative analysis using thematic codes. Students recognised the following dimensions in the movie: communication, empathy, doctors' personal interests and palliative care. It also made them think about their attitudes towards life, death and dying. The controlled environment of movies successfully enables students to explore their values, beliefs, and attitudes towards features of professionalism without feeling that their personal integrity had been threatened. Interactive teaching methods could become an indispensible aid in teaching professionalism to new generations.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Professionalism topics are usually not covered as a separate lesson within formal curriculum, but in subtler and less officially recognized educational activities, which makes them difficult to teach and assess. Interactive methods (e.g. movies could be efficient teaching methods but are rarely studied. The aims of this study were: 1 to test the relevance and usefulness of movies in teaching professionalism to fourth year medical students and, 2 to assess the impact of this teaching method on students' attitudes towards some professionalism topics. Method This was an education study with qualitative data analysis in a group of eleven fourth year medical students from the Medical School of University Maribor who attended an elective four month course on professionalism. There were 8 (66.7% female students in the group. The mean age of the students was 21.9 ± 0.9 years. The authors used students' written reports and oral presentations as the basis for qualitative analysis using thematic codes. Results Students recognised the following dimensions in the movie: communication, empathy, doctors' personal interests and palliative care. It also made them think about their attitudes towards life, death and dying. Conclusions The controlled environment of movies successfully enables students to explore their values, beliefs, and attitudes towards features of professionalism without feeling that their personal integrity had been threatened. Interactive teaching methods could become an indispensible aid in teaching professionalism to new generations.
Aase, Ingunn; Aase, Karina; Dieckmann, Peter
of interprofessional teamwork in all nursing and medical education in Norway. The study programs issued by the 32 educational institutions were subject to content analysis, distilling the ambitions and goals for teaching interprofessional teamwork. Study program coordinators were approached and asked to what degree......The notions of interprofessional education and interprofessional teamwork have attained widespread acceptance, partly because lack of teamwork has been tentatively linked to adverse incidents in healthcare. By analyzing data from 32 educational institutions, this study identifies the status...... interprofessional teamwork was actually introduced in lecturing and clinical training. Results indicate that the medical and nursing schools clearly aspire to teach interprofessional teamwork and that this has largely been achieved when it comes to theoretical teaching. Although three of the four medical programs...
Full Text Available [english] The Free University’s Veterinary Clinic of Reproduction in the Department of Veterinary Medicine, Berlin, has been offering courses on alternative and complementary veterinary medicine to its students for several years. Due to time constraints and shortages in teaching staff, it has not been possible to satisfy student demand for instruction in these areas. To provide more detailed information as well as more opportunities for discussion and practica, subject area courses were modified in two steps. Initially, blended learning was implemented to include e-learning and in-class formats of instruction. Subsequently, an entire block of courses offered were transferred to e-learning format. Students may now voluntarily register for the e-learning course entitled “Introduction of alternative and complementary veterinary medicine” via the Internet and learn the basic principles of homoeopathy, herbal medicine, acupuncture and other alternative methods in veterinary medicine. After passing this basic course, blended learning courses enable advanced students to learn more about fundamentals of methods in greater detail as well as to perform practica with animal subjects. The evaluation of these courses showed that students rated e-learning to be a reasonable addendum to in-class instruction. More than two thirds of the students recommended an increased integration of e-learning into veterinary education. [german] Die Tierklinik für Fortpflanzung in Berlin bietet den Studierenden der Veterinärmedizin seit einigen Semestern Wahlpflichtkurse zu den Naturheilverfahren an. Der enormen Nachfrage seitens der Studierenden standen personelle und zeitliche Begrenzungen des Lehrpersonals gegenüber. Um den Interessenten dennoch umfangreiche Informationen zu bieten sowie Freiräume für Diskussionen und praktische Übungen zu schaffen, wurde das Ausbildungsangebot in zwei Projektphasen ausgebaut. Zunächst wurde dabei die Methode des Blended
Glenn, Jason E
This article examines the difficulties encountered in teaching professionalism to medical students in the current social and political climate where economic considerations take top priority in health care decision making. The conflict between the commitment to advocate at all times the interests of one's patients over one's own interests is discussed. With personal, institutional, tech industry, pharmaceutical industry, and third-party payer financial imperatives that stand between patients and the delivery of health care, this article investigates how medical ethics instructors are to teach professionalism in a responsible way that does not avoid dealing with the principle of justice.
was a de-emphasis in the use of civic action as part of a post-Vietnam " handwashing " of all aspects of insurgency and counterinsurgency. Douglas...treatments for internal and external parasites. Additionally, some surgical /medical treatments were provided.(60) Total Animal Treatments: 16,843 Rabies...with the only difference being in S animal population, or perhaps the number of the various species of animals in the target area. Minor surgical
Costa, Paulo Roberto
Introduction:Brazil has seen a rise in the number of undergraduate courses in Medical Physics in recent years, as well as initiatives for the organization of graduation programs and clinical residencies...
Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a huge threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Culicidae control is of crucial importance. Mosquito eggs, larvae, and pupae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment, and induce resistance in a number of species. Eco-friendly tools have been recently implemented against mosquito vectors, including botanical insecticides. The majority of researches focused on larvicides (745 SCOPUS results, July 2015) and adult repellents (434 SCOPUS results), while limited efforts were conducted to identify effective ovicides of botanical origin (59 SCOPUS results). Here, I review current knowledge on the effectiveness of plant-borne ovicides against major mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The majority of researches focused on the toxicity of crude extracts, their fractions, or essential oils against three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. As a general trend, C. quinquefasciatus eggs were the most resistant to botanical ovicides. Five studies proposed selected compounds from plant extracts and essential oils as ovicides effective at few parts per million. However, no efforts were conducted to shed light on possible mechanisms underlying the toxicity of plant-borne ovicides. In the final section, a number of hot issues needing further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and researchers working in natural product chemistry are outlined.
Pieper, Ina Laura; Friedmann, Yasmin; Jones, Alyssa; Thornton, Catherine
Small affordable automated hematology analyzers that produce rapid and accurate complete blood cell counts are a valuable tool to researchers developing blood-handling medical devices, such as ventricular assist devices, for in vitro safety assessments. In such studies, it is common to use the blood of large animals such as cattle and sheep. However, the commercially available instruments have not been evaluated for their ability to measure the blood counts of these animals. In this study, we compare, for the first time, four veterinary analyzers for blood counts on bovine and ovine blood samples. We look at ease of use, repeatability and agreement with a view to inform researchers of the benefits of these instruments in routine measurement of ovine and bovine bloods during in vitro testing. Complete blood cell counts and a three-part differential (granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocytes) were measured by each of the instruments, and the results compared to those obtained from two additional analyzers used in a reference laboratory. Repeatability and agreement were evaluated using the Bland-Altman method; bias and 95% limits of agreement between the instruments, and between the instruments and two reference instruments, were used to evaluate instrument performance. In summary, there are advantages and disadvantages with all instruments. Of the four instruments tested, the repeatability and agreement was fairly similar for all instruments except one instrument which cannot be recommended for bovine or ovine blood counts. Copyright © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Marcotty, Tanguy; Thys, Eric; Conrad, Patricia; Godfroid, Jacques; Craig, Philip; Zinsstag, Jakob; Meheus, Filip; Boukary, Abdou Razac; Badé, Mallam Abdou; Sahibi, Hamid; Filali, Hind; Hendrickx, Saskia; Pissang, Cyrille; Van Herp, Michel; van der Roost, Dirk; Thys, Séverine; Hendrickx, David; Claes, Marleen; Demeulenaere, Tine; van Mierlo, Joep; Dehoux, Jean-Paul; Boelaert, Marleen
Neglected zoonoses continue to significantly affect human health in low-resource countries. A symposium was organised in Antwerp, Belgium, on 5 November 2010 to evaluate how intersectoral collaboration among educational and research institutions could improve the situation. Brucellosis and echinococcosis were presented as models for intersectoral collaboration. Low-resource societies face evident knowledge gaps on disease distribution, transmission within and across species and impact on human and animal health, precluding the development of integrated control strategies. While veterinarians have been the main driver of the One Health initiative, the medical profession does not seem to be fully aware of how veterinary science can contribute to human public health. It was postulated that transdisciplinarity could help fill knowledge gaps and that encouraging such transdisciplinarity should start with undergraduate students. Furthermore, intersectoral collaboration on zoonoses should not ignore the social sciences (e.g. assessment of indigenous knowledge and perception; participatory surveillance), which can contribute to a better understanding of the transmission of diseases and improve communities' participation in disease control activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weijs, Cynthia A; Coe, Jason B; Hecker, Kent G
Final-year veterinary students must meet baseline clinical competency upon completion of their training for entry to practice. Workplace-based assessments (WBAs), widely used in human medical training to assess post-graduate students' professionalism and clinical performance, have recently been adopted in undergraduate veterinary clinical teaching environments. WBAs should support veterinary trainees' learning in a clinical teaching environment, though utility of WBAs within veterinary education may differ from that in medical training due to differences in context and in learners' stage of clinical development. We conducted focus groups with final-year veterinary students and clinical instructors following the implementation of three WBAs (Direct Observation of Procedural Skills [DOPS], the Mini-Clinical evaluation exercise [Mini-CEX], and the In-Training Evaluation Report [ITER]) during a small-animal primary-veterinary-care rotation. Students and clinical instructors viewed the DOPS and Mini-CEX as feasible and valuable learning and assessment tools that offered an overall opportunity for timely in-the-moment feedback. Instructors viewed the ITER as less feasible in the context of a service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environment. Students believed the ITER had potential to be informative, although in its existing application the ITER had limited utility due to time constraints on instructors that prevented them from providing students with individualized and specific feedback. In service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environments, successful implementation of WBAs requires balancing provision of feedback to students, time demands on clinical instructors, and flexibility of assessment tools.
Babyak, J M; Weiner, D E; Noubary, F; Sharp, C R
The epidemiology of kidney disease is not extensively described in dogs. To better understand the prevalence of elevated serum creatinine concentration in dogs. Client-owned dogs. A retrospective, observational cross-sectional study design was used. We made a dataset of 115,631 hospital visits of all dogs presenting from October 2010 to October 2014. We estimated the prevalence and risk of elevated serum creatinine, defined as >1.6 mg/dL, in evaluated dogs. Of 115,631 visits, 98,693 were outpatient visits and 16,938 were hospital admissions. Among outpatient visits, 9,983 (10.1%) had serum creatinine assessment (4,423 [44.3%] visits were first visits), whereas, among hospital admissions, 12,228 (60.0%) had at least 1 serum creatinine (7,731 [75.6%] admissions were first admissions). The prevalence of elevated serum creatinine concentration in all evaluated dogs was 11.5% (95% CI: 11.0%, 11.9%); 10.2% (95% CI: 9.6%, 10.8%) of inpatients and 12.9% (95% CI: 12.1%, 13.8%) of outpatients had elevated serum creatinine concentration. The relative risk (RR) of elevated serum creatinine concentration was significantly higher in geriatric dogs (outpatient RR 1.45 [95% CI: 1.23, 1.70], inpatient RR 1.43 [95% CI: 1.16, 1.76]) and lower in young dogs (outpatient RR 0.39 [95% CI: 0.26, 0.59], inpatient RR 0.44 [95% CI: 0.32, 0.62]) when compared to the measured population risk. When selected for laboratory evaluation, the proportion of dogs presenting to an academic medical center with evidence of kidney injury is high compared to previous reports and might reflect a population of sicker dogs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Sánchez-Román, Francisco Raúl; Medina-Figueroa, Alda María; Rangel-Zertuche, Ricardo Alfonso; Sánchez-Ramos, Apolinar
To analyze the current situation of teaching occupational medicine (OM) in academic programs and medical schools in Mexico. A descriptive survey was conducted and schools were identified through the main directories of medical schools. For the analysis of information descriptive and inferential statistics were used. A total of 75 medical schools were identified. In 39 (52%) the subject is mandatory, with a predominance in public schools (pschools that offer the subject, only 15 (38%) have professors specialized in OM. Disparity in teaching basic aspects of OM in medical schools explains the little development and social and professional recognition of the specialty; it also highlights serious problems for public health, derived from the lack of prevention of risks in work environments.
Educators are often tasked with developing courses and curricula that teach learners how to perform medical procedures. This instruction must provide an optimal, uniform learning experience for all learners. If not well designed, this instruction risks being unstructured, informal, variable amongst learners, or incomplete. This article shows how an instructional design model can help craft courses and curricula to optimize instruction in performing medical procedures. Educators can use this as a guide to developing their own course instruction.
Medical Education' is the study, research and application of educational processes employed in the training of physicians for continuous quality and standard in the production of competent physicians for improvement of healthcare delivery. It has evolved into a discipline with its own specializations such as Curriculum ...
Matthews, Jacob H; Morley, Gabriella L; Crossley, Eleanor; Bhanderi, Shivam
All health care professionals in the UK are expected to have the medical leadership and management (MLM) skills necessary for improving patient care, as stipulated by the UK General Medical Council (GMC). Newly graduated doctors reported insufficient knowledge about leadership and quality improvement skills, despite all UK medical schools reporting that MLM is taught within their curriculum. A medical student society organised a series of extracurricular educational events focusing on leadership topics. The society recognised that the events needed to be useful and interesting to attract audiences. Therefore, clinical leaders in exciting fields were invited to talk about their experiences and case studies of personal leadership challenges. The emphasis on personal stories, from respected leaders, was a deliberate strategy to attract students and enhance learning. Evaluation data were collected from the audiences to improve the quality of the events and to support a business case for an intercalated degree in MLM. When leadership and management concepts are taught through personal stories, students find it interesting and are prepared to give up their leisure time to engage with the subject. Students appear to recognise the importance of MLM knowledge to their future careers, and are able to organise their own, and their peers', learning and development. Organising these events and collecting feedback can provide students with opportunities to practise leadership, management and quality improvement skills. These extracurricular events, delivered through a student society, allow for subjects to be discussed in more depth and can complement an already crowded undergraduate curriculum. Newly graduated doctors reported insufficient knowledge about leadership and quality improvement skills. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Shevell, Allison Haley; Thomas, Aliki; Fuks, Abraham
Medical schools are confronted with the challenge of teaching professionalism during medical training. The aim of this study was to examine medical students' perceptions of using video clips as a beneficial teaching tool to learn professionalism and other aspects of physicianship. As part of the longitudinal Physician Apprenticeship course at McGill University, first year medical students viewed video clips from the television series ER. The study used qualitative description and thematic analysis to interpret responses to questionnaires, which explored the educational merits of this exercise. Completed questionnaires were submitted by 112 students from 21 small groups. A major theme concerned the students' perceptions of the utility of video clips as a teaching tool, and consisted of comments organized into 10 categories: "authenticity and believability", "thought provoking", "skills and approaches", "setting", "medium", "level of training", "mentorship", "experiential learning", "effectiveness" and "relevance to practice". Another major theme reflected the qualities of physicianship portrayed in video clips, and included seven categories: "patient-centeredness", "communication", "physician-patient relationship", "professionalism", "ethical behavior", "interprofessional practice" and "mentorship". This study demonstrated that students perceived the value of using video clips from a television series as a means of teaching professionalism and other aspects of physicianship.
First-year Medical students' perception of the conventional teaching methods and Problem-based learning curriculum at Walter Sisulu University in Mthatha South Africa. ... Results: The module on computer skills (80%) and Human behavioural sciences (75%) were identified as the least enjoyable subjects to learn.
This cross-sectional study sought to estimate the direct medical cost of Lassa fever treatment on patients in South-South Nigeria. All the 73 confirmed Lassa fever cases admitted in the isolation ward of the Institute Of Lassa Fever Research and Control, Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH) Irrua, in Edo State, Nigeria, ...
Zaninelli, M; Campagnoli, A; Reyes, M; Rojas, V
In order to improve the hospital information system of the Chilean University Hospital, the Veterinary Medicine School of Universidad de Chile made a research cooperation with Università San Raffaele Roma to develop and test a new release of the O3-Vet software application. O3-Vet was selected by the Chilean University mainly for two reasons: (1) it uses human medicine standardized technologies such as "Health Level 7" (HL7) and "Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise" (IHE), which allow a good level of data sharing and hospital management; (2) it is open source, which means it can be adapted to specific hospital needs. In the new release, a subset of diagnostic terms was added from the "Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms" (SNOMED CT), selected by the "American Animal Hospital Association" (AAHA) to standardize the filing of clinical data and its retrieval. Results from a limited survey of veterinarians of the University (n=9) show that the new release improved the management of the Chilean University Hospital and the ability to retrieve useful clinical data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Allibaih, Mohammad; Khan, Lateef M
The current study aims at exploring the possibility of aligning peer assessment, audiovisuals, and medical case-report extracts (vignettes) in medical terminology teaching. In addition, the study wishes to highlight the effectiveness of audio materials and medical history vignettes in preventing medical students' comprehension, listening, writing, and pronunciation errors. The study also aims at reflecting the medical students' attitudes towards the teaching and learning process. The study involved 161 medical students who received an intensive medical terminology course through audio and medical history extracts. Peer assessment and formative assessment platforms were applied through fake quizzes in a pre- and post-test manner. An 18-item survey was distributed amongst students to investigate their attitudes and feedback towards the teaching and learning process. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using the SPSS software. The students did better in the posttests than on the pretests for both the quizzes of audios and medical vignettes showing a t-test of -12.09 and -13.60 respectively. Moreover, out of the 133 students, 120 students (90.22%) responded to the survey questions. The students gave positive attitudes towards the application of audios and vignettes in the teaching and learning of medical terminology and towards the learning process. The current study revealed that the teaching and learning of medical terminology have more room for the application of advanced technologies, effective assessment platforms, and active learning strategies in higher education. It also highlights that students are capable of carrying more responsibilities of assessment, feedback, and e-learning.
Brooks, Lucy; Bell, Dominic
To evaluate the UK undergraduate medical ethics curricula against the Institute of Medical Ethics (IME) recommendations; to identify barriers to teaching and assessment of medical ethics and to evaluate perceptions of ethics faculties on the preparation of tomorrow's doctors for clinical practice. Questionnaire survey of the UK medical schools enquiring about content, structure and location of ethics teaching and learning; teaching and learning processes; assessment; influences over institutional approach to ethics education; barriers to teaching and assessment; perception of student engagement and perception of student preparation for clinical practice. The lead for medical ethics at each medical school was invited to participate (n=33). Completed responses were received from 11/33 schools (33%). 73% (n=8) teach all IME recommended topics within their programme. 64% (n=7) do not include ethics in clinical placement learning objectives. The most frequently cited barrier to teaching was lack of time (64%, n=7), and to assessment was lack of time and suitability of assessments (27%, n=3). All faculty felt students were prepared for clinical practice. IME recommendations are not followed in all cases, and ethics teaching is not universally well integrated into clinical placement. Barriers to assessment lead to inadequacies in this area, and there are few consequences for failing ethics assessments. As such, tomorrow's patients will be treated by doctors who are inadequately prepared for ethical decision making in clinical practice; this needs to be addressed by ethics leads with support from medical school authorities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S
It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.
Lachman, Nirusha; Christensen, Kevin N; Pawlina, Wojciech
Significant increase in the literature regarding "residents as teachers" highlights the importance of providing opportunities and implementing guidelines for continuing medical education and professional growth. While most medical students are enthusiastic about their future role as resident-educators, both students and residents feel uncomfortable teaching their peers due to the lack of necessary skills. However, whilst limited and perhaps only available to select individuals, opportunities for developing good teaching practice do exist and may be identified in courses that offer basic sciences. The Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Mayo Clinic offers a teaching assistant (TA) elective experience to third- and fourth-year medical students through integrated apprenticeship and mentoring during the human structure didactic block. This article, aims to describe a curriculum for a TA elective within the framework of a basic science course through mentoring and apprenticeship. Opportunities for medical students to become TAs, process of TAs' recruitment, mentoring and facilitation of teaching and education research skills, a method for providing feedback and debriefing are described. Developing teaching practice based on apprenticeship and mentoring lends to more accountability to both TA's and course faculty by incorporating universal competencies to facilitate the TA experience.
Urrutia-Aguilar, Maria Esther; Martinez-Gonzalez, Adrian; Rodriguez, Rodolfo
Information overload and recent curricular changes are viewed as important contributory factors to insufficient pharmacological education of medical students. This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of pharmacology teaching in our medical school. The study subjects were 455 second-year medical students, class of 2010, and 26 pharmacology teachers at the National University of Mexico Medical School. To assess pharmacological knowledge, students were required to take 3 multiple-choice exams (70 questions each) as part of their evaluation in the pharmacology course. A 30-item questionnaire was used to explore the students' opinion on teaching. Pharmacology professors evaluated themselves using a similar questionnaire. Students and teachers rated each statement on a 5-point Likert scale. The groups' exam scores ranged from 54.5% to 90.0% of correct responses, with a mean score of 77.3%. Only 73 (16%) of 455 students obtained an exam score of 90% and higher. Students' evaluations of faculty and professor self-ratings were very high (90% and 96.2%, of the maximal response, respectively). Student and professor ratings were not correlated with exam scores (r = 0.291). Our study shows that knowledge on pharmacology is incomplete in a large proportion of second-year medical students and indicates that there is an urgent need to review undergraduate training in pharmacology. The lack of relationship between the subjective ratings of teacher effectiveness and objective exam scores suggests the use of more demanding measures to assess the effectiveness of teaching.
Modi, Jyoti Nath; Anshu, -; Chhatwal, Jugesh; Gupta, Piyush; Singh, Tejinder
Good communication skills are essential for an optimal doctor-patient relationship, and also contribute to improved health outcomes. Although the need for training in communication skills is stated as a requirement in the 1997 Graduate Medical Education Regulations of the Medical Council of India, formal training in these skills has been fragmentary and non-uniform in most Indian curricula. The Vision 2015 document of the Medical Council of India reaffirms the need to include training in communication skills in the MBBS curriculum. Training in communication skills needs approaches which are different from that of teaching other clinical subjects. It is also a challenge to ensure that students not only imbibe the nuances of communication and interpersonal skills, but adhere to them throughout their careers. This article addresses the possible ways of standardizing teaching and assessment of communication skills and integrating them into the existing curriculum.
Posey, R Daniel; Hoffsis, Glen F; Cullor, James S; Naylor, Jonathan M; Chaddock, Michael; Ames, Trevor R
The real and/or perceived shortage of veterinarians serving food-supply veterinary medicine has been a topic of considerable discussion for decades. Regardless of this debate, there are issues still facing colleges of veterinary medicine (CVMs) about the best process of educating future food-supply veterinarians. Over the past several years, there have been increasing concerns by some that the needs of food-supply veterinary medicine have not adequately been met through veterinary educational institutions. The food-supply veterinary medical curriculum offered by individual CVMs varies depending on individual curricular design, available resident animal population, available food-animal caseload, faculty, and individual teaching efforts of faculty. All of the institutional members of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) were requested to share their Food Animal Veterinary Career Incentives Programs. The AAVMC asked all member institutions what incentives they used to attract and educate students interested in, or possibly considering, a career in food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). The problem arises as to how we continue to educate veterinary students with ever shrinking budgets and how to recruit and retain faculty with expertise to address the needs of society. Several CVMs use innovative training initiatives to help build successful FSVM programs. This article focuses on dairy, beef, and swine food-animal education and does not characterize colleges' educational efforts in poultry and aquaculture. This review highlights the individual strategies used by the CVMs in the United States.
Latimer, Sharon; Hewitt, Jayne; Stanbrough, Rebecca; McAndrew, Ron
Medication errors are a patient safety and quality of care issue. There is evidence to suggest many undergraduate nursing curricula do not adequately educate students about the factors that contribute to medication errors and possible strategies to prevent them. We designed and developed a suite of teaching strategies that raise students' awareness of medication error producing situations and their prevention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study conducted a needs assessment for developing teaching competencies of medical educators by assessing their perceived ability to perform teaching competencies as well as their perceived importance of these competencies. Additionally, this study examined whether there were any differences in needs assessments scores among three faculty groups. Hundred and eighteen professors from Dong-A University College of Medicine were surveyed, and the data from 44 professors who answered all the questions were analyzed using IBM SPSS 21. The needs assessment tool measured participants' perceived ability to perform teaching competencies and perceived importance of these competencies. The Borich formula was used to calculate needs assessment scores. The most urgent needs for faculty development were identified for the teaching competencies of "diagnosis and reflection," followed by "test and feedback," and "facilitation." Additionally, two, out of 51, items with the highest needs assessment scores were "developing a thorough course syllabus" and "introducing students to the course syllabus on the first day of class." The assistant professor group scored significantly higher on educational needs related to "facilitation," "affection and concern for students," and "respect for diversity" competencies than the professor group. Furthermore, the educational needs scores for all the teaching competencies except "diagnosis and reflection," "global mindset," and "instructional management" were higher for the assistant professor group than the other two faculty groups. Thus, the educational needs assessment scores obtained in this study can be used as criteria for designing and developing faculty development programs for medical educators.
Full Text Available Tzu-Chieh Yu¹, Nichola C Wilson², Primal P Singh¹, Daniel P Lemanu¹, Susan J Hawken³, Andrew G Hill¹¹South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ²Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ³Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandIntroduction: International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice.Objective: To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students.Method: A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes.Results: From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective
Full Text Available Aarti Bansal,1 Jennifer Swann,1 William Henry Smithson2 1Academic Unit of Primary Medical Care, University of Sheffield, UK; 2Department of General Practice, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland Abstract: The ability to work with interpreters is a core skill for UK medical graduates. At the University of Sheffield Medical School, this teaching was identified as a gap in the curriculum. Teaching was developed to use professional interpreters in role-play, based on evidence that professional interpreters improve health outcomes for patients with limited English proficiency. Other principles guiding the development of the teaching were an experiential learning format, integration to the core consultation skills curriculum, and sustainable delivery. The session was aligned with existing consultation skills teaching to retain the small-group experiential format and general practitioner (GP tutor. Core curricular time was found through conversion of an existing consultation skills session. Language pairs of professional interpreters worked with each small group, with one playing patient and the other playing interpreter. These professional interpreters attended training in the scenarios so that they could learn to act as patient and family interpreter. GP tutors attended training sessions to help them facilitate the session. This enhanced the sustainability of the session by providing a cohort of tutors able to pass on their expertise to new staff through the existing shadowing process. Tutors felt that the involvement of professional interpreters improved student engagement. Student evaluation of the teaching suggests that the learning objectives were achieved. Faculty evaluation by GP tutors suggests that they perceived the teaching to be worthwhile and that the training they received had helped improve their own clinical practice in consulting through interpreters. We offer the following recommendations to others who may be interested in
Kerker, Ann E.; Malamud, Judie
This course guide outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on the literature of veterinary medicine. Topics covered include: (1) an introduction to veterinary medicine as a discipline, including comparison with other medical sciences, veterinary medicine education, licensure, animal models, veterinary…
Jones, Bruce Vivash
The American Veterinary Medical Association is marking its 150th anniversary in 2013, celebrating '150 years of education, science and service'. As Bruce Vivash Jones explains, veterinary surgeons from the UK played a key role in establishing a system of veterinary education in North America.
Martinsen, Siri; Jukes, Nick
There is a vast array of learning tools and approaches to veterinary education, many tried and true, many innovative and with potential. Such new methods have come about partly from an increasing demand from both students and teachers to avoid methods of teaching and training that harm animals. The aim is to create the best quality education, ideally supported by validation of the efficacy of particular educational tools and approaches, while ensuring that animals are not used harmfully and that respect for animal life is engendered within the student. In this paper, we review tools and approaches that can be used in the teaching of veterinary students, tools and approaches that ensure the dignity and humane treatment of animals that all teachers and students must observe as the very ethos of the veterinary profession that they serve. Veterinary education has not always met, and still often does not meet, this essential criterion.
Clara N Kwanashie; Kingsley Oputeh; Emmanuel Ochefije Ngbede
A retrospective study to determine the pattern of isolation of mastitis causing organisms from milk samples of cattle, sheep and goats submitted to the Microbiology laboratory of the Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology Ahmadu Bello University Zaria from 1980-1991 and 1999-2009 was conducted. The samples were subjected to cultural isolation and biochemical characterization. The results of the isolates were assembled, reviewed and summarised. A total of 227 milk samples were sub...
Malher, Xavier; Bareille, Nathalie; Noordhuizen, Jos P T M; Seegers, Henri
A case-based learning (CBL) format was implemented at the Veterinary School of Nantes, France, for veterinary students in their last year of the curriculum who had chosen to track toward a farm animal career. The focus of the CBL format was learning about dairy herd health consultancy. The goal was to emphasize teamwork among students, introduce professional communications and advisory relationships with clients, and work within the technical and economic limitations of participating farms. These farms volunteered to participate and had identified a problem. The learning objectives included gaining basic knowledge of herd-level diseases and the methods to control these within herds. The program focused on health audits of dairy farms performed by teams of four to five students, culminating in submission of a herd health management action plan specific for the farm visited by each team. The CBL program was comprised of defined learning objectives for each team. The learning process was supervised, from orientation through to validation, by a panel of experts from within the veterinary school and from local industry. Teams submitted written reports that listed recommendations and an action plan for implementation. This report was defended by each team in front of the farmers, their professional partners, and the panel of supervisors. Assessment of the program by students, participating farms, and industry professionals was positive.
Srinivasan, Malathi; Li, Su-Ting T; Meyers, Fredrick J; Pratt, Daniel D; Collins, John B; Braddock, Clarence; Skeff, Kelley M; West, Daniel C; Henderson, Mark; Hales, Robert E; Hilty, Donald M
Most medical faculty receive little or no training about how to be effective teachers, even when they assume major educational leadership roles. To identify the competencies required of an effective teacher in medical education, the authors developed a comprehensive conceptual model. After conducting a literature search, the authors met at a two-day conference (2006) with 16 medical and nonmedical educators from 10 different U.S. and Canadian organizations and developed an initial draft of the "Teaching as a Competency" conceptual model. Conference participants used the physician competencies (from the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education [ACGME]) and the roles (from the Royal College's Canadian Medical Education Directives for Specialists [CanMEDS]) to define critical skills for medical educators. The authors then refined this initial framework through national/regional conference presentations (2007, 2008), an additional literature review, and expert input. Four core values grounded this framework: learner engagement, learner-centeredness, adaptability, and self-reflection. The authors identified six core competencies, based on the ACGME competencies framework: medical (or content) knowledge; learner- centeredness; interpersonal and communication skills; professionalism and role modeling; practice-based reflection; and systems-based practice. They also included four specialized competencies for educators with additional programmatic roles: program design/implementation, evaluation/scholarship, leadership, and mentorship. The authors then cross-referenced the competencies with educator roles, drawing from CanMEDS, to recognize role-specific skills. The authors have explored their framework's strengths, limitations, and applications, which include targeted faculty development, evaluation, and resource allocation. The Teaching as a Competency framework promotes a culture of effective teaching and learning.
Holling, Markus; Stummer, Walter; Friederichs, Hendrik
To establish and evaluate a new approach to teach medical students how to assess brain death in patients. A total of 120 fourth-year medical students at Münster Medical School (Germany) participated in a 1-hour lecture on how to assess brain death in patients. After this lecture, students were assigned to 2 groups. One group attended an additional practical course on the evaluation of brain death and received training using a new high-fidelity simulation device. The other group did not participate in any additional training session. All students completed a questionnaire before the lecture and a second questionnaire at the conclusion of the study. For the group undergoing the additional training, the second questionnaire was completed after the additional training session. The additional practical training session significantly improved the students' performance in assessing brain death and promoted the self-assessment and motivation of the medical students. The establishment of a new practical teaching concept led to significant improvements in medical students' assessments of brain death in a practical session. These improvements in medical education could have significant implications for the clinical assessment of patients in the future. Copyright © 2015 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allavena, Rachel E; Schaffer-White, Andrea B; Long, Hanna; Alawneh, John I
The goal of the study was to evaluate alternative student-centered approaches that could replace autopsy sessions and live demonstration, and to explore refinements in assessment procedures for standardized cardiac dissection. Simulators and videos were identified as feasible, economical, student-centered teaching methods for technical skills training in medical contexts, and a direct comparison was undertaken. A low-fidelity anatomically correct simulator approximately the size of a horse's heart with embedded dissection pathways was constructed and used with a series of laminated photographs of standardized cardiac dissection. A video of a standardized cardiac dissection of a normal horse's heart was recorded and presented with audio commentary. Students were allowed to nominate a preference for learning method, and students who indicated no preference were randomly allocated to keep group numbers even. Objective performance data from an objective structure assessment criterion and student perception data on confidence and competency from surveys showed both innovations were similarly effective. Evaluator reflections as well as usage logs to track patterns of student use were both recorded. A strong selection preference was identified for kinesthetic learners choosing the simulator and visual learners choosing the video. Students in the video cohort were better at articulating the reasons for dissection procedures and sequence due to the audio commentary, and student satisfaction was higher with the video. The major conclusion of this study was that both methods are effective tools for technical skills training, but consideration should to be given to the preferred learning style of adult learners to maximize educational outcomes.
Steinman, Amir; Masarwa, Samira; Tirosh-Levy, Sharon; Gleser, Dan; Kelmer, Gal; Adler, Amos; Carmeli, Yehuda; Schwaber, Mitchell J
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection and colonization, involving MRSA strains which differ from common human health care-associated clones, have become serious emerging conditions in equine veterinary hospitals. In 2010, MRSA spa type t535 caused an outbreak involving both horses and personnel in a veterinary teaching hospital in Israel. Since then, surveillance continued, and occasional MRSA isolation occurred. Two years later, MRSA of another spa type, t002, was isolated from a veterinarian and, 3 weeks later, from a horse. The appearance of spa type t002, a common clone in human medicine in Israel, among both personnel and horses, prompted a point-prevalence survey of hospital personnel and hospitalized horses. Fifty-nine staff members (n = 16 equine; n = 43, other) and 14 horses were screened. Ten of 59 staff members (16.9%) and 7 of 14 horses (50%) were MRSA carriers. Among the staff, 44% of large animal department (LAD) personnel, compared with only 7% of non-LAD personnel, were carriers. Isolates from all horses and from 9 of 10 personnel were found to be of MRSA spa type t002. This clone was later isolated from an infected postoperative wound in a hospitalized horse. Measures were taken to contain transmission between horses and personnel, as was done in the previous outbreak, resulting in reduction of transmission and, finally, cessation of cross-transmission between horses and personnel. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Jørgensen, Merete; Witt, Klaus; Fridorff-Jens, Peter Kindt
of a student includes a test-video of a consultation with the student in the doctor role, seeing a real patient, and the student´s skills in the subsequent analysis of the communication process according to its patientcentredness. The aim of the study is to measure the effect of adding access to 16 video cases......Teaching consultation skills to medical students using e-learning. Introduction: We have been teaching Family Medicine at the University of Copenhagen for more than twenty years. We wish to develop a method to evaluate the current teaching of consultation skills and the effect of new interventions...... of the ten items. The students were able to identify more elements in the test-video, related to patient function, to inform the patient properly, the use of summarizing and safety-netting Conclusion On-line video cases used interactively in the classroom sessions increase the students’ skills in analysing...
Buyck, David; Lang, Forrest
Evidence suggests that strategies used in teaching communication skills vary widely among, and within, medical education programs. Such variance also exists in the amount of emphasis placed on specific communication skills. This study examines the degree of variability among medical faculty in identifying opportunities for teaching communication skills. Sixty-seven medical faculty (physicians and behavioral scientists) reviewed a videotaped interview of a clinician with a standardized patient. Using a transcript of the interview, participants identified moments in the tape they believed warranted an instructional intervention to reinforce or modify the clinician's communication skills. Items identified by the participants were compared to items identified by a panel of experts. Frequencies and ANOVAs were used to report on consistency and on consistency as a function of faculty experience and educational background. Faculty demonstrated marked differences in identifying teachable moments across all six communication categories: (1) rapport building, (2) agenda setting, (3) information management, (4) active listening for the patient's perspective, (5) responding to emotion, and(6) skills in reaching common ground. Of 67 respondents, 29.6% identified none of the opportunities to teach rapport building, while only 31% identified all opportunities; 32.8% identified none of the information management opportunities, 26.9% identified all; 77.6% failed to identify the agenda-setting opportunity, 22% did identify the opportunity; 25.4% identified none of the active listening opportunities, 9% identified all; 57.6% identified none of the responding to emotion opportunities, 18% identified all; 35.8% did not identify the opportunity for reaching common ground, 64% did identify the opportunity. Our findings demonstrate that faculty who teach communications vary widely in the issues that they identify and about which they chose to teach. Recommendations are made for further
Garg, A; Buckman, R; Kason, Y
PROGRAM OBJECTIVE: To teach medical students to break bad news to patients and their families empathically and competently. Seven teaching hospitals affiliated with the University of Toronto since 1987. All medical students in their third preclinical year. The course presents a 6-point protocol to guide students in breaking bad news and comprises 2 half-day (3-hour) teaching sessions. Each session incorporates a video presentation, a discussion period and small-group teaching, consisting of exercises followed by 4 different role-playing scenarios conducted with the use of standardized patients. The course was evaluated through 2 questionnaires, 1 administered before and 1 after the course, which measured changes in the students' attitude and strategy. Questionnaires were administered during 5 of the years since the course was started. A total of 914 precourse and 503 postcourse questionnaires were completed, of which 359 matched pairs of precourse and postcourse questionnaires were analysed to study any changes due to the course. Precourse questionnaires showed that 68% of the students had thought about the task of breaking bad news often or very often. Of the 56% of students who had seen clinicians performing this task, 75% felt that they had seen good examples. The proportion of the students who had a plan for how to conduct such an interview rose from 49% before the course to 92% after it, and the proportion who felt they might be reasonably competent in breaking bad news rose from 23% before the course to 74% after it. The subject of breaking bad news is important to medical students, and it is practicable to design a course to teach the basic techniques involved. Most students perceive such a course as enjoyable and useful and find that it increases their sense of competence and their ability to formulate a strategy for such situations.
Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources; Board on Higher Education and Workforce; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Policy and Global Affairs; National Research Council
In a study of the issues related to the veterinary medical workforce, including demographics, workforce supply, trends affecting job availability, and capacity of the educational system to fill future...
... Brian M. Atwell Dr. Atw The dangerous dog debate November 15,2017 Breed bans are popular, but ... of companion animals January 19,2017 The AVMA House of Delegates (HOD) has approved a new policy ...
Full Text Available Climate change threatens many of the gains in development and health over the last century. However, it could also be a catalyst for a necessary societal transformation to a sustainable and healthy future. Doctors have a crucial role in climate change mitigation and health system adaptation to prepare for emergent health threats and a carbon-constrained future. This paper argues that climate change should be integrated into medical education for three reasons: first, to prepare students for clinical practice in a climate-changing world; secondly, to promote public health and eco-health literacy; and finally, to deepen existing learning and strengthen graduate attributes. This paper builds on existing literature and the authors’ experience to outline potential learning objectives, teaching methods and assessment tasks. In the wake of recent progress at the United Nations climate change conference, COP-21, it is hoped that this paper will assist universities to integrate teaching about climate change into medical education.
Bruns, Florian; Chelouche, Tessa
Nazi medicine and its atrocities have been explored in depth over the past few decades, but scholars have started to examine medical ethics under Nazism only in recent years. Given the medical crimes and immoral conduct of physicians during the Third Reich, it is often assumed that Nazi medical authorities spurned ethics. However, in 1939, Germany introduced mandatory lectures on ethics as part of the medical curriculum. Course catalogs and archival sources show that lectures on ethics were an integral part of the medical curriculum in Germany between 1939 and 1945. Nazi officials established lecturer positions for the new subject area, named Medical Law and Professional Studies, at every medical school. The appointed lecturers were mostly early members of the Nazi Party and imparted Nazi political and moral values in their teaching. These values included the unequal worth of human beings, the moral imperative of preserving a pure Aryan people, the authoritarian role of the physician, the individual's obligation to stay healthy, and the priority of public health over individual-patient care. This article shows that there existed not only a Nazi version of medical ethics but also a systematic teaching of such ethics to students in Nazi Germany. The findings illustrate that, from a historical point of view, the notion of "eternal values" that are inherent to the medical profession is questionable. Rather, the prevailing medical ethos can be strongly determined by politics and the zeitgeist and therefore has to be repeatedly negotiated.
Papanna, K M; Kulkarni, V; Tanvi, D; Lakshmi, V; Kriti, L; Unnikrishnan, B; Akash, S; Tejesh, S; Sumit Kumar, S
In the complex setting of a medical school it becomes essential to utilize an approach to teaching and learning that is best suited to the needs of the students. In developing countries like India, where there is an exponential increase of institutions catering to medical students, it becomes a challenge to teach to large number of students per class. Hence, research is needed to identify the needs of students in relation to their day to day learning activities. To understand the preferences and perception of medical students about the current methods of teaching, aids used for teaching and also identify barriers in learning as perceived by the students. A Cross-sectional study was carried out at Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore during May 2012. Study participants included 2(nd) and 3(rd) year medical students. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect the information in relation to preferences and perceptions regarding teaching methods utilized for theory and clinical teaching. SPSS version 11.5 was used for analysis of data. The association between variables of interest was tested using Chi-square test. A total of 286 students (56.6 % females and 43.4% males) participated with a dropout rate of 10.6%. The study revealed that 71.3% of the students had an attendance above 75%. The most preferred teaching method was Problem Based Learning (PBL) (71.4%) as students felt that it enhanced lateral thinking while Didactic Lectures was the least preferred (32.8%). The most preferred modality of teaching aid was found to be Black board preferred by 46.9% students. In learning rare signs and cases, students preferred video lectures (41%) and mannequins (75.9%) in learning clinical skills. The main barrier in theory learning identified was inappropriate teaching methods (15%) and being new to clinical posting (38.5%) in case of learning clinical skills. The findings of the study suggest that a combination of traditional methods with other methods such as PBL
Full Text Available Aim: To create sustained improvements in medical students’ critical thinking skills through short teaching interventions in pharmacology. Method: The ability to make professional decisions was assessed by providing year-4 medical students at a UK medical school with a novel medical scenario (antenatal pertussis vaccination. Forty-seven students in the 2012 cohort acted as a pretest group, answering a questionnaire on this novel scenario. To improve professional decision-making skills, 48 students from the 2013 cohort were introduced to three commonly used medications, through tutor-led 40-min teaching interventions, among six small groups using a structured presentation of evidence-based medicine and ethical considerations. Student members then volunteered to peer-teach on a further three medications. After a gap of 8 weeks, this cohort (post-test group was assessed for professional decision-making skills using the pretest questionnaire, and differences in the 2-year groups analysed. Results: Students enjoyed presenting on medications to their peers but had difficulty interpreting studies and discussing ethical dimensions; this was improved by contextualising information via patient scenarios. After 8 weeks, most students did not show enhanced clinical curiosity, a desire to understand evidence, or ethical questioning when presented with a novel medical scenario compared to the previous year group who had not had the intervention. Students expressed a high degree of trust in guidelines and expert tutors and felt that responsibility for their own actions lay with these bodies. Conclusion: Short teaching interventions in pharmacology did not lead to sustained improvements in their critical thinking skills in enhancing professional practice. It appears that students require earlier and more frequent exposure to these skills in their medical training.
Chukwuebuka Iniobong Ikenna Ugochukwu
Full Text Available Objective: To determine the incidence of Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis in dogs using the wet mount and buffy coat techniques for rapid detection of microfilaria in blood samples collected from dogs, to compare the two techniques for quick detection, to find if there is age susceptibility in the incidence of dirofilariasis in dogs presented at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Nigeria, Nsukka and to find out if there are breed and sex variations in the incidence of dirofilariasis in dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Methods: Blood samples were collected from the cephalic vein of 119 dogs. The blood samples were aseptically collected via cephalic venepuncture of each dog, collected into a tube containing ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid as anticoagulant, stored in an ice pack box at 5 °C and processed and examined for microfilaria using wet mount and buffy coat techniques. Results: A total of 4 dogs were positive for D. immitis microfilaria giving a prevalence of 3.36%, more male (4.83% than female (1.75% dogs were affected in this study. Although there was no significant difference between both groups, the prevalence was the highest in cross breeds (6.66%, moderate in local breeds (3.63% and absent in exotic breeds (0.00%. Although there was no significant (P < 0.05 difference amongst the 3 groups, only adult dogs were found positive for D. immitis microfilaria. Conclusions: Based on the results of this present study, both the wet mount and buffy coat techniques can be used at the discretion of the clinician and in the absence of modified Knott’s filter test, ELISA test and other diagnostic imaging techniques, in the rapid detection of microfilaria in blood samples from suspected cases of dirofilariasis.
Schmidt, Peggy L; Trevejo, Rosalie T; Tkalcic, Suzana
As detailed in the Association of Schools of Public Health / Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges 2007 Joint Symposium on Veterinary Public Health, veterinary public health (VPH) can no longer be viewed as a unique sub-specialty of veterinary medicine. Rather, its practice pervades nearly every aspect of the veterinary profession, regardless of whether the practitioner is engaged in small-animal, large-animal, research, corporate, or military practice. In congruence with the practice of VPH, the teaching of VPH should also pervade nearly every aspect of veterinary education. Accordingly, at Western University of Health Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine (WU-CVM), public health is not simply taught as an individual course but, rather, is interwoven into almost every aspect of the curriculum, continually emphasizing the relevance of this discipline to the practice of veterinary medicine. This article outlines the teaching philosophy of WU-CVM, provides an overview of the curriculum, and describes the integral nature of public health throughout all four years of the educational program.
Jacinto, Alessandro Ferrari; Leite, Ananda Ghelfi Raza; Neto, José Luiz de Lima; Vidal, Edison Iglesias de Oliveira; Bôas, Paulo José Fortes Villas
Underdeveloped nations have the largest absolute number of the world's elderly population. Approximately 10.7% of the Brazilian population comprises aged individuals. Aging populations are associated with a higher incidence of chronic degenerative diseases such as dementia. Demented individuals place a high burden of care on healthcare systems and family members. General practitioners should be able to diagnose the most common elderly diseases such as dementia since they act as gatekeepers to specialized care. In Brazil, many medical students work as general practitioners upon graduating. The present study shows some scenarios of medical schools worldwide, including Brazilian, regarding teaching on dementia. PMID:29213949
Al-Eraky, Mohamed M; Donkers, Jeroen; Wajid, Gohar; Van Merrienboer, Jeroen J G
Professionalism must be explicitly taught, but teaching professionalism is challenging, because medical teachers are not prepared to teach this content area. This study aims at designing and evaluating a faculty development programme on learning and teaching professionalism in the Arabian context. Programme development: The study used a participatory design, where four authors and 28 teachers shared the responsibility in programme design in three steps: orientation workshop for teachers, vignette development, and teaching professionalism to students. The workshop provided the cognitive base on the salient attributes of professionalism in the Arabian context. After the workshop, authors helped teachers to develop a total of 32 vignettes in various clinical aspects, portraying a blend of professionalism dilemmas. A battery of seven questions/triggers was suggested to guide students' reflection. The programme was evaluated with regard to its "construct" and its "outcomes". The programme has fulfilled the guiding principles for its design and it has emerged from a genuine professionalism framework from local scholarly studies in the Arabian context. Programme outcomes were evaluated at the four levels of Kirkpatrick's model; reaction, learning, behaviour, and results. The study communicates a number of context-specific issues that should be considered when teaching professionalism in Arabian culture with respect to teachers and students. Three lessons were learned from developing vignettes, as reported by the authors. This study advocates the significance of transforming faculty development from the training discourse of stand-alone interventions to mentorship paradigm of the communities of learning. A three-step approach (orientation workshop, vignettes development, and teaching professionalism) proved effective for faculty development for learning and teaching of professionalism. Professionalism can be taught using vignettes that demonstrate professionalism dilemmas
Physicians have to visit, diagnose and refer patients with genetic disorders, so they need to be familiar with the basics and indications of genetic tests. In other words, they should have effective theoretical and practical knowledge about medical genetics before they do their job. Medical genetics courses at Medical Universities of Iran are generally presented as a theoretical subject in the first period of medical education. In this descriptive research, the results of interviews with teachers of medical genetics in 30 medical schools in Islamic Republic of Iran and responses to a questionnaire by 125 medical students of Ahvaz Jundishapour University of medical sciences, about presentation time, curricula and also efficacy of medical genetics courses were analyzed. The interviews with teachers were done on phone and the students' comments were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed, using SPSS software, version 14. In two thirds of medical universities, medical genetics is taught in the third or fourth semester and in 5 universities in the fifth semester. 86% of the students believed that the quality of genetics courses is moderate and such courses are very beneficial to medical students. This article suggests that medical genetics be offered in the second or third period of medical education (physiopathology or stagger period). Furthermore, in teaching such courses advanced educational methods (animation presentation, case-based learning, problem-based learning, etc.) should be used, together with simple genetic tests in laboratories, and the visit of genetic patients in hospitals and genetics centers.
Burgess, Annette; Oates, Kim; Goulston, Kerry
By observation of role models, and participation in activities, students develop their attitudes, values and professional competencies. Literature suggests that clinical skills and knowledge, personality, and teaching skills are three main areas that students consider central to the identification of positive role models. The aim of this study was to explore junior medical students' opinions of the ideal attributes of a good role model in clinical tutors. The study was conducted with one cohort (n = 301) of students who had completed year 1 of the medical programme in 2013. All students were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding the ideal attributes of a good role model in a clinical tutor. The questionnaire consisted of seven closed items and one open-ended question. The response rate to the questionnaire was 265/301 (88%). Although students found all three key areas important in a good role model, students emphasised the importance of excellence in teaching skills. Specifically, students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment, a good understanding of the curriculum and an ability to cater to the learning needs of all students. Students see good role models as being able to provide a constructive learning environment While acknowledging the importance of a patient-centred approach, as well as clinical knowledge and skills, our findings reinforce the importance of the actual teaching abilities of role models within medical education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Stirrat, Gordon M
The development of learning, teaching and assessment of medical ethics and law over the last 40 years is reflected upon with particular reference to the roles of the London Medical Group, the Society for the Study of Medical Ethics, its successor Institute of Medical Ethics; the Journal of Medical Ethics and the General Medical Council. Several current issues are addressed. Although the situation seems incomparably better than it was 40 years ago, the relatively recent events in Mid Staffordshire National Health Service (NHS) Foundation Trust show we cannot be complacent. Whatever role we have in the NHS or medical education, we must all strive to make sure it never happens again. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Foster, Derek M; Sylvester, Hannah J; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M
The Bovine Educational Symposium (BES) is a unique opportunity for North Carolina State University (NCSU) veterinary students to visit dairy farms, feedlots, cow-calf operations, and processing facilities, and to meet local bovine veterinarians. We hypothesized that this active learning opportunity would increase knowledge, change perceptions of animal agriculture and food-animal medicine, and provide skills that persist beyond graduation. Pre- and post-trip surveys were administered to 124 first-, second-, and third-year veterinary students attending BES over 3 years. The surveys assessed students' perceived competence with regard to 12 key areas of bovine practice, attitudes toward segments of the cattle industry, attitudes to veterinarians' role in these segments, and interest in a career in bovine practice. Content knowledge was assessed using a multiple-choice test for comparison to self-assessments. A control group of 10 fourth-year students was administered the same tests before and after a 2-week food-animal clinical rotation. A convenience sample of nine BES alumni were interviewed to assess their opinion on the educational impact of BES. BES participants exhibited significant gains in perceived competence and actual knowledge in all 12 areas, and they also had improved perceptions of animal agriculture and increased interest in food-animal careers. Benefits noted by alumni ranged from improved knowledge of basic concepts of biosecurity and population medicine, to greater appreciation for professional skills including client communication. Immersing pre-clinical veterinary students in an active learning environment can have a significant impact on their knowledge and perception of food-animal medicine, irrespective of students' ultimate career goals.
Berman, Anthony C
Educators have tried for many years to define teaching and effective teachers. More specifically, medical educators have tried to define what characteristics are common to successful teachers in the healthcare arena. The goal of teacher educators has long been to determine what makes an effective teacher so that they could do a better job of preparing future teachers to have a positive impact on the learning of their students. Medical educators have explored what makes some of their colleagues more able than others to facilitate the development of healthcare professionals who can successfully and safely meet the needs of future patients. Although there has historically been disagreement regarding the characteristics that need be developed in order for teachers to be effective, educational theorists have consistently agreed that becoming an effective teacher is a complex task. Such discussions have been central to deciding what education at any level is really all about. By exploring the literature and reflecting upon the personal experiences encountered in his lengthy career as a teacher, and as a teacher of teachers, the author reaches the conclusions that teaching is both art and science, that "good teaching is good teaching" regardless of the learning environment or the subject to be explored, and that the characteristics making up an effective medical educator are really not much different than those making up effective educators in any other area. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.
Chinawa, Josephat M; Manyike, Pius; Chukwu, B; Eke, C B; Isreal, Odetunde Odutola; Chinawa, A T
Medical education is always in a state of dynamic equilibrium with continuous evolution of new techniques in teaching and learning. Objective of this study is to determine medical students' perception on preferences of teaching and learning. A total of 207 medical students participated in the study. Most (73.9%) of them were males while the modal age group was 23-25 years. Majority (57.5%) of the students belong the middle socioeconomic class and 65.7% resided within the hostel. Majority of the students (48.8%) believe two hours is enough to per lecture. Among the five different teaching-learning methods investigated, use of multimedia methods was found to be most effective. There exist a statistically significant association was found only in gender with regular oral examinations (Χ2 = 4.5, df = 1, p = 0.03) and socioeconomic class with dictation of lecture notes (Χ2 = 17.9, df = 9, p = 0.03). The present day medical student will end up as a good clinician if modern techniques of teaching and communication skills of the lecturers are adopted.
Full Text Available Homeopathy is an alternative medicine practice, which has been used for the past 200 years but, until now, scientific methods have not proven its effectiveness. The use of highly diluted natural substances based on the principal that similar heals similar is contrary to the scientific theories of the conventional medicine. In veterinary medicine homeopathic remedies are most frequently used for chronic conditions of small animals, but also their application in organic farming is increasing. Minimal number of clinical studies about the use of homeopathy in veterinary medicine has been published in scientific literature. The results of effectiveness are contradictory, which can be explained by being a consequence of different research methodologies. However, there is a significant inverse proportionality between the quality of research and results that approve of the use of homeopathy. In evidence based veterinary medicine scientific approach is fundamental for objective diagnostics and treatment prescription, and homeopathy is an excellent teaching model for possible methodological failures in scientific research. Key words: homeopathy, alternative medicine, evidence based veterinary medicine
Milorad Radakovic is a teaching fellow in veterinary public health (VPH) at the University of Cambridge. Here, he explains why he believes the challenges in this field of veterinary medicine make for an exciting career path. In a second article to be published in Vet Record Careers next week, he will share some of his own experiences of working in this field. British Veterinary Association.
Gaucher, Sonia; Thabut, Dominique
Determinants of career choice are numerous. The impact of teaching has not yet been reported. The objectives were to assess determinants of career choice among DCEM 4 (sixth year) medical students at Paris Descartes University and Pierre-et-Marie-Curie University; and to determine the impact of teaching on career choice. Prospective study based on an online survey, after the 2011 National Grading Examination, among 865 DCEM 4 students. Collection of socio-demographic data, commonly reported determinants of medical specialty choice, and the impact of the teaching on this choice. Two hundred and seven (24%) students (67% female) answered the survey. During their medical studies, students changed their mind on their career choice an average of 3 times (range 0-10). Nearly 60% of them made their final choice during the fifth year. Choices varied significantly between the beginning and end of the studies (Pcareers falling significantly (Pcareers were mainly chosen by male students (19.8% of males vs. 9.9% of females, P=0.04), whereas medical careers were chosen equally by males and females (37.7% vs. 35.5%, P=0.75). The main determinant was interest in the specialty (96% of students), followed by perceived quality of life (56% of students). Teaching was a determinant for 74% of students, of whom 88% were influenced by the teaching they received during their clinical training. In 42% of cases, the teacher did not belong to the university corpus. In 10% of cases, students were discouraged from their choice by a teacher (a university professor in 50%). Our results highlight the impact of both teaching and the teacher on medical students' career choice. If career choice is now compelled in France by the "careers law", teaching is more than ever an effective way of interesting students in specialties which might appear less attractive. At a time when the selection of candidates for hospital-university careers is mainly based on publications, this study calls for reflection
Hartford, W; Nimmon, L; Stenfors, T
Few medical teachers have received formal teaching education. Along with individual and organizational barriers to participation in teacher training programs, increasing numbers and altered distribution of physicians away from major teaching centers have increased the difficulty of attendance. Furthermore, it is not known if traditional faculty development formats are the optimal learning options given findings from existing studies document both positive and negative outcomes. There is a gap in research that explores how medical teachers learn to teach and also limited research regarding how medical teachers actually teach. The purpose of this study was to provide insight into how physicians describe their teaching of trainees, and the nature of their teaching development and improvement to inform faculty development programs. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 36 physicians, with a broad range of teaching experience, purposefully selected from five disciplines: Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, Psychiatry, Surgery, and Family Medicine. A qualitative, inductive approach was used to analyse the data. Teaching was described as being centered on the needs of individual trainees, but was dependent on patient presentation and environmental context. For this group of physicians learning to teach was perceived as a dynamic and evolving process influenced by multiple life experiences. The physicians had not learnt to teach through formal education and then put that learning into practice, but had learnt to teach and improve their teaching through their trial and errors teaching. Life experiences unconnected with the medical environment contributed to their knowledge of teaching along with limited formal learning to teach experiences. Teaching practice was influenced by peers and trainees, feedback, and observation. The findings suggest these medical teachers learn to teach along a continuum largely through their teaching practice. The findings suggested that the
Famakinwa, Abisola; Fabiny, Anne
Forty medical residents from major teaching hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts, participated in small group teaching sessions about caregiver stress. A teaching tool was developed that included a teaching handout, interactive cases, standard instruments for assessing caregiver stress, peer-reviewed articles about caregiving, and a list of…
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava
Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is the foremost cause of mortality attributed to a curable infectious disease globally, accounting for 8.6 million new cases in the year 2012, of which India alone has a share of almost 25% of cases. Medical colleges have been acknowledged as tertiary level health care centers and have a key role in the diagnosis and management of different types of TB cases. However, a wide range of barriers and deficiencies have been acknowledged in the medical education curriculum over a period of time with regard to teaching of TB control. To combat the magnitude of TB on the health sector in Indian set-up, there is a crucial need for establishing a mutual and complementary partnership between policy makers, delegates from the medical colleges, and the regulatory body for medical education. In summary, medical students are the future health care providers for the general population and thus a well-organized medical education curriculum can play a significant role in reducing the magnitude of tuberculosis in the coming decade.
Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Ringsted, Charlotte
of old and new findings. Results showed a negotiation both between and within the students of the importance of patients' experiential knowledge versus scientific biomedical knowledge. On one hand students appreciated the experiential learning environment offered in the PI-led sessions representing......The aim of this study was to explore how medical students perceive the experience of learning from patient instructors (patients with rheumatism who teach health professionals and students) in the context of coupled faculty-led and patient-led teaching session. This was an explorative study...... with a qualitative approach based on focus group interviews. Analysis was based on a prior developed model of the characteristics of learning from patient instructors. The authors used this model as sensitizing concepts for the analysis of data while at the same time being open to new insights by constant comparison...
McLachlan, Emma; King, Nigel; Wenger, Etienne; Dornan, Tim
It is important to know how patients are affected by becoming opportunistically involved in medical student education. In previous studies, researchers rather than patients set the research agenda and expert patients or people well known to teachers were more often involved than ordinary people. This study aimed to explore how ordinary patients experience undergraduate medical teaching when they become involved in it opportunistically and to derive practical insights from the lived experiences of these patients. The research was conducted in line with a conceptual orientation towards communities of practice theory and used phenomenology as a way of exploring patients' lived experiences in depth. Minimally structured interviews were carried out with 10 patients following ordinary out-patient or general practice appointments in which students were being taught. Template analysis was used to generate provisional themes and a process of phenomenological reduction was used to distil individual respondents' lived experiences to their essence. The presence of students in ambulatory consultations was normal. Nine respondents described transactional relationships in which they remained outside the community of practice of which the doctor and student were members. Only an intimate problem would engage them deeply enough for a student's presence to 'bother' them. One patient's personal and professional background led her to regard doctors' handling of consultation dynamics as factors contributing to whether teaching consultations were negative or positive experiences. When doctors' sensitive and inclusive behaviour drew her into a triadic relationship with the student and doctor, she experienced mutual benefits with students. When it did not, she felt objectified and alienated. Provided they receive the clinical care for which they are attending a consultation and are treated respectfully, patients may sometimes willingly become 'objects' from which students learn. They may
Bruce Kaplan, DVM
Full Text Available Dr Janis H. Audin (MSc Illinois 1975, DVM Illinois 1979, a champion of progressive veterinary medical journalism and ‘One Health’ died on 22 April 2009 following a long, courageous and difficult battle with pancreatic cancer. The world has lost a truly significant One Health leader and advocate. Under her guidance, the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA implemented a ‘one-health wonders’ column that recognised and highlighted prominent One Health individuals among the medical and veterinary medical professions in the United States. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA has lost a dedicated and gifted editor-in-chief.Dr Audin joined the editorial staff of the AVMA in 1985, as an assistant editor and was promoted to associate editor in 1989 and editor in 1994. She became the editor-in-chief of both the JAVMA and the American Journal of Veterinary Research in 1995. Prior to that, Dr Audin practised as an associate veterinarian in Calumet City, Illinois, for four years.During her tenure, Dr Audin was noted for implementing procedural and technological changes in the journal to reduce costs, improve timeliness of publications and promote readership interest and awareness. New features in the News section introduced under her leadership have made the journals more practical and public health-relevant. For instance, Dr Audin fostered the United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS ‘Inspection Insights’ - a public health-oriented food safety monthly column related to meat, poultry and egg products - from 1996 through 1998. She also increased international manuscript submissions.On 23 March 2009 AVMA Executive Vice President Dr W. Ron DeHaven named Dr Audin as editor-in-chief emeritus of the Publications Division. Wisely, it also meant that Dr Audin could continue contributing to the staff effort to ensure the high quality of the AVMA scientific journals
Full Text Available Background: Medical practitioners utilize drug promotional materials from pharmaceutical companies as a major source of information especially in developing countries. These promotional materials can be highly informative as long as they are critically appraised but when they are accepted without question, they lead to irrational prescribing. Aim: To sensitize the students regarding WHO criteria for medicinal drug promotion and to determine the impact of teaching critical appraisal of medicinal drug promotion to medical students. Design: The medical students of second year were given a pre test questionnaire to identify the violations in generic labeling, pharmacological information, claims, relevance and references cited in the drug advertisements. Later they were sensitized about the WHO criteria for medicinal drug promotion and how to critically appraise a drug advertisement. This was followed by a post test questionnaire with the same drug advertisement. Result: The number of students answering the post test correctly was significantly (p<0.05 more than that of pre test. Conclusion: Education of medical students regarding critical analysis of drug advertisements should be a part of the medical curriculum.
Fox, C H; Meijer, F
Acquisition of an advanced medical degree beyond licensure and specialization is advantageous and encouraged in Swedish medical education. Since a thesis and a number of published works, usually in English are required, there is considerable interest in medical writing by doctors and medical scientists. A voluntary course in 'Biomedical Authorship' which included presentation of oral reports was offered by the Karolinska Institutes' Medical Faculty. This course was intended to prepare participants for their thesis work and for presentations at scientific congresses. The course revealed that the principle difficulty was not in English skills which were rather good, but in the students' inexperience in critically rereading what they had written and making suitable revisions. A case study method was used so that students acquired experience in critically reading and correcting their own work and that of others. An instructor who understood the evolution of academic Swedish was of considerable help in explaining some of the 'Swenglishisms' that arose during the course. The oral presentation portion, which used videotapes of students, showed the students as lacking experience in basic public speaking and as frequently being apprehensive. This was much improved by taped poetry readings, scientific reports and slide shows. This Swedish experience should apply to teaching biomedical writing in the other Scandinavian countries and in Northern Europe.
Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians have to visit, diagnose and refer patients with genetic disorders, so they need to be familiar with the basics and indications of genetic tests. In other words, they should have effective theoretical and practical knowledge about medical genetics before they do their job. Medical genetics courses at Medical Universities of Iran are generally presented as a theoretical subject in the first period of medical education. Methods: In this descriptive research, the results of interviews with teachers of medical genetics in 30 medical schools in Islamic Republic of Iran and responses to a questionnaire by 125 medical students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical sciences, about presentation time, curricula and also efficacy of medical genetics courses were analyzed. The interviews with teachers were done on phone and the students’ comments were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed, using SPSS software, version 14. Results: In two thirds of medical universities, medical genetics is taught in the third or fourth semester and in 5 universities in the fifth semester. 86% of the students believed that the quality of genetics courses is moderate and such courses are same as clinical manifestation of genetic disorders are benefitial to medical students. Conclusion: This article suggests that medical genetics be offered in the second or third period of medical education (physiopathology or stagger period. Furthermore, in teaching such courses advanced educational methods (animation presentation, case-based learning, problem-based learning, etc. should be used, together with simple genetic tests in laboratories, the visit of genetic patients in hospitals, and the genetics consult.
Choudhary, Anjali; Gupta, Vineeta
Like many other people based professions, communications skills are essential to medical practice also. Traditional medical teaching in India does not address communication skills which are most essential in dealing with patients. Communication skills can be taught to medical students to increase clinical competence. To teach basic communication and counseling skills to fourth-year undergraduate students to increase their clinical competence. A total of 48, fourth-year MBBS students participated in the study. They were given training in basic communication and counseling skills and taught the patient interview technique according to Calgary-Cambridge guide format. Improvement in communication was assessed by change in pre- and post-training multiple choice questions, clinical patient examination, and Standardized Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (SPSQ) scores. About 88% of the students in the sample were convinced of the importance of learning communication skills for effective practice. Almost 90% students were communicating better after training, as tested by improved SPSQ. As judged by Communication Skill Attitude Scale, student's positive attitude toward learning communication skill indicated that there is a necessity of communication skill training during undergraduate years. The ability to communicate effectively is a core competency for medical practitioners. Inculcating habits of good communications skill during formative years will help the medical students and future practitioners. Regular courses on effective communication should be included in the medical school curriculum.
Zayim, Neşe; Yıldırım, Soner; Saka, Osman
Despite large investment by higher education institutions in technology for faculty and student use, instructional technology is not being integrated into instructions in the higher education institutions, including medical education institutions. While diffusion of instructional technologies has been reached a saturation point with early adopters of technology, it has remained limited among mainstream faculty. This study explored technology adoption patterns and perceptions of medical faculty about barriers and incentives to technology adoption in teaching.Complete data was obtained from 155 participants by using survey methodology and analyzed on the basis of theories of diffusion of innovation.Findings provided evidence for limited adoption of relatively new tools associated with instruction into mainstream faculty. Inadequate hardware for students and faculty, lack of reward structure, insufficient traing oppurtunites were identified as major barriers to faculty technology adoption.
Newman, Carlton; Jaggar, David H.
Lasers have been used for some time now on animals for experimental purposes prior to their use in human medical and surgical fields. However the use of lasers in veterinary medicine and surgery per se is a recent development. We describe the application of high and low intensity laser technology in a general overview of the current uses, some limitations to its use and future needs for future inquiry and development.
Shiroma, Paulo R; Massa, Alfredo A; Alarcon, Renato D
Most psychiatric programs provide lectures on basic principles of psychopharmacology. Yet, this traditional approach has been criticized due to excessive information and passive transfer of expert knowledge. An alternative teaching method is the use of "academic games." To investigate medical students' acquisition of knowledge on psychopharmacology, and their perception of a game playing approach compared to traditional lectures. Two senior residents designed, implemented, and executed a randomized pretest-posttest study to teach psychopharmacology, using an academic game and a lecture format, to third-year medical students during a 6-week Psychiatry clerkship. Both didactic interventions were delivered concurrently for five consecutive weeks covering five psychopharmacology modules: antidepressants I (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and atypical antidepressants), antidepressants II (monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclic antidepressants), mood stabilizers, antipsychotics, and anti-anxiety agents/sedatives/hypnotics. The game follows similar rules of the famous TV show, "Jeopardy" using a power point grid and a multiple choice question format. Forty-three medical students participated (29 assigned to the game approach, 14 to the traditional lecture approach). None of the demographic variables (age, gender, years after graduation, Graduate Point Averages, and United States Medical Licensing Examination 1) were significantly associated with the pre/posttest score difference between groups. Both groups improved their knowledge on psychotropic drugs [(game group t = 10.86, p game group had a better perception of this educational method as measured by perceived enjoyment, increased knowledge of psychopharmacology, and stimulating interest in the subject compared to those in the lecture group (p academic games can make the learning experience more enjoyable and motivating; however, future studies with higher quality methodology and design are needed to
Nassif, Joseph; Sleiman, Abdul-Karim; Nassar, Anwar H; Naamani, Sima; Sharara-Chami, Rana
Clinical breast examination (CBE) is traditionally taught to third-year medical students using a lecture and a tabletop breast model. The opportunity to clinically practice CBE depends on patient availability and willingness to be examined by students, especially in culturally sensitive environments. We propose the use of a hybrid simulation model consisting of a standardized patient (SP) wearing a silicone breast simulator jacket and hypothesize that this, compared to traditional teaching methods, would result in improved learning. Consenting third-year medical students (N = 82) at a university-affiliated tertiary care center were cluster-randomized into two groups: hybrid simulation (breast jacket + SP) and control (tabletop breast model). Students received the standard lecture by instructors blinded to the randomization, followed by randomization group-based learning and practice sessions. Two weeks later, participants were assessed in an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), which included three stations with SPs blinded to the intervention. The SPs graded the students on CBE completeness, and students completed a self-assessment of their performance and confidence during the examination. CBE completeness scores did not differ between the two groups (p = 0.889). Hybrid simulation improved lesion identification grades (p simulation relieved the fear of missing a lesion on CBE (p = 0.043) and increased satisfaction with the teaching method among students (p = 0.002). As a novel educational tool, hybrid simulation improves the sensitivity of CBE performed by medical students without affecting its specificity. Hybrid simulation may play a role in increasing the confidence of medical students during CBE.
Rondon, F. C. M.; Bevilaqua, C.M.L.; Franke,C.R.; Barros, R. S.; Oliveira,F.R.; Alcântara, Adriano Costa de; Diniz, A. T.
Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 24-31 Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important reemerging parasitic disease in the world. The domestic dog is the main reservoir in urban environments. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge on canine Leishmania infection in the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil, identifying the risk factors inherent in dog susceptibility to the infection. Two populations were analyzed, domestic dogs from clinics and the Veterinary ...
Dixon-Woods, Mary; Regan, Joanne; Robertson, Noelle; Young, Bridget; Cordle, Christine; Tobin, Martin
Effective management of the doctor's role in relation to human sexuality requires sensitivity and tact, an ability to put patients at ease, use of appropriate language, and therapeutic, non-discriminatory attitudes. However, previous research suggests that medical students and doctors may hold negative attitudes towards homosexuality and some forms of sexual behaviour. Some educational programmes have started to help students develop communication skills for sexual health consultations, but little work has addressed the broader issue of attitudes and values which may underlie behaviour. It is vital that medical students begin early the process of reflection and recognition of how their attitudes and values might influence their care of patients. In this paper we report on a course designed to initiate this process at Leicester-Warwick Medical School (LWMS). The course utilizes techniques of desensitization, problem-solving and reflection to enable the students to achieve the learning outcomes, which are primarily oriented towards reflection and self-development. It uses a variety of teaching and learning strategies, combining peer learning with self-directed learning, and small-group learning with whole class learning. We report observations and a before-and-after questionnaire study of students' views and attitudes. This evaluation suggests that the course is successful in reducing students' anxieties about human sexuality and improving their confidence in developing appropriate skills. The LWMS course is one model which might be used to begin the process of encouraging medical students to develop ways of appropriately managing their responsibilities in relation to human sexuality.
Behrens, Kevin Gary; Fellingham, Robyn
Many academic philosophers and ethicists are appointed to teach ethics to medical students. We explore exactly what this task entails. In South Africa the Health Professions Council's curriculum for training medical practitioners requires not only that students be taught to apply ethical theory to issues and be made aware of the legal and regulatory requirements of their profession, it also expects moral formation and the inculcation of professional virtue in students. We explore whether such expectations are reasonable. We defend the claim that physicians ought to be persons of virtuous character, on the grounds of the social contract between society and the profession. We further argue that since the expectations of virtue of health care professionals are reasonable, it is also sound reasoning to expect ethics teachers to try to inculcate such virtues in their students, so far as this is possible. Furthermore, this requires of such teachers that they be suitable role models of ethical practice and virtue, themselves. We claim that this applies to ethics teachers who are themselves not members of the medical profession, too, even though they are not bound by the same social contract as doctors. We conclude that those who accept employment as teachers of ethics to medical students, where as part of their contractual obligation they are expected to inculcate moral values in their students, ought to be prepared to accept their responsibility to be professionally ethical, themselves. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Calderón-Amor, Javiera; Luna-Fernández, Daniela; Tadich, Tamara
Social relationships are based on our ability to put ourselves in the place of others, and from there to react appropriately and logically. This empathic ability can be extended to other species, based on the human ability to develop techniques to understand and communicate with animals. In education, the benefits of training professionals with ethical and empathic tools are known. Gender, diet, past experiences, and other factors can modify a person's levels of empathy toward humans and animals, and a relationship exists between both types of empathy. The aims of this study were to investigate some determinants of the level of empathy and to gain insight into the possible correlation between human-animal and human-human empathy. For this, the Animal Empathy Scale and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index by Davis were applied through an electronic survey system to freshmen and final-year students (n=452) from five schools of veterinary medicine in Chile. The correlation between the empathy scores of both instruments and their association with individual factors were studied using Spearman's correlation, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The results suggest that both instruments correlate significantly, and that gender, year of study, diet, and area of interest have a significant association with the score for empathy toward animals. This research shows that individual characteristics and changes that occur during veterinary training can affect students' attitudes toward animals.
Moore, Dale A; Sischo, William M; Kurtz, Suzanne; Siler, Julie D; Pereira, Richard V; Warnick, Lorin D; Davis, Margaret A
The increasing size and complexity of US dairy farms could make it more difficult for a veterinary practitioner to effectively communicate protocol recommendations for prevention or treatment on the farm. A continuing education workshop was set up based on the results of research on dairy organizational communication on dairy farms, which resulted in a tool to assess dairy communication structure and flow. The workshop specifically focused on communication structure and whom to talk to when implementing health care changes in calf rearing. In addition, modern methods of veterinary-client communication knowledge and skills were provided. Primary outcomes of the workshops were to obtain feedback from participants about research findings and the communication model, to improve awareness about the complexity of communication structures on dairy farms, and to change participants' knowledge and skills associated with on-farm communication by providing communication theory and skills and an approach to evaluate and improve dairy organizational communication. Of the 37 participants completing the pre-program assessment, most recognized a need for themselves or their practice to improve communication with clients and farm employees. After the program, most participants were confident in their new communication skills and would consider using them. They highlighted specific new ideas they could apply in practice, such as conducting a "communication audit." The results from the assessment of this communication workshop, focused on dairy veterinarians, highlighted the need for communication training in this sector of the profession and practitioners' desire to engage in this type of training.
Bandeali, Suhair; Chiang, Albert; Ramnanan, Christopher J
According to the CanMEDS' Scholar competency, physicians are expected to facilitate the learning of colleagues, patients and other health professionals. However, most medical students are not provided with formal opportunities to gain teaching experience with objective feedback. To address this, the University's Medical Education Interest Group (MEIG) created a pilot teaching program in January 2015 entitled 'MedTalks'. Four 3-hour sessions were held at the University Faculty of Medicine, where first and second year medical students taught clinically oriented topics to undergraduate university students. Each extracurricular session included three 30-minute content lectures, and a 90-minute small group session on physical examination skills. Each medical student-teacher received formal feedback from undergraduate students and from faculty educators regarding teaching style, communication abilities, and professionalism. In addition, medical student-teachers self-evaluated their own teaching experience. Over 50 medical students from the University participated as medical student-teachers. Based on quantitative and qualitative evaluation surveys, 100% of medical students agreed that MedTalks was a useful way to develop teaching skills and 92% gained a greater confidence in individual teaching capabilities, based largely on the opportunity to gain experience (with feedback) in teaching roles. A program designed to give medical students multi-source teaching experience (lecture- and small group-based) and feedback on their teaching (from learners and Faculty observers, in addition to their own self-reflection) can improve medical student confidence and enthusiasm towards teaching. Future studies will clarify if medical student self-perceived enhancements in teaching ability can be corroborated by independent (Faculty, learner) observations of future teaching activity.
Mueller, Paul S.
Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement), good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.). Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.). Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts. PMID:25973263
Paul S. Mueller
Full Text Available Professionalism is a core competency of physicians. Clinical knowledge and skills (and their maintenance and improvement, good communication skills, and sound understanding of ethics constitute the foundation of professionalism. Rising from this foundation are behaviors and attributes of professionalism: accountability, altruism, excellence, and humanism, the capstone of which is professionalism. Patients, medical societies, and accrediting organizations expect physicians to be professional. Furthermore, professionalism is associated with better clinical outcomes. Hence, medical learners and practicing physicians should be taught and assessed for professionalism. A number of methods can be used to teach professionalism (e.g. didactic lectures, web-based modules, role modeling, reflection, interactive methods, etc.. Because of the nature of professionalism, no single tool for assessing it among medical learners and practicing physicians exists. Instead, multiple assessment tools must be used (e.g. multi-source feedback using 360-degree reviews, patient feedback, critical incident reports, etc.. Data should be gathered continuously throughout an individual’s career. For the individual learner or practicing physician, data generated by these tools can be used to create a “professionalism portfolio,” the totality of which represents a picture of the individual’s professionalism. This portfolio in turn can be used for formative and summative feedback. Data from professionalism assessments can also be used for developing professionalism curricula and generating research hypotheses. Health care leaders should support teaching and assessing professionalism at all levels of learning and practice and promote learning environments and institutional cultures that are consistent with professionalism precepts.
Keifenheim, Katharina E; Teufel, Martin; Ip, Julianne; Speiser, Natalie; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Zipfel, Stephan; Herrmann-Werner, Anne
This paper is an up-to-date systematic review on educational interventions addressing history taking. The authors noted that despite the plethora of specialized training programs designed to enhance students' interviewing skills there had not been a review of the literature to assess the quality of each published method of teaching history taking in undergraduate medical education based on the evidence of the program's efficacy. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO, Google Scholar, opengrey, opendoar and SSRN were searched using key words related to medical education and history taking. Articles that described an educational intervention to improve medical students' history-taking skills were selected and reviewed. Included studies had to evaluate learning progress. Study quality was assessed using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI). Seventy-eight full-text articles were identified and reviewed; of these, 23 studies met the final inclusion criteria. Three studies applied an instructional approach using scripts, lectures, demonstrations and an online course. Seventeen studies applied a more experiential approach by implementing small group workshops including role-play, interviews with patients and feedback. Three studies applied a creative approach. Two of these studies made use of improvisational theatre and one introduced a simulation using Lego® building blocks. Twenty-two studies reported an improvement in students' history taking skills. Mean MERSQI score was 10.4 (range 6.5 to 14; SD = 2.65). These findings suggest that several different educational interventions are effective in teaching history taking skills to medical students. Small group workshops including role-play and interviews with real patients, followed by feedback and discussion, are widespread and best investigated. Feedback using videotape review was also reported as particularly instructive. Students in the early preclinical state might profit from approaches helping
Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M
Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.
A well-attended session at this year's joint SPVS/VPMA congress considered what lessons the medical and veterinary professions might learn from one another. Laura Honey reports. British Veterinary Association.
Goldberg, David; Gask, Linda
David Goldberg opened by describing the research that had led up to the present WPA teaching package. Early research had demonstrated that many psychological illnesses were not detected in primary care settings (Goldberg & Huxley 1980; ibid 1992), and these findings have been replicated in 14 centres round the world, with broadly similar results (Ustun & Sartorius 1995). We have found that in the UK the problem is not defects in factual knowledge, but not having clinical skills to assist in the management of mental disorders in general medical settings. The clinical skills needed in primary care are seldom taught in medical schools, and cannot be learned by listening to a lecture: it is necessary to practice them after they have been demonstrated. To do this it is convenient to break complex clinical skills down into their components: these are called "micro-skills", and we will deal later with the way in which these are taught. The most powerful method for improving mental health skills in this setting is to provide doctors with feedback--either video or audio--of their interview with real patients. The emphasis of such teaching must be on the interview techniques used by the doctor, rather than the clinical problems displayed by the particular patient being interviewed (Gask et al 1991). The problem with this is that video-feedback teaching of the necessary type is not always available, so we have developed videotapes that we can send out to distant locations, and which focus the attention of both local tutor and postgraduates on what should be learned. Because it is essential that most of the teaching is done by the live teacher rather than the videotape, there are always several "discussion points" so that postgraduates can ask questions, or describe their own way of dealing with particular situations. The videotapes are supplied together with teaching notes for the tutor, power points slides which can be adapted to suit local conditions, "role plays" to allow
Ojha, Neebha; Bista, Kesang D B
In Nepal medical abortion has been approved for use since 2009. There were many cases coming to Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital coming with problems and complications following medical abortion...
Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K
Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.
Lyon, Anna K; Hothersall, Eleanor J; Gillam, Steve
Recent policy initiatives in the UK have underlined the importance of public health education for healthcare professionals. We aimed to describe teaching inputs to medical undergraduate curricula, to identify perceived challenges in the delivery of public health teaching and make recommendations that may overcome them. We undertook a cross-sectional survey; questionnaires were sent electronically to 32 teaching leads in academic departments of public health in UK medical schools and followed up by telephone interviews. We obtained a 75% response rate; 13 public health teaching leads were interviewed. We found much variability between schools in teaching methods, curricular content and resources used. Concerns regarding the long-term sustainability of teaching focus on: staffing levels and availability, funding and the prioritization of research over teaching. We give examples of integration of public health with clinical teaching, innovative projects in public health and ways of enabling students to witness public health in action. There is a need to increase the supply of well-trained and motivated teachers and combine the best traditional teaching methods with more innovative approaches. Suggestions are made as to how undergraduate public health teaching can be strengthened. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Rissetto, Kerry; Villamil, J Armando; Selting, Kim A; Tyler, Jeff; Henry, Carolyn J
A retrospective epidemiologic study evaluated 1,129 feline intestinal tumor patients via data entered into the Veterinary Medical Database (VMDB) from 1964 to 2004. Cases were analyzed by breed, age, yr of diagnosis, tumor type, and location. The VMDB incidence of all intestinal tumors reported during this 40 yr period was 0.4%, with small intestinal tumors predominating. The most common intestinal tumor was lymphoma, but the most common nonlymphoid tumor was adenocarcinoma. The Siamese breed and increasing age after 7 yr conferred an increased risk. Intact males and females appeared to have a decreased risk compared with neutered patients, but this may be explained by the age difference among these patients as older patients were more likely to be neutered. Prospective studies evaluating neuter status predilection and prognosis are warranted.
Full Text Available The pros and cons of Problem Based Learning (PBL have been extensivelydiscussed in the literature. We describe PBL-like strategies used at UnB (some ofthem since 1999 that may be useful elsewhere to improve undergraduatebiochemistry teaching with clinical applications. The main activities are: (i aseminar/poster system, (ii a true-or-false applied biochemistry exam (prepared bypeer tutors, (iii a 9-hour-exam on metabolism (based in actual papers, (iv anAdvanced Biochemistry course (directed to peer tutors, (v pizza-and-pasta (formetabolism teaching and free radicals (real science for students experiments,(vi the BioBio blog (http://www.biobio-unb.blogspot.com, (vii student lectures onhealth issues directed to the community, and (viii the BioBio Show. The mainobjective of these activities is providing students with a more practical andentertaining approach to biochemistry using philosophic PBL principles such asthe application of basic knowledge to real situations (diseases, experiments andscientific discoveries. We also emphasize (a the importance of peer-tutor activityfor optimized learning of students and peer tutors, (b the relevance of a closerinteraction between students and professors, and (c the necessity to initiatestudents precociously in actual basic/medical science and contact with the public.Most activities have been evaluated by the students through written questionnairesand informal conversations, for several semesters, indicating good acceptanceand approval of these methods.
Dannaway, Jasan; Ng, Heryanto; Schoo, Adrian
The aim of this review was to assess the current evidence regarding the efficacy of teaching skills programs for junior medical officers. We aimed to compare and contrast these results with findings from previous literature reviews, the last of which were published in 2009. In order to capture studies since the last published literature reviews, five databases and grey literature were searched for publications from January 2008 to January 2015. A search for literature reviews without using the timeframe limitation was also performed. The search from January 2008 to January 2015 resulted in the inclusion of 12 studies. Five systematic reviews of the topic were found which included 39 individual studies that were also analysed. Nearly all studies reported positive effects. Twenty nine studies reported change in attitudes, 28 reported modification in knowledge, 28 reported change in behaviour, 6 reported change in the organisation and two reported change in program participant's students. There were substantial threats of bias present. The literature reviewed demonstrated many positive effects of teaching skills programs, which supports their utilization. However, high level outcomes need to be evaluated over longer periods of time to establish their true impact. An organisation specific approach to these programs needs to occur using sound course design principles, and they need to be reported in evaluation trials that are designed with robust methodology.
Steele, T E
Accepted paradigms in medical behavioral science education are development, conflict and defense, and disease. Teaching under these paradigms blurs distinctions between preclinical and clinical education, and between education and training--most commonly by including an introduction to clinical psychiatry in preclinical courses. Such approaches may provide students with technical skills at the expense of their developing conceptual bases for continuing self-education. We developed a first-year behavioral sciences course using the paradigm of symbolic function and language. This paradigm can organize knowledge that underlies clinical skills involved in talking with patients and establishing an effective physician-patient relationship. Believing that fostering knowledge should be the primary goal of preclinical education, we emphasized primary sources and classics. Our goal was to encourage analysis and synthesis rather than memorization; evaluating such higher taxonomic levels of education is extraordinarily difficult.
Giesler, Marianne; Karsten, Gudrun; Ochsendorf, Falk; Breckwoldt, Jan
Background: There is general consensus that the organizational and administrative aspects of academic study programs exert an important influence on teaching and learning. Despite this, no comprehensive framework currently exists to describe the conditions that affect the quality of teaching and learning in medical education. The aim of this paper is to systematically and comprehensively identify these factors to offer academic administrators and decision makers interested in improving teaching a theory-based and, to an extent, empirically founded framework on the basis of which improvements in teaching quality can be identified and implemented. Method: Primarily, the issue was addressed by combining a theory-driven deductive approach with an experience based, "best evidence" one during the course of two workshops held by the GMA Committee on Personnel and Organizational Development in Academic Teaching (POiL) in Munich (2013) and Frankfurt (2014). Two models describing the conditions relevant to teaching and learning (Euler/Hahn and Rindermann) were critically appraised and synthesized into a new third model. Practical examples of teaching strategies that promote or hinder learning were compiled and added to the categories of this model and, to the extent possible, supported with empirical evidence. Based on this, a checklist with recommendations for optimizing general academic conditions was formulated. Results: The Frankfurt Model of conditions to ensure Quality in Teaching and Learning covers six categories: organizational structure/medical school culture, regulatory frameworks, curricular requirements, time constraints, material and personnel resources, and qualification of teaching staff. These categories have been supplemented by the interests, motives and abilities of the actual teachers and students in this particular setting. The categories of this model provide the structure for a checklist in which recommendations for optimizing teaching are given
González-López, Esteban; Ríos-Cortés, Rosa
During the Nazi period numerous doctors and nurses played a nefarious role. In Germany they were responsible for the sterilization and killing of disabled persons. Furthermore, the Nazi doctors used concentration camp inmates as guinea pigs in medical experiments for military or racial purposes. A study of the collaboration of doctors with National Socialism exemplifies behavior that must be avoided. Combining medical teaching with lessons from the Holocaust could be a way to transmit Medical Ethics to doctors, nurses and students. The authors describe a study tour with medical students to Poland, to the largest Nazi extermination camp, Auschwitz, and to the city of Krakow. The tour is the final component of a formal course entitled: "The Holocaust, a Reflection from Medicine" at the Autónoma University of Madrid, Spain. Visiting sites related to the Holocaust, the killing centers and the sites where medical experiments were conducted has a singular meaning for medical students. Tolerance, non-discrimination, and the value of human life can be both learnt and taught at the very place where such values were utterly absent.
Jabaut, Joshua M.; Dudum, Ramzi; Margulies, Samantha L.; Mehta, Akshita; Han, Zhiyong
To foster medical students to become physicians who will be lifelong independent learners and critical thinkers with healthy skepticism and provide high-quality patient care guided by the best evidence, teaching of evidence-based medicine (EBM) has become an important component of medical education. Currently, the teaching and learning of…
Sricharoen, Pungkava; Yuksen, Chaiyaporn; Sittichanbuncha, Yuwares; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak
There are different teaching methods; such as traditional lectures, bedside teaching, and workshops for clinical medical clerkships. Each method has advantages and disadvantages in different situations. Emergency Medicine (EM) focuses on emergency medical conditions and deals with several emergency procedures. This study aimed to compare traditional teaching methods with teaching methods involving workshops in the EM setting for medical students. Fifth year medical students (academic year of 2010) at Ramathibodi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand participated in the study. Half of students received traditional teaching, including lectures and bedside teaching, while the other half received traditional teaching plus three workshops, namely, airway workshop, trauma workshop, and emergency medical services workshop. Student evaluations at the end of the clerkship were recorded. The evaluation form included overall satisfaction, satisfaction in overall teaching methods, and satisfaction in each teaching method. During the academic year 2010, there were 189 students who attended the EM rotation. Of those, 77 students (40.74%) were in the traditional EM curriculum, while 112 students were in the new EM curriculum. The average satisfaction score in teaching method of the new EM curriculum group was higher than the traditional EM curriculum group (4.54 versus 4.07, P-value teaching, and emergency medical services workshop. The mean (standard deviation) satisfaction scores of those three teaching methods were 4.70 (0.50), 4.63 (0.58), and 4.60 (0.55), respectively. Teaching EM with workshops improved student satisfaction in EM education for medical students.
Roos, Marco; Kadmon, Martina; Kirschfink, Michael; Koch, Eginhard; Jünger, Jana; Strittmatter-Haubold, Veronika; Steiner, Thorsten
Background: It is well accepted that medical faculty teaching staff require an understanding of educational theory and pedagogical methods for effective medical teaching. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 5-day teaching education program.Methods: An open prospective interventional study using quantitative and qualitative instruments was performed, covering all four levels of the Kirkpatrick model: Evaluation of 1) ‘Reaction’ on a professional and emotional level...
Full Text Available Background: Medical colleges in India usually follow a traditional curriculum, characterized by "discipline wise model" which compelled Medical Council of India to recommend a teaching approach characterized by maximal efforts to encourage integrated teaching (IT between traditional subject areas. Objectives: To assess the feasibility of IT; to compare IT with traditional teaching (TT and to analyze the student′s feedback and faculty feedback about perception of IT. Materials and Methods: An interventional study was conducted among fifth semester students using pre- and post-test questionnaire and student and faculty feedback forms. Students were divided randomly into two groups. IT was introduced to Group I on the topic of tuberculosis (TB by faculties of different disciplines; using methods of didactic lectures, seminars, role play, clinical case presentation, demonstration of Ziehl-Neelsen stain, Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination and visit to Directly Observed Treatment Centre. Group II were exposed to TT on TB by faculties of Community Medicine using method of didactic lectures. Paired and un-paired t-test and effect size were used as statistical tests. Results : Statistically significant results were obtained using pre- and post-test questionnaire of IT. Similarly, statistically significant results were obtained using posttest results of IT and TT. Effect size that is: Cohen′s d and Pearson correlation revealed large effect which indicates high influence on student achievement. The students and faculty showed a positive attitude about IT. Conclusion: The introduction of IT was found to be feasible and to be more effective and acceptable than TT.
van den Berg, B.A.M.; Bakker, Arnold B.; ten Cate, Th.J.
This study reports about teacher motivation and work engagement in a Dutch University Medical Centre (UMC). We examined factors affecting the motivation for teaching in a UMC, the engagement of UMC Utrecht teaching faculty in their work, and their engagement in teaching compared with engagement in patient care and research. Based on a pilot study within various departments at the UMCU, a survey on teaching motivation and work engagement was developed and sent to over 600 UMCU teachers. About ...
Byron, Julie K; Johnson, Susan E; Allen, L Clare V; Brilmyer, Cheryl; Griffiths, Robert P
There is an increasing demand in veterinary education to engage students, teach and reinforce clinical reasoning, and provide access anytime/anywhere to quality learning opportunities. In addition, accrediting bodies are asking for more concrete documentation of essential clinical-skills outcomes. Unfortunately, during the clinical year in a referral hospital setting, students are at the mercy of chance regarding the types of cases they will encounter and the opportunities they will have to participate. Patient- and case-simulation technology is becoming more popular as a way to achieve these objectives in human and veterinary medical education. Many of the current options available to the veterinary medical education community to develop virtual-patient cases are too time-consuming, cost prohibitive, or difficult for the instructor or learner to use. In response, we developed a learning tool, Case Manager, which is low-cost and user-friendly. Case Manager was designed to meet the demands of veterinary education by providing students with an opportunity to cultivate clinical reasoning skills and allowing for real-time student feedback. We launched a pilot test with 37 senior veterinary medical students as part of their Small Animal Internal Medicine clinical rotation. Students reported that Case Manager increased their engagement with the material, improved diagnostic and problem-solving skills, and broadened their exposure to a variety of cases. In addition, students felt that Case Manager was superior to a more traditional, less interactive case presentation format.
Torre, Dario M; Durning, Steven J; Daley, Barbara J
Concept maps have been used as a learning tool in a variety of educational setting and provide an opportunity to explore learners’ knowledge structures and promote critical thinking and understanding. Concept mapping is an instructional strategy for individual and group learning that involves integration of knowledge and creation of meaning by relating concepts. The following tips outline an approach to foster meaningful learning using concept maps. A total of 12 tips on the use and applications of concept mapping based on the authors’ experiences and the available literature. The 12 tips provide an overview of the theoretical framework and structure of concept maps, suggesting specific uses, and applications in medical education. We describe different types of concept maps based on learners’ task, and how they can be utilized in different educational settings. We provide ideas for educators to integrate this novel educational resource in their teaching and educational practices. Medical educators can utilize concept maps to detect students’ misunderstandings of concepts and to identify knowledge gaps that need to be corrected. Finally, we outline the potential role of concept maps as an assessment tool.
Benbassat, Jochanan; Polak, Bettine C P; Javitt, Jonathan C
To propose the objectives of undergraduate training in direct ophthalmoscopy (DO). Narrative review of the literature on (i) opinions about the expected proficiency from students in DO, and (ii) estimates of its diagnostic value. (i) Authorities disagree on the proficiency in DO that they expect from students. Textbooks of physical diagnosis differ in their coverage of DO. Surveys have indicated that US physicians expect students to be able to detect optic nerve head abnormalities. The Association of American Medical Colleges expects students to perform ophthalmoscopic examination and describe observations. The International Council of Ophthalmology expects students to recognize also diabetic and hypertensive retinopathies. The Association of University Professors in Ophthalmology requires that students recognize papilloedema, cholesterol emboli, glaucomatous cupping and macular degeneration. (ii) There is evidence that DO, even by ophthalmologists, is inadequate for screening for glaucoma, diabetic and hypertensive retinopathies. Two studies have suggested a limited value of DO in detecting clinical emergencies. The evidence that DO, even by ophthalmologists, is sub-optimal in detecting common abnormalities challenges existing the notions of training medical students. On pending the results of additional studies of the value of DO in detecting emergencies, we suggest that undergraduate teaching of DO should impart the following: (i) an ability to identify the red fundus reflex and optic disc; (ii) an ability to recognize signs of clinical emergencies in patients, mannequins or fundus photographs; and (iii) knowledge about, but not an ability to detect, other retinopathies. © 2011 The Authors. Acta Ophthalmologica © 2011 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation.
... Veterinary Medical Association, which represents the single largest group of consumers of veterinary... effectiveness. In July 2009, representatives of veterinary biologics manufacturers and the American Veterinary Medical Association met with APHIS to discuss the Agency's current labeling guidance and to explore the...
Sharif-Chan, Bayan; Tankala, Dipti; Leong, Christine; Austin, Zubin; Battistella, Marisa
Objective. To compare peer teaching in a medical and a pharmacy clinical teaching unit and to provide suggestions for future research in pharmacy near-peer teaching. Methods. This exploratory observational study used principles of ethnographic methodology for data collection and analysis. Observations were collected in a large downtown teaching hospital. An average of 4-6 hours per day were spent observing a team of medical trainees from the Faculty (School) of Medicine in the general internal medicine (unit for two weeks, followed by a team of pharmacy trainees in an ambulatory hemodialysis (HD) unit for two weeks. Data was collected through field notes and informal interviews that were audiotaped and subsequently transcribed. Data was interpreted by the observer and reviewed weekly by two impartial pharmacists. Results. Five major themes emerged: (1) influence of peer teaching hierarchy; (2) educational distance between peer learners and teachers; (3) effect of the clinical teaching unit size on peer learning; (4) trainees' perception of their teaching role in the clinical teaching unit; and (5) influence of daily schedule and workload on peer teaching. As opposed to pharmacy, a hierarchy and pyramidal structure of peer teaching was observed in medical experiential training. There appeared to be no effect of educational distance on near peer teaching; however, perception of teaching role and influence of daily schedule affected near-peer teaching. Conclusion. Through initial comparisons of medical and pharmacy clinical teaching units, this study provides a reflection of elements that may be necessary to successfully implement near-peer teaching in pharmacy experiential training. Future studies in this area should assess learning outcomes and participant satisfaction, preceptor workload, and impact on patient care.
King, L J
The veterinary profession finds itself in the midst of a new world order. Today veterinarians are part of a world that is exquisitely interconnected culturally, economically, socially, and professionally. As a consequence, societal needs and expectations of the profession are more demanding, critical and far-reaching. Veterinarians must play important roles in five intersecting domains of work: public health, bio-medical research, global food safety and security, ecosystem health and the more traditional role of caring for animals. To be successful in this broad and complex range of services and activities, veterinarians must possess an expanded knowledge base, acquire new skills, and develop a new mindset that will ensure their success and excellence in all these domains. The veterinary profession is becoming more fragmented and specialised, and it needs to be brought back together by a single sphere of knowledge or discipline that can serve as an intellectual foundation. The concept of One World of Veterinary Medicine can do just that. With this mindset veterinarians will become better connected to the world around and gain new public recognition and esteem. To achieve this, a special commitment by academic veterinary medicine is, of course, essential. Veterinary schools must lead an educational transformation that reaffirms the social contract of veterinarians and works to align diverse sectors, build a global community, find a common purpose and expand the 21st Century veterinary portfolio of services, activities, and new possibilities.
Smith, Ronald D.; Williams, Mitsuko
This study used the peer-reviewed biomedical literature to define the veterinary informatics knowledgebase and associated subspecialties, and assesses the level of activity in the field over the thirty-year period from 1966 through 1995. Grateful Med was used to search the MEDLINE bibliographic database for articles that shared one or more Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords from the veterinary and medical informatics subject headings. Each of ninety-five MeSH medical informatics terms was assigned to one of twelve veterinary informatics subspecialties. The number of articles retrieved by each MeSH keyword and subspecialty was calculated. A total of 611 articles were retrieved, representing the contributions of 1,338 authors published in 153 journals. The field experienced slow growth over the twenty-year period from 1966 through 1985. In the following decade, the cumulative number of veterinary informatics articles almost tripled and the percentage of veterinary-related articles that included an informatics component increased almost two-and-one-half fold. Despite this recent growth, the number of veterinary-related articles with an informatics component has never exceeded 1% of either the veterinary or medical informatics literature over the past thirty years, and representation of veterinary subspecialties in the literature varied widely. PMID:10658963
Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake
Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234
Smith, Ronald D.; Williams, Mitsuko
This study used the peer-reviewed biomedical literature to define the veterinary informatics knowledgebase and associated subspecialties, and assesses the level of activity in the field over the thirty-year period from 1966 through 1995. Grateful Med was used to search the MEDLINE bibliographic database for articles that shared one or more Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords from the veterinary and medical informatics subject headings. Each of ninety-five MeSH medical informatics terms w...
The Socratic method has a long history in teaching philosophy and mathematics, marked by such names as Karl Weierstrass, Leonard Nelson and Gustav Heckmann. Its basic idea is to encourage the participants of a learning group (of pupils, students, or practitioners) to work on a conceptual, ethical or psychological problem by their own collective intellectual effort, without a textual basis and without substantial help from the teacher whose part it is mainly to enforce the rigid procedural rules designed to ensure a fruitful, diversified, open and consensus-oriented thought process. Several features of the Socratic procedure, especially in the canonical form given to it by Heckmann, are highly attractive for the teaching of medical ethics in small groups: the strategy of starting from relevant singular individual experiences, interpreting and cautiously generalizing them in a process of inter-subjective confrontation and confirmation, the duty of non-directivity on the part of the teacher in regard to the contents of the discussion, the necessity, on the part of the participants, to make explicit both their own thinking and the way they understand the thought of others, the strict separation of content level and meta level discussion and, not least, the wise use made of the emotional and motivational resources developing in the group process. Experience shows, however, that the canonical form of the Socratic group suffers from a number of drawbacks which may be overcome by loosening the rigidity of some of the rules. These concern mainly the injunction against substantial interventions on the part of the teacher and the insistence on consensus formation rooted in Leonard Nelson's Neo-Kantian Apriorism.
Gelberg, Susan; Gelberg, Howard
Two-hundred-and-eighty-nine veterinary students from all four years of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM) were invited to complete the Derogatis Stress Profile (DSP)1 and an original Demographic Data Profile (DDP). The DSP assessed the students' current experiences of perceived stress, and the DDP was designed to gather information about students' academic year, their living situations, their financial situations, their interest area within the veterinary medical profession, and their current methods of coping with stress. These data were gathered as a baseline measure of veterinary medical students' perceived level of stress and quality of life. In an earlier study, data were also collected from faculty and staff about the perceived quality of the climate and culture of the veterinary college. The results of the DSP and DDP suggest that, although veterinary students at UTCVM do not experience significant levels of stress overall, they do report higher levels of subjective stress, time pressure, and depression than the general population. The more companion animals that veterinary students cared for in their personal lives, the more likely they were to report higher levels of perceived stress. Lastly, there were significant differences between genders, with female veterinary students reporting higher levels of perceived stress than their male counterparts. The preliminary results of the climate and culture data suggest that faculty and staff of the veterinary college individually feel that they are cared for in the work environment and collectively believe that the college strives for excellence.
Dick, Marie-Louise B; King, David B; Mitchell, Geoffrey K; Kelly, Glynn D; Buckley, John F; Garside, Susan J
There is increasing demand to provide clinical and teaching experiences in the general practice setting. Vertical integration in teaching and learning, whereby teaching and learning roles are shared across all learner stages, has the potential to decrease time demands and stress on general practitioners, to provide teaching skills and experience to GP registrars, and to improve the learning experience for medical students, and may also help meet the increased demand for teaching in general practice. We consider potential advantages and barriers to vertical integration of teaching in general practice, and provide results of focus group discussions with general practice principals and registrars about vertical integration. We recommend further research into the feasibility of using vertical integration to enhance the capacity to teach medical students in general practice.
Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate M; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I Anna S
Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010-2011). The content of the interview transcripts were analyzed using Toulmin's argumentative model. Ten objectives in teaching veterinary ethics were identified, which can be grouped into four overarching themes: ethical awareness, ethical knowledge, ethical skills, and individual and professional qualities. These objectives include recognizing values and ethical viewpoints, identifying norms and regulations, developing skills of communication and decision making, and contributing to a professional identity. Whereas many of the objectives complement each other, there is tension between the view that ethics teaching should promote knowledge of professional rules and the view that ethics teaching should emphasize critical reasoning skills. The wide range of objectives and the possible tensions between them highlight the challenges faced by educators as they attempt to prioritize among these goals of ethics teaching within a crowded veterinary curriculum.
Alkabba, Abdulaziz F; Hussein, Ghaiath M A; Kasule, Omar H; Jarallah, Jamal; Alrukban, Mohamed; Alrashid, Abdulaziz
Saudi Arabia is considered one of the most influential Muslim countries being as the host of the two most holy places for Muslims, namely Makkah and Madina. This was reflected in the emphasis on teaching medical ethics in a lecture-based format as a part of the subject of Islamic culture taught to medical students. Over the last few years, both teaching and evaluation of medical ethics have been changing as more Saudi academics received specialized training and qualifications in bioethics from western universities. This study aims at studying the current teaching methods and evaluation tools used by the Saudi public medical schools. It is done using a self-administered online questionnaire. Out of the 14 medical schools that responded, the majority of the responding schools (6; 42.8%), had no ethics departments; but all schools had a curriculum dedicated to medical ethics. These curricula were mostly developed by the faculty staff (12; 85.7%). The most popular teaching method was lecturing (13; 92.8%). The most popular form of student assessment was a paper-based final examination (6; 42.8%) at the end of the course that was allocated 40% or more of the total grade of the ethics course. Six schools (42.8%) allocated 15-30% of the total grade to research. Although there is a growing interest and commitment in teaching ethics to medical students in Saudi schools; there is lack of standardization in teaching and evaluation methods. There is a need for a national body to provide guidance for the medical schools to harmonize the teaching methods, particularly introducing more interactive and students-engaging methods on the account of passive lecturing.
Harding, Alex; Rosenthal, Joe; Al-Seaidy, Marwa; Gray, Denis Pereira; McKinley, Robert K
Background Health care is increasingly provided in general practice. To meet this demand, the English Department of Health recommends that 50% of all medical students should train for general practice after qualification. Currently 19% of medical students express general practice as their first career choice. Undergraduate exposure to general practice positively influences future career choice. Appropriate undergraduate exposure to general practice is therefore highly relevant to workforce planning Aim This study seeks to quantify current exposure of medical students to general practice and compare it with past provision and also with postgraduate provision. Design and setting A cross-sectional questionnaire in the UK. Method A questionnaire regarding provision of undergraduate teaching was sent to the general practice teaching leads in all UK medical schools. Information was gathered on the amount of undergraduate teaching, how this was supported financially, and whether there was an integrated department of general practice. The data were then compared with results from previous studies of teaching provision. The provision of postgraduate teaching in general practice was also examined. Results General practice teaching for medical students increased from teaching in 1968 to 13.0% by 2008; since then, the percentage has plateaued. The total amount of general practice teaching per student has fallen by 2 weeks since 2002. Medical schools providing financial data delivered 14.6% of the clinical curriculum and received 7.1% of clinical teaching funding. The number of departments of general practice has halved since 2002. Provision of postgraduate teaching has tripled since 2000. Conclusion Current levels of undergraduate teaching in general practice are too low to fulfil future workforce requirements and may be falling. Financial support for current teaching is disproportionately low and the mechanism counterproductive. Central intervention may be required to solve
Kerby, Jane; Shukur, Zena N; Shalhoub, Joseph
The best method to teach anatomy continues to be widely debated. Many UK medical schools have recently changed their course structure with the use of cadaveric dissection declining. A recent study by Patel and Moxham ([ 2008] Clin. Anat. 21:182-189) found that professional anatomists viewed dissection to be the most suitable method to fulfil anatomical learning outcomes. The opinion of 580 second year medical students across two UK medical schools was surveyed. A methodology similar to that employed by Patel and Moxham ([ 2008] Clin. Anat. 21:182-189) aimed to explore which teaching methods students considered best to fulfil a prescribed set of anatomical learning outcomes. A total of 302 responses were returned (52%). Difference in students' opinion with regard to the teaching methods was statistically significant (P teaching methods at meeting learning outcomes. Dissection was overall most "fit for purpose" in meeting learning outcomes, but no single teaching modality met all aspects of the curriculum. Dissection should remain a leading teaching modality in modern medical school anatomy courses. In addition to its role in the teaching of anatomy, it enables learning in a social context and holds broader learning opportunities to help future doctors best fulfill Good Medical Practice guidelines (General Medical Council, 2006). This, however, should be in the context of a multi-modal approach to the teaching of anatomy. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Clair L. Firth
Full Text Available Background Antimicrobial use in livestock production is an important contemporary issue, which is of public interest worldwide. Antimicrobials are not freely available to Austrian farmers and can only be administered to livestock by veterinarians, or by farmers who are trained members of the Animal Health Service. Since 2015, veterinarians have been required by law to report antimicrobials dispensed to farmers for use in food-producing animals. The study presented here went further than the statutory framework, and collected data on antimicrobials dispensed to farmers and those administered by veterinarians. Methods Seventeen veterinary practices were enrolled in the study via convenience sampling. These veterinarians were asked to contact interested dairy farmers regarding participation in the study (respondent-driven sampling. Data were collected from veterinary practice software between 1st October 2015 and 30th September 2016. Electronic data (89.4% were transferred via an online interface and paper records (10.6% were entered by the authors. Antimicrobial treatments with respect to udder disease were analysed by number of defined daily doses per cow and year (nDDDvet/cow/year, based on the European Medicines Agency technical unit, Defined Daily Dose for animals (DDDvet. Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyse the results. Results Antimicrobial use data from a total of 248 dairy farms were collected during the study, 232 of these farms treated cows with antibiotics; dry cow therapy was excluded from the current analysis. The mean number of DDDvet/cow/year for the antimicrobial treatment of all udder disease was 1.33 DDDvet/cow/year. Of these treatments, 0.73 DDDvet/cow/year were classed as highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIAs, according to the World Health Organization (WHO definition. The Wilcoxon rank sum test determined a statistically significant difference between the median
Rush, Bonnie R; Hafen, McArthur; Biller, David S; Davis, Elizabeth G; Klimek, Judy A; Kukanich, Butch; Larson, Robert L; Roush, James K; Schermerhorn, Thomas; Wilkerson, Melinda J; White, Brad J
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of specific types of multiple-choice questions delivered using an Audience Response System (ARS) to maintain student attention in a professional educational setting. Veterinary students (N=324) enrolled in the first three years of the professional curriculum were presented with four different ARS question types (knowledge base, discussion, polling, and psychological investment) and no ARS questions (control) during five lectures presented by 10 instructors in 10 core courses. Toward the end of the lecture, students were polled to determine the relative effectiveness of specific question types. Student participation was high (76.1%+/-2.0), and most students indicated that the system enhanced the lecture (64.4%). Knowledge base and discussion questions resulted in the highest student-reported attention to lecture content. Questions polling students about their experiences resulted in attention rates similar to those without use of ARS technology. Psychological investment questions, based on upcoming lecture content, detracted from student attention. Faculty preparation time for three ARS questions was shorter for knowledge base questions (22.3 min) compared with discussion and psychological investment questions (38.6 min and 34.7 min, respectively). Polling questions required less time to prepare (22.2 min) than discussion questions but were not different from other types. Faculty stated that the investment in preparation time was justified on the basis of the impact on classroom atmosphere. These findings indicate that audience response systems enhance attention and interest during lectures when used to pose questions that require application of an existing knowledge base and allow for peer interaction.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Okorie-Kanu et al. 160. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): ... Nigeria; 3Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu state,. Nigeria. ...... (ASVCP), International Veterinary.
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Jul 2, 2000 ... Nigerian Veterinary Journal 36(4). 2015. Owoyemi et al. 1341. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., December 2015 ... medicine, 3Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. .... in wound or burn healing, internal intake of.
van den Berg, B A M; Bakker, Arnold B; Ten Cate, Th J
This study reports about teacher motivation and work engagement in a Dutch University Medical Centre (UMC). We examined factors affecting the motivation for teaching in a UMC, the engagement of UMC Utrecht teaching faculty in their work, and their engagement in teaching compared with engagement in patient care and research. Based on a pilot study within various departments at the UMCU, a survey on teaching motivation and work engagement was developed and sent to over 600 UMCU teachers. About 50 % responded. Work engagement was measured by the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale, included in this survey. From a list of 22 pre-defined items, 5 were marked as most motivating: teaching about my own speciality, noticeable appreciation for teaching by my direct superior, teaching small groups, feedback on my teaching performance, and freedom to determine what I teach. Feedback on my teaching performance showed the strongest predictive value for teaching engagement. Engagement scores were relatively favourable, but engagement with patient care was higher than with research and teaching. Task combinations appear to decrease teaching engagement. Our results match with self-determination theory and the job demands-resources model, and challenge the policy to combine teaching with research and patient care.
Klugman, Craig M
Although the AAMC requires annual reporting of medical humanities teaching, most literature is based on single-school case reports and studies using information reported on schools' websites. This study sought to discover what medical humanities is offered in North American allopathic and osteopathic undergraduate medical schools. An 18-question, semi-structured survey was distributed to all 146 (as of June 2016) member schools of the American Association of Medical Colleges and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. The survey sought information on required and elective humanities content, hours of humanities instruction, types of disciplines, participation rates, and humanities administrative structure. The survey was completed by 134 schools (145 AAMC; 31 AACOM). 70.8% of schools offered required and 80.6% offered electives in humanities. Global health and writing were the most common disciplines. Schools required 43.9 mean (MD 45.4; DO 37.1) and 30 (MD 29; DO 37.5) median hours in humanities. In the first two years, most humanities are integrated into other course work; most electives are offered as stand-alone classes. 50.0% of schools report only 0-25% of students participating in humanities electives. Presence of a certificate, concentration or arts journal increased likelihood of humanities content but decreased mean hours. Schools with a medical humanities MA had a higher number of required humanities hours. Medical humanities content in undergraduate curriculum is lower than is indicated in the AAMC annual report. Schools with a formal structure have a greater humanities presence in the curriculum and are taken by more students.
Cheng, Wei-Chun; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Chen, Chiung-Yu
Upper abdominal sonography can help physicians to confirm the diagnosis of various hepatobiliary diseases. Teaching sonography skills to medical students is important because it may enhance their level of knowledge and overall development during their gastroenterology section rotation. Sonographic imaging is abstract and students can be easily confused when scanning the abdominal structures from different sites and directions. We used several modern teaching strategies to facilitate the learning of sonography skills. The year five medical students beginning a gastroenterology section rotation for their first-year clerkship were taught abdominal sonography skills. Abstract sonographic images were related to concrete objects and the surrounding structures were further indicated. Each of the images was given a specific name and was sorted according to the scanning site. A mnemonics system was designed to help students to memorize the names of these images. A badge was created to recognize the achievement of being able to complete a basic upper abdominal sonography. Students were free (i.e., not obligated) to request a demonstration opportunity to show their skills within 2 weeks after receiving tutelage. We recorded the number of students who received training and were able to successfully complete the task; these individuals then received a badge to be pinned onto their white coats. Sixty-three of 68 students (92.6%) requested evaluation and all of them passed. We have greatly simplified the process of learning about upper abdominal sonography by using andragogy to enhance learning, mnemonics to help memory, and a pin-badge reward system to stimulate incentives. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.
O'Shaughnessy, Lelia; Haq, Inam; Maxwell, Simon; Llewelyn, Martin
Junior doctors feel poorly prepared by their training in Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics and commonly make prescribing errors. Since 1993 the General Medical Council's guidance on undergraduate medical education 'Tomorrow's Doctors' has emphasized the integration of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics teaching within the medical curriculum. With the publication of a new version of Tomorrow's Doctors in 2009, medical schools will be further revising their Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics teaching. Although we know what the recommendations for undergraduate teaching of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics teaching are, there are no published data describing what is currently happening in UK medical schools. This paper describes the course structures, volume and range of teaching and assessment of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics in the UK in 2009. Our data provide a foundation for schools looking to revise the Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics Teaching in the light of Tomorrow's Doctors 2009. To describe the current structure, delivery and assessment of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics (CPT) teaching in UK medical schools. An online questionnaire was distributed to the person with overall responsibility for CPT teaching at all UK medical schools in June 2009. Thirty of the 32 UK medical schools responded. 60% of schools have a CPT course although in 72% this was an integrated vertical theme. At 70% of schools pharmacologists have overall responsibility for CPT teaching (clinical 67%, non-clinical 33%); at 20% teaching is run by a non-specialist clinician and at 7% by a pharmacist. Teaching is commonly delivered by NHS clinicians (87%) and clinical pharmacists (80%) using lectures (90%) but additionally 50% of schools use e-Learning and 63% have a student formulary. CPT is assessed throughout the curriculum at many schools through written, practical examinations and course work. 90% of schools have specific CPT content in their
Renda-Francis, Lori A.
Program directors of American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) accredited veterinary technician programs may have little or no training in leadership. The need for program directors of AVMA-accredited veterinary technician programs to understand how leadership traits may have an impact on student success is often overlooked. The purpose of…
Goic, Alejandro; Armas, Rodolfo
In Chile there has been a close interaction between medical teaching and health care. In 1943, the University of Chile School of Medicine (founded in 1833) created Chairs in several public hospitals. The University of Chile School of Public Health (founded in 1943) played a key role in the creation in 1952 of a centralized National Health Service (NHS). The NHS had outpatient clinics and hospitals all over the country and was responsible for health care and for the promotion of health and disease prevention programs. In 1954, the NHS and the School of Medicine set up Residencies and General Practitioners programs aimed at improving the distribution of specialists and general practitioners throughout the country. In 1979, the NHS was replaced with 27 autonomous Health Services headed by the Ministry of Health, while the administration of primary care outpatient clinics was transferred to the municipal government. However, sanitary programs were still managed at the central level. Higher education also expanded and was decentralized. There are currently 60 universities and 17 medical schools, compared to eight and six, respectively, in 1981. The number of students in higher education has increased by 370% in 20 years. At the present time, the Chilean health case system is a predominantly public system with a strong and sizeable private system. Sixty two percent of the population is covered by public health insurance, while 27% is covered by private insurance. New and well equipped private clinics have multiplied. Private non profit institutions manage the prevention and treatment of work related injuries and diseases. Chile's outstanding health indicators (fertility rate: 17.2 x 1,000; mortality: 5.4 x 1,000; maternal mortality: 2.3 x 10,000; neonatal mortality: 4.5 x 1,000; life expectancy: 76 years) are a direct consequence of the improved social, cultural and economic condition of the general populations as well as of the sanitary programs sustained over the past
surgeons all over the world and the potential one that places the patient at significant risk. The present study aimed to study all the cases of laparoscopic cholecystectomy conducted in current setup at Lumbini Medical College and Teaching Hospital, to compare the results with the published literature and also analyze the complications and ways to decrease the incidence of conversion to open procedure. Methods: Five hundred twenty five patients age 10-90 years, male:female ratio of 1:3.86 with body weight 45-65 kilogram, who had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis without choledocholithiasis from April 2011 to April 2013 were studied. Results: All the laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC were without major complications. Only nineteen out of five hundred twentyfive (3.6% required conversion to open cholecystectomy (OC. Reasons for conversion included: dense omental or visceral adhesions; two (0.38%, unclear anatomy; 16 (3.04%, common bile duct injury; one (0.19%. There were 20 cases of shrunken gallbladder suspicious of malignancy but didn’t required conversion. Conclusion: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the preferred method in our setup even in difficult cases.
Macik, Maria L; Chaney, Kristin P; Turner, Jacqueline S; Rogers, Kenita S; Scallan, Elizabeth M; Korich, Jodi A; Fowler, Debra; Keefe, Lisa M
Curricular review is considered a necessary component for growth and enhancement of academic programs and requires time, energy, creativity, and persistence from both faculty and administration. On a larger scale, a comprehensive redesign effort involves forming a dedicated faculty redesign team, developing program learning outcomes, mapping the existing curriculum, and reviewing the curriculum in light of collected stakeholder data. The faculty of the Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (TAMU) recently embarked on a comprehensive curriculum redesign effort through partnership with the university's Center for Teaching Excellence. Using a previously developed evidence-based model of program redesign, TAMU created a process for use in veterinary medical education, which is described in detail in the first part of this article series. An additional component of the redesign process that is understated, yet vital for success, is faculty buy-in and support. Without faculty engagement, implementation of data-driven curricular changes stemming from program evaluation may be challenging. This second part of the article series describes the methodology for encouraging faculty engagement through the final steps of the redesign initiative and the lessons learned by TAMU through the redesign process.
Wong, Roger Y; Chen, Luke; Dhadwal, Gurbir; Fok, Mark C; Harder, Ken; Huynh, Hanh; Lunge, Ryan; Mackenzie, Mark; Mckinney, James; Ovalle, William; Rauniyar, Pooja; Tse, Luke; Villanyi, Diane
As distributed undergraduate and postgraduate medical education becomes more common, the challenges with the teaching and learning process also increase. To collaboratively engage front line teachers in improving teaching in a distributed medical program. We recently conducted a contest on teaching tips in a provincially distributed medical education program and received entries from faculty and resident teachers. Tips that are helpful for teaching around clinical cases at distributed teaching sites include: ask "what if" questions to maximize clinical teaching opportunities, try the 5-min short snapper, multitask to allow direct observation, create dedicated time for feedback, there are really no stupid questions, and work with heterogeneous group of learners. Tips that are helpful for multi-site classroom teaching include: promote teacher-learner connectivity, optimize the long distance working relationship, use the reality television show model to maximize retention and captivate learners, include less teaching content if possible, tell learners what you are teaching and make it relevant and turn on the technology tap to fill the knowledge gap. Overall, the above-mentioned tips offered by front line teachers can be helpful in distributed medical education.
Full Text Available Background: There is general consensus that the organizational and administrative aspects of academic study programs exert an important influence on teaching and learning. Despite this, no comprehensive framework currently exists to describe the conditions that affect the quality of teaching and learning in medical education. The aim of this paper is to systematically and comprehensively identify these factors to offer academic administrators and decision makers interested in improving teaching a theory-based and, to an extent, empirically founded framework on the basis of which improvements in teaching quality can be identified and implemented.Method: Primarily, the issue was addressed by combining a theory-driven deductive approach with an experience based, “best evidence” one during the course of two workshops held by the GMA Committee on Personnel and Organizational Development in Academic Teaching (POiL in Munich (2013 and Frankfurt (2014. Two models describing the conditions relevant to teaching and learning (Euler/Hahn and Rindermann were critically appraised and synthesized into a new third model. Practical examples of teaching strategies that promote or hinder learning were compiled and added to the categories of this model and, to the extent possible, supported with empirical evidence.Based on this, a checklist with recommendations for optimizing general academic conditions was formulated.Results: The covers six categories: and These categories have been supplemented by the interests, motives and abilities of the actual teachers and students in this particular setting. The categories of this model provide the structure for a checklist in which recommendations for optimizing teaching are given.Conclusions: The checklist derived from the Frankfurt Model for ensuring quality in teaching and learning can be used for quality assurance and to improve the conditions under which teaching and learning take place in medical schools.
Mathews, Michael B.; Stagnaro-Green, Alex
Biochemistry and molecular biology occupy a unique place in the medical school curriculum. They are frequently studied prior to medical school and are fundamental to the teaching of biomedical sciences in undergraduate medical education. These two circumstances, and the trend toward increased integration among the disciplines, have led to…
Howe Deborah Crofts Kate Billingham, A
The increasing importance of primary care suggests an important role for the whole primary healthcare team in the education of 'tomorrow's doctors'. Few studies have evaluated the contribution and views of staff other than general practitioners. We used a questionnaire survey to elicit the perspective of 65 community-based nurses involved in a new undergraduate medical course. Some 67% of the cohort had already undertaken training to teach others, and were confident of their teaching skills but were overly reliant on the general practitioners for information, and on the goodwill of colleagues for time to teach. The findings suggest a need for structural changes in the process of multidisciplinary medical education, supporting the need for teaching commitments to be coordinated at practice rather than individual tutor level. The high level of professional development for teaching among community nurses suggests that there is a sound basis for encouraging such valuable professional input into medical education in the future.
Preston-Shoot, Michael; McKimm, Judy
A revised core curriculum for medical ethics and law in UK medical schools has been published. The General Medical Council requires medical graduates to understand law and ethics and behave in accordance with ethical and legal principles. A parallel policy agenda emphasises accountability, the development of professionalism and patient safety. Given the renewed focus on teaching and learning law alongside medical ethics and the development of professional identity, this survey aimed to identify how medical schools are responding to the preparation of medical students for practice in the future. Questions were asked about the location, content and methods of teaching and assessment of law in undergraduate medical education. Examples of course documentation were requested to illustrate the approaches being taken. A 76% response rate was achieved. Most responding schools integrate law teaching with medical ethics, emphasising both the acquisition of knowledge and its application in a clinical context. Teaching, learning and assessment of law in clinical attachments is much less formalised than that in non-clinical education. Coverage of recommended topic areas varies, raising questions about the degree to which students can embed their knowledge and skills in actual practice. More positively, teaching does not rely on single individuals and clear descriptions were offered for problem-based and small group case-based learning. Further research is required to explore whether there are optimum ways of ensuring that legal knowledge, and skills in its use, form part of the development of professionalism among doctors in training.
Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena
The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.
Abdallah, Bahia; Irani, Jihad; Sailian, Silva Dakessian; Gebran, Vicky George; Rizk, Ursula
Nursing faculty teaching medical students a module in clinical skills is a relatively new trend. Collaboration in education among medical and nursing professions can improve students' performance in clinical skills and consequently positively impact the quality of care delivery. In 2011, the Faculty of Medicine in collaboration with the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon, launched a module in clinical skills as part of clinical skills teaching to first-year medical students. The module is prepared and delivered by nursing faculty in a laboratory setting. It consists of informative lectures as well as hands-on clinical practice. The clinical competencies taught are hand-washing, medication administration, intravenous initiation and removal, and nasogastric tube insertion and removal. Around sixty-five medical students attend this module every year. A Likert scale-based questionnaire is used to evaluate their experience. Medical students agree that the module provides adequate opportunities to enhance clinical skills and knowledge and favor cross-professional education between nursing and medical disciplines. Most of the respondents report that this experience prepares them better for clinical rotations while increasing their confidence and decreasing anxiety level. Medical students highly appreciate the nursing faculties' expertise and perceive them as knowledgeable and resourceful. Nursing faculty participating in medical students' skills teaching is well perceived, has a positive impact, and shows nurses are proficient teachers to medical students. Cross professional education is an attractive model when it comes to teaching clinical skills in medical school.
Kawashiro, Yukiko; Kadota, Tomoko; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Miyaso, Hidenobu; Komiyama, Masatoshi; Mori, Chisato
At the Medical School of Chiba University, educational dissection tours have been conducted for intra- and extramural students in other programs, such as students of nursing. In the 2006 school year there were more than 1,500 students. As presented in a previous report, we tested an educational program in which our medical students teach other students parts of splanchnology, neurology, and myology to promote student understanding of human physiology through their own teaching. Since this system, termed the "teaching assistant system," was fairly laborious for many medical students, we attempted to improve it by decreasing the students' load and reducing the frequency of teaching from several times to once during the one-term dissection practice. We assessed the improved method with questionnaires for medical students who had studied at the school in 2006 and 2007 (n = 206) before and after teaching other students. The response rate for the questionnaires was 91.3% (n = 188). The results were as follows. (1) Most medical students (69.7%) realized that the task of teaching had stimulating effects on their own learning motivation. (2) According to most of their evaluations (80.4%), the duties of teaching involved in the previous assistant system were laborious. In contrast, the ratio of medical students who considered teaching to be laborious decreased by about half (55.3%) in the present improved system. (3) Most students (79.8%) were satisfied with the teaching assistant system. We concluded that the improved teaching assistant system was effective for the dissection practice.
Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake
The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association's Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education.
Hoat, Luu N; Wright, E P
Medical education in many countries includes periods that students spend in the community. In Vietnam, a move towards more community-oriented teaching has increased the need for rural community-based education for medical students during recent years. At the same time, new policies and social changes have created difficulties for community-based education. The eight main medical schools have worked together since 1999 to improve their curriculum, including sharing and adopting new approaches in their field teaching programs. To establish more systematic, integrated and participatory field teaching in rural communities in the curricula of eight medical schools, based on community-university partnerships. Eight medical schools together analyzed their field teaching programs and identified issues still needing attention. A pilot intervention explored how to involve community and local health staff actively in field teaching programs. From the results of the workshop and the pilot intervention, plans were made for sets of activities to improve weaknesses. Feedback and evaluation surveys among local health staff and students who participated in field training were performed after 3 years' intervention, to check the appropriateness of the field teaching programs and methods. All eight schools had made improvements in selected aspects of their community-based education programs. There was still considerable variation in the programs but all were more systematic and better integrated into the revised curriculum. Stakeholders' concerns and interests related to field teaching were analyzed and taken into consideration when they were involved in field teaching. The community-university partnership has become a key element for field teaching in these medical schools. In the new social context of Vietnam, along with more community-based education periods, more active participation of all stakeholders is increasingly necessary to work towards more effective community
Matthew Hughes, J D; Azzi, Elise; Rose, Gregory Walter; Ramnanan, Christopher J; Khamisa, Karima
To prepare for careers in medicine, medical trainees must develop clinical teaching skills. It is unclear if Canadian medical students need or want to develop such skills. We sought to assess Canadian students' perceptions of clinical teaching, and their desire to pursue clinical teaching skills development via a clinical teaching elective (CTE) in their final year of medical school. We designed a descriptive cross-sectional study of Canadian senior medical students, using an online survey to gauge teaching experience, career goals, perceived areas of confidence, and interest in a CTE. Students at 13 of 17 Canadian medical schools were invited to participate in the survey (4154 students). We collected 321 responses (7.8%). Most (75%) respondents expressed confidence in giving presentations, but fewer were confident providing bedside teaching (47%), teaching sensitive issues (42%), and presenting at journal clubs (42%). A total of 240 respondents (75%) expressed interest in participating in a CTE. The majority (61%) favored a two week elective, and preferred topics included bedside teaching (85%), teaching physical examination skills (71%), moderation of small group learning (63%), and mentorship in medicine (60%). Our study demonstrates that a large number of Canadian medical students are interested in teaching in a clinical setting, but lack confidence in skills specific to clinical teaching. Our respondents signaled interest in participating in an elective in clinical teaching, particularly if it is offered in a two-week format.
Henriksen, Ann-Helen; Ringsted, Charlotte
The aim of this study was to explore how medical students perceive the experience of learning from patient instructors (patients with rheumatism who teach health professionals and students) in the context of coupled faculty-led and patient-led teaching session. This was an explorative study with a qualitative approach based on focus group…
Tan, Adrienne; Hawa, Raed; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Abbey, Susan E.
Objective: The Teaching for Learning and Collaboration (TLC) Program is a teaching-skills program focusing on methods to improve student learning. This program was adopted to address the professional and personal challenges faced by International Medical Graduates (IMGs) completing a fellowship in psychosomatic medicine. Method: The authors…
Boerebach, Benjamin C. M.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.
The System for Evaluation of Teaching Qualities (SETQ) was developed as a formative system for the continuous evaluation and development of physicians' teaching performance in graduate medical training. It has been seven years since the introduction and initial exploratory psychometric analysis of
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to describe a nosocomial outbreak caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP ST71 SCCmec II-III in dogs and cats at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Helsinki in November 2010 - January 2012, and to determine the risk factors for acquiring MRSP. In addition, measures to control the outbreak and current policy for MRSP prevention are presented. METHODS: Data of patients were collected from the hospital patient record software. MRSP surveillance data were acquired from the laboratory information system. Risk factors for MRSP acquisition were analyzed from 55 cases and 213 controls using multivariable logistic regression in a case-control study design. Forty-seven MRSP isolates were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and three were further analyzed with multi-locus sequence and SCCmec typing. RESULTS: Sixty-three MRSP cases were identified, including 27 infections. MRSPs from the cases shared a specific multi-drug resistant antibiogram and PFGE-pattern indicated clonal spread. Four risk factors were identified; skin lesion (OR = 6.2; CI95% 2.3-17.0, P = 0.0003, antimicrobial treatment (OR = 3.8, CI95% 1.0-13.9, P = 0.0442, cumulative number of days in the intensive care unit (OR = 1.3, CI95% 1.1-1.6, P = 0.0007 or in the surgery ward (OR = 1.1, CI95% 1.0-1.3, P = 0.0401. Tracing and screening of contact patients, enhanced hand hygiene, cohorting and barrier nursing, as well as cleaning and disinfection were used to control the outbreak. To avoid future outbreaks and spread of MRSP a search-and-isolate policy was implemented. Currently nearly all new MRSP findings are detected in screening targeted to risk patients on admission. CONCLUSION: Multidrug resistant MRSP is capable of causing a large outbreak difficult to control. Skin lesions, antimicrobial treatment and prolonged hospital stay increase the probability of acquiring MRSP. Rigorous control
Grönthal, Thomas; Moodley, Arshnee; Nykäsenoja, Suvi; Junnila, Jouni; Guardabassi, Luca; Thomson, Katariina; Rantala, Merja
The purpose of this study was to describe a nosocomial outbreak caused by methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) ST71 SCCmec II-III in dogs and cats at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Helsinki in November 2010 - January 2012, and to determine the risk factors for acquiring MRSP. In addition, measures to control the outbreak and current policy for MRSP prevention are presented. Data of patients were collected from the hospital patient record software. MRSP surveillance data were acquired from the laboratory information system. Risk factors for MRSP acquisition were analyzed from 55 cases and 213 controls using multivariable logistic regression in a case-control study design. Forty-seven MRSP isolates were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis and three were further analyzed with multi-locus sequence and SCCmec typing. Sixty-three MRSP cases were identified, including 27 infections. MRSPs from the cases shared a specific multi-drug resistant antibiogram and PFGE-pattern indicated clonal spread. Four risk factors were identified; skin lesion (OR = 6.2; CI95% 2.3-17.0, P = 0.0003), antimicrobial treatment (OR = 3.8, CI95% 1.0-13.9, P = 0.0442), cumulative number of days in the intensive care unit (OR = 1.3, CI95% 1.1-1.6, P = 0.0007) or in the surgery ward (OR = 1.1, CI95% 1.0-1.3, P = 0.0401). Tracing and screening of contact patients, enhanced hand hygiene, cohorting and barrier nursing, as well as cleaning and disinfection were used to control the outbreak. To avoid future outbreaks and spread of MRSP a search-and-isolate policy was implemented. Currently nearly all new MRSP findings are detected in screening targeted to risk patients on admission. Multidrug resistant MRSP is capable of causing a large outbreak difficult to control. Skin lesions, antimicrobial treatment and prolonged hospital stay increase the probability of acquiring MRSP. Rigorous control measures were needed to control the outbreak. We recommend
Mione, Sylvia; Valcke, Martin; Cornelissen, Maria
Histology stands as a major discipline in the life science curricula, and the practice of teaching it is based on theoretical didactic strategies along with practical training. Traditionally, students achieve practical competence in this subject by learning optical microscopy. Today, students can use newer information and communication technologies in the study of digital microscopic images. A virtual microscopy program was recently introduced at Ghent University. Since little empirical evidence is available concerning the impact of virtual microscopy (VM) versus optical microscopy (OM) on the acquisition of histology knowledge, this study was set up in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. A pretest-post test and cross-over design was adopted. In the first phase, the experiment yielded two groups in a total population of 199 students, Group 1 performing the practical sessions with OM versus Group 2 performing the same sessions with VM. In the second phase, the research subjects switched conditions. The prior knowledge level of all research subjects was assessed with a pretest. Knowledge acquisition was measured with a post test after each phase (T1 and T2). Analysis of covariance was carried out to study the differential gain in knowledge at T1 and T2, considering the possible differences in prior knowledge at the start of the study. The results pointed to non-significant differences at T1 and at T2. This supports the assumption that the acquisition of the histology knowledge is independent of the microscopy representation mode (VM versus OM) of the learning material. The conclusion that VM is equivalent to OM offers new directions in view of ongoing innovations in medical education technology. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.
Bandeali, Suhair; Chiang, Albert; Ramnanan, Christopher J.
ABSTRACT Objectives: According to the CanMEDS? Scholar competency, physicians are expected to facilitate the learning of colleagues, patients and other health professionals. However, most medical students are not provided with formal opportunities to gain teaching experience with objective feedback. Methods: To address this, the University?s Medical Education Interest Group (MEIG) created a pilot teaching program in January 2015 entitled ?MedTalks?. Four 3-hour sessions were held at the Unive...
Aritra Ghosh; Krishnendu Mandal; Suvadip Biswas; Saikat Kumar Dalui; Mithilesh Haldar; Supreeti Biswas
Background: Pharmacology is a major subject in medical science and always changing, so according to it pharmacologists also need to reform their teaching method. Students' opinion in this evaluation of teaching is a good option. Methods: A questionnaire based study was conducted in Burdwan Medical College on 230 students of two batches. Results: One forty eight students thought that the subject was interesting. Twenty eight percent students opined that Pharmacology class was not interes...
Schulz, Stefan; Woestmann, Barbara; Huenges, Bert; Schweikardt, Christoph; Schäfer, Thorsten
It was investigated how students judge the teaching of medical ethics and the history of medicine at the start and during their studies, and the influence which subject-specific teaching of the history, theory and ethics of medicine (GTE)--or the lack thereof--has on the judgement of these subjects. From a total of 533 students who were in their first and 5th semester of the Bochum Model curriculum (GTE teaching from the first semester onwards) or followed the traditional curriculum (GTE teaching in the 5th/6th semester), questionnaires were requested in the winter semester 2005/06 and in the summer semester 2006. They were asked both before and after the 1st and 5th (model curriculum) or 6th semester (traditional curriculum). We asked students to judge the importance of teaching medical ethics and the history of medicine, the significance of these subjects for physicians and about teachability and testability (Likert scale from -2 (do not agree at all) to +2 (agree completely)). 331 questionnaire pairs were included in the study. There were no significant differences between the students of the two curricula at the start of the 1st semester. The views on medical ethics and the history of medicine, in contrast, were significantly different at the start of undergraduate studies: The importance of medical ethics for the individual and the physician was considered very high but their teachability and testability were rated considerably worse. For the history of medicine, the results were exactly opposite. GTE teaching led to a more positive assessment of items previously ranked less favourably in both curricula. A lack of teaching led to a drop in the assessment of both subjects which had previously been rated well. Consistent with the literature, our results support the hypothesis that the teaching of GTE has a positive impact on the views towards the history and ethics of medicine, with a lack of teaching having a negative impact. Therefore the teaching of GTE
Schulz, Stefan; Woestmann, Barbara; Huenges, Bert; Schweikardt, Christoph; Schäfer, Thorsten
Objectives: It was investigated how students judge the teaching of medical ethics and the history of medicine at the start and during their studies, and the influence which subject-specific teaching of the history, theory and ethics of medicine (GTE) - or the lack thereof - has on the judgement of these subjects. Methods: From a total of 533 students who were in their first and 5th semester of the Bochum Model curriculum (GTE teaching from the first semester onwards) or followed the traditional curriculum (GTE teaching in the 5th/6th semester), questionnaires were requested in the winter semester 2005/06 and in the summer semester 2006. They were asked both before and after the 1st and 5th (model curriculum) or 6th semester (traditional curriculum). We asked students to judge the importance of teaching medical ethics and the history of medicine, the significance of these subjects for physicians and about teachability and testability (Likert scale from -2 (do not agree at all) to +2 (agree completely)). Results: 331 questionnaire pairs were included in the study. There were no significant differences between the students of the two curricula at the start of the 1st semester. The views on medical ethics and the history of medicine, in contrast, were significantly different at the start of undergraduate studies: The importance of medical ethics for the individual and the physician was considered very high but their teachability and testability were rated considerably worse. For the history of medicine, the results were exactly opposite. GTE teaching led to a more positive assessment of items previously ranked less favourably in both curricula. A lack of teaching led to a drop in the assessment of both subjects which had previously been rated well. Conclusion: Consistent with the literature, our results support the hypothesis that the teaching of GTE has a positive impact on the views towards the history and ethics of medicine, with a lack of teaching having a negative
Benè, Kristen L; Bergus, George
Peer teaching engages students as teachers and is widely used in K-12 education, many universities, and increasingly in medical schools. It draws on the social and cognitive congruence between learner and teacher and can be attractive to medical schools faced with a growing number of learners but a static faculty size. Peer teachers can give lectures on assigned topics, lead problem-based learning sessions, and provide one on one support to classmates in the form of tutoring. We undertook a narrative review of research on peer teachers in medical school, specifically investigating how medical students are impacted by being peer teachers and how having a peer teacher impacts learners. Studies have shown that peer teaching has a primarily positive impact on both the peer teacher and the learners. In the setting of problem-based learning courses or clinical skills instruction, medical students' performance on tests of knowledge or skills is similar whether they have faculty instructors or peer teachers. There is also strong evidence that being a peer teacher enhances the learning of the peer teacher relative to the content being taught. It is common for peer teachers to lack confidence in their abilities to successfully teach, and they appreciate receiving training related to their teaching role. We find evidence from several different educational settings that peer teaching benefits both the peer teachers and the learners. This suggests that peer teaching is a valuable methodology for medical schools to engage learners as teachers.
Potter, Lucy C; Feder, Gene
Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a leading contributor to the physical and mental ill health of women. Recent international guidance recommends that undergraduate medical curricula should include DVA. We do not know what is currently taught about DVA to medical students in the UK. Recent international guidance recommends that undergraduate medical curricula should include DVA METHOD: Teaching leads from all UK medical schools (n = 34) were invited to participate in an 18-item online survey about what DVA education is provided, their views of this provision and any feedback provided by students. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. A total of 25 out of 34 medical schools participated in the survey (74%). All respondents felt that there should be formal teaching on DVA in the medical curriculum. Eighty-four per cent of respondents reported that there was some formal teaching in their medical school, and 90% of these reported that it was mandatory. Of those who delivered some teaching, 52% reported that the provision was 0-2 hours in total. Most commonly content was delivered in year 4. DVA teaching was delivered in different modules, by different methods and delivered by a range of different providers. Seventy-five per cent of respondents reported that they felt the provision at their medical school was inadequate or not enough. Barriers to providing DVA education identified included time constraints, failure to perceive it as a medical problem and the assumption that it will be covered elsewhere. Most medical students in the UK receive a small amount of teaching on DVA towards the end of the curriculum. This is perceived as inadequate. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.
Booth, Richard G; Sinclair, Barbara; Strudwick, Gillian; Brennan, Laura; Morgan, Lisa; Collings, Stephanie; Johnston, Jessica; Loggie, Brittany; Tong, James; Singh, Chantal
The purpose of this quality improvement project was to better understand how to teach medication administration underpinned by an electronic medication administration record (eMAR) system used in simulated, prelicensure nursing education. Methods included a workflow and integration analysis and a detailed process mapping of both an oral and a sublingual medication administration. Procedural and curriculum development considerations related to medication administration using eMAR technology are presented for nurse educators.
Li, Tracey; Eisenhart, Alison; Costello, Jennifer
The results of a study to develop a hospital-wide medication review service for patients with enteral tubes to improve patient safety are presented. Inappropriate enteral administration of medications can result in occluded tubes, altered clinical response, and an increase in adverse effects. At Saint Barnabas Medical Center, a 600-bed community teaching hospital located in Livingston, New Jersey, a medication review service for patients with an enteral tube was developed. A phased approach was used. In phase 1, a retrospective chart review revealed that 43% of our patients with enteral tubes received at least one medication that should not be crushed. In phase 2, we identified formulary medications that should not be crushed based on guidance from the Institute for Safe Medication Practices. We added a "do not crush" warning to the identified medications in our electronic medication administration record and automated medication dispensing system. In phase 3, we created an automatic substitution list of medications. Phase 4 involved the development of the program in our health information technology platform. An electronic task list alerted pharmacists about patients with enteral tubes who required medication review and potential medication substitutions, as well as patients with newly removed enteral tubes who can be placed back on their original medications. In phase 5, we provided education to prescribers, nurses, and pharmacists. A hospital-wide medication review service for patients with enteral tubes at our community teaching medical center was developed. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Pungkava Sricharoen,1 Chaiyaporn Yuksen,1 Yuwares Sittichanbuncha,1 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth2,3 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3The Research Center in Back, Neck, Other Joint Pain and Human Performance (BNOJPH, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand Background: There are different teaching methods; such as traditional lectures, bedside teaching, and workshops for clinical medical clerkships. Each method has advantages and disadvantages in different situations. Emergency Medicine (EM focuses on emergency medical conditions and deals with several emergency procedures. This study aimed to compare traditional teaching methods with teaching methods involving workshops in the EM setting for medical students. Methods: Fifth year medical students (academic year of 2010 at Ramathibodi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand participated in the study. Half of students received traditional teaching, including lectures and bedside teaching, while the other half received traditional teaching plus three workshops, namely, airway workshop, trauma workshop, and emergency medical services workshop. Student evaluations at the end of the clerkship were recorded. The evaluation form included overall satisfaction, satisfaction in overall teaching methods, and satisfaction in each teaching method. Results: During the academic year 2010, there were 189 students who attended the EM rotation. Of those, 77 students (40.74% were in the traditional EM curriculum, while 112 students were in the new EM curriculum. The average satisfaction score in teaching method of the new EM curriculum group was higher than the traditional EM curriculum group (4.54 versus 4.07, P-value <0.001. The top three highest average satisfaction scores in the new EM curriculum group were trauma
Andrew Jay, Erie; Starkman, Sidney J; Pawlina, Wojciech; Lachman, Nirusha
Teaching is an increasingly recognized responsibility of the resident physician. Residents, however, often assume teaching responsibilities without adequate preparation. Consequently, many medical schools have implemented student-as-teacher (SAT) programs that provide near-peer teaching opportunities to senior medical students. Near-peer teaching is widely regarded as an effective teaching modality; however, whether near-peer teaching experiences in medical school prepare students for the teaching demands of residency is less understood. We explored whether the anatomy-based SAT program through the Human Structure didactic block at Mayo Medical School addressed the core teaching competencies of a medical educator and prepared its participants for further teaching roles in their medical careers. A web-based survey was sent to all teaching assistants in the anatomy-based SAT program over the past five years (2007-2011). Survey questions were constructed based on previously published competencies in seven teaching domains--course development, course organization, teaching execution, student coaching, student assessment, teacher evaluation, and scholarship. Results of the survey indicate that participants in the anatomy-based SAT program achieved core competencies of a medical educator and felt prepared for the teaching demands of residency. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.
Zhao, Weizhao; Li, Xiping; Chen, Hairong; Manns, Fabrice
Medical Imaging is a key training component in Biomedical Engineering programs. Medical imaging education is interdisciplinary training, involving physics, mathematics, chemistry, electrical engineering, computer engineering, and applications in biology and medicine. Seeking an efficient teaching method for instructors and an effective learning environment for students has long been a goal for medical imaging education. By the support of NSF grants, we developed the medical imaging teaching software (MITS) and associated dynamic assessment tracking system (DATS). The MITS/DATS system has been applied to junior and senior medical imaging classes through a hybrid teaching model. The results show that student's learning gain improved, particularly in concept understanding and simulation project completion. The results also indicate disparities in subjective perception between junior and senior classes. Three institutions are collaborating to expand the courseware system and plan to apply it to different class settings.
Dobkin, Patricia L; Hutchinson, Tom A
Mindfulness has the potential to prevent compassion fatigue and burnout in that the doctor who is self-aware is more likely to engage in self-care activities and to manage stress better. Moreover, well doctors are better equipped to foster wellness in their patients. Teaching mindfulness in medical school is gaining momentum; we examined the literature and related websites to determine the extent to which this work is carried out with medical students and residents. A literature search revealed that 14 medical schools teach mindfulness to medical and dental students and residents. A wide range of formats are used in teaching mindfulness. These include simple lectures, 1-day workshops and 8-10-week programmes in mindfulness-based stress reduction. Two medical schools stand out because they have integrated mindfulness into their curricula: the University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry (USA) and Monash Medical School (Australia). Studies show that students who follow these programmes experience decreased psychological distress and an improved quality of life. Although the evidence points to the usefulness of teaching mindful practices, various issues remain to be considered. When is it best to teach mindfulness in the trajectory of a doctor's career? What format works best, when and for whom? How can what is learned be maintained over time? Should mindfulness training be integrated into the medical school core curriculum? © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nelson, Adam J; Nelson, Sophie V; Linn, Andrew M J; Raw, Lynne E; Kildea, Hugh B; Tonkin, Anne L
The University of Adelaide offers a six-year undergraduate medical degree with a focus on small group learning. Senior medical students had previously received limited formal training in education skills, and were identified as an underutilised teaching resource. To devise a programme in which senior students are exposed to the various facets of university teaching responsibilities and to evaluate its impact on both the tutors and the students. A six week rotation in medical education for final year medical students was designed and implemented in 2010 to involve them in the development, delivery and assessment of the 1st and 2nd year medical programme as near-peer tutors (NPTs). Two years after the rotation's implementation, voluntary evaluation of both the junior students and NPTs was undertaken through a mixed methods approach of survey and focus group. Junior students (n=358) revealed the NPTs provided non-threatening learning environments, provided helpful feedback and acted as role models. Additionally, the NPTs (n=24) reported they had consolidated prior knowledge, developed their teaching skills and expressed a desire to be more involved in teaching in the future. The implementation of NPTs in the teaching of junior medical students appears to benefit both students and their near-peer colleagues. Involvement of NPTs in all facets of medical education through this rotation stands to not only foster potential interest in an academic pathway but also equip them with a variety of transferable skills which they can draw on as future educators in their profession.
Roos, Marco; Kadmon, Martina; Kirschfink, Michael; Koch, Eginhard; Jünger, Jana; Strittmatter-Haubold, Veronika; Steiner, Thorsten
It is well accepted that medical faculty teaching staff require an understanding of educational theory and pedagogical methods for effective medical teaching. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 5-day teaching education program. An open prospective interventional study using quantitative and qualitative instruments was performed, covering all four levels of the Kirkpatrick model: Evaluation of 1) 'Reaction' on a professional and emotional level using standardized questionnaires; 2) 'Learning' applying a multiple choice test; 3) 'Behavior' by self-, peer-, and expert assessment of teaching sessions with semistructured interviews; and 4) 'Results' from student evaluations. Our data indicate the success of the educational intervention at all observed levels. 1) Reaction: The participants showed a high acceptance of the instructional content. 2) Learning: There was a significant increase in knowledge (Plearning into teaching performance. Semistructured interviews reflected a higher level of professionalism in medical teaching by the participants. 4) Results: Teaching performance ratings improved in students' evaluations. Our results demonstrate the success of a 5-day education program in embedding knowledge and skills to improve performance of medical educators. This multimethodological approach, using both qualitative and quantitative measures, may serve as a model to evaluate effectiveness of comparable interventions in other settings.
... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for veterinary technologists and technicians. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of veterinary technologists and ...
Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, ... Parasitic diseases have a debilitating impact on human and animal health worldwide particularly in developing countries. Haemoparasitism have largely been ..... exerts a major health concern in domestic.
Smith, Donald F
This article is the first in a series of three to be published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME). These articles are abridged versions of six lectures that make up an elective course on the history of the veterinary profession in North America offered at Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine in spring 2010. The course was based in large part on an oral history collection titled "An Enduring Veterinary Legacy"(1) that captures interesting and relevant veterinary stories. The course was designed to increase awareness of the history of veterinary medicine as we approach the sesquicentennial of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in 2013 and as we join with our international colleagues in marking the 250th anniversary of the establishment of the world's first veterinary college in Lyon, France, in 2011.(2) The overarching goal of this course and the articles is to record and also to share first-person stories that describe the development of veterinary education and the veterinary profession in North America from the mid-1860s to the present. In the process, it is hoped that this history will encourage respect, love, and admiration for the veterinary profession and an appreciation of veterinary medicine as a versatile profession. The articles are somewhat Cornell-centric because the lectures on which they are based were presented to Cornell students at their home institution. However, it is hoped that the events are representative of the broader American experience. For educators interested in the course itself, a brief synopsis and a summary of student evaluations for the first year of presentation is appended here and in subsequent articles in this series.
Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G
This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.
Luo, Yongjun; Zhou, Qiquan; Huang, Jianjun; Luo, Rong; Yang, Xiaohong; Gao, Yuqi
The purpose of high altitude continuing medical education is to adapt knowledge and skills for practical application on the plateau. Most trainees have experience with academic education and grassroots work experience on the plateau, so they want knowledge about new advances in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of high altitude disease. As such, traditional classroom teaching methods are not useful to them. Training objects, content, and methods should attempt to conduct a variety of teaching practices. Through continuing medical education on high altitude disease, the authors seek to change the traditional teaching model away from a single classroom and traditional written examinations to expand trainees' abilities. These innovative methods of training can improve both the quality of teaching and students' abilities to prevent and treat acute mountain sickness, high altitude pulmonary edema, high altitude cerebral edema, and chronic mountain sickness to increase the quality of high altitude medical care.
Oldroyd, Christopher; Fialova, Lydie
Medical ethics forms an essential component of an undergraduate medical programme. In the UK the Institute of Medical Ethics has released a consensus statement detailing its recommendations for a minimum curriculum for ethics. One important issue it highlights for inclusion is 'Beginning of Life', which includes a wide range of themes. This paper presents an evaluation of the current teaching and assessment of these important issues in UK medical schools, complemented by a specific analysis of students' reaction to the teaching they received at the University of Edinburgh as part of their Obstetrics and Gynaecology rotation. Schools which responded to the survey reported a wide range of teaching and assessment methods. While there was a good overall coverage of topics, only one of them was covered by every institution and the religious/cultural elements of those topics were often neglected. The medical schools viewed better clinical integration of ethics teaching as the best route to improvement, but the students reported a desire for more ethics teaching in the form of specific tutorials, lectures or discussions. It is likely that a combination of these approaches will lead to significant improvements in the delivery of ethics teaching in this area and in others. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Pettit, Jeffrey E; Axelson, Rick D; Ferguson, Kristi J; Rosenbaum, Marcy E
To investigate what criteria medical students would value and use in assessing teaching skills. Fourth-year medical students at the University of Iowa Carver College of Medicine enrolled in a teaching elective course are required to design and use an evaluation instrument to assess effective teaching. Each class uses a similar process in developing their instruments. Since the first class in spring 2007, 193 medical students have created 36 different instruments. Three faculty evaluation experts conducted a thematic analysis of the instruments and coded the information according to what was being evaluated and what types of ratings were indicated. The data were submitted to a fourth faculty reviewer, who synthesized the information and adjusted the codes to better capture the data. Common themes and categories were detected. Four themes were identified: content (instructor knowledgeable, teaches at level of learner, practical information), learning environment, teacher personal attributes, and teaching methods. Thirty-two descriptors were distinguished across the 36 instruments. Thirteen descriptors were present in 50% or more of the instruments. The most common rating systems were Likert scales and open comments. Fourth-year medical students can offer an eclectic resource for evaluating teaching in the classroom and the clinic. Using the descriptors that were identified in greater than 50% of the evaluation instruments will provide effective measures that can be incorporated into medical teacher evaluation instruments.
Fan, Jennifer C; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J
Despite established international guidelines on preferred teaching components for ophthalmology in undergraduate curricula, with increasingly less specialty-based undergraduate teaching within curricula, teaching of core ophthalmology knowledge and skills may become marginalized. This survey aims to evaluate the current state of undergraduate ophthalmology teaching in Australasia and proximate Asian medical schools. A questionnaire was developed to determine the content and extent of ophthalmology teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum. The questionnaire was sent to 25 medical schools throughout Australasia and Asia. Nineteen of the 25 questionnaires were returned (76% response rate). Ophthalmology teaching programmes ranged from 2 to 20 days: five (26%) medical schools having one ophthalmology attachment; six schools (32%) two attachments; and the remainder three or more. Only seven of the schools taught all 13 ophthalmology topics recommended in current curriculum guidelines. Ocular examination (100%), lens and cataract (95%) and ocular manifestations of systemic disease (95%) were the most commonly taught topics, with intraocular tumours only covered by 10 schools (53%). Students in 14 schools (74%) attended ophthalmology operating theatre, but only two schools (11%) offered attendance at optometry clinics. Ten schools (53%) required a pass in ophthalmology to complete the academic year. Ophthalmology may increasingly be a small, or even absent, component of undergraduate medical curricula. Despite established international ophthalmology curriculum guidelines, this survey highlights significant lack of uniformity in their implementation.
Agius, Andee; Calleja, Neville; Camenzuli, Christian; Sultana, Roberta; Pullicino, Richard; Zammit, Christian; Calleja Agius, Jean; Pomara, Cristoforo
During the last decade, global interest in the multiple benefits of formal peer teaching has increased. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of first-year medical students towards the use of peer teaching to learn anatomy using cadaveric specimens. A descriptive, cross-sectional, retrospective survey was carried out. Data were collected using an online questionnaire which was administered to all medical students who were in their second year of their medical school curriculum and who had participated in sessions taught by their peers during their first year. Peer teaching was perceived as an effective method of learning anatomy by more than half of the participants. Analysis of mean responses revealed that the peer teachers created a positive, non-intimidating learning environment. Overall, participants gave positive feedback on their peer teachers. Six categories emerged from the responses given by participants as to why they would or would not recommend peer teaching. Ways of improvement as suggested by the respondents were also reported. Variables found to be significantly associated with the perceived benefits of the peer teaching program included sex differences, educational level and recommendations for peer teaching. This study brings to light the merits and demerits of peer teaching as viewed through the eyes of the peer learners. Peer teaching provides a sound platform for teaching and learning anatomy. Further discussions at higher levels are encouraged in order to explore the feasibility of introducing formal peer teaching in the medical curriculum. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.
Kogan, Lori R; Stewart, Sherry M; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Janke, Janet M
This study addressed how students' undergraduate science courses influence their academic performance in a veterinary program, and examined what implications this may have for the veterinary admissions process. The undergraduate transcripts and veterinary school rankings of current third-year veterinary students at Colorado State University were coded and analyzed. Because the study found no statistically meaningful relationships between the pre-veterinary coursework parameters and class rank, it could be concluded that veterinary schools may be unnecessarily restricting access to the profession by requiring long and complicated lists of prerequisite courses that have a questionable predictive value on performance in veterinary school. If a goal of veterinary schools is to use the admissions process to enhance recruitment and provide the flexibility necessary to admit applicants who have the potential to fill the current and emerging needs of the profession, schools may want to re-evaluate how they view pre-veterinary course requirements. One of the recommendations generated from the results of this study is to create a list of veterinary prerequisite courses common to all schools accredited by the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges. It is suggested that this might simplify pre-veterinary advising, enhance recruitment, and provide flexibility for admitting nontraditional but desirable applicants, without impacting the quality of admitted veterinary students.
Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. British Veterinary Association.
The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the Journal are the ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(3). 2017. Gberindyer et al. 250. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2017. Vol 38 (3): 250-259. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Drugs Prescription Pattern in Dogs Diagnosed with Parvovirus Enteritis in Some Veterinary Clinics in Nigeria. Gberindyer, F. A.. 1.
1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria, 2Department of. Veterinary Anatomy ... laboratory technologists and academic staff of the departments of veterinary anatomy, pathology and public health. Design of the ... Early histology and histopathology based research was ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(2). 2017. Mustapha et al. 129 ... 1 Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta,. Abeokuta, Ogun State; 2 ..... lamina 9; IB: Internal basilar nucleus; ICI: Intercalated nucleus; ICo9: Intercostal muscle motor neurons of lamina 9; ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Thomas et al. 123 .... Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of. Agriculture Abeokuta and were ..... immunogenic Salmonella ghost confers protection against internal organ colonization and egg contamination. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology,. 162(1-2): 41–50. JOSHI ...
Cottrell, Scott; Gill, Anne; Crow, Sheila; Saizow, Ronald; Nelson, Elizabeth A; Shumway, James M
There are several oaths and affirmations that are integrated into the academic customs of the health sciences, such as the Hippocratic Oath and the Ethical Affirmation for Scientists. What current oaths do not communicate is that teaching and learning are the foundation of the professions. We articulated an oath to punctuate the important role of teaching and to emphasize that educating students is not a marginal responsibility but an important duty. The goal of this oath is to include all educators who contribute to teaching medical students, including basic science and clinical faculty, residents, nurses, and healthcare providers. This oath is also designed to be concise, allowing for a public declaration during ceremonies that call attention to teaching and learning. Publically declaring the Teaching Oath is an opportunity to clarify the highest standards of teaching and to energize educators to fulfill the promise of a dynamic learning community.
Jain, Aditya; Bansal, Ramta; Singh, Kd; Kumar, Avnish
Teaching in most Asian countries is still dominated by teacher-centered classrooms in which students passively receive information from the teacher. Studies have shown that students' inactivity in traditional teacher-centered classes makes them bored that consequently decrease their concentration and learning. To counter these problems active learning methods are being promoted to enhance their interest in studying. This present study was done to explore effective teaching system from a student's perspective. The aim of the study was to examine the attitude of medical and dental first year students towards teaching methods. The study was undertaken at on 150 Medical and Dental first year students. The study was conducted using general questionnaires along with feedback form to know their opinion about different teaching methodology. A 94.67% of the students were unsatisfied with traditional Lecture teaching. 89.33% favoured combination of traditional lectures and active learning techniques, 74.67% students find active learning methods to be interesting, 77.33% found them as attention seekers, 89.33% are motivated for in-depth study and 85.33% students are motivated for independents learning. 100% students agreed that active learning methods provide opportunities of student interaction while 86.67% students are happy with the teacher-student interaction it provides. Audio-visual aids are the most favoured (94.67%) and test questions are most criticized active teaching method. Our study disclosed that the majority of student's positively believe in using different active learning techniques for classroom activities.
McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J
Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.
Kochevar, Deborah T
Veterinary clinical pharmacology encompasses all interactions between drugs and animals and applies basic and clinical knowledge to improve rational drug use and patient outcomes. Veterinary pharmacology instructors set educational goals and objectives that, when mastered by students, lead to improved animal health. The special needs of pharmacology instruction include establishing a functional interface between basic and clinical knowledge, managing a large quantity of information, and mastering quantitative skills essential to successful drug administration and analysis of drug action. In the present study, a survey was conducted to determine the extent to which veterinary pharmacology instructors utilize information technology (IT) in their teaching. Several IT categories were investigated, including Web-based instructional aids, stand-alone pharmacology software, interactive videoconferencing, databases, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and e-book applications. Currently IT plays a largely ancillary role in pharmacology instruction. IT use is being expanded primarily through the efforts of two veterinary professional pharmacology groups, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology (ACVCP) and the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT). The long-term outcome of improved IT use in pharmacology instruction should be to support the larger educational mission of active learning and problem solving. Creation of high-quality IT resources that promote this goal has the potential to improve veterinary pharmacology instruction within and across institutions.
Verhoeven, Anita; Dekker, Hanke
This article describes how medicine of the person is taught to 4th year medical students in Groningen, The Netherlands, as part of the teaching programme ‘Professional Development’. In that year, the students start with their clerkships. In this transitional phase from medical student to young
Boon, Veronica; Ridd, Matthew; Blythe, Andrew
All UK medical schools use primary care settings to deliver their undergraduate courses. However there is no national undergraduate curriculum for primary care and it is thought that the learning objectives of primary care teaching vary considerably between medical schools. The overall aim was to establish what is being taught within and by primary care across UK medical schools. We did this by collating learning objectives from the primary care department at each school. In order to categorise and compare the list of learning objectives from each school we mapped the learning objectives to the postgraduate curriculum of the Royal College of General Practitioners (RCGP). Cross sectional survey sent to heads of teaching of primary care at all 32 UK medical schools. GP teacher handbooks for primary care modules at each medical school were requested. Information was extracted based on key headings from the RCGP postgraduate curriculum. Topics taught by primary care at all medical schools include: consulting and communication skills, leading and working in teams, and developing yourself and others. Novel topics, taught at a few medical schools include: learning disability, genetics and multi-morbidity. The majority of medical schools address aspects of over half of the RCGP postgraduate curriculum headings in their learning objectives for primary care. This project provides valuable information about primary care teaching at an undergraduate level across the UK. Although it confirms widespread variation in learning objectives, it also highlights considerable common ground and opportunities for sharing teaching resources between schools.
Stringfellow, Thomas D; Rohrer, Rebecca M; Loewenthal, Lola; Gorrard-Smith, Connor; Sheriff, Ibrahim H N; Armit, Kirsten; Lees, Peter D; Spurgeon, Peter C
Abstract Medical leadership and management (MLM) skills are essential in preventing failings of healthcare; it is unknown how these attitudes can be developed during undergraduate medical education. This paper aims to quantify interest in MLM and recommends preferred methods of teaching and assessment at UK medical schools. Two questionnaires were developed, one sent to all UK medical school faculties, to assess executed and planned curriculum changes, and the other sent to medical students nationally to assess their preferences for teaching and assessment. Forty-eight percent of UK medical schools and 260 individual student responses were recorded. Student responses represented 60% of UK medical schools. 65% of schools valued or highly valued the importance of teaching MLM topics, compared with 93.2% of students. Students' favoured teaching methods were seminars or lectures (89.4%) and audit and quality improvement (QI) projects (77.8%). Medical schools preferred portfolio entries (55%) and presentations (35%) as assessment methods, whilst simulation exercises (76%) and audit reports (61%) were preferred by students. Preferred methods encompass experiential learning or simulation and a greater emphasis should be placed on encouraging student audit and QI projects. The curriculum changes necessary could be achieved via further integration into future editions of Tomorrow's Doctors.
Dr Janis H. Audin (MSc Illinois 1975, DVM Illinois 1979), a champion of progressive veterinary medical journalism and 'One Health' died on 22 April 2009 following a long, courageous and difficult battle with pancreatic cancer. The world has lost a truly significant One Health leader and advocate. Under her guidance, the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA) implemented a 'one-health wonders' column that recognised and highlighted prominent One Health individuals among the medical and veterinary medical professions in the United States. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) has lost a dedicated and gifted editor-in-chief. Dr Audin joined the editorial staff of the AVMA in 1985, as an assistant editor and was promoted to associate editor in 1989 and editor in 1994. She became the editor-in-chief of both the JAVMA and the American Journal of Veterinary Research in 1995. Prior to that, Dr Audin practised as an associate veterinarian in Calumet City, Illinois, for four years. During her tenure, Dr Audin was noted for implementing procedural and technological changes in the journal to reduce costs, improve timeliness of publications and promote readership interest and awareness. New features in the News section introduced under her leadership have made the journals more practical and public health-relevant. For instance, Dr Audin fostered the United States Department of Agriculture's Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) 'Inspection Insights' - a public health-oriented food safety monthly column related to meat, poultry and egg products - from 1996 through 1998. She also increased international manuscript submissions. On 23 March 2009 AVMA Executive Vice President Dr W. Ron DeHaven named Dr Audin as editor-in-chief emeritus of the Publications Division. Wisely, it also meant that Dr Audin could continue contributing to the staff effort to ensure the high quality of the AVMA scientific journals while the Association began a
Mohammad Parsa Mahjob
Full Text Available Background and objective: Medical record documentation, often use to protect the patients legal rights, also providing information for medical researchers, general studies, education of health care staff and qualitative surveys is used. There is a need to control the amount of data entered in the medical record sheets of patients, considering the completion of these sheets is often carried out after completion of service delivery to the patients. Therefore, in this study the prevalence of completeness of medical history, operation reports, and physician order sheets by different documentaries in Jahrom teaching hospitals during year 2009 was analyzed. Methods and Materials: In this descriptive / retrospective study, the 400 medical record sheets of the patients from two teaching hospitals affiliated to Jahrom medical university was randomly selected. The tool of data collection was a checklist based on the content of medical history sheet, operation report and physician order sheets. The data were analyzed by SPSS (Version10 software and Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Average of personal (Demography data entered in medical history, physician order and operation report sheets which is done by department's secretaries were 32.9, 35.8 and 40.18 percent. Average of clinical data entered by physician in medical history sheet is 38 percent. Surgical data entered by the surgeon in operation report sheet was 94.77 percent. Average of data entered by operation room's nurse in operation report sheet was 36.78 percent; Average of physician order data in physician order sheet entered by physician was 99.3 percent. Conclusion: According to this study, the rate of completed record papers reviewed by documentary in Jahrom teaching hospitals were not desirable and in some cases were very weak and incomplete. This deficiency was due to different reason such as medical record documentaries negligence, lack of adequate education for documentaries, High work
McCally, Michael; And Others
At the George Washington University School of Medicine a 52-hour course in emergency care was adapted for first-year medical students from an 81-hour program for training emergency medical technicians. (Author/LBH)
Full Text Available In spite of the enormous progress of Western medicine during the past century there has not be a concomitant rise in the public’s satisfaction with the medical profession. Much of the discontent relates to problems in physician–patient communication. The multiple advantages of good communication have been clearly demonstrated by numerous careful studies. While the past few decades have witnessed much more attention given to teaching communication skills in medical schools, there are a number of factors that create new problems in physician–patient communication and counteract the positive teaching efforts. The “hidden curriculum”, the increased emphasis on technology, the greater time pressures, and the introduction of the computer in the interface between physician and patient present new challenges for the teaching of physician-patient communication.
In spite of the enormous progress of Western medicine during the past century there has not be a concomitant rise in the public's satisfaction with the medical profession. Much of the discontent relates to problems in physician-patient communication. The multiple advantages of good communication have been clearly demonstrated by numerous careful studies. While the past few decades have witnessed much more attention given to teaching communication skills in medical schools, there are a number of factors that create new problems in physician-patient communication and counteract the positive teaching efforts. The "hidden curriculum", the increased emphasis on technology, the greater time pressures, and the introduction of the computer in the interface between physician and patient present new challenges for the teaching of physician-patient communication.
Greenhill, Lisa; Elmore, Ronnie; Stewart, Sherry; Carmichael, K Paige; Blackwell, Michael J
Many changes in US veterinary colleges and their student bodies have occurred during the past 50 years. These have reflected US demographics in many ways. With these changes have come many changes in student life. The Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges has played an important role in facilitating and tracking many of the changes by creating numerous opportunities for colleges to work together on issues related to admissions, diversity, and scholarly publication in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education.
Full Text Available Bahia Abdallah,1 Jihad Irani,2 Silva Dakessian Sailian,1 Vicky George Gebran,1 Ursula Rizk1 1Nursing Program at the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Balamand, 2Faculty of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon Abstract: Nursing faculty teaching medical students a module in clinical skills is a relatively new trend. Collaboration in education among medical and nursing professions can improve students' performance in clinical skills and consequently positively impact the quality of care delivery. In 2011, the Faculty of Medicine in collaboration with the Faculty of Health Sciences at the University of Balamand, Beirut, Lebanon, launched a module in clinical skills as part of clinical skills teaching to first-year medical students. The module is prepared and delivered by nursing faculty in a laboratory setting. It consists of informative lectures as well as hands-on clinical practice. The clinical competencies taught are hand-washing, medication administration, intravenous initiation and removal, and nasogastric tube insertion and removal. Around sixty-five medical students attend this module every year. A Likert scale-based questionnaire is used to evaluate their experience. Medical students agree that the module provides adequate opportunities to enhance clinical skills and knowledge and favor cross-professional education between nursing and medical disciplines. Most of the respondents report that this experience prepares them better for clinical rotations while increasing their confidence and decreasing anxiety level. Medical students highly appreciate the nursing faculties' expertise and perceive them as knowledgeable and resourceful. Nursing faculty participating in medical students' skills teaching is well perceived, has a positive impact, and shows nurses are proficient teachers to medical students. Cross professional education is an attractive model when it comes to teaching clinical skills in
Boyers, Lindsay N; Schultz, Amanda; Baceviciene, Rasa; Blaney, Susan; Marvi, Natasha; Dellavalle, Robert P; Dunnick, Cory A
Although teledermatology (TD) is regarded as a tool to improve patient access to specialty healthcare, little has been done to evaluate its role in medical education. We describe the TD program at the Denver (CO) Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center and evaluate its use as an educational tool for teaching dermatology to dermatology residents and medical students. Dermatology residents manage TD consultations and review all cases with a faculty preceptor; medical students participate as observers when possible. This study assessed dermatology resident (n=14) and medical student (n=16) perceptions of TD and its usefulness in teaching six core clinical competencies. Both residents (79%) and medical students (88%) "strongly agree" or "agree" that TD is an important educational tool. In general, medical students were slightly more satisfied than residents across all of the core competencies assessed except for patient care. Medical students and residents were most satisfied with the competencies of practice-based learning and improvement and medical knowledge, whereas they were least satisfied with those of interpersonal and communication skills and professionalism. Overall, TD is valued as a teaching tool for dermatology in the areas of patient care, medical knowledge, practice-based learning and improvement, and systems-based practice.
Zhou, Feng-juan; Xie, Wen-mei; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Xiao-rong
Medical genetics, the connection between basic and clinical medicine, is a subject with strong applicability and plays important role in modern medical education system. Based on years of teaching experience and during the construction of state-level top quality course, our teaching team has established the quaternary teaching system of medical genetics which includes teaching, practice, research and clinical application. The four elements of the system interpenetrate, complement and reinforce each other. Specifically, classroom teaching is the basics which is further complemented by social practice, improved by research and promoted by clinical application. The quaternary teaching system provides a feasible way to integrate theoretical and clinical courses. After years of implementation, the teaching system has got great effects on the obvious improvement of research ability, social reputation and clinical service capacities of the research team.
Palmer, Brian A; Frye, Mark A; Vickers Douglas, Kristin S; Staab, Jeffrey P; Bright, Robert P; Schleck, Cathy D; Mandrekar, Jayawant N; Mahapatra, Saswati; Beckman, Thomas J; Wittich, Christopher M
Little is known about factors associated with effective continuing medical education (CME) in psychiatry. The authors aimed to validate a method to assess psychiatry CME teaching effectiveness and to determine associations between teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of presentations, presenters, and participants. This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Mayo Clinic Psychiatry Clinical Reviews and Psychiatry in Medical Settings. Presentations were evaluated using an eight-item CME teaching effectiveness instrument, its content based on previously published instruments. Factor analysis, internal consistency and interrater reliabilities, and temporal stability reliability were calculated. Associations were determined between teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of presentations, presenters, and participants. In total, 364 participants returned 246 completed surveys (response rate, 67.6%). Factor analysis revealed a unidimensional model of psychiatry CME teaching effectiveness. Cronbach α for the instrument was excellent at 0.94. Item mean score (SD) ranged from 4.33 (0.92) to 4.71 (0.59) on a 5-point scale. Overall interrater reliability was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.75-0.91), and temporal stability was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.77-0.97). No associations were found between teaching effectiveness scores and characteristics of presentations, presenters, and participants. This study provides a new, validated measure of CME teaching effectiveness that could be used to improve psychiatry CME. In contrast to prior research in other medical specialties, CME teaching effectiveness scores were not associated with use of case-based or interactive presentations. This outcome suggests the need for distinctive considerations regarding psychiatry CME; a singular approach to CME teaching may not apply to all medical specialties.
Furmedge, Daniel S; Iwata, Kazuya; Gill, Deborah
Peer-assisted learning (PAL) has become increasingly popular over recent years with many medical schools now formally incorporating peer-teaching programs into the curriculum. PAL has a sound evidence base with benefit to both peer-teacher and peer-learner. Aside from in teaching delivery, empowering students to develop education in its broadest sense has been much less extensively documented. Five case studies with supportive evaluation evidence illustrate the success of a broad range of peer-led projects in the undergraduate medical curriculum, particularly where these have been embedded into formal teaching practices. These case studies identify five domains of teaching and support of learning where PAL works well: teaching and learning, resource development, peer-assessment, education research and evaluation and mentoring and support. Each case offers ways of engaging students in each domain. Medical students can contribute significantly to the design and delivery of the undergraduate medical program above and beyond the simple delivery of peer-assisted "teaching". In particular, they are in a prime position to develop resources and conduct research and evaluation within the program. Their participation in all stages enables them to feel involved in course development and education of their peers and ultimately leads to an increase in student satisfaction.
Roos, Marco; Kadmon, Martina; Kirschfink, Michael; Koch, Eginhard; Jünger, Jana; Strittmatter-Haubold, Veronika; Steiner, Thorsten
Background It is well accepted that medical faculty teaching staff require an understanding of educational theory and pedagogical methods for effective medical teaching. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 5-day teaching education program. Methods An open prospective interventional study using quantitative and qualitative instruments was performed, covering all four levels of the Kirkpatrick model: Evaluation of 1) 'Reaction' on a professional and emotional level using standardized questionnaires; 2) 'Learning' applying a multiple choice test; 3) 'Behavior' by self-, peer-, and expert assessment of teaching sessions with semistructured interviews; and 4) 'Results' from student evaluations. Results Our data indicate the success of the educational intervention at all observed levels. 1) Reaction: The participants showed a high acceptance of the instructional content. 2) Learning: There was a significant increase in knowledge (Pteaching performance. Semistructured interviews reflected a higher level of professionalism in medical teaching by the participants. 4) Results: Teaching performance ratings improved in students' evaluations. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the success of a 5-day education program in embedding knowledge and skills to improve performance of medical educators. This multimethodological approach, using both qualitative and quantitative measures, may serve as a model to evaluate effectiveness of comparable interventions in other settings.
This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US). PMID:15494763
This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).
Jenaabadi H; Azizi Nejad B; Mehdizade A
Aims: Many experts believe that critical thinking teaching is effective in social activities and especially interactions. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of critical thinking education on the development of social skills of medical students. Materials & Methods: This quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test was done in 2013. The study population consisted of all first-year medical students at the Urmia University of Medical Sciences that among them 200 patients (100 pa...