WorldWideScience

Sample records for veterinary medical schools

  1. Veterinary medical school libraries in the United States and Canada 1977/78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K S; Coffee, E G

    1982-01-01

    Data on seven aspects of veterinary medical school libraries are presented and discussed: demographic data on the schools of veterinary medicine the libraries support, number of bound volumes held and number of serial titles received, audiovisual materials, staffing levels and salaries, materials budgets, physical size, and access to computerized bibliographic data bases. The great variability, especially in collection size, is stressed and attributed to such factors as size and programs of the veterinary school, age of the school and library, geographic location, accessibility of other libraries, administrative structure, and exchange programs. PMID:7059713

  2. Trends in gender, employment, salary, and debt of graduates of US veterinary medical schools and colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chieffo, Carla; Kelly, Alan M; Ferguson, James

    2008-09-15

    To characterize trends in gender, employment, starting salaries, and educational debt of graduates of US veterinary medical schools and colleges from 1988 to 2007. Meta-analysis. Sample Population-Veterinary medical graduates from 26 or 27 of 27 US veterinary schools and colleges from 1988 through 2007. Data were obtained from surveys published in the JAVMA. A chi2 test for trend was used to analyze trends in choices of employment and educational indebtedness for the veterinary graduate populations over time. The greatest changes in employment occurred in predominantly large animal practice, which attracted 10.7% of new graduates in 1989 but only 2.2% in 2007, and in advanced study, which attracted 15.2% of new graduates in 1989 and 36.8% in 2007. In 2007, 75% of graduates were women, but this gender shift was not associated with the decline in the percentage of graduates entering rural practice. From 1989 through 2007, starting salaries in private practice increased at a rate of 4.60%/y. During the same period, educational debt increased at an annual rate of 7.36%, or 60% higher than the rate of increases for starting salaries. As a result, debt at graduation increased from 1.1 times the starting salary in 1989 to 2.0 times the starting salary in 2007. Veterinary students are now more in debt than they have ever been. This trend together with a substantial increase in the rate of interest charged for government-backed education loans create conditions for new graduates that appear unsustainable.

  3. Veterinary School Applicants: Financial Literacy and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.

  4. American Veterinary Medical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free client handout to share with them. Compounding Veterinary Compounding FDA has withdrawn its draft guidance for ... new guidance, the AVMA is working to ensure veterinary access and animal health are protected. NEWS & ALERTS ...

  5. Veterinary medical education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international

  6. A study of depression and anxiety, general health, and academic performance in three cohorts of veterinary medical students across the first three semesters of veterinary school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisbig, Allison M J; Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Hafen, McArthur; Krienert, Ashley; Girard, Destiny; Garlock, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This study builds on previous research on predictors of depression and anxiety in veterinary medical students and reports data on three veterinary cohorts from two universities through their first three semesters of study. Across all three semesters, 49%, 65%, and 69% of the participants reported depression levels at or above the clinical cut-off, suggesting a remarkably high percentage of students experiencing significant levels of depression symptoms. Further, this study investigated the relationship between common stressors experienced by veterinary students and mental health, general health, and academic performance. A factor analysis revealed four factors among stressors common to veterinary students: academic stress, transitional stress, family-health stress, and relationship stress. The results indicated that both academic stress and transitional stress had a robust impact on veterinary medical students' well-being during their first three semesters of study. As well, academic stress negatively impacted students in the areas of depression and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction, general health, perception of academic performance, and grade point average (GPA). Transitional stress predicted increased depression and anxiety symptoms and decreased life satisfaction. This study helped to further illuminate the magnitude of the problem of depression and anxiety symptoms in veterinary medical students and identified factors most predictive of poor outcomes in the areas of mental health, general health, and academic performance. The discussion provides recommendations for considering structural changes to veterinary educational curricula to reduce the magnitude of academic stressors. Concurrently, recommendations are suggested for mental health interventions to help increase students' resistance to environmental stressors.

  7. Building the pipeline: programs to introduce middle school, high school, medical, and veterinary students to careers in epidemiology and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordell, Ralph L; Cordeira, Kelly L; Cohen, Laurence P; Bensyl, Diana M

    2017-11-01

    This report describes Centers for Disease Control and Prevention programs that expose students to epidemiology and public health sciences (EPHS). The Science Ambassador workshop targets middle and high school teachers and promotes teaching EPHS in the classroom. The National Science Olympiad Disease Detectives event is an extracurricular science competition for middle and high school students based on investigations of outbreaks and other public health problems. The Epidemiology Elective Program provides experiential learning activities for veterinary and medical students. As of 2016, 234 teachers from 37 states and territories and three other countries participated in SA workshops. Several are teaching units or entire courses in EPHS. The National Science Olympiad Disease Detectives event exposed approximately 15,000 middle and high school students to EPHS during the 2015-2016 school year. The Epidemiology Elective Program has exposed 1,795 veterinary and medical students to EPHS. Students can master fundamental concepts of EPHS as early as middle school and educators are finding ways to introduce this material into their classrooms. Programs to introduce veterinary and medical students to EPHS can help fill the gap in exposing older students to the field. Professional organizations can assist by making their members aware of these programs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Current Issues and the Veterinary Medical Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Andre J.

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…

  9. Sleep hygiene among veterinary medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D; Hunt, Suzanne A; Borst, Luke B; Gerard, Mathew

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand veterinary medical students' sleep hygiene and identify the extent to which sleep hygiene behaviors may result in consequences (either positive or negative) for students. A total of 187 doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) program students at a large College of Veterinary Medicine in the United States. The Epworth Sleep Scale and Daytime Sleepiness Scale were administered to 393 students enrolled in the DVM program. About 55.1% of students reported sleep per night, 28.9% reported having trouble sleeping, and 50.3% reported feeling sleepy all day. With respect to sleep quality, 5.3% described it as excellent, 52.4% as good, 34.2% as fair, and 8.0% as poor. A significant percentage of veterinary medical students exhibit poor sleep hygiene habits that may be detrimental to both their health and academic endeavors.

  10. Microscope use in clinical veterinary practice and potential implications for veterinary school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.

  11. A Theoretical Framework for Human and Veterinary Medical Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In their practice, physicians and veterinarians need to resort to an array of ethical competences. As a teaching topic, however, there is no accepted gold standard for human medical ethics, and veterinary medical ethics is not yet well established. This paper provides a reflection on the underlying aims of human and veterinary medical ethics…

  12. Domestic violence shelter partnerships and veterinary student attitudes at North American veterinary schools and colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K

    2013-01-01

    Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.

  13. A qualitative study to explore communication skills in veterinary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamood, Wendy J; Chur-Hansen, Anna; McArthur, Michelle L

    2014-10-11

    To explore and gain an understanding of what "clinical communication skills" mean to veterinarians working in private practice and what implications this might have for veterinary medical education. Qualitative research methods were used to purposefully sample a range of veterinary practitioners from a pool of South Australian veterinary practices who were interviewed to determine their understanding of what communication skills mean in the context of veterinary practice. Interviews were conducted with fourteen veterinary practitioners. Participants were sampled from a range of ages, veterinary schools of graduation plus urban and rural locations. Interview transcripts were analysed for themes, definitions and contexts. Participants' accounts included a number of skills which they considered to be "communication". Some of the definitions of these skills parallel communication skills and competencies for human medicine on which communication skills training incorporated into veterinary curricula to date have largely been based. However, the veterinarians in this study also raised interesting contextual differences unique to the veterinary profession, such as communication with the animal, selling service, discussing money in relation to decisions for care, and communicating about euthanasia. Veterinary practitioners require high level communication skills. Education and training in veterinary medicine may be better tailored to reflect the unique context of the veterinary profession.

  14. Milestone Educational Planning Initiatives in Veterinary Medical Education: Progress and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Elizabeth A; Reimann, Jessica; Greenhill, Lisa M; Dewey, Cate E

    2017-11-29

    Three milestone educational planning initiatives engaged the veterinary medical profession in the United States and Canada between 1987 and 2011, namely the Pew National Veterinary Education Program, the Foresight Project, and the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. In a quantitative study, we investigated the impact of these initiatives on veterinary medical education through a survey of academic leaders (deans, previous deans, and associate deans for academics from veterinary medical schools that are members of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges) to assess their perspectives on the initiatives and eight recommendations that were common to all three initiatives. Two of the recommendations have in effect been implemented: enable students to elect in-depth instruction and experience within a practice theme or discipline area (tracking), and increase the number of graduating veterinarians. For three of the recommendations, awareness of the issues has increased but substantial progress has not been made: promote diversity in the veterinary profession, develop a plan to reduce student debt, and develop a North American strategic plan. Lastly, three recommendations have not been accomplished: emphasize use of information more than fact recall, share educational resources to enable a cost-effective education, and standardize core admissions requirements. The educational planning initiatives did provide collaborative opportunities to discuss and determine what needs to change within veterinary medical education. Future initiatives should explore how to avoid and overcome obstacles to successful implementation.

  15. Comparing Tolerance of Ambiguity in Veterinary and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jason; Hammond, Jennifer A; Roberts, Martin; Mattick, Karen

    Current guidelines suggest that educators in both medical and veterinary professions should do more to ensure that students can tolerate ambiguity. Designing curricula to achieve this requires the ability to measure and understand differences in ambiguity tolerance among and within professional groups. Although scales have been developed to measure tolerance of ambiguity in both medical and veterinary professions, no comparative studies have been reported. We compared the tolerance of ambiguity of medical and veterinary students, hypothesizing that veterinary students would have higher tolerance of ambiguity, given the greater patient diversity and less well-established evidence base underpinning practice. We conducted a secondary analysis of questionnaire data from first- to fourth-year medical and veterinary students. Tolerance of ambiguity scores were calculated and compared using the TAMSAD scale (29 items validated for the medical student population), the TAVS scale (27 items validated for the veterinary student population), and a scale comprising the 22 items common to both scales. Using the TAMSAD and TAVS scales, medical students had a significantly higher mean tolerance of ambiguity score than veterinary students (56.1 vs. 54.1, pambiguity than veterinary students, although this depends on the scale used.

  16. Guidelines for zoo and aquarium veterinary medical programs and veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backues, Kay; Clyde, Vickie; Denver, Mary; Fiorello, Christine; Hilsenroth, Rob; Lamberski, Nadine; Larson, Scott; Meehan, Tom; Murray, Mike; Ramer, Jan; Ramsay, Ed; Suedmeyer, Kirk; Whiteside, Doug

    2011-03-01

    These guidelines for veterinary medical care and veterinary hospitals are written to conform with the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act, which states that programs of disease prevention and parasite control, euthanasia, and adequate veterinary care shall be established and maintained under the supervision of a veterinarian. Ideally the zoo and aquarium should be providing the best possible veterinary medical care for the animals in their collections. Many of these animals are rare and endangered and the institutions should endeavor both to provide for the long term health and well being of these animals and to advance the field of non-domestic animal medicine. It is hoped that this publication will aid in this process.

  17. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines for an integrative veterinary medicine curriculum within veterinary colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270

  18. Veterinary Homeopathy: The Implications of Its History for Unorthodox Veterinary Concepts and Veterinary Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Dwight B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)

  19. The role of veterinary medical librarians in teaching information literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelman, Andrea L; Viera, Ann R; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle A

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study seeks to determine the nature of the instruction librarians provide to veterinary medical students at all 28 United States veterinary colleges. A secondary goal of the study was to determine in what ways and to what extent librarians participated in other instructional activities at their colleges. Over half of the librarians formally taught in one or more courses, predominantly in the first two years of the veterinary curriculum. One presentation per course was most common. Over half of the librarians interviewed stated that evidence-based veterinary medicine was taught at their colleges, and about half of these librarians collaborated with veterinary faculty in this instruction. Many librarians participated in orientation for first-year veterinary students. The librarians also taught instructional sessions for residents, interns, faculty, graduate students, and practicing veterinarians. This study found that librarians teach information literacy skills both formally and informally, but, in general, instruction by librarians was not well integrated into the curriculum. This study advances several recommendations to help veterinary students develop information literacy skills. These include: encourage veterinary faculty and administrators to collaborate more closely with librarians, incorporate a broader array of information literacy skills into assignments, and add a literature evaluation course to the curriculum.

  20. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, ...

  1. A look into the Medical and Veterinary Entomology crystal ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas-Torres, F; Cameron, M M; Colwell, D D; Otranto, D

    2014-08-01

    Medical and Veterinary Entomology (MVE) represents a leading periodical in its field and covers many aspects of the biology and control of insects, ticks, mites and other arthropods of medical and veterinary importance. Since the first issue of the journal, researchers working in both developed and developing countries have published in MVE, with direct impact on current knowledge in the field. An increasing number of articles dealing with the epidemiology and transmission of vector-borne pathogens have been published in MVE, reflecting rapid changes in vector distribution, pathogen transmission and host-arthropod interactions. This article represents a gaze into the crystal ball in which we identify areas of increasing interest, discuss the main changes that have occurred in the epidemiology of parasitic arthropods since the first issue of MVE, and predict the principal scientific topics that might arise in the next 25 years for scientists working in medical and veterinary entomology. © 2014 The Royal Entomological Society.

  2. ‘One Medicine - One Health’ at the School of Veterinary Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania - the first 125 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Hendricks, VMD, PhD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The University of Pennsylvania's School of Veterinary Medicine (Penn Vet, in partnership with other veterinary schools and health professions, is positioned well to advance an international ‘One Medicine - One Health’ initiative. Founded in 1884 by the University's Medical Faculty, the School has been a leader in moulding the education and practice of veterinary medicine in the nation and the world. Successfully integrating biomedical research into all aspects of veterinary medical education, the School has made significant contributions to basic and clinical research by exemplifying ‘One Medicine’. In looking to the future, Penn Vet will embrace the broader ‘One Health’ mission as well.

  3. Reflections on the future of veterinary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, Keith W

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Keith Prasse is a very distinguished leader in veterinary education. He started his career achieving his BS and DVM degrees from Iowa State University (ISU). He returned to ISU after a brief period in private practice in Illinois. His well-recognized career in veterinary pathology began with his MS and PhD degrees, followed by a five-year period of teaching at ISU. Dr. Prasse joined the faculty of the University of Georgia in 1972, and thus began a long-term partnership with Dr. Bob Duncan that is arguably the foundation of veterinary clinical pathology. The textbook they authored, Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, or "Duncan and Prasse" as it is known, remains the standard today, with later participation from Dr. Ed Mahaffey and most recently Dr. Ken Latimer. Dr. Prasse has mentored numerous graduate students and received many awards over his 23-year career in teaching, including the Norden Distinguished Teaching award twice, once at ISU and once at Georgia. His leadership as President of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists was greatly acknowledged and appreciated. Dr. Prasse's administrative service at the University of Georgia spanned 14 years, first as Associate Dean for Public Service and Outreach and later as Dean for eight years, during which time he served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC). The growth of the College of Veterinary Medicine under Dean Prasse's visionary leadership was extraordinary. He led through difficult economic and political times, yet the college and its community continued to prosper. His legacy at the University of Georgia is indelible and perpetual. His outstanding leadership of the college was recognized by the Georgia Veterinary Medical Association in 2004, when he was given the Georgia Veterinarian of the Year award. Since his retirement from Georgia, Dr. Prasse has contributed greatly to the profession and to the AAVMC by leading the Foresight project

  4. Evaluation of medical and veterinary students' attitudes toward a one health interprofessional curricular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winer, Jenna Nicole; Nakagawa, Keisuke; Conrad, Patricia A; Brown, Lauren; Wilkes, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates whether medical and veterinary students' attitudes toward "One Health" and interprofessional education changed after participating in a joint small group learning exercise focused on risk factors associated with zoonotic disease. A survey was distributed to third-year medical students (n = 98) and second-year veterinary students (n = 140), each with a 95% response rate. Overall, 92% of veterinary students and 73% of medical students agreed or strongly agreed that "One Health" was relevant to their desired specialty. Students from both schools largely agreed that interprofessional education should be a goal of the curriculum for their school, and that interprofessional approaches strengthen their overall education. Students reported increased confidence in their communication skills and improved ability to contribute to One Health collaborative teams. This educational intervention, built around a patient case, focused on a variety of learning objectives including skills (such as communication), knowledge (of zoonotic toxoplasmosis) and attitudes (toward collaborative learning and practice). By sparking an interest in One Health during their early professional education, we sought to encourage a new generation of physicians and veterinarians to adopt a more collaborative spirit to their clinical practice, which will ultimately benefit human, animal and environmental health.

  5. Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology School of Veterinary Medicine (KNUST SVM) A Model of "One-Health Concept" Application to Veterinary Education in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folitse, R D; Agyemang, T Opoku; Emikpe, B O; Evarefe, O D; Atawalna, J

    2014-12-01

    Veterinary education in West Africa had been skewed over decades with Nigeria and Senegal leading in the training of veterinarians in the subregion. Most nationals from Ghana, Sierra Leone, Gambia as well as francophone countries within the subregion were trained in East Africa, Europe and South America. The aim of this paper is to provide an insight into the need for veterinary education in other West African countries including Ghana Information was sourced from individuals, literatures and other relevant archives on the history, current state and future approaches to veterinary education in Ghana. The advantages, challenges and coping strategies for application of the Principles of "The One World One Health concept" to veterinary education with the use of the medical professionals in the delivery were presented. This approach to veterinary education by Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology School of Veterinary Medicine showcases a means to meet the health challenges of the twenty first century which demand pragmatic innovation to solve disease challenges.

  6. Promoting professional behaviour in undergraduate medical, dental and veterinary curricula in the Netherlands: evaluation of a joint effort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Luijk, S.J.; Gorter, R.C.; van Mook, W.N.K.A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: From 2002 onwards, a nationwide working group of representatives from all medical (8), dental (3) and veterinary medicine (1) schools collaborated in order to develop and implement recommendations for teaching and assessing professional behaviour. Aim: The aim of this article is to

  7. Animal poisoning - veterinary-medical and criminal-legal aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Apart from approved or planned poisoning with agricultural purpose, an increase in the number of cases of intentional animal poisoning (primarily referring to cats and dogs has been detected in Serbia, and it is suspected that their number is significantly larger than the one shown by the official statistics data. Under the conditions prescribed by the Criminal Code of the Republic of Serbia, such activities may represent the crime of killing and torture of animals, but also the crime of causing a general danger. It would be impossible to conduct the procedure of discovering and proving these criminal offences and the responsibility of their perpetrators without findings and opinion of forensic veterinary-medicine experts. They play an important role when it comes to site inspection, crime scene processing, collecting the samples from the crime scene, processing of samples and autopsy and exhumation of a potentially poisoned animal body. Just like other evidence in criminal procedure, findings and opinion of experts of veterinary medicine are estimated in accordance with the principle of free assessment of evidence. However, due to the specificity of such cases of killing and torture of animals, their impact on court’s decision on the existence of criminal offence and perpetrator’s liability is crucial. In this paper, the authors discuss the scope of animal poisoning in Serbia, particularly in Belgrade, analyze possible criminal - legal consequences of these illegal activities and point out to a significant role that experts of veterinary medical profession have in discovering and proving such cases and the liability of their perpetrators.

  8. Survey of college climates at all 28 US colleges and schools of veterinary medicine: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhill, Lisa M; Carmichael, K Paige

    2014-01-01

    In April 2011, a nationwide survey of all 28 US veterinary schools was conducted to determine the comfort level (college climate) of veterinary medical students with people from whom they are different. The original hypothesis was that some historically underrepresented students, especially those who may exhibit differences from the predominant race, ethnicity, religion, gender, or sexual orientation, experience a less welcoming college climate. Nearly half of all US students responded to the survey, allowing investigators to make conclusions from the resulting data at a 99% CI with an error rate of less than 2% using Fowler's sample-size formula. Valuable information was captured despite a few study limitations, such as occasional spurious data reporting and little ability to respond in an open-ended manner (most questions had a finite number of allowed responses). The data suggest that while overall the majority of the student population is comfortable in American colleges, some individuals who are underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM) may not feel the same level of acceptance or inclusivity on veterinary school campuses. Further examination of these data sets may explain some of the unacceptably lower retention rates of some of these URVM students on campuses.

  9. Influence of a veterinary curriculum on the approaches and study skills of veterinary medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Ilkiw, Jan E; Boudreaux, Karen A

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate first-, second-, third-, and fourth-year veterinary medical students' approaches to studying and learning as well as the factors within the curriculum that may influence these approaches. A questionnaire consisting of the short version of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students (ASSIST) was completed by 405 students, and it included questions relating to conceptions about learning, approaches to studying, and preferences for different types of courses and teaching. Descriptive statistics, factor analysis, Cronbach's alpha analysis, and log-linear analysis were performed on the data. Deep, strategic, and surface learning approaches emerged. There were a few differences between our findings and those presented in previous studies in terms of the correlation of the subscale monitoring effectiveness, which showed loading with both the deep and strategic learning approaches. In addition, the subscale alertness to assessment demands showed correlation with the surface learning approach. The perception of high workloads, the use of previous test files as a method for studying, and examinations that are based only on material provided in lecture notes were positively associated with the surface learning approach. Focusing on improving specific teaching and assessment methods that enhance deep learning is anticipated to enhance students' positive learning experience. These teaching methods include instructors who encourage students to be critical thinkers, the integration of course material in other disciplines, courses that encourage thinking and reading about the learning material, and books and articles that challenge students while providing explanations beyond lecture material.

  10. A Novel Approach to Simulation-Based Education for Veterinary Medical Communication Training Over Eight Consecutive Pre-Clinical Quarters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Ryane E

    Experiential learning through the use of standardized patients (SPs) is the primary way by which human medical schools teach clinical communication. The profession of veterinary medicine has followed suit in response to new graduates' and their employers' concerns that veterinary interpersonal skills are weak and unsatisfactory. As a result, standardized clients (SCs) are increasingly relied upon as invaluable teaching tools within veterinary curricula to advance relationship-centered care in the context of a clinical scenario. However, there is little to no uniformity in the approach that various colleges of veterinary medicine take when designing simulation-based education (SBE). A further complication is that programs with pre-conceived curricula must now make room for training in clinical communication. Curricular time constraints challenge veterinary colleges to individually decide how best to utilize SCs in what time is available. Because it is a new program, Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) has had the flexibility and the freedom to prioritize an innovative approach to SBE. The author discusses the SBE that is currently underway at MWU CVM, which incorporates 27 standardized client encounters over eight consecutive pre-clinical quarters. Prior to entering clinical rotations, MWU CVM students are exposed to a variety of simulation formats, species, clients, settings, presenting complaints, and communication tasks. These represent key learning opportunities for students to practice clinical communication, develop self-awareness, and strategize their approach to future clinical experiences.

  11. Impact of the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine's Boiler Vet Camp on participants' knowledge of veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisman, James L; Amass, Sandra F; Warren, Joshua D

    2011-04-01

    To assess whether Boiler Vet Camp, a 7-day residential summer camp for students entering eighth or ninth grade in the fall, would increase participants' understanding of career options in the veterinary profession, increase understanding of the science of veterinary medicine, or increase the number of students stating that they intended to apply to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine. Survey. 48 individuals attending the 2009 Boiler Vet Camp. Information on participant demographics was obtained from camp applications. A questionnaire was administered on the first and sixth days of camp, and results were analyzed to identify changes in responses over time. More campers correctly answered questions designed to evaluate knowledge of the veterinary profession and 10 of 12 questions designed to evaluate specific knowledge of the science of veterinary medicine on day 6, compared with day 1. Remarkable differences were not observed among gender or race-ethnicity groups for these questions. There was no significant difference between percentages of campers who stated that they would apply to Purdue before and after camp. Significantly more Caucasian campers stated they would apply to Purdue on both day 1 and day 6, compared with campers from under-represented minority groups. Results indicated that the Boiler Vet Camp accomplished 2 of its 3 planned objectives, suggesting that such camps can be successfully used to increase knowledge of the veterinary profession among middle school students. Reasons for the low percentage of participants from underrepresented minorities who indicated they would apply to the Purdue University School of Veterinary Medicine require further exploration.

  12. Virtual Microscopy: A Useful Tool for Meeting Evolving Challenges in the Veterinary Medical Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R.; Dowers, Kristy L.; Cerda, Jacey R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.; Stewart, Sherry M.

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary schools, similar to many professional health programs, face a myriad of evolving challenges in delivering their professional curricula including expansion of class size, costs to maintain expensive laboratories, and increased demands on veterinary educators to use curricular time efficiently and creatively. Additionally, exponential…

  13. Medical student fitness to practise committees at UK medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldridge Jocelyne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim was to explore the structures for managing student fitness to practise hearings in medical schools in the UK. We surveyed by email the named fitness to practise leads of all full members of the UK Medical Schools Council with a medical undergraduate programme. We asked whether student fitness to practise cases were considered by a committee/panel dedicated to medicine, or by one which also considered other undergraduate health and social care students. Findings All 31 medical schools responded. 19 medical schools had a fitness to practise committee dealing with medical students only. Three had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and dentistry. One had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and veterinary medicine. Eight had a committee that dealt with students of medicine and two or more other programmes, such as dentistry, nursing, midwifery, physiotherapy, dietetics, social work, pharmacy, psychology, audiology, speech therapy, operating department practice, veterinary medicine and education. Conclusion All 31 UK medical schools with undergraduate programmes have a fitness to practise committee to deal with students whose behaviour has given rise to concern about their fitness to practise. The variation in governance structures for student fitness to practise committees/panels can in part be explained by variations in University structures and the extent to which Universities co-manage undergraduate medicine with other courses.

  14. Medics in Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Colin

    2003-01-01

    Some time ago a flyer on "Medics in Primary School" came the author's way. It described a programme for making placements in primary schools available to medical students. The benefits of the program to medical students and participating schools were highlighted, including opportunities to develop communication skills and demystify…

  15. Enhancing human-animal relationships through veterinary medical instruction in animal-assisted therapy and animal-assisted activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Caroline Brunsman

    2008-01-01

    Instruction in animal-assisted therapy (AAT) and animal-assisted activities (AAAs) teaches veterinary medical students to confidently and assertively maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of this union of animals and people. Instruction in AAT/AAA also addresses requirements by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education that accredited schools/colleges of veterinary medicine include in their standard curriculum the topics of the human-animal bond, behavior, and the contributions of the veterinarian to the overall public and professional health care teams. Entry-level veterinarians should be prepared to: (1) assure that animals who provide AAT/AAA are healthy enough to visit nursing homes, hospitals, or other institutions; (2) promote behavior testing that selects animals who will feel safe, comfortable, and connected; (3) advise facilities regarding infection control and ways to provide a safe environment where the animals, their handlers, and the people being visited will not be injured or become ill; and (4) advocate for their patients and show compassion for their clients when animals are determined to be inappropriate participants in AAT/AAA programs. This article presents AAT/AAA terminology, ways in which veterinarians can advocate for AAT/AAA, the advantages of being involved in AAT/AAA, a model AAT/AAA practicum from Tuskegee University's School of Veterinary Medicine (TUSVM), and examples of co-curricular activities in AAT/AAA by TUSVM's student volunteers.

  16. 34 CFR 600.56 - Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign veterinary school is eligible to apply to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... veterinary school is eligible to apply to participate in the FFEL programs. 600.56 Section 600.56 Education...) Programs § 600.56 Additional criteria for determining whether a foreign veterinary school is eligible to apply to participate in the FFEL programs. (a) The Secretary considers a foreign veterinary school to be...

  17. Bibliometric study of grey literature in core veterinary medical journals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Nancy L; Wiese, William H

    2003-10-01

    Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5-3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature.

  18. Survey of animal shelter managers regarding shelter veterinary medical services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laderman-Jones, B E; Hurley, K F; Kass, P H

    2016-04-01

    Veterinary services are increasingly used in animal shelters, and shelter medicine is an emerging veterinary specialty. However, little is known about working relationships between animal shelters and veterinarians. The aims of this survey were to characterize working relationships that shelter personnel have and want with veterinarians, identify opinions that shelter managers have regarding the veterinarians they work with, and determine areas for relationship growth between veterinarians and shelter managers. An electronic survey was distributed to 1373 managers of North American animal shelters; 536 (39.0%) responded. Almost all shelters had some veterinary relationship, and most had regular relationships with veterinarians. The proportion of shelters that used local clinics (73.9%) was significantly higher than the proportion that retained on-site paid veterinarians (48.5%). The proportion of respondents who did not have but wanted a paid on-site veterinarian (42%) was significantly higher than the proportion of respondents who did not use local clinics but wanted to (7.9%). These data suggest shelter managers valued veterinary relationships, and wished to expand on-site veterinary services. Almost all shelters in this study provided some veterinary care, and all respondents identified at least one common infectious disease, which, for most, had a substantial negative impact on shelter successes. Respondents indicated that the most important roles and greatest expertise of veterinarians were related to surgery, diagnosis and treatment of individual animals. Education of both veterinarians and shelter managers may help ensure that shelters benefit from the full range of services veterinarians can provide, including expertise in disease prevention and animal behavior. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Assessment of burnout in veterinary medical students using the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educational Survey: a survey during two semesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigerwe, Munashe; Boudreaux, Karen A; Ilkiw, Jan E

    2014-11-28

    Burnout among veterinary students can result from known stressors in the absence of a support system. The objectives of this study were to evaluate use of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educator Survey (MBI-ES) to assess burnout in veterinary students and evaluate the factors that predict the MBI-ES scores. The MBI-ES was administered to first (Class of 2016) and second year (Class of 2015) veterinary medical students during the 2012-2013 academic year in the fall and spring semesters. Factor analysis and test reliability for the survey were determined. Mean scores for the subscales determining burnout namely emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and lack of personal accomplishment (PA) were calculated for both classes in the 2 semesters. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate other factors that predict the MBI-ES scores. A non-probability sampling method was implemented consisting of a voluntary sample of 170 and 123 students in the fall and spring semesters, respectively. Scores for EE, DP and PA were not different between the 2 classes within the same semester. Mean ± SD scores for EE, DP and PA for the fall semester were 22.9 ± 9.6, 5.0 ± 4.8 and 32.3 ± 6.7, respectively. Mean ± SD scores for EE, DP and PA the spring semester were 27.8 ± 10.7, 6.5 ± 6.1and 31.7 ± 6.8, respectively. The EE score was higher in spring compared to fall while DP and PA scores were not different between the 2 semesters. Living arrangements specifically as to whether or not a student lived with another veterinary medical students was the only variable significantly associated with the MBI-ES scores. Students in this study had moderate levels of burnout based on the MBI-ES scores. The MBI-ES was an acceptable instrument for assessing burnout in veterinary medical students. The EE scores were higher in the spring semester as compared to the fall semester. Thus students in the first and second years of veterinary school under the current curriculum

  20. Developments in Veterinary Medical Education : Intentions, perceptions, learning processes and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaarsma, A.D.C.

    2008-01-01

    The past decennia, veterinary medical education worldwide has gone through some rapid and major developments. Motivation for these developments were, among others, the explosion of (bio) medical knowledge, the related problem of curriculum overload and the mismatch between university and the

  1. Evaluating the economic and noneconomic impacts of the veterinary medical profession in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J W; Dartt, B A

    2000-01-01

    This study reaffirms the diversity and breadth of the veterinary profession. As it turns out, some of the furthest-reaching impacts of the veterinary medical profession were largely non-quantifiable. The veterinary medical profession had a substantial direct economic impact in Michigan during 1995. The total economic contribution of the veterinary medical profession to Michigan during 1995 that was attributable to expenditures on salaries, supplies, services, and their multiplier effect was approximately $500 million. In addition, the profession was associated with nearly 8,500 jobs (combined professional and lay positions). The veterinary medical profession was also considered to have an impact on the prosperity of the live-stock, equine, and pet food industries in Michigan, even though the economic contribution in these areas could not be directly quantified. Economic well-being of the individual businesses in these industries is directly related to the health and productivity of the associated animals, and improvements in output or productivity that accompany improved animal health likely carry substantial economic benefits in these sectors. In addition, progressive animal health management provides a crucial method of managing risk in the animal industries. Similarly, although the economic contribution could not be quantified, the veterinary medical profession enhances the safety and quality of human food through research, regulation, and quality assurance programs in livestock production, minimizing the risk of drug residues and microbial contamination. During 1995, approximately 5.3 million Michigan residents benefitted from the physical, psychological, and emotional well-being that accompanies companion animal ownership. By preserving the health and longevity of companion animals, veterinarians sustain and enhance these aspects of the human-animal bond. As Michigan enters a new century, it is likely that the state's veterinary medical profession will

  2. A Decade of Counseling Services in One College of Veterinary Medicine: Veterinary Medical Students' Psychological Distress and Help-Seeking Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Adryanna A S; Hafen, McArthur; Rush, Bonnie R

    Much has been discussed about the high prevalence of psychological distress among veterinary medical students. Studies investigating general samples of veterinary medical students indicate that, on average, depression and anxiety symptoms are present at higher rates than in comparison samples. However, little is known about veterinary medical students who seek counseling. This study intends to expand the literature on veterinary student well-being, as the first to examine a sample of veterinary medical students seeking counseling services. It offers an overview of student distress and help-seeking trends from a decade of counseling services provided in one College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) in the US. The sample includes data from 279 participants. Results indicate a steady increase in students seeking counseling over the last decade. First-year students sought services at higher rates but second-year students experienced the greatest distress when compared to other cohorts. Students seeking counseling services experienced levels of overall distress, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and social role concerns that were, on average, above cut-off scores. Physical health was significantly associated with student distress, suggesting opportunities for intervention.

  3. Comparison of the Perceived Quality of Life between Medical and Veterinary Students in Tehran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbafinejad, Yasser; Danesh, Hossein; Imanizade, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Medical and veterinary professional programs are demanding and may have an impact on a student's quality of life (QOL). The aim of this study was to compare the perceived QOL of these two groups. In this study, we used the SF-36 questionnaire in which higher scores mean a better perceived QOL. Only the students in the internship phase of their program were selected so that we could compare the two groups in a similar way. In total, 308 valid questionnaires were gathered. Apart from age and body mass index (BMI), the two groups were demographically similar. The scores of five domains (physical activity limitation due to health problems, usual role limitation due to emotional problems, vitality, general mental health, and general health perception) and also the total score were statistically higher in medical students. Only the score of one domain (social activity limitation due to physical or emotional problems) was statistically higher in veterinary students. BMI, physical activity limitation due to health problems, and vitality lost their significance after binomial logistic regression. We found that, in general, veterinary students have lower scores for the perceived QOL with social function being the only exception. It can be assumed that in medical students, interaction with human patients may have a negative impact in the score of this domain. Even though medical students have shown lower perceived QOL than the general population in previous studies, veterinary students appear to have slightly lower perceived QOL than medical students.

  4. Faculty perspectives regarding the importance and place of nontechnical competencies in veterinary medical education at five North American colleges of veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, India F; Bogue, E Grady

    2010-07-01

    To explore perceptions of faculty educators regarding the importance of nontechnical competencies in veterinary graduates and the placement of nontechnical competency development in veterinary education. Survey. All faculty members at 5 North American veterinary medical institutions. Participants rated the importance of 14 nontechnical competencies and indicated in which phase or phases of veterinary education such competencies should be developed (ie, curriculum placement). Differences in mean ratings were statistically evaluated, as were associations between ratings or curriculum placement and respondent institution, gender, experience, and discipline. Mean ratings of importance were above neutral for all competencies and were highest for ethical, critical thinking, and interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies; development of these competencies was favored in preveterinary and veterinary training. Ratings were lower for management and business competencies; development of these and other competencies was placed primarily in the clinical phase of the veterinary curriculum. Basic science, nonveterinarian, and junior faculty appeared to more strongly appreciate the importance of nontechnical skills, whereas large animal and midcareer faculty reported a more reserved degree of support. Female faculty were more likely to place nontechnical competency development throughout the educational process. Participants agreed nontechnical competencies are important for veterinary graduates; however, faculty perceptions differed from previously published findings regarding the relative importance of business and management skills. Those involved in faculty hiring, faculty development, and curricular planning should also be aware of disciplinary and career stage differences affecting faculty perspectives.

  5. USDA-ARS extension activities in medical, veterinary and urban entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Within the USDA Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), National Program 104 conducts research on veterinary, medical, and urban entomology. The goal of this program is to develop more effective methods of preventing or suppressing insects, ticks, and mites that affect animal and human well-being....

  6. 78 FR 17679 - Implementation of the Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Updated American Veterinary Medical Association Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition... for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition (Guidelines). The NIH is seeking input from the public on... updated AVMA Guidelines for the Euthanasia of Animals: 2013 Edition must be submitted electronically at...

  7. Program review of the USDA Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology (CMAVE) has a history that starts in 1932 in Orlando to develop methods to control mosquitoes, including malaria vectors under conditions simulating those of the south Pacific jungles, and other insects affecting man and animals...

  8. Ethno-medical and veterinary uses of Tephrosia vogelii hook. F.: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All parts of Tephrosia vogelii Hook. f. (Fabaceae) is used in tropical Africa for numerous ethno-medical and traditional veterinary practices. The leaf is ichthyotoxic and has been used as insecticide, rodenticide and anthelminthic. It has also been used as abortifacient and to induce menses. The leaf macerate is purgative and ...

  9. Strategic Research Prioritisation in Veterinary Schools: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Robin M.

    2018-01-01

    In step with the worldwide trend for higher educational institutes to establish areas of research emphasis,the accumulation of resources in key areas has become common practice in veterinary faculties. Although there are perceived logical benefits to research prioritisation, there have been very little critical retrospective analyses of research…

  10. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2–58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5–89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4–24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45–2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187

  11. Application of fatty acids as rumen-resistant coating on veterinary medical products for ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baalsrud, N.-I.; Ore, S.; Velle, W.

    1976-01-01

    The invention consists of the coating of veterinary medical products with a fatty acid insoluble in the gastric juices of the rumen. This will allow administration to ruminants of medical preparations whose contents should first be absorbed in the small intestine, and which are decomposed in, or are hostile to, the stomach. An example is quoted in which steroids labelled with tritium were administered to two ox calves. The distribution in blood plasma, urine and gastric juice was measured. (JIW)

  12. Carry-over of veterinary drugs from medicated to non-medicated feeds in commercial feed manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Egmond, van H.J.; Deckers, E.R.; Herbes, R.; Hooglught, J.; Olde Heuvel, E.; Jong, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Different compound feeds have to be manufactured in the same production line. As a consequence, traces of the first produced feed may remain in the production and get mixed with the next feed batches. This "carry-over" is unavoidable, and so non-medicated feed can be contaminated with veterinary

  13. Deficiencies of effectiveness of intervention studies in veterinary medicine: a cross-sectional survey of ten leading veterinary and medical journals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint

    2016-01-01

    The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI

  14. A Collaborative Bovine Artificial Insemination Short Course for Students Attending a Caribbean Veterinary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Joseph C.; Robinson, James Q.; DeJarnette, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Artificial insemination (AI) of cattle is a critical career skill for veterinarians interested in food animal practice. Consequently, Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine Student Chapter of the American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Select Sires, and University of Idaho Extension have partnered to offer an intensive 2-day course to…

  15. Assessment of incidental learning of medical terminology in a veterinary curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainsworth, A Jerald; Hardin, Laura; Robertson, Stanley

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether students in a veterinary curriculum at Mississippi State University would gain an understanding of medical terminology, as they matriculate through their courses, comparable to that obtained during a focused medical terminology unit of study. Evaluation of students' incidental learning related to medical terminology during the 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 academic years indicated that 88.7% and 81.9% of students, respectively, scored above 70% on a medical terminology exam by the end of the first year of the curriculum. For the 2004/2005 academic, 67.6% increased their percentage of correct answers above 70% from the first medical terminology exam to the third. For the 2005/2006 academic year, 61.1% of students increased their score above 70% from the first to the third exam. Our data indicate that students can achieve comprehension of medical terminology in the absence of a formal terminology course.

  16. Education in nuclear physics, medical physics and radiation protection in medicine and veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, D.; Djuric, G.; Andric, S.

    2001-01-01

    Education in Nuclear Physics, Medical Physics and Radiation Protection in medicine and veterinary medicine studies on Belgrade University is an integral part of the curriculum, incorporated in different courses of graduate and post-graduate studies. During graduate studies students get basic elements of Nuclear Physics through Physics and/or Biophysics courses in the 1 st year, while basic knowledge in Medical Physics and Radiation Protection is implemented in the courses of Radiology, Physical Therapy, Radiation Hygiene, Diagnostic Radiology and Radiation Therapy in the 4 th or 5 th year. Postgraduate studies offer MSc degree in Radiology, Physical Therapy, while courses in Nuclear Physics, Nuclear Instrumentation, Radiation Protection and Radiology are core or optional. On the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine graduated students may continue their professional education and obtain specialization degree in Radiology, Physical Therapy or Radiation Protection. On the Faculty of Medicine there are specialization degrees in Medical Nuclear Physics. Still, a closer analysis reveals a number of problems both from methodological and cognitive point of view. They are related mostly to graduate students ability to apply their knowledge in practise and with the qualifications of the educators, as those engaged in graduate studies lack basic knowledge in biological and medical sciences, while those engaged in post graduate studies mostly lack basic education in physics. Therefore, a reformed curricula resulting from much closer collaboration among educators, universities and professional societies at the national level should be considered. (author)

  17. An admissions system to select veterinary medical students with an interest in food animals and veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarhuis, Jan C M; Muijtjens, Arno M M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A; van Beukelen, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Interest in the areas of food animals (FA) and veterinary public health (VPH) appears to be declining among prospective students of veterinary medicine. To address the expected shortage of veterinarians in these areas, the Utrecht Faculty of Veterinary Medicine has developed an admissions procedure to select undergraduates whose aptitude and interests are suited to these areas. A study using expert meetings, open interviews, and document analysis identified personal characteristics that distinguished veterinarians working in the areas of FA and VPH from their colleagues who specialized in companion animals (CA) and equine medicine (E). The outcomes were used to create a written selection tool. We validated this tool in a study among undergraduate veterinary students in their final (sixth) year before graduation. The applicability of the tool was verified in a study among first-year students who had opted to pursue either FA/VPH or CA/E. The tool revealed statistically significant differences with acceptable effect sizes between the two student groups. Because the written selection tool did not cover all of the differences between the veterinarians who specialized in FA/VPH and those who specialized in CA/E, we developed a prestructured panel interview and added it to the questionnaire. The evaluation of the written component showed that it was suitable for selecting those students who were most likely to succeed in the FA/VPH track.

  18. Occupational exposure of medical staff due to diagnostic X-ray examinations in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mergel, E.; Feige, S.; Haeusler, U.

    2007-01-01

    The implementation of the Council directive 96/29 EURATOM and the corresponding national Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Protection Ordinance coming subsequently into effect led to a changed situation regarding the occupational radiation protection in the medical sector. To reduce the occupational exposure of veterinarians and assisting staff in veterinary radiography is particularly challenging as, in opposite to human radiological examination, the presence of staff is indispensable to restrain the patient. Beyond that the relevant literature reports about too high and/or about unnecessary radiation exposures. To gain a comprehensive knowledge upon the possible exposure of involved staff, the variety of typical examination methods in veterinary clinics and at practitioners had been investigated during the daily routine. Dose measurements were performed for different employees during the examinations taking into account several places of exposure (lens, thyroid, chest, hand, gonad, and feet). Veterinary X-ray diagnostic examinations for pets as well as in equine radiography had been accounted for this study. In total, 101 examination methods, 4.484 accompanied examinations and 53.892 single dose readings resulted in a reliable statistical base to set up a 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' allowing the dose assessment for a variable number and kind of examinations. The 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' is believed to be a useful tool for optimization of occupational radiation exposure of veterinarians by appraising the height of a possible dose, forcing a review of the status quo and triggering the improvement of personal protection by establishing adequate measures. (orig.)

  19. The Impact of a Group Communication Course on Veterinary Medical Students' Perceptions of Communication Competence and Communication Apprehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedrowicz, April A

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the impact of a group communication course on veterinary medical students' perceptions of communication competence and communication anxiety. Students enrolled in the Group Communication in Veterinary Medicine course completed the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension and the Communicative Competence Scale at the beginning (Time 1) and end (Time 2) of the semester. Results show that first-year veterinary students' self-perceptions of communication competence increased and their self-reported levels of communication apprehension decreased across multiple contexts from Time 1 to Time 2. This research provides support for experiential communication training fostering skill development and confidence.

  20. Graduate School education for veterinary and related scientists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stout, Susanna

    2001-01-01

    In the following account I write about my experiences as a graduate student, studying for a Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degree at the University of Cambridge in England. I recall my observations of life at graduate school and my own perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages offered by different

  1. From theory to practice: integrating instructional technology into veterinary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Rush, Bonnie R; Wilkerson, Melinda; Herman, Cheryl; Miesner, Matt; Renter, David; Gehring, Ronette

    2013-01-01

    Technology has changed the landscape of teaching and learning. The integration of instructional technology into teaching for meaningful learning is an issue for all educators to consider. In this article, we introduce educational theories including constructivism, information-processing theory, and dual-coding theory, along with the seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education. We also discuss five practical instructional strategies and the relationship of these strategies to the educational theories. From theory to practice, the purpose of the article is to share our application of educational theory and practice to work toward more innovative teaching in veterinary medical education.

  2. Awareness of "predatory" open-access journals among prospective veterinary and medical authors attending scientific writing workshops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary M Christopher

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Authors face many choices when selecting a journal for publication. Prospective authors, especially trainees, may be unaware of predatory online journals or how to differentiate them from legitimate journals. In this study we assessed awareness of open-access and predatory journals among prospective authors attending scientific writing workshops; our long-term goal was to inform educational goals for the workshops. We surveyed participants of writing workshops at veterinary and medical schools and an international conference over a 1-year period. The survey included 14 statements for respondents to indicate agreement level on a Likert-like scale and four questions on awareness of resources about predatory journals; respondents also defined predatory journal. A total of 145 participants completed the survey: 106 (73.1% from veterinary schools and 86 (59.3% graduate students or residents. Fewer faculty (vs trainees agreed that open access was an important factor in deciding where to publish; faculty and postdoctoral researchers were more likely to expect to pay more to publish in an open-access journal. Most respondents (120/145, 82.7% agreed/strongly agreed that the decision to accept a manuscript should not be influenced by publication charges, but 50% (56/112 indicated they didn’t know how publishing costs were supported. Of the 142 respondents who answered, 33 (23.0% indicated awareness of the term predatory journal; 34 (23.9% were aware of the Directory of Open Access Journals; 24 (16.9% were aware of the Science sting article about predatory journals; and 7 (4.8% were aware of Beall’s list. Most (93/144, 64.5% definitions of predatory journals described poor but not predatory journal practices, and some respondents misunderstood the term completely. Mentors should help novice authors to be aware of predatory journals and to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate open-access journals, thus selecting the best journal for their

  3. Awareness of "Predatory" Open-Access Journals among Prospective Veterinary and Medical Authors Attending Scientific Writing Workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Mary M; Young, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    Authors face many choices when selecting a journal for publication. Prospective authors, especially trainees, may be unaware of "predatory" online journals or how to differentiate them from legitimate journals. In this study, we assessed awareness of open-access and predatory journals among prospective authors attending scientific writing workshops; our long-term goal was to inform educational goals for the workshops. We surveyed participants of writing workshops at veterinary and medical schools and an international conference over a 1-year period. The survey included 14 statements for respondents to indicate agreement level on a Likert-like scale and four questions on awareness of resources about predatory journals; respondents also defined "predatory journal." A total of 145 participants completed the survey: 106 (73.1%) from veterinary schools and 86 (59.3%) graduate students or residents. Fewer faculty (vs trainees) agreed that open access was an important factor in deciding where to publish; faculty and postdoctoral researchers were more likely to expect to pay more to publish in an open-access journal. Most respondents (120/145, 82.7%) agreed/strongly agreed that the decision to accept a manuscript should not be influenced by publication charges, but 50% (56/112) indicated that they "didn't know" how publishing costs were supported. Of the 142 respondents who answered, 33 (23.0%) indicated awareness of the term "predatory journal"; 34 (23.9%) were aware of the Directory of Open Access Journals; 24 (16.9%) were aware of the Science "sting" article about predatory journals; and 7 (4.8%) were aware of Beall's list. Most (93/144, 64.5%) definitions of predatory journals described poor but not predatory journal practices, and some respondents misunderstood the term completely. Mentors should help novice authors to be aware of predatory journals and to distinguish between legitimate and illegitimate open-access journals, thus selecting the best journal for their

  4. Raising awareness of the hidden curriculum in veterinary medical education: a review and call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Tiffany L

    2014-01-01

    The hidden curriculum is characterized by information that is tacitly conveyed to and among students about the cultural and moral environment in which they find themselves. Although the hidden curriculum is often defined as a distinct entity, tacit information is conveyed to students throughout all aspects of formal and informal curricula. This unconsciously communicated knowledge has been identified across a wide spectrum of educational environments and is known to have lasting and powerful impacts, both positive and negative. Recently, medical education research on the hidden curriculum of becoming a doctor has come to the forefront as institutions struggle with inconsistencies between formal and hidden curricula that hinder the practice of patient-centered medicine. Similarly, the complex ethical questions that arise during the practice and teaching of veterinary medicine have the potential to cause disagreement between what the institution sets out to teach and what is actually learned. However, the hidden curriculum remains largely unexplored for this field. Because the hidden curriculum is retained effectively by students, elucidating its underlying messages can be a key component of program refinement. A review of recent literature about the hidden curriculum in a variety of fields, including medical education, will be used to explore potential hidden curricula in veterinary medicine and draw attention to the need for further investigation.

  5. Occupational exposure of medical staff due to diagnostic X-ray examinations in veterinary medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mergel, E.; Feige, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany); Haeusler, U. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The implementation of the Council directive 96/29 EURATOM and the corresponding national Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Protection Ordinance coming subsequently into effect led to a changed situation regarding the occupational radiation protection in the medical sector. To reduce the occupational exposure of veterinarians and assisting staff in veterinary radiography is particularly challenging as, in opposite to human radiological examination, the presence of staff is indispensable to restrain the patient. Beyond that the relevant literature reports about too high and/or about unnecessary radiation exposures. To gain a comprehensive knowledge upon the possible exposure of involved staff, the variety of typical examination methods in veterinary clinics and at practitioners had been investigated during the daily routine. Dose measurements were performed for different employees during the examinations taking into account several places of exposure (lens, thyroid, chest, hand, gonad, and feet). Veterinary X-ray diagnostic examinations for pets as well as in equine radiography had been accounted for this study. In total, 101 examination methods, 4.484 accompanied examinations and 53.892 single dose readings resulted in a reliable statistical base to set up a 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' allowing the dose assessment for a variable number and kind of examinations. The 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' is believed to be a useful tool for optimization of occupational radiation exposure of veterinarians by appraising the height of a possible dose, forcing a review of the status quo and triggering the improvement of personal protection by establishing adequate measures. (orig.)

  6. The roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals to achieve ONE HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahendra Pal

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the WHO- “Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely an absence of disease or infirmity”. The good health is the fundamental right of all the people on earth. The concept of ‘One Medicine’ coined by Calvin W. Schwabe evolves towards ’One Health’ which comprises collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines to achieve perfect health of people, animals, and our environment. ‘One Health’ deals with the challenges at the intersection of animal, human and environment health including the infectious diseases, the global food crises, and climate change due to global warming. The cordial and active association of various disciplines such as medicine, veterinary, public health, environment, wildlife, ecology, and food hygiene is highly emphasized in order to achieve the goal of ‘One Health’. This mini-review describes brief history of ‘one health’, the roles of veterinary, medical and environmental professionals, and developing collaboration with various concern professionals to achieve ‘one health’. In addition, the selected achievements of ‘one health’ in the past 10 years have been described along with the challenges ahead for the successful implementation of such concept.

  7. Guideline development and impact assessment for registration of medical, dental and veterinary x-ray apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, P.; Harrison, D.; Moore, W.

    1996-01-01

    Under the NSW Radiation Control Act 1990, radiation apparatus used for diagnostic medical, dental and veterinary purposes will be required to become registered. The inspection required prior to registration will be conducted by a Consulting Radiation Expert who has been accredited by the Environment Protection Authority (EPA) as being competent in the field of quality assurance assessment of radiation apparatus used for diagnostic medical, dental and veterinary purposes. When regulating any activity in NSW, there is a requirement to undertake a regulatory impact statement of the proposed regulation. In addition, the introduction of any accompanying guideline requires a cost-benefit analysis. Costs may include enforcement, administrative and compliance activities. The calculation of benefit relies heavily on the improvement in apparatus performance (and hence dose reduction) that can be obtained with the introduction of a mandatory practice such as apparatus registration. This paper discusses the development of the registration guideline for NSW, including a summary of the public comments received. It further discusses the methodology and data used for the accompanying cost-benefit analysis. Information in this paper is presented in three parts: EPA field survey, cost analysis, and benefit analysis. For NSW it was estimated that the introduction of registration of these apparatus, over a two year period, would result in early replacement and repair costs (present values) to the medical industry of between $5.7 and $11.0 million, with an additional $2.5 million in EPA enforcement costs. The introduction of the proposed system of registration is expected to result in an estimated savings in quantifiable health detriment costs to NSW of between $11.8 and $17.7 million, and reduce the risk of radiation induced mortality. (authors)

  8. Microbial Communities in North American Ixodid Ticks of Veterinary and Medical Importance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S. Varela-Stokes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Interest in microbial communities, or microbiota, of blood-feeding arthropods such as ticks (order Parasitiformes, suborder Ixodida is increasing. Studies on tick microorganisms historically emphasized pathogens of high medical or veterinary importance. Current techniques allow for simultaneous detection of pathogens of interest, non-pathogenic symbionts, like Coxiella-LE and Francisella-LE, and microorganisms of unknown pathogenic potential. While each generation of ticks begins with a maternally acquired repertoire of microorganisms, microhabitats off and on vertebrate hosts can alter the microbiome during the life cycle. Further, blood-feeding may allow for horizontal exchange of various pathogenic microbiota that may or may not also be capable of vertical transmission. Thus, the tick microbiome may be in constant flux. The geographical spread of tick vector populations has resulted in a broader appreciation of tick-borne diseases and tick-associated microorganisms. Over the last decade, next-generation sequencing technology targeting the 16S rRNA gene led to documented snapshots of bacterial communities among life stages of laboratory and field-collected ticks, ticks in various feeding states, and tick tissues. Characterizing tick bacterial communities at population and individual tissue levels may lead to identification of markers for pathogen maintenance, and thus, indicators of disease “potential” rather than disease state. Defining the role of microbiota within the tick may lead to novel control measures targeting tick-bacterial interactions. Here, we review our current understanding of microbial communities for some vectors in the family Ixodidae (hard ticks in North America, and interpret published findings for audiences in veterinary and medical fields with an appreciation of tick-borne disease.

  9. Medical Schools for Profit?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    [3] The same could be said of E-learning in medical education.[4,5] Thirdly allowing profits within medical education should attract more investment. Investors could sink funds into medical education, and learners would benefit as a result; inevitably investors would like to see a return on investment – however, successful.

  10. Ectoparasites of medical and veterinary importance: drug resistance and the need for alternative control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Carol M

    2015-03-01

    Despite multiple attempts at eradication, many ectoparasites of humans and domestic livestock remain a persistent problem in the modern world. For many years, a range of pesticide drugs including organophosphates, organochlorides and synthetic pyrethroids provided effective control of these parasites; but intensive use of these drugs has led to the evolution of resistance in many target species. This paper aims to review the effectiveness of current control methods and discuss potential alternatives for the long term sustainable control of ectoparasites. Important medical ectoparasites such as scabies mites, head lice and bed bugs present a significant public health problem, and so adequate control methods are essential. Ectoparasites of domestic livestock and farmed fish (for example sheep scab mites, poultry mites and sea lice) are also of concern given the increasing strain on the world's food supply. These parasites have become resistant to several classes of pesticide, making control very difficult. Recently, an increasing amount of research has focussed on alternative control methods such as insect growth regulators, biological control using essential oils or fungi, as well as vaccine development against some ectoparasites of medical and veterinary importance. Drug resistance is prevalent in all of the ectoparasites discussed in this review. A wide variety of alternative control methods have been identified, however further research is necessary in order for these to be used to successfully control ectoparasitic diseases in the future. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. Veterinary Services Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...

  12. Experiences with the implementation of a national teaching qualification in university medical centres and veterinary medicine in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molenaar, Willemina M Ineke; Zanting, Anneke

    2015-02-01

    In 2008, a compulsory national basic teaching qualification was introduced for all university teachers in the Netherlands. At that time all eight University Medical Centres (UMCs) and the only Faculty of Veterinary Medicine had adopted or were setting up teacher development programmes. This study explores how these programmes relate to each other and to the basic teaching qualification. To gather information on teacher development programmes in the UMCs and the Veterinary Medicine Faculty an online survey was filled out by teacher development representatives from each of them. The programmes had main features in common (e.g. competency based and portfolio assessment), but differed somewhat in contents according to the local situation. Importantly, they had all been formally accepted as equivalent to the basic teaching qualification. We consider the freedom to tailor the qualifications to the medical context as well as to the local situation of the UMCs and the Veterinary Medicine Faculty one of the major success factors and the well-established collaboration between teacher development representatives of the UMCs and the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine as another. Challenges for the future include embedding the teacher development programmes in the institutional organizations and maintaining and further developing the programmes and the competencies of the qualified teachers, e.g. in a senior qualification.

  13. Veterinary decision making in relation to metritis - a qualitative approach to understand the background for variation and bias in veterinary medical records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enevoldsen Carsten

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Results of analyses based on veterinary records of animal disease may be prone to variation and bias, because data collection for these registers relies on different observers in different settings as well as different treatment criteria. Understanding the human influence on data collection and the decisions related to this process may help veterinary and agricultural scientists motivate observers (veterinarians and farmers to work more systematically, which may improve data quality. This study investigates qualitative relations between two types of records: 1 'diagnostic data' as recordings of metritis scores and 2 'intervention data' as recordings of medical treatment for metritis and the potential influence on quality of the data. Methods The study is based on observations in veterinary dairy practice combined with semi-structured research interviews of veterinarians working within a herd health concept where metritis diagnosis was described in detail. The observations and interviews were analysed by qualitative research methods to describe differences in the veterinarians' perceptions of metritis diagnosis (scores and their own decisions related to diagnosis, treatment, and recording. Results The analysis demonstrates how data quality can be affected during the diagnostic procedures, as interaction occurs between diagnostics and decisions about medical treatments. Important findings were when scores lacked consistency within and between observers (variation and when scores were adjusted to the treatment decision already made by the veterinarian (bias. The study further demonstrates that veterinarians made their decisions at 3 different levels of focus (cow, farm, population. Data quality was influenced by the veterinarians' perceptions of collection procedures, decision making and their different motivations to collect data systematically. Conclusion Both variation and bias were introduced into the data because of

  14. SCHOOL FOOD SERVICE, HOSPITAL AND HEALTCARE: NEW GUIDELINES ON NATIONAL LAW AND VETERINARY 488/99

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Carosielli

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the guidelines of the National school catering, hospital and health care, recently published. Show only the aspect of Article 59 of the Law n.488/99, given the complexity of the issue and the rampant protectionism dictated more by ethnic and ethical and environmental claims, which has prompted some governments to fear the food self-sufficiency, in sharp contrast with European free trade rules. The issues related to Article 59 of Law No 488 of 23 December 1999 and the amendment to Article 123 of Law 388/2000, concerning the development of organic farming and quality, are commented in relation to the cd Procurement Code, in particular the legislative decree n.163 dated 12 April 2006 and subsequent amendments and additions, noting criticism of the check up as required by Article 59 and the low involvement of the veterinary hygienist.

  15. [Ecological studies on mollusk populations of medical and veterinary relevance existing in La Coca farm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong Sarmiento, Lin; Vázquez Perera, Antonio A; Quesada Martínez, Maritza; Sánchez Noda, Jorge; Hevia Jiménez, Yosvania; Fuentes Leyva, Joaquín; Ramos Pérez, Ramón

    2010-01-01

    ecological studies were carried out on mollusk populations of medical and veterinary importance with emphasis on Fasciola hepatica intermediary hosts species. to determine the relative abundance of populations and the possible use of some species as biological control agents against F. hepatica intermediary hosts. a total of 13 freshwater bodies were sampled during March and November, 2008 using Capture by effort unit method to capture the mollusks thirteen mollusk species (12 gastropods and 1 bivalve) were found after sampling. The relative abundance of species varied in different types of habitat. The intermediary host species of fascioliasis were dominant in two sites. Fossaria cubensis was dominant in Canal de la Entrada despite the presence of Melanoides tuberculata. The specie Pseudosuccinea columella was more abundant in Los Mangos. In La Presa del Matadero y Las Palmas despite the presence of these species, the prevailing ones were Physa acuta and some planorbids. the sites where intermediary hosts of Fasciola hepatica predominated were identified through data on the distribution and relative abundance. In some sites Melanoides tuberculata was present and acted as a biological control agent but it did not in others. Therefore, an evaluation on using a different thiarid would be useful to control these species.

  16. Pentobarbital Toxicity after Self-Administration of Euthasol Veterinary Euthanasia Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Jason Crellin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Suicide attempt via sodium pentobarbital is uncommon. A 48-year-old woman with a history of depression and prior suicide attempt was found unresponsive by her veterinarian spouse near a syringe containing pink solution. Upon EMS’ arrival, the patient was experiencing apnea, hypoxemia, and miotic pupils; her blood glucose level measured 73 mg/dL. She was bradycardic and administered atropine with transient improvement in heart rate and transported to an emergency department; 2 mg of intravenous naloxone was administered without effect. She was endotracheally intubated via rapid sequence intubation. Rapid urine drug screening detected both benzodiazepines and barbiturates. The patient was transferred to an intensive care unit where she demonstrated a nearly absent radial pulse. Emergent fasciotomy to the left forearm and carpal tunnel was performed for acute compartment syndrome; “Euthasol” had been self-administered into the antecubital fossa. Expanded toxicological analysis via liquid chromatography/mass spectroscopy detected caffeine, atropine, 7-aminoclonazepam, phenytoin, citalopram, and naproxen. The patient’s coma resolved over 48 hours and she was successfully extubated without complication. Emergency physicians must closely monitor patients exposed to veterinary euthanasia agents who develop central nervous system and respiratory depression, hypothermia, bradycardia, hypotension, or skin injury. Consultation with a regional poison center and medical toxicologist is recommended.

  17. Providing an information prescription in veterinary medical clinics: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, Lori R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Gould, Lauren; Viera, Ann R; Hellyer, Peter W

    2014-01-01

    The study assesses the impact on client behavior and attitudes toward receiving an information prescription as part of a veterinary office visit. A random sample of veterinary clinics from a Western US metropolitan area was asked to distribute an information prescription in addition to their customary veterinary services. All clients, regardless of the reason for their visit, were presented with an information prescription: a handout that included the uniform resource locator (URL) to a general veterinary medicine website and several tips to help their clients make more informed choices about where to seek pet health information online. Nearly 40% of clients who reported that they remembered receiving the information prescription accessed the website at least once. Of the clients who reported accessing the suggested website, 86.3% reported finding it "very helpful" or "somewhat helpful." Nearly all the clients (87.9%) reported feeling the information on the site helped them make better decisions for their pets. Most clients reported that it helped them talk to their veterinarians (89.9%) and added to the information they received during their veterinary visits (83.5%). Clients appreciate and utilize veterinary prescriptions, suggesting that this is a tool that both veterinarians and librarians can use to improve animal health and client relations. The value placed on reliable Internet information by veterinary clients suggests several opportunities for librarians to become more proactive in partnering with veterinarians to facilitate the education of pet owners.

  18. Johannes Ludwig Janson, professor of veterinary medicine in Tokyo in 1880-1902 - contribution to German-Japanese medical relations, part IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Among the German pioneers of Western medicine in Japan (8, 12) during the Meiji period (1868-1912), veterinary officer Johannes Ludwig Janson (1849-1914) was one of the most important figures. He arrived in Tokyo in October 1880 and taught at the Veterinary School in Komaba. During his tenure, the school in Komaba was integrated into the School of Agriculture of the Imperial University of Tokyo. Numerous of his graduates occupied high public offices. Among his publications, those about domestic animals and veterinary medicine in Japan deserve special attention. He married a Japanese girl and continued teaching in Komaba until 1902. He found his last resting place in Kagoshima, the native place of his wife. To this day, the Japanese consider Janson the founder of modern veterinary medicine in their country.

  19. Veterinary homeopathy: systematic review of medical conditions studied by randomised trials controlled by other than placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathie, Robert T; Clausen, Jürgen

    2015-09-15

    No systematic review has previously been carried out on randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of veterinary homeopathy in which the control group was an intervention other than placebo (OTP). For eligible peer-reviewed RCTs, the objectives of this study were to assess the risk of bias (RoB) and to quantify the effect size of homeopathic intervention compared with an active comparator or with no treatment. Our systematic review approach complied fully with the PRISMA 2009 Checklist. Cochrane methods were applied to assess RoB and to derive effect size using standard meta-analysis methods. Based on a thorough and systematic literature search, the following key attributes of the published research were distinguished: individualised homeopathy (n = 1 RCT)/non-individualised homeopathy (n = 19); treatment (n = 14)/prophylaxis (n = 6); active controls (n = 18)/untreated controls (n = 2). The trials were highly diverse, representing 12 different medical conditions in 6 different species. No trial had sufficiently low RoB to be judged as reliable evidence: 16 of the 20 RCTs had high RoB; the remaining four had uncertain RoB in several domains of assessment. For three trials with uncertain RoB and without overt vested interest, it was inconclusive whether homeopathy combined with conventional intervention was more or was less effective than conventional intervention alone for modulation of immune response in calves, or in the prophylaxis of cattle tick or of diarrhoea in piglets. Due to the poor reliability of their data, OTP-controlled trials do not currently provide useful insight into the effectiveness of homeopathy in animals.

  20. Estimate of the exposition to the ionizing radiation of the medical veterinarians and its assistants in radiology examinations veterinary medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, G.; Braz, D.; Lopez, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, COPPE (Brazil); Mauricia, C. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Brazil); Barroso, R. [Rio de Janeiro Univ. Federal, Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The absorbed ionizing radiation outside of the permissible limits, can cause biological damages e, therefore it must necessarily be monitored. The dosimetry thermoluminescent is a technique very used to detect expositions in operatorserefore they are sensible crystals the ionizing radiation and allows to evaluate if the dose of radiation is or not below of the restriction levels. In scientific literature many information do not exist on the exposition of a medical veterinarian, with this do not have many data of the individual monitoring of these workers, becoming the work it important for posterior studies. Ahead of this, it was carried through measured of the doses, using the thermoluminescence dosemeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100 H) in the position of the crystalline lens, thyroid, hand and thorax, in three clinics of radiology veterinary medicine, different, having the objective to determine the dose distribution that the workers of radiology veterinary medicine are submitted in one day of work. (authors)

  1. Estimate of the exposition to the ionizing radiation of the medical veterinarians and its assistants in radiology examinations veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, G.; Braz, D.; Lopez, R.; Mauricia, C.; Barroso, R.

    2006-01-01

    The absorbed ionizing radiation outside of the permissible limits, can cause biological damages e, therefore it must necessarily be monitored. The dosimetry thermoluminescent is a technique very used to detect expositions in operators, therefore they are sensible crystals the ionizing radiation and allows to evaluate if the dose of radiation is or not below of the restriction levels. In scientific literature many information do not exist on the exposition of a medical veterinarian, with this do not have many data of the individual monitoring of these workers, becoming the work it important for posterior studies. Ahead of this, it was carried through measured of the doses, using the thermoluminescence dosemeters LiF: Mg, Cu, P (TLD-100 H) in the position of the crystalline lens, thyroid, hand and thorax, in three clinics of radiology veterinary medicine, different, having the objective to determine the dose distribution that the workers of radiology veterinary medicine are submitted in one day of work. (authors)

  2. Teaching non-technical (professional) competence in a veterinary school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Gilbert A; Ruby, Kathleen L; Debowes, Richard M; Seaman, Susan J; Brannan, Julia K

    2006-01-01

    Data from focused studies and comprehensive surveys suggest that developing or enhancing non-technical (professional) skills will result in a more satisfied and successful veterinary student or veterinary graduate. The College of Veterinary Medicine at Washington State University has devoted considerable time, effort, and resources to augmenting the non-technical aspects of its curriculum while maintaining the traditional strengths of its DVM program. Here we summarize pertinent research and best-practice recommendations from a variety of sources and outline the steps that have been taken, with the underlying rationales, to integrate the teaching and modeling of non-technical (professional) competence throughout a four-year course of veterinary study.

  3. Medications at School: Disposing of Pharmaceutical Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taras, Howard; Haste, Nina M.; Berry, Angela T.; Tran, Jennifer; Singh, Renu F.

    2014-01-01

    Background: This project quantified and categorized medications left unclaimed by students at the end of the school year. It determined the feasibility of a model medication disposal program and assessed school nurses' perceptions of environmentally responsible medication disposal. Methods: At a large urban school district all unclaimed…

  4. The O3-Vet project: integration of a standard nomenclature of clinical terms in a veterinary electronic medical record for veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaninelli, M; Campagnoli, A; Reyes, M; Rojas, V

    2012-11-01

    In order to improve the hospital information system of the Chilean University Hospital, the Veterinary Medicine School of Universidad de Chile made a research cooperation with Università San Raffaele Roma to develop and test a new release of the O3-Vet software application. O3-Vet was selected by the Chilean University mainly for two reasons: (1) it uses human medicine standardized technologies such as "Health Level 7" (HL7) and "Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise" (IHE), which allow a good level of data sharing and hospital management; (2) it is open source, which means it can be adapted to specific hospital needs. In the new release, a subset of diagnostic terms was added from the "Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms" (SNOMED CT), selected by the "American Animal Hospital Association" (AAHA) to standardize the filing of clinical data and its retrieval. Results from a limited survey of veterinarians of the University (n=9) show that the new release improved the management of the Chilean University Hospital and the ability to retrieve useful clinical data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Medical school type and physician income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, William B; Wallace, Tanner A

    2008-01-01

    We wanted to determine whether the type of medical school attended--private US, public US, or foreign medical school--is associated with practice characteristics or incomes of physicians. Therefore, we used survey responses obtained during the 1990s from 10,436 actively practicing white male physicians who worked in one of 13 medical specialties and who graduated from a public US (5,702), private US (3,797), or international (937) medical school. We used linear regression modeling to determine the association between type of medical school attended and physicians' annual incomes after controlling for specialty, work hours, provider characteristics, and practice characteristics. We found that, for most specialties, international medical school graduates worked longer hours, were less likely to be board certified, had practiced medicine for fewer years, and were less likely to work in rural settings than US medical school graduates. After controlling for key variables, international medical school graduates' annual incomes were 2.6 percent higher (95% CI: 0.1%, 4.4%, p = .043) and public US medical school graduates' were 2.2 percent higher (95% CI: -0.9% -6.1%, p = 0.2) than private US medical school graduates' incomes. Because of their lower tuition expenses, international and public US medical school graduates may experience higher returns on educational investment than their counterparts who graduated from private US medical schools.

  6. Lessons of history in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald F

    2013-01-01

    The future of veterinary medicine is best understood in the context of history. What began as a profession rooted in urban centers in proximity to horses, physicians, and medical schools, was transformed into a land grant-based agricultural profession with the arrival of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century. Most of the United States' current veterinary colleges are still located in towns or small cities in the middle section of the country, outside the largest metropolitan areas where most veterinarians practice companion-animal medicine. Throughout veterinarian history, substantial numbers of US students have been educated in foreign colleges and this continues today, creating an even greater geographic imbalance between the veterinary educational process and US population centers and major medical schools. Three themes deserve special attention as we celebrate the profession's 150th anniversary. We must first move beyond the land-grant culture and develop a more geographically balanced approach to establishing new veterinary colleges that are also in closer association with schools of medicine and public health. We must also facilitate more opportunities for women leadership in organized veterinary medicine, in practice ownership, in academia, and in the corporate structures that educate, hire, and interface with veterinarians. Finally, we need to expand our understanding of One Health to include the concept of zooeyia (the role of animals in promoting human health), as well as continue to emphasize veterinarians' special roles in the control and management of zoonotic diseases and in advancing comparative medicine in the age of the genome.

  7. Centralization vs. Decentralization in Medical School Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Helen

    1966-01-01

    Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed. PMID:5945568

  8. Centralization vs. decentralization in medical school libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, H

    1966-07-01

    Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed.

  9. Library school education for medical librarianship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, F W

    1979-10-01

    This paper reviews the current situation in library school education for medical librarianship in the United States and Canada based on information from a questionnaire sent to teachers of courses in medical librarianship in accredited library schools. Since 1939, when the first course devoted entirely to medical librarianship was offered at Columbia University, courses have been introduced into the curricula of at least forty-seven of the ALA-accredited library schools. In 1978 there were seventy courses available through forty-seven library schools. Possibilities for specialization in medical librarianship are examined. Course content is reviewed. Implications of the MLA certification examination for library school courses are explored.

  10. Library School Education for Medical Librarianship *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, Fred W.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reviews the current situation in library school education for medical librarianship in the United States and Canada based on information from a questionnaire sent to teachers of courses in medical librarianship in accredited library schools. Since 1939, when the first course devoted entirely to medical librarianship was offered at Columbia University, courses have been introduced into the curricula of at least forty-seven of the ALA-accredited library schools. In 1978 there were seventy courses available through forty-seven library schools. Possibilities for specialization in medical librarianship are examined. Course content is reviewed. Implications of the MLA certification examination for library school courses are explored. PMID:385086

  11. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Also, the advantage of ... antibodies. The major disadvantage of the polyclonal ... advantage of a monoclonal antibody over .... department in the veterinary school was obtained from the ..... methodology for both routine diagnostic and research ...

  12. Competency-based veterinary education - An integrative approach to learning and assessment in the clinical workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    When graduating from veterinary school, veterinary professionals must be ready to enter the complex veterinary profession. Therefore, one of the major responsibilities of any veterinary school is to develop training programmes that support students’ competency development on the trajectory from

  13. Neoplasia in 125 donkeys (Equus asinus): literature review and a survey of five veterinary schools in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Corrine R; Valentine, Beth A; Gordon, Emma; McDonough, Sean P; Schaffer, Paula A; Allen, Andrew L; Pesavento, Patricia

    2016-11-01

    A diagnosis of neoplasia was noted in 125 of 357 donkeys (35%) in our review of medical records from 5 veterinary schools in the United States and Canada. Equine sarcoid was the most common tumor in our study, accounting for 72% of all tumors and 82% of cutaneous tumors. Soft-tissue sarcomas were the second most common skin tumors. All other types of neoplasia were rare. Important differences in the occurrence of neoplasia in donkeys compared to horses included the rarity or absence of squamous cell carcinoma in any organ system and gray horse melanoma. Lymphosarcoma, the most common malignant tumor in horses, appears to be very rare in donkeys. We report several tumors in donkeys including melanocytoma, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, and gastrointestinal stromal tumor. Our data demonstrate commonalities as well as differences in neoplastic diseases of donkeys and horses. Understanding differences in carcinogenesis among these 2 closely related species can inform researchers pursuing pathogenic mechanisms of equine disease and inform veterinary diagnosticians regarding tumor prevalence. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Amphetamine poisoning in a dog: case report, literature review and veterinary medical perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo V P; Sousa, Marlos G; Gerardi, Daniel G; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2003-12-01

    Amphetamine abuse in human beings has increased, resulting in many reports of toxicity and death. In the US over 4 million people have abused amphetamines at least once, thus small animals are exposed to increased accidental poisoning risk. This report describes an acute amphetamine poisoning in a dog due to ingestion of 15 mg/kg fenproporex, leading to typical signs of catecholamines release and effects in different organ systems. Similar clinical and laboratory findings observed in human beings are reviewed and physiopathogenic mechanisms discussed, as well as the therapeutic approaches available in veterinary medicine.

  15. Study of the Levels of Human-Human and Human-Animal Empathy in Veterinary Medical Students from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón-Amor, Javiera; Luna-Fernández, Daniela; Tadich, Tamara

    Social relationships are based on our ability to put ourselves in the place of others, and from there to react appropriately and logically. This empathic ability can be extended to other species, based on the human ability to develop techniques to understand and communicate with animals. In education, the benefits of training professionals with ethical and empathic tools are known. Gender, diet, past experiences, and other factors can modify a person's levels of empathy toward humans and animals, and a relationship exists between both types of empathy. The aims of this study were to investigate some determinants of the level of empathy and to gain insight into the possible correlation between human-animal and human-human empathy. For this, the Animal Empathy Scale and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index by Davis were applied through an electronic survey system to freshmen and final-year students (n=452) from five schools of veterinary medicine in Chile. The correlation between the empathy scores of both instruments and their association with individual factors were studied using Spearman's correlation, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test. The results suggest that both instruments correlate significantly, and that gender, year of study, diet, and area of interest have a significant association with the score for empathy toward animals. This research shows that individual characteristics and changes that occur during veterinary training can affect students' attitudes toward animals.

  16. Mapping Antimicrobial Stewardship in Undergraduate Medical, Dental, Pharmacy, Nursing and Veterinary Education in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castro-Sánchez

    Full Text Available To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK.Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning.80% (112/140 of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%. 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%, followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9% and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%. The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3% programmes included all recommended principles.Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.

  17. Informing web-based communication curricula in veterinary education: a systematic review of web-based methods used for teaching and assessing clinical communication in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemiou, Elpida; Adams, Cindy L; Toews, Lorraine; Violato, Claudio; Coe, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    We determined the Web-based configurations that are applied to teach medical and veterinary communication skills, evaluated their effectiveness, and suggested future educational directions for Web-based communication teaching in veterinary education. We performed a systematic search of CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ERIC limited to articles published in English between 2000 and 2012. The review focused on medical or veterinary undergraduate to clinical- or residency-level students. We selected studies for which the study population was randomized to the Web-based learning (WBL) intervention with a post-test comparison with another WBL or non-WBL method and that reported at least one empirical outcome. Two independent reviewers completed relevancy screening, data extraction, and synthesis of results using Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's framework. The search retrieved 1,583 articles, and 10 met the final inclusion criteria. We identified no published articles on Web based communication platforms in veterinary medicine; however, publications summarized from human medicine demonstrated that WBL provides a potentially reliable and valid approach for teaching and assessing communication skills. Student feedback on the use of virtual patients for teaching clinical communication skills has been positive,though evidence has suggested that practice with virtual patients prompted lower relation-building responses.Empirical outcomes indicate that WBL is a viable method for expanding the approach to teaching history taking and possibly to additional tasks of the veterinary medical interview.

  18. Students' opinions on welfare and ethics issues for companion animals in Australian and New Zealand veterinary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degeling, C; Fawcett, A; Collins, T; Hazel, S; Johnson, J; Lloyd, J; Phillips, Cjc; Stafford, K; Tzioumis, V; McGreevy, P

    2017-06-01

    To determine what veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand consider important competences in companion animal welfare and ethics (AWE) required on their first day of practice, and to explore how their priorities relate to gender and stage of study. Undergraduate students at all veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand were sent an online survey. A subset of questions required participants to rank the importance of preselected AWE topics pertaining to companion animals. Data were analysed to determine differences in the way students of different gender or academic stage prioritised each of these AWE topics. Of 3220 currently enrolled students, 851 participated in the survey: 79% were female, 17% male, 4% unspecified. Ranking of the AWE topics, from highest to lowest importance, was: neutering, companion animal husbandry, euthanasia, behaviour and training, animal breeding, over-servicing in relation to animal needs and cosmetic surgery. Female students consistently ranked competency in AWE issues surrounding neutering more highly than male students (P = 0.006). Students in senior years of study ranked the importance of competency in animal abuse/hoarding (P = 0.048), shelter medicine (P = 0.012) and animal breeding (P = 0.002) less highly than those in junior years. Australasian veterinary students placed more importance on competency in AWE issues associated with clinical practice (such as neutering and euthanasia) than on professional behaviours (such as over-servicing and animal breeding). However, we consider that emphasis should still be placed on developing graduate competency in the latter categories to reflect growing societal concerns about companion animal over-supply and inappropriate professional conduct. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. Preceptor engagement in distributed medical school campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Piggott

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Barriers to engagement in teaching primarily focused on differences in job structure in the community, administrative barriers both at the hospital and through the medical school, and lack of knowledge on how to teach.  As medical schools look to expand the capacity of distributed campuses, misperceptions should be addressed and opportunities to improve engagement should be further explored.

  20. Pain education in North American medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezei, Lina; Murinson, Beth B

    2011-12-01

    Knowledgeable and compassionate care regarding pain is a core responsibility of health professionals associated with better medical outcomes, improved quality of life, and lower healthcare costs. Education is an essential part of training healthcare providers to deliver conscientious pain care but little is known about whether medical school curricula meet educational needs. Using a novel systematic approach to assess educational content, we examined the curricula of Liaison Committee on Medical Education-accredited medical schools between August 2009 and February 2010. Our intent was to establish important benchmark values regarding pain education of future physicians during primary professional training. External validation was performed. Inclusion criteria required evidence of substantive participation in the curriculum management database of the Association of American Medical Colleges. A total of 117 U.S. and Canadian medical schools were included in the study. Approximately 80% of U.S. medical schools require 1 or more pain sessions. Among Canadian medical schools, 92% require pain sessions. Pain sessions are typically presented as part of general required courses. Median hours of instruction on pain topics for Canadian schools was twice the U.S. median. Many topics included in the International Association for the Study of Pain core curriculum received little or no coverage. There were no correlations between the types of pain education offered and school characteristics (eg, private versus public). We conclude that pain education for North American medical students is limited, variable, and often fragmentary. There is a need for innovative approaches and better integration of pain topics into medical school curricula. This study assessed the scope and scale of pain education programs in U.S. and Canadian medical schools. Significant gaps between recommended pain curricula and documented educational content were identified. In short, pain education was

  1. External dose estimation of the human associated with companion animals under veterinary nuclear medical diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Nobuhiko; Hanawa, Asumi; Suzuki, Kanan

    2004-01-01

    This study was performed in order to make a safety guideline for veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Well often used radionuclides ( 18 F and 99 mTc) were employed for evaluating the external radiation exposures of veterinarians, animal owners, and the public. The human external radiation exposure from radiation sources in phantom likened to animal was considered by comparing the results of computer simulation and the actually measured exposure. The computer simulation was performed by using macro program of Microsoft Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). In this simulation calculation process, radiation absorption and buildup were taken into consideration with the gamma ray emitted from radioactive materials in the body of the animal. Both corresponded well though the simulation result tended to be overvalued from the actual measurement value. Therefore, it is thought that this system can be applied to the estimation of human's external exposure. When the calculation was done on the condition that the radioactive substance exists only in internal organs (heart, liver, kidneys, and bladder), the unequal distribution of the dose rate was found near the animal body. External radiation exposure estimation to the veterinarian, the animal owner and the public was performed under consideration of the actual working condition, the distance from the source, and the time of exposure. In the calculation, the radiation dose of the animal owner and the public did not exceed the dose limit (5 mSv/yr for the animal owner, and 1 mSv/yr for the general public: International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) 1990) in the release after 24 hours of the radiopharmaceutical administering. The calculation condition used in this study was actually more excessive. So the authors consider these exposures would cause no significant issue by starting the veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Moreover, since injected radiopharmaceutical is excreted out of the body actually, the

  2. Veterinary applications of ionising radiation HERCA Task Force on Veterinary Applications. Main results of the Questionnaire 'National regulatory requirements with regard to veterinary medical applications of ionising radiation' and conclusions of the TF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Bladel, Lodewijk; Berlamont, Jolien; Michalczak, Herbert; Balogh, Lajos; Peremans, Kathelijne

    2013-11-01

    In the fall of 2012, the subject of radiation protection in veterinary medicine was raised during the meeting of the HERCA Board. Issues with regard to this subject had been brought to the attention of HERCA by the European College of Veterinary Diagnostic Imaging (ECVDI). In October 2012, the Board decided to charge a small Task Force (TF) to further explore the issues in this field. This TF drew up a questionnaire which looked at the general radiation protection regulatory requirements in veterinary medicine applications of ionizing radiation. The results of this study showed large differences in the requirements applicable in the HERCA member countries. The TF also noticed the increasing use of more complex imaging procedures and of different radio-therapeutic modalities, which may imply greater risks of exposure of humans to ionising radiation. These results were presented during the HERCA Board meeting in Berlin, Germany and on which the Board decided to establish a Working Group on veterinary applications of ionising radiations (WG Vet). The main results of the Questionnaire 'National regulatory requirements with regard to veterinary medicine applications of ionising radiation' is attached in Appendix

  3. The evolution of our medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Vassallo, Josanne

    2006-01-01

    The University of Malta Medical School has a long history dating back to the foundation of the School of Anatomy and Surgery in the 16 th century. Numerous publications give testimony to the long line of illustrious graduates and faculty members who have contributed to the establishment and continuing expansion of this School.

  4. Radiation education in medical and Co-medical schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, Sukehiko

    2005-01-01

    In the medical field, ionizing radiation is very widely in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, Around 60% of environmental radiation, including natural background and man-made sources of radiation, is caused from medical exposure in Japan. Education of radiation in medical ad co-medical schools are mainly aimed to how effectively use the radiation, and the time shared to fundamental physics, biology and safety or protection of radiation is not so much. (author)

  5. Academic Feedback in Veterinary Medicine: A comparison of School Leaver and Graduate Entry cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Kirsty Jean; McCune, Velda; Rhind, Susan

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the expectations and experiences of students on a five-year undergraduate ("n"?=?91) and four-year graduate entry ("n"?=?47) veterinary medicine degree programme relating to academic feedback. Qualitative and quantitative methodologies were used to explore new students' expectations and prior experiences of…

  6. Emotional intelligence predicts success in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libbrecht, Nele; Lievens, Filip; Carette, Bernd; Côté, Stéphane

    2014-02-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that effective communication and interpersonal sensitivity during interactions between doctors and patients impact therapeutic outcomes. There is an important need to identify predictors of these behaviors, because traditional tests used in medical admissions offer limited predictions of "bedside manners" in medical practice. This study examined whether emotional intelligence would predict the performance of 367 medical students in medical school courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity. One of the dimensions of emotional intelligence, the ability to regulate emotions, predicted performance in courses on communication and interpersonal sensitivity over the next 3 years of medical school, over and above cognitive ability and conscientiousness. Emotional intelligence did not predict performance on courses on medical subject domains. The results suggest that medical schools may better predict who will communicate effectively and show interpersonal sensitivity if they include measures of emotional intelligence in their admission systems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Ethics Education in New Zealand Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John; Malpas, Phillipa; Walker, Simon; Jonas, Monique

    2018-07-01

    This article describes the well-developed and long-standing medical ethics teaching programs in both of New Zealand's medical schools at the University of Otago and the University of Auckland. The programs reflect the awareness that has been increasing as to the important role that ethics education plays in contributing to the "professionalism" and "professional development" in medical curricula.

  8. Validation of a standard field test method in four countries to assess the toxicity of residues in dung of cattle treated with veterinary medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floate, Kevin D.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Hanafi, Jamal; Jud, Priska; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Scheffczyk, Adam; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Sautot, Lucille; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

    2016-01-01

    Registration of veterinary medical products includes the provision that field tests may be required to assess potential nontarget effects associated with the excretion of product residues in dung of treated livestock (phase II, tier B testing). However, regulatory agencies provide no guidance on

  9. Report on Health Manpower and Programs in Ohio: Part Two. Allied Health, Area Health Education Centers, Dentistry, Emergency Medical Services, Nursing, Optometry, Pharmacy, Podiatry, and Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio Board of Regents, Columbus.

    Information on health occupations educational programs in Ohio and current and projected employment needs for health professionals are presented. The following health fields are examined: allied health, dentistry, emergency medical service, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, podiatry, and veterinary medicine. Issues and trends affecting each field are…

  10. Mosquito and Fly Surveillance and Control Research at the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology: Solving Operational Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Mosquito and Fly Research Unit of the USDA-ARS Center for Medical, Agricultural and Veterinary Entomology located in Gainesville Florida is the largest Federal laboratory devoted to specifically solving operational mosquito and fly surveillance and control challenges in the U.S. and internationa...

  11. Value of Artisanal Simulators to Teach Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Biopsy Using a Tru-Cut Needle for Veterinary and Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo Setin, Raíza; Fortes Cirimbelli, Carolina; Mazeto Ercolin, Anna Carolina; Pires, Sâmara Turbay; Disselli, Tamiris; Ferrarini Nunes Soares Hage, Maria Cristina

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the applicability of artisanal simulators to teach veterinary and medical students the ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy using a tru-cut needle. The artisanal simulators consisted of bovine liver between two layers of commercially available grape gelatin. Students were paired, with one doing the biopsy and…

  12. Global health education in Swedish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehn, S; Agardh, A; Holmer, H; Krantz, G; Hagander, L

    2015-11-01

    Global health education is increasingly acknowledged as an opportunity for medical schools to prepare future practitioners for the broad health challenges of our time. The purpose of this study was to describe the evolution of global health education in Swedish medical schools and to assess students' perceived needs for such education. Data on global health education were collected from all medical faculties in Sweden for the years 2000-2013. In addition, 76% (439/577) of all Swedish medical students in their final semester answered a structured questionnaire. Global health education is offered at four of Sweden's seven medical schools, and most medical students have had no global health education. Medical students in their final semester consider themselves to lack knowledge and skills in areas such as the global burden of disease (51%), social determinants of health (52%), culture and health (60%), climate and health (62%), health promotion and disease prevention (66%), strategies for equal access to health care (69%) and global health care systems (72%). A significant association was found between self-assessed competence and the amount of global health education received (pcurriculum. Most Swedish medical students have had no global health education as part of their medical school curriculum. Expanded education in global health is sought after by medical students and could strengthen the professional development of future medical doctors in a wide range of topics important for practitioners in the global world of the twenty-first century. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  13. A preface on advances in diagnostics for infectious and parasitic diseases: detecting parasites of medical and veterinary importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stothard, J Russell; Adams, Emily

    2014-12-01

    There are many reasons why detection of parasites of medical and veterinary importance is vital and where novel diagnostic and surveillance tools are required. From a medical perspective alone, these originate from a desire for better clinical management and rational use of medications. Diagnosis can be at the individual-level, at close to patient settings in testing a clinical suspicion or at the community-level, perhaps in front of a computer screen, in classification of endemic areas and devising appropriate control interventions. Thus diagnostics for parasitic diseases has a broad remit as parasites are not only tied with their definitive hosts but also in some cases with their vectors/intermediate hosts. Application of current diagnostic tools and decision algorithms in sustaining control programmes, or in elimination settings, can be problematic and even ill-fitting. For example in resource-limited settings, are current diagnostic tools sufficiently robust for operational use at scale or are they confounded by on-the-ground realities; are the diagnostic algorithms underlying public health interventions always understood and well-received within communities which are targeted for control? Within this Special Issue (SI) covering a variety of diseases and diagnostic settings some answers are forthcoming. An important theme, however, throughout the SI is to acknowledge that cross-talk and continuous feedback between development and application of diagnostic tests is crucial if they are to be used effectively and appropriately.

  14. Medical and veterinary doctors, social scientists and agricultural researchers meet to carry forward the fight against cysticercosis, a neglected and fatal disease of the poor : to the editor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The fifth general assembly meeting on cysticercosis/taeniosis was held at the Faculty of Medicine, Eduardo Mondlane University, in Maputo, Mozambique, from 11-13 October 2007. The meeting was organised by the Cysticercosis Working Group in Eastern and Southern Africa (CWGESA in cooperation with the Medical and Veterinary Faculties of Eduardo Mondlane University in Mozambique and the WHO/FAO Collaborating Centre for Parasitic Zoonoses in Denmark with support from DBL - Centre for Health Research and Development, Denmark, and the Global Alliance for Livestock Veterinary Medicines (GALVmed based in Edinburgh, Scotland. Local support in Maputo was provided by Nestle, Medis Farmaceutica, Mcel and the Golden Travel Agency.

  15. Establishing Medical Schools in Limited Resource Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsinuel, Girma; Tsedeke, Asaminew; Matthias, Siebeck; Fischer, Martin R; Jacobs, Fabian; Sebsibe, Desalegn; Yoseph, Mamo; Abraham, Haileamlak

    2016-05-01

    One urgent goal of countries in sub-Saharan Africa is to dynamically scale up the education and work force of medical doctors in the training institutions and health facilities, respectively. These countries face challenges related to the rapid scale up which is mostly done without proper strategic planning, without the basic elements of infrastructure development, educational as well as academic and administrative human resources. Medical education done in the context of limited resources is thus compromising the quality of graduates. In the future, a collaborative and need-based approach involving major stakeholders such as medical educators concerned, ministries, planners and policy makers is needed. This article identifies the challenges of establishing medical schools and sustaining the quality of education through rapid scale-up in Sub-Saharan Africa in the settings of limited resources. It also outlines the minimum requirements for establishing medical schools. A consensus building workshop was conducted in Bishoftu, Ethiopia, from Nov 8-12, 2013. Participants were professionals from 13 Ethiopian medical schools, and representatives of medical schools from South Sudan, Somaliland, Somalia, and Mozambique. Participants are listed in Appendix 1. The governments and stakeholders should jointly develop strategic plans and a roadmaps for opening or expanding medical schools to scale up educational resources. It is advisable that medical schools have autonomy regarding the number of student-intake, student selection, curriculum ownership, resource allocation including for infrastructure and staff development. Health science and medical curricula should be integrated within and harmonized nationally. An educational evaluation framework needs to be embedded in the curricula, and all medical schools should have Health Science Education Development Centers.

  16. Exploring the use of tablet PCs in veterinary medical education: opportunity or obstacle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Rush, Bonnie R; Wilkerson, Melinda; van der Merwe, Deon

    2014-01-01

    A tablet PC is a laptop computer with a touch screen and a digital pen or stylus that can be used for handwritten notes and drawings. The use of tablet PCs has been investigated in many disciplines such as engineering, mathematics, science, and education. The purpose of this article is to explore student and faculty attitudes toward and experiences with tablet PCs 6 years after the implementation of a tablet PC program in the College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) at Kansas State University (K-State). This study reports that the use of tablet PCs has enhanced students' learning experiences through learner-interface interaction, learner-content interaction, learner-instructor interaction, and learner-learner interaction. This study also identifies digital distraction as the major negative experience with tablet PCs during class time. The tablet PC program provides CVM faculty the potential to pursue technology integration strategies that support expected learning outcomes and provides students the potential to develop self-monitoring and self-discipline skills that support learning with digital technologies.

  17. New directions for veterinary technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.

  18. 2 Rumbles in the Medical Schools?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    deficient in basic clinical skills, of taking a focused history and making a physical examination';. Kakande1 ... A medical school administration ... resourced health clinics or hospitals in the rural ... cases; the resource presented by teaching in.

  19. Veterinary vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoret, P P

    1999-11-01

    Veterinary vaccinology is a very interesting and rapidly developing field. In fact veterinary vaccines are not only used for the prevention of infectious diseases in the animal health sector, but also help to solve problems of public health, to reduce detrimental environmental impact of the use of some veterinary drugs and prevent the emergence of resistance of micro-organisms or parasites. After a short introduction, this paper will deal with the use of vaccines for animal health and welfare, including new developments in the veterinary field such as marker vaccines and vectored vaccines, the special case of equine influenza-inactivated vaccines and the use of veterinary vaccines in public health. The conclusions will analyse the reasons as to why develop veterinary vaccines and the obstacles to their development.

  20. World medical schools: The sum also rises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Perry G; Gururaja, Ramnarayan P

    2017-06-01

    There is a worldwide shortage of doctors, which is true in most countries and on most continents. To enumerate the number of medical schools in the world at two different times, showing the trends and relating this to population is a beginning. The number is actually going up and has done so for some time; this has increased the supply of physicians and broadened healthcare delivery. The number to count for geographic and regional information about the medical schools relates directly to the supply of doctors. Regions were chosen from WHO and Foundation for the Advancement of International Medical Education and Research data to illustrate geographic distributions, physicians per patient and kinetics. The number of medical schools has consistently been rising around the world. However, world order is reverting to disorder, considering wars, disease and beleaguered stand-offs. None. Eight countries contain 40% of medical schools; however, several locations are rising faster than the rest. Some regions are stable, but sub-Saharan Africa, the Caribbean, South Asia and South America have increased the most in percentage recently, but not uniformly. Medical schools are related not only by geography, political boundaries and population but are concentrated in some regions. Graduate Medical Education positions appear to be short on a worldwide basis, as well as in some regions and countries. The number of medical schools is increasing worldwide and the identification of rapidly rising geographic areas is useful in exploring, planning and comparing regions. Controversy continues in a variety of locations, especially concerning Graduate Medical Education. In addition to funding, faculty candidates and accreditation, new schools are confronting a variety of choices in standards and quality, sizing and regional concerns.

  1. Psychotropic Medications: An Update for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Nancy; Kulick, Deborah; Phelps, LeAdelle

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of medications used frequently in the treatment of pediatric depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. The need for a collaborative relationship between the prescribing physician, school personnel, and the family is outlined. School psychologists can play crucial roles by providing the physician with information…

  2. The Medical Ethics Curriculum in Medical Schools: Present and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giubilini, Alberto; Milnes, Sharyn; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    In this review article we describe the current scope, methods, and contents of medical ethics education in medical schools in Western English speaking countries (mainly the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia). We assess the strengths and weaknesses of current medical ethics curricula, and students' levels of satisfaction with different teaching approaches and their reported difficulties in learning medical ethics concepts and applying them in clinical practice. We identify three main challenges for medical ethics education: counteracting the bad effects of the "hidden curriculum," teaching students how to apply ethical knowledge and critical thinking to real cases in clinical practice, and shaping future doctors' right character through ethics education. We suggest ways in which these challenges could be addressed. On the basis of this analysis, we propose practical guidelines for designing, implementing, teaching, and assessing a medical ethics program within a four-year medical course. Copyright 2016 The Journal of Clinical Ethics. All rights reserved.

  3. Medical pluralism and livestock health: ethnomedical and biomedical veterinary knowledge among East African agropastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudell, Mark A; Quinlan, Marsha B; Quinlan, Robert J; Call, Douglas R

    2017-01-21

    Human and animal health are deeply intertwined in livestock dependent areas. Livestock health contributes to food security and can influence human health through the transmission of zoonotic diseases. In low-income countries diagnosis and treatment of livestock diseases is often carried out by household members who draw upon both ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) and contemporary veterinary biomedicine (VB). Expertise in these knowledge bases, along with their coexistence, informs treatment and thus ultimately impacts animal and human health. The aim of the current study was to determine how socio-cultural and ecological differences within and between two livestock-keeping populations, the Maasai of northern Tanzania and Koore of southwest Ethiopia, impact expertise in EVM and VB and coexistence of the two knowledge bases. An ethnoveterinary research project was conducted to examine dimensions of EVM and VB knowledge among the Maasai (N = 142 households) and the Koore (N = 100). Cultural consensus methods were used to quantify expertise and the level of agreement on EVM and VB knowledge. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model patterns of expertise and consensus across groups and to examine associations between knowledge and demographic/sociocultural attributes. Maasai and Koore informants displayed high consensus on EVM but only the Koore displayed consensus on VB knowledge. EVM expertise in the Koore varied across gender, herd size, and level of VB expertise. EVM expertise was highest in the Maasai but was only associated with age. The only factor associated with VB expertise was EVM expertise in the Koore. Variation in consensus and the correlates of expertise across the Maassi and the Koore are likely related to differences in the cultural transmission of EVM and VB knowledge. Transmission dynamics are established by the integration of livestock within the socioecological systems of the Maasai and Koore and culture historical experiences with

  4. Management Practices of Cats Owned by Faculty, Staff, and Students at Two Midwest Veterinary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Stella

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding cat owners’ housing, care, and management practices is important for promoting cat welfare. A survey study was conducted on the housing and management practices used for cats by students, faculty, and staff of The Ohio State University and Purdue University veterinary colleges. Subjects were 138 cat-owner dyads. Most cats (74% were housed strictly indoors in keeping with common US veterinary recommendations. However, many did not implement best practices outlined for behavior and other welfare needs of indoor cats. The percentage of respondents placing resources where cats could be disrupted while using them was 31%, 53%, and 30% for resting areas, food/water dishes, and litter boxes, respectively. Many cats were not provided a litter box in a private area (35%, in multiple areas of the house (51%, or that was regularly washed (73%. Horizontal scratching opportunities were not provided to 38% of cats; 32% were not provided toys that mimic prey and 91% of cats were fed a diet consisting of >75% dry food. These findings suggest a need for more concerted efforts to educate owners about meeting their cats’ welfare needs so as to attenuate risks and improve cat physical and behavioral welfare outcomes.

  5. Supporting medical students with learning disabilities in Asian medical schools

    OpenAIRE

    Majumder, Md. Anwarul Azim; Rahman, Sayeeda; D?Souza, Urban JA; Elbeheri, Gad; Abdulrahman, Khalid Bin; Huq, M Muzaherul

    2010-01-01

    Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sayeeda Rahman2, Urban JA D’Souza3, Gad Elbeheri4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, M Muzaherul Huq61,2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; 4Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait; 5College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Centre for Medical Education (CME), Mohakhali, Dhaka, Ba...

  6. Teaching law in medical schools: first, reflect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Amy T

    2012-01-01

    Law is now routinely included in the medical school curriculum, often incorporated into bioethics and/or practice of medicine coursework. There seems to lack, however, a systematic understanding of what works in terms of getting across an effective depth and breadth of legal knowledge for medical students - or what such would even look like. Moreover, and more critically, while some literature addresses these what, when, how, and who questions, a more fundamental question is left unanswered: why teach law in medical school? This article suggests a process to reveal a more consensual understanding of this latter question. The author highlights findings and recommendations of some of the leading literature to date related to teaching law in medical schools, and also recent U.K. projects addressing legal teaching in medical schools. Reflecting on these materials and activities, the author suggests that we take a "pause" before we argue for more or different legal topics within the medical curriculum. Before we alter the curricula for more and/or different "law," first, it is critical to have a meaningful, stakeholder-driven, consensus-seeking discussion of the goals of legal education: why do we think it matters that medical students learn about "the law"? © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  7. Pregnancy and Parenthood During Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bye, Emma M; Brisk, Brody W; Reuter, Suzanne D; Hansen, Keith A; Nettleman, Mary D

    2017-12-01

    The stress of pregnancy and parenthood during the intense educational experience of medical school could increase the risk of student burnout. Because 9.2 percent of U.S. medical students are parents by graduation, it would seem prudent to include this topic in wellness programs and policies. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of pregnancy and parenthood on medical students. This was a cross-sectional, internet survey distributed to all four classes of medical students at the University of South Dakota Sanford School of Medicine during the 2016-2017 academic year. The survey determined self-reported pregnancy and parenthood information, knowledge of a medical school pregnancy policy, and policy recommendations. More than 85 percent of the 194 respondents recommended that the following elements be included in an institutional policy: process for arranging parental leave, how leave time might affect graduation, how missed requirements could be made up, and how to request special accommodation or leave. Twenty-nine of the respondents (15 percent) were parents or currently pregnant. Eight pregnancies during medical school were associated with complications, including three miscarriages. Of the 18 students who reported maternity or paternity leave, 13 (72 percent) and 10 (56 percent) would have extended their leave time if it did not delay graduation or only reduced their number of elective rotations, respectively. No student would choose to extend leave if it would delay graduation. This survey is the first of its kind investigating pregnancy and parenthood in medical students attending a U.S. medical school. Students want schools to provide clear, well-defined guidelines, scheduling flexibility and administrators who are approachable and understanding of their individual circumstances.

  8. Attrition during graduate medical education: medical school perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Dorothy A; Jeffe, Donna B; Hageman, Heather L; Klingensmith, Mary E; McAlister, Rebecca P; Whelan, Alison J

    2008-12-01

    To identify predictors of attrition during graduate medical education (GME) in a single medical school cohort of contemporary US medical school graduates. Retrospective cohort study. Single medical institution. Recent US allopathic medical school graduates. Attrition from initial GME program. Forty-seven of 795 graduates (6%) did not complete the GME in their initial specialty of choice. At bivariate analysis, attrition was associated with election to the Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society, being an MD-PhD degree holder, and specialty choice (all P PhD degree holder (odds ratio, 3.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-9.26; P = .02), election to Alpha Omega Alpha (2.19; 1.04-4.66; P = .04), choice of general surgery for GME (5.32; 1.98-14.27; P < .001), and choice of 5-year surgical specialty including those surgical specialties with a GME training requirement of 5 years or longer (2.74; 1.16-6.44; P = .02) each independently predicted greater likelihood of attrition. Academically highly qualified graduates and graduates who chose training in general surgery or in a 5-year surgical specialty were at increased risk of attrition during GME.

  9. Bullying among medical students in a Saudi medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzahrani Hasan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bullying and sexual harassment of medical students by their teachers appears to be widespread phenomenon. However, nothing is published about its prevalence in conservative countries such as Saudi Arabia. This survey aims to ascertain the extent of these mistreatments among students in a Saudi medical school. Findings A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted on a group of 542 clinical years’ medical students in a Saudi medical school to explore students' perceptions of their educational environment including exposure to different kinds of bullying. Bullying was defined as “a “persistent behaviour against a medical student that is intimidating, degrading, offensive or malicious and undermines the confidence and self- esteem of the recipient”. Results revealed that more than one quarter (28.0% of the surveyed students reported exposure to some sort of bullying during their clinical. Ninety percent of the reported insults were verbal, 6% sexual and 4% physical. Males were more exposed but difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions Bullying among Saudi medical students is an existing problem. A policy against bullying and harassment should be adopted in all of medical colleges to monitor this phenomenon and support students who have been bullied.

  10. Teaching veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, A

    1994-08-01

    The history of parasitology and the teaching of veterinary parasitology in South Africa are reviewed briefly. Courses in veterinary parasitology are presented at the faculties of veterinary science at the University of Pretoria and the Medical University of South Africa as well as at the Pretoria Technicon. At the University of Pretoria, the three disciplines of veterinary parasitology, entomology, helminthology and protozoology, are covered in 330 core lectures; from 13 to 40% of the contact time is devoted to practical classes. Teaching veterinary parasitology is both labour intensive and costly, viz. R1700 (US$570) per student per annum. Such costs are justified by the R148.8 million (US$49.6 million) spent every year in South Africa on anthelmintics, ectoparasiticides and vaccines to control parasites. Veterinary parasitology is a dynamic subject and the curriculum must be revised regularly to incorporate new information. Because the parasite faunas are so diverse no single textbook can satisfy the requirements of the various institutions worldwide which teach the subject, with the result that extensive use is made of notes. In Australia and in Europe, ticks and tick-borne diseases are less important than they are in Africa; consequently insufficient space is devoted to them in textbooks to satisfy the requirements of the subject in African countries. Parasite control under extensive and intensive conditions is dealt with adequately at the University of Pretoria, but increasing emphasis will be given to small-scale farming systems, particularly if alternative food animals are to be kept.

  11. STD Training in Canadian Medical Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo-Anne A Doherty

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The emergence of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in 1981 and the consequent publicity surrounding sexual behaviour has increased the likelihood that patients will seek medical advice. Sexually transmitted disease (STD teaching and postgraduate medical programs in Canadian schools of medicine have not been adequately documented. Accordingly, the Laboratory Centre for Disease Control. Department of National Health and Welfare, sought to determine the magnitude and scope of STD training in these schools. DESIGN: A four page questionnaire sought information on preclinical, clinical and residency training in terms of the number of classroom and laboratory hours of instruction, the subspecialty responsible for providing the training, and the clinical ‘hands on’ experience of the teachers: each respondent was also asked to assess the quality and scope of instruction provided at his/her medical school. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: The questionnaire was mailed to the Dean of each of the 16 schools of medicine in Canada: it was requested that the questionnaire be forwarded to and completed by the person responsible for STD training at the university. RESULTS: Thirteen schools (81% completed the questionnaire. Each school indicated that some STD instruction was provided at the undergraduate level: the mean number of hours of classroom instruction was 6.1. Physicians with STD clinical ‘hands on’ experience were responsible for teaching in 12 schools. Infectious disease residents spent 4 to 80 h on STDs, while those from other residency programs where STD was not an elective spent 2 to 8 h. Each medical school was asked to provide an evaluation of its program. Only three respondents considered their STD training program adequate. The majority of schools responded that infectious disease residents received sufficient training but the training offered medical students and residents in other programs was less than adequate. The quality

  12. Skin diseases in companion guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus): a retrospective study of 293 cases seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital, University of California at Davis (1990-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen D; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2016-10-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus) are popular companion animals with reported skin diseases, but most reports are accessed from textbooks or review articles. To document skin diseases and their prevalence in companion guinea pigs in northern California, USA, and to investigate predilections for the most common conditions over a 25 year period. Two hundred and ninety three guinea pigs from the hospital population met inclusion criteria. A retrospective study was performed by searching computerized medical records seen at the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (VMTH), School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California from 1 January 1990 to 31 July 2015 using key words relevant to dermatology. Of the 580 guinea pigs seen at the VMTH, 50% (293) had skin disease. Of the 293 cases, 154 (52%) presented for nondermatological reasons. Guinea pigs with skin disease were significantly older than those without skin disease (P = 0.0002); females with skin disease were more likely to have cystic ovaries (P = 0.0203), although these were not always associated with alopecia. Pododermatitis and infestation with Trixacarus caviae or lice were the most common skin diseases. Ivermectin or selamectin was used for ectoparasite treatment. Abscesses unassociated with pododermatitis were the most common nodules. Benign follicular tumours were the most common neoplasm. Despite the frequent mention of dermatophytosis in the veterinary literature, only two cases of Trichophyton mentagrophytes were diagnosed. Cutaneous conditions in companion guinea pigs in the USA are common. Clinicians should include a dermatological examination when examining these rodents regardless of the reason for presentation. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Academic Dishonesty in Medical Schools

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    drive academic dishonesty among aspiring doctors. Objective: To establish the ... Cross sectional survey using self-administered questionnaire. ... There is no data to show how medical students compare to other .... by mandated bodies to contain the malpractice, hence bigger ... on Plagiarism and Cheating, in Perspectives.

  14. Extracurricular activities of medical school applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyun Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate medical school applicants’ involvements in extracurricular activities including medical volunteering/community services, nonmedical community services, club activities, leadership role, and research. Methods: Extracurricular characteristics were compared for 448 applicants (223 males and 225 females who applied to Kangwon Medical School in 2013 to 2014. Frequency analysis, chi-square test, and simple correlation were conducted with the collected data. Results: The 448 applicants participated in medical volunteer/community services (15.3%, nonmedical community services (39.8%, club activities (22.9%, club officials (10%, and research (13.4%. On average, applicants from foreign universities participated in 0.9 medical volunteer/community service, 0.8 nonmedical community service, 1.7 club activities, and 0.6 research work. On the other hand, applicants from domestic universities reported 0.2 medical volunteer/community service, 1.0 nonmedical community service, 0.7 club activity, and 0.3 research. Conclusion: Involvement in extracurricular activities was extensive for medical school applicants. Participation in extracurricular activities differed between applicants from foreign and domestic universities. Females consistently reported greater participation in extracurricular activities than males. The data can be helpful for admission committees to recruit well-rounded applicants and compare between applicants with similar academic backgrounds.

  15. Perspectives on academic veterinary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S

    2001-09-15

    It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.

  16. [Plagiarism in medical schools, and its prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annane, Djillali; Annane, Frédérique

    2012-09-01

    The plagiarism has become very common in universities and medical school. Undoubtedly, the easy access to a huge amount of electronic documents is one explanation for the increasing prevalence of plagiarism among students. While most of universities and medical school have clear statements and rules about plagiarism, available tools for the detection of plagiarism remain inefficient and dedicate training program for students and teachers too scarce. As lack of time is one reason for students to choose plagiarism, it should be one main target for educational programs. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Medical school benchmarking - from tools to programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Tim J; Hudson, Judith N; Mccoll, Geoffrey J; Hu, Wendy C Y; Jolly, Brian C; Schuwirth, Lambert W T

    2015-02-01

    Benchmarking among medical schools is essential, but may result in unwanted effects. To apply a conceptual framework to selected benchmarking activities of medical schools. We present an analogy between the effects of assessment on student learning and the effects of benchmarking on medical school educational activities. A framework by which benchmarking can be evaluated was developed and applied to key current benchmarking activities in Australia and New Zealand. The analogy generated a conceptual framework that tested five questions to be considered in relation to benchmarking: what is the purpose? what are the attributes of value? what are the best tools to assess the attributes of value? what happens to the results? and, what is the likely "institutional impact" of the results? If the activities were compared against a blueprint of desirable medical graduate outcomes, notable omissions would emerge. Medical schools should benchmark their performance on a range of educational activities to ensure quality improvement and to assure stakeholders that standards are being met. Although benchmarking potentially has positive benefits, it could also result in perverse incentives with unforeseen and detrimental effects on learning if it is undertaken using only a few selected assessment tools.

  18. Supporting medical students with learning disabilities in Asian medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Md. Anwarul Azim Majumder1, Sayeeda Rahman2, Urban JA D’Souza3, Gad Elbeheri4, Khalid Bin Abdulrahman5, M Muzaherul Huq61,2Department of Clinical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Bradford, West Yorkshire, Bradford, UK; 3School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia; 4Centre for Child Evaluation and Teaching, Kuwait; 5College of Medicine, Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 6Centre for Medical Education (CME, Mohakhali, Dhaka, BangladeshAbstract: Learning disabilities (LDs represent the largest group of disabilities in higher education (HE institutes, including medical schools, and the numbers are continuing to rise. The worrying concern is that two-thirds to half of these students with LDs remain undiagnosed when they start their undergraduate education and may even graduate without having their disabilities diagnosed. These students struggle with their academic abilities, receive poor grades and, as a result, develop lower perceptions of their intellectual abilities than do those students without LDs. All these ultimately hamper their professional practice, employment, and career progression. Appropriate and adequate educational policies, provisions, and practices help students to progress satisfactorily. In Asian countries, public and professional awareness about LDs is low, supportive provisions are limited, legislations are inadequate, data are scarce, and equal-opportunity/widening-participation policies are not implemented effectively in the HE sector. This article discusses the issues related to LDs in medical education and draws policy, provision, and practice implications to identify, assess, and support students with LDs in medical schools, particularly in an Asian context.Keywords: medical education, learning disabilities, dyslexia, Asia

  19. Sexuality education in Brazilian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufino, Andrea Cronemberger; Madeiro, Alberto; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello

    2014-05-01

    Sexuality education has been valued since the 1960s in medical schools worldwide. Although recent studies reaffirm the importance of incorporating sexuality into medical education, there are data gaps concerning how this happens in Brazil. To understand how Brazilian medical school professors teach sexuality in undergraduate courses. An exploratory, cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted. A total of 207 professors from 110 Brazilian medical schools responded to an online semistructured questionnaire about the characteristics of the sexuality-related topics offered. The main variables assessed were contact hours devoted to sexuality, disciplines in which sexuality topics were taught, sexuality-related course titles, and sexuality-related topics addressed. Questionnaires were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics for frequency distribution. The response rate to the questionnaire was 77.2%. Almost all professors (96.3%) addressed sexuality-related topics mainly in the third and fourth years as clinical disciplines, with a 6-hour load per discipline. Gynecology was the discipline in which sexuality-related topics were most often taught (51.5%), followed by urology (18%) and psychiatry (15%). Sexuality-related topics were addressed mainly in classes on sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS (62.4%) and on the anatomy and physiology of the reproductive system (55.4%). About 25% of the professors reported teaching courses with a sexuality-related title. There was emphasis on the impact of diseases and sexual habits (87.9%) and sexual dysfunction (75.9%). Less than 50% of professors addressed nonnormative sexuality or social aspects of sexuality. The teaching of sexuality in Brazilian medical schools occurred in a nonstandardized and fragmented fashion across several disciplines. The topic was incorporated with an organic and pathological bias, with a weak emphasis on the social aspects of sexuality and the variety of human sexual behaviors. The

  20. A Clinical Pharmacology Course for Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Lynn Mulcahy

    1983-01-01

    A one-semester, two-credit course is described that was developed cooperatively by the colleges of pharmacy and veterinary medicine at Washington State University to help resolve an acute shortage of clinical pharmacologists in veterinary medicine and veterinary medical education. Course procedures, content, and evaluation are outlined (MSE)

  1. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Sonographic Measurements of Ocular Biometry of Indigenous Nigerian. Dogs in Zaria ..... between L2 and R) anesthetic risks and additional costs were ... prevalent worldwide problem (Toni et al.,. 2013). Paunknis and ... correlation with refractive error is larger for axial length than .... Veterinary Medical Association. 207:12.

  2. Sexuality education in Japanese medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, M; Tsujimura, A; Abdelhamed, A; Horie, S

    2017-07-01

    The present study aimed to investigate current sexuality education in Japanese medical schools and the impact of position title in the Japanese Society for Sexual Medicine (JSSM). Questionnaires were mailed to urology departments in all Japanese medical schools. The responses were evaluated according to four factors: the number of lecture components, curriculum hours, degree of satisfaction with the components and degree of satisfaction with the curriculum hours. We also investigated differences in these four factors among three groups: Directors, Council members and non-members of the JSSM. The medians of curriculum hours and the number of the lecture components were 90.0 min and 7.0, respectively. The curriculum hours of the Directors (140.0 min) were significantly longer than those of the non-members (90.0 min; P<0.05). The number of lecture components taught by Directors (9.5) was significantly higher than that of the Council (4.0; P<0.01) and non-members (7.0; P<0.05). More than half of the faculties were not satisfied with the lecture components and curriculum hours. This is the first study on sexuality education in Japanese medical schools. It showed the inadequacy of both curriculum hours and lecture components, and that the position title of department chair affects sexuality education in medical schools.

  3. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Gigi

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to ...

  4. Issues of medication administration and control in Iowa schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Karen B; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W; Clay, Daniel; Gross, Jami N

    2003-11-01

    Who is responsible for medication administration at school? To answer this question, a descriptive, self-administered survey was mailed to a random sample of 850 school principals in Iowa. The eight-page, 57-item, anonymous survey was mailed first class, and a follow-up reminder post card was mailed two weeks later. Descriptive analyses were conducted, with type of respondent (principal versus school nurse), grade level, and size of school examined to explore differences. A 46.6% response rate was obtained; 97% of respondents indicated their schools had written guidelines for medication administration. Principals (41%) and school nurses (34%) reported that they have the ultimate legal responsibility for medication administration. Policies for medication administration on field trips were available in schools of 73.6% of respondents. High schools were more likely to allow self-medication than other grade levels. "Missed dose" was the most common medication error. The main reasons contributing to medication administration errors included poor communication among school, family, and healthcare providers, and the increased number of students on medication. It remains unclear who holds ultimate responsibility for medication administration in schools. Written policies typically exist for medication administration at school, but not field trips. Communicating medication changes to schools, and ensuring medications are available at school, likely can reduce medication administration errors.

  5. The medical school curriculum committee revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricson, W D; Payer, A F; Rogers, L P; Markus, J F

    1993-03-01

    Numerous study commissions have contended that departmental territoriality and lack of coordinated planning are stagnating contemporary medical education. As a cure, these commissions have recommended the creation of centralized academic management units empowered to oversee revitalization of the curriculum through a series of reforms, including better definition of graduation competencies, community-based training, interdisciplinary courses, problem-based learning, and modernization of evaluation strategies. To determine the extent to which these recommendations were being adopted, in 1990 the authors sent a questionnaire on curriculum committee functions, current innovation efforts, and future priorities to academic administrators and members of medical school curriculum committees at 143 North American medical schools. Responses were received from administrators (primarily associate deans for academic affairs) at 118 schools and committee members (primarily faculty) at 111 schools. Recommendations for enhancing curriculum committee effectiveness were also elicited. The authors conclude that centralization of curricular management has occurred at very few institutions, and that the commonly mentioned reforms are being adopted at a modest pace. The results are analyzed in light of theories of the institutional change process and strategies for introducing educational innovations into established institutions.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Changing gender profile of medical schools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-06-23

    Jun 23, 2008 ... Changing gender profile of medical schools in South Africa. Mignonne ... The Higher Education Management Information System. (HEMIS) ..... specialty and gender: A study of teachers at a Swedish medical school. BMC Med ...

  7. Admission criteria and diversity in medical school

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Neill, Lotte; Vonsild, Maria; Wallstedt, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    on other attributes. To explore the social mix of the two tracks, we obtained information on social indices associated with educational attainment in Denmark (ethnic origin, father’s education, mother’s education, parenthood, parents live together, parent on benefit). Result: Selection strategy (grade......Introduction: The underrepresentation of students from lower socioeconomic backgrounds in medical education is an important social issue. There is currently little evidence about whether changes in admission strategy could increase the diversity of medical students. Denmark introduced an “attribute...... of students admitted via the two tracks between the years 2002-2007. Method: This prospective cohort study included 1074 medical students admitted between the years 2002-2007 to the University of Southern Denmark (USD) medical school. Of these, 454 were admitted by grade-based selection and 620 were selected...

  8. Changing Medical School IT to Support Medical Education Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spickard, Anderson; Ahmed, Toufeeq; Lomis, Kimberly; Johnson, Kevin; Miller, Bonnie

    2016-01-01

    Many medical schools are modifying curricula to reflect the rapidly evolving health care environment, but schools struggle to provide the educational informatics technology (IT) support to make the necessary changes. Often a medical school's IT support for the education mission derives from isolated work units employing separate technologies that are not interoperable. We launched a redesigned, tightly integrated, and novel IT infrastructure to support a completely revamped curriculum at the Vanderbilt School of Medicine. This system uses coordinated and interoperable technologies to support new instructional methods, capture students' effort, and manage feedback, allowing the monitoring of students' progress toward specific competency goals across settings and programs. The new undergraduate medical education program at Vanderbilt, entitled Curriculum 2.0, is a competency-based curriculum in which the ultimate goal is medical student advancement based on performance outcomes and personal goals rather than a time-based sequence of courses. IT support was essential in the creation of Curriculum 2.0. In addition to typical learning and curriculum management functions, IT was needed to capture data in the learning workflow for analysis, as well as for informing individual and programmatic success. We aligned people, processes, and technology to provide the IT infrastructure for the organizational transformation. Educational IT personnel were successfully realigned to create the new IT system. The IT infrastructure enabled monitoring of student performance within each competency domain across settings and time via personal student electronic portfolios. Students use aggregated performance data, derived in real time from the portfolio, for mentor-guided performance assessment, and for creation of individual learning goals and plans. Poorly performing students were identified earlier through online communication systems that alert the appropriate instructor or coach of

  9. [Teaching evaluation at Medical School, UNAM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas-Gómez, Luz Elena; Ortiz-Montalvo, Armando; Alaminos-Sager, Isabel Luisa

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to offer a synthesis of what has been done in the Teaching Evaluation Program at the Medical School of the Autonomous National University of Mexico (UNAM). The Program involves three questionnaires of the students' opinion that evaluate professors of the basic and sociomedical areas, microbiology and parasitology laboratory and surgery. Between 1994 and 2003, 134,811 questionnaires were answered to evaluate the teaching performance of 6262 professors of pregraduate students. Although the evaluation of teaching through a single way is insufficient, the results obtained allow us to affirm that the Medical School at UNAM has a good professor staff, as well as they are useful for the design of programs dedicated to the acknowledgment of excellence and the needs for teaching education.

  10. Measuring emotional intelligence of medical school applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrothers, R M; Gregory, S W; Gallagher, T J

    2000-05-01

    To discuss the development, pilot testing, and analysis of a 34-item semantic differential instrument for measuring medical school applicants' emotional intelligence (the EI instrument). The authors analyzed data from the admission interviews of 147 1997 applicants to a six-year BS/MD program that is composed of three consortium universities. They compared the applicants' scores on traditional admission criteria (e.g., GPA and traditional interview assessments) with their scores on the EI instrument (which comprised five dimensions of emotional intelligence), breaking the data out by consortium university (each of which has its own educational ethos) and gender. They assessed the EI instrument's reliability and validity for assessing noncognitive personal and interpersonal qualities of medical school applicants. The five dimensions of emotional intelligence (maturity, compassion, morality, sociability, and calm disposition) indicated fair to excellent internal consistency: reliability coefficients were .66 to .95. Emotional intelligence as measured by the instrument was related to both being female and matriculating at the consortium university that has an educational ethos that values the social sciences and humanities. Based on this pilot study, the 34-item EI instrument demonstrates the ability to measure attributes that indicate desirable personal and interpersonal skills in medical school applicants.

  11. Mentoring program design and implementation in new medical schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, Alice; Murray, Thomas S.; Menzin, Andrew W.; Woo, Vivian A.; Clifton, Maurice; Lombardi, Marion; Shelov, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Mentoring is considered a valuable component of undergraduate medical education with a variety of programs at established medical schools. This study presents how new medical schools have set up mentoring programs as they have developed their curricula. Methods Administrators from 14 US medical schools established since 2006 were surveyed regarding the structure and implementation of their mentoring programs. Results The majority of new medical schools had mentoring programs that varied in structure and implementation. Although the programs were viewed as valuable at each institution, challenges when creating and implementing mentoring programs in new medical schools included time constraints for faculty and students, and lack of financial and professional incentives for faculty. Conclusions Similar to established medical schools, there was little uniformity among mentoring programs at new medical schools, likely reflecting differences in curriculum and program goals. Outcome measures are needed to determine whether a best practice for mentoring can be established. PMID:24962112

  12. Implementation of the medical research curriculum in graduate medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwi Hwa; Kim, Tae-Hee; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the medical research curriculum on the students' satisfaction and the research self-efficacy. The curriculum was implemented to 79 graduate medical school students who entered in 2007 and 2008. This curriculum is implemented through 3 years consisting of 5 different sub-courses: Research design, Research ethics, Medical statistics, Writing medical paper, and Presentation. The effect of this program was measured with 2 self-administered surveys to students: the course satisfaction survey and the self-efficacy inventories. The Research Self-Efficacy Scale consisted of 18 items from 4 categories: Research design, Research ethics, Data analysis, and Result presentation. The descriptive statistics, paired t-test, and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were implemented. The average point of satisfaction of the course was 2.74 out of 4, which told us that students generally satisfied with the course. The frequencies of tutoring for research course were 2 or 3 times on average and each session of tutorial lasted 1.5 to 2 hours. The research self-efficacy in three categories (Research design, Research ethics, and Result presentation) increased significantly (presearch paper writing at undergraduate level. The curriculum showed positive results in cultivating research self-efficacy of students. There is a need for improvement of the class of Statistical analysis as students reported that it was difficult.

  13. Chat reference service in medical libraries: part 2--Trends in medical school libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dee, Cheryl R

    2003-01-01

    An increasing number of medical school libraries offer chat service to provide immediate, high quality information at the time and point of need to students, faculty, staff, and health care professionals. Part 2 of Chat Reference Service in Medical Libraries presents a snapshot of the current trends in chat reference service in medical school libraries. In late 2002, 25 (21%) medical school libraries provided chat reference. Trends in chat reference services in medical school libraries were compiled from an exploration of medical school library Web sites and informal correspondence from medical school library personnel. Many medical libraries are actively investigating and planning new chat reference services, while others have decided not to pursue chat reference at this time. Anecdotal comments from medical school library staff provide insights into chat reference service.

  14. USE OF A NOVEL BOARD GAME IN A CLINICAL ROTATION FOR LEARNING THORACIC DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSES IN VETERINARY MEDICAL IMAGING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, Christopher P

    2017-03-01

    When confronted with various findings on thoracic radiographs, fourth-year veterinary students often have difficulty generating appropriate lists of differential diagnoses. The purpose of this one-group, pretest, posttest experimental study was to determine if a game could be used as an adjunct teaching method to improve students' understanding of connections between imaging findings and differential diagnoses. A novel board game focusing on differential diagnoses in thoracic radiography was developed. One hundred fourth-year veterinary students took a brief pretest, played the board game, and took a brief posttest as a part of their respective clinical radiology rotations. Pretest results were compared to posttest results using a paired t-test to determine if playing the game impacted student understanding. Students' mean scores on the posttest were significantly higher than mean pretest scores (P game resulted in improved short-term understanding of thoracic differential diagnoses by fourth-year students, and use of the board game on a clinical rotation seems to be a beneficial part of the learning process. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. Veterinary radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshin, V.A.; Belov, A.D.; Budarkov, V.A.; Prochazka, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The monograph summarizes the authors' experience and data from Soviet and foreign scientific literature. It consists of the following chapters: radioactive sources; utilization of ionizing radiation and radioactive isotopes; biological effects of ionizing radiation; radiation sickness in animals; combined post-irradiation syndromes; prophylaxis of radiation injury; therapy of irradiated animals; and veterinary radiation hygiene control of the environment, fodder, animals and animal products. (P.A.)

  16. VetCompass Australia: A National Big Data Collection System for Veterinary Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul; Thomson, Peter; Dhand, Navneet K; Raubenheimer, David; Masters, Sophie; Mansfield, Caroline S; Baldwin, Timothy; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Rand, Jacquie; Hill, Peter; Peaston, Anne; Gilkerson, James; Combs, Martin; Raidal, Shane; Irwin, Peter; Irons, Peter; Squires, Richard; Brodbelt, David; Hammond, Jeremy

    2017-09-26

    VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses). Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1) roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2) development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation) platform; and (3) creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP) technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.

  17. VetCompass Australia: A National Big Data Collection System for Veterinary Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul McGreevy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses. Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1 roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2 development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation platform; and (3 creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.

  18. Janis Huston Audin, MSc, DVM,1950-2009. Dynamic editor-in-chief of the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association and strong One Health advocate dies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Kaplan, DVM

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Dr Janis H. Audin (MSc Illinois 1975, DVM Illinois 1979, a champion of progressive veterinary medical journalism and ‘One Health’ died on 22 April 2009 following a long, courageous and difficult battle with pancreatic cancer. The world has lost a truly significant One Health leader and advocate. Under her guidance, the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA implemented a ‘one-health wonders’ column that recognised and highlighted prominent One Health individuals among the medical and veterinary medical professions in the United States. The American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA has lost a dedicated and gifted editor-in-chief.Dr Audin joined the editorial staff of the AVMA in 1985, as an assistant editor and was promoted to associate editor in 1989 and editor in 1994. She became the editor-in-chief of both the JAVMA and the American Journal of Veterinary Research in 1995. Prior to that, Dr Audin practised as an associate veterinarian in Calumet City, Illinois, for four years.During her tenure, Dr Audin was noted for implementing procedural and technological changes in the journal to reduce costs, improve timeliness of publications and promote readership interest and awareness. New features in the News section introduced under her leadership have made the journals more practical and public health-relevant. For instance, Dr Audin fostered the United States Department of Agriculture’s Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS ‘Inspection Insights’ - a public health-oriented food safety monthly column related to meat, poultry and egg products - from 1996 through 1998. She also increased international manuscript submissions.On 23 March 2009 AVMA Executive Vice President Dr W. Ron DeHaven named Dr Audin as editor-in-chief emeritus of the Publications Division. Wisely, it also meant that Dr Audin could continue contributing to the staff effort to ensure the high quality of the AVMA scientific journals

  19. Medication management in North Carolina elementary schools: Are pharmacists involved?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegall-Zanation, Jennifer; Scolaro, Kelly L

    2010-01-01

    To determine the extent of pharmacist use in medication management, roles of school nurses, and use of other health care providers at elementary schools in North Carolina. Prospective survey of 153 (130 public and 23 private) elementary schools in four counties of North Carolina. A 21-question survey was e-mailed to the head administrator of each school (e.g., principal, headmaster) containing a Qualtrics survey link. Questions were designed to elicit information on school policies and procedures for medication management and use of health care providers, including pharmacists, in the schools. Responses were collected during a 2-month period. Representatives from 29 schools participated in the survey (19% response rate). All 29 schools reported having a school policy regarding medication administration during school hours. Of those, 27 schools reported consulting with nurses on their policies. Only 1 of 27 respondents reported consulting with pharmacists on medication management policies. The majority of the respondents (93.1%) stated that administrative staff was responsible for medication administration at the schools. Use of pharmacists in creating and reviewing policies for schools and actual medication management at schools was extremely low. The findings in this study reinforce the findings in previous studies that pharmacists are not being used and are not a major presence in elementary school health.

  20. Are new medical students' specialty preferences gendered? Related motivational factors at a Dutch medical school.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tongeren-Alers, M.L.G. van; Esch, M. van der; Verdonk, P.; Johansson, E.; Hamberg, K.; Lagro-Janssen, T.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Female students currently outnumber male students in most medical schools. Some medical specialties are highly gender segregated. Therefore, it is interesting to know whether medical students have early specialization preferences based on their gender. Consequently, we like to know

  1. Improving evaluation at two medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiekirka-Schwake, Sarah; Dreiling, Katharina; Pyka, Katharina; Anders, Sven; von Steinbüchel, Nicole; Raupach, Tobias

    2017-08-03

    Student evaluations of teaching can provide useful feedback for teachers and programme coordinators alike. We have designed a novel evaluation tool assessing teacher performance and student learning outcome. This tool was implemented at two German medical schools. In this article, we report student and teacher perceptions of the novel tool, and the implementation process. Focus group discussions as well as one-to-one interviews involving 22 teachers and 31 undergraduate medical students were conducted. Following adjustments to the feedback reports (e.g. the colour coding of results) at one medical school, 42 teachers were asked about their perceptions of the revised report and the personal benefit of the evaluation tool. Teachers appreciated the individual feedback provided by the evaluation tool and stated that they wanted to improve their teaching, based on the results; however, they missed most of the preparative communication. Students were unsure about the additional benefit of the instrument compared with traditional evaluation tools. A majority was unwilling to complete evaluation forms in their spare time, and some felt that the new questionnaire was too long and that the evaluations occurred too often. They were particularly interested in feedback on how their comments have helped to further improve teaching. Student evaluations of teaching can provide useful feedback CONCLUSION: Despite evidence of the utility of the tool for individual teachers, implementation of changes to the process of evaluation appears to have been suboptimal, mainly owing to a perceived lack of communication. In order to motivate students to provide evaluation data, feedback loops including aims and consequences should be established. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  2. Broadening health policy education in medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur A

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ahmed Nur, Aqib Chaudry, Amar SodhaFaculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UKWe read with great interest the article by Malik et al1 exploring medical studentparticipation in health policy roles. As medical students who recently completed anintercalated degree in healthcare management at Imperial College London, we spent alarge proportion of our time learning about health policy. Thus, we can offer a uniqueperspective on this issue.    We firstly commend the authors for identifying factors that act as barriers to medical student involvement in health policy roles. Noteworthy barriers impacting student involvement included: a lack of knowledge regarding health policy, an unawareness of opportunities available, and a lack of time. It was found that 43% identified lack of time as a barrier to their involvement in health policy.1 Bicket et al similarly found that time commitments and opportunity costs were the main drawbacks for students not pursuing their interests in leadership roles in medical school.2View the original paper by Malik and colleagues.

  3. Qualities of the medical school dean: insights from the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Eugene C; Magrane, Diane; Kirch, Darrell G

    2008-05-01

    To review the literature and resources for professional development of medical school executives in order to identify the characteristics proposed as relevant to medical school deanship. In 2006, the authors conducted a PubMed search using the key words leadership, dean, medical school, and academic medical center to identify relevant publications since 1995. Articles were excluded that that did not address the roles and responsibilities of the North American medical school dean. Articles gleaned through review of materials from relevant executive development programs and interviews with leaders involved in these programs were added. Both management skills (e.g., institutional assessment, strategic planning, financial stewardship, recruitment and retention of talent) and leadership skills (e.g., visioning, maximizing values, building constituency) are commonly cited as important deans of contemporary medical schools. Key content knowledge (e.g., academic medical center governance, expectations of clinicians and scientists, process of medical education) and certain attitudes (e.g., commitment to the success of others, appreciation of institutional culture) are also noted to be valuable qualities for medical school deans. The literature review identifies a number of areas of knowledge and skill consistently affirmed by scholars as important to success for medical school deans. These characteristics can provide a basic foundation for needs assessment and professional development activities of academic medical executives preparing for and entering medical school deanships, and they can also provide insight to those charged with selecting their next dean.

  4. Improving Dairy Organizational Communication from the Veterinarian's Perspective: Results of a Continuing Veterinary Medical Education Pilot Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dale A; Sischo, William M; Kurtz, Suzanne; Siler, Julie D; Pereira, Richard V; Warnick, Lorin D; Davis, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    The increasing size and complexity of US dairy farms could make it more difficult for a veterinary practitioner to effectively communicate protocol recommendations for prevention or treatment on the farm. A continuing education workshop was set up based on the results of research on dairy organizational communication on dairy farms, which resulted in a tool to assess dairy communication structure and flow. The workshop specifically focused on communication structure and whom to talk to when implementing health care changes in calf rearing. In addition, modern methods of veterinary-client communication knowledge and skills were provided. Primary outcomes of the workshops were to obtain feedback from participants about research findings and the communication model, to improve awareness about the complexity of communication structures on dairy farms, and to change participants' knowledge and skills associated with on-farm communication by providing communication theory and skills and an approach to evaluate and improve dairy organizational communication. Of the 37 participants completing the pre-program assessment, most recognized a need for themselves or their practice to improve communication with clients and farm employees. After the program, most participants were confident in their new communication skills and would consider using them. They highlighted specific new ideas they could apply in practice, such as conducting a "communication audit." The results from the assessment of this communication workshop, focused on dairy veterinarians, highlighted the need for communication training in this sector of the profession and practitioners' desire to engage in this type of training.

  5. Patient Handoff Education: Are Medical Schools Catching Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robyn; Davis, Joshua; Berg, Katherine; Berg, Dale; Morgan, Charity J; Russo, Stefani; Riesenberg, Lee Ann

    Communication errors during shift-to-shift handoffs are a leading cause of preventable adverse events. Nevertheless, handoff skills are variably taught at medical schools. The authors administered questionnaires on handoffs to interns during orientation. Questions focused on medical school handoff education, experiences, and perceptions. The majority (546/718) reported having some form of education on handoffs during medical school, with 48% indicating this was 1 hour or less. Most respondents (98%) reported that they believe patients experience adverse events because of inadequate handoffs, and more than one third had witnessed a patient safety issue. Results show that medical school graduates are not receiving adequate handoff training. Yet graduates are expected to conduct safe patient handoffs at the start of residency. Given that ineffective handoffs pose a significant patient safety risk, medical school graduates should have a baseline competency in handoff skills. This will require medical schools to develop, implement, and study handoff education.

  6. Quality improvement teaching at medical school: a student perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Pooja; Barai, Ishani; Prasad, Sunila; Gadhvi, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    Pooja Nair, Ishani Barai, Sunila Prasad, Karishma Gadhvi Department of Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Guidelines in the UK require all doctors to actively take part in quality improvement. To ease future doctors into the process, formal quality improvement teaching can be delivered during medical school. Keywords: quality improvement, medical school, patient safety, patient satisfaction, medical student, clinical audit

  7. Quality improvement teaching at medical school: a student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Nair, Ishani Barai, Sunila Prasad, Karishma Gadhvi Department of Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Guidelines in the UK require all doctors to actively take part in quality improvement. To ease future doctors into the process, formal quality improvement teaching can be delivered during medical school. Keywords: quality improvement, medical school, patient safety, patient satisfaction, medical student, clinical audit

  8. Needlestick injuries in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J Scott; Jack, Douglas C

    2008-08-01

    Needlestick injuries are an inherent risk of handling needles during the course of veterinary practice. While significant effort has been expended to reduce needlestick injuries in human medicine, a relatively lax approach seems to be prevalent in veterinary medicine. It appears that needlestick injuries are very common among veterinary personnel and that serious adverse effects, while uncommon, do occur. Clients may also receive injuries in clinics during the course of animal restraint, and at home following prescription of injectable medications or fluids. Because of occupational health, personal health, and liability concerns, veterinary practices should review the measures they are taking to reduce the likelihood of needlestick injuries and develop written needlestick injury avoidance protocols.

  9. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    ¹Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ABU Zaria, Nigeria, ²Department of. Veterinary Physiology ... dogs, AGRs have a highly sensitive sense of smell. The rats ..... Gonadal Axis and thyroid Activity in. Male rats.

  10. Veterinary and human medicine: learning from each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Laura

    2016-03-26

    A well-attended session at this year's joint SPVS/VPMA congress considered what lessons the medical and veterinary professions might learn from one another. Laura Honey reports. British Veterinary Association.

  11. The Australian Medical Schools Assessment Collaboration: benchmarking the preclinical performance of medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mara, Deborah A; Canny, Ben J; Rothnie, Imogene P; Wilson, Ian G; Barnard, John; Davies, Llewelyn

    2015-02-02

    To report the level of participation of medical schools in the Australian Medical Schools Assessment Collaboration (AMSAC); and to measure differences in student performance related to medical school characteristics and implementation methods. Retrospective analysis of data using the Rasch statistical model to correct for missing data and variability in item difficulty. Linear model analysis of variance was used to assess differences in student performance. 6401 preclinical students from 13 medical schools that participated in AMSAC from 2011 to 2013. Rasch estimates of preclinical basic and clinical science knowledge. Representation of Australian medical schools and students in AMSAC more than doubled between 2009 and 2013. In 2013 it included 12 of 19 medical schools and 68% of medical students. Graduate-entry students scored higher than students entering straight from school. Students at large schools scored higher than students at small schools. Although the significance level was high (P performance. The effect on performance of multiple assessments compared with the test items as part of a single end-of-year examination was negligible. The variables investigated explain only 12% of the total variation in student performance. An increasing number of medical schools are participating in AMSAC to monitor student performance in preclinical sciences against an external benchmark. Medical school characteristics account for only a small part of overall variation in student performance. Student performance was not affected by the different methods of administering test items.

  12. South African medical schools: Current state of selection criteria and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection of medical students at South African (SA) medical schools must promote ... groups, while ensuring optimal student throughput and success, and training future ... In keeping = with international practices, a variety of academic and ...

  13. VetCompass Australia: A National Big Data Collection System for Veterinary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGreevy, Paul; Thomson, Peter; Dhand, Navneet K.; Raubenheimer, David; Masters, Sophie; Mansfield, Caroline S.; Baldwin, Timothy; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J.; Rand, Jacquie; Hill, Peter; Gilkerson, James; Combs, Martin; Raidal, Shane; Irwin, Peter; Irons, Peter; Squires, Richard; Brodbelt, David; Hammond, Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary The VetCompass Australia program collects real-time clinical records from veterinary practices and aggregates them for researchers to interrogate. It delivers Australian researchers sustainable and cost-effective access to authoritative data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners, across Australia and opens up major international collaborative opportunities with related projects in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. Abstract VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses). Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1) roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2) development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation) platform; and (3) creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP) technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will

  14. Survey of animal welfare, animal behavior, and animal ethics courses in the curricula of AVMA Council on Education-accredited veterinary colleges and schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivley, Chelsey B; Garry, Franklyn B; Kogan, Lori R; Grandin, Temple

    2016-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To explore the extent to which veterinary colleges and schools accredited by the AVMA Council on Education (COE) have incorporated specific courses related to animal welfare, behavior, and ethics. DESIGN Survey and curriculum review. SAMPLE All 49 AVMA COE-accredited veterinary colleges and schools (institutions). PROCEDURES The study consisted of 2 parts. In part 1, a survey regarding animal welfare, behavior, and ethics was emailed to the associate dean of academic affairs at all 49 AVMA COE-accredited institutions. In part 2, the curricula for the 30 AVMA COE-accredited institutions in the United States were reviewed for courses on animal behavior, ethics, and welfare. RESULTS Seventeen of 49 (35%) institutions responded to the survey of part 1, of which 10 offered a formal animal welfare course, 9 offered a formal animal behavior course, 8 offered a formal animal ethics course, and 5 offered a combined animal welfare, behavior, and ethics course. The frequency with which courses on animal welfare, behavior, and ethics were offered differed between international and US institutions. Review of the curricula for the 30 AVMA COE-accredited US institutions revealed that 6 offered a formal course on animal welfare, 22 offered a formal course on animal behavior, and 18 offered a formal course on animal ethics. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that AVMA COE-accredited institutions need to provide more formal education on animal welfare, behavior, and ethics so veterinarians can be advocates for animals and assist with behavioral challenges.

  15. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, ...

  16. Status of neurology medical school education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Imran I.; Isaacson, Richard S.; Safdieh, Joseph E.; Finney, Glen R.; Sowell, Michael K.; Sam, Maria C.; Anderson, Heather S.; Shin, Robert K.; Kraakevik, Jeff A.; Coleman, Mary; Drogan, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To survey all US medical school clerkship directors (CDs) in neurology and to compare results from a similar survey in 2005. Methods: A survey was developed by a work group of the American Academy of Neurology Undergraduate Education Subcommittee, and sent to all neurology CDs listed in the American Academy of Neurology database. Comparisons were made to a similar 2005 survey. Results: Survey response rate was 73%. Neurology was required in 93% of responding schools. Duration of clerkships was 4 weeks in 74% and 3 weeks in 11%. Clerkships were taken in the third year in 56%, third or fourth year in 19%, and fourth year in 12%. Clerkship duration in 2012 was slightly shorter than in 2005 (fewer clerkships of ≥4 weeks, p = 0.125), but more clerkships have moved into the third year (fewer neurology clerkships during the fourth year, p = 0.051). Simulation training in lumbar punctures was available at 44% of schools, but only 2% of students attempted lumbar punctures on patients. CDs averaged 20% protected time, but reported that they needed at least 32%. Secretarial full-time equivalent was 0.50 or less in 71% of clerkships. Eighty-five percent of CDs were “very satisfied” or “somewhat satisfied,” but more than half experienced “burnout” and 35% had considered relinquishing their role. Conclusion: Trends in neurology undergraduate education since 2005 include shorter clerkships, migration into the third year, and increasing use of technology. CDs are generally satisfied, but report stressors, including inadequate protected time and departmental support. PMID:25305155

  17. Current trends in medical ethics education in Japanese medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosu, Mitsuyasu

    2012-09-01

    The Japanese medical education program has radically improved during the last 10 years. In 1999, the Task Force Committee on Innovation of Medical Education for the 21st Century proposed a tutorial education system, a core curriculum, and a medical student evaluation system for clinical clerkship. In 2001, the Model Core Curriculum of medical education was instituted, in which medical ethics became part of the core material. Since 2005, a nationwide medical student evaluation system has been applied for entrance to clinical clerkship. Within the Japan Society for Medical Education, the Working Group of Medical Ethics proposed a medical ethics education curriculum in 2001. In line with this, the Japanese Association for Philosophical and Ethical Research in Medicine has begun to address the standardization of the curriculum of medical ethics. A medical philosophy curriculum should also be included in considering illness, health, life, death, the body, and human welfare.

  18. Medical School Libraries and the “New” Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzelac, Constance

    1970-01-01

    The growing recognition of the need for humanities taught in schools of medicine is affecting acquisitions policies of medical libraries. This paper presents results of a survey conducted in various medical school libraries to evaluate the availability of humanities literature in their collections. PMID:5496239

  19. Medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of conflict of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Nicholas S; Olson, Tyler S; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2017-07-11

    Attitudes towards conflict of interest (COI) and COI policy are shaped during medical school and influence both the education of medical students and their future medical practice. Understanding the current attitudes of medical students and medical school teaching faculty may provide insight into what is taught about COI and COI policy within the 'hidden' medical curriculum. Differences between medical student and medical school teaching faculty perceptions of COI and COI policy have not been compared in detail. The authors surveyed first year medical students and medical school teaching faculty at one academic medical center. The response rate was 98.7% (150/152) for students and 34.2% (69/202) for faculty. Students were less likely than faculty to agree that lecturers should disclose COI to any learners (4.06 vs. 4.31, p = 0.01), but more likely to agree that COI disclosure decreases the presentation of biased material (3.80 vs. 3.21, p < 0.001). Student and faculty responses for all other questions were not different. Many of these responses suggest student and faculty support for stronger COI policy at academic medical centers. Students and faculty perceptions regarding COI and COI policy are largely similar, but differ in terms of the perceived effectiveness of COI disclosure. This study also suggests that medical students and medical school teaching faculty support for stronger COI policy at academic medical centers.

  20. Medical Students’ and Interns’ Attitudes toward Medical Ethics Education in a Thai Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakda Sathirareuangchai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medical ethics has been accepted as part of every accredited medical curriculum for the past 40 years. Medical students’ attitudes have an important role for development and improvement of the curriculum. Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital is the oldest and largest medical school in Thailand, and has been teaching medical ethics since 1907. Objective: To determine attitudes among medical students and interns toward medical ethics education and understand the factors influencing their attitudes. Methods: Mixed quantitative and qualitative research was conducted with early 6th year medical students and interns. A questionnaire was adapted from previous studies and included some original items. Results: Of the 550 questionnaires distributed, 386 were returned (70.2% response rate. Males (n=180 made up 46.63 % of the sample. Interns (n=219, 56.74 % tended to have more positive attitudes toward ethics learning than did medical students (n = 167, 43.26 %. Male participants tended to agree more with negative statements about ethics learning than did females. There was no statistically significant effect of hometown (Bangkok versus elsewhere or grade point average on attitudes. The main problem cited with medical ethics education was lack of engaging methods. Conclusion: Because clinical experience has an effect on learners’ attitudes towards ethics education, medical ethics should be taught at the appropriate time and with proper techniques, such as drawing explicit ties between ethical principles and real-life situations. Attention to the more detailed aspects of these data should also facilitate improvements to curriculum content, thereby ensuring better educational outcomes.

  1. Medical Physics in the new undergraduate curriculum of Spanish medical schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guibelalde, E.; Calzado, A.; Chevalier, M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a systematic review of the contents of Medical Physics in the curricula of the new curriculum Grade in Spanish medical schools after the entry into force of that legislation.

  2. Psychology departments in medical schools: there's one in Canada, eh?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlwraith, Robert D

    2014-12-01

    Comments on the original article by Robiner et al. (see record 2014-07939-001) regarding psychologists in medical schools and academic medical center settings. Robiner et al. reported that their extensive review "revealed no independent departments of psychology in U.S. medical schools." The current authors note north of the border in Canada there is one department of psychology in a medical school. The Department of Clinical Health Psychology has been a department within the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Manitoba since 1995. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Unprofessional behavior in medical school is associated with subsequent disciplinary action by a state medical board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Maxine A; Hodgson, Carol S; Teherani, Arianne; Kohatsu, Neal D

    2004-03-01

    To determine if medical students who demonstrate unprofessional behavior in medical school are more likely to have subsequent state board disciplinary action. A case-control study was conducted of all University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine graduates disciplined by the Medical Board of California from 1990-2000 (68). Control graduates (196) were matched by medical school graduation year and specialty choice. Predictor variables were male gender, undergraduate grade point average, Medical College Admission Test scores, medical school grades, National Board of Medical Examiner Part 1 scores, and negative excerpts describing unprofessional behavior from course evaluation forms, dean's letter of recommendation for residencies, and administrative correspondence. Negative excerpts were scored for severity (Good/Trace versus Concern/Problem/Extreme). The outcome variable was state board disciplinary action. The alumni graduated between 1943 and 1989. Ninety-five percent of the disciplinary actions were for deficiencies in professionalism. The prevalence of Concern/Problem/Extreme excerpts in the cases was 38% and 19% in controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that disciplined physicians were more likely to have Concern/Problem/Extreme excerpts in their medical school file (odds ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.15-4.02; p =.02). The remaining variables were not associated with disciplinary action. Problematic behavior in medical school is associated with subsequent disciplinary action by a state medical board. Professionalism is an essential competency that must be demonstrated for a student to graduate from medical school.

  4. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234

  5. Bedside ultrasound education in Canadian medical schools: A national survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Steinmetz

    2016-04-01

    Results:  Approximately half of the 13 responding medical schools had integrated bedside ultrasound teaching into their undergraduate curriculum. The most common trends in undergraduate ultrasound teaching related to duration (1-5 hours/year in 50% of schools, format (practical and theoretical in 67% of schools, and logistics (1:4 instructor to student ratio in 67% of schools. The majority of responding vice-deans indicated that bedside ultrasound education should be integrated into the medical school curriculum (77%, and cited a lack of ultrasound machines and infrastructure as barriers to integration. Conclusions: This study documents the current characteristics of undergraduate ultrasound education in Canada.

  6. Terror Medicine As Part of the Medical School Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard A Cole

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Terror medicine, a field related to emergency and disaster medicine, focuses on medical issues ranging from preparedness to psychological manifestations specifically associated with terrorist attacks. Calls to teach aspects of the subject in American medical schools surged after the 2001 jetliner and anthrax attacks. Although the threat of terrorism persists, terror medicine is still addressed erratically if at all in most medical schools. This paper suggests a template for incorporating the subject throughout a 4-year medical curriculum. The instructional framework culminates in a short course for fourth year students, such as one recently introduced at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ. The proposed 4-year Rutgers curriculum serves as a model that could assist other medical schools contemplating the inclusion of terror medicine in pre-clerkship and clerkship training.

  7. Medical Student Attitudes about Mental Illness: Does Medical-School Education Reduce Stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Objectives: Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with…

  8. Cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeiro, Brian S

    2013-01-01

    Cyclosporine is an immunomodulatory medication that is efficacious and approved for atopic dermatitis in dogs and allergic dermatitis in cats; it has also been used to successfully manage a variety of immune-mediated dermatoses in dogs and cats. This article reviews the use of cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology including its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, side effects, and relevant clinical updates. Dermatologic indications including atopic/allergic dermatitis, perianal fistulas, sebaceous adenitis, and other immune-mediated skin diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: a nationwide survey at German medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, Stefan K; Timmermann, Arnd; Müller, Michael P; Angstwurm, Matthias; Walcher, Felix

    2009-05-12

    Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21); problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10), e-learning at 3% (n = 1), and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4). In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions) are favoured (89%, n = 31), partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11). Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15), objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10) or oral examinations (17%, n = 6). Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard level of education in emergency medical care.

  10. Undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care: A nationwide survey at German medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmermann Arnd

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since June 2002, revised regulations in Germany have required "Emergency Medical Care" as an interdisciplinary subject, and state that emergency treatment should be of increasing importance within the curriculum. A survey of the current status of undergraduate medical education in emergency medical care establishes the basis for further committee work. Methods Using a standardized questionnaire, all medical faculties in Germany were asked to answer questions concerning the structure of their curriculum, representation of disciplines, instructors' qualifications, teaching and assessment methods, as well as evaluation procedures. Results Data from 35 of the 38 medical schools in Germany were analysed. In 32 of 35 medical faculties, the local Department of Anaesthesiology is responsible for the teaching of emergency medical care; in two faculties, emergency medicine is taught mainly by the Department of Surgery and in another by Internal Medicine. Lectures, seminars and practical training units are scheduled in varying composition at 97% of the locations. Simulation technology is integrated at 60% (n = 21; problem-based learning at 29% (n = 10, e-learning at 3% (n = 1, and internship in ambulance service is mandatory at 11% (n = 4. In terms of assessment methods, multiple-choice exams (15 to 70 questions are favoured (89%, n = 31, partially supplemented by open questions (31%, n = 11. Some faculties also perform single practical tests (43%, n = 15, objective structured clinical examination (OSCE; 29%, n = 10 or oral examinations (17%, n = 6. Conclusion Emergency Medical Care in undergraduate medical education in Germany has a practical orientation, but is very inconsistently structured. The innovative options of simulation technology or state-of-the-art assessment methods are not consistently utilized. Therefore, an exchange of experiences and concepts between faculties and disciplines should be promoted to guarantee a standard

  11. Educational technology infrastructure and services in North American medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamin, Carol; Souza, Kevin H; Heestand, Diane; Moses, Anna; O'Sullivan, Patricia

    2006-07-01

    To describe the current educational technology infrastructure and services provided by North American allopathic medical schools that are members of the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), to present information needed for institutional benchmarking. A Web-based survey instrument was developed and administered in the fall of 2004 by the authors, sent to representatives of 137 medical schools and completed by representatives of 88, a response rate of 64%. Schools were given scores for infrastructure and services provided. Data were analyzed with one-way analyses of variance, chi-square, and correlation coefficients. There was no difference in the number of infrastructure features or services offered based on region of the country, public versus private schools, or size of graduating class. Schools implemented 3.0 (SD = 1.5) of 6 infrastructure items and offered 11.6 (SD = 4.1) of 22 services. Over 90% of schools had wireless access (97%), used online course materials for undergraduate medical education (97%), course management system for graduate medical education (95%) and online teaching evaluations (90%). Use of services differed across the undergraduate, graduate, and continuing medical education continuum. Outside of e-portfolios for undergraduates, the least-offered services were for services to graduate and continuing medical education. The results of this survey provide a benchmark for the level of services and infrastructure currently supporting educational technology by AAMC-member allopathic medical schools.

  12. Physics teaching in the medical schools of Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jiann-wien; Hsu, Roy

    2012-02-01

    We describe and analyze the statistics of general physics and laboratory courses in the medical schools of Taiwan. We explore the development of the general physics curriculum for medical students of Taiwan. Also, an approach to designing a general physics course in combination with its application to medical sciences is proposed. We hope this preliminary study can provide a useful reference for physics colleagues in the medical schools of Taiwan to revolutionize the dynamics of teaching physics to the medical students of Taiwan. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Antimicrobial consumption on Austrian dairy farms: an observational study of udder disease treatments based on veterinary medication records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Clair L; Käsbohrer, Annemarie; Schleicher, Corina; Fuchs, Klemens; Egger-Danner, Christa; Mayerhofer, Martin; Schobesberger, Hermann; Köfer, Josef; Obritzhauser, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in livestock production is an important contemporary issue, which is of public interest worldwide. Antimicrobials are not freely available to Austrian farmers and can only be administered to livestock by veterinarians, or by farmers who are trained members of the Animal Health Service. Since 2015, veterinarians have been required by law to report antimicrobials dispensed to farmers for use in food-producing animals. The study presented here went further than the statutory framework, and collected data on antimicrobials dispensed to farmers and those administered by veterinarians. Seventeen veterinary practices were enrolled in the study via convenience sampling. These veterinarians were asked to contact interested dairy farmers regarding participation in the study (respondent-driven sampling). Data were collected from veterinary practice software between 1st October 2015 and 30th September 2016. Electronic data (89.4%) were transferred via an online interface and paper records (10.6%) were entered by the authors. Antimicrobial treatments with respect to udder disease were analysed by number of defined daily doses per cow and year (nDDD vet /cow/year), based on the European Medicines Agency technical unit, Defined Daily Dose for animals (DDD vet ). Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyse the results. Antimicrobial use data from a total of 248 dairy farms were collected during the study, 232 of these farms treated cows with antibiotics; dry cow therapy was excluded from the current analysis. The mean number of DDD vet /cow/year for the antimicrobial treatment of all udder disease was 1.33 DDD vet /cow/year. Of these treatments, 0.73 DDD vet /cow/year were classed as highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIAs), according to the World Health Organization (WHO) definition. The Wilcoxon rank sum test determined a statistically significant difference between the median number of DDD vet /cow/year for

  14. Antimicrobial consumption on Austrian dairy farms: an observational study of udder disease treatments based on veterinary medication records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clair L. Firth

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Antimicrobial use in livestock production is an important contemporary issue, which is of public interest worldwide. Antimicrobials are not freely available to Austrian farmers and can only be administered to livestock by veterinarians, or by farmers who are trained members of the Animal Health Service. Since 2015, veterinarians have been required by law to report antimicrobials dispensed to farmers for use in food-producing animals. The study presented here went further than the statutory framework, and collected data on antimicrobials dispensed to farmers and those administered by veterinarians. Methods Seventeen veterinary practices were enrolled in the study via convenience sampling. These veterinarians were asked to contact interested dairy farmers regarding participation in the study (respondent-driven sampling. Data were collected from veterinary practice software between 1st October 2015 and 30th September 2016. Electronic data (89.4% were transferred via an online interface and paper records (10.6% were entered by the authors. Antimicrobial treatments with respect to udder disease were analysed by number of defined daily doses per cow and year (nDDDvet/cow/year, based on the European Medicines Agency technical unit, Defined Daily Dose for animals (DDDvet. Descriptive statistics and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to analyse the results. Results Antimicrobial use data from a total of 248 dairy farms were collected during the study, 232 of these farms treated cows with antibiotics; dry cow therapy was excluded from the current analysis. The mean number of DDDvet/cow/year for the antimicrobial treatment of all udder disease was 1.33 DDDvet/cow/year. Of these treatments, 0.73 DDDvet/cow/year were classed as highest priority critically important antimicrobials (HPCIAs, according to the World Health Organization (WHO definition. The Wilcoxon rank sum test determined a statistically significant difference between the median

  15. Motivation, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P. N.

    Medical Education 2012: 46:678688 Context Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation

  16. Review of hazards to female reproductive health in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A

    2017-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting

  17. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-08

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  18. Applicability of the Calgary-Cambridge Guide to Dog and Cat Owners for Teaching Veterinary Clinical Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned.

  19. Veterinary Technician Program Director Leadership Style and Program Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda-Francis, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Program directors of American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) accredited veterinary technician programs may have little or no training in leadership. The need for program directors of AVMA-accredited veterinary technician programs to understand how leadership traits may have an impact on student success is often overlooked. The purpose of…

  20. Undergraduates\\' view of the veterinary profession: A study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the veterinary profession: A study of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria. ... the university, however only 33.7% believed that they obtain veterinary services ... of the opinion that both veterinary and medical students study similar courses. ... that veterinarians, pharmacists and physicians can work together in the Food ...

  1. Administrative relationships between medical schools and community preceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walling, A D; Sutton, L D; Gold, J

    2001-02-01

    To determine the current administrative relationships between medical schools and community preceptors, with special emphasis on arrangements for academic appointment, review, and promotion. In 1999, administrative contacts at all 126 U.S. allopathic medical schools were mailed a ten-item questionnaire to elicit information concerning the current practices of the schools regarding community preceptors, who were defined as volunteer or part-time physician faculty, primarily practicing at non-university-owned facilities, who contribute to medical students' and/or residents' education in various specified ways. Responses were received from 71 (56%) of the schools; they were in general a representative sample of U.S. medical schools. The numbers of preceptors per school ranged from 40 to 3,500. Sixty-seven percent of reporting schools identified clinical departments as the main administrative interface with preceptors. Only three schools used a central office; none exclusively used a regionalized system. Forty-four schools (63.8%) reported using formal written criteria for all preceptor appointments. Sixty-six schools (93%) used consistent academic titling systems, with 83.3% using titles including the word "clinical." Thirty-three schools (47.8%) reported that their departments conducted regular preceptor reviews; an additional 28 reported reviews by some departments. Preceptors were eligible for promotion at 94.4% of the responding schools. At 46.8%, specific promotion criteria exist; four schools were developing such criteria. Preceptors' interest in academic promotion was perceived to be moderate or low. A substantial proportion of U.S. medical schools have taken action to recognize preceptors as a unique faculty group. The comments received indicate that this is an active area of development in faculty affairs policy.

  2. [A survey of medical information education in radiological technology schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Shuhei; Hosoba, Minoru; Okuda, Yasuo; Konishi, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Ryuji

    2010-08-20

    The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: (1) educational environment in medical information education, (2) content of a lecture in medical information, (3) problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: (a) motivation of the students is low, (b) the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, (c) there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists.

  3. A survey of medical information education in radiological technology schools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohba, Hisateru; Ogasawara, Katsuhiko; Hoshino, Shuhei; Hosoba, Minoru; Okuda, Yasuo; Konishi, Yasuhiko; Ikeda, Ryuji

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify actual conditions and problems in medical information education and to propose the educational concept to be adopted in medical information. A questionnaire survey was carried out by the anonymous method in June 2008. The survey was intended for 40 radiological technology schools. The questionnaire items were as follows: educational environment in medical information education, content of a lecture in medical information, problems in medical information education. The response rate was 55.0% (22 schools). Half of the responding schools had a laboratory on medical information. Seventeen schools had a medical information education facility, and out of them, approximately 50% had an educational medical information system. The main problems of the medical information education were as follows: motivation of the students is low, the educational coverage and level for medical information are uncertain, there are not an appropriate textbook and educational guidance. In conclusion, these findings suggest that it is necessary to have a vision of medical information education in the education of radiological technologists. (author)

  4. A survey of Sub-Saharan African medical schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS) is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate). An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64) increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68). The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of graduates, and improving

  5. A survey of Sub-Saharan African medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Candice; Buch, Eric; Wassermann, Travis; Frehywot, Seble; Mullan, Fitzhugh; Omaswa, Francis; Greysen, S Ryan; Kolars, Joseph C; Dovlo, Delanyo; El Gali Abu Bakr, Diaa Eldin; Haileamlak, Abraham; Koumare, Abdel Karim; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2012-02-24

    Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS) is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate). An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64) increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68). The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of graduates, and improving quality, related to

  6. A survey of Sub-Saharan African medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Candice

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan Africa suffers a disproportionate share of the world's burden of disease while having some of the world's greatest health care workforce shortages. Doctors are an important component of any high functioning health care system. However, efforts to strengthen the doctor workforce in the region have been limited by a small number of medical schools with limited enrolments, international migration of graduates, poor geographic distribution of doctors, and insufficient data on medical schools. The goal of the Sub-Saharan African Medical Schools Study (SAMSS is to increase the level of understanding and expand the baseline data on medical schools in the region. Methods The SAMSS survey is a descriptive survey study of Sub-Saharan African medical schools. The survey instrument included quantitative and qualitative questions focused on institutional characteristics, student profiles, curricula, post-graduate medical education, teaching staff, resources, barriers to capacity expansion, educational innovations, and external relationships with government and non-governmental organizations. Surveys were sent via e-mail to medical school deans or officials designated by the dean. Analysis is both descriptive and multivariable. Results Surveys were distributed to 146 medical schools in 40 of 48 Sub-Saharan African countries. One hundred and five responses were received (72% response rate. An additional 23 schools were identified after the close of the survey period. Fifty-eight respondents have been founded since 1990, including 22 private schools. Enrolments for medical schools range from 2 to 1800 and graduates range from 4 to 384. Seventy-three percent of respondents (n = 64 increased first year enrolments in the past five years. On average, 26% of respondents' graduates were reported to migrate out of the country within five years of graduation (n = 68. The most significant reported barriers to increasing the number of

  7. Modernizing dermatology interest groups in medical school: Certificate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jordan V; Korta, Dorota Z; Keller, Matthew

    2017-11-15

    This commentary addresses the increasingly competitive nature of applying to dermatology residency programs and how both interest groups in medical schools and their dermatology departments can help to better prepare applicants. As previous literature argued that dermatology has been underemphasized in medical school curricula, we propose five fundamental options that interest groups can implement in order to offer increased exposure to our field in medical training. Furthermore, with therecent trend of many schools conferring certificates in various specialized concentrations, we also discuss interest groups pioneering certificate-grantingprograms in dermatology competency. The pros and cons of having a recognized certificate program in dermatology are presented.

  8. [Realities and professional expectations of medical students attending Guinea Bissau's medical school in 2007 school year].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fronteira, Inês; Rodrigues, Amabélia; Pereira, Camilo; Silva, Augusto P; Mercer, Hugo; Dussault, Guilles; Ferrinho, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    In Guinea Bissau, the majority of university level professionals are still being trained abroad and most of them do not return to their country. This was a major incentive for creating Guinea Bissau's Medical School. An observational, cross-sectional, analytic study was conducted on the second trimester of 2007 to characterize the socio-demographic, familial and educational profile of medical students, their satisfaction levels, difficulties and expectations concerning the medicine course. A questionnaire was used and a response rate of 63% achieved (81 students). Data was analyzed using SPSS v.17 for descriptive statistics. Students are very committed to their education. They tend to decide to take the medicine course early in their lives and are influenced by their relatives. They choose to be medical doctors because they like it but also for altruistic reasons and the desire to save lives. Although many face financial and material difficulties, they tend to have success in their academic live. They live with their parents, do not have children and some have side jobs to provide for extra income to help with their education. They expect their education to make them good doctors in any part of the world and want to work simultaneously in the public (to serve their country and pay their debt to the State) and in the private sector (to enhance their income). The large majority wants to work in a hospital, in Bissau, and to be a pediatrician or obstetrician. They have unreasonably high expectations concerning their future income as medical doctors.

  9. The Evidence Base for Developing a Veterinary Business Management Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Jackson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This paper sets out to highlight the ongoing need for integrated teaching of business skills in the veterinary curriculum.Background: In response to the changing environment of the veterinary profession, it is important to understand the future needs of veterinary practitioners. While changes to the veterinary curriculum have been made in recent years, they have been highly varied across schools and little evidence is available on how these have improved students’ non-technical skills, knowledge, aptitudes, and attitudes. Evidentiary value: This literature review of 23 papers provides a solid basis for the further development of knowledge on business management issues in veterinary curricula. The impact on practice from our findings is substantial. The role of clinicians in academia is recognised as a primary source of engaging students with business management through their day-to-day teaching. Furthermore, the role of first-opinion vets who take on placement students (known as extra mural studies or ‘EMS’ in the UK cannot be underestimated as they play an essential role in ensuring that students perceive business skills with the same importance as clinical skills.Methods: This research draws on the findings of 23 papers that emerged as relevant from the structured literature search.  The search yielded 124 papers but many were excluded because they focused on issues beyond the search strategy, did not report empirical findings so were based largely on discussion and conjecture, were not about the undergraduate veterinary curriculum, were not written in English or were not related to business teaching.Results:  Employers of recent graduates highly value business skills, and often base their hiring decision on non-technical skills, rather than clinical skills. While changes to the veterinary curriculum have been made to include more non-technical training by individual veterinary schools, it is unclear how effective these

  10. Survey of US Veterinary Students on Communicating with Limited English Proficient Spanish-Speaking Pet Owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, Ruth E; Beck, Alan; Glickman, Larry T; Litster, Annette; Widmar, Nicole J Olynk; Moore, George E

    2015-01-01

    Veterinary schools and colleges generally include communication skills training in their professional curriculum, but few programs address challenges resulting from language gaps between pet owners and practitioners. Due to shifting US demographics, small animal veterinary practices must accommodate an increasing number of limited English proficient (LEP) Spanish-speaking pet owners (SSPOs). A national survey was conducted to assess the interest and preparedness of US veterinary students to communicate with LEP SSPOs when they graduate. This online survey, with more than 2,000 first-, second-, and third-year US veterinary students, revealed that over 50% of students had worked at a practice or shelter that had LEP Spanish-speaking clients. Yet fewer than 20% of these students described themselves as prepared to give medical information to an LEP SSPO. Over three-fourths of respondents agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for veterinarians in general, and two-thirds agreed that communication with LEP SSPOs was important for themselves personally. Ninety percent of students who described themselves as conversant in Spanish agreed that they would be able to communicate socially with SSPOs, while only 55% said they would be able to communicate medically with such clients. Overall, two-thirds of students expressed interest in taking Spanish for Veterinary Professionals elective course while in school, with the strongest interest expressed by those with advanced proficiency in spoken Spanish. Bridging language gaps has the potential to improve communication with LEP SSPOs in the veterinary clinical setting and to improve patient care, client satisfaction, and the economic health of the veterinary profession.

  11. Addressing Student Burnout: What Medical Schools Can Learn From Business Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathipati, Akhilesh S; Cassel, Christine K

    2018-03-13

    Although they enter school with enthusiasm for a career in medicine, medical students in the United States subsequently report high levels of burnout and disillusionment. As medical school leaders consider how to address this problem, they can look to business schools as one source of inspiration. In this Commentary, the authors argue-based on their collective experience in both medical and business education-that medical schools can draw three lessons from business schools that can help reinvigorate students. First, medical schools should offer more opportunities and dedicated time for creative work. Engaging with diverse challenges promotes intellectual curiosity and can help students maintain perspective. Second, schools should provide more explicit training in resiliency and the management of stressful situations. Many business programs include formal training in how to cope with conflict and how to make high-stakes decisions whereas medical students are typically expected to learn those skills on the job. Finally, medical schools should provide better guidance on practical career considerations like income, lifestyle, and financial skills. Whether in medicine or business, students benefit from open discussions about their personal and professional goals. Medical schools must ensure students have an outlet for those conversations.

  12. Sexual Harassment in Public Medical Schools in Ghana | Norman ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sexual Harassment in Public Medical Schools in Ghana. ... of power harasses a subordinate) and contra power sexual harassment, (where a subordinate is the ... Results: Women were 61% more likely to be sexually harassed than men 39%.

  13. Simulation in Medical School Education: Review for Emergency Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Lotfipour

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Medical education is rapidly evolving. With the paradigm shift to small-group didactic sessions and focus on clinically oriented case-based scenarios, simulation training has provided educators a novel way to deliver medical education in the 21st century. The field continues to expand in scope and practice and is being incorporated into medical school clerkship education, and specifically in emergency medicine (EM. The use of medical simulation in graduate medical education is well documented. Our aim in this article is to perform a retrospective review of the current literature, studying simulation use in EM medical student clerkships. Studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of simulation in teaching basic science, clinical knowledge, procedural skills, teamwork, and communication skills. As simulation becomes increasingly prevalent in medical school curricula, more studies are needed to assess whether simulation training improves patient-related outcomes.

  14. Leadership and management in UK medical school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Richard; Sheriff, Ibrahim H N; Matthews, Jacob H; Jagger, Olivia; Curtis, Sarah; Lees, Peter; Spurgeon, Peter C; Fountain, Daniel Mark; Oldman, Alex; Habib, Ali; Saied, Azam; Court, Jessica; Giannoudi, Marilena; Sayma, Meelad; Ward, Nicholas; Cork, Nick; Olatokun, Olamide; Devine, Oliver; O'Connell, Paul; Carr, Phoebe; Kotronias, Rafail Angelos; Gardiner, Rebecca; Buckle, Rory T; Thomson, Ross J; Williams, Sarah; Nicholson, Simon J; Goga, Usman

    2016-10-10

    Purpose Although medical leadership and management (MLM) is increasingly being recognised as important to improving healthcare outcomes, little is understood about current training of medical students in MLM skills and behaviours in the UK. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach This qualitative study used validated structured interviews with expert faculty members from medical schools across the UK to ascertain MLM framework integration, teaching methods employed, evaluation methods and barriers to improvement. Findings Data were collected from 25 of the 33 UK medical schools (76 per cent response rate), with 23/25 reporting that MLM content is included in their curriculum. More medical schools assessed MLM competencies on admission than at any other time of the curriculum. Only 12 schools had evaluated MLM teaching at the time of data collection. The majority of medical schools reported barriers, including overfilled curricula and reluctance of staff to teach. Whilst 88 per cent of schools planned to increase MLM content over the next two years, there was a lack of consensus on proposed teaching content and methods. Research limitations/implications There is widespread inclusion of MLM in UK medical schools' curricula, despite the existence of barriers. This study identified substantial heterogeneity in MLM teaching and assessment methods which does not meet students' desired modes of delivery. Examples of national undergraduate MLM teaching exist worldwide, and lessons can be taken from these. Originality/value This is the first national evaluation of MLM in undergraduate medical school curricula in the UK, highlighting continuing challenges with executing MLM content despite numerous frameworks and international examples of successful execution.

  15. Complementary and alternative medicine in the undergraduate medical curriculum: a survey of Korean medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Yeun; Park, Wan Beom; Kang, Hee Cheol; Kim, Mi Jung; Park, Kyu-Hyun; Min, Byung-Il; Suh, Duk-Joon; Lee, Hye Won; Jung, Seung Pil; Chun, Mison; Lee, Soon Nam

    2012-09-01

    The current status of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) education in Korean medical schools is still largely unknown, despite a growing need for a CAM component in medical education. The prevalence, scope, and diversity of CAM courses in Korean medical school education were evaluated. Participants included academic or curriculum deans and faculty at each of the 41 Korean medical schools. A mail survey was conducted from 2007 to 2010. Replies were received from all 41 schools. CAM was officially taught at 35 schools (85.4%), and 32 schools (91.4%) provided academic credit for CAM courses. The most common courses were introduction to CAM or integrative medicine (88.6%), traditional Korean medicine (57.1%), homeopathy and naturopathy (31.4%), and acupuncture (28.6%). Educational formats included lectures by professors and lectures and/or demonstrations by practitioners. The value order of core competencies was attitude (40/41), knowledge (32/41), and skill (6/41). Reasons for not initiating a CAM curriculum were a non-evidence-based approach in assessing the efficacy of CAM, insufficiently reliable reference resources, and insufficient time to educate students in CAM. This survey reveals heterogeneity in the content, format, and requirements among CAM courses at Korean medical schools. Korean medical school students should be instructed in CAM with a more consistent educational approach to help patients who participate in or demand CAM.

  16. History of Medicine in US Medical School Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramiciu, Justin; Arcella, David; Desai, Manisha S

    2015-10-01

    To determine the extent to which the history of medicine (HOM) and its related topics are included within the curriculum of accredited medical schools in the United States. Survey instrument. US allopathic medical schools. An online survey was sent to officials from every medical school in the US. Respondents were asked to provide institutional identifiers, the presence of an HOM elective offered to medical students, the years during which the elective is offered, the existence of an HOM department, and the contact information for that particular department. Nonresponders were contacted by phone to elicit the same information. History of medicine electives included didactic sessions and seminars with varying degrees of credit offered in different years of medical school. Based on responses from 119 of 121 contacted medical schools (98%), 45 (37%) included formal lectures or weekly seminars in the medical school curriculum. Five (11%) curricula had or have required HOM, whereas 89% offered elective HOM instruction. Course duration and credit awarded varied. Eighteen (15%) medical schools included departments dedicated to HOM. Providing education in HOM was limited by faculty interest, clinical training hours, and low interest. Data collected by our study suggest that substantial barriers exist within the academic medical community towards a wider acceptance of the importance of HOM. Causes for such lack of interest include absence of questions on written or oral tests related to HOM, difficulty in publishing articles related to HOM in peer reviewed journals, near absence of research grants in HOM, difficulty in getting academic promotions or recognition for activities related to HOM, and a lack of support from academic chairpersons for activities related to HOM. Copyright © 2015 Anesthesia History Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A review of analytical procedures for the simultaneous determination of medically important veterinary antibiotics in environmental water: Sample preparation, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chansik; Ryu, Hong-Duck; Chung, Eu Gene; Kim, Yongseok; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2018-07-01

    Medically important (MI) antibiotics are defined by the United States Food and Drug Administration as drugs containing certain active antimicrobial ingredients that are used for the treatment of human diseases or enteric pathogens causing food-borne diseases. The presence of MI antibiotic residues in environmental water is a major concern for both aquatic ecosystems and public health, particularly because of their potential to contribute to the development of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. In this article, we present a review of global trends in the sales of veterinary MI antibiotics and the analytical methodologies used for the simultaneous determination of antibiotic residues in environmental water. According to recently published government reports, sales volumes have increased steadily, despite many countries having adopted strategies for reducing the consumption of antibiotics. Global attention needs to be directed urgently at establishing new management strategies for reducing the use of MI antimicrobial products in the livestock industry. The development of standardized analytical methods for the detection of multiple residues is required to monitor and understand the fate of antibiotics in the environment. Simultaneous analyses of antibiotics have mostly been conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment step. Currently, on-line SPE protocols are used for the rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotics in water samples. On-line detection protocols must be established for the monitoring and screening of unknown metabolites and transformation products of antibiotics in environmental water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin ... One of these mutations led to an amino acid exchange at position 544 ... organs such as comb, wattle, brain, heart, .... congestion in various tissues and edema of.

  19. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    and Aji, T. G.. 1. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. ... limited nervous, muscle and skeletal systems development ... samples. Colloid area/volume and perimeter: This ..... BANKS, W. J., (1993): Applied Veterinary.

  20. Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. ... dogs diagnosed with parvovirus enteritis in some veterinary clinics in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Rabies vaccination status among occupationally exposed humans in Nigeria ...

  1. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 3Veterinary. Teaching ... salivation, cornea opacity, haematuria and convulsion were observed in 20, 8, 2, 4, 1 and 3 of the patients ... intravenous fluid administration either for.

  2. On the Alert: Preparing for Medical Emergencies in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Medical emergencies can happen in any school at any time. They can be the result of preexisting health problems, accidents, violence, unintentional actions, natural disasters, and toxins. Premature deaths in schools from sudden cardiac arrest, blunt trauma to the chest, firearm injuries, asthma, head injuries, drug overdose, allergic reactions,…

  3. Challenges of Measuring a Faculty Member Activity in Medical Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammadi, A; Mojtahedzadeh, R; Emami Razavi, S H

    2011-01-01

    Background One of the features of Mission Based Management is measuring the activities of faculty members and departments and their contributions to the school's mission. As it is important to assess the school's readiness for such a system, in this study we assessed the view points of Tehran Medical School's department chairs about faculty members’ activities. Methods We used focus group technique to identify participants' view points. We divided 30 department chairs into homogenous groups o...

  4. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzeminski, M.; Lass, P.; Teodorczyk, J.; Krajka, J.

    2004-01-01

    The veterinary use of radionuclide techniques dates back to the mid-sixties, but its more extensive use dates back to the past two decades. Veterinary nuclear medicine is focused mainly on four major issues: bone scintigraphy - with the majority of applications in horses, veterinary endocrinology - dealing mainly with the problems of hyperthyreosis in cats and hyperthyreosis in dogs, portosystemic shunts in small animals and veterinary oncology, however, most radionuclide techniques applied to humans can be applied to most animals. (author)

  5. Psychiatry in American Medical Education: The Case of Harvard's Medical School, 1900-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Tara H

    2018-01-01

    As American psychiatrists moved from the asylum to the private clinic during the early twentieth century, psychiatry acquired a growing presence within medical school curricula. This shift in disciplinary status took place at a time when medical education itself was experiencing a period of reform. By examining medical school registers at Harvard University, records from the Dean's office of Harvard's medical school, and oral histories, this paper examines the rise in prominence of psychiatry in medical education. Three builders of Harvard psychiatry - Elmer E. Southard, C. Macfie Campbell, and Harry C. Solomon - simultaneously sought to mark territory for psychiatry and its relevance. In doing so, they capitalized on three related elements: the fluidity that existed between psychiatry and neurology, the new venues whereby medical students gained training in psychiatry, and the broader role of patrons, professional associations, and certification boards, which sought to expand psychiatry's influence in the social and cultural life of twentieth-century America.

  6. Disciplinary action by medical boards and prior behavior in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Maxine A; Teherani, Arianne; Banach, Mary A; Knettler, Timothy R; Rattner, Susan L; Stern, David T; Veloski, J Jon; Hodgson, Carol S

    2005-12-22

    Evidence supporting professionalism as a critical measure of competence in medical education is limited. In this case-control study, we investigated the association of disciplinary action against practicing physicians with prior unprofessional behavior in medical school. We also examined the specific types of behavior that are most predictive of disciplinary action against practicing physicians with unprofessional behavior in medical school. The study included 235 graduates of three medical schools who were disciplined by one of 40 state medical boards between 1990 and 2003 (case physicians). The 469 control physicians were matched with the case physicians according to medical school and graduation year. Predictor variables from medical school included the presence or absence of narratives describing unprofessional behavior, grades, standardized-test scores, and demographic characteristics. Narratives were assigned an overall rating for unprofessional behavior. Those that met the threshold for unprofessional behavior were further classified among eight types of behavior and assigned a severity rating (moderate to severe). Disciplinary action by a medical board was strongly associated with prior unprofessional behavior in medical school (odds ratio, 3.0; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.9 to 4.8), for a population attributable risk of disciplinary action of 26 percent. The types of unprofessional behavior most strongly linked with disciplinary action were severe irresponsibility (odds ratio, 8.5; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.8 to 40.1) and severely diminished capacity for self-improvement (odds ratio, 3.1; 95 percent confidence interval, 1.2 to 8.2). Disciplinary action by a medical board was also associated with low scores on the Medical College Admission Test and poor grades in the first two years of medical school (1 percent and 7 percent population attributable risk, respectively), but the association with these variables was less strong than that with

  7. Establishing Medical Schools in Limited Resource Settings | Girma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishing Medical Schools in Limited Resource Settings. ... These countries face challenges related to the rapid scale up which is mostly done without proper strategic planning, without the basic elements of infrastructure development, educational as well as academic and administrative human resources. Medical ...

  8. Analysis of Factors that Predict Clinical Performance in Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Casey B.; Dey, Eric L.; Fantone, Joseph C.

    2009-01-01

    Academic achievement indices including GPAs and MCAT scores are used to predict the spectrum of medical student academic performance types. However, use of these measures ignores two changes influencing medical school admissions: student diversity and affirmative action, and an increased focus on communication skills. To determine if GPA and MCAT…

  9. Financial-Ratio Analysis and Medical School Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastaugh, Steven R.

    1980-01-01

    The value of a uniform program of financial assistance to medical education and research is questioned. Medical schools have an uneven ability to compensate for declining federal capitation and research grants. Financial-ratio analysis and cluster analysis are utilized to suggest four adaptive responses to future financial pressures. (Author/MLW)

  10. Organizational Culture, Values, and Routines in Iranian Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikmoradi, Ali; Brommels, Mats; Shoghli, Alireza; Zavareh, Davoud Khorasani; Masiello, Italo

    2009-01-01

    In Iran, restructuring of medical education and the health care delivery system in 1985 resulted in a rapid shift from elite to mass education, ultimately leading to an increase in the number of medical schools, faculties, and programs and as well as some complications. This study aimed to investigate views on academic culture, values, and…

  11. Sexual harassment during clinical clerkships in Dutch medical schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    Context Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students

  12. Sexual harassment during clinical clerkships in Dutch medical schools.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rademakers, J.J.D.J.M.; Muijsenbergh, M.E.T.C. van den; Slappendel, G.; Lagro-Janssen, A.L.M.; Borleffs, J.C.C.

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students

  13. Perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students predicts academic performance: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Wagner, Josefin; Brüheim, Linda; Voltmer, Edgar

    2017-12-16

    Medical students are exposed to high amounts of stress. Stress and poor academic performance can become part of a vicious circle. In order to counteract this circularity, it seems important to better understand the relationship between stress and performance during medical education. The most widespread stress questionnaire designed for use in Medical School is the "Perceived Medical School Stress Instrument" (PMSS). It addresses a wide range of stressors, including workload, competition, social isolation and financial worries. Our aim was to examine the relation between the perceived Medical School stress of undergraduate medical students and academic performance. We measured Medical School stress using the PMSS at two different time points (at the end of freshman year and at the end of sophomore year) and matched stress scores together with age and gender to the first medical examination (M1) grade of the students (n = 456). PMSS scores from 2 and 14 months before M1 proved to be significant predictors for medical students' M1 grade. Age and gender also predict academic performance, making older female students with high stress scores a potential risk group for entering the vicious circle of stress and poor academic performance. PMSS sum scores 2 and 14 months before the M1 exam seem to have an independent predictive validity for medical students' M1 grade. More research is needed to identify potential confounders.

  14. The introverted medical school - time to rethink medical education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is renewed interest in medical education worldwide, reflected in recent ... speaking about innovative educational methods and influencing ... Some faculties have responded by appointing staff specifically to deal ... greater diversity in methods of evaluation. ... each graduate has acquired knowledge, attitudes and skills.

  15. journeys through an African Medical school.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sets the scene for the events that led to the creation of the. College of Medicine. What is remarkable about “A heart for the Work” is that. Claire Wendland allows the ... medical training in a resource poor environment. It should be required reading for anyone involved in training medical students in any context and environment.

  16. Medical specialty preferences in early medical school training in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Anthony; McLean, Laurie; McInnes, Matthew D F

    2017-11-14

    To understand what medical students consider when choosing their specialty, prior to significant clinical exposure to develop strategies to provide adequate career counseling. A cross-sectional study was performed by distributing optional questionnaires to 165 first-year medical students at the University of Ottawa in their first month of training with a sample yield of 54.5% (n=90).  Descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, Spearman's rank correlation, Cronbach's alpha coefficient, Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure, and exploratory factor analyses were used to analyze the anonymized results. "Job satisfaction", "lifestyle following training" and, "impact on the patient" were the three highest rated considerations when choosing a specialty.  Fifty-two and seventeen percent (n=24) and 57.89% (n=22) of males and females ranked non-surgical specialties as their top choice. Student confidence in their specialty preferences was moderate, meaning their preference could likely change (mean=2.40/5.00, SD=1.23). ANOVA showed no significant differences between confidence and population size (F(2,86)=0.290, p=0.75) or marital status (F(2,85)=0.354, p=0.70) in both genders combined. Five underlying factors that explained 44.32% of the total variance were identified. Five themes were identified to enhance career counseling. Medical students in their first month of training have already considered their specialty preferences, despite limited exposure. However, students are not fixed in their specialty preference. Our findings further support previous results but expand what students consider when choosing their specialty early in their training. Medical educators and administrators who recognize and understand the importance of these considerations may further enhance career counseling and medical education curricula.

  17. Sexual harassment in public medical schools in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, I D; Aikins, M; Binka, F N

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and incidence of Traditional (where a person in a position of power harasses a subordinate) and contra power sexual harassment, (where a subordinate is the harasser of authority figure) in medical schools in Ghana. among. Cross-sectional study. Four hundred and nine medical students from four medical schools in Ghana were interviewed. We also considered if academic and financial dependence would predict either traditional or contra power sexual harassment. We further investigated, whether women were more bothered by sexual harassment than men and the correlation between sexual harassment and health. Women were 61% more likely to be sexually harassed than men 39%. Sexual harassment negatively affects the victims' health outcome. We found that the traditional form of sexual harassment was prevalent in medical schools in Ghana and that academic dependence predicted attacks. In the first and second years, women at these institutions are more likely to be sexually harassed than men. Sexual harassment policies of medical school need to be widely circulated. The various medical schools should provide reporting procedures and counseling for victims. This paper would inform policy and research.

  18. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools: what have we learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Cheng, Liming; Cai, Qiaoling; Kosik, Russell Olive; Huang, Yun; Zhao, Xudong; Xu, Guo-Tong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chiu, Allen Wen-Hsiang; Fan, Angela Pei-Chen

    2014-12-01

    Curriculum reform at Chinese medical schools has attracted a lot of attention recently. Several leading medical schools in China have undergone exploratory reforms and in so doing, have accumulated significant experience and have made considerable progress. An analysis of the reforms conducted by 38 Chinese medical colleges that were targeted by the government for upgrade was performed. Drawing from both domestic and international literature, we designed a questionnaire to determine what types of curricular reforms have occurred at these institutions and how they were implemented. Major questions touched upon the purpose of the reforms, curricular patterns, improvements in teaching methods post-reform, changes made to evaluation systems post-reform, intra-university reform assessment, and what difficulties the schools faced when instituting the reforms. Besides the questionnaire, relevant administrators from each medical school were also interviewed to obtain more qualitative data. Out of the 38 included universities, twenty-five have undergone major curricular reforms. Among them, 60.0% adopted an organ system-based curriculum model, 32.0% adopted a problem-based curriculum model, and 8.0% adopted a hybrid curriculum model. About 60.0% of the schools' reforms involved both the "pre-clinical" and the "clinical" curricula, 32.0% of the schools' reforms were limited to the "pre-clinical" curricula, and 8.0% of the schools' reforms only involved the "clinical" curricula. Following curricular reform, 60.0% of medical schools experienced an overall reduction in teaching hours, 76.0% reported an increase in their students' clinical skills, and 60.0% reported an increase in their students' research skills. Medical curricular reform is still in its infancy in China. The republic's leading medical schools have engaged in various approaches to bring innovative teaching methods to their respective institutions. However, due to limited resources and the shackle of traditional

  20. The State of Disability Awareness in American Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, Erica; Crowe, Scott

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to: (1) determine how many American medical schools include disability awareness in their curriculum, (2) explore the format of disability awareness programs in existence, and (3) understand why some schools do not include disability awareness in their curriculum. An online survey was sent to deans of medical education (or equivalent positions) at accredited allopathic and osteopathic American medical schools (N = 167) in 2015. Seventy-five schools (45%) completed surveys. Fifty-two percent (39/75) reported having a disability awareness program. The most common format was people with disabilities or caregivers speaking in a large group setting. Programs were most likely to focus on adults with physical disabilities. Among schools without a program, the top barriers were no one advocating for inclusion in the curriculum and time constraints. Nearly half of schools without a program expressed interest in adopting an awareness curriculum if one was made available. Such results indicate that efforts should be made to increase the number of schools that provide disability awareness education through increased advocacy and providing additional resources to schools without a curriculum.

  1. Variability in United States Allopathic Medical School Tuition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Joseph A; Park, Sarah H; Daniels, Alan H

    2015-11-01

    Over the course of the last generation, the cost of medical school attendance and medical student debt has increased drastically. Medical student debt has been reported as high as $350,000, and the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) reports that medical school tuition continues to increase annually. The increasing cost of medical education and associated financial burden is now beginning to deter potential applicants from pursuing a career in medicine. In this study we aimed to assess medical school tuition across the US. We hypothesized that the cost of medical school attendance is variable across all regions of the US, and as a result, the financial burden on medical students is inconsistent. All 123 allopathic medical schools accredited by the AAMC were assessed in this investigation. In-state and out-of-state tuitions for the year 2016 were obtained from U.S. News and World Report. Additionally, medical school size was collected. Regions were defined according to the US Census Bureau definition, with the US being divided into 4 regions: Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. There was no difference in average medical school size among the 4 regions (P > .05). Average in-state tuition was $38,291.56 ± $9801.38 (95% confidence interval [CI], $34,658.07-$41,513.46) in the Midwest, $45,923.04 ± $9178.87 (95% CI, $42,566.28-$49,216.78) in the Northeast, $32,287.78 ± $12,277.53 (95% CI, $28,581.90-$35,378.68) in the South, and $37,745.40 ± $11,414.37 (95% CI, $30,063.28-$40,458.99) in the West. In-state tuition in the South was significantly lower than in the Northeast, West, and Midwest (P tuition in the Northeast was significantly higher than in the South, West, and Midwest (P tuition is $54,104.04 ± $8227.65 (95% CI, $51,207.6-$57,000.39) in the Midwest, $53,180.10 ± $3963.71 (95% CI, $51,761.71-$54,598.50) in the Northeast, $48,191.86 ± $12,578.13 (95% CI, $44,595.84-$51,787.89) in the South, and $52,920.47 ± $7400.83 (95% CI, $49

  2. Exploring emotional intelligence in a Caribbean medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, B; Baboolal, N; Williams, S; Ramsewak, S

    2014-03-01

    To explore the emotional intelligence (EI) in medical students in a Caribbean medical school and investigate its association with gender, age, year of study and ethnicity. A cross-sectional design using convenient sampling of 304 years two to five undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine, the University of the West Indies (UWI), St Augustine campus, was conducted. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-V2.0) was administered to test four branches of EI: perceiving emotions, facilitating thought, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and r (product moment correlation) were calculated to establish the effects of selected variables (gender, age, year of study and ethnicity) on total and sub-scales EI scores and tested against 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels. The total mean score for EI fell within the average according to MSCEIT standards. Gender analysis showed significantly higher scores for males and for younger age groups (maturity and emotional stability. It would be valuable to widen this study by including other UWI campuses and offshore medical schools in the Caribbean. This preliminary study examined a sample of medical students from a well-established Caribbean medical school. Since EI is considered to be important in the assessment and training of medical undergraduates, consideration should be given to introducing interventions aimed at increasing EI.

  3. The effects of medical school on health outcomes: Evidence from admission lotteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; de Wolf, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of attending medical school on health outcomes by exploiting that admission to medical school in the Netherlands is determined by a lottery. Among the applicants for medical school, people who attended medical school have on average 1.5 more years of completed

  4. What factors influence UK medical students' choice of foundation school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants' choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013-2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p =0.0001). UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants.

  5. What factors influence UK medical students’ choice of foundation school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Saiful; Pang, Karl H; Rebello, Wayne; Rubakumar, Zoe; Fung, Victoria; Venugopal, Suresh; Begum, Hena

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2) doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001). Conclusion UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware of the importance of choosing rotations based on specialties that will be undertaken. Individual foundation schools could provide a more favorable linked application system and greater choice and flexibility of specialties within their 2-year program, potentially making their institution more attractive to future applicants. PMID:28458589

  6. Medical Humanities Teaching in North American Allopathic and Osteopathic Medical Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klugman, Craig M

    2017-11-07

    Although the AAMC requires annual reporting of medical humanities teaching, most literature is based on single-school case reports and studies using information reported on schools' websites. This study sought to discover what medical humanities is offered in North American allopathic and osteopathic undergraduate medical schools. An 18-question, semi-structured survey was distributed to all 146 (as of June 2016) member schools of the American Association of Medical Colleges and the American Association of Colleges of Osteopathic Medicine. The survey sought information on required and elective humanities content, hours of humanities instruction, types of disciplines, participation rates, and humanities administrative structure. The survey was completed by 134 schools (145 AAMC; 31 AACOM). 70.8% of schools offered required and 80.6% offered electives in humanities. Global health and writing were the most common disciplines. Schools required 43.9 mean (MD 45.4; DO 37.1) and 30 (MD 29; DO 37.5) median hours in humanities. In the first two years, most humanities are integrated into other course work; most electives are offered as stand-alone classes. 50.0% of schools report only 0-25% of students participating in humanities electives. Presence of a certificate, concentration or arts journal increased likelihood of humanities content but decreased mean hours. Schools with a medical humanities MA had a higher number of required humanities hours. Medical humanities content in undergraduate curriculum is lower than is indicated in the AAMC annual report. Schools with a formal structure have a greater humanities presence in the curriculum and are taken by more students.

  7. 3. Medical emergencies in primary schools and school ownership of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RICHY

    1 Community Medicine Department, University of Jos, Nigeria. 2 Family Medicine ... school personnel and students to respond promptly and properly when an ... death and disability among the young and the middle aged who have many ...

  8. South African medical schools: Current state of selection criteria and medical students' demographic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, L J; van Zyl, G J; St Clair Gibson, A; Viljoen, M; Iputo, J E; Mammen, M; Chitha, W; Perez, A M; Hartman, N; Fonn, S; Green-Thompson, L; Ayo-Ysuf, O A; Botha, G C; Manning, D; Botha, S J; Hift, R; Retief, P; van Heerden, B B; Volmink, J

    2015-12-16

    Selection of medical students at South African (SA) medical schools must promote equitable and fair access to students from all population groups, while ensuring optimal student throughput and success, and training future healthcare practitioners who will fulfil the needs of the local society. In keeping with international practices, a variety of academic and non-academic measures are used to select applicants for medical training programmes in SA medical schools. To provide an overview of the selection procedures used by all eight medical schools in SA, and the student demographics (race and gender) at these medical schools, and to determine to what extent collective practices are achieving the goals of student diversity and inclusivity. A retrospective, quantitative, descriptive study design was used. All eight medical schools in SA provided information regarding selection criteria, selection procedures, and student demographics (race and gender). Descriptive analysis of data was done by calculating frequencies and percentages of the variables measured. Medical schools in SA make use of academic and non-academic criteria in their selection processes. The latter include indices of socioeconomic disadvantage. Most undergraduate medical students in SA are black (38.7%), followed by white (33.0%), coloured (13.4%) and Indian/Asian (13.6%). The majority of students are female (62.2%). The number of black students is still proportionately lower than in the general population, while other groups are overrepresented. Selection policies for undergraduate medical programmes aimed at redress should be continued and further refined, along with the provision of support to ensure student success.

  9. Veterinary medicine books recommended for academic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley-Low, Jill

    2004-10-01

    This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).

  10. Why People Apply to Medical School in Iraq?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hemiary, Nesif; Al-Nuaimi, Ahmed Sameer; Al-Saffar, Hilal; Randall, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The motivations behind why people choose to study medicine in Iraqi medical schools are unknown. Such information could help school pupils to make more informed career decisions and assist medical schools in enhancing the student selection process. To investigate why people choose to study medicine in Iraq. The first-year students admitted on the academic year 2015-2016 to Baghdad College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, were invited to complete a structured questionnaire, which was administered through the college electronic education portal. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21 software. A total of 152 (50% response rate) students responded. Women constituted 69.1% of respondents. Most students (61.8%) had made their choice by themselves without family pressure. The most frequent reasons that affected this choice were "humanitarian reasons and a wish to provide help to others" as well as "childhood dream," "positive community appraisal of doctors," and "ready availability of work for physicians." About three-quarters (73.6%) of the students made some inquiry about medical school before making their choice, and the people asked were most frequently a medical student or a doctor. Information provided by the consulted parties was regarded as satisfactory by 64.2% of the surveyed students, had a positive value in 47.2%, and affected their decision in 34.9%. The highest proportion (42.2%) of the study sample was thinking about studying medicine since primary school. In addition, students with personal preference made their choice at a significantly younger age. Reasons to apply for medical schools in Iraq are similar to those in many countries. Most of the students who inquired about studying medicine had not contacted the medical school itself.

  11. Why People Apply to Medical School in Iraq?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesif Al-Hemiary

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The motivations behind why people choose to study medicine in Iraqi medical schools are unknown. Such information could help school pupils to make more informed career decisions and assist medical schools in enhancing the student selection process. Aims: To investigate why people choose to study medicine in Iraq. Subjects and methods: The first-year students admitted on the academic year 2015-2016 to Baghdad College of Medicine, University of Baghdad, were invited to complete a structured questionnaire, which was administered through the college electronic education portal. The data were analyzed using IBM SPSS version 21 software. Results: A total of 152 (50% response rate students responded. Women constituted 69.1% of respondents. Most students (61.8% had made their choice by themselves without family pressure. The most frequent reasons that affected this choice were “humanitarian reasons and a wish to provide help to others” as well as “childhood dream,” “positive community appraisal of doctors,” and “ready availability of work for physicians.” About three-quarters (73.6% of the students made some inquiry about medical school before making their choice, and the people asked were most frequently a medical student or a doctor. Information provided by the consulted parties was regarded as satisfactory by 64.2% of the surveyed students, had a positive value in 47.2%, and affected their decision in 34.9%. The highest proportion (42.2% of the study sample was thinking about studying medicine since primary school. In addition, students with personal preference made their choice at a significantly younger age. Conclusions: Reasons to apply for medical schools in Iraq are similar to those in many countries. Most of the students who inquired about studying medicine had not contacted the medical school itself.

  12. International students in United States’ medical schools: does the medical community know they exist?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashodeep Datta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Matriculation of international students to United States’ (US medical schools has not mirrored the remarkable influx of these students to other US institutions of higher education. Methods: While these students’ numbers are on the rise, the visibility for their unique issues remains largely ignored in the medical literature. Results: These students are disadvantaged in the medical school admissions process due to financial and immigration-related concerns, and academic standards for admittance also continue to be significantly higher compared with their US-citizen peers. Furthermore, it is simply beyond the mission of many medical schools – both public and private – to support international students’ education, especially since federal, state-allocated or institutional funds are limited and these institutions have a commitment to fulfill the healthcare education needs of qualified domestic candidates. In spite of these obstacles, a select group of international students do gain admission to US medical schools and, upon graduation, are credentialed equally as their US-citizen counterparts by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME. However, owing to their foreign citizenship, these students have visa requirements for post-graduate training that may adversely impact their candidacy for residency placement. Conclusion: By raising such issues, this article aims to increase the awareness of considerations pertinent to this unique population of medical students. The argument is also made to support continued recruitment of international students to US medical schools in spite of these impediments. In our experience, these students are not only qualified to tackle the rigors of a US medical education, but also enrich the cultural diversity of the medical student body. Moreover, these graduates could effectively complement the efforts to augment US physician workforce diversity while contributing to

  13. Medical Student Perceptions of the Learning Environment in Medical School Change as Students Transition to Clinical Training in Undergraduate Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Lisette; Dekhtyar, Michael; Gruener, Gregory; CichoskiKelly, Eileen; Deitz, Jennifer; Elliott, Donna; Stuber, Margaret L; Skochelak, Susan E

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenon: The learning environment is the physical, social, and psychological context in which a student learns. A supportive learning environment contributes to student well-being and enhances student empathy, professionalism, and academic success, whereas an unsupportive learning environment may lead to burnout, exhaustion, and cynicism. Student perceptions of the medical school learning environment may change over time and be associated with students' year of training and may differ significantly depending on the student's gender or race/ethnicity. Understanding the changes in perceptions of the learning environment related to student characteristics and year of training could inform interventions that facilitate positive experiences in undergraduate medical education. The Medical School Learning Environment Survey (MSLES) was administered to 4,262 students who matriculated at one of 23 U.S. and Canadian medical schools in 2010 and 2011. Students completed the survey at the end of each year of medical school as part of a battery of surveys in the Learning Environment Study. A mixed-effects longitudinal model, t tests, Cohen's d effect size, and analysis of variance assessed the relationship between MSLES score, year of training, and demographic variables. After controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, and school, students reported worsening perceptions toward the medical school learning environment, with the worst perceptions in the 3rd year of medical school as students begin their clinical experiences, and some recovery in the 4th year after Match Day. The drop in MSLES scores associated with the transition to the clinical learning environment (-0.26 point drop in addition to yearly change, effect size = 0.52, p effect size = 0.14, p work-life balance and informal student relationships. There was some, but not complete, recovery in perceptions of the medical school learning environment in the 4th year. Insights: Perceptions of the medical school learning

  14. What factors influence UK medical students’ choice of foundation school?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miah S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Saiful Miah,1,2 Karl H Pang,3 Wayne Rebello,4 Zoe Rubakumar,4 Victoria Fung,5 Suresh Venugopal,6 Hena Begum4 1Division of Surgery and Interventional science, University College London, London, UK; 2Department of Urology, Charing Cross Hospital Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK; 3Academic Urology Unit, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 4Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 5Department of Plastic Surgery, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK; 6Department of Urology, Chesterfield Royal Infirmary, Chesterfield, UK Background: We aimed to identify the factors influencing UK medical student applicants’ choice of foundation school. We also explored the factors that doctors currently approaching the end of their 2-year program believe should be considered. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during the 2013–2014 academic year. An online questionnaire was distributed to 2092 final-year medical students from nine UK medical schools and 84 foundation year-2 (FY2 doctors from eight foundation schools. Participants were asked to rank their top 3 from a list of 12 factors that could potentially influence choice of foundation school on a 5-point Likert scale. Collated categorical data from the two groups were compared using a chi-square test with Yates correction. Results: Geographic location was overwhelmingly the most important factor for medical students and FY2 doctors with 97.2% and 98.8% in agreement, respectively. Social relationships played a pivotal role for medical student applicants. Clinical specialties within the rotations were of less importance to medical students, in comparison to location and social relationships. In contrast, FY2 doctors placed a significantly greater importance on the specialties undertaken in their 2-year training program, when compared to medical students (chi-square; p=0.0001. Conclusion: UK medical schools should make their foundation program applicants aware

  15. [Learning objectives achievement in ethics education for medical school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Sujin; Lim, Kiyoung

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to examine the necessity for research ethics and learning objectives in ethics education at the undergraduate level. A total of 393 fourth-year students, selected from nine medical schools, participated in a survey about learning achievement and the necessity for it. It was found that the students had very few chances to receive systematic education in research ethics and that they assumed that research ethics education was provided during graduate school or residency programs. Moreover, the students showed a relatively high learning performance in life ethics, while learning achievement was low in research ethics. Medical school students revealed low interest in and expectations of research ethics in general; therefore, it is necessary to develop guidelines for research ethics in the present situation, in which medical education mainly focuses on life ethics.

  16. Training on handover of patient care within UK medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Gordon

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Much evidence exists to demonstrate that poor handover can directly impact patient safety. There have been calls for formal education on handover, but evidence to guide intervention design and implementation is limited. It is unclear how undergraduate medical schools are tackling this issue and what barrier or facilitators exist to handover education. We set out to determine curriculum objectives, teaching and assessment methods, as well as institutional attitudes towards handover within UK medical schools. Methods: A descriptive, non-experimental, cross-sectional study design was used. A locally developed online questionnaire survey was sent to all UK Medical Schools, after piloting. Descriptive statistics were calculated for closed-ended responses, and free text responses were analysed using a grounded theory approach, with constant comparison taking place through several stages of analysis. Results: Fifty percent of UK medical schools took part in the study. Nine schools (56% reported having curriculum outcomes for handover. Significant variations in the teaching and assessments employed were found. Qualitative analysis yielded four key themes: the importance of handover as an education issue, when to educate on handover, the need for further provision of teaching and the need for validated assessment tools to support handover education. Conclusions: Whilst undergraduate medical schools recognised handover as an important education issue, they do not feel they should have the ultimate responsibility for training in this area and as such are responding in varying ways. Undergraduate medical educators should seek to reach consensus as to the extent of provision they will offer. Weaknesses in the literature regarding how to design such education have exacerbated the problem, but the contemporaneous and growing published evidence base should be employed by educators to address this issue.

  17. [The new medical schools in Chile and their influence on the medical scenario].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román A, Oscar

    2009-08-01

    There is concern about the possible consequences caused by the proliferation of private Medical Schools in Chile. Most of these schools have consolidated as health professional training centers, but its presence is changing the scenario of public health and medical profession. The most important consequence is the increase in the number of physicians that will occur, that may exceed the demand of the Chilean population and generate medical unemployment or emigration. There is also concern about the quality of the training process and the preparation and experience of teachers, that derives in the need for accreditation of medical schools. Private Universities are aware of these problems and are working on them. The struggle for clinical fields in the Public Health System has been regulated by an administrative norm of the Ministry of Health.

  18. [Carl Gillmeister: the first Doctor of veterinary medicine in Mecklenburg--and in Germany (1834)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, W; Schäffer, J

    2004-02-01

    German schools and faculties of veterinary medicine did not receive the sovereign right to award the degree "Doctor medicinae veterinarae" until the early twentieth century. Until then, in the nineteenth century there were two possibilities for veterinarians to earn a doctoral degree, usually referred to as the title of "Doctor": 1. On the basis of an exceptionally excellent dissertation and after very stringent examination a candidate could be awarded the degree "Dr. med." by the faculty of a medical school, or, if the candidate had studied at a philosophical faculty, the degree "Dr. phil." 2. A doctoral degree specifically in veterinary medicine could be earned only at a medical faculty. The Medical Faculty of the University of Giessen awarded the degree "Doctor in arte veterinaria" for the first time in 1832. In this study we prove that Giessen was not the first German university to award a doctorate in veterinary medicine, a priority which has never been questioned in the literature. As early as 1829, veterinarians could earn the degree "Doctor artis veterinariae" at the Medical Faculty of the University of Rostock, where three such awards are documented between 1829 and 1831. The designation "medicina" was also intially avoided in Rostock. Therefore, of particular significance is the discovery of a fourth such document from the Rostock University Archives, the doctoral diploma of Carl Jacob Friedrich Gillmeister, who at the age of 22 was awarded the degree "Doctor medicinae veterinariae" in Rostock after a successful defense. This is the earliest, but also the last archival record of the German doctoral degree in veterinary medicine in the modern sense, because after Gillmeister no veterinarian could earn a doctoral degree in Rostock further more. Gillmeisters vita sheds light on the times and the difficulties of the veterinary profession in the poor agricultural area of Mecklenburg.

  19. Educational climate perception by preclinical and clinical medical students in five Spanish medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palés, Jorge; Gual, Arcadi; Escanero, Jesús; Tomás, Inmaculada; Rodríguez-de Castro, Felipe; Elorduy, Marta; Virumbrales, Montserrat; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Arce, Víctor

    2015-06-08

    The purpose of this study was to investigate student's perceptions of Educational Climate (EC) in Spanish medical schools, comparing various aspects of EC between the 2nd (preclinical) and the 4th (clinical) years to detect strengths and weaknesses in the on-going curricular reform. This study utilized a cross-sectional design and employed the Spanish version of the "Dundee Ready Education Environment Measure" (DREEM). The survey involved 894 2nd year students and 619 4th year students from five Spanish medical schools. The global average score of 2nd year students from the five medical schools was found to be significantly higher (116.2±24.9, 58.2% of maximum score) than that observed in 4th year students (104.8±29.5, 52.4% of maximum score). When the results in each medical school were analysed separately, the scores obtained in the 2nd year were almost always significantly higher than in the 4th year for all medical schools, in both the global scales and the different subscales. The perception of the EC by 2nd and 4th year students from five Spanish medical schools is more positive than negative although it is significantly lower in the 4th year. In both years, although more evident in the 4th year, students point out the existence of several important "problematic educational areas" associated with the persistence of traditional curricula and teaching methodologies. Our findings of this study should lead medical schools to make a serious reflection and drive the implementation of the necessary changes required to improve teaching, especially during the clinical period.

  20. Evaluation and assessment of social accountability in medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinster, Sam

    2011-01-01

    Social accountability as an outcome must be measured at institutional (evaluation) and individual (assessment) level. The definitions used in the measurement will be dependent on the social setting of the medical school being scrutinised. A formal framework is needed so that comparisons can be made and progress measured. The World Health Organisation suggests that there are four principles that delineate social accountability--relevance, quality, cost-effectiveness and equity. Medical schools are evaluated according to their planning, doing and impact in relation to these principles. Boelen and Woollard have clarified the ideas of planning, doing and impact into Conceptualisation, Production and Usability. THEnet group of medical schools use a shortened version of Boelen and Woollard's framework with 20 criteria to evaluate their programmes. At the individual level, there is considerable overlap between the concepts of 'social accountability' and 'professionalism'. Attempts are being made to define and measure professionalism, however, if the behaviour and attitudes of individual graduates is a significant component in defining social responsibility new methods of assessment need to be developed. Factors such as the available resources and the structure of the health services have a very large effect on doctors' attitudes and behaviour. As a result, the task of evaluating and assessing the extent to which medical schools are socially accountable is complex. Judgments on how well a school is meeting the standards will have to make allowance for the local political and economic environment.

  1. Associations between medical school and career preferences in Year 1 medical students in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer; Johnston, Peter W; French, Fiona H; Needham, Gillian

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about the relationship between the career preferences of medical students and the medical schools at which they are enrolled. Our aim was to explore this relationship early in students' medical training. Year 1 (2009-2010) medical students at the five Scottish medical schools were invited to take part in a career preference questionnaire survey. Questions were asked about demographic factors, career preferences and influencing factors. The response rate was 87.9% (883/1005). No significant differences were found among medical schools with regard to first-choice specialty. Surgery (22.5%), medicine (19.0%), general practice (17.6%) and paediatrics (16.1%) were the top career choices. Work-life balance, perceived aptitude and skills, intellectual satisfaction, and amount of patient contact were rated as the most important job-related factors by most respondents. Few differences were found among schools in terms of the impact of job-related factors on future career preferences. Students for whom the work-life balance was extremely important (odds ratio [OR]=0.6) were less likely to prefer surgery. Students for whom the work-life balance (OR=2.2) and continuity of care (OR=2.1) were extremely important were more likely to prefer general practice. Students' early career preferences were similar across the five medical schools. These preferences result from the interplay among demographic factors and the perceived characteristics of the various specialties. Maintaining a satisfactory work-life balance is very important to tomorrow's doctors, and the data hint that this may be breaking down some of the traditional gender differences in specialty choice. Longitudinal work is required to explore whether students' career preferences change as they progress through medical school and training. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  2. Clinical learning environment at Shiraz Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, Rita; Ebrahimi, Sedigheh

    2013-01-01

    Clinical learning occurs in the context of a dynamic environment. Learning environment found to be one of the most important factors in determining the success of an effective teaching program. To investigate, from the attending and resident's perspective, factors that may affect student leaning in the educational hospital setting at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS). This study combined qualitative and quantitative methods to determine factors affecting effective learning in clinical setting. Residents evaluated the perceived effectiveness of the university hospital learning environment. Fifty two faculty members and 132 residents participated in this study. Key determinants that contribute to an effective clinical teaching were autonomy, supervision, social support, workload, role clarity, learning opportunity, work diversity and physical facilities. In a good clinical setting, residents should be appreciated and given appropriate opportunities to study in order to meet their objectives. They require a supportive environment to consolidate their knowledge, skills and judgment. © 2013 Tehran University of Medical Sciences. All rights reserved.

  3. Management, entrepreneurship and private service orientation : a framework for undergraduate veterinary education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, van den A.W.; Sasidhar, P.V.K.

    2006-01-01

    The changing nature of livestock outreach service delivery, manpower requirements and opportunities in the private sector provide both push and pull dynamics for veterinary graduates to engage in managerial, entrepreneurial, public and private service activities. The veterinary schools should

  4. Sexual and gender minority identity disclosure during undergraduate medical education: "in the closet" in medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansh, Matthew; White, William; Gee-Tong, Lea; Lunn, Mitchell R; Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Stewart, Leslie; Goldsmith, Elizabeth; Brenman, Stephanie; Tran, Eric; Wells, Maggie; Fetterman, David; Garcia, Gabriel

    2015-05-01

    To assess identity disclosure among sexual and gender minority (SGM) students pursuing undergraduate medical training in the United States and Canada. From 2009 to 2010, a survey was made available to all medical students enrolled in the 176 MD- and DO-granting medical schools in the United States and Canada. Respondents were asked about their sexual and gender identity, whether they were "out" (i.e., had publicly disclosed their identity), and, if they were not, their reasons for concealing their identity. The authors used a mixed-methods approach and analyzed quantitative and qualitative survey data. Of 5,812 completed responses (of 101,473 eligible respondents; response rate 5.7%), 920 (15.8%) students from 152 (of 176; 86.4%) institutions identified as SGMs. Of the 912 sexual minorities, 269 (29.5%) concealed their sexual identity in medical school. Factors associated with sexual identity concealment included sexual minority identity other than lesbian or gay, male gender, East Asian race, and medical school enrollment in the South or Central regions of North America. The most common reasons for concealing one's sexual identity were "nobody's business" (165/269; 61.3%), fear of discrimination in medical school (117/269; 43.5%), and social or cultural norms (110/269; 40.9%). Of the 35 gender minorities, 21 (60.0%) concealed their gender identity, citing fear of discrimination in medical school (9/21; 42.9%) and lack of support (9/21; 42.9%). SGM students continue to conceal their identity during undergraduate medical training. Medical institutions should adopt targeted policies and programs to better support these individuals.

  5. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  6. Reducing health disparities: the social role of medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopelt, Keren; Davidovitch, Nadav; Yahav, Zehava; Urkin, Jacob; Bachner, Yaacov G

    2014-06-01

    Medical education based on the principles of social medicine can contribute toward reducing health disparities through the "creation" of doctors who are more involved in community programs. This study compared the social medicine orientation of graduates from various medical schools in Israel. The authors conducted an online cross-sectional survey in May 2011 among physicians who are graduates of Israeli medical schools. The study included 1050 physicians practicing medicine in Israel: 36% who are graduates from the Hebrew University, 26% from Tel Aviv University, 22% from the Technion and 16% from Ben-Gurion University. A greater percentage of physicians who studied either at the Technion or Ben-Gurion are working or have worked in the periphery (∼50% vs. ∼30% at the Hebrew and Tel Aviv Universities). Among Ben-Gurion graduates, 47% are active in social medicine programs vs. 34-38% from other schools. Among physicians active in social medicine programs, 32% of Ben-Gurion alumni estimated that their medical education greatly influenced their social medicine involvement vs. 8-15% from other schools. Hebrew University alumni described their studies as more research-oriented. In contrast, Ben-Gurion graduates described their studies as more social medicine-oriented and they exhibited more positive attitudes about the role of physicians in reducing health disparities. Social medicine-oriented medical education induces a socialization process reinforcing human values regarding doctor-patient relationships and produces positive attitudes among future doctors about social involvement. Findings emphasize the need to develop educational programs with this orientation and to strengthen medical schools in the periphery.

  7. [Medical manuscripts in the library of the Deontology Department of the Ankara University Medical School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arda, B

    1998-01-01

    At every academical platform on medical history and its instruction, lack of Turkish medical historiography is mainly emphasized. There are two main factors determining the situation: 1-There isn't any comprehensive Turkish medical history textbook. 2-There are difficulties in reaching the primary sources in this field. Everybody agrees with the importance of reaching medical manuscripts easily and reading and evaluating them in medical history. For this reason, it is important to know where we can find them. In this article, medical manuscripts which are available in the library of the Deontology Department of Ankara University Medical School are introduced. The manuscripts have been listed in alphabetical order of the authors' name. The bibliographic items, such as the size, writing style, and type of paper used, are mentioned.

  8. The current state of basic medical education in Israel: implications for a new medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Shmuel; Borkan, Jeffrey M; Weingarten, Michael

    2009-11-01

    The recent government decision to establish a new medical school, the fifth in Israel, is an opportune moment to reflect on the state of Basic Medical Education (BME) in the country and globally. It provides a rare opportunity for planning an educational agenda tailored to local needs. This article moves from a description of the context of Israeli health care and the medical education system to a short overview of two existing Israeli medical schools where reforms have recently taken place. This is followed by an assessment of Israeli BME and an effort to use the insights from this assessment to inform the fifth medical school blueprint. The fifth medical school presents an opportunity for further curricular reforms and educational innovations. Reforms and innovations include: fostering self-directed professional development methods; emphasis on teaching in the community; use of appropriate educational technology; an emphasis on patient safety and simulation training; promoting the humanities in medicine; and finally the accountability to the community that the graduates will serve.

  9. Motivation, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegers-Jager, Karen M; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Themmen, Axel P N

    2012-07-01

    Medical schools wish to better understand why some students excel academically and others have difficulty in passing medical courses. Components of self-regulated learning (SRL), such as motivational beliefs and learning strategies, as well as participation in scheduled learning activities, have been found to relate to student performance. Although participation may be a form of SRL, little is known about the relationships among motivational beliefs, learning strategies, participation and medical school performance. This study aimed to test and cross-validate a hypothesised model of relationships among motivational beliefs (value and self-efficacy), learning strategies (deep learning and resource management), participation (lecture attendance, skills training attendance and completion of optional study assignments) and Year 1 performance at medical school. Year 1 medical students in the cohorts of 2008 (n = 303) and 2009 (n = 369) completed a questionnaire on motivational beliefs and learning strategies (sourced from the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire) and participation. Year 1 performance was operationalised as students' average Year 1 course examination grades. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data. Participation and self-efficacy beliefs were positively associated with Year 1 performance (β = 0.78 and β = 0.19, respectively). Deep learning strategies were negatively associated with Year 1 performance (β =- 0.31), but positively related to resource management strategies (β = 0.77), which, in turn, were positively related to participation (β = 0.79). Value beliefs were positively related to deep learning strategies only (β = 0.71). The overall structural model for the 2008 cohort accounted for 47% of the variance in Year 1 grade point average and was cross-validated in the 2009 cohort. This study suggests that participation mediates the relationships between motivation and learning strategies, and medical school

  10. Perspective: private schools of the Caribbean: outsourcing medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckhert, N Lynn

    2010-04-01

    Twenty-five percent of the U.S. physician workforce is made up of international medical graduates (IMGs), a growing proportion of whom (27% in 2005) are U.S. citizens. Most IMGs graduate from "offshore medical schools" (OMSs), for-profit institutions primarily located in the Caribbean region and established to train U.S. students who will return home to practice medicine. Following the recent call for a larger physician workforce, OMSs rapidly increased in number. Unlike U.S. schools, which must be accredited by the Liaison Committee on Medical Education, OMSs are recognized by their home countries and may not be subject to a rigorous accreditation process. Although gaps in specific data exist, a closer look at OMSs reveals that most enroll three groups of students per year, and many educate students initially at "offshore campuses" and later at clinical sites in the United States. Students from some OMSs are eligible for the U.S. Federal Family Education Loan Program. The lack of uniform data on OMSs is problematic for state medical boards, which struggle to assess the quality of the medical education offered at any one school and which, in some cases, disapprove a school. With the United States' continued reliance on IMGs to meet its health needs, the public and the profession will be best served by knowing more about medical education outside of the United States. Review of medical education in OMSs whose graduates will become part of U.S. health care delivery is timely as the United States reforms its health-care-delivery system.

  11. Curricular trends in Malaysian medical schools: innovations within.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azila, Nor Mohd Adnan; Rogayah, Jaafar; Zabidi-Hussin, Zabidi Azhar Mohd Hussin

    2006-09-01

    Various curricular innovations were adopted by medical schools worldwide in an attempt to produce medical graduates that could meet future healthcare needs of society locally and globally. This paper presents findings on curricular approaches implemented in Malaysian medical schools, in trying to meet those needs. Information was obtained from published records, responses from various questionnaires, personal communication and involvement with curricular development. Curricular innovations tended to be implemented in new medical schools upon their establishment. Established medical schools seemed to implement these innovations much later. Curricular trends appear to move towards integration, student-centred and problem-based learning as well as community-oriented medical education, with the Student-centred learning, Problem-based learning, Integrated teaching, Community-based education, Electives and Systematic programme (SPICES) model used as a reference. The focus is based on the premise that although the short-term aim of undergraduate medical education in Malaysia is to prepare graduates for the pre-registration house officer year, they must be able to practise and make decisions independently and be sensitive to the needs of the country's multiracial, multi-religious, and often remote communities. In most cases, curricular planning starts with a prescriptive model where planners focus on several intended outcomes. However, as the plan is implemented and evaluated it becomes descriptive as the planners reassess the internal and external factors that affect outcomes. A common trend in community-oriented educational activities is evident, with the introduction of interesting variations, to ensure that the curriculum can be implemented, sustained and the intended outcomes achieved.

  12. Medical ethics education in China: Lessons from three schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherer, Renslow; Dong, Hongmei; Cong, Yali; Wan, Jing; Chen, Hua; Wang, Yanxia; Ma, Zhiying; Cooper, Brian; Jiang, Ivy; Roth, Hannah; Siegler, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Ethics teaching is a relatively new area of medical education in China, with ethics curricula at different levels of development. This study examined ethics education at three medical schools in China to understand their curricular content, teaching and learning methods, forms of assessments, changes over time, and what changes are needed for further improvement. We used student and faculty surveys to obtain information about the ethics courses' content, teaching methods, and revisions over time. The surveys also included five realistic cases and asked participants whether each would be appropriate to use for discussion in ethics courses. Students rated the cases on a scale and gave written comments. Finally, participants were asked to indicate how much they would agree with the statement that medical professionalism is about putting the interests of patients and society above one's own. There were both similarities and differences among these schools with regard to course topics, teaching and assessment methods, and course faculty compositions, suggesting their courses are at different levels of development. Areas of improvement for the schools' courses were identified based on this study's findings and available literature. A model of the evolution of medical ethics education in China was proposed to guide reform in medical ethics instruction in China. Analysis identified characteristics of appropriate cases and participants' attitudes toward the ideal of professionalism. We conclude that the development of medical ethics education in China is promising while much improvement is needed. In addition, ethics education is not confined to the walls of medical schools; the society at large can have significant influence on the formation of students' professional values.

  13. Doctors of tomorrow: An innovative curriculum connecting underrepresented minority high school students to medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derck, Jordan; Zahn, Kate; Finks, Jonathan F; Mand, Simanjit; Sandhu, Gurjit

    2016-01-01

    Racial minorities continue to be underrepresented in medicine (URiM). Increasing provider diversity is an essential component of addressing disparity in health delivery and outcomes. The pool of students URiM that are competitive applicants to medical school is often limited early on by educational inequalities in primary and secondary schooling. A growing body of evidence recognizing the importance of diversifying health professions advances the need for medical schools to develop outreach collaborations with primary and secondary schools to attract URiMs. The goal of this paper is to describe and evaluate a program that seeks to create a pipeline for URiMs early in secondary schooling by connecting these students with support and resources in the medical community that may be transformative in empowering these students to be stronger university and medical school applicants. The authors described a medical student-led, action-oriented pipeline program, Doctors of Tomorrow, which connects faculty and medical students at the University of Michigan Medical School with 9th grade students at Cass Technical High School (Cass Tech) in Detroit, Michigan. The program includes a core curriculum of hands-on experiential learning, development, and presentation of a capstone project, and mentoring of 9th grade students by medical students. Cass Tech student feedback was collected using focus groups, critical incident written narratives, and individual interviews. Medical student feedback was collected reviewing monthly meeting minutes from the Doctors of Tomorrow medical student leadership. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Two strong themes emerged from the Cass Tech student feedback: (i) Personal identity and its perceived effect on goal achievement and (ii) positive affect of direct mentorship and engagement with current healthcare providers through Doctors of Tomorrow. A challenge noted by the medical students was the lack of structured curriculum beyond the 1st

  14. Gendered Pedagogic Identities and Academic Professionalism in Greek Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouroufli, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Feminist scholarship has considered how pedagogical identities and emotions are implicated in the gender politics of belonging and othering in higher education. This paper examines how gendered and embodied pedagogy is mobilised in Greek medical schools to construct notions of the ideal academic and assert women's position women in Academic…

  15. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Villegas-Arrizón, Ascensio; Ledogar, Robert J; Delabra-Jardón, Verónica; Álvarez-Chávez, José; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. Methods In both 2000 and 2007 medical students...

  16. Barriers to implementing a health policy curriculum in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed R

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Raihan Mohammed, Jamil Shah Foridi, Innocent OgunmwonyiFaculty of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKAs clinical medical students, we read with great interest the perspective by Malik et al.1 Although medical schools excel at educating students on the pathology and treatment of diseases, we agree on the severe deficiency in teaching health policy (HP in the medical curriculum. However, the authors fail to include challenges facing this implementation, which is an important aspect of the analysis. Thus, here we outline 3 key barriers that must be considered when including HP teaching in the medical curricula.First, as the authors mention, the medical curriculum is already saturated and there is insufficient space to add obligatory HP learning in timetables. The UK curriculum is so packed that lecturers resort to teaching facts, which students then rote-learn and commit to memory. This leaves little time for students to develop a deep understanding of the pathophysiology of diseases and subsequent management, and they also fail to develop core lifelong skills, including problem solving and critical thinking.2 It is well acknowledged that the medical course is extremely rigorous, and up to 90% of students have admitted to suffering from stress and up to 75% have complained of burnout.3 With mental health issues among students reaching epidemic levels, adding HP lectures to the timetable would put undue strain on both the medical school curricula and the students.View the original article by Malik et al.

  17. Clinical Learning Environment at Shiraz Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Ebrahimi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical learning occurs in the context of a dynamic environment. Learning environment found to be one of the most important factors in determining the success of an effective teaching program. To investigate, from the attending and resident's perspective, factors that may affect student leaning in the educational hospital setting at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS. This study combined qualitative and quantitative methods to determine factors affecting effective learning in clinical setting. Residents evaluated the perceived effectiveness of the university hospital learning environment. Fifty two faculty members and 132 residents participated in this study. Key determinants that contribute to an effective clinical teaching were autonomy, supervision, social support, workload, role clarity, learning opportunity, work diversity and physical facilities. In a good clinical setting, residents should be appreciated and given appropriate opportunities to study in order to meet their objectives. They require a supportive environment to consolidate their knowledge, skills and judgment.

  18. Evaluation of doses from radiodiagnostic procedures performed in veterinary medicine and assessing of the doses of secondary radiation in the medical staff and animal owners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veneziani, Glauco Rogerio

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal in veterinary radiography is to produce radiographs of diagnostic quality on the first attempt. This goal serves three purposes: (1) to decrease radiation exposure to the patient and veterinary personnel; (2) to decrease the cost of the study for the client; and (3) to produce diagnostic data for rapid interpretation and treatment of the patient. This work aimed to determine the doses in dogs submitted to chest and abdomen X rays using the technique of thermoluminescence (TL) dosimetry. The radiation doses were assessed using thermoluminescent dosimeters of calcium sulphate doped with dysprosium (CaSO 4 :Dy) and lithium fluoride doped with magnesium and titanium (LiF:Mg,Ti). The obtained results indicate that is extremely important the assessment of radiation doses involved in veterinary diagnostic radiology procedures, to evaluate the delivered doses to the animals, to be used as a parameter in the individual monitoring of pet's owners, who assist the animal positioning, and to protect occupationally exposed workers at the Veterinary Radiology Clinics. (author)

  19. Evaluation of Usage of Virtual Microscopy for the Study of Histology in the Medical, Dental, and Veterinary Undergraduate Programs of a UK University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatumu, Margaret K.; MacMillan, Frances M.; Langton, Philip D.; Headley, P. Max; Harris, Judy R.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the introduction of a virtual microscope (VM) that has allowed preclinical histology teaching to be fashioned to better suit the needs of approximately 900 undergraduate students per year studying medicine, dentistry, or veterinary science at the University of Bristol, United Kingdom. Features of the VM implementation…

  20. Perceptions of medical graduates and their workplace supervisors towards a medical school clinical audit program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stephanie; O'Ferrall, Ilse; Hoare, Samuel; Caroline, Bulsara; Mak, Donna B

    2017-07-07

    This study explores how medical graduates and their workplace supervisors perceive the value of a structured clinical audit program (CAP) undertaken during medical school. Medical students at the University of Notre Dame Fremantle complete a structured clinical audit program in their final year of medical school.  Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 Notre Dame graduates (who had all completed the CAP), and seven workplace supervisors (quality and safety staff and clinical supervisors).  Purposeful sampling was used to recruit participants and data were analysed using thematic analysis. Both graduates and workplace supervisors perceived the CAP to be valuable. A major theme was that the CAP made a contribution to individual graduate's medical practice, including improved knowledge in some areas of patient care as well as awareness of healthcare systems issues and preparedness to undertake scientifically rigorous quality improvement activities. Graduates perceived that as a result of the CAP, they were confident in undertaking a clinical audit after graduation.  Workplace supervisors perceived the value of the CAP beyond an educational experience and felt that the audits undertaken by students improved quality and safety of patient care. It is vital that health professionals, including medical graduates, be able to carry out quality and safety activities in the workplace. This study provides evidence that completing a structured clinical audit during medical school prepares graduates to undertake quality and safety activities upon workplace entry. Other health professional faculties may be interested in incorporating a similar program in their curricula.

  1. Effects of grazing intensity and the use of veterinary medical products on dung beetle biodiversity in the sub-mountainous landscape of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Tonelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Grazing extensification and intensification are among the main problems affecting European grasslands. We analyze the impact of grazing intensity (low and moderate and the use of veterinary medical products (VMPs on the dung beetle community in the province of Pesaro-Urbino (Italy. Grazing intensity is a key factor in explaining the diversity of dung beetles. In the case of the alpha diversity component, sites with a low level of grazing activity—related in a previous step to the subsequent abandonment of traditional farming—is characterized by a loss of species richness (q = 0 and a reduction in alpha diversity at the levels q = 1 and q = 2. In the case of beta diversity, sites with a different grazing intensity show remarkable differences in terms of the composition of their species assemblages. The use of VMPs is another important factor in explaining changes in dung beetle diversity. In sites with a traditional use of VMPs, a significant loss of species richness and biomass is observed, as is a notable effect on beta diversity. In addition, the absence of indicator species in sites with a historical use of VMPs corroborates the hypothesis that these substances have a ubiquitous effect on dung beetles. However, the interaction between grazing activity and VMPs when it comes to explaining changes in dung beetle diversity is less significant (or is not significant than the main effects (each factor separately for alpha diversity, biomass and species composition. This may be explained if we consider that both factors affect the various species differently. In other words, the reduction in dung availability affects several larger species more than it does very small species, although this does not imply that the former are more susceptible to injury caused by the ingestion of dung contaminated with VMPs. Finally, in order to prevent negative consequences for dung beetle diversity, we propose the maintenance of a moderate grazing intensity and

  2. The introduction of medical humanities in the undergraduate curriculum of Greek medical schools: challenge and necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batistatou, A; Doulis, E A; Tiniakos, D; Anogiannaki, A; Charalabopoulos, K

    2010-10-01

    Medical humanities is a multidisciplinary field, consisting of humanities (theory of literature and arts, philosophy, ethics, history and theology), social sciences (anthropology, psychology and sociology) and arts (literature, theater, cinema, music and visual arts), integrated in the undergraduate curriculum of Medical schools. The aim of the present study is to discuss medical humanities and support the necessity of introduction of a medical humanities course in the curriculum of Greek medical schools. Through the relevant Pub-Med search as well as taking into account various curricula of medical schools, it is evident that medical education today is characterized by acquisition of knowledge and skills and development of medical values and attitudes. Clinical observation with the recognition of key data and patterns in the collected information, is crucial in the final medical decision, i.e. in the complex process, through which doctors accumulate data, reach conclusions and decide on therapy. All sciences included in medical humanities are important for the high quality education of future doctors. The practice of Medicine is in large an image-related science. The history of anatomy and art are closely related, already from the Renaissance time. Studies have shown that attendance of courses on art critics improves the observational skills of medical students. Literature is the source of information about the nature and source of human emotions and behavior and of narratives of illness, and increases imagination. Philosophy aids in the development of analytical and synthetical thinking. Teaching of history of medicine develops humility and aids in avoiding the repetition of mistakes of the past, and quite often raises research and therapeutic skepticism. The comprehension of medical ethics and professional deontology guides the patient-doctor relationship, as well as the relations between physicians and their colleagues. The Medical Humanities course, which is

  3. Are new medical students' specialty preferences gendered? Related motivational factors at a Dutch medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tongeren-Alers, Margret; van Esch, Maartje; Verdonk, Petra; Johansson, Eva; Hamberg, Katarina; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

    2011-01-01

    Female students currently outnumber male students in most medical schools. Some medical specialties are highly gender segregated. Therefore, it is interesting to know whether medical students have early specialization preferences based on their gender. Consequently, we like to know importance stipulated to motivational factors. Our study investigates new medical students' early specialization preferences and motivational factors. New students at a Dutch medical school (n = 657) filled in a questionnaire about specialty preferences (response rate = 94%; 69.5% female, 30.5% male). The students chose out of internal medicine, psychiatry, neurology, pediatrics, surgery, gynecology and family medicine, "other" or "I don't know." Finally, they valued ten motivational factors. Forty percent of the medical students reported no specialty preference yet. Taken together, female medical students preferred pediatrics and wished to combine work and care, whereas male students opted for surgery and valued career opportunities. Gender-driven professional preferences in new medical students should be noticed in order to use competencies. Changes in specialty preferences and motivational factors in pre- and post graduates should further assess the role of medical education.

  4. Playing doctor, seriously: graduation follies at an American medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, D

    1984-01-01

    In American medical schools, the period of time between the announcement of internships and graduation is known as FYBIGMI, for "Fuck You Brother I Got My Internship." At University Medical School (pseudonym), as at most American medical schools, this period culminates in an elaborate musical comedy (attended by faculty and relatives) in which faculty are abused, patients are represented in terms of stigmatized stereotypes, and the students demonstrate a profane familiarity with cultural taboos. Using the analytic methods of cultural anthropology, this examination of the FYBIGMI performance at U.M.S. focuses primarily on the seniors' presentation of their newly acquired professional identity, which is constituted in the skits by recurring oppositions to socially stigmatized, medically self-destructive patients. In this oppositional logic, racial stereotypes play a particularly large role. In addition, the seniors establish their new social status by inverting their relationship to their (former) supervisors on a personal basis, and by confronting the audience with their professional ability to treat cultural taboos with profane familiarity. The FYBIGMI theatrical, and its representation of professional identity, is analyzed in relation to a proposed model of the underlying structure of the process of medical education, that is, an escalating dialectic of intimidation and self-congratulation.

  5. Development of a Flipped Medical School Dermatology Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Joshua; Faber, David; Pikarsky, Solomon; Zhang, Chi; Riley, Richard; Mechaber, Alex; O'Connell, Mark; Kirsner, Robert S

    2017-05-01

    The flipped classroom module incorporates independent study in advance of in-class instructional sessions. It is unproven whether this methodology is effective within a medical school second-year organ system module. We report the development, implementation, and effectiveness of the flipped classroom methodology in a second-year medical student dermatology module at the University of Miami Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine. In a retrospective cohort analysis, we compared attitudinal survey data and mean scores for a 50-item multiple-choice final examination of the second-year medical students who participated in this 1-week flipped course with those of the previous year's traditional, lecture-based course. Each group comprised nearly 200 students. Students' age, sex, Medical College Admission Test scores, and undergraduate grade point averages were comparable between the flipped and traditional classroom students. The flipped module students' mean final examination score of 92.71% ± 5.03% was greater than that of the traditional module students' 90.92% ± 5.51% ( P flipped methodology to attending live lectures or watching previously recorded lectures. The flipped classroom can be an effective instructional methodology for a medical school second-year organ system module.

  6. Non-academic attributes of hidden curriculum in medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Aamer Zaman

    2013-01-01

    To identify the non-academic attributes developed during 5 years of training in medical school. Sequential mixed method. The study was conducted on final year medical students of four medical colleges in the city of Lahore, from March to September 2010. Probability random sampling was employed to identify public sector medical colleges for inclusion in the study through Lottery method. In the first phase, survey was done with the help of questionnaires, distributed amongst 280 students, selected on the basis of convenience sampling. It was triangulated with data collected by in-depth structured interviews on 46 students selected using purposive sampling after formal informed consent. For quantitative data percentages of the categorical variables were calculated through SPSS version 10. For qualitative data, themes and patterns were identified using Content Analysis technique. Majority of the medical students (80%) learn the attributes of integrity, self-reliance, tolerance and independence during their schooling. Sixty five percent students thought that the values of humanity, forbearance, righteous attitude in face of adversities and sympathetic behaviour towards peers and patients helped them in being better medical students. Thirty five percent said they faced the negative influences of gender bias and gender discrimination which has led to their impaired professional growth. Eighty percent of the students believe that the teaching methodology employed is teacher centric which does not let them become problem solvers, team players, reflective learners and hampers development of effective communication skills. Medical schooling in our part of the world helps in developing untaught attributes such as integrity, selfreliance, tolerance, independence, sympathetic attitude and good communication skills which are the same as are developed in the medical students of advanced countries, which can be fostered further by formally addressing them in the curriculum.

  7. Implementation of Online Veterinary Hospital on Cloud Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chung, Yu-Fang; Huang, Yao-Min; Chen, Tao-Chieh; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Pet markets involve in great commercial possibilities, which boost thriving development of veterinary hospital businesses. The service tends to intensive competition and diversified channel environment. Information technology is integrated for developing the veterinary hospital cloud service platform. The platform contains not only pet medical services but veterinary hospital management and services. In the study, QR Code andcloud technology are applied to establish the veterinary hospital cloud service platform for pet search by labeling a pet's identification with QR Code. This technology can break the restriction on veterinary hospital inspection in different areas and allows veterinary hospitals receiving the medical records and information through the exclusive QR Code for more effective inspection. As an interactive platform, the veterinary hospital cloud service platform allows pet owners gaining the knowledge of pet diseases and healthcare. Moreover, pet owners can enquire and communicate with veterinarians through the platform. Also, veterinary hospitals can periodically send reminders of relevant points and introduce exclusive marketing information with the platform for promoting the service items and establishing individualized marketing. Consequently, veterinary hospitals can increase the profits by information share and create the best solution in such a competitive veterinary market with industry alliance.

  8. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  9. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.

  10. Status of portfolios in undergraduate medical education in the LCME accredited US medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertoff, Jason; Wright, Ashleigh; Novak, Maureen; Fantone, Joseph; Fleming, Amy; Ahmed, Toufeeq; Green, Marianne M; Kalet, Adina; Linsenmeyer, Machelle; Jacobs, Joshua; Dokter, Christina; Zaidi, Zareen

    2016-09-01

    We sought to investigate the number of US medical schools utilizing portfolios, the format of portfolios, information technology (IT) innovations, purpose of portfolios and their ability to engage faculty and students. A 21-question survey regarding portfolios was sent to the 141 LCME-accredited, US medical schools. The response rate was 50% (71/141); 47% of respondents (33/71) reported that their medical school used portfolios in some form. Of those, 7% reported the use of paper-based portfolios and 76% use electronic portfolios. Forty-five percent reported portfolio use for formative evaluation only; 48% for both formative and summative evaluation, and 3% for summative evaluation alone. Seventy-two percent developed a longitudinal, competency-based portfolio. The most common feature of portfolios was reflective writing (79%). Seventy-three percent allow access to the portfolio off-campus, 58% allow usage of tablets and mobile devices, and 9% involve social media within the portfolio. Eighty percent and 69% agreed that the portfolio engaged students and faculty, respectively. Ninety-seven percent reported that the portfolios used at their institution have room for improvement. While there is significant variation in the purpose and structure of portfolios in the medical schools surveyed, most schools using portfolios reported a high level of engagement with students and faculty.

  11. Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...

  12. Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 16 of 16 Items ...

  13. Open Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...

  14. .* Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Central Diagnostic, National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, 'Department of Veterinary Medicine. Ahmadu Bello ..... environment as reported by (Olabode et al., 2009; Okwor and Eze, 2011;Jwander et al., 2013b). Farmers who had the same complaints of. Marek's disease from the same source of.

  15. Factors related to in-house agricultural animal caseloads in US veterinary teaching hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Jeff W; Miller, Robert B; Constable, Peter D; Hostetler, Douglas E; Lakritz, Jeff; Hardin, David K; Angel, Kenneth L; Wolfe, Dwight F

    2002-01-01

    A retrospective observational study was conducted to determine whether agricultural animal caseloads at veterinary teaching hospitals declined between 1995 and 1998. Thereafter, the effect of organizational and demographic factors on 1998 in-house agricultural animal caseloads was examined. Caseload data were obtained from the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges. Demographic and organizational data were obtained by surveys, telephone interviews, and web-based resources. Complete data were available from 25 veterinary colleges, and data from these schools were used in subsequent analyses. In 1998, in-house food animal caseload decreased relative to 1995 in 17 schools and increased relative to 1995 in 8 schools. This trend was not significant (P = .053); however, the power of the test was limited (.50). Mean 1998 caseload was 886 +/- 504. Among schools with a discipline-based organizational structure, annual mean caseload was 464 +/- 220. Among schools with a species-based organizational structure, mean caseload was 1,167 +/- 463. The regression model that best predicted caseload was a forward-stepping model that included only organizational structure as an independent variable. No additional independent variable was significantly associated with caseload.

  16. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olopade, Funmilayo Eniola; Adaramoye, Oluwatosin Adekunle; Raji, Yinusa; Fasola, Abiodun Olubayo; Olapade-Olaopa, Emiola Oluwabunmi

    2016-01-01

    The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the "old" curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula successfully. The modifications to the teaching and assessment of the core basic medical science subjects have resulted in improved learning and performance at the final examinations.

  17. How medical schools can encourage students' interest in family medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohan-Minjares, Felisha; Alfero, Charles; Kaufman, Arthur

    2015-05-01

    The discipline of family medicine is essential to improving quality and reducing the cost of care in an effective health care system. Yet the slow growth of this field has not kept pace with national demand. In their study, Rodríguez and colleagues report on the influence of the social environment and academic discourses on medical students' identification with family medicine in four countries-the United Kingdom, Canada, France, and Spain. They conclude that these factors-the social environment and discursive activity within the medical school-influence students' specialty choices. While the discourses in Canada, France, and Spain were mostly negative, in the United Kingdom, family medicine was considered a prestigious academic discipline, well paying, and with a wide range of practice opportunities. Medical students in the United Kingdom also were exposed early and often to positive family medicine role models.In the United States, academic discourses about family medicine are more akin to those in Canada, France, and Spain. The hidden curriculum includes negative messages about family medicine, and "badmouthing" primary care occurs at many medical schools. National education initiatives highlight the importance of social determinants in medical education and the integration of public health and medicine in practice. Other initiatives expose students to family medicine role models and practice during their undergraduate training and promote primary care practice through new graduate medical education funding models. Together, these initiatives can reduce the negative effects of the social environment and create a more positive discourse about family medicine.

  18. Medication management in Minnesota schools: The need for school nurse-pharmacist partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Meg M; Eischens, Sara; Martin, Mary Jo; Nokleby, Susan; Palombi, Laura C; Van Kirk, Cynthia; van Risseghem, Jayme; Wen, Ya-Feng; Wozniak, Jennifer Koziol; Yoney, Erika; Seifert, Randall

    Pharmacist participation in school medication management (MM) is minimal. School nurses are responsible for increasingly complex medication administration and management in schools. The purpose of this study was to 1) assess the MM needs of school nurses in Minnesota, and 2) determine if and how interprofessional partnerships between nurses and pharmacists might optimize MM for students. Researchers from the University of Minnesota College of Pharmacy, School Nurse Organization of Minnesota, and Minnesota Department of Health conducted a 32-item online survey of school nurses. Nurses administered the majority of medications at their school (69.9%) compared with unlicensed assistive personnel (29%). Stimulants (37.7%), asthma medications (25.7%), over-the-counter analgesics (17.8%), and insulin (6.6%) were the most commonly administered drug therapies. A clear majority of school nurses were interested in partnering with pharmacists: 90.3% thought that a pharmacist could assist with MM, 80% would consult with a pharmacist, and 12.3% reported that they already have informal access to a pharmacist. Topics that nurses would discuss with a pharmacist included new medications (71.6%), drug-drug interactions (67.1%), proper administration (52%), and storage (39.4%). The top MM concerns included 1) availability of students' medications and required documentation, 2) health literacy, 3) pharmacist consultations, 4) lack of time available for nurses to follow up with and evaluate students, 5) family-centered care, 6) delegation, 7) communication, and 8) professional development. Although the majority of school nurses surveyed indicated that partnerships with pharmacists would improve school MM, few had a formal relationship. Interprofessional partnerships focused on MM and education are high on the list of services that school nurses would request of a consultant pharmacist. Study results suggest that there are opportunities for pharmacists to collaborate with school nurses

  19. Medical education in Israel 2016: five medical schools in a period of transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Shmuel; Urkin, Jacob; Nave, Rachel; Ber, Rosalie; Ziv, Amitai; Karnieli-Miller, Orit; Meitar, Dafna; Gilbey, Peter; Mevorach, Dror

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the existing programs for basic medical education (BME) in Israel as well as their output, since they are in a phase of reassessment and transition. The transition has been informed, in part, by evaluation in 2014 by an International Review Committee (IRC). The review is followed by an analysis of its implications as well as the emergent roadmap for the future. The review documents a trend of modernizing, humanizing, and professionalizing Israeli medical education in general, and BME in particular, independently in each of the medical schools. Suggested improvements include an increased emphasis on interactive learner-centered rather than frontal teaching formats, clinical simulation, interprofessional training, and establishment of a national medical training forum for faculty development. In addition, collaboration should be enhanced between medical educators and health care providers, and among the medical schools themselves. The five schools admitted about 730 Israeli students in 2015, doubling admissions from 2000. In 2014, the number of new licenses, including those awarded to Israeli international medical graduates (IMGs), surpassed for the first time in more than a decade the estimated need for 1100 new physicians annually. About 60 % of the licenses awarded in 2015 were to IMGs. Israeli BME is undergoing continuous positive changes, was supplied with a roadmap for even further improvement by the IRC, and has doubled its output of graduates. The numbers of both Israeli graduates and IMGs are higher than estimated previously and may address the historically projected physician shortage. However, it is not clear whether the majority of newly licensed physicians, who were trained abroad, have benefited from similar recent improvements in medical education similar to those benefiting graduates of the Israeli medical schools, nor is it certain that they will benefit from the further improvements that have recently been recommended for the Israeli

  20. Some Observations on Veterinary Undergraduate Training in Surgical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittick, William G.

    1978-01-01

    The undergraduate surgery course of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, is described with focus on its experential method of teaching surgical techniques. Also discussed are the benefits of veterinary school cooperation with a large city Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). (JMD)

  1. The design of a medical school social justice curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coria, Alexandra; McKelvey, T Greg; Charlton, Paul; Woodworth, Michael; Lahey, Timothy

    2013-10-01

    The acquisition of skills to recognize and redress adverse social determinants of disease is an important component of undergraduate medical education. In this article, the authors justify and define "social justice curriculum" and then describe the medical school social justice curriculum designed by the multidisciplinary Social Justice Vertical Integration Group (SJVIG) at the Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth. The SJVIG addressed five goals: (1) to define core competencies in social justice education, (2) to identify key topics that a social justice curriculum should cover, (3) to assess social justice curricula at other institutions, (4) to catalog institutionally affiliated community outreach sites at which teaching could be paired with hands-on service work, and (5) to provide examples of the integration of social justice teaching into the core (i.e., basic science) curriculum. The SJVIG felt a social justice curriculum should cover the scope of health disparities, reasons to address health disparities, and means of addressing these disparities. The group recommended competency-based student evaluations and advocated assessing the impact of medical students' social justice work on communities. The group identified the use of class discussion of physicians' obligation to participate in social justice work as an educational tool, and they emphasized the importance of a mandatory, longitudinal, immersive, mentored community outreach practicum. Faculty and administrators are implementing these changes as part of an overall curriculum redesign (2012-2015). A well-designed medical school social justice curriculum should improve student recognition and rectification of adverse social determinants of disease.

  2. What a medical school chair wants from the dean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hromas R

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Robert Hromas,1 Robert Leverence,1 Lazarus K Mramba,2 J Larry Jameson,3 Caryn Lerman,3 Thomas L Schwenk,4 Ellen M Zimmermann,2 Michael L Good51The Office of the Dean, Department of Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA; 2Department of Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida Health, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Department of Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA; 4Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Nevada Reno, Reno, NV, USA; 5Department of Anesthesiology, College of Medicine, University of Florida Health, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Economic pressure has led the evolution of the role of the medical school dean from a clinician educator to a health care system executive. In addition, other dynamic requirements also have likely led to changes in their leadership characteristics. The most important relationship a dean has is with the chairs, yet in the context of the dean’s changing role, little attention has been paid to this relationship. To frame this discussion, we asked medical school chairs what characteristics of a dean’s leadership were most beneficial. We distributed a 26-question survey to 885 clinical and basic science chairs at 41 medical schools. These chairs were confidentially surveyed on their views of six leadership areas: evaluation, barriers to productivity, communication, accountability, crisis management, and organizational values. Of the 491 chairs who responded (response rate =55%, 88% thought that their dean was effective at leading the organization, and 89% enjoyed working with their dean. Chairs indicated that the most important area of expertise of a dean is to define a strategic vision, and the most important value for a dean is integrity between words and deeds. Explaining the reasons behind decisions, providing good feedback, admitting errors, open discussion of complex or

  3. Use of the National Board of Medical Examiners® Comprehensive Basic Science Exam: survey results of US medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, William S; Baston, Kirk

    2017-01-01

    The National Board of Medical Examiners ® (NBME) Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE) is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination ® (USMLE) Step 1 in new schools and schools undergoing curricular reform. Information regarding the actual use of the NBME CBSE is limited. Therefore, the aim of the survey was to determine the scope and utilization of the NBME CBSE by US medical schools. A survey was sent in May 2016 to curriculum leadership of the 139 US medical schools listed on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME ® ) website with provisional or full accreditation as of February 29, 2016. Responses were received from 53 schools (38% response rate). A series of different follow-up questions were asked if respondents stated "yes" or "no" to the initial question "Does your institution administer the NBME CBSE prior to the USMLE Step 1?". A total of 37 schools (70%) administered the NBME CBSE. In all, 36 of the 37 schools responded to follow-up questions. Of 36 schools, 13 schools (36%) used the NBME CBSE for curriculum modification. Six schools (17%) used the NBME CBSE for formative assessment for a course, and five schools (14%) used the NBME CBSE for summative assessment for a course. A total of 28 schools (78%) used the NBME CBSE for identifying students performing below expectations and providing targeted intervention strategies. In all, 24 schools (67%) of the 36 responding schools administering the NBME CBSE administered the test once prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1, whereas 10 (28%) schools administered the NBME CBSE two or more times prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1. Our data suggest that the NBME CBSE is administered by many US medical schools. However, the objective, timing, and number of exams administered vary greatly among schools.

  4. Teaching, learning and assessment of medical ethics at the UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Lucy; Bell, Dominic

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the UK undergraduate medical ethics curricula against the Institute of Medical Ethics (IME) recommendations; to identify barriers to teaching and assessment of medical ethics and to evaluate perceptions of ethics faculties on the preparation of tomorrow's doctors for clinical practice. Questionnaire survey of the UK medical schools enquiring about content, structure and location of ethics teaching and learning; teaching and learning processes; assessment; influences over institutional approach to ethics education; barriers to teaching and assessment; perception of student engagement and perception of student preparation for clinical practice. The lead for medical ethics at each medical school was invited to participate (n=33). Completed responses were received from 11/33 schools (33%). 73% (n=8) teach all IME recommended topics within their programme. 64% (n=7) do not include ethics in clinical placement learning objectives. The most frequently cited barrier to teaching was lack of time (64%, n=7), and to assessment was lack of time and suitability of assessments (27%, n=3). All faculty felt students were prepared for clinical practice. IME recommendations are not followed in all cases, and ethics teaching is not universally well integrated into clinical placement. Barriers to assessment lead to inadequacies in this area, and there are few consequences for failing ethics assessments. As such, tomorrow's patients will be treated by doctors who are inadequately prepared for ethical decision making in clinical practice; this needs to be addressed by ethics leads with support from medical school authorities. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Medical genetics teaching in Iranian medical schools, especially Ahvaz, south of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHDI BIJANZADEH

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Physicians have to visit, diagnose and refer patients with genetic disorders, so they need to be familiar with the basics and indications of genetic tests. In other words, they should have effective theoretical and practical knowledge about medical genetics before they do their job. Medical genetics courses at Medical Universities of Iran are generally presented as a theoretical subject in the first period of medical education. Methods: In this descriptive research, the results of interviews with teachers of medical genetics in 30 medical schools in Islamic Republic of Iran and responses to a questionnaire by 125 medical students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of medical sciences, about presentation time, curricula and also efficacy of medical genetics courses were analyzed. The interviews with teachers were done on phone and the students’ comments were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire. The data were analyzed, using SPSS software, version 14. Results: In two thirds of medical universities, medical genetics is taught in the third or fourth semester and in 5 universities in the fifth semester. 86% of the students believed that the quality of genetics courses is moderate and such courses are same as clinical manifestation of genetic disorders are benefitial to medical students. Conclusion: This article suggests that medical genetics be offered in the second or third period of medical education (physiopathology or stagger period. Furthermore, in teaching such courses advanced educational methods (animation presentation, case-based learning, problem-based learning, etc. should be used, together with simple genetic tests in laboratories, the visit of genetic patients in hospitals, and the genetics consult.

  6. Investigating the Medical Study of Overseas Students at Jinan University Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-ya; Wang, Guang; Cheng, Xin; Yang, Xuesong

    2017-01-01

    A great number of overseas students have studied medicine at Jinan University Medical School over the past decade. Statistics from the past ten years show that these students' test scores on diagnosis and medicine I & II are lower than those of their classmates from mainland China. To address the underlying causes of this phenomenon, we…

  7. The Great Diseases Project: a partnership between Tufts Medical School and the Boston public schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacque, Berri; Malanson, Katherine; Bateman, Kathleen; Akeson, Bob; Cail, Amanda; Doss, Chris; Dugan, Matt; Finegold, Brandon; Gauthier, Aimee; Galego, Mike; Roundtree, Eugene; Spezzano, Lawrence; Meiri, Karina F

    2013-05-01

    Medical schools, although the gatekeepers of much biomedical education and research, rarely engage formally with K-12 educators to influence curriculum content or professional development. This segregation of content experts from teachers creates a knowledge gap that limits inclusion of current biomedical science into high school curricula, affecting both public health literacy and the biomedical pipeline. The authors describe how, in 2009, scientists from Tufts Medical School and Boston public school teachers established a partnership of formal scholarly dialogue to create 11th- to 12th-grade high school curricula about critical health-related concepts, with the goal of increasing scientific literacy and influencing health-related decisions. The curricula are based on the great diseases (infectious diseases, neurological disorders, metabolic disease, and cancer). Unlike most health science curricular interventions that provide circumscribed activities, the curricula are comprehensive, each filling one full term of in-class learning and providing extensive real-time support for the teacher. In this article, the authors describe how they developed and implemented the infectious disease curriculum, and its impacts. The high school teachers and students showed robust gains in content knowledge and critical thinking skills, whereas the Tufts scientists increased their pedagogical knowledge and appreciation for health-related science communication. The results show how formal interactions between medical schools and K-12 educators can be mutually beneficial.

  8. Sexual harassment during clinical clerkships in Dutch medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademakers, Jany J D J M; van den Muijsenbergh, Maria E T C; Slappendel, Geerte; Lagro-Janssen, Antoine L M; Borleffs, Jan C C

    2008-05-01

    Sexual harassment of medical students has been the focus of many international studies. Prevalence rates from 18% to over 60% have been reported. However, a Dutch study at Nijmegen Medical School found the prevalence rate to be lower (13.3% in the total group; 20% among female students only). We aimed to identify whether Nijmegen constitutes a positive sample of Dutch medical schools or whether incidents of sexual harassment are less prevalent in the Netherlands than elsewhere, and to establish if and how these experiences impact the professional lives of students. Students received a semi-structured questionnaire containing questions about their experiences of sexual harassment during clerkships. The questions referred to students' reactions to any incidents, the possible consequences for their wellbeing or professional functioning and the way cases of sexual harassment were handled. The prevalence of sexual harassment was significantly higher in Utrecht than in Nijmegen. In both studies rates were relatively low compared with international data. Nevertheless, 1 in 3-5 Dutch female medical students had experienced unwelcome sexual attention from patients, colleagues or supervisors. Three of 10 students who had experienced such an incident stated that it had a negative impact on their functioning afterwards. Prevalence rates of sexual harassment in medical schools in the Netherlands are low compared with international rates. However, the number of women students who experience sexual harassment is still 1 in 3-5. The occurrence of and ways to deal with these incidents should be important topics in the training of medical students and supervisors.

  9. Analysis of curricular reform practices at Chinese medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Cai, Qiaoling; Cheng, Liming; Kosik, Russell; Mandell, Greg; Wang, Shuu-Jiun; Xu, Guo-Tong; Fan, Angela P

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive search of the literature published between 2001 and 2010 was performed to gain a greater understanding of curricular reform practices at Chinese medical schools. There were 10,948 studies published between 2001 and 2010 that were retrieved from the database. Following preliminary screening, 76 publications from 49 different medical schools were selected. Thirty-one publications regarding clinical medicine curricular reforms were analyzed further. Of the 76 studies, 53 described curricular reforms that were instituted in theoretical courses, 22 described curricular reforms that were instituted in experimental courses, and 1 described curricular reforms that were instituted in a clinical skills training course. Of the 31 clinical medicine publications, 2 described reforms that were implemented for 3-year program medical students, 12 described reforms that were implemented for 5-year program medical students, 6 described reforms that were implemented for 7-year program medical students, and 2 described reforms that were implemented for 8-year program medical students. Currently, the majority of medical schools in China use the discipline-based curriculum model. Thirteen studies described transition to an organ-system-based curriculum model, 1 study described transition to a problem-based curriculum model, and 3 studies described transition to a clinical presentation-based curriculum model. In 7 studies educators decided to retain the discipline-based curriculum model while integrating 1 or several new courses to remedy the weaker aspects of the traditional curriculum, in 7 studies educators decided to integrate the preclinical courses with the clinical courses by using the systemic-integrating curricular system that dilutes classical disciplines and integrates material based on organ systems, and in 2 studies educators limited reforms to clinical courses only. Eight studies discussed the implementation of a formative evaluation system, 4 studies

  10. Research data services in veterinary medicine libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Erin E

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated veterinary medicine librarians' experience with and perceptions of research data services. Many academic libraries have begun to offer research data services in response to researchers' increased need for data management support. To date, such services have typically been generic, rather than discipline-specific, to appeal to a wide variety of researchers. An online survey was deployed to identify trends regarding research data services in veterinary medicine libraries. Participants were identified from a list of contacts from the MLA Veterinary Medical Libraries Section. Although many respondents indicated that they have a professional interest in research data services, the majority of veterinary medicine librarians only rarely or occasionally provide data management support as part of their regular job responsibilities. There was little consensus as to whether research data services should be core to a library's mission despite their perceived importance to the advancement of veterinary research. Furthermore, most respondents stated that research data services are just as or somewhat less important than the other services that they provide and feel only slightly or somewhat prepared to offer such services. Lacking a standard definition of "research data" and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.

  11. Factors Associated with Veterinary Clinical Faculty Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, Martin

    Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded, and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.

  12. Medical student attitudes about mental illness: does medical-school education reduce stigma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korszun, Ania; Dinos, Sokratis; Ahmed, Kamran; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2012-05-01

    Reducing stigma associated with mental illness is an important aim of medical education, yet evidence indicates that medical students' attitudes toward patients with mental health problems deteriorate as they progress through medical school. Authors examined medical students' attitudes to mental illness, as compared with attitudes toward other medical illness, and the influence of the number of years spent in medical school, as well as of several key socio-demographic, ethnic, and cultural variables. A group of 760 U.K. medical students completed a nationwide on-line survey examining their attitudes toward patients with five conditions (pneumonia, depression, psychotic symptoms, intravenous drug use, long-standing unexplained abdominal complaints), using the Medical Condition Regard Scale (MCRS). Students were also asked whether they had completed the psychiatry rotation or had personal experience of mental disorders themselves or among their friends or family members. They were also asked about their ethnic group (using U.K. national census categories), religious affiliation, and how important religion was in their lives. Independent-samples t-tests and one-way ANOVA were used to compare differences between groups on the MCRS. Students showed the highest regard for patients with pneumonia and lowest regard for patients with long-standing, unexplained abdominal complaints. Although attitudes toward pneumonia were more positive in fifth-year students than in first-year students, attitudes toward unexplained chronic abdominal pain were worse in fifth-year students than in first-year students. Personal experience of mental health treatment, or that among family and friends, were associated with less stigmatizing attitudes. Men showed more stigmatization than women for nearly all conditions; Chinese and South Asian students showed more stigmatizing attitudes toward delusions and hallucinations than their white British counterparts. Medical students in this survey

  13. Ethical principles for novel therapies in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, J W

    2016-02-01

    To present insights to aid decision-making about novel veterinary treatments from regulations concerning animal experimentation and human clinical medical trials. EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes and EU Regulation 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use were analysed, evaluated and "translated" into relevant principles for veterinary surgeons. A number of principles are relevant, relating to treatment expectations, thresholds and objectives; client consent; minimising harms; personnel; review committees; assessment and publication. These principles should assist veterinary surgeons to make good ethical decisions about novel treatments. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. The Reliance on Unclaimed Cadavers for Anatomical Teaching by Medical Schools in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangata, Hope; Ntaba, Phatheka; Akol, Princess; Louw, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The study of gross Anatomy through the use of cadaveric dissections in medical schools is an essential part of the comprehensive learning of human Anatomy, and unsurprisingly, 90% of the surveyed medical schools in Africa used cadaveric dissections. Donated cadavers now make up 80% of the total cadavers in North American medical schools and all…

  15. [The early medical textbooks in Korea: medical textbooks published at Je Joong Won-Severance Hospital Medical School].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H W

    1998-01-01

    Kwang Hye Won(Je Joong Won), the first western hospital in Korea, was founded in 1885. The first western Medical School in Korea was open in 1886 under the hospital management. Dr. O. R. Avison, who came to Korea in 1893, resumed the medical education there, which was interrupted for some time before his arrival in Korea. He inaugurated translating and publishing medical textbooks with the help of Kim Pil Soon who later became one of the first seven graduates in Severance Hospital Medical School. The first western medical textbook translated into Korean was Henry Gray's Anatomy. However, these twice-translated manuscripts were never to be published on account of being lost and burnt down. The existing early anatomy textbooks, the editions of 1906 and 1909, are not the translation of Gray's Anatomy, but that of Japanese anatomy textbook of Gonda. The remaining oldest medical textbook in Korean is Inorganic Materia Medica published in 1905. This book is unique among its kind that O. R. Avison is the only translator of the book and it contains the prefaces of O. R. Avison and Kim Pil Soon. The publication of medical textbook was animated by the participation of other medical students, such as Hong Suk Hoo and Hong Jong Eun. The list of medical textbooks published includes almost all the field of medicine. The medical textbooks in actual existence are as follows: Inorganic Materia Medica (1905), Inorganic Chemistry (1906), Anatomy I (1906), Physiology (1906), Diagnostics I (1906), Diagnostics II (1907), Obstetrics (1908), Organic Chemistry (1909), Anatomy (1909), and Surgery (1910).

  16. Expanding management and leadership education in medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudry A

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Aqib Chaudry, Amar Sodha, Ahmed Nur Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK We read with great interest the article by Rouhani et al1 exploring the perceptions, attitudes, and interest of UK medical students toward medical leadership. As medical students who recently completed an intercalated degree in health care management at Imperial College London, we can offer a unique perspective on this important issue.Authors' responseMaral J Rouhani,1 Eleanor J Burleigh,2 Chloe Hobbis,2 Charlotte Dunford,1 Nadir I Osman,3 Christine Gan,1 Norma B Gibbons,1 Hashim U Ahmed,1,4 Saiful Miah1,51Department of Urology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK; 2Medical School, University of Sheffield, Sheffield, UK; 3Department of Urology, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield, UK; 4Division of Surgery, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, London, UK; 5Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London, UK We read with great interest the response to our article1 by Chaudry et al. Their group have contemporary insight and valuable experience in this subject which can be attributed to the intercalated degrees they have undertaken in health care management. We are acutely aware that very few UK medical schools actually offer such an intercalated degree. However, we believe the proposal of Singh et al2 of a compulsory health care management BSc is a counterproductive one. Basic science and clinically orientated intercalated degrees expose the medical student to research techniques and methodology. At their very core, they inspire the medical mind and are not designed to instruct all doctors to be academic research scientists, but rather ensure that every clinician’s mind is tuned to continually evaluate standard practice, and ask can we do better? View the original paper by Rouhani and colleagues.

  17. Profile of graduates of Israeli medical schools in 1981--2000: educational background, demography and evaluation of medical education programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterman, Noemi; Shalev, Ilana

    2005-05-01

    In light of changes in the medical profession, the different requirements placed on physicians and the evolving needs of the healthcare system, the need arose to examine the medical education curriculum in Israel. This survey, conducted by the Samuel Neaman Institute for Science and Technology, summarizes 20 years of medical education in Israel's four medical schools, as the first stage in mapping the existing state of medical education in Israel and providing a basis for decision-making on future medical education programs. To characterize the academic background of graduates, evaluate their attitudes towards current and alternative medical education programs, and examine subgroups among graduates according to gender, medical school, high school education, etc. The survey included graduates from all four Israeli medical schools who graduated between the years 1981 and 2000 in a sample of 1:3. A questionnaire and stamped return envelope were sent to every third graduate; the questionnaire included open and quantitative questions graded on a scale of 1 to 5. The data were processed for the entire graduate population and further analyzed according to subgroups such as medical schools, gender, high school education, etc. The response rate was 41.3%. The survey provided a demographic profile of graduates over a 20 year period, their previous educational and academic background, additional academic degrees achieved, satisfaction, and suggestions for future medical education programs. The profile of the medical graduates in Israel is mostly homogenous in terms of demographics, with small differences among the four medical schools. In line with recommendations of the graduates, and as an expression of the changing requirements in the healthcare system and the medical profession, the medical schools should consider alternative medical education programs such as a bachelor's degree in life sciences followed by MD studies, or education programs that combine medicine with

  18. Standardizing assessment practices of undergraduate medical competencies across medical schools: challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from a consortium of medical schools in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubuuke, Aloysius Gonzaga; Mwesigwa, Catherine; Maling, Samuel; Rukundo, Godfrey; Kagawa, Mike; Kitara, David Lagoro; Kiguli, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Health professions education is gradually moving away from the more traditional approaches to new innovative ways of training aimed at producing professionals with the necessary competencies to address the community health needs. In response to these emerging trends, Medical Education for Equitable Services to All Ugandans (MESAU), a consortium of Ugandan medical schools developed key competencies desirable of graduates and successfully implemented Competency Based Education (CBE) for undergraduate medical students. Objectives To examine the current situation and establish whether assessment methods of the competencies are standardized across MESAU schools as well as establish the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from the MESAU consortium. Methods It was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving faculty of the medical schools in Uganda. Data was collected using focus group discussions and document reviews. Findings were presented in form of themes. Results Although the MESAU schools have implemented the developed competencies within their curricular, the assessment methods are still not standardized with each institution having its own assessment procedures. Lack of knowledge and skills regarding assessment of the competencies was evident amongst the faculty. The fear for change amongst lecturers was also noted as a major challenge. However, the institutional collaboration created while developing competencies was identified as key strength. Conclusion Findings demonstrated that despite having common competencies, there is no standardized assessment blue print applicable to all MESAU schools. Continued collaboration and faculty development in assessment is strongly recommended. PMID:25995778

  19. Standardizing assessment practices of undergraduate medical competencies across medical schools: challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from a consortium of medical schools in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubuuke, Aloysius Gonzaga; Mwesigwa, Catherine; Maling, Samuel; Rukundo, Godfrey; Kagawa, Mike; Kitara, David Lagoro; Kiguli, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Health professions education is gradually moving away from the more traditional approaches to new innovative ways of training aimed at producing professionals with the necessary competencies to address the community health needs. In response to these emerging trends, Medical Education for Equitable Services to All Ugandans (MESAU), a consortium of Ugandan medical schools developed key competencies desirable of graduates and successfully implemented Competency Based Education (CBE) for undergraduate medical students. To examine the current situation and establish whether assessment methods of the competencies are standardized across MESAU schools as well as establish the challenges, opportunities and lessons learned from the MESAU consortium. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study involving faculty of the medical schools in Uganda. Data was collected using focus group discussions and document reviews. Findings were presented in form of themes. Although the MESAU schools have implemented the developed competencies within their curricular, the assessment methods are still not standardized with each institution having its own assessment procedures. Lack of knowledge and skills regarding assessment of the competencies was evident amongst the faculty. The fear for change amongst lecturers was also noted as a major challenge. However, the institutional collaboration created while developing competencies was identified as key strength. Findings demonstrated that despite having common competencies, there is no standardized assessment blue print applicable to all MESAU schools. Continued collaboration and faculty development in assessment is strongly recommended.

  20. Ethical dilemmas in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Carol A; McDonald, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Veterinarians frequently encounter situations that are morally charged and potentially difficult to manage. Situation involving euthanasia, end-of-life care, economics, and inadequate provision of care create practical and moral dilemmas. Ethical tension may be attributable to differences in beliefs regarding the moral value of animals, client and veterinary responsibilities, and deciding what is best for an animal. Veterinarians can employ communication skills used in medical situations to explore the reasons underpinning ethical dilemmas and to search for solutions with clients, staff, and colleagues.

  1. Status of medical education reform at Saga Medical School 5 years after introducing PBL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oda, Yasutomo; Koizumi, Shunzo

    2008-03-01

    In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL) is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums) to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors). Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum) is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including "silent tutors" and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  2. Status of Medical Education Reform at Saga Medical School 5 Years After Introducing PBL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasutomo Oda

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In Japan, problem-based learning (PBL is a relatively new method of educating medical students that is reforming the face of medical education throughout the world, including Asia. It shifts from teacher-centered learning strategies (for example, lectures in large auditoriums to student-centered, self-directed learning methods (for example, active discussions and problem-solving by students in small groups under the guidance of faculty tutors. Upon a recommendation by the Japan Model Core Curriculum, Saga Medical School introduced a PBL curriculum 5 years ago. A full PBL curriculum was adopted from the McMaster model through Hawaii. A description of how PBL was implemented into the 3rd and 4th year (Phase III curriculum is given. The overall result has been good. Students who experienced PBL had increased scores on the National Medical License Exam, and Saga increased its ranking from 56th to 19th of the 80 medical schools in Japan. A key step was introduction of the educational scaffolding in PBL Step 0. Students were allowed to see page one of the PBL case, containing the chief complaint, on the weekend before meeting in small groups. Despite a perceived overall benefit to student learning, symptoms of superficial discussions by students have been observed recently. How this may be caused by poor case design is discussed. Other problems, including “silent tutors” and increased faculty workload, are discussed. It is concluded that after 5 years, Saga's implementation of a PBL curriculum has been successful. However, many additional issues, including motivation of students and preparation for PBL in the first 2 years, must still be resolved in the future. This is the first description of the positive and negative outcomes associated with the reform of medical education and the introduction of PBL to a traditional medical school curriculum in Japan.

  3. Developing a competency-based medical education curriculum for the core basic medical sciences in an African Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olopade FE

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Funmilayo Eniola Olopade,1 Oluwatosin Adekunle Adaramoye,2 Yinusa Raji,3 Abiodun Olubayo Fasola,4 Emiola Oluwabunmi Olapade-Olaopa5 1Department of Anatomy, 2Department of Biochemistry, 3Department of Physiology, 4Department of Oral Pathology, 5Department of Surgery, College of Medicine, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria Abstract: The College of Medicine of the University of Ibadan recently revised its MBBS and BDS curricula to a competency-based medical education method of instruction. This paper reports the process of revising the methods of instruction and assessment in the core basic medical sciences directed at producing medical and dental graduates with a sound knowledge of the subjects sufficient for medical and dental practice and for future postgraduate efforts in the field or related disciplines. The health needs of the community and views of stakeholders in the Ibadan medical and dental schools were determined, and the “old” curriculum was reviewed. This process was directed at identifying the strengths and weaknesses of the old curricula and the newer competences required for modern-day medical/dental practice. The admission criteria and processes and the learning methods of the students were also studied. At the end of the review, an integrated, system-based, community-oriented, person-centered, and competency-driven curriculum was produced and approved for implementation. Four sets of students have been admitted into the curriculum. There have been challenges to the implementation process, but these have been overcome by continuous faculty development and reorientation programs for the nonteaching staff and students. Two sets of students have crossed over to the clinical school, and the consensus among the clinical teachers is that their knowledge and application of the basic medical sciences are satisfactory. The Ibadan medical and dental schools are implementing their competency-based medical education curricula

  4. Primary care careers among recent graduates of research-intensive private and public medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Phillip A; Xu, Shuai; Ayanian, John Z

    2013-06-01

    Despite a growing need for primary care physicians in the United States, the proportion of medical school graduates pursuing primary care careers has declined over the past decade. To assess the association of medical school research funding with graduates matching in family medicine residencies and practicing primary care. Observational study of United States medical schools. One hundred twenty-one allopathic medical schools. The primary outcomes included the proportion of each school's graduates from 1999 to 2001 who were primary care physicians in 2008, and the proportion of each school's graduates who entered family medicine residencies during 2007 through 2009. The 25 medical schools with the highest levels of research funding from the National Institutes of Health in 2010 were designated as "research-intensive." Among research-intensive medical schools, the 16 private medical schools produced significantly fewer practicing primary care physicians (median 24.1% vs. 33.4%, p schools. In contrast, the nine research-intensive public medical schools produced comparable proportions of graduates pursuing primary care careers (median 36.1% vs. 36.3%, p = 0.87) and matching in family medicine residencies (median 7.4% vs. 10.0%, p = 0.37) relative to the other 66 public medical schools. To meet the health care needs of the US population, research-intensive private medical schools should play a more active role in promoting primary care careers for their students and graduates.

  5. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Corresponding author: Email: yahidauad@gmail.com; Tel No:+2348037811882 ... and veterinary medicine as potent anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and .... steroid skeleton, similar to hydrocortisone. ... for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth.

  6. Tanzania Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Journal are the Research Workers, Veterinary Clinicians, Animal Scientists, Field Officers ... Prevalence and risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infestations in ... Mastitis pathogens prevalent in dairy cattle at Magadu farm, Morogoro- ...

  7. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Control Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Abuja; 9National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B 01 Vom,. Nigeria. *Corresponding ... because the poultry industry contributes ..... holidays have been identified as source of transmission ...

  8. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Health information technology and the medical school curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triola, Marc M; Friedman, Erica; Cimino, Christopher; Geyer, Enid M; Wiederhorn, Jo; Mainiero, Crystal

    2010-12-01

    Medical schools must teach core biomedical informatics competencies that address health information technology (HIT), including explaining electronic medical record systems and computerized provider order entry systems and their role in patient safety; describing the research uses and limitations of a clinical data warehouse; understanding the concepts and importance of information system interoperability; explaining the difference between biomedical informatics and HIT; and explaining the ways clinical information systems can fail. Barriers to including these topics in the curricula include lack of teachers; the perception that informatics competencies are not applicable during preclinical courses and there is no place in the clerkships to teach them; and the legal and policy issues that conflict with students' need to develop skills. However, curricular reform efforts are creating opportunities to teach these topics with new emphasis on patient safety, team-based medical practice, and evidence-based care. Overarching HIT competencies empower our students to be lifelong technology learners.

  10. How do we identify and foster talent in medical schools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Krogh; Cristiancho, Sayra; Jensen, Rune Dall

    2016-01-01

    moderated focus group interview, poster production, and group discussions regarding how to identify, recruit, and develop talents at their institutions. Intended Outcome: At the end of this workshop, participants will be armed with new strategies for securing and fostering talents at their institution......Background: Talent is highly regarded in high performance sports as a key feature for athletes to succeed. In medicine, talent is not a commonly held conversation, even though, medical students are usually identified as high achieving, internally motivated individuals. We suggest that bringing...... talent into the conversation of medical education research, will help us enrich how medical schools design selection processes. In this workshop we will bring awareness into the notion of talent from sports science research and invite discussion around how to embrace talent identification and development...

  11. Peer-assisted learning in medical school: tutees’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menezes A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Audrey Menezes,1,2 Annette Burgess,1 Antonia J Clarke,1,3 Craig Mellis1 1Central Clinical School, Sydney Medical School, The University of Sydney; 2Hornsby Ku-ring-gai Hospital; 3Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia Purpose: Peer tutoring offers a valuable method of enhancing students’ learning experience in medical school. Junior students learn from senior peers to reinforce curriculum content in an engaging community environment. The aim of our study was to assess tutees’ perceptions of a formal peer tutoring program at the Central Clinical School of Sydney Medical School. We used the learning theory of the community of practice in order to understand tutees’ perspectives. Patients and methods: All Year 1 and Year 2 students within the Central Clinical School were invited to be tutored by Year 3 and Year 4 students, respectively. Tutor pairs taught a group of three to four tutees fortnightly, and the tutorials were largely clinically based. A questionnaire containing 13 closed items and four open-ended questions regarding their experiences in the program was distributed to the tutees. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 66 of 101 (65% Year 1 and Year 2 students took part as tutees and 42 of 106 (40% students as tutors. The tutees' response rate was 53% (35/66. Results were largely positive, with 97% of the tutees enjoying the program, 90% showing interest in tutorial topics, 91% feeling a sense of community, 100% wanting to take part next year, 97% finding small groups effective, and 97% and 91% feeling an improved understanding of medical concepts and clinical skills, respectively. Tutees perceived the most useful aspects to be learning and revision and advice from experienced peers. The most frequent suggestion for improvement was to resolve scheduling conflicts. Conclusion: Tutees found the peer tutoring program to be valuable in learning and revision, establishing a community, and

  12. "Understanding" medical school curriculum content using KnowledgeMap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denny, Joshua C; Smithers, Jeffrey D; Miller, Randolph A; Spickard, Anderson

    2003-01-01

    To describe the development and evaluation of computational tools to identify concepts within medical curricular documents, using information derived from the National Library of Medicine's Unified Medical Language System (UMLS). The long-term goal of the KnowledgeMap (KM) project is to provide faculty and students with an improved ability to develop, review, and integrate components of the medical school curriculum. The KM concept identifier uses lexical resources partially derived from the UMLS (SPECIALIST lexicon and Metathesaurus), heuristic language processing techniques, and an empirical scoring algorithm. KM differentiates among potentially matching Metathesaurus concepts within a source document. The authors manually identified important "gold standard" biomedical concepts within selected medical school full-content lecture documents and used these documents to compare KM concept recognition with that of a known state-of-the-art "standard"-the National Library of Medicine's MetaMap program. The number of "gold standard" concepts in each lecture document identified by either KM or MetaMap, and the cause of each failure or relative success in a random subset of documents. For 4,281 "gold standard" concepts, MetaMap matched 78% and KM 82%. Precision for "gold standard" concepts was 85% for MetaMap and 89% for KM. The heuristics of KM accurately matched acronyms, concepts underspecified in the document, and ambiguous matches. The most frequent cause of matching failures was absence of target concepts from the UMLS Metathesaurus. The prototypic KM system provided an encouraging rate of concept extraction for representative medical curricular texts. Future versions of KM should be evaluated for their ability to allow administrators, lecturers, and students to navigate through the medical curriculum to locate redundancies, find interrelated information, and identify omissions. In addition, the ability of KM to meet specific, personal information needs should be

  13. Do differentials in the support and advice available at UK schools and colleges influence candidate performance in the medical school admissions interview? A survey of direct school leaver applicants to a UK medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Paul; Waters, Catherine; Bristow, David

    2013-09-01

    To our knowledge, nothing is known about whether differentials in support and advice during preparation for the interview influence candidate performance and thereby contribute to bias in selection for medical school. To assess if differences in advice and support with preparation for the medical school admissions interview given type of school last attended influence interview score achieved by direct school leaver applicants to study on an undergraduate UK medical degree course. Confidential self-completed on-line questionnaire survey. Interview performance was positively related to whether a teacher, tutor or career advisors at the School or College last attended had advised a respondent to prepare for the interview, had advised about the various styles of medical interview used and the types of questions asked, and what resources were available to help in preparation. Respondents from Private/Independent schools were more likely than those from State schools to have received such advice and support. Differentials in access to advice on and support with preparation for the medical school interview may advantage some candidates over others. This inequity would likely be ameliorated by the provision of an authoritative and comprehensive guide to applying to medical school outlining admission requirements and the preparation strategy applicants should use in order to best meet those requirements. The guide could be disseminated to the Principals of all UK schools and colleges and freely available electronic versions signposted in medical school prospectuses and the course descriptor on the Universities and Colleges Admissions Service.

  14. Exploring the Veterinary Literature: A Bibliometric Methodology for Identifying Interdisciplinary and Collaborative Publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Jessica R.; Moberly, Heather K.; Youngen, Gregory K.; Hamel, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary medical research traditionally focuses on animal health and wellness; however, research activities at veterinary colleges extend beyond these traditional areas. In this study, we analyzed eleven years of Web of Knowledge-indexed peer-reviewed articles from researchers at the twenty-eight United States American Veterinary Medical…

  15. Perceptions of Ghanaian medical students completing a clinical elective at the University of Michigan Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Nauzley C; Danso-Bamfo, Sandra; Moyer, Cheryl A; Danso, Kwabena A; Mäkiharju, Heather; Donkor, Peter; Johnson, Timothy R B; Kolars, Joseph C

    2014-07-01

    International medical electives typically represent a unidirectional flow of students from economically advantaged countries in the global "North" to resource-poor nations in the global "South." Little is known about the impact of bilateral exchanges on students from less affluent nations. Since 2007, students from the University of Michigan Medical School (UMMS) and medical schools in Ghana have engaged in a bilateral clinical exchange program. A 45-item online survey was distributed to all 73 Ghanaian medical students who had rotated at UMMS from 2008 to 2010 to assess perspectives on the value and impact of their participation. Incoming Ghanaian students outnumbered outgoing UMMS students 73 to 33 during the study period. Of eligible Ghanaian students, 70% (51/73) participated in the survey, with 40 of 51 providing valid data on at least 50% of questions. Ninety-seven percent (37/38) reported that the UMMS rotation was valuable to their medical training, 90% (35/39) reported changes in how they approach patient care, and 77% (24/31) reported feeling better equipped to serve patients in their home community. Eighty-five percent of students (28/33) felt more inclined to pursue training opportunities outside of their home country after their rotation at UMMS. More studies are needed to determine the feasibility of bidirectional exchanges as well as the short-term and long-term impact of rotations on students from underresourced settings and their hosts in more resource-rich environments.

  16. Medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical industry marketing: a survey at one U.S. medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellin, Melena; McCarthy, Susan; Drevlow, Laurel; Pierach, Claus

    2004-11-01

    While much is known about the interactions between the pharmaceutical industry and physicians, very little is known about pharmaceutical marketing directed toward medical students. This study sought to characterize the extent and forms of medical students' exposure to pharmaceutical industry marketing. In 2001-02, an anonymous, 17-item questionnaire was distributed to 165 preclinical and 116 clinical students at the University of Minnesota Medical School-Twin Cities. The main outcome measures were the number and forms of exposures to pharmaceutical industry marketing reported by medical students and whether students had discussed these exposures with teachers or advisors. Preclinical and clinical students were compared using chi(2) analysis (p marketing. Seventy-six (71.7%) clinical students compared to 38 (33.3%) preclinical students recalled over 20 exposures (p textbook (p marketing with an instructor or advisor; 59 (55.7%) clinical students as compared to 87 (80.6%) preclinical students recalled no such discussion (p marketing during their early years of training. Given existing evidence that such exposure influences physicians' practice and prescribing patterns, the authors propose that medical school curricula include formal instruction to prepare students to critically assess these contacts.

  17. A preliminary study to conceptualize professionalism in the field of veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aytaç Ünsal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION[|]Although the concept of professionalism is widely used in all over the world, there is no clear definition that describes exactly what it is. This is thought to result from different meanings which are attributed to the concept of profession. The number of researches and publications on medical professionalism has increased rapidly in recent years. In this sources some definitions reveal a detailed list of keywords. Compared with medicine, veterinary medicine has still got limited studies on this subject. This research was carried out to determine how veterinarians conceptualize professionalism in the field of veterinary medicine.[¤]METHODS[|]This qualitative study was designed as an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA. The sample was consisted of veterinarians who have carried out their duties at the Veterinary School of Ankara University. The sampling strategy was purposive sampling. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews then content analysis was applied. During this process, internal and external consistencies were checked with an expert's help. As a result of the analysis the meaning units were created and classified. Results were shown in the tables, interpreted and then discussed.[¤]RESULTS[|]In this study it is found that veterinary and human medicines have many common terms for conceptualization of professionalism. Veterinary professionalism were conceptualized with similar approaches by experienced and inexperienced veterinarians. Ethics and moral values were expressed primarily and together in participant's approaches to this concept. The definition of good veterinarians is generally consistent with the definition of veterinary professionalism.[¤]DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION[|]Compared with medicine, veterinary medicine has still got limited studies about professionalizm. This research shows that veterinarians conceptialize professionalism by using some terms and explanations related to some values

  18. Procedure for the Disposal of Controlled Medication in the School Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinschmidt, Karen A

    2015-09-01

    The disposal of controlled medication left in the school nurse office is problematic for school nurses. Medications are left for a variety of reasons: students transfer out of the district, state, or country; parents and guardians lack transportation to pick up their child's medication; and some families simply forget. The medications of concern are controlled substances, primarily Schedule II medications including Adderall, Concerta, and methylphenidate. Over time, these medications begin to accumulate in a school nurse's office. Schools should establish procedures that address safe disposal of controlled medications as well as liability protection for the school nursing staff. This article will discuss a procedure created for the Christina School District in conjunction with a state board of pharmacy and subsequently shared with other school nurses in the State of Delaware. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. Specialty preferences and motivating factors: A national survey on medical students from five uae medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulrahman, Mahera; Makki, Maryam; Shaaban, Sami; Al Shamsi, Maryam; Venkatramana, Manda; Sulaiman, Nabil; Sami, Manal M; Abdelmannan, Dima K; Salih, AbdulJabbar M A; AlShaer, Laila

    2016-01-01

    Workforce planning is critical for being able to deliver appropriate health service and thus is relevant to medical education. It is, therefore, important to understand medical students' future specialty choices and the factors that influence them. This study was conducted to identify, explore, and analyze the factors influencing specialty preferences among medical students of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). A multiyear, multicenter survey of medical student career choice was conducted with all five UAE medical schools. The questionnaire consisted of five sections. Chi-squared tests, regression analysis, and stepwise logistic regression were performed. The overall response rate was 46% (956/2079). Factors that students reported to be extremely important when considering their future career preferences were intellectual satisfaction (87%), work-life balance (71%), having the required talent (70%), and having a stable and secure future (69%). The majority of students (60%) preferred internal medicine, surgery, emergency medicine, or family Medicine. The most common reason given for choosing a particular specialty was personal interest (21%), followed by flexibility of working hours (17%). The data show that a variety of factors inspires medical students in the UAE in their choice of a future medical specialty. These factors can be used by health policymakers, university mentors, and directors of residency training programs to motivate students to choose specialties that are scarce in the UAE and therefore better serve the health-care system and the national community.

  20. World Federation for Medical Education Policy on international recognition of medical schools' programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karle, Hans

    2008-12-01

    The increasing globalisation of medicine, as manifested in the migration rate of medical doctors and in the growth of cross-border education providers, has inflicted a wave of quality assurance efforts in medical education, and underlined the need for definition of standards and for introduction of effective and transparent accreditation systems. In 2004, reflecting the importance of the interface between medical education and the healthcare delivery sector, a World Health Organization (WHO)/World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) Strategic Partnership to improve medical education was formed. In 2005, the partnership published Guidelines for Accreditation of Basic Medical Education. The WHO/WFME Guidelines recommend the establishment of proper accreditation systems that are effective, independent, transparent and based on medical education-specific criteria. An important prerequisite for this development was the WFME Global Standards programme, initiated in 1997 and widely endorsed. The standards are now being used in all 6 WHO/WFME regions as a basis for quality improvement of medical education throughout its continuum and as a template for national and regional accreditation standards. Promotion of national accreditation systems will have a pivotal influence on future international appraisal of medical education. Information about accreditation status - the agencies involved and the criteria and procedure used - will be an essential component of new Global Directories of Health Professions Educational Institutions. According to an agreement between the WHO and the University of Copenhagen (UC), these Directories (the Avicenna Directories) will be developed and published by the UC with the assistance of the WFME, starting with renewal of the WHO World Directory of Medical Schools, and sequentially expanding to cover educational institutions for other health professions. The Directories will be a foundation for international meta-recognition ("accrediting the

  1. The social accountability of medical schools and its indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boelen, Charles; Dharamsi, Shafik; Gibbs, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    There is growing interest worldwide in social accountability for medical and other health professional schools. Attempts have been made to apply the concept primarily to educational reform initiatives with limited concern towards transforming an entire institution to commit and assess its education, research and service delivery missions to better meet priority health needs in society for an efficient, equitable an sustainable health system. In this paper, we clarify the concept of social accountability in relation to responsibility and responsiveness by providing practical examples of its application; and we expand on a previously described conceptual model of social accountability (the CPU model), by further delineating the parameters composing the model and providing examples on how to translate them into meaningful indicators. The clarification of concepts of social responsibility, responsiveness and accountability and the examples provided in designing indicators may help medical schools and other health professional schools in crafting their own benchmarks to assess progress towards social accountability within the context of their particular environment.

  2. [Publications of medical thesis defended in Lille school of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotmane, Ilies; Glatz, Nicolas; Bihan, Solenn; Legrand, Fanny; Gosset, Didier; Boulanger, Eric

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the future, in terms of scientific publication, of medical thesis (MT) defended in the Medical School of Lille 2 University (MSL2U) between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2007. The collection of MT published as a corresponding scientific article was realized from PubMed(®). For every corresponding article, we determined the journal Impact Factor (IF), the language of publication and the rank of the student and his MT director in the author list. Analyses were also realized according to the group of speciality of the TM. In all, 11.3% of the 2150 MT defended in the MSL2U were followed up by a scientific publication. The average IF was 2.32 with a median at 1.75 and extreme values from 0 to 14.78. Seventy percent of the articles were published in English. The rank of the student was placed before his MT director (2.06 vs. 3.15). The MT defended by students in the field of medical specialities presented the highest rate of publication (25.1%). The general medicine was the second speciality the most productive in term of number of published articles (n=49) after medical specialities (n=103). The MT director and the PhD students must be more motivated to publish their results. The value of 11.3% could be considered as weak but, because of a huge lack of references, it is impossible to compare our results to those of other French medical schools. It remains important to reform the objectives and the modalities of the writing of a MT: should we not have to turn to thesis called "on article"? Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  3. Development of the competency-based medical curriculum for the new Augsburg University Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Härtl, Anja

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim: With the resolution from April 28, 2014, the Bavarian state government in Germany decided to found a new medical school at Augsburg University, thereby requiring the development of a competency-based medical curriculum.Methods: Two interdisciplinary groups developed a spiral curriculum (following Harden employing the model of Thumser-Dauth & Öchsner. The curriculum focuses on specifically defined competencies: medical expertise, independent scientific reasoning, argumentation and scholarship, as well as communication skills.Results: The spiral curriculum was developed as a hybrid curriculum. Its modular structure incorporates the mandatory subjects required by the German regulations for medical licensure (Approbationsordnung into organ- and system-centered blocks which are integrated both horizontally and vertically. Basic preclinical sciences are covered in the blocks “Movement,” “Balance” and “Contact.” The clinical sciences are organized according to six pillars (conservative medicine, surgical medicine, men’s-women’s-children’s medicine, the senses, the nervous system and the mind, and general medicine which students revisit three times each over the course of the program. A longitudinal clinical course incorporates interdisciplinary education. A particular focus is on scientific education encompassing a longitudinal course in the sciences (including interdisciplinary classes with other university departments, block practicums, and two scientific projects.Conclusion: It is not only the degree of integration und intensity of the Augsburg University undergraduate medical degree program, but also its targeted advancement of academic, social and communication skills that have not yet been realized to such an extent elsewhere in Germany. On July 8, 2016, the German Council of Science and Humanities unanimously gave this concept a positive evaluation. Future research will examine and evaluate the Augsburg medical curriculum

  4. Students? approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students? characteristics and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W.G.; Hulsman, Robert L.; Kusurkar, Rashmi A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to examine main reasons for students? medical school choice and their relationship with students? characteristics and motivation during the students? medical study. Methods In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and sta...

  5. A discrete choice experiment studying students' preferences for scholarships to private medical schools in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Rei; Kakihara, Hiroaki

    2016-02-09

    The shortage of physicians in rural areas and in some specialties is a societal problem in Japan. Expensive tuition in private medical schools limits access to them particularly for students from middle- and low-income families. One way to reduce this barrier and lessen maldistribution is to offer conditional scholarships to private medical schools. A discrete choice experiment is carried out on a total of 374 students considering application to medical schools. The willingness to receive a conditional scholarship program to private medical schools is analyzed. The probability of attending private medical schools significantly decreased because of high tuition, a postgraduate obligation to provide a service in specific specialty areas, and the length of time of this obligation. An obligation to provide a service in rural regions had no significant effect on this probability. To motivate non-applicants to private medical schools to enroll in such schools, a decrease in tuition to around 1.2 million yen (US$ 12,000) or less, which is twice that of public schools, was found to be necessary. Further, it was found that non-applicants to private medical schools choose to apply to such schools even with restrictions if they have tuition support at the public school level. Conditional scholarships for private medical schools may widen access to medical education and simultaneously provide incentives to work in insufficiently served areas.

  6. Comparing millennial and generation X medical students at one medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nicole J; Manuel, R Stephen; Elam, Carol L; Jones, Bonnie J

    2006-06-01

    Two main generational cohorts comprising students enrolled in medical schools today are Generation Xers (born 1965-1980) and Millennial students (born 1981-1999). A subset is Cuspars (born 1975-1980), who share traits with both generations. Population theorists ascribe different personal characteristics, attitudes, and preferences to each group. The authors examined whether selected characteristics describing Generation X and Millennial students were quantifiable using a personality measure. Differences among Generation X, Millennial, and Cuspar medical students were investigated. Eight hundred and nine medical students (399 females and 410 males) who matriculated between 1989-94 and 2001-04 at the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine completed the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF). Differences in responses to the 16PF among the three generations were analyzed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Analyses showed significant differences for Generation X versus Millennial students on 10 of the 16 personality factors. Millennial students scored significantly higher than Generation X students on factors including Rule-Consciousness, Emotional Stability, and Perfectionism; Generation X students scored higher than Millennials on Self-Reliance. Millennials also were significantly different from Generation Xers on several other factors. Significant differences were noted among Cuspars, Generation Xers, and Millennials. The 16PF is a useful tool to examine differences among these groups and to help understand the factors that constitute their personalities. Given differences among the generational groups, the authors forecast possible educational implications for medical school academic affairs and student services, and suggest areas for future research.

  7. The teaching of drug development to medical students: collaboration between the pharmaceutical industry and medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, A G; Jackson, D; Barnett, D B

    2005-04-01

    Collaboration between the medical school at Leicester and a local pharmaceutical company, AstraZeneca, led to the design and implementation of an optional third year special science skills module teaching medical students about drug discovery and development. The module includes didactic teaching about the complexities of the drug discovery process leading to development of candidate drugs for clinical investigation as well as practical experience of the processes involved in drug evaluation preclinically and clinically. It highlights the major ethical and regulatory issues concerned with the production and testing of novel therapies in industry and the NHS. In addition it helps to reinforce other areas of the medical school curriculum, particularly the understanding of clinical study design and critical appraisal. The module is assessed on the basis of a written dissertation and the critical appraisal of a drug advertisement. This paper describes the objectives of the module and its content. In addition we outline the results of an initial student evaluation of the module and an assessment of its impact on student knowledge and the opinion of the pharmaceutical industry partner. This module has proven to be popular with medical students, who acquire a greater understanding of the work required for drug development and therefore reflect more favourably on the role of pharmaceutical companies in the UK.

  8. [Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking among students of medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpas, Donata; Mroczek, Bozena; Bielska, Dorota; Wojtal, Mariola; Seń, Mariola; Steciwko, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    To determine the level of alcohol intake (including risky drinking) and tobacco smoking among students of higher medical schools, as well as the level of students' knowledge about epidemiology and consequences of alcohol abuse. The study was conducted in 2010-2012 and involved 1054 students of medical school. The majority of the participants were female (82.3%). Average age of respondents was 25.13 years (SD = 6.64, median = 24). The questionnaire was to determine the students' knowledge of alcohol abuse, short version of AUDIT and questions about tobacco smoking. The average 100% alcohol intake in Poland was correctly identified by 32.0% (318) of students. The alcohol level in blood which indicates the state after alcohol intake was correctly determined by 57.2% (571) of respondents. Tobacco was the choice of 13.8% (138) of students as the main health risk factor and cause of premature deaths in Europe, alcohol was chosen by 17.8% (177). Cirrhosis was recognized correctly by 52% of students (521) as the most frequent disease caused by alcohol in European men. Regarding the question about the biochemical indicators helpful in diagnostics of alcohol abuse only 27.6% (275) indicated correctly: MCV and GGT. In short version of AUDIT 32.2% (238) of women gained 4 points and above, 56.2% (91) of men gained 5 points and above. Among women: 3.5% (28) have 14 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Among men: 6.5% (11) have 28 and above standardized portions of an alcoholic drinks during week. Non-smokers represent 20.6% (205) of respondents. A majority (39.4%, 82) indicate they smoke not more than 5 cigarettes per day. The students first began smoking in secondary (21.7%, 45) and high school (45.9%, 95). Smokers statistically significantly more often (palcohol. More than four times higher percentage of smokers (10.0% vs 2.3% non-smokers) drink in a day when they drink 10 or more standardized portions of an alcoholic drink (palcoholic drink

  9. A survey of factors influencing career preference in new-entrant and exiting medical students from four UK medical schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Workforce planning is a central issue for service provision and has consequences for medical education. Much work has been examined the career intentions, career preferences and career destinations of UK medical graduates but there is little published about medical students career intentions. How soon do medical students formulate careers intentions? How much do these intentions and preferences change during medical school? If they do change, what are the determining factors? Our aim was to compare medical students’ career preferences upon entry into and exit from undergraduate medical degree programmes. Methods This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Two cohorts [2009–10, 2010–11] of first and final year medical students at the four Scottish graduating medical schools took part in career preference questionnaire surveys. Questions were asked about demographic factors, career preferences and influencing factors. Results The response rate was 80.9% [2682/3285]. Significant differences were found across the four schools, most obviously in terms of student origin [Scotland, rest of UK or overseas], age group, and specialty preferences in Year 1 and Year 5. Year 1 and Year 5 students’ specialty preferences also differed within each school and, while there were some common patterns, each medical school had a different profile of students’ career preferences on exit. When the analysis was adjusted for demographic and job-related preferences, specialty preferences differed by gender, and wish for work-life balance and intellectual satisfaction. Conclusions This is the first multi-centre study exploring students’ career preferences and preference influences upon entry into and exit from undergraduate medical degree programmes. We found various factors influenced career preference, confirming prior findings. What this study adds is that, while acknowledging student intake differs by medical school, medical school itself seems to influence

  10. A survey of factors influencing career preference in new-entrant and exiting medical students from four UK medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Jennifer A; Johnston, Peter W; Anthony, Micheal; Khan, Nadir; Scott, Neil W

    2014-07-23

    Workforce planning is a central issue for service provision and has consequences for medical education. Much work has been examined the career intentions, career preferences and career destinations of UK medical graduates but there is little published about medical students career intentions. How soon do medical students formulate careers intentions? How much do these intentions and preferences change during medical school? If they do change, what are the determining factors? Our aim was to compare medical students' career preferences upon entry into and exit from undergraduate medical degree programmes. This was a cross-sectional questionnaire survey. Two cohorts [2009-10, 2010-11] of first and final year medical students at the four Scottish graduating medical schools took part in career preference questionnaire surveys. Questions were asked about demographic factors, career preferences and influencing factors. The response rate was 80.9% [2682/3285]. Significant differences were found across the four schools, most obviously in terms of student origin [Scotland, rest of UK or overseas], age group, and specialty preferences in Year 1 and Year 5. Year 1 and Year 5 students' specialty preferences also differed within each school and, while there were some common patterns, each medical school had a different profile of students' career preferences on exit. When the analysis was adjusted for demographic and job-related preferences, specialty preferences differed by gender, and wish for work-life balance and intellectual satisfaction. This is the first multi-centre study exploring students' career preferences and preference influences upon entry into and exit from undergraduate medical degree programmes. We found various factors influenced career preference, confirming prior findings. What this study adds is that, while acknowledging student intake differs by medical school, medical school itself seems to influence career preference. Comparisons across medical school

  11. Examining why ethics is taught to veterinary students: a qualitative study of veterinary educators' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate M; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I Anna S

    2014-01-01

    Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010-2011). The content of the interview transcripts were analyzed using Toulmin's argumentative model. Ten objectives in teaching veterinary ethics were identified, which can be grouped into four overarching themes: ethical awareness, ethical knowledge, ethical skills, and individual and professional qualities. These objectives include recognizing values and ethical viewpoints, identifying norms and regulations, developing skills of communication and decision making, and contributing to a professional identity. Whereas many of the objectives complement each other, there is tension between the view that ethics teaching should promote knowledge of professional rules and the view that ethics teaching should emphasize critical reasoning skills. The wide range of objectives and the possible tensions between them highlight the challenges faced by educators as they attempt to prioritize among these goals of ethics teaching within a crowded veterinary curriculum.

  12. Pre-Medical Preparation in Microbiology among Applicants and Matriculants in Osteopathic Medical School in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Raddy L; Guercio, Erik; Martinez, Luis R

    2017-01-01

    It is recognized that medical school curricula contain significant microbiology-related content as part of the training of future physicians who will be responsible stewards of antimicrobials. Surprisingly, osteopathic and allopathic medical schools do not require pre-medical microbiology coursework, and the extent to which medical students have completed microbiology coursework remains poorly understood. In this report, we show that fewer than 3% of applicants and matriculants to osteopathic medical school (OMS) have completed an undergraduate major or minor in microbiology, and fewer than 17% of applicants and matriculants to OMS have completed one or more microbiology-related courses. These data demonstrate limited pre-medical microbiology-related knowledge among osteopathic medical students, which may be associated with an increase in perceived stress when learning this content or during clinical rotations as well as a potential lack of interest in pursuing a career in infectious diseases.

  13. The use of global rating scales for OSCEs in veterinary medicine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma K Read

    Full Text Available OSCEs (Objective Structured Clinical Examinations are widely used in health professions to assess clinical skills competence. Raters use standardized binary checklists (CL or multi-dimensional global rating scales (GRS to score candidates performing specific tasks. This study assessed the reliability of CL and GRS scores in the assessment of veterinary students, and is the first study to demonstrate the reliability of GRS within veterinary medical education. Twelve raters from two different schools (6 from University of Calgary [UCVM] and 6 from Royal (Dick School of Veterinary Studies [R(DSVS] were asked to score 12 students (6 from each school. All raters assessed all students (video recordings during 4 OSCE stations (bovine haltering, gowning and gloving, equine bandaging and skin suturing. Raters scored students using a CL, followed by the GRS. Novice raters (6 R(DSVS were assessed independently of expert raters (6 UCVM. Generalizability theory (G theory, analysis of variance (ANOVA and t-tests were used to determine the reliability of rater scores, assess any between school differences (by student, by rater, and determine if there were differences between CL and GRS scores. There was no significant difference in rater performance with use of the CL or the GRS. Scores from the CL were significantly higher than scores from the GRS. The reliability of checklist scores were .42 and .76 for novice and expert raters respectively. The reliability of the global rating scale scores were .7 and .86 for novice and expert raters respectively. A decision study (D-study showed that once trained using CL, GRS could be utilized to reliably score clinical skills in veterinary medicine with both novice and experienced raters.

  14. Singapore's proposed graduate medical school--an expensive medical tutorial college or an opportunity for transforming Singapore medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, K C

    2005-07-01

    The proposed Graduate Medical School at the Outram Campus will open in 2007. The main value of this medical school is the transformation of the medical institutions in the campus and SingHealth into Academic Medical Centres. Such centres will train and host quality physicians and physician-scientists. It will help push the development of translational research, complementing the country's investment in Biopolis. It will also underpin Singapore's push into regional medical tourism and its development as an educational hub in the biomedical sciences.

  15. Student mistreatment in medical school and planning a career in academic medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, Mark G; Yamagata, Hisashi; Werner, Leonard S; Zhang, Kehua; Dial, Thomas H; Sonne, Janet L

    2011-01-01

    Student mistreatment in medical school is a persistent problem with both known and unexplored consequences [corrected]. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a perception of having been mistreated in medical school had an association with planning a full-time career in academic medicine. Using Association of American Medical Colleges' 2000-2004 Medical School Graduation Questionnaire data, we evaluated the relationship between students' mistreatment experience and their career choice, academic versus nonacademic setting. Meta-analysis and regression were used to evaluate this relationship. At medical schools where relatively high percentages of graduating seniors were planning academic careers, students reporting mistreatment experiences were less likely at graduation to be planning careers in academic medicine. A perception of having been mistreated in medical school is related to students' career choices, a finding that may be useful to medical school administrators/faculty and students as mistreatment is addressed in program planning, counseling, and faculty recruitment.

  16. Motivations influencing the specialty choices of medical school graduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zarghami M

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Growing national concern about distortions in the size, specially composition, and availability of the physician workforce -especially after "cultural revolution n- has evoked challenges in Iran. Purpose: To determine various factors that influence medical graduates choices for residency program. Methods: All applicants for residency program in Mazandaran university of Medical Sciences and Health Services completed the Medical School Graduation Questionnaire, and rated each factor using 0 to 4 Likert-type scale. Factors' ratings were also compared across applicants of different residency program, and demographic variables. Results: The top two factors rated as having strong influences were ones related to interest in helping peop1e (rated 3.07, and intellectual content of the specially (rated 3. Malpractice insurance cost has the least influence (rated 0.98. Most of men preferred independence, whereas most of women preferred predictable working hours. Opportunity to make differences in people's l(fe influenced the specially choices of usual participants. whereas those who used war veterans quota paid more attention to independence and exercise of social responsibility. Patient contact factors were less important to graduates who chose diagnostic speciafties. Also, there was a significant association between the participants' age and four factors. Conclusion: These graduates based their specially preference heavily on the opportunity that the specially affords to help people, and intellectual content of the specially. Knowing the hierarchy of influences on graduates' motivations should help education strategists determine what experiences and perceptions must change if a different mix of specially decision is to result. Keywords: SPECIAL TY, MEDICAL SCHOOL, SARI, MAZANDARAN

  17. Contemporary Issues in Medicine--Medical Informatics and Population Health: Report II of the Medical School Objectives Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academic Medicine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    The report of the Association of American Medical Colleges' Medical School Objectives Program presents the work of two expert panels. One, on medical informatics, identified five important physician roles: lifelong learner, clinician, educator, researcher, and manager. Another panel established a definition for "population health…

  18. Mentorship at Qazvin Medical School: A pilot study in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asefzadeh S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mentorship is not practiced in any Iranian university, while it has been expanded in medical schools in some developed countries. Purpose: To evaluate the results of mentorship program on the educational achievements of first-year medical students in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences during 2000-2001 academic year. Methods: The mentors were selected from the third-year volunteer students. Forty five students and nine mentors (each five novices for one mentor entered the study. At the end of the year the viewpoints of the mentees were surveyed through a self-administered questionnaire and the mentors participated in focus group discussions. Results: The interpretation of the quantitative and qualitative data indicated that both mentors and mentees were satisfied with the mentorship program and stressed on its continuation for the coming years. They had found mentorship a give-and-take process and constructive in their careers. Their teachers had also considered mentorship, to some extend, useful. Conclusion: More studies need to be conducted to define the role of mentors more clearly and to evaluate the effects of mentorship on Iranian medical students’ educational development.

  19. A study of the factors influencing school-going students considering medical careers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McHugh, S M

    2011-08-01

    Obtaining a place in an Irish medical school is extremely competitive, a situation mirrored in many other countries. We aimed to determine the factors influencing school students in deciding to study medicine in university. We further determined what level of interest exists in pursuing a surgical career after completion of medical school.

  20. Report of a Study of Ontario Medical School Admissions Policies and Practices, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    Presented are the results of a study of admissions policies and practices in the five Ontario schools of medicine. The study consists of a review of published information and a detailed examination of 1975 statistics from the Ontario Medical School Application Service, supplemented by a series of interviews with medical school admissions officers,…

  1. Nutrition education in Japanese medical schools: a follow-up survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orimo, Hideo; Ueno, Takahiro; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Sone, Hirohito; Tanaka, Akira; Itakura, Hiroshige

    2013-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was used to determine the status of nutrition education in Japanese medical schools in 2009. A similar survey was conducted in 2004, at which time nutritional education was determined to be inadequate in Japanese medical schools. The current questionnaire was sent to the directors of Centers for Medical Education of 80 medical schools, who represented all medical schools in Japan. Sixty-seven medical schools (83.8%) responded, of which 25 schools (37.3%) offered dedicated nutrition courses and 36 schools (53.7%) did not offer dedicated nutrition courses but offered something related to nutrition in other courses; six schools (9.0%) did not offer any nutrition education. Overall, 61 schools (91.0%) offered at least some nutritional topics in their undergraduate education. Nevertheless, only 11 schools (16.4%) seem to dedicate more than 5 hours to substantial nutrition education as judged by their syllabi. Although the mean length of the course was 11 hours, substantial nutrition education accounted for only 4.2 hours. Of the 25 medical schools that offered dedicated nutrition courses, seven schools offered the nutrition course as a stand-alone course and 18 schools offered it as an integrated course. In conclusion, the status of nutrition education in Japan has improved slightly but is still inadequate.

  2. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Radiology in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrusovsky, J.; Benes, J.

    1985-01-01

    A textbook is presented for pregraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary medicine, offering an extensive review of all aspects of radiology as applied in veterinary sciences. Based on findings published in the literature and the authors' own research, the textbook familiarizes the reader with the problems of nuclear physics, biological effects of ionizing radiation on animals, the principles of biological cycles of radionuclides in the atmosphere, the fundamentals of radiochemistry, dosimetry, radiometry and nuclear medicine. Radiation protection of animals, raw materials, feeds, foodstuff and water, and the questions of the aplications of ionizing radiation and of radionuclides in veterinary medicine are discussed in great detail. The publication is complemented with numerous photographs, figures and graphs. (L.O.)

  4. Use of the National Board of Medical Examiners® Comprehensive Basic Science Exam: survey results of US medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wright WS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available William S Wright,1 Kirk Baston2 1Department of Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Pathology, University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville, Greenville, SC, USA Purpose: The National Board of Medical Examiners® (NBME Comprehensive Basic Science Exam (CBSE is a subject exam offered to US medical schools, where it has been used for external validation of student preparedness for the United States Medical Licensing Examination® (USMLE Step 1 in new schools and schools undergoing curricular reform. Information regarding the actual use of the NBME CBSE is limited. Therefore, the aim of the survey was to determine the scope and utilization of the NBME CBSE by US medical schools.Methods: A survey was sent in May 2016 to curriculum leadership of the 139 US medical schools listed on the Liaison Committee on Medical Education (LCME® website with provisional or full accreditation as of February 29, 2016. Responses were received from 53 schools (38% response rate. A series of different follow-up questions were asked if respondents stated “yes” or “no” to the initial question “Does your institution administer the NBME CBSE prior to the USMLE Step 1?”.Results: A total of 37 schools (70% administered the NBME CBSE. In all, 36 of the 37 schools responded to follow-up questions. Of 36 schools, 13 schools (36% used the NBME CBSE for curriculum modification. Six schools (17% used the NBME CBSE for formative assessment for a course, and five schools (14% used the NBME CBSE for summative assessment for a course. A total of 28 schools (78% used the NBME CBSE for identifying students performing below expectations and providing targeted intervention strategies. In all, 24 schools (67% of the 36 responding schools administering the NBME CBSE administered the test once prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1, whereas 10 (28% schools administered the NBME CBSE two or more times prior to the administration of the USMLE Step 1.Conclusion

  5. Examining why ethics is taught to veterinary students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magalhães-Sant’Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics...... and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010–2011). The content of the interview...... transcripts were analyzed using Toulmin's argumentative model. Ten objectives in teaching veterinary ethics were identified, which can be grouped into four overarching themes: ethical awareness, ethical knowledge, ethical skills, and individual and professional qualities. These objectives include recognizing...

  6. Evaluating veterinary practitioner perceptions of communication skills and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M P; Cobb, M A; Tischler, V A; Robbé, I J; Dean, R S

    2017-03-25

    A survey was conducted among veterinary practitioners in the UK and the USA in 2012/2013. Thematic analysis was used to identify underlying reasons behind answers to questions about the importance of communication skills and the desire to participate in postgraduate communication skills training. Lack of training among more experienced veterinary surgeons, incomplete preparation of younger practitioners and differences in ability to communicate all contribute to gaps in communication competency. Barriers to participating in further communication training include time, cost and doubts in the ability of training to provide value. To help enhance communication ability, communication skills should be assessed in veterinary school applicants, and communication skills training should be more thoroughly integrated into veterinary curricula. Continuing education/professional development in communication should be part of all postgraduate education and should be targeted to learning style preferences and communication needs and challenges through an entire career in practice. British Veterinary Association.

  7. New Medical-School Programs Put Students on a Fast Track to the White Coat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    California's lieutenant governor has proposed a fast-track medical school that would shave three years off the training needed to become a physician. It is not the first time such an idea has been offered. The proposal, for a hoped-for medical school at the University of California at Merced, struck some medical educators as both unrealistic and…

  8. Validity Evidence for the Measurement of the Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Croiset, Gerda; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle

    2011-01-01

    The Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire is designed to determine the strength of motivation of students particularly for medical study. This research was performed to establish the validity evidence for measuring strength of motivation for medical school. Internal structure and relations to other variables were used as…

  9. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  10. Teaching of Biochemistry in Medical School: A Well-Trodden Pathway?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Michael B.; Stagnaro-Green, Alex

    2008-01-01

    Biochemistry and molecular biology occupy a unique place in the medical school curriculum. They are frequently studied prior to medical school and are fundamental to the teaching of biomedical sciences in undergraduate medical education. These two circumstances, and the trend toward increased integration among the disciplines, have led to…

  11. Family Perceptions of Medication Administration at School: Errors, Risk Factors, and Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Daniel; Farris, Karen; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Kelly, Michael W.; Howarth, Robyn

    2008-01-01

    Medications are administered every day in schools across the country. Researchers and clinicians have studied school nurses' and educators' experiences with medication administration, but not the experiences of children or their parents. This study examined medication administration from the child and parent perspectives to (a) determine problems…

  12. Going Through Medical School and Considering the Choice of Family Medicine: Prescription or Antidote?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauksch, Hans O.; And Others

    A study of the choice of specialty by medical students suggests that Family Medicine depends on students whose choice predates medical school; the number of those interested diminishes significantly over the four years. Interviews suggest several characteristics of the medical school that mitigate against the choice of family medicine and steer…

  13. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Comar, C.L.; Wentworth, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)

  14. Medical Student Perceptions of the Learning Environment at the End of the First Year: A 28-Medical School Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochelak, Susan E; Stansfield, R Brent; Dunham, Lisette; Dekhtyar, Michael; Gruppen, Larry D; Christianson, Charles; Filstead, William; Quirk, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Accreditation and professional organizations have recognized the importance of measuring medical students' perceptions of the learning environment, which influences well-being and professional competency development, to optimize professional development. This study was conducted to explore interactions between students' perceptions of the medical school learning environment, student demographic variables, and students' professional attributes of empathy, coping, tolerance of ambiguity, and patient-centeredness to provide ideas for improving the learning environment. Twenty-eight medical schools at 38 campuses recruited 4,664 entering medical students to participate in the two-cohort longitudinal study (2010-2014 or 2011-2015). The authors employed chi-square tests and analysis of variance to examine the relationship between Medical School Learning Environment Survey (MSLES) scores and student characteristics. The authors used mixed-effects models with random school and campus effects to test the overall variances accounted for in MSLES scores at the end of the first year of medical school. Student attributes and demographic characteristics differed significantly across schools but accounted for only 2.2% of the total variance in MSLES scores. Medical school campus explained 15.6% of the variance in MSLES scores. At year's end, students' perceptions toward the learning environment, as reported on the MSLES, differed significantly according to the medical school campus where they trained. Further studies are needed to identify specific factors, such as grading policies, administrative support, and existence of learning communities, which may influence perceptions of the learning environment at various schools. Identifying such variables would assist schools in developing a positive learning environment.

  15. Undergraduate medical student's perception about an integrated method of teaching at a medical school in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harshal Sabane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective In recent years, there has been a gradual but definitive shift in medical schools all over the globe to promote a more integrated way of teaching. Integration of medical disciplines promotes a holistic understanding of the medical curriculum in the students. This helps them better understand and appreciate the importance and role of each medical subject. Method The study was conducted among the 5th year Pre-clinical students. Questionnaire consisted of 4 questions on the level of integration, 5 questions on various aspects of the assessment and some questions which tested the level of awareness of the integrated method. Result Out of a total of 72 students present on the day of data collection, 65 participated in the study giving a response rate of 90.27 %. After primary data cleansing 4 questionnaires had to be omitted. Most of the students opined as “good” or “very good” for the questions on integration and its attributes. Only 27 (44 % were aware of integrated curriculum being taught in other medical schools in the gulf. Similar findings were observed regarding assessment related questions. Reduction in the number of block exams is unpopular among the students and only 6% have agreed for 3, 4, or 5 non-summative block assessments. Opinion regarding the help of integrated teaching in IFOM based OMSB entrance examination was mixed with a greater variance in the responses. 43% students have indicated that they would like to spend more time with PDCI. Conclusion The students of our institution seem to have a favourable opinion regarding the integrated system of teaching. The satisfaction with the conduct of examinations and its related variables is found to be high. A reduction in the number of block exams however is unpopular among the target group and they would appreciate a greater time allocation for subjects of PDCI and Pharmacology.

  16. Ranking Spain's medical schools by their performance in the national residency examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Valcarcel, B G; Ortún, V; Barber, P; Harris, J E; García, B

    2013-12-01

    Medical school graduates in Spain must take a uniform national exam (called "examen MIR") in order to enter postgraduate training in a specialty. Its results offer a unique opportunity to rank medical schools according to this exam. We measured differences in the MIR exam results among Spanish medical schools and assessed the stability of the MIR-based rankings for the period 2003-2011. In the year 2011 a total of 6873 residency positions nationwide were offered by the Spanish Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. These positions covered 47 specialties distributed over 231 training centers. A total of 11,550 medical graduates (including 1997 foreign graduates) took the MIR examination. Marked differences among medical schools were evident. The median graduate from medical school #1 and #29 occupied the positions 1477 and 5383, respectively. These figures correspond to a standardized ranking of 21 out of 100 for medical school #1 (that is, 1477/6873; half of medical school #1 obtained better [below position 21%] and half worse [over position 21%] results) and a standardized ranking of 70 out of 100 for medical school #29. While 81% of the medical school #1 graduates were amongst the best 3000 MIR exams and only 5% above the 5000 position the corresponding figures for medical school #29 graduates were 21% and 44%, respectively. The ranking position of the 29 medical schools was very stable between the years 2003 and 2011. There are marked differences in medical schools in Spain and these differences are very consistent over the years 2003-2011. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  17. Professionalism perspectives among medical students of a novel medical graduate school in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haque M

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mainul Haque,1 Zainal Zulkifli,2 Seraj Zohurul Haque,3 Zubair M Kamal,4 Abdus Salam,5 Vidya Bhagat,2 Ahmed Ghazi Alattraqchi,2 Nor Iza A Rahman2 1Unit of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine and Defense Health, National Defense University of Malaysia, Kem Sungai Besi, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 2Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Jalan Sultan Mahmud, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 3School of Medicine, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital & Medical School, Dundee, UK; 4Sleep Research Unit, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, ON, Canada; 5Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Abstract: Defining professionalism in this constantly evolving world is not easy. How do you measure degrees of benevolence and compassion? If it is so obvious to our profession, what professionalism is, then why is it so difficult to teach it to medical students and residents? Today’s definition of medical professionalism is evolving – from autonomy to accountability, from expert opinion to evidence-based medicine, and from self-interest to teamwork and shared responsibility. However, medical professionalism is defined as the basis for the trust in the patient–physician relationship, caring and compassion, insight, openness, respect for patient dignity, confidentiality, autonomy, presence, altruism, and those qualities that lead to trust-competence, integrity, honesty, morality, and ethical conduct. The purpose of this study is to explore professionalism in terms of its fundamental elements among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin (UniSZA. This was a cross-sectional study carried out on medical students of UniSZA. The study population included preclinical and clinical medical students of UniSZA from Year I to Year V of academic session 2014/2015. The simple random sampling technique was used to select the sample. Data were

  18. Medical Literature Evaluation Education at US Schools of Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Teresa A; Phillips, Jennifer; Demaris, Kendra

    2016-02-25

    To determine how medical literature evaluation (MLE) is being taught across the United States and to summarize methods for teaching and assessing MLE. An 18-question survey was administered to faculty members whose primary responsibility was teaching MLE at schools and colleges of pharmacy. Responses were received from 90 (71%) US schools of pharmacy. The most common method of integrating MLE into the curriculum was as a stand-alone course (49%). The most common placement was during the second professional year (43%) or integrated throughout the curriculum (25%). The majority (77%) of schools used a team-based approach. The use of active-learning strategies was common as was the use of multiple methods of evaluation. Responses varied regarding what role the course director played in incorporating MLE into advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). There is a trend toward incorporating MLE education components throughout the pre-APPE curriculum and placement of literature review/evaluation exercises into therapeutics practice skills laboratories to help students see how this skill integrates into other patient care skills. Several pre-APPE educational standards for MLE education exist, including journal club activities, a team-based approach to teaching and evaluation, and use of active-learning techniques.

  19. Melanoma and medical education: student’s perceptions of skin cancer screening in three medical schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Finn

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study evaluated how the level of medical education affected confidence of counseling on skin health, performing skin examinations, and the likelihood of using those skills in future screenings. Material and Methods: An online survey was distributed to students at three midwest medical schools that assessed sun protection behaviors, and the student’s perception of education and comfort on the complete skin examination and counseling on skin health. Results: 51.6% (n=243 indicated they were in the last two years of medical school and were considered advanced students, compared to less advanced students in the first two years. Advanced students were significantly more comfortable in performing a complete skin examination and counseling patients on skin health when compared to less advanced students (p < 0.001. However, they were also statistically less likely to indicate they would provide skin screening on future patients when compared to less advanced students (p < 0.001. Only 29.5% (n = 139 and 60.7% (n = 286 of students indicated they had been educated on performing a complete skin examination and counseling on skin health, respectively. Conclusions: Although advanced students were more likely to report education and comfortability in skin cancer screening they were not as likely to indicate they would practice these skills in the future compared to less advanced students. Also, only a small number of students perceived themselves to be educated in these aspects.

  20. Bronchoscopy Simulation Training as a Tool in Medical School Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Mallika; Skobodzinski, Alexus A; Sterbling, Helene M; Rao, Sowmya R; LaChapelle, Christopher; Suzuki, Kei; Litle, Virginia R

    2018-07-01

    Procedural simulation training is rare at the medical school level and little is known about its usefulness in improving anatomic understanding and procedural confidence in students. Our aim is to assess the impact of bronchoscopy simulation training on bronchial anatomy knowledge and technical skills in medical students. Medical students were recruited by email, consented, and asked to fill out a survey regarding their baseline experience. Two thoracic surgeons measured their knowledge of bronchoscopy on a virtual reality bronchoscopy simulator using the Bronchoscopy Skills and Tasks Assessment Tool (BSTAT), a validated 65-point checklist (46 for anatomy, 19 for simulation). Students performed four self-directed training sessions of 15 minutes per week. A posttraining survey and BSTAT were completed afterward. Differences between pretraining and posttraining scores were analyzed with paired Student's t tests and random intercept linear regression models accounting for baseline BSTAT score, total training time, and training year. The study was completed by 47 medical students with a mean training time of 81.5 ± 26.8 minutes. Mean total BSTAT score increased significantly from 12.3 ± 5.9 to 48.0 ± 12.9 (p training time and frequency of training did not have a significant impact on level of improvement. Self-driven bronchoscopy simulation training in medical students led to improvements in bronchial anatomy knowledge and bronchoscopy skills. Further investigation is under way to determine the impact of bronchoscopy simulation training on future specialty interest and long-term skills retention. Copyright © 2018 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Medical students-as-teachers: a systematic review of peer-assisted teaching during medical school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu TC

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Tzu-Chieh Yu¹, Nichola C Wilson², Primal P Singh¹, Daniel P Lemanu¹, Susan J Hawken³, Andrew G Hill¹¹South Auckland Clinical School, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ²Department of Surgery, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; ³Department of Psychological Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New ZealandIntroduction: International interest in peer-teaching and peer-assisted learning (PAL during undergraduate medical programs has grown in recent years, reflected both in literature and in practice. There, remains however, a distinct lack of objective clarity and consensus on the true effectiveness of peer-teaching and its short- and long-term impacts on learning outcomes and clinical practice.Objective: To summarize and critically appraise evidence presented on peer-teaching effectiveness and its impact on objective learning outcomes of medical students.Method: A literature search was conducted in four electronic databases. Titles and abstracts were screened and selection was based on strict eligibility criteria after examining full-texts. Two reviewers used a standard review and analysis framework to independently extract data from each study. Discrepancies in opinions were resolved by discussion in consultation with other reviewers. Adapted models of “Kirkpatrick’s Levels of Learning” were used to grade the impact size of study outcomes.Results: From 127 potential titles, 41 were obtained as full-texts, and 19 selected after close examination and group deliberation. Fifteen studies focused on student-learner outcomes and four on student-teacher learning outcomes. Ten studies utilized randomized allocation and the majority of study participants were self-selected volunteers. Written examinations and observed clinical evaluations were common study outcome assessments. Eleven studies provided student-teachers with formal teacher training. Overall, results suggest that peer-teaching, in highly selective

  2. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, Marie L.; Kennedy, Mary A.; Polak, Rani; Phillips, Edward M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA), few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions Current results provide some support for

  3. Physical activity counseling in medical school education: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie L. Dacey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite a large evidence base to demonstrate the health benefits of regular physical activity (PA, few physicians incorporate PA counseling into office visits. Inadequate medical training has been cited as a cause for this. This review describes curricular components and assesses the effectiveness of programs that have reported outcomes of PA counseling education in medical schools. Methods: The authors systematically searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, and ERIC databases for articles published in English from 2000 through 2012 that met PICOS inclusion criteria of medical school programs with PA counseling skill development and evaluation of outcomes. An initial search yielded 1944 citations, and 11 studies representing 10 unique programs met criteria for this review. These studies were described and analyzed for study quality. Strength of evidence for six measured outcomes shared by multiple studies was also evaluated, that is, students’ awareness of benefits of PA, change in students’ attitudes toward PA, change in personal PA behaviors, improvements in PA counseling knowledge and skills, self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling, and change in attitude toward PA counseling. Results: Considerable heterogeneity of teaching methods, duration, and placement within the curriculum was noted. Weak research designs limited an optimal evaluation of effectiveness, that is, few provided pre-/post-intervention assessments, and/or included control comparisons, or met criteria for intervention transparency and control for risk of bias. The programs with the most evidence of improvement indicated positive changes in students’ attitudes toward PA, their PA counseling knowledge and skills, and their self-efficacy to conduct PA counseling. These programs were most likely to follow previous recommendations to include experiential learning, theoretically based frameworks, and students’ personal PA behaviors. Conclusions: Current results provide

  4. Infrared thermography in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, R.; Zivcak, J.; Sevcik, A.; Danko, J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine has been practiced since at least the 1960's, but it is only now, in approximately the last 5 years, that it has been viewed with a reasonably open mind in the veterinary community at large. One of the reasons is progress in sensors technology, which contributed for an outstanding improvement of the thermal imager parameters. Paper deals with veterinary thermography and with description of applications at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice. (authors)

  5. Insulin Administration in Catholic Schools: A New Look at Legal and Medical Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that more students with type 1 diabetes are enrolling in Catholic schools across the United States. Meeting the medical needs of these students appears to be a significant challenge--legally and logistically--for many Catholic schools. District officials, school leaders, and school staff need support to understand the…

  6. Do reciprocal relationships between academic workload and self-regulated learning predict medical freshmen's achievement? A longitudinal study on the educational transition from secondary school to medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Joselina; Silva, Álvaro; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Severo, Milton

    2018-04-16

    One of the most important factors that makes the transition from secondary school to medical school challenging is the inability to put in the study time that a medical school curriculum demands. The implementation of regulated learning is essential for students to cope with medical course environment and succeed. This study aimed to investigate the reciprocal relationships between self-regulated learning skills (SRLS) and academic workload (AW) across secondary school to medical school transition. Freshmen enrolled in medical school (N = 102) completed questionnaires at the beginning and at the end of their academic year, assessing AW (measured as study time hours and perceived workload), SRLS (planning and strategies for learning assessment, motivation and action to learning and self-directedness) and academic achievement. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a longitudinal path analysis were performed. According to the EFA, study time and perceived workload revealed two factors of AW: students who had a high perceived workload also demonstrated increased study time (tandem AW); and those who had a low perceived workload also demonstrated increased study time (inverse AW). Only a longitudinal relationship between SRLS and AW was found in the path analysis: prior self-directedness was related to later tandem AW. Moreover, success during the first year of medical school is dependent on exposure to motivation, self-directedness and high study time without overload during secondary school and medical school, and prior academic achievement. By better understanding these relationships, teachers can create conditions that support academic success during the first year medical school.

  7. Workplace learning through peer groups in medical school clerkships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Calvin L; Teherani, Arianne; Masters, Dylan E; Vener, Margo; Wamsley, Maria; Poncelet, Ann

    2014-01-01

    When medical students move from the classroom into clinical practice environments, their roles and learning challenges shift dramatically from a formal curricular approach to a workplace learning model. Continuity among peers during clinical clerkships may play an important role in this different mode of learning. We explored students' perceptions about how they achieved workplace learning in the context of intentionally formed or ad hoc peer groups. We invited students in clerkship program models with continuity (CMCs) and in traditional block clerkships (BCs) to complete a survey about peer relationships with open-ended questions based on a workplace learning framework, including themes of workplace-based relationships, the nature of work practices, and selection of tasks and activities. We conducted qualitative content analysis to characterize students' experiences. In both BCs and CMCs, peer groups provided rich resources, including anticipatory guidance about clinical expectations of students, best practices in interacting with patients and supervisors, helpful advice in transitioning between rotations, and information about implicit rules of clerkships. Students also used each other as benchmarks for gauging strengths and deficits in their own knowledge and skills. Students achieve many aspects of workplace learning in clerkships through formal or informal workplace-based peer groups. In these groups, peers provide accessible, real-time, and relevant resources to help each other navigate transitions, clarify roles and tasks, manage interpersonal challenges, and decrease isolation. Medical schools can support effective workplace learning for medical students by incorporating continuity with peers in the main clinical clerkship year.

  8. Need for Injury Prevention Education In Medical School Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaca, Federico E

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Injury is the leading cause of death and disability among the U.S. population aged 1 to 44 years. In 2006 more than 179,000 fatalities were attributed to injury. Despite increasing awareness of the global epidemic of injury and violence, a considerable gap remains between advances in injury-prevention research and prevention knowledge that is taught to medical students. This article discusses the growing need for U.S medical schools to train future physicians in the fundamentals of injury prevention and control. Teaching medical students to implement injury prevention in their future practice should help reduce injury morbidity and mortality. Deliberate efforts should be made to integrate injury-prevention education into existing curriculum. Key resources are available to do this. Emergency physicians can be essential advocates in establishing injury prevention training because of their clinical expertise in treating injury. Increasing the number of physicians with injury- and violence- prevention knowledge and skills is ultimately an important strategy to reduce the national and global burden of injury. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:40-43].

  9. Tanzania Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the ...

  10. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain. Meseko, C. A.. 1. ; Shittu, I. 1. ; Bwala, D. G.. 2. ; Joannis, T. M.. 1 and Nwosuh, C. I.. 2. 1Regional Laboratory For Animal Influenza and Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Veterinary ...

  11. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...

  12. Veterinary Molecular Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weesendorp, E.; Bossers, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this

  13. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, ... momohasabeh@gmail.com; Tel No:+2348038352906. ... in-contact humans from pig farms and abattoir. ... Momoh et al. 141 and may enhance the distribution of resistance genes into ... treating clinical infections in both man and.

  14. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    xyphoid cartilage to the pelvic area and aquasonic gel applied. The uterus was ... is used in both veterinary and human medicine ... Idris et al. 135 the pelvic region was gently made wet, with ... showing multiple fetuses (blue arrow). Plate IV: ... The beginning of bone formation which appears as hyperechoic structures ...

  15. USSTRIDE program is associated with competitive Black and Latino student applicants to medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Kendall M.; Berne-Anderson, Thesla; Wang, Aihua; Dormeus, Guy; Rodríguez, José E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We compared MCAT scores, grade point averages (GPAs), and medical school acceptance rates of Black and Latino students in an outreach program called Undergraduate Science Students Together Reaching Instructional Diversity and Excellence (USSTRIDE) to non-USSTRIDE students. We hypothesized that Black and Latino participants in USSTRIDE had higher acceptance rates to medical school, higher MCAT scores, and college GPAs when compared to other Black and Latino medical school applicants f...

  16. The basis of the modern medical hygiene in the medieval Medical School of Salerno.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bifulco, Maurizio; Capunzo, Mario; Marasco, Magda; Pisanti, Simona

    2015-01-01

    The link between hygiene and the concept of transmission of infective diseases was established earlier than the birth of microbiology, thanks to the studies of two neglected physicians of maternity clinic, Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis and Oliver Holmes, in the mid-1800s. Surprisingly, centuries earlier, a medieval women physician, Trotula de Ruggiero, introduced for the first time the notion of diseases’ prevention, highlighting the importance of the association of personal hygiene, balanced nutrition and physical activity for better health. Moreover, she was particularly concerned of hands hygiene for the midwives during child birth, to preserve the good health of both the mother and the baby. She practiced inside the medieval Medical School of Salerno, whose main text, the “Regimen Sanitatis Salerni” has an entire part dedicated to hygiene, providing hygienic precepts that anticipate the concepts derived from the revolutionary discoveries in medical science only centuries later.

  17. [Medical degree earned with a thesis in medical schools of Lima, 2011: characteristics, motivations and perceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Inga-Berrospi, Fiorella; Mayta-Tristán, Percy

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed physicians who obtained their medical degree with a thesis in 2011 from the seven medical schools in Lima to know the characteristics of the degree by thesis process, as well as participants’ motivations and perceptions of that process. We included 98 students who did a thesis (87% of total); 99% conducted observational thesis, 30% did so in groups of three. The main motivation was that it was good for their curriculum vitae (94%). At the university where the thesis is compulsory, the process began with the choice of topic and adviser. Perceived “greatest” and “least” difficulty in the process was the completion of administrative procedures (53%) and selection of their advisor (11%), respectively. Administrative timeliness and processes should be reviewed so as not to impede the completion of thesis, since the new University Act requires the completion of a thesis to graduate.

  18. Does emotional intelligence influence success during medical school admissions and program matriculation?: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Christian Jaeger; Cook, Chad E; Hilton, Tiffany N

    2016-01-01

    It aimed at determining whether emotional intelligence is a predictor for success in a medical school program and whether the emotional intelligence construct correlated with other markers for admission into medical school. Three databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and ERIC) were searched up to and including July 2016, using relevant terms. Studies written in English were selected if they included emotional intelligence as a predictor for success in medical school, markers of success such as examination scores and grade point average and association with success defined through traditional medical school admission criteria and failures, and details about the sample. Data extraction included the study authors and year, population description, emotional intelligence I tool, outcome variables, and results. Associations between emotional intelligence scores and reported data were extracted and recorded. Six manuscripts were included. Overall, study quality was high. Four of the manuscripts examined emotional intelligence as a predictor for success while in medical school. Three of these four studies supported a weak positive relationship between emotional intelligence scores and success during matriculation. Two of manuscripts examined the relationship of emotional intelligence to medical school admissions. There were no significant relevant correlations between emotional intelligence and medical school admission selection. Emotional intelligence was correlated with some, but not all, measures of success during medical school matriculation and none of the measures associated with medical school admissions. Variability in success measures across studies likely explains the variable findings.

  19. Does emotional intelligence influence success during medical school admissions and program matriculation?: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Jaeger Cook

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose It aimed at determining whether emotional intelligence is a predictor for success in a medical school program and whether the emotional intelligence construct correlated with other markers for admission into medical school. Methods Three databases (PubMed, CINAHL, and ERIC were searched up to and including July 2016, using relevant terms. Studies written in English were selected if they included emotional intelligence as a predictor for success in medical school, markers of success such as examination scores and grade point average and association with success defined through traditional medical school admission criteria and failures, and details about the sample. Data extraction included the study authors and year, population description, emotional intelligence I tool, outcome variables, and results. Associations between emotional intelligence scores and reported data were extracted and recorded. Results Six manuscripts were included. Overall, study quality was high. Four of the manuscripts examined emotional intelligence as a predictor for success while in medical school. Three of these four studies supported a weak positive relationship between emotional intelligence scores and success during matriculation. Two of manuscripts examined the relationship of emotional intelligence to medical school admissions. There were no significant relevant correlations between emotional intelligence and medical school admission selection. Conclusion Emotional intelligence was correlated with some, but not all, measures of success during medical school matriculation and none of the measures associated with medical school admissions. Variability in success measures across studies likely explains the variable findings.

  20. Emergency Medical Technician Training During Medical School: Benefits for the Hidden Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ-Sellers, Rebecca; Blackwell, Thomas H

    2017-07-01

    Medical schools are encouraged to introduce students to clinical experiences early, to integrate biomedical and clinical sciences, and to expose students to interprofessional health providers and teams. One important goal is for students to gain a better understanding of the patients they will care for in the future and how their social and behavioral characteristics may affect care delivery. To promote early clinical exposure and biomedical integration, in 2012 the University of South Carolina School of Medicine Greenville incorporated emergency medical technician (EMT) training into the curriculum. This report describes the program; outlines changes (made after year 1) to improve biomedical integration; and provides a brief analysis and categorization of comments from student reflections to determine whether particular themes, especially related to the hidden curriculum, appeared. Medical students wrote frequently about EMT-related experiences: 29% of reflections in the charter year (1.2 per student) and 38% of reflections in the second year (1.5 per student) focused on EMT-related experiences. Reflections related to patient care, professionalism, systems-based practice, and communication/interpersonal skills. The frequency of themes in student reflections may provide insight into a medical program's hidden curriculum. This information may serve to inform curricula that focus on biosocial elements such as professionalism and communication with the goal of enhancing future physicians' tolerance, empathy, and patient-centeredness. The authors plan to conduct further qualitative analysis of student reflections to iteratively revise curricula to address gaps both in learning and in the differences between the explicit curriculum and actual experiences.

  1. Educational theory and medical education practice: a cautionary note for medical school faculty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colliver, Jerry A

    2002-12-01

    Educational theory is routinely cited as justification for practice in medical education, even though the justification for the theory itself is unclear. Problem-based learning (PBL), for example, is said to be based on powerful educational principles that should result in strong effects on learning and performance. But research over the past 20 years has produced little convincing evidence for the educational effectiveness of PBL, which naturally raises doubts about the underlying theory. This essay reflects on educational theory, in particular cognitive theory, and concludes that the theory is little more than metaphor, not rigorous, tested, confirmed scientific theory. This metaphor/theory may lead to ideas for basic and applied research, which in turn may facilitate the development of theory. In the meantime, however, the theory cannot be trusted to determine practice in medical education. Despite the intuitive appeal of educational theory, medical educators have a responsibility to set aside their enthusiasm and make it clear to medical school faculty and administrators that educational innovations and practice claims are, at best, founded on conjecture, not on evidence-based science.

  2. The relationship between school type and academic performance at medical school: a national, multi-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumwenda, Ben; Cleland, Jennifer A; Walker, Kim; Lee, Amanda J; Greatrix, Rachel

    2017-08-31

    Differential attainment in school examinations is one of the barriers to increasing student diversity in medicine. However, studies on the predictive validity of prior academic achievement and educational performance at medical school are contradictory, possibly due to single-site studies or studies which focus only on early years' performance. To address these gaps, we examined the relationship between sociodemographic factors, including school type and average educational performance throughout medical school across a large number of diverse medical programmes. This retrospective study analysed data from students who graduated from 33 UK medical schools between 2012 and 2013. We included candidates' demographics, pre-entry grades (adjusted Universities and Colleges Admissions Service tariff scores) preadmission test scores (UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) and Graduate Medical School Admissions Test (GAMSAT)) and used the UK Foundation Programme's educational performance measure (EPM) decile as an outcome measure. Logistic regression was used to assess the independent relationship between students' background characteristics and EPM ranking. Students from independent schools had significantly higher mean UKCAT scores (2535.1, SD=209.6) than students from state-funded schools (2506.1, SD=224.0, pschools came into medical school with significantly higher mean GAMSAT scores (63.9, SD=6.9) than students from state-funded schools (60.8, SD=7.1, pschools were almost twice as likely (OR=2.01, 95% CI 1.49 to 2.73) to finish in the highest rank of the EPM ranking than those who attended independent schools. This is the first large-scale study to examine directly the relationship between school type and overall performance at medical school. Our findings provide modest supportive evidence that, when students from independent and state schools enter with similar pre-entry grades, once in medical school, students from state-funded schools are likely to outperform students

  3. Dogs in the Hall: A Case Study of Affective Skill Development in an Urban Veterinary Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael; Tummons, John; Ball, Anna; Bird, William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore how an urban high school veterinary program impacted students' affective skill development. The program was unique because students were required to participate in internships with local animal care businesses and care for animals within the school veterinary laboratory. The…

  4. Medical school personal statements: a measure of motivation or proxy for cultural privilege?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sarah

    2015-08-01

    Students from state schools are underrepresented in UK medical schools. Discussions often focus on deficient academic and motivational traits of state school students, rather than considering the effects of student support during the admissions process. This qualitative study explored student experiences of support from schools and families during the medical school admissions process with particular focus on the personal statement. Interviews were conducted with thirteen medical students at a British medical school who had each attended a different secondary school (classified as private or state funded). A thematic analysis was performed. Bourdieu's concepts of capital and field were used as a theoretical lens through which to view the results. Interviews revealed substantial differences in support provided by private and state funded schools. Private schools had much more experience in the field of medical school admissions and had a vested interest in providing students with support. State schools were lacking by comparison, offering limited support that was often reactive rather than proactive. Students from private schools were also more likely to have social contacts who were knowledgeable about medical school admissions and who could help them gain access to work experience opportunities that would be recognised as legitimate by selectors. While medical schools endeavour to make fair admissions policies, there is an unintended link between a student's access to capital and ability to demonstrate commitment and motivation on personal statements. This helps explain why academically capable but financially or socially challenged students are less likely to be recognised as having potential during the admissions process. Medical schools need to be challenged to review their admissions policies to ensure that the do not inadvertently favour cultural privilege rather than student potential.

  5. Do students from public schools fare better in medical school than their colleagues from private schools? If so, what can we learn from this?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Santos, Cristina; Vieira-Marques, Pedro; Costa-Pereira, Altamiro; Ferreira, Maria Amélia; Freitas, Alberto

    2018-03-27

    Internal grade inflation is a documented practice in secondary schools (mostly in private schools) that jeopardises fairness with regard to access to medical school. However, it is frequently assumed that the higher internal grades are in fact justifiable, as they correspond to better preparation of students in private schools in areas that national exams do not cover but nevertheless are important. Consequently, it is expected that students from private schools will succeed better in medical school than their colleagues, or at least not perform worse. We aimed to study whether students from private schools do fare better in medical school than their colleagues from public schools, even after adjusting for internal grade inflation. We analysed all students that entered into a medical course from 2007 to 2014. A linear regression was performed using mean grades for the 1st-year curse units (CU) of the medical school curriculum as a dependent variable and student gender, the nature of students' secondary school (public/private), and whether their secondary school highly inflated grades as independent variables. A logistic regression was also performed, modelling whether or not students failed at least one CU exam during the 1st year of medical school as a function of the aforementioned independent variables. Of the 1709 students analysed, 55% came from public secondary schools. Private (vs. public) secondary school (β = - 0.459, p schools highly inflated grades (β = - 0.246, p = 0.003) were independent factors that significantly influenced grades during the first year of medical school. Having attended a private secondary school also significantly increased the odds of a student having failed at least one CU exam during the 1st year of medical school (OR = 1.33), even after adjusting for whether or not the secondary school used highly inflated grades. It is important to further discuss what we can learn from the fact that students from public

  6. Medical school gift restriction policies and physician prescribing of newly marketed psychotropic medications: difference-in-differences analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Marissa; Essick, Connor; Bearman, Peter; Ross, Joseph S

    2013-01-30

    To examine the effect of attending a medical school with an active policy on restricting gifts from representatives of pharmaceutical and device industries on subsequent prescribing behavior. Difference-in-differences approach. 14 US medical schools with an active gift restriction policy in place by 2004. Prescribing patterns in 2008 and 2009 of physicians attending one of the schools compared with physicians graduating from the same schools before the implementation of the policy, as well as a set of contemporary matched controls. Probability that a physician would prescribe a newly marketed medication over existing alternatives of three psychotropic classes: lisdexamfetamine among stimulants, paliperidone among antipsychotics, and desvenlafaxine among antidepressants. None of these medications represented radical breakthroughs in their respective classes. For two of the three medications examined, attending a medical school with an active gift restriction policy was associated with reduced prescribing of the newly marketed drug. Physicians who attended a medical school with an active conflict of interest policy were less likely to prescribe lisdexamfetamine over older stimulants (adjusted odds ratio 0.44, 95% confidence interval 0.22 to 0.88; P=0.02) and paliperidone over older antipsychotics (0.25, 0.07 to 0.85; P=0.03). A significant effect was not observed for desvenlafaxine (1.54, 0.79 to 3.03; P=0.20). Among cohorts of students who had a longer exposure to the policy or were exposed to more stringent policies, prescribing rates were further reduced. Exposure to a gift restriction policy during medical school was associated with reduced prescribing of two out of three newly introduced psychotropic medications.

  7. Comparing Item Performance on Three- Versus Four-Option Multiple Choice Questions in a Veterinary Toxicology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth; Dorman, David

    2018-06-09

    The number of answer options is an important element of multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Many MCQs contain four or more options despite the limited literature suggesting that there is little to no benefit beyond three options. The purpose of this study was to evaluate item performance on 3-option versus 4-option MCQs used in a core curriculum course in veterinary toxicology at a large veterinary medical school in the United States. A quasi-experimental, crossover design was used in which students in each class were randomly assigned to take one of two versions (A or B) of two major exams. Both the 3-option and 4-option MCQs resulted in similar psychometric properties. The findings of our study support earlier research in other medical disciplines and settings that likewise concluded there was no significant change in the psychometric properties of three option MCQs when compared to the traditional MCQs with four or more options.

  8. Gifted students' academic performance in medical school: a study of Olympiad winners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Kee, Changwon

    2012-01-01

    The present study examines the performance of academically talented students (i.e., those who received awards in Olympiads, the international competitions for gifted students in science or mathematics) in medical school. The goal is to investigate whether students exceptionally talented in science and mathematics excel in medical school. A retrospective analysis of 13 cohorts of medical students (N = 475) was conducted to compare learning outcomes of academically talented students (ATS) with their peers in terms of their grade point averages (GPAs) and national licensing exam (KMLE) scores. ATS outperformed their peers in total GPAs (p success in medical school, even among those with exceptional talent. Better understanding of nonacademic factors associated with medical school performance is warranted to improve our selection processes and to better help academically talented students succeed in medical school.

  9. Opinion and Special Articles: Neurology education at US osteopathic medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Daniel A; Albert, Dara V F

    2017-12-12

    Osteopathic medical schools have a longstanding tradition of training primary care physicians (PCP). Neurologic symptoms are common in the PCP's office and there is an undersupply of neurologists in the United States. It is therefore crucial for osteopathic medical students to have a strong foundation in clinical neurology. Despite the importance, a mere 6% of osteopathic medical schools have required neurology clerkships. Furthermore, exposure to neurology in medical school through required clerkships has been correlated with matching into neurology residency. As osteopathic medical schools continue to expand, it will become increasingly important to emphasize the American Academy Neurology's published guidelines for a core clerkship curriculum. Practicing neurologists should take an active role in encouraging osteopathic medical schools to adopt these guidelines. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Avoiding student infection during a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS outbreak: a single medical school experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Won Park

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: In outbreaks of infectious disease, medical students are easily overlooked in the management of healthcare personnel protection although they serve in clinical clerkships in hospitals. In the early summer of 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS struck South Korea, and students of Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM were at risk of contracting the disease. The purpose of this report is to share SKKUSOM’s experience against the MERS outbreak and provide suggestions for medical schools to consider in the face of similar challenges. Methods: Through a process of reflection-on-action, we examined SKKUSOM’s efforts to avoid student infection during the MERS outbreak and derived a few practical guidelines that medical schools can adopt to ensure student safety in outbreaks of infectious disease. Results: The school leadership conducted ongoing risk assessment and developed contingency plans to balance student safety and continuity in medical education. They rearranged the clerkships to another hospital and offered distant lectures and tutorials. Five suggestions are extracted for medical schools to consider in infection outbreaks: instant cessation of clinical clerkships; rational decision making on a school closure; use of information technology; constant communication with hospitals; and open communication with faculty, staff, and students. Conclusion: Medical schools need to take the initiative and actively seek countermeasures against student infection. It is essential that medical schools keep constant communication with their index hospitals and the involved personnel. In order to assure student learning, medical schools may consider offering distant education with online technology.

  11. Avoiding student infection during a Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) outbreak: a single medical school experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seung Won; Jang, Hye Won; Choe, Yon Ho; Lee, Kyung Soo; Ahn, Yong Chan; Chung, Myung Jin; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Lee, Kyunghoon; Han, Taehee

    2016-06-01

    In outbreaks of infectious disease, medical students are easily overlooked in the management of healthcare personnel protection although they serve in clinical clerkships in hospitals. In the early summer of 2015, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) struck South Korea, and students of Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine (SKKUSOM) were at risk of contracting the disease. The purpose of this report is to share SKKUSOM's experience against the MERS outbreak and provide suggestions for medical schools to consider in the face of similar challenges. Through a process of reflection-on-action, we examined SKKUSOM's efforts to avoid student infection during the MERS outbreak and derived a few practical guidelines that medical schools can adopt to ensure student safety in outbreaks of infectious disease. The school leadership conducted ongoing risk assessment and developed contingency plans to balance student safety and continuity in medical education. They rearranged the clerkships to another hospital and offered distant lectures and tutorials. Five suggestions are extracted for medical schools to consider in infection outbreaks: instant cessation of clinical clerkships; rational decision making on a school closure; use of information technology; constant communication with hospitals; and open communication with faculty, staff, and students. Medical schools need to take the initiative and actively seek countermeasures against student infection. It is essential that medical schools keep constant communication with their index hospitals and the involved personnel. In order to assure student learning, medical schools may consider offering distant education with online technology.

  12. Podcasting as a novel way to communicate with medical school applicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Benjamin D; Bister, Mary K; Krapec, Joni N

    2014-09-01

    Podcasting in medical education is becoming more widely used and may be a useful tool for communicating with applicants to medical school. Given recent trends in the popularity of podcasting and mobile media, we created a podcast to communicate more effectively with applicants to our medical school as well as with the broader premedical community. The purpose of this study was to characterize the listening habits and motivations of our audience and compare the podcast's benefits to those of other resources. We additionally sought to understand patterns by which our podcast was consumed by a premedical audience. We surveyed medical school applicants who interviewed at the University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine for matriculation in 2013. Forty-one percent of those surveyed had listened to the podcast prior to their interview. Only 12 % of listeners accessed the podcast using a mobile device. Ninety-two percent of listeners felt that it faithfully represented the medical school, and 81 % felt that listening would encourage the decision to matriculate. A majority of listeners responded that the podcast was more helpful than other traditional resources. This is the first use of podcasting in medical school admissions and represents a novel way to communicate with prospective students. Our findings demonstrate that podcasting can be an effective tool for communicating with applicants to medical school and highlight its usefulness in recruitment. This method of communication could be adopted by other medical schools to enhance the ways in which they inform their own prospective medical students.

  13. Entry of US Medical School Graduates Into Family Medicine Residencies: 2015-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakowski, Stanley M; Travis, Alexandra; Bentley, Ashley; Fetter, Gerald

    2016-10-01

    This is the 35th national study conducted by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) that reports retrospectively the percentage of graduates from MD-granting and DO-granting medical schools who entered Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited family medicine residency programs as first-year residents. Approximately 8.7% of the 18,929 students graduating from US MD-granting medical schools and 15.5% of the 5,314 students graduating from DO-granting medical schools between July 2014 and June 2015 entered an ACGME family medicine residency in 2015. Together, 10.2% of graduates of MD- and DO-granting schools entered family medicine. Of the 1,640 graduates of the MD-granting medical schools who entered a family medicine residency in 2015, 80% graduated from 70 of the 134 schools (52%). In 2015, DO-granting medical schools graduated 823 into ACGME-accredited family medicine residencies, 80% graduating from 19 of the 32 schools (59%). In aggregate, medical schools west of the Mississippi River represent less than a third of all MD-granting schools but have a rate of students selecting family medicine that is 40% higher than schools located east of the Mississippi. Fifty-one percent (24/47) of states and territories containing medical schools produce 80% of the graduates entering ACGME-accredited family medicine residency programs. A rank order list of MD-granting medical schools was created based on the last 3 years' average percentage of graduates who became family medicine residents, using the 2015 and prior AAFP census data.

  14. Academic profile of students who transferred to Zagreb School of Medicine from other medical schools in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusek, Davorka; Dolovcak, Svjetlana; Kljaković-Gaspić, Marko

    2004-02-01

    To assess the academic performance of students who transferred to the Zagreb School of Medicine from other three medical schools in Croatia. Academic performance of medical students who moved from Rijeka, Osijek, or Split University Medical Schools to the Zagreb University School of Medicine at the second or third year was compared with academic performance of students enrolled at the Zagreb University School of Medicine. Using the Zagreb Medical School's registry, we made a list of 57 transfer students to Zagreb Medical School in the 1985-1994 period. Control group was formed of students enrolled at the Zagreb School of Medicine in the same period, whose names followed in alphabetical order after the names of transfer students. Students' performance was analyzed according to their grade average before transfer, grade average in the first year after transfer, total grade average after transfer, overall grade average, and duration of studies. We also analyzed the proportion of students in each group who did not pass the admission test at the Zagreb School of Medicine in the year before the enrollment in Zagreb, Osijek, Rijeka, and Split Medical Schools. Nineteen transfer students, transferred between 1985 and 1988, and their controls were excluded from the analysis because of incomplete data. Transfer students had significantly lower grade average before transfer (3.2-/+0.6 vs 3.5-/+0.7, p=0.03, Student t-test), lower grade average in the first year after transfer (3.2-/+0.6 vs 3.5-/+0.7, p=0.03), lower total grade average after transfer (3.6-/+0.5 vs 4.0-/+0.6, pZagreb School of Medicine in the year before the final enrollment than their controls (15/38 vs 4/38, p=0.009, chi-square test). Transfer students had poorer academic performance than students who passed the admission test and were enrolled at the Zagreb School of Medicine from the first year of studies.

  15. Gastroenterology Curriculum in the Canadian Medical School System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, ThucNhi Tran; Wong, Clarence; Bistritz, Lana

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Gastroenterology is a diverse subspecialty that covers a wide array of topics. The preclinical gastroenterology curriculum is often the only formal training that medical students receive prior to becoming residents. There is no Canadian consensus on learning objectives or instructional methods and a general lack of awareness of curriculum at other institutions. This results in variable background knowledge for residents and lack of guidance for course development. Objectives. (1) Elucidate gastroenterology topics being taught at the preclinical level. (2) Determine instructional methods employed to teach gastroenterology content. Results . A curriculum map of gastroenterology topics was constructed from 10 of the medical schools that responded. Topics often not taught included pediatric GI diseases, surgery and trauma, food allergies/intolerances, and obesity. Gastroenterology was taught primarily by gastroenterologists and surgeons. Didactic and small group teaching was the most employed teaching method. Conclusion. This study is the first step in examining the Canadian gastroenterology curriculum at a preclinical level. The data can be used to inform curriculum development so that topics generally lacking are better incorporated in the curriculum. The study can also be used as a guide for further curriculum design and alignment across the country.

  16. Evaluation of a health-promoting school program to enhance correct medication use in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Yun Chi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was an evaluation of the Health Promoting School (HPS program in Taiwan and its effectiveness in enhancing students' knowledge and abilities with regard to correct medication usage. In 2011, baseline and follow-up self-administered online surveys were received from 3520 middle-school and primary students from intervention schools, and 3738 students from comparison primary and secondary schools completed the same survey. The results indicated that after implementing the correct medication use HPS program, students' knowledge and abilities concerning correct medication usage (i.e., the need to express clearly personal conditions to physicians, to check information on the medication packages, to take medication correctly and adhere to prescribed medication regimens, not to buy or acquire medication from unlicensed sources, and to consult pharmacists/physicians were significantly increased among the students in the intervention schools (p < 0.001. In addition, students' knowledge and abilities concerning correct medication usage were significantly higher in the intervention schools compared with the comparison schools (p < 0.001. In conclusion, the correct medication use HPS program significantly enhanced students' knowledge and abilities concerning correct medication usage.

  17. Application essays and future performance in medical school: are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ting; Kay, Allen; Artino, Anthony R; Gilliland, William R; Waechter, Donna M; Cruess, David; DeZee, Kent J; Durning, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research on whether application essays are a valid indicator of medical students' future performance. The goal is to score medical school application essays systematically and examine the correlations between these essay scores and several indicators of student performance during medical school and internship. A journalist created a scoring rubric based on the journalism literature and scored 2 required essays of students admitted to our university in 1 year (N = 145). We picked 7 indicators of medical school and internship performance and correlated these measures with overall essay scores: preclinical medical school grade point average (GPA), clinical medical school GPA, cumulative medical school GPA, U.S. Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE) Step 1 and 2 scores, and scores on a program director's evaluation measuring intern professionalism and expertise. We then examined the Pearson and Spearman correlations between essay scores and the outcomes. Essay scores did not vary widely. American Medical College Application Service essay scores ranged from 3.3 to 4.5 (M = 4.11, SD = 0.15), and Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences essay scores ranged from 2.9 to 4.5 (M = 4.09, SD = 0.17). None of the medical school or internship performance indicators was significantly correlated with the essay scores. These findings raise questions about the utility of matriculation essays, a resource-intensive admission requirement.

  18. The responsibilities of veterinary educators in responding to emerging needs in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, R E W

    2009-08-01

    It is an unfortunate fact that not only has veterinary education failed to adapt in the face of likely future needs, but it has also failed to respond to societal changes that have already taken place and that have affected the requirements for veterinary services and veterinary capability. The responsibility is primarily that of educators, although vision and foresight require a co-ordinated approach involving national and international veterinary organisations. Once it is accepted by all parties that change is essential, the implementation will fail unless there is a unified programme involving the schools and colleges, the accrediting agencies, the licensing authorities, governments, the professional organisations and corporate veterinary medicine. All have a role to play, and any one can readily block progress. A unified approach is an absolute requirement. The developed countries must take a leading role, but the issues are global, and ways must be found to facilitate change in all parts of the world. Disease knows no boundaries, and any strategy is only as strong as its weakest link.

  19. Evaluation of usage of virtual microscopy for the study of histology in the medical, dental, and veterinary undergraduate programs of a UK University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatumu, Margaret K; MacMillan, Frances M; Langton, Philip D; Headley, P Max; Harris, Judy R

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the introduction of a virtual microscope (VM) that has allowed preclinical histology teaching to be fashioned to better suit the needs of approximately 900 undergraduate students per year studying medicine, dentistry, or veterinary science at the University of Bristol, United Kingdom. Features of the VM implementation include: (1) the facility for students and teachers to make annotations on the digital slides; (2) in-house development of VM-based quizzes that are used for both formative and summative assessments; (3) archiving of teaching materials generated each year, enabling students to access their personalized learning resources throughout their programs; and (4) retention of light microscopy capability alongside the VM. Student feedback on the VM is particularly positive about its ease of use, the value of the annotation tool, the quizzes, and the accessibility of all components off-campus. Analysis of login data indicates considerable, although variable, use of the VM by students outside timetabled teaching. The median number of annual logins per student account for every course exceeded the number of timetabled histology classes for that course (1.6–3.5 times). The total number of annual student logins across all cohorts increased from approximately 9,000 in the year 2007–2008 to 22,000 in the year 2010–2011. The implementation of the VM has improved teaching and learning in practical classes within the histology laboratory and facilitated consolidation and revision of material outside the laboratory. Discussion is provided of some novel strategies that capitalize on the benefits of introducing a VM, as well as strategies adopted to overcome some potential challenges.

  20. Retheorizing sexual harassment in medical education: women students' perceptions at five U.S. medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Delese; Aultman, Julie M; Borges, Nicole J

    2007-01-01

    The literature consistently reports that sexual harassment occurs with regularity in medical education, mostly in clinical settings, and most of it goes unreported. Reasons for nonreporting include the fear of retaliation, a reluctance to be viewed as a victim, a fear that one is being "too sensitive," and the belief that nothing will be done. We wanted to examine with greater concentration the stories women students tell about sexual harassment, including what they count as sexual harassment, for more or different clues to their persistent nonreporting. We used focus groups to interview 30 women students at 5 U.S. medical schools. We used systematic inductive guidelines to analyze the transcribed data, linking to and building new theoretical frameworks to provide an interpretive understanding of the lived experiences of the women in our study. Consistent with previous literature, most of the students interviewed had either witnessed or observed sexual harassment. We selected 2 theoretical lenses heretofore not used to explain responses to sexual harassment: 3rd-wave feminist theory to think about how current women students conceive sexual harassment and personality theory to explain beliefs about nonreporting. Medical educators need new ways to understand how contemporary women students define and respond to sexual harassment.

  1. Veterinary homeopathy: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Vockeroth, W G

    1999-01-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies, including homeopathy, have a definite place in veterinary medicine today. The public is demanding access to a full range of conventional and complementary therapies, and the best scenario is to have all therapies available, for there is a place and a need for all of them in the right situation. In my own practice, I use both alternative and conventional therapies, as well as referring patients to specialists, for services such as ultrasound and surgery...

  2. Nanomedicine in veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei

    2015-08-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Radiotherapy in veterinary medicine: beginnings and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R.; Andrade, Alexandre L.; Luvizoto, Maria C.R.; Piero, Juliana R.; Ciarlini, Luciana D.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a brief historical about the use of ionizing radiations in Veterinary Medicine, instructing the physical beginnings and techniques wrapped in the realization of the proceedings of radiotherapy in animals, illustrating some treated cases, highlighting the difficulties and pointing to the perspectives and importance of the acting of the medical physics in this kind of therapeutic still little used in the national scenery. (author)

  4. Effectiveness of basic clinical skills training programmes : a cross-sectional comparison of four medical schools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remmen, R; Scherpbier, A; van der Vleuten, C; Denekens, J; Derese, A; van Rossum, Herman; Hoogenboom, R; Kramer, A; Van Royen, P; Bossaert, L

    Objective Training in physical diagnostic skills is an important part of undergraduate medical education. The objective of this study was to study the outcome of skills training at four medical schools. Context At the time of the study, three schools had a traditional lecture-based curriculum and

  5. Occupational and Environmental Health Programs in a Medical School: Should They Be a Department?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rom, William N.

    1981-01-01

    Occupational and environmental health programs are beginning to be developed in many medical schools. The attitudes of medical school deans on their past experiences, current plans, and thoughts for the future for occupational and environmental health were surveyed and are described. (MLW)

  6. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2012-01-01

    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  7. Lessons learned from 15 years of non-grades-based selection for medical school

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.M. Stegers-Jager (Karen)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractContext: Thirty years ago, it was suggested in the Edinburgh Declaration that medical school applicants should be selected not only on academic, but also on non-academic, attributes. The main rationale behind extending medical school selection procedures with the evaluation of

  8. Otolaryngology in the medical school curriculum: Current trends in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscoe, Elizabeth F; Cabrera-Muffly, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    To identify trends in medical school otolaryngology curriculum requirements. Survey of United States allopathic medical schools. A survey was sent to deans of curriculum at allopathic medical schools. We identified opportunities for medical students to learn basic concepts in otolaryngology during their undergraduate medical training. The opportunities were classified into preclinical and clinical as well as elective and mandatory rotations. Of the schools surveyed, 60% responded. Mean class size was 149 students. Sixty-eight percent of surveyed schools noted that 75% to 100% of their students participated in preclinical otolaryngology experiences, with 59% reporting a mandatory preclinical otolaryngology module for all students. Eighty-nine percent of schools offered otolaryngology as a clinical elective rotation, with a mean of 12 students participating yearly. Only 7% of schools required a mandatory otolaryngology clinical rotation. Our data suggest that medical students do not receive sufficient exposure to otolaryngology during medical school. Increased requirements for otolaryngology curriculum may be beneficial to all medical students, regardless of their specialty choice. NA. Laryngoscope, 00:000-000, 2016 127:346-348, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. How are we 'doing' cultural diversity? A look across English Canadian undergraduate medical school programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafson, Diana L; Reitmanova, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    Cultural diversity education is a required curriculum component at all accredited North American medical schools. Each medical school determines its own content and pedagogical approaches. This preliminary study maps the approaches to cultural diversity education in English Canadian medical schools. A review of 14 English Canadian medical school websites was undertaken to identify the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity education. A PubMed search was also completed to identify the recent literature on cultural diversity medical education in Canada. Data were analysed using 10 criteria that distinguish pedagogical approaches, curricular structure, course content and theoretical understandings of cultural diversity. Based on the information posted on English Canadian medical school websites, all schools offer cultural diversity education although how each 'does' cultural diversity differs widely. Two medical schools have adopted the cultural competency model; five have adopted a critical cultural approach to diversity; and the remaining seven have incorporated some aspects of both approaches. More comprehensive research is needed to map the theoretical approaches to cultural diversity at Canadian medical schools and to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of these approaches on improving physician-patient relationships, reducing health disparities, improving health outcomes and producing positive learning outcomes in physicians.

  10. Students' approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students' characteristics and motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Anouk; Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W G; Hulsman, Robert L; Kusurkar, Rashmi A

    2017-06-12

    The aim was to examine main reasons for students' medical school choice and their relationship with students' characteristics and motivation during the students' medical study. In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and standard, validated questionnaires to measure their strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and autonomous and controlled type of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire). Four hundred seventy-eight students participated. We performed frequency analyses on the reasons for medical school choice and regression analyses and ANCOVAs to study their associations with students' characteristics and motivation during their medical study. Students indicated 'city' (Year-1: 24.7%, n=75 and Year-4: 36.0%, n=52) and 'selection procedure' (Year-1: 56.9%, n=173 and Year-4: 46.9%, n=68) as the main reasons for their medical school choice. The main reasons were associated with gender, age, being a first-generation university student, ethnic background and medical school, and no significant associations were found between the main reasons and the strength and type of motivation during the students' medical study. Most students had based their medical school choice on the selection procedure. If medical schools desire to achieve a good student-curriculum fit and attract a diverse student population aligning the selection procedure with the curriculum and taking into account various students' different approaches is important.

  11. Students’ approaches to medical school choice: relationship with students’ characteristics and motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croiset, Gerda; Schripsema, Nienke R.; Cohen-Schotanus, Janke; Spaai, Gerard W.G.; Hulsman, Robert L.; Kusurkar, Rashmi A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim was to examine main reasons for students’ medical school choice and their relationship with students’ characteristics and motivation during the students’ medical study. Methods In this multisite cross-sectional study, all Year-1 and Year-4 students who had participated in a selection procedure in one of the three Dutch medical schools included in the study were invited to complete an online survey comprising personal data, their main reason for medical school choice and standard, validated questionnaires to measure their strength of motivation (Strength of Motivation for Medical School-Revised) and autonomous and controlled type of motivation (Academic Self-regulation Questionnaire). Four hundred seventy-eight students participated. We performed frequency analyses on the reasons for medical school choice and regression analyses and ANCOVAs to study their associations with students’ characteristics and motivation during their medical study. Results Students indicated ‘city’ (Year-1: 24.7%, n=75 and Year-4: 36.0%, n=52) and ‘selection procedure’ (Year-1: 56.9%, n=173 and Year-4: 46.9%, n=68) as the main reasons for their medical school choice. The main reasons were associated with gender, age, being a first-generation university student, ethnic background and medical school, and no significant associations were found between the main reasons and the strength and type of motivation during the students’ medical study. Conclusions Most students had based their medical school choice on the selection procedure. If medical schools desire to achieve a good student-curriculum fit and attract a diverse student population aligning the selection procedure with the curriculum and taking into account various students’ different approaches is important. PMID:28624778

  12. The lost history of American veterinary medicine: the need for preservation*†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, C. Trenton

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study was to survey holdings of ephemeral veterinary literature. Methods: WorldCat OCLC catalog, the Library of Congress online catalog, the US National Agricultural Library online catalog, and the Dictionary Catalog of the National Agricultural Library, 1862–1965, were used to determine current library holdings of materials published by veterinary schools that are no longer in existence and veterinary associations that are defunct, veterinary supply catalogs, veterinary house organs, patent medicine publications, and veterinary advertisements. Individual library catalogs were also consulted. In addition, the practice of removing advertisements from bound volumes was examined. Results: There are many gaps in the cataloged library holdings of primary source materials relating to the history of the education of veterinarians in the United States. Conclusions: A proactive action plan needs to be designed and activated to locate, catalog, and preserve this primary source material of veterinary medicine for posterity. PMID:21243050

  13. Military medical graduates' perceptions of organizational culture in Turkish military medical school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozer, Mustafa; Bakir, Bilal; Teke, Abdulkadir; Ucar, Muharrem; Bas, Turker; Atac, Adnan

    2008-08-01

    Organizational culture is the term used to describe the shared beliefs, perceptions, and expectations of individuals in organizations. In the healthcare environment, organizational culture has been associated with several elements of organizational experience that contribute to quality, such as nursing care, job satisfaction, and patient safety. A range of tools have been designed to measure organizational culture and applied in industrial, educational, and health care settings. This study has been conducted to investigate the perceptions of military medical graduates on organizational culture at Gülhane Military Medical School. A measurement of organizational culture, which was developed by the researchers from Akdeniz University, was applied to all military medical graduates in 2004. This was a Likert type scale that included 31 items. Designers of the measurement grouped all these items into five main dimensions in their previous study. The items were scored on a five-point scale anchored by 1: strongly agree and 5: strongly disagree. Study participants included all military physicians who were in clerkship training period at Gulhane Military Medical Academy in 2004. A total of 106 graduates were accepted to response the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 25.2 +/- 1.1. At the time of study only 8 (7.5%) graduates were married. The study results have showed that the measurement tool with 31 items had a sufficient reliability with a Cronbach's alpha value of 0.91. Factor analysis has resulted a final measurement tool of 24 items with five factors. Total score and the scores of five subdimensions have been estimated and compared between groups based on living city and marital status. The study has shown the dimension of symbol received positive perceptions while the dimension of organizational structure and efficiency received the most negative perceptions. GMMS has a unique organizational culture with its weak and strong aspects. Conducting this kind

  14. Perceived Stress, Sources and Severity of Stress among medical undergraduates in a Pakistani Medical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Samina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently there is a growing concern about stress during undergraduate medical training. However, studies about the same are lacking from Pakistani medical schools. The objectives of our study were to assess perceived stress, sources of stress and their severity and to assess the determinants of stressed cases. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among undergraduate medical students of CMH Lahore Medical College, Pakistan during January to March 2009. Perceived stress was assessed using the perceived stress scale. A 33-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Results The overall response rate was 80.5% (161 out of 200 students. The overall mean perceived stress was 30.84 (SD = 7.01 and was significantly higher among female students. By logistic regression analysis, stressed cases were associated with occurrence of psychosocial (OR 5.01, 95% CI 2.44-10.29 and academic related stressors (OR 3.17 95% CI 1.52-6.68. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. 'High parental expectations', 'frequency of examinations', 'vastness of academic curriculum', 'sleeping difficulties', 'worrying about the future', 'loneliness', 'becoming a doctor', 'performance in periodic examinations' were the most frequently and severely occurring sources of stress. There was a negative but insignificant correlation between perceived stress and academic performance (r = -0.099, p > 0.05. Conclusion A higher level of perceived stress was reported by the students. The main stressors were related to academic and psychosocial domains. Further studies are required to test the association between stressed cases and gender, academic stressors and psychosocial stressors.

  15. Medical students-as-teachers: a systematic review of peer-assisted teaching during medical school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Wilson, Nichola C; Singh, Primal P; Lemanu, Daniel P; Hawken, Susan J; Hill, Andrew G

    2011-01-01

    that participating student-teachers benefit academically and professionally. Long-term effects of peer-teaching during medical school remain poorly understood and future research should aim to address this. PMID:23745087

  16. [Methods for teaching problem-solving in medical schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumway, J M; Vargas, M E; Heller, L E

    1984-01-01

    The need to include in the medical curriculum instructional activities to promote the development of problem-solving abilities has been asserted at the national and international levels. In research on the mental process involved in the solution of problems in medicine, problem-solving has been defined as a hypothetical-deductive activity engaged in by experienced physicians, in which the early generation of hypotheses influences the subsequent gathering of information. This article comments briefly on research on the mental process by which medical problems are solved. It describes the methods that research has shown to be most applicable in instruction to develop problem-solving abilities, and presents some educational principles that justify their application. The "trail-following" approach is the method that has been most commonly used to study the physician's problem-solving behavior. The salient conclusions from this research are that in the problem-solving process the diagnostic hypothesis is generated very early on and with limited data; the number of hypotheses is small; the problem-solving approach is specific to the type of medical problem and case in hand; and the accumulation of medical knowledge and experience forms the basis of clinical competence. Four methods for teaching the solution of problems are described: case presentation, the rain of ideas, the nominal groups technique and decision-making consensus, the census and analysis of forces in the field, and the analysis of clinical decisions. These methods are carried out in small groups. The advantages of the small groups are that the students are active participants in the learning process, they receive formative evaluation of their performance in a setting conductive to learning, and are able to interact with their instructor if he makes proper use of the right questioning techniques. While no single problem-solving method can be useful to all students or in all the problems they encounter

  17. Experiential Learning in Primary Care: Impact on Veterinary Students' Communication Confidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Daniella; Khosa, Deep; Jones-Bitton, Andria

    2017-01-01

    Experiential learning is essential in medical and veterinary student education and can improve students' communication with clients during medical appointments. There is limited research in veterinary education investigating the effectiveness of experiential learning environments to provide an "integrative approach" to teaching. The…

  18. Oncology Education in Medical Schools: Towards an Approach that Reflects Australia's Health Care Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae, Robert J

    2016-12-01

    Cancer has recently overtaken heart disease to become the number 1 cause of mortality both globally and in Australia. As such, adequate oncology education must be an integral component of medical school if students are to achieve learning outcomes that meet the needs of the population. The aim of this review is to evaluate the current state of undergraduate oncology education and identify how Australian medical schools can improve oncology learning outcomes for students and, by derivative, improve healthcare outcomes for Australians with cancer. The review shows that oncology is generally not well represented in medical school curricula, that few medical schools offer mandatory oncology or palliative care rotations, and that junior doctors are exhibiting declining oncology knowledge and skills. To address these issues, Australian medical schools should implement the Oncology Education Committee's Ideal Oncology Curriculum, enact mandatory oncology and palliative care clinical rotations for students, and in doing so, appreciate the importance of students' differing approaches to learning.

  19. Legal Medicine in Medical Schools: A Survey of the State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumet, Barbara Ruhe

    1979-01-01

    Results of a survey of American medical schools indicate that there is considerable interest in legal medicine and that while 40 percent of the schools require students to complete some course work in legal medicine, the curricula vary considerably among the schools. Topics most frequently covered are informed consent and malpractice. (Author/JMD)

  20. Implementing a Course Review Process for a Continuous Quality Improvement Model for a Medical School Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Cassandra S; Andrade, Amy; Walker-Winfree, Lena

    2018-01-01

    In 1901, Abraham Flexner, a research scholar at the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, visited 155 medical schools in the United States and Canada to assess medical education. Flexner's recommendations became the foundation for the Liaison Committee on Medical Education accreditation, a voluntary, peer-reviewed quality assurance process to determine whether a medical education program meets established standards. The Meharry Medical College School of Medicine, a historically Black college/university (HBCU) established the Office of Curriculum Evaluation and Effectiveness in 2013 to ensure the consistent monitoring of the medical education program's compliance with accreditation standards. The motto and logo, LCME 24/7, highlight the school's emphasis on meeting accreditation standards. The school uses the 1994 Plan-Do-Study-Act Cycle for Learning and Improvement for continuous review of course content, outcomes, and evaluations. This process identifies strengths, challenges, and opportunities for innovative steps for continuous quality improvements to the curriculum.

  1. Medical students help bridge the gap in sexual health education among middle school youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adjei, Naomi; Yacovelli, Michael; Liu, Dorothy; Sindhu, Kunal; Roberts, Mary; Magee, Susanna

    2017-01-06

    School-based programs are important in addressing risky teenage sexual behavior. We implemented a sex education program using trained medical student volunteers. Medical students (n=30) implemented a seven-session curriculum, designed by medical students and faculty, to 7th and 8th grade students (n=310) at a local school. Middle school students completed pre- and post-assessments. Teachers and medical students completed questionnaires relating their perceptions of students' attitudes and understanding of sexual health. Students completing the curriculum scored 5% higher on post- versus pre-assessment (84% vs 78.7%, psexual decision making. Sixty percent of middle school teachers compared to only 16.7% of medical student volunteers reported discomfort teaching sexual health. Sexual education delivered by trained medical student volunteers may improve middle schoolers' understanding of sexual health. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2017-01.asp].

  2. The Medical Academic Advancement Program at the University of Virginia School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, W L; Woode, M K; Carey, R M; Apprey, M; Schuyler, J M; Atkins-Brady, T L

    1999-04-01

    Since 1984 the University of Virginia School of Medicine has conducted the Medical Academic Advancement Program for minority and disadvantaged students interested in careers in medicine. The program is a six-week residential program for approximately 130 undergraduate and post-baccalaureate students per year. It emphasizes academic course work--biology, chemistry, physics, and essay writing--to prepare the participants for the Medical College Admission Test. Non-graded activities, such as a clinical medicine lecture series, clinical experiences, and a special lecture series, and special workshops are also offered. The participants take two simulated MCAT exams. Between 1984 and 1998, 1,497 students have participated in the program, with complete follow-up information available for 690 (46%). Of the 1,487 participants, 80 (5%) have graduated from the University of Virginia School of Medicine and 174 (12%) from other medical schools; 44 (3%) are attending the medical school now, and 237 (16%) are at other medical schools; 44 (3%) have graduated from other health professions schools, and 54 (3%) are attending such schools. The retention rate for participants at the University of Virginia School of Medicine is 91% (that is, all but seven of the 80 who matriculated have been retained past the first year). The Medical Academic Advancement Program has been successful in increasing the number of underrepresented minority students matriculating into and continuing in medical education. Such programs warrant continued support and encouragement.

  3. Radiation protection for veterinary practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A.

    1993-01-01

    This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.)

  4. Enhancing Collaboration between School Nurses and School Psychologists When Providing a Continuum of Care for Children with Medical Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Finch, Maria E.; Finch, W. Holmes; Mcintosh, Constance E.; Thomas, Cynthia; Maughan, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Students who are medically involved often require sustained related services, regular care coordination, and case management to ensure that they are receiving a free and appropriate public education. Exploring the collaboration efforts of school psychologists and school nurses for meeting the educational and related services needs of these…

  5. Provision of undergraduate otorhinolaryngology teaching within General Medical Council approved UK medical schools: what is current practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M M; Saeed, S R

    2012-04-01

    Despite longstanding concern, provision of undergraduate ENT teaching has not improved in response to the aims of the UK General Medical Council's initiative Tomorrow's Doctors. Previous studies have demonstrated poor representation of ENT within the undergraduate curriculum. We aimed to identify current practice in order to establish undergraduate ENT experience across UK medical schools, a timely endeavour in light of the General Medical Council's new 2011-2013 education strategy. Questionnaires were sent to ENT consultants, medical school deans and students. All schools with a clinical curriculum were anonymously represented. Our outcome measures were the provision of mandatory or optional ENT placements, and their duration and content. A compulsory ENT placement was available to over half (53 per cent) of the students. Ten of the 26 participating schools did not offer an ENT attachment. The mean mandatory placement was 8 days. Overall, 38 per cent of students reported a satisfactory compulsory ENT placement. Most ENT consultants questioned considered that newly qualified doctors were not proficient in managing common ENT problems that did not require specialist referral. Little improvement in the provision of undergraduate ENT teaching was demonstrated. An increase in the proportion of students undertaking ENT training is necessary. Time and curriculum constraints on medical schools mean that optimisation of available resources is required.

  6. A social and academic enrichment program promotes medical school matriculation and graduation for disadvantaged students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, L; Hollar, D

    2012-07-01

    This study assessed the impact of a pre-medical pipeline program on successful completion of medical school and the capacity of this program to address achievement gaps experienced by disadvantaged students. The University of North Carolina (USA) Medical Education Development (MED) program provides intensive academic and test skills preparation for admission to medical, dental, and other allied health professions schools. This retrospective study evaluated the academic progress of a longitudinal sample of 1738 disadvantaged college students who completed MED between 1974 and 2001. Data sources included MED participant data, medical school admissions data for the host school, aggregate data from the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC), and individual MED participant data from AAMC. Methods of analysis utilized Chi-square, independent samples t test, and logistic regression to examine associations between factors. Of the 935 students in MED from 1974 to 2001, who had indicated an interest in medical school, 887 (94.9%) successfully matriculated and 801 (85.7%) successfully earned the MD degree. Using logistic regression, factors that were significantly correlated with earning the medical degree included the student's race, college undergraduate total and science grade point averages, with Hispanic, African American, and Native American participants earning the medical degree at rates comparable to Caucasian participants. MED students successfully earned the MD degree despite having significantly lower Medical College Admissions Test (MCAT) scores and undergraduate grade point averages compared to all United States medical school applicants: MCAT scores had little relationship with student's success. These findings suggest that an intensive, nine-week, pre-medical academic enrichment program that incorporates confidence-building and small-group tutoring and peer support activities can build a foundation on which disadvantaged students can successfully earn

  7. About veterinary education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M

    2003-01-01

    The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.

  8. The importance of a border: Medical, veterinary, and wild food ethnobotany of the Hutsuls living on the Romanian and Ukrainian sides of Bukovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Pieroni, Andrea

    2016-06-05

    Recent studies have shown that groups sharing the same or very similar environments, but with diverse cultural backgrounds (e.g. different ethnos and/or religion) have considerably different knowledge of folk (medicinal) plant uses. Yet, it is not clear to what extent various factors (such as culture, economy, isolation, and especially social and political situations) contribute to such differences in the utilization of the same natural resources. This paper addresses the effect of border created in 1940 and subsequent separation of a single ethnic group on changes in their folk use of medicinal and wild food plants. The Hutsuls of Bukovina had been homogenous for centuries, but were separated in 1940 as a result of the formation of state borders between Romania and the former Soviet Union (now Ukraine). The aim of the study is to analyse if the belonging to this different states for 75 years have induced different changes in local plant use within communities that share a common historical legacy and environment. In depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 42 people in May 2015. Collected data were analysed, and comparisons were made between the data gathered on the two sides of the border for different use categories: medicinal, wild food and veterinary plants, as well as other remedies. Recently collected data were also compared with historical data obtained for the region, medicinal plant folk uses in Romania and medicinal plant uses of The State Pharmacopeia of the Soviet Union. Divergences in current medicinal plant use are much greater than in the use of wild food plants. The majority of the wild food taxa, including those used for making recreational teas, are also used for medicinal purposes and hence contribute to the food-medicine continuum, representing emergency foods in the past and serving as memory markers for possible future food shortages. Compared with the historical data, considerable changes have occurred within specific medicinal

  9. Awareness and Knowledge of Oral Cancer among Medical Students in Kathmandu University School of Medical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, M; Shrestha, I; Dhakal, A; Amatya, R Cm

    Background Oral cancer is a major public health problem worldwide. It has high mortality rates and chances of survival is relatively superior when detected early. Lack of knowledge and awareness about oral cancer among medical students may contribute to delay in diagnosis and treatment. Objective To assess awareness and knowledge of oral cancer among medical students. Method A cross-sectional study conducted among 286 students by Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head & Neck surgery, Kathmandu University School of Medical sciences between July to August 2016. A questionnaire with questions on socio-demographic profile, awareness and knowledge of oral cancer was used. Independent sample t test and Pearson Chi-square tests were used for statistical analysis. Result Out of 329 students approached, 286 participated in the study yielding a response rate of 86.9%. Symptoms of oral cancer as reported were ulceration in mouth (92.3%), oral bleeding (85.0%),whitish or reddish patch (84.3%), halitosis (75.5%) and swelling in neck (74.5%), trismus (69.2%), numbness (67.1%), loosening of teeth (49.3%) and tooth sensitivity (41.6%). The perceived risk factors were smoking (97.2%), tobacco chewing (96.5%), chronic irritation (86.7%), immunodeficiency (83.9%), poor oral hygiene (88.5%), human papilloma virus infection (82.5%), dietary factors (81.1%), alcohol (79.4%), ill-fitting dentures (72.4%), hot spicy food (65.4%) and hot beverages (58.0%). Significant differences were found between pre-clinical and clinical students for knowledge of risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer (pcancer. Active involvement while examining patients and taking biopsies of malignant and premalignant lesions may help in improving students' knowledge about oral cancer.

  10. First aid and basic life support: a questionnaire survey of medical schools in the Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, E.C.T.H.; Hekkert, K.D.; Vugt, A.B. van; Biert, J.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adequate education in first aid and basic life support (BLS) should be considered as an essential aspect of the medical curriculum. The objective of this study was to investigate the current medical training in first aid and BLS at all 8 medical schools in the Netherlands. SUMMARY: An

  11. Ethno-veterinary control of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks in Zhombe, Njelele and Shamrock resettlement in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlovu, Daud Nyosi; Masika, Patrick J

    2013-02-01

    A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the ethno-veterinary practices and other control methods used by smallholder farmers for the management of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks. A total of 153 farmers were interviewed from Njelele, Zhombe communal and Shamrock resettlement areas. Crop production contributed most to livelihoods (83.2 %) while livestock contributed 9.0 %. Over 90 % of the respondents had attended school up to primary level, with 11.4 % undergoing animal health and husbandry training. Treatment of livestock diseases was practised by 96 % of the farmers, and 49.7 % of these farmers used ethno-veterinary medicines. Across the study sites, dermatophilosis was controlled using the following plants: Cissus quadrangularis (59.7 %), Catunaregam spinosa (10.5 %), Pterocarpus angolensis (10.5 %), Kalanchoe lanceolata (5.3 %), Aloe chabaudii (3.5 %), Cassia abbreviata (1.8 %), Dichrostachys cinerea (1.8 %), Urginea sanguinea (1.8 %), Ximenia caffra (1.8 %) and a plant locally called umfanawembila (1.8 %). Carica papaya and two plants, locally called mugimbura and umdungudungu, were used for tick control, and these were reported once from Njelele communal. Other control methods, besides plants or conventional drugs, were used by 28 % of the farmers for the treatment of dermatophilosis and ticks. Some farmers (14.4 %) claimed that ethno-veterinary medicines performed better than conventional drugs. The study revealed that farmers used ethno-veterinary medical practices for the treatment of dermatophilosis but rarely for tick control.

  12. Comparison of Attitudes between Generation X and Baby Boomer Veterinary Faculty and Residents

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Lisa M.; Trower, Cathy A.; Tan, Rachael J.B.; Terkla, Dawn Geronimo

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the characteristics and preferences of the different generations in the veterinary workforce is important if we are to help optimize current and future veterinary schools and teaching hospitals. The purpose of this study was to compare the attitudes of different generations of veterinary faculty and those of faculty and house officers. A survey administered to faculty and house officers asked respondents to identify their level of agreement with a series of statements addressing...

  13. Veterinary Oncology Immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Holistic pediatric veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among veterinary staff and dogs in private veterinary clinics in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kanako; Saito, Mieko; Shimokubo, Natsumi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Maetani, Shigeki; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    To explore the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary medical practices, MRSA carriage was tested among 96 veterinarians (Vets), 70 veterinary technicians (VTs) and 292 dogs with which they had contact at 71 private veterinary clinics (VCs) in Hokkaido, Japan. MRSA isolates were obtained from 22 Vets [22.9%] and 7 VTs [10%]. The prevalence of MRSA among Vets was as high as that found in an academic veterinary hospital in our previous study. In contrast, only two blood donor dogs and one dog with liver disease (1.0%, 3/292) yielded MRSA. All MRSA-positive dogs were reared or treated in different VCs, in each of which at least one veterinary staff member carrying MRSA worked. Sequence types (ST) identified by multilocus sequence typing, spa types, and SCCmec types for canine MRSA isolates (ST5-spa t002-SCCmec II [from two dogs] or ST30-spa t021-SCCmec IV [from a dog]) were concordant with those from veterinary staff members in the same clinics as the MRSA-positive dogs, with which they had potentially had contact. Most MRSA isolates from veterinary staff were the same genotype (SCCmec type II and spa type t002) as a major hospital-acquired MRSA clone in Japan. The remaining MRSA was the same genotypes as domestic and foreign community-associated MRSA. Measures against MRSA infection should be provided in private VCs. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. Brazilian regulation of radiation protection in veterinary medical radiodiagnosis; Regulamentação brasileira da proteção radiológica em radiodiagnóstico médico veterinário

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, E.T.; Pelegrineli, S.Q.; Gomes, A.S., E-mail: etxsaude@gmail.com, E-mail: samuelfisica@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: alexandregomes.rad@gmail.com [Faculdade Casa Branca (FACAP), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Pós-graduação em Proteção Radiológica em Aplicações Médicas

    2017-07-01

    Introduction: Veterinary Radiology is defined as the part of the science that studies the organs and internal structures of the body of veterinary patients with the aid of equipment that emits ionizing radiation to form images. Different techniques are employed, more current and more specific for each situation. Objective: To present the regulatory framework of radiological protection focused on veterinary medicine in Brazil. Methodology: We searched for the public documents for the regulation of radiological protection in veterinary radiology through digital search tools on the Internet and in physical literature that could be used or collaborated for such a search. Results: It was detected the lack of a regulation of radiological protection aimed at the area of veterinary radiology. Conclusion: It is necessary to formulate a specific standard that meets, supply and supports the professionals who work with ionizing radiation in the area of veterinary medicine. The professions of veterinarian radiologist and technologist in veterinary radiology are of such complexity that they require higher level for proper exercise. Given the peculiarity of the activities, where there is a need for physical restraint of the patient and other artifices to perform the exam, the professionals are, in the examination room, less than one meter from the primary and secondary beam of radiation. It is hoped that the work will contribute to document the dangerous scenario described and encourage the search for this necessary improvement in such a specialized area.

  17. Teaching of ophthalmology in undergraduate curricula: a survey of Australasian and Asian medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jennifer C; Sherwin, Trevor; McGhee, Charles N J

    2007-01-01

    Despite established international guidelines on preferred teaching components for ophthalmology in undergraduate curricula, with increasingly less specialty-based undergraduate teaching within curricula, teaching of core ophthalmology knowledge and skills may become marginalized. This survey aims to evaluate the current state of undergraduate ophthalmology teaching in Australasia and proximate Asian medical schools. A questionnaire was developed to determine the content and extent of ophthalmology teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum. The questionnaire was sent to 25 medical schools throughout Australasia and Asia. Nineteen of the 25 questionnaires were returned (76% response rate). Ophthalmology teaching programmes ranged from 2 to 20 days: five (26%) medical schools having one ophthalmology attachment; six schools (32%) two attachments; and the remainder three or more. Only seven of the schools taught all 13 ophthalmology topics recommended in current curriculum guidelines. Ocular examination (100%), lens and cataract (95%) and ocular manifestations of systemic disease (95%) were the most commonly taught topics, with intraocular tumours only covered by 10 schools (53%). Students in 14 schools (74%) attended ophthalmology operating theatre, but only two schools (11%) offered attendance at optometry clinics. Ten schools (53%) required a pass in ophthalmology to complete the academic year. Ophthalmology may increasingly be a small, or even absent, component of undergraduate medical curricula. Despite established international ophthalmology curriculum guidelines, this survey highlights significant lack of uniformity in their implementation.

  18. Entry of US Medical School Graduates Into Family Medicine Residencies: 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozakowski, Stanley M; Fetter, Gerald; Bentley, Ashley

    2015-10-01

    This is the 34th national study conducted by the American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) that reports retrospectively the percentage of graduates from US MD-granting and DO-granting medical schools who entered Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited family medicine residency programs as first-year residents in 2014. Approximately 8.5% of the 18,241 students graduating from US MD-granting medical schools between July 2013 and June 2014 entered a family medicine residency. Of the 1,458 graduates of the US MD-granting medical schools who entered a family medicine residency in 2014, 80% graduated from 69 of the 131 schools. Eleven schools lacking departments or divisions of family medicine produced only a total of 26 students entering family medicine. In aggregate, medical schools west of the Mississippi River represent less than a third of all US MD-granting schools but have an aggregate rate of students selecting family medicine that is two-thirds higher than schools to the east of the Mississippi. A rank order list of US MD-granting medical schools was created based on the last 3 years' average percentage of graduates who became family medicine residents, using the 2014 and prior AAFP census data. US MD schools continue to fail to produce a primary care workforce, a key measure of social responsibility as measured by their production of graduates entering into family medicine. DO-granting and international medical school graduates filled the majority of ACGME-accredited family medicine first-year resident positions in 2014.

  19. The status of evolutionary medicine education in North American medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Brandon H; Asghar, Anila; Aktipis, C Athena; Nesse, Randolph M; Wolpaw, Terry M; Skursky, Nicole K; Bennett, Katelyn J; Beyrouty, Matthew W; Schwartz, Mark D

    2015-03-08

    Medical and public health scientists are using evolution to devise new strategies to solve major health problems. But based on a 2003 survey, medical curricula may not adequately prepare physicians to evaluate and extend these advances. This study assessed the change in coverage of evolution in North American medical schools since 2003 and identified opportunities for enriching medical education. In 2013, curriculum deans for all North American medical schools were invited to rate curricular coverage and perceived importance of 12 core principles, the extent of anticipated controversy from adding evolution, and the usefulness of 13 teaching resources. Differences between schools were assessed by Pearson's chi-square test, Student's t-test, and Spearman's correlation. Open-ended questions sought insight into perceived barriers and benefits. Despite repeated follow-up, 60 schools (39%) responded to the survey. There was no evidence of sample bias. The three evolutionary principles rated most important were antibiotic resistance, environmental mismatch, and somatic selection in cancer. While importance and coverage of principles were correlated (r = 0.76, P evolutionary principles were covered by 4 to 74% more schools. Nearly half (48%) of responders anticipated igniting controversy at their medical school if they added evolution to their curriculum. The teaching resources ranked most useful were model test questions and answers, case studies, and model curricula for existing courses/rotations. Limited resources (faculty expertise) were cited as the major barrier to adding more evolution, but benefits included a deeper understanding and improved patient care. North American medical schools have increased the evolution content in their curricula over the past decade. However, coverage is not commensurate with importance. At a few medical schools, anticipated controversy impedes teaching more evolution. Efforts to improve evolution education in medical schools

  20. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y. [School of Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Nyhof-Young, Joyce [Department of Family and Community Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Catton, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Giuliani, Meredith E., E-mail: Meredith.Giuliani@rmp.uhn.on.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  1. Mapping the Future: Towards Oncology Curriculum Reform in Undergraduate Medical Education at a Canadian Medical School

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwan, Jennifer Y.Y.; Nyhof-Young, Joyce; Catton, Pamela; Giuliani, Meredith E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate (1) the quantity and quality of current undergraduate oncology teaching at a major Canadian medical school; and (2) curricular changes over the past decade, to enhance local oncology education and provide insight for other educators. Methods and Materials: Relevant 2011-2012 undergraduate curricular sessions were extracted from the University of Toronto curriculum mapping database using keywords and database identifiers. Educational sessions were analyzed according to Medical Council of Canada objectives, discussion topics, instructor qualifications, teaching format, program year, and course subject. Course-related oncology research projects performed by students during 2000 to 2012 were extracted from another internal database. Elective choices of clerks during 2008-2014 were retrieved from the institution. The 2011-2012 and 2000-2001 curricula were compared using common criteria. Results: The 2011-2012 curriculum covers 5 major themes (public health, cancer biology, diagnosis, principles of care, and therapy), which highlight 286 oncology teaching topics within 80 sessions. Genitourinary (10, 12.5%), gynecologic (8, 10.0%), and gastrointestinal cancers (7.9, 9.8%) were the most commonly taught cancers. A minority of sessions were taught by surgical oncologists (6.5, 8.1%), medical oncologists (2.5, 3.1%), and radiation oncologists (1, 1.2%). During 2000-2012, 9.0% of students (233 of 2578) opted to complete an oncology research project. During 2008-2014, oncology electives constituted 2.2% of all clerkship elective choices (209 of 9596). Compared with pre-2001 curricula, the 2012 oncology curriculum shows notable expansion in the coverage of epidemiology (6:1 increase), prevention (4:1), screening (3:1), and molecular biology (6:1). Conclusions: The scope of the oncology curriculum has grown over the past decade. Nevertheless, further work is needed to improve medical student knowledge of cancers, particularly those relevant to public health

  2. [Education in family medicine at the Medical School in Sarajevo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masić, Izet

    2004-01-01

    At the Medical faculty of the University of Sarajevo in the 11th semester of the instruction is organized the turnus training from family medicine, and according to the instructive plan and programme of the medical faculty defined in the statute from 1991 year, as well as the rest turnus instruction which the students of medicine pass in the sixth year of studies, and this instruction is imagined as a way and the path that the future physicians as better as possible prepare for the individual work with the patients after acquiring of the diploma. The instruction obligations according to this form of the instruction as that which is being produced are getting performed in the frame of the subject the social medicine and the organization of the healthcare protection. True, the subject family medicine will be independent of the school year 2005/06 for the registration generation 200/01. The momentary plan and programmee (turn) instruction is coinciped so that the teachers and assistants perform 20 hours of the theoretic instruction in the amphitheaters of the Medical faculty and the practical instructions perform the assistants for the family medicine by the fund from 75 hours of the instruction in units of the Health center on the localities Visnjik and Grbavica. The content of the programme encircles the method units which have lead professor Hodgets and the collaborators from Quins' university in Canada and according to the project concipied according to the regulations inter-university agreement of the mentioned university in Canada and the ours in Sarajevo, and the agreement between the Federal ministry of health in Sarajevo and Canada government and which we shall shortly present in this paper. After the heard theoretical and performed practical instruction is being performed the evaluation of knowledge by the corresponding test, which well also be shortly explained in this article. True, there are the definite misunderstandings and the different attitudes

  3. Piloting interprofessional education interventions with veterinary and veterinary nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Tierney; Lumbis, Rachel; Orpet, Hilary; Welsh, Perdi; Gregory, Sue; Baillie, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) has received little attention in veterinary education even though members of the veterinary and nursing professions work closely together. The present study investigates veterinary and veterinary nursing students' and practitioners' experiences with interprofessional issues and the potential benefits of IPE. Based on stakeholder consultations, two teaching interventions were modified or developed for use with veterinary and veterinary nursing students: Talking Walls, which aimed to increase individuals' understanding of each other's roles, and an Emergency-Case Role-Play Scenario, which aimed to improve teamwork. These interventions were piloted with volunteer veterinary and veterinary nursing students who were recruited through convenience sampling. A questionnaire (the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [RIPLS]) was modified for use in veterinary education and used to investigate changes in attitudes toward IPE over time (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and four to five months afterward). The results showed an immediate and significant positive change in attitude after the intervention, highlighting the students' willingness to learn collaboratively, their ability to recognize the benefits of IPE, a decreased sense of professional isolation, and reduced hierarchical views. Although nearly half of the students felt concerned about learning with students from another profession before the intervention, the majority (97%) enjoyed learning together. However, the positive change in attitude was not evident four to five months after the intervention, though attitudes remained above pre-intervention levels. The results of the pilot study were encouraging and emphasize the relevance and importance of veterinary IPE as well as the need for further investigation to explore methods of sustaining a change in attitude over time.

  4. Computer applications in veterinary medicine | Hassan | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... become essential tools in almost every field of research and applied technology. ... Computers in veterinary medicine have been used for veterinary education; ... agro-veterinary project design, monitoring and implementation; preparation of ...

  5. Biological, epidemiological, sanitary-hygienic, medical and behavioral occupational health risk factors for stock-breeders, veterinaries and workers employed at meat-processing enterprises, contacting brucellar animals and infected meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ereniev

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We have studied sanitary-hygienic characteristics of working conditions, charts with results of sanitary-epidemiologic examination performed in a zoogenous nidus, outpatient clinic cards and questionnaires filled in by 202 patients living in Omsk region and suffering from occupational brucellosis. The disease usually prevails among stock-breeders, veterinaries and workers employed at meat-processing enterprises. Our goal was to detect risks of occupational, production-induced and general pathology evolvement. Working conditions which all the examined people had to work in corresponded to hazardous (3.3 or even dangerous (4 category as per occurrence of contacts with infectious agents and parasites (biological risk. Apart from biological factor, a number of workers were under complex exposure to ammonia concentrations (higher than MPC, noise higher than MPL, vibration, cooling microclimate, uncomfortable lighting environment, labor process hardness and intensity. There were several factors causing epidemiologic risks as well. Disinfectants were absent or their quantity was not sufficient; industrial and amenity rooms were not well-organized; there was no central hot water supply or shower rooms, separate rooms for meals, specialized implements for removing abortus and stillborn fetuses and afterbirths, correctly organized burial grounds, or first aid kits. Hygienic health risks were caused by insufficient cleaning agents supply, absence of centralized protecting clothing laundering, and insufficient provision with personal protection means. Occupational health risks resulted from absence of preliminary medical examinations in standard recruitment procedures, irregularity and low quality of periodical medical examinations. Our qualitative assessment of behavioral health risks revealed that a lot of workers tended to have irresponsible medical and hygienic behavior, there were disorders in their work and rest regime (shift work with shifts rotation

  6. Enhancing the Motivation for Rural Career: The Collaboration between the Local Government and Medical School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguchi, Masaru; Furuta, Noriko; Kobayashi, Seiji; Kato, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Kouji; Hori, Hiroki; Okuno, Masataka

    2015-07-01

    The shortage of medical workforce in rural areas is a global long-standing problem. Due to the severity of shortages in the medical workforce, Mie prefectural government has collaborated with a medical school and the municipal governments to increase the rural medical workforce. Since 2010, this collaboration has led to an annual lecture series on rural practice for medical students. We distributed questionnaires at the beginning and end of the lecture series to examine the effect of this program. The questionnaire consisted of two parts that included an understanding of rural practice and the motivation to work in rural areas. The lecture series significantly improved the responses to the following questions "Rural practice is interesting" (p motivation of medical students and their interest in a rural career. While collaboration between the local government and medical school rarely occurs in planning medical education programs, this approach may offer a promising way to foster local health professionals.

  7. Clinically Prepared Veterinary Students: Enhancing Veterinary Student Hands-on Experiences and Supporting Hospital Caseload Using Shelter Medicine Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob M. Shivley

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Referral-level medicine is important in the veterinary curriculum, however veterinary students also need a solid base knowledge of clinically relevant, routine surgical and diagnostic skills to be clinically prepared after graduation. Exposure to a referral-only, or primarily referral caseload, does not always provide veterinary students with the routine hands-on experiences and competencies expected by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education, the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, the Australian Veterinary Boards Council, or prospective employers. The aim of this descriptive study was to assess how a shelter medicine program can fill the companion animal caseload gap and create the necessary hands-on experiences considered essential in the veterinary curriculum. Pedagogical frameworks, course curriculum and design, student experiences, and student assessments were described for three core curricular areas (surgery, medical days, population medicine of the Shelter Medicine Program at Mississippi State University. The shelter surgery experience provided a high-quality, high-volume spay/neuter environment where fourth-year students averaged 65 sterilization surgeries in two weeks and demonstrated a quantifiable decrease in surgical time. The shelter surgery experience added on average 9,000 small animal cases per year to the overall hospital caseload. Shelter medical days, where students provide veterinary care during on-site shelter visits, created opportunities for third-year students to directly interact with shelter animals by performing physical examinations and diagnostic testing, and to gain experience in developing treatment protocols and recommendations for commonly encountered problems. The shelter medical days experience averaged over 700 small animal cases per year and over 1,500 diagnostic procedures. Finally, students participated in 15 onsite shelter consultations where they obtained a working knowledge

  8. Clinically Prepared Veterinary Students: Enhancing Veterinary Student Hands-on Experiences and Supporting Hospital Caseload Using Shelter Medicine Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivley, Jacob M; Brookshire, Wilson C; Bushby, Philip A; Woodruff, Kimberly A

    2018-01-01

    Referral-level medicine is important in the veterinary curriculum, however veterinary students also need a solid base knowledge of clinically relevant, routine surgical and diagnostic skills to be clinically prepared after graduation. Exposure to a referral-only, or primarily referral caseload, does not always provide veterinary students with the routine hands-on experiences and competencies expected by the American Veterinary Medical Association Council on Education, the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons, the Australian Veterinary Boards Council, or prospective employers. The aim of this descriptive study was to assess how a shelter medicine program can fill the companion animal caseload gap and create the necessary hands-on experiences considered essential in the veterinary curriculum. Pedagogical frameworks, course curriculum and design, student experiences, and student assessments were described for three core curricular areas (surgery, medical days, population medicine) of the Shelter Medicine Program at Mississippi State University. The shelter surgery experience provided a high-quality, high-volume spay/neuter environment where fourth-year students averaged 65 sterilization surgeries in two weeks and demonstrated a quantifiable decrease in surgical time. The shelter surgery experience added on average 9,000 small animal cases per year to the overall hospital caseload. Shelter medical days, where students provide veterinary care during on-site shelter visits, created opportunities for third-year students to directly interact with shelter animals by performing physical examinations and diagnostic testing, and to gain experience in developing treatment protocols and recommendations for commonly encountered problems. The shelter medical days experience averaged over 700 small animal cases per year and over 1,500 diagnostic procedures. Finally, students participated in 15 onsite shelter consultations where they obtained a working knowledge of biosecurity at a

  9. Radiation protection in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, C.P.

    1989-06-01

    This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)

  10. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...

  11. Evaluation of doctors? performance as facilitators in basic medical science lecture classes in a new Malaysian medical school

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Salwani; Salam, Abdus; Alattraqchi, Ahmed G; Annamalai, Lakshmi; Chockalingam, Annamalai; Elena, Wan Putri; Rahman, Nor Iza A; Abubakar, Abdullahi Rabiu; Haque, Mainul

    2015-01-01

    Salwani Ismail,1 Abdus Salam,2 Ahmed G Alattraqchi,1 Lakshmi Annamalai,1 Annamalai Chockalingam,1 Wan Putri Elena,3 Nor Iza A Rahman,1 Abdullahi Rabiu Abubakar,1 Mainul Haque1 1Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Kuala Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia; 2Department of Medical Education, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia Background: Dida...

  12. Herbert Aldersmith (1847-1918): Christ's Hospital medical officer and co-founder of the Medical Officers of Schools Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Trevor

    2008-02-01

    Herbert Aldersmith spent his entire working life, from the age of 23 years until his retirement at 65 years, as Resident Medical Officer to Christ's Hospital School. It was a crucial period in the school's history, from the overdue reforms of the late Victorian era to its historic move from the City of London to Sussex in 1902. He became an acknowledged authority on ringworm and also published extensively on the other great interest of his life, the British-Israel Society. He was the prime mover in founding the first-ever professional association of school doctors in 1884.

  13. Radiological protection in veterinary practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi; Kusama, Tomoko.

    1990-01-01

    To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author)

  14. A survey of general surgery clerkships in Australian and New Zealand medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tzu-Chieh; Wheeler, Benjamin Robert Logan; Hill, Andrew Graham

    2010-12-01

    Surgical clerkships facilitate development of knowledge and competency, but their structure and content vary. Establishment of new medical schools and raising student numbers are new challenges to the provision of standardized surgical teaching across Australasian medical schools. A survey was conducted to investigate how Australian and New Zealand medical schools structure their general surgery clerkships. Between April and August 2009, a 30-item web-based survey was electronically sent to academic and administrative staff members of 22 Australian and New Zealand medical schools. Eighteen surveys were returned by 16 medical schools, summarizing 20 clerkships. Ten schools utilize five or more different clinical teaching sites for general surgery clerkships and these include urban and rural hospitals from both public and private health sectors. Student teaching and assessment methods are similar between clerkships and standardized across clinical sites during 10 and 16 of the clerkships, respectively. Only eight of the surveyed clerkships use centralized assessments to evaluate student learning outcomes across different clinical sites. Four clerkships do not routinely use direct observational student assessments. Australian and New Zealand medical schools commonly assign students to multiple diverse clinical sites during general surgery clerkships and they vary in their approaches to standardizing curriculum delivery and student assessment across these sites. Differences in student learning are likely to exist and deficiencies in clinical ability may go undetected. This should be a focus for future improvement. © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  15. How do medical schools use measurement systems to track faculty activity and productivity in teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, William T; Jones, Robert F

    2002-02-01

    The authors describe their findings from a study that (1) identified 41 medical schools or medical school departments that used metric systems to quantify faculty activity and productivity in teaching and (2) analyzed the purposes and progress of those systems. Among the reasons articulated for developing these systems, the most common was to identify a "rational" method for distributing funds to departments. More generally, institutions wanted to emphasize the importance of the school's educational mission. The schools varied in the types of information they tracked, ranging from a selective focus on medical school education to a comprehensive assessment of teaching activity and educational administration, committee work, and advising. Schools were almost evenly split between those that used a relative-value-unit method of tracking activity and those that used a contact-hour method. This study also identified six challenges that the institutions encountered with these metric systems: (1) the lack of a culture of data in management; (2) skepticism of faculty and chairs; (3) the misguided search for one perfect metric; (4) the expectation that a metric system will erase ambiguity regarding faculty teaching contributions; (5) the lack of, and difficulty with developing, measures of quality; and (6) the tendency to become overly complex. Because of the concern about the teaching mission at medical schools, the number of institutions developing educational metric systems will likely increase in the coming years. By documenting and accounting financially for teaching, medical schools can ensure that the educational mission is valued and appropriately supported.

  16. Medical Spanish in U.S. Colleges and Schools of Pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey A Mospan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine characteristics of Medical Spanish education provided to pharmacy students in schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States. Methods: A survey of U.S. pharmacy schools and colleges was performed to determine availability of Medical Spanish in pharmacy curriculum, course(s containing Medical Spanish education, and characteristics of Medical Spanish courses. Additional follow-up questions were asked if a school did not offer Medical Spanish. Results: 61 out of 138 institutions completed the survey (response rate = 44%. 36% (22/61 of respondents reported Medical Spanish education was offered in their curriculum. The most common barrier to offering a Medical Spanish course included a lack of personnel to teach the course (n=21, 54% or no room in the curriculum (n=15, 38%. Conclusion: While there is a limited number of institutions that provide Medical Spanish education to their pharmacy students, results of this survey provide a basic description of Medical Spanish education in schools and colleges of pharmacy in the United States. Data obtained from this survey can be used to refine or initiate Medical Spanish courses, including the teaching and assessment methods used. Conflict of Interest We declare no conflicts of interest or financial interests that the authors or members of their immediate families have in any product or service discussed in the manuscript, including grants (pending or received, employment, gifts, stock holdings or options, honoraria, consultancies, expert testimony, patents and royalties   Type: Original Research

  17. Same admissions tools, different outcomes: a critical perspective on predictive validity in three undergraduate medical schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel; Friedman, Tim; Pearce, Jacob

    2013-12-27

    Admission to medical school is one of the most highly competitive entry points in higher education. Considerable investment is made by universities to develop selection processes that aim to identify the most appropriate candidates for their medical programs. This paper explores data from three undergraduate medical schools to offer a critical perspective of predictive validity in medical admissions. This study examined 650 undergraduate medical students from three Australian universities as they progressed through the initial years of medical school (accounting for approximately 25 per cent of all commencing undergraduate medical students in Australia in 2006 and 2007). Admissions criteria (aptitude test score based on UMAT, school result and interview score) were correlated with GPA over four years of study. Standard regression of each of the three admissions variables on GPA, for each institution at each year level was also conducted. Overall, the data found positive correlations between performance in medical school, school achievement and UMAT, but not interview. However, there were substantial differences between schools, across year levels, and within sections of UMAT exposed. Despite this, each admission variable was shown to add towards explaining course performance, net of other variables. The findings suggest the strength of multiple admissions tools in predicting outcomes of medical students. However, they also highlight the large differences in outcomes achieved by different schools, thus emphasising the pitfalls of generalising results from predictive validity studies without recognising the diverse ways in which they are designed and the variation in the institutional contexts in which they are administered. The assumption that high-positive correlations are desirable (or even expected) in these studies is also problematised.

  18. Reducing corruption in a Mexican medical school: impact assessment across two cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes-Solís, Sergio; Villegas-Arrizón, Ascensio; Ledogar, Robert J; Delabra-Jardón, Verónica; Alvarez-Chávez, José; Legorreta-Soberanis, José; Nava-Aguilera, Elizabeth; Cockcroft, Anne; Andersson, Neil

    2011-12-21

    Corruption pervades educational and other institutions worldwide and medical schools are not exempt. Empirical evidence about levels and types of corruption in medical schools is sparse. We conducted surveys in 2000 and 2007 in the medical school of the Autonomous University of Guerrero in Mexico to document student perceptions and experience of corruption and to support the medical school to take actions to tackle corruption. In both 2000 and 2007 medical students completed a self-administered questionnaire in the classroom without the teacher present. The questionnaire asked about unofficial payments for admission to medical school, for passing an examination and for administrative procedures. We examined factors related to the experience of corruption in multivariate analysis. Focus groups of students discussed the quantitative findings. In 2000, 6% of 725 responding students had paid unofficially to obtain entry into the medical school; this proportion fell to 1.6% of the 436 respondents in 2007. In 2000, 15% of students reported having paid a bribe to pass an examination, not significantly different from the 18% who reported this in 2007. In 2007, students were significantly more likely to have bribed a teacher to pass an examination if they were in the fourth year, if they had been subjected to sexual harassment or political pressure, and if they had been in the university for five years or more. Students resented the need to make unofficial payments and suggested tackling the problem by disciplining corrupt teachers. The university administration made several changes to the system of admissions and examinations in the medical school, based on the findings of the 2000 survey. The fall in the rate of bribery to enter the medical school was probably the result of the new admissions system instituted after the first survey. Further actions will be necessary to tackle the continuing presence of bribery to pass examinations and for administrative procedures. The

  19. Mapping the different methods adopted for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojniak, Rubens; Carneiro, Dominique Piacenti; Moterani, Gustavo Simonetto Peres; Duarte, Ivone da Silva; Bitencourt, Almir Galvão Vieira; Muglia, Valdair Francisco; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    To map the different methods for diagnostic imaging instruction at medical schools in Brazil. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire was sent to each of the coordinators of 178 Brazilian medical schools. The following characteristics were assessed: teaching model; total course hours; infrastructure; numbers of students and professionals involved; themes addressed; diagnostic imaging modalities covered; and education policies related to diagnostic imaging. Of the 178 questionnaires sent, 45 (25.3%) were completed and returned. Of those 45 responses, 17 (37.8%) were from public medical schools, whereas 28 (62.2%) were from private medical schools. Among the 45 medical schools evaluated, the method of diagnostic imaging instruction was modular at 21 (46.7%), classic (independent discipline) at 13 (28.9%), hybrid (classical and modular) at 9 (20.0%), and none of the preceding at 3 (6.7%). Diagnostic imaging is part of the formal curriculum at 36 (80.0%) of the schools, an elective course at 3 (6.7%), and included within another modality at 6 (13.3%). Professors involved in diagnostic imaging teaching are radiologists at 43 (95.5%) of the institutions. The survey showed that medical courses in Brazil tend to offer diagnostic imaging instruction in courses that include other content and at different time points during the course. Radiologists are extensively involved in undergraduate medical education, regardless of the teaching methodology employed at the institution.

  20. Community perceptions of a rural medical school: a pilot qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestel D

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Debra Nestel,1 Katherine Gray,1 Margaret Simmons,1 Shane A Pritchard,1 Rumana Islam,1 Wan Q Eng,1 Adrian Ng,1 Tim Dornan2 1Gippsland Medical School/School of Rural Health, Monash University, Clayton, Australia; 2School of Health Professions Education, Maastricht University, Maastricht, the Netherlands Background: This paper explores local community perceptions of a relatively new rural medical school. For the purposes of this paper, community engagement is conceptualized as involvement in planning, delivering, and evaluating the medical program. Although there are several reviews of patient involvement in medical curricula development, this study was designed to pilot an approach to exploring the perspectives of well members of the community in the transition of institutional policy on community engagement to one medical school. Methods: An advertisement in the local newspaper invited volunteers to participate in a telephone interview about the new medical school. An inde