WorldWideScience

Sample records for veterinary growth hormones

  1. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV ... 003706.htm . Accessed October 2010. (© 1995-2010). Unit Code 8688: Growth Hormone, Serum. Mayo Clinic, Mayo Medical ...

  2. Hormonal effects of prohormones : novel approaches towards effect based screening in veterinary growth promoter control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijk, J.C.W.

    2010-01-01

    Within the European Union the use of growth promoting agents in cattle fattening is prohibited according to Council Directive 96/22/EC. Interestingly, there is not a black list of substances, but 96/22/EC states that all substances having thyrostatic, estrogenic, androgenic or gestagenic activity

  3. Growth hormone test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003706.htm Growth hormone test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone test measures the amount of growth hormone in ...

  4. Growth hormone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003376.htm Growth hormone suppression test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The growth hormone suppression test determines whether growth hormone production is ...

  5. Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of GHD and/or hypopituitarism , such as: Decreased bone density Fatigue Adverse lipid changes, such as high cholesterol Reduced exercise tolerance Other hormone testing, such as thyroid testing , ...

  6. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Balance › Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults Patient Guide Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults June 2011 Download PDFs English ... depression, or moodiness What are the benefits of growth hormone therapy? Growth hormone treatment involves injections (shots) of ...

  7. Genomic growth hormone, growth hormone receptor and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Lei et al., 2007). Recently, the effects of bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism at codon 127 and 172 were determined on carcass traits and fatty acid compositions in Japanese Black cattle using allele specific-multiplex ...

  8. Degradation of veterinary antibiotics and hormone during broiler manure composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2013-03-01

    The fate of nine veterinary antibiotics and one hormone in broiler manure during 40 days of composting was investigated. Results showed that composting can significantly reduce the concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, making application of the post-compost manure safer for soil application. More than 99% of the nine antibiotics and one hormone involved in this study were removed from the manure during 40 days of composting. The target antibiotics and hormone showed short half-life in broiler manure composting, ranging from 1.3 to 3.8 days. The relationship between the physico-chemical properties of soil, manure and manure compost and its veterinary antibiotic and hormone concentration was statistically evaluated by Pearson correlation matrix. The concentration of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in manure compost was suggested to be affected by physico-chemical properties such as pH, temperature, total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP) and metal contents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... c m y one in Children What is growth hormone deficiency? Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a rare condition in which the body does not make enough growth hormone (GH). GH is made by the pituitary gland, ...

  10. Body segments and growth hormone.

    OpenAIRE

    Bundak, R; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    The effects of human growth hormone treatment for five years on sitting height and subischial leg length of 35 prepubertal children with isolated growth hormone deficiency were investigated. Body segments reacted equally to treatment with human growth hormone; this is important when comparing the effect of growth hormone on the growth of children with skeletal dysplasias or after spinal irradiation.

  11. Veterinary Business Management Association presents program to aid future growth and stability of veterinary profession

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Spiraling veterinary student debt and the lack of a sustainable and profitable business model for many private practices in the modern business environment threaten the future growth and stability of the veterinary profession.

  12. Growth hormone releasing hormone or growth hormone treatment in growth hormone insufficiency?

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, P J; Brook, C G

    1988-01-01

    Sixteen prepubertal children who were insufficient for growth hormone were treated with growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) 1-40 and GHRH 1-29 for a mean time of nine months (range 6-12 months) with each peptide. Eleven children received GHRH 1-40 in four subcutaneous nocturnal pulses (dose 4-8 micrograms/kg/day) and eight (three of whom were also treated with GHRH 1-40) received GHRH 1-29 twice daily (dose 8-16 micrograms/kg/day). Altogether 73% of the children receiving GHRH 1-40 and 63...

  13. Growth Hormone and Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-08-01

    34Retrasos de crecimiento " 2a Ed., Diaz de al 1999), together with an increase in physical Santos. Madrid. pp 365-376 (1996). capacity (Jorgensen et al 1991...A, Marrama P, Agnati LF, Moiller EE. "Retrasos de crecimiento " 2’ Ed., Diaz de Reduced growth hormone releasing factor Santos. Madrid. pp 377-396...P, Skakkeback, Christiansen JS. variantes en (Moreno y Tresguerres dir). Three years of GH treatment in GH deficient "Retrasos de crecimiento " 2a Ed

  14. Hormonal determinants of pubertal growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delamarre-van Waal, H.A.; Coeverden, S.C. van; Rotteveel, J.J.

    2001-01-01

    Pubertal growth results from increased sex steroid and growth hormone (GH) secretion. Estrogens appear to play an important role in the regulation of pubertal growth in both girls and boys. In girls, however, estrogens cannot be the only sex steroids responsible for pubertal growth, as exogenous

  15. Growth hormone stimulation test - series (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth hormone (GH) is a protein hormone released from the anterior pituitary gland under the control of the hypothalamus. ... performed on infants and children to identify human growth hormone (hGH) deficiency as a cause of growth retardation. ...

  16. Growth hormone response to growth hormone-releasing peptide-2 in growth hormone-deficient Little mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peroni, Cibele N.; Hayashida, Cesar Y.; Nascimento, Nancy; Longuini, Viviane C.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Bartolini, Paolo; Bowers, Cyril Y.; Toledo, Sergio P.A.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate a possible direct, growth hormone-releasing, hormone-independent action of a growth hormone secretagogue, GHRP-2, in pituitary somatotroph cells in the presence of inactive growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The responses of serum growth hormone to acutely injected growth hormone-releasing P-2 in lit/lit mice, which represent a model of GH deficiency arising from mutated growth hormone-releasing hormone-receptors, were compared to those observed in the heterozygous (lit/+) littermates and wild-type (+/+) C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS: After the administration of 10 mcg of growth hormone-releasing P-2 to lit/lit mice, a growth hormone release of 9.3±1.5 ng/ml was observed compared with 1.04±1.15 ng/ml in controls (pgrowth hormone release of 34.5±9.7 ng/ml and a higher growth hormone release of 163±46 ng/ml were induced in the lit/+ mice and wild-type mice, respectively. Thus, GHRP-2 stimulated growth hormone in the lit/lit mice, and the release of growth hormone in vivo may be only partially dependent on growth hormone-releasing hormone. Additionally, the plasma leptin and ghrelin levels were evaluated in the lit/lit mice under basal and stimulated conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we have demonstrated that lit/lit mice, which harbor a germline mutation in the Growth hormone-releasing hormone gene, maintain a limited but statistically significant growth hormone elevation after exogenous stimulation with GHRP-2. The present data probably reflect a direct, growth hormone-independent effect on Growth hormone S (ghrelin) stimulation in the remaining pituitary somatotrophs of little mice that is mediated by growth hormone S-R 1a. PMID:22473409

  17. Growth hormone, inflammation and aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal M. Masternak

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Mutant animals characterized by extended longevity provide valuable tools to study the mechanisms of aging. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 constitute one of the well-established pathways involved in the regulation of aging and lifespan. Ames and Snell dwarf mice characterized by GH deficiency as well as growth hormone receptor/growth hormone binding protein knockout (GHRKO mice characterized by GH resistance live significantly longer than genetically normal animals. During normal aging of rodents and humans there is increased insulin resistance, disruption of metabolic activities and decline of the function of the immune system. All of these age related processes promote inflammatory activity, causing long term tissue damage and systemic chronic inflammation. However, studies of long living mutants and calorie restricted animals show decreased pro-inflammatory activity with increased levels of anti-inflammatory adipokines such as adiponectin. At the same time, these animals have improved insulin signaling and carbohydrate homeostasis that relate to alterations in the secretory profile of adipose tissue including increased production and release of anti-inflammatory adipokines. This suggests that reduced inflammation promoting healthy metabolism may represent one of the major mechanisms of extended longevity in long-lived mutant mice and likely also in the human.

  18. Growth hormone insensitivity: diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, S; Hatipoglu, N

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone resistance defines several genetic (primary) and acquired (secondary) pathologies that result in completely or partially interrupted activity of growth hormone. An archetypal disease of this group is the Laron-type dwarfism caused by mutations in growth hormone receptors. The diagnosis is based on high basal levels of growth hormone, low insulin like growth factor-I (IGF-1) level, unresponsiveness to IGF generation test and genetic testing. Recombinant IGF-1 preparations are used in the treatment In this article, clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapeutic approaches of the genetic and other diseases leading to growth hormone insensitivity are reviewed.

  19. Database dedicated to information published during the Benelux conferences on hormone and veterinary drug residue analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impens, S.; Brabander, H.F. de; Bergwerff, A.A.; Ginkel, L.A. van; Schilt, R.; Stephany, R.W.; Wasch, K. de; Courtheyn, D.; Peteghem, C. van

    2002-01-01

    Every other year scientists working in the field of residue analysis participate the "International Symposium on Hormone and Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis" and "Euroresidue" conferences. In each symposium a lot of innovative information is presented. In order to obtain a retrieval system for this

  20. Using hormones to manage dairy cow fertility: the clinical and ethical beliefs of veterinary practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Helen M; Ferguson, Eamonn; Smith, Robert F; Green, Martin J

    2013-01-01

    In the face of a steady decline in dairy cow fertility over several decades, using hormones to assist reproduction has become common. In the European Union, hormones are prescription-only medicines, giving veterinary practitioners a central role in their deployment. This study explored the clinical and ethical beliefs of practitioners, and provides data on their current prescribing practices. During 2011, 93 practitioners working in England completed a questionnaire (95% response rate). Of the 714 non-organic farms they attended, only 4 farms (0.6%) never used hormones to assist the insemination of lactating dairy cows. Practitioners agreed (>80%) that hormones improve fertility and farm businesses profitability. They also agreed (>80%) that if farmers are able to tackle management issues contributing to poor oestrus expression, then over a five year period these outcomes would both improve, relative to using hormones instead. If management issues are addressed instead of prescribing hormones, practitioners envisaged a less favourable outcome for veterinary practices profitability (p<0.01), but an improvement in genetic selection for fertility (p<0.01) and overall cow welfare (p<0.01). On farms making no efforts to address underlying management problems, long-term routine use at the start of breeding for timing artificial insemination or inducing oestrus was judged "unacceptable" by 69% and 48% of practitioners, respectively. In contrast, practitioners agreed (≥ 90%) that both these types of use are acceptable, provided a period of time has been allowed to elapse during which the cow is observed for natural oestrus. Issues discussed include: weighing quality versus length of cow life, fiscal factors, legal obligations, and balancing the interests of all stakeholders, including the increasing societal demand for food. This research fosters debate and critical appraisal, contributes to veterinary ethics, and encourages the pro-active development of professional

  1. [Plant hormones, plant growth regulators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Végvári, György; Vidéki, Edina

    2014-06-29

    Plants seem to be rather defenceless, they are unable to do motion, have no nervous system or immune system unlike animals. Besides this, plants do have hormones, though these substances are produced not in glands. In view of their complexity they lagged behind animals, however, plant organisms show large scale integration in their structure and function. In higher plants, such as in animals, the intercellular communication is fulfilled through chemical messengers. These specific compounds in plants are called phytohormones, or in a wide sense, bioregulators. Even a small quantity of these endogenous organic compounds are able to regulate the operation, growth and development of higher plants, and keep the connection between cells, tissues and synergy between organs. Since they do not have nervous and immume systems, phytohormones play essential role in plants' life.

  2. Sweat secretion rates in growth hormone disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sneppen, S B; Main, K M; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome.......While increased sweating is a prominent symptom in patients with active acromegaly, reduced sweating is gaining status as part of the growth hormone deficiency (GHD) syndrome....

  3. Single dose and pulsatile treatment with human growth hormone in growth hormone deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, P J; Pringle, P J; Brook, C G

    1987-01-01

    The growth and growth hormone profiles in four children receiving three different regimens of treatment with human growth hormone (hGH) were compared. There was no significant difference in the rate of growth between the regimens; the rate of growth fell dramatically after treatment. Pulsatile administration of hGH was no better than conventional treatment.

  4. Growth hormone doping: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erotokritou-Mulligan I

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Ioulietta Erotokritou-Mulligan, Richard IG Holt, Peter H SönksenDevelopmental Origins of Health and Disease Division, University of Southampton School of Medicine, The Institute of Developmental Science, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton, UKAbstract: The use of growth hormone (GH as a performance enhancing substance was first promoted in lay publications, long before scientists fully acknowledged its benefits. It is thought athletes currently use GH to enhance their athletic performance and to accelerate the healing of sporting injuries. Over recent years, a number of high profile athletes have admitted to using GH. To date, there is only limited and weak evidence for its beneficial effects on performance. Nevertheless the “hype” around its effectiveness and the lack of a foolproof detection methodology that will detect its abuse longer than 24 hours after the last injection has encouraged its widespread use. This article reviews the current evidence of the ergogenic effects of GH along with the risks associated with its use. The review also examines methodologies, both currently available and in development for detecting its abuse.Keywords: performance enhancing substance, GH, doping in sport, detection methods

  5. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  6. Oral manifestations in growth hormone disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Atreja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone is of vital importance for normal growth and development. Individuals with growth hormone deficiency develop pituitary dwarfism with disproportionate delayed growth of skull and facial skeleton giving them a small facial appearance for their age. Both hyper and hypopituitarism have a marked effect on development of oro-facial structures including eruption and shedding patterns of teeth, thus giving an opportunity to treating dental professionals to first see the signs and symptoms of these growth disorders and correctly diagnose the serious underlying disease.

  7. [Human growth hormone and Turner syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Marco, Silvia Beatriz; de Arriba Muñoz, Antonio; Ferrer Lozano, Marta; Labarta Aizpún, José Ignacio; Garagorri Otero, Jesús María

    2017-02-01

    The evaluation of clinical and analytical parameters as predictors of the final growth response in Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone. A retrospective study was performed on 25 girls with Turner syndrome (17 treated with growth hormone), followed-up until adult height. Auxological, analytical, genetic and pharmacological parameters were collected. A descriptive and analytical study was conducted to evaluate short (12 months) and long term response to treatment with growth hormone. A favourable treatment response was shown during the first year of treatment in terms of height velocity gain in 66.6% of cases (height-gain velocity >3cm/year). A favourable long-term treatment response was also observed in terms of adult height, which increased by 42.82±21.23cm (1.25±0.76 SDS), with an adult height gain of 9.59±5.39cm (1.68±1.51 SDS). Predictors of good response to growth hormone treatment are: A) initial growth hormone dose, B) time on growth hormone treatment until starting oestrogen therapy, C) increased IGF1 and IGFBP-3 levels in the first year of treatment, and D) height gain velocity in the first year of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetics Home Reference: isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are four types of isolated growth hormone deficiency differentiated by the severity of the condition, the gene ... Practice and Guidelines Committee. ACMG practice guideline: genetic evaluation of short stature. Genet Med. 2009 Jun;11( ...

  9. Growth hormone and selective attention : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, Elise H.; van Dam, P. Sytze; Kenemans, J. Leon

    Introduction: The relation between growth hormone (GH) secretion and general cognitive function has been established. General cognitive functioning depends on core functions including selective attention, which have not been addressed specifically in relation to GH. The present review addresses

  10. Justified and unjustified use of growth hormone.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractGrowth hormone (GH) replacement therapy for children and adults with proven GH deficiency due to a pituitary disorder has become an accepted therapy with proven efficacy. GH is increasingly suggested, however, as a potential treatment for frailty, osteoporosis,

  11. Growth Hormone Response after Administration of L-dopa, Clonidine, and Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone in Children with Down Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Seigfried M.

    1993-01-01

    This study of eight growth-retarded children with Down's syndrome (aged 1 to 6.5 years) found that administration of growth hormone was more effective than either L-dopa or clonidine. Results suggest that children with Down's syndrome have both anatomical and biochemical hypothalamic derangements resulting in decreased growth hormone secretion and…

  12. Growth Hormone Research Society perspective on the development of long-acting growth hormone preparations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Growth Hormone (GH) Research Society (GRS) convened a workshop to address important issues regarding trial design, efficacy, and safety of long-acting growth hormone preparations (LAGH). A closed meeting of 55 international scientists with expertise in GH, including pediatric and adult endocrino...

  13. Growth hormone receptor gene expression in puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, S; Meazza, C; Gertosio, C; Bozzola, E; Bozzola, M

    2015-07-01

    The mechanisms regulating the synergic effect of growth hormone and other hormones during pubertal spurt are not completely clarified. We enrolled 64 females of Caucasian origin and normal height including 22 prepubertal girls, 26 pubertal girls, and 16 adults to evaluate the role of Growth Hormone/Insulin-like growth factor-I axis (GH/IGF-I) during the pubertal period. In these subjects both serum IGF-I and growth hormone binding protein levels, as well as quantitative growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene expression were evaluated in peripheral lymphocytes of all individuals by real-time PCR. Our results showed significantly lower IGF-I levels in women (148±10 ng/ml) and prepubertal girls (166.34±18.85 ng/ml) compared to pubertal girls (441.95±29.42 ng/ml; p<0.0001). Serum GHBP levels were significantly higher in prepubertal (127.02±20.76 ng/ml) compared to pubertal girls (16.63±2.97 ng/ml; p=0.0001) and adult women (19.95±6.65 ng/ml; p=0.0003). We also found higher GHR gene expression levels in pubertal girls [174.73±80.22 ag (growth hormone receptor)/5×10(5) ag (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase)] compared with other groups of subjects [women: 42.52±7.66 ag (growth hormone receptor)/5×10(5) ag (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase); prepubertal girls: 58.45±0.18.12 ag (growth hormone receptor)/5×10(5) ag (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase)], but the difference did not reach statistical significance. These results suggest that sexual hormones could positively influence GHR action, during the pubertal period, in a dual mode, that is, increasing GHR mRNA production and reducing GHR cleavage leading to GHBP variations. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Effects of Growth Hormone on Hepatic Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    BAŞOĞLU, Mahmut

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this experimental study was to determine the effects of growth hormone on hepatic regeneration after partial hepatectomy. Thirty pathogen free Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, each containing 10 rats. The animals were subjected to a sham operation in Group 1, and to left hepatic lobectomy in Groups 2 and 3. The animals in Groups 1 and 2 received saline solution (0.2 mg/kg/day), while growth hormone (Lilly Humotrope, Lilly France Usine de Fegersheim, ...

  15. Effects of Soil Veterinary Antibiotics Pollution on Rice Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Qiu-tong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To understand the potential effect of soil veterinary antibiotics pollution on the growth of rice, a main food crop in China, oxytetracycline which was used widely in livestock and poultry breeding was selected to test the effects of different levels of soil antibiotics pollution on growth and yield of rice plant at both seedling and growth periods. Relationship between oxytetracycline accumulated in different organs of rice plant and oxytetracycline pollution levels in the soil was characterized. The results showed that the effects of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice growth mainly occurred at the seedling stage, and the effect on the underground part was obviously greater than the above-ground part of rice. Significant negative effects on biomass of the underground part of rice, root activity, and chlorophyll content and oxidase activity of the leave at the seedling stage were found when soil oxytetracycline pollution concentrations was over 30 mg·kg-1. The consequence from the impact of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice seedling could be extended to the whole growth period of the plant, which could reduce the number of tiller and rice yield. Oxytetracycline accumulated in various organs of rice plant was in the sequence of root> leaf> stem> grain. Rice roots had low capacity to uptake oxytetracycline from the soil, the transfer capacity of oxytetracycline from the roots to leaf, stem, and grain was also weak. Considering the low oxytetracycline pollution levels in most of current actual farmland soils (less than 10 mg·kg-1 and lower accumulation character of oxytetracycline in the grain, it is thought that the direct damage of soil oxytetracycline pollution on rice production is small.

  16. Nutrient Sensing Overrides Somatostatin and Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone to Control Pulsatile Growth Hormone Release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyn, F J

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacological studies reveal that interactions between hypothalamic inhibitory somatostatin and stimulatory growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) govern pulsatile GH release. However, in vivo analysis of somatostatin and GHRH release into the pituitary portal vasculature and peripheral GH output demonstrates that the withdrawal of somatostatin or the appearance of GHRH into pituitary portal blood does not reliably dictate GH release. Consequently, additional intermediates acting at the level of the hypothalamus and within the anterior pituitary gland are likely to contribute to the release of GH, entraining GH secretory patterns to meet physiological demand. The identification and validation of the actions of such intermediates is particularly important, given that the pattern of GH release defines several of the physiological actions of GH. This review highlights the actions of neuropeptide Y in regulating GH release. It is acknowledged that pulsatile GH release may not occur selectively in response to hypothalamic control of pituitary function. As such, interactions between somatotroph networks, the median eminence and pituitary microvasculature and blood flow, and the emerging role of tanycytes and pericytes as critical regulators of pulsatility are considered. It is argued that collective interactions between the hypothalamus, the median eminence and pituitary vasculature, and structural components within the pituitary gland dictate somatotroph function and thereby pulsatile GH release. These interactions may override hypothalamic somatostatin and GHRH-mediated GH release, and modify pulsatile GH release relative to the peripheral glucose supply, and thereby physiological demand. © 2015 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  17. Pituitary and mammary growth hormone in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bhatti, Sofie Fatima Mareyam

    2006-01-01

    Several pathological (e.g. obesity and chronic hypercortisolism) and non-pathological (e.g. ageing) states in humans are characterized by a reduction in pituitary growth hormone (GH) secretion. Chronic hypercortisolism in humans is also associated with an impaired GH response to various stimuli.

  18. Urinary growth hormone excretion in acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Lindholm, J; Vandeweghe, M

    1993-01-01

    The biochemical assessment of disease activity in acromegaly still presents a problem, especially in treated patients with mild clinical symptoms. We therefore examined the diagnostic value of the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion in seventy unselected patients with acromegaly...

  19. Growth hormone: health considerations beyond height gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    The therapeutic benefit of growth hormone (GH) therapy in improving height in short children is widely recognized; however, GH therapy is associated with other metabolic actions that may be of benefit in these children. Beneficial effects of GH on body composition have been documented in several dif...

  20. Homeorhetic hormones, metabolites and accelerated growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Homeorhetic hormones, metabolites and accelerated growth. A.L. Marais and J.G. van der Walt. Rumen Biochemistry, Animal and Dairy Science Research Institute,. Irene 1675, Republic of South Africa. Six newly weaned karakul ewes, three with fat tails and three without tails, were used to investigate the metabolic and hor ...

  1. Fibroblast growth factor 23 - et fosfatregulerende hormon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Nielsen, Signe; Pedersen, Susanne Møller; Kassem, Moustapha

    2010-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) er et nyligt identificeret fosfatonin. FGF23's fysiologiske hovedfunktion er at opretholde normalt serumfosfat og at virke som et D-vitaminmodregulatorisk hormon. Sygdomme, der er koblet til forhøjet serum FGF23, er hypofosfatæmisk rakitis, fibrøs dysplasi og...

  2. Homeorhetic hormones, metabolites and accelerated growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six newly weaned karakul ewes, three with fat tails and three without tails, were used to investigate the metabolic and hormonal changes during accelerated growth. Two lambs acted as controls, while the remaining four were SUbjected to a maintenance diet for two weeks. The subsequent resumption of ad lib feeding ...

  3. Human Growth Hormone: The Latest Ergogenic Aid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Virginia S.

    1988-01-01

    Believing that synthetic human growth hormone (hGH) will lead to athletic prowess and fortune, some parents and young athletes wish to use the drug to enhance sports performance. Should hGH become widely available, its abuse could present many problems, from potential health risks to the ethics of drug-enhanced athletic performance. (JL)

  4. Growth hormone treatment during pregnancy in a growth hormone-deficient woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Starup, J; Christiansen, J S

    1995-01-01

    Information on the course and outcome of pregnancies in growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients is sparse, and GH treatment during pregnancy in such women has not been described previously. We have studied fetal growth and serum levels of GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding...

  5. In Silico characterization of growth hormone from freshwater ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dimensional (3D) structure prediction and evolutionary profile of growth hormone (GH) from 14 ornamental freshwater fishes. The analyses were performed using the sequence data of growth hormone gene (gh) and its encoded GH protein.

  6. 21 CFR 862.1370 - Human growth hormone test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test... system is a device intended to measure the levels of human growth hormone in plasma. Human growth hormone...

  7. Impact of Growth Hormone on Cystatin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Sze

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cystatin C (CysC is an alternative marker to creatinine for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Hormones such as thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids are known to have an impact on CysC. In this study, we examined the effect of growth hormone (GH on CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery. Methods: Creatinine, CysC, GH and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 were determined in 24 patients with acromegaly before and following transsphenoidal surgery. Estimated GFR was calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula. Results: In all patients, surgical debulking resulted in decreased clinical disease activity and declining GH/IGF-1 levels. Postoperatively, biochemical cure was documented in 20 out of 24 patients. Creatinine levels (mean ± SEM increased from 72 ± 3 to 80 ± 3 µmol/l (p = 0.0004 and concurrently, estimated GFR decreased from 99 ± 3 to 91 ± 3 ml/min (p = 0.0008. In contrast to creatinine, CysC levels decreased from 0.72 ± 0.02 to 0.68 ± 0.02 mg/l (p = 0.0008. Conclusions: Our study provides strong evidence for discordant effects of GH on creatinine and CysC in patients with acromegaly undergoing transsphenoidal surgery, thus identifying another hormone that influences CysC independent of renal function.

  8. Human growth hormone alters carbohydrate storage in blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone that plays vital roles in cell growth and metabolism. Aim: The study investigates the effect of GH on carbohydrate metabolism using Indian bird, Acridotheres tristis. Methods: Three different doses (0.4, 0.6, and 0.8mg/100g body weight) of human growth hormone ...

  9. Growth hormone in chronic renal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe growth retardation (below the third percentile for height is seen in up to one-third children with chronic kidney disease. It is thought to be multifactorial and despite optimal medical therapy most children are unable to reach their normal height. Under-nutrition, anemia, vitamin D deficiency with secondary hyperparathyroidism, metabolic acidosis, hyperphosphatemia, renal osteodystrophy; abnormalities in the growth hormone/insulin like growth factor system and sex steroids, all have been implicated in the pathogenesis of growth failure. Therapy includes optimization of nutritional and metabolic abnormalities. Failure to achieve adequate height despite 3-6 months of optimal medical measures mandates the use of recombinant GH (rGH therapy, which has shown to result in catch-up growth, anywhere from 2 cm to 10 cm with satisfactory liner, somatic and psychological development.

  10. Growth hormone deficiency and cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Devesa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Jesús Devesa1,2, Nerea Casteleiro2, Cristina Rodicio2, Natalia López2, Pedro Reimunde1,21Department of Physiology, School of Medicine of Santiago de Compostela, Spain; 2Medical Center Proyecto Foltra, 15886 Teo, SpainAbstract: Cerebral palsy (CP is a catastrophic acquired disease, occurring during development of the fetal or infant brain. It mainly affects the motor control centres of the developing brain, but can also affect cognitive functions, and is usually accompanied by a cohort of symptoms including lack of communication, epilepsy, and alterations in behavior. Most children with cerebral palsy exhibit a short stature, progressively declining from birth to puberty. We tested here whether this lack of normal growth might be due to an impaired or deficient growth hormone (GH secretion. Our study sample comprised 46 CP children, of which 28 were male and 18 were female, aged between 3 and 11. Data obtained show that 70% of these children lack normal GH secretion. We conclude that GH replacement therapy should be implemented early for CP children, not only to allow them to achieve a normal height, but also because of the known neurotrophic effects of the hormone, perhaps allowing for the correction of some of the common disabilities experienced by CP children.Keywords: growth hormone, IGF-I, cerebral palsy, short stature

  11. Growth Hormone as Biomarker in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Alberto M; Bobbio, Emanuele; D'Assante, Roberta; Salzano, Andrea; Arcopinto, Michele; Bossone, Eduardo; Cittadini, Antonio

    2018-01-01

    The impairment of growth hormone (GH)/insulin growth factor-1(IGF-1) plays a crucial role in chronic heart failure (CHF). Several studies have shown that patients affected by this condition display a more aggressive disease, with impaired functional capacity and poor outcomes. Interestingly, GH replacement therapy represents a possible future therapeutic option in CHF. In this review, the authors focus on the assessment of the main abnormalities in GH/IGF-1 axis in CHF, the underlying molecular background, and their impact on disease progression and outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth hormone insensitivity: Mexican case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Castilla-Cortazar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we present a 14-year-old patient with short stature (134 cm referred from Paediatrics to our department for complementary evaluation since growth hormone (GH treatment failed to show any improvement. He was born premature and small for gestational age. Genital examination classified the patient as Tanner I–II with small penis and testicular size for his age. Biochemical analyses revealed normal GH levels with low serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1. Molecular diagnosis confirmed several mutations in IGF1R and IGFALS, and so he was diagnosed with Laron Syndrome or GH insensibility and treated with IGF-1 substitutive therapy.

  13. Multiple Effects of Growth Hormone in the Body: Is it Really the Hormone for Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devesa, Jesús; Almengló, Cristina; Devesa, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we analyze the effects of growth hormone on a number of tissues and organs and its putative role in the longitudinal growth of an organism. We conclude that the hormone plays a very important role in maintaining the homogeneity of tissues and organs during the normal development of the human body or after an injury. Its effects on growth do not seem to take place during the fetal period or during the early infancy and are mediated by insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) during childhood and puberty. In turn, IGF-I transcription is dependent on an adequate GH secretion, and in many tissues, it occurs independent of GH. We propose that GH may be a prohormone, rather than a hormone, since in many tissues and organs, it is proteolytically cleaved in a tissue-specific manner giving origin to shorter GH forms whose activity is still unknown. PMID:27773998

  14. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielen, M.W.F. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: michel.nielen@wur.nl; Hooijerink, H. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Claassen, F.C. [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Engelen, M.C. van [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Beek, T.A. van [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2009-04-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS{sup n} spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future.

  15. Structural characterization of iodinated bovine growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattera, R; Turyn, D; Fernandez, H N; Dellacha, J M

    1982-02-01

    Bovine growth hormone (bGH) was submitted to iodination using limited amounts of oxidizing reagent, yielding a derivative with no more than 1-g-atom of iodine per mole of hormone. Analysis of the hydrolysis products indicated that monoiodotyrosine was almost the only product of substitution. Isolation and identification of the tryptic fragments showed that half of the 125I-labeled bGH molecules were iodinated in Tyr 174, followed by Tyr 158 (16%) and Tyr 42 (14%). Frontal gel chromatography indicated that the preparation did not contain significant amounts of unreacted bGH. Circular dichroism evidenced structural similarity between the native and the iodinated bGH. The iodinated hormone, like the native protein, undergoes self-association. The dissociation constant of the iodo-labeled bGH self-association equilibrium showed a two-fold increase when compared to that corresponding to the unlabeled hormone. At pH 8.5, where the equilibrium constant was estimated, one tenth of the molecules bear a charged iodotyrosyl residue (average pKapp = 9.3), which could account for part, if not all, of the observed difference regarding self-association. By this criterion, the presence of the iodine atom does not disturb the area engaged in dimer formation.

  16. Pituitary mammosomatotroph adenomas develop in old mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both growth hormone and prolactin, by 8 months of age. We now report for the first time that old GRH...

  17. Growth hormone treatment during pregnancy in a growth hormone-deficient woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, J; Starup, J; Christiansen, J S

    1995-01-01

    Information on the course and outcome of pregnancies in growth hormone (GH)-deficient patients is sparse, and GH treatment during pregnancy in such women has not been described previously. We have studied fetal growth and serum levels of GH, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and IGF binding...... protein 3 (IGFBP-3) during pregnancy, as well as birth weight and hormone levels after delivery in a 25-year-old woman with idiopathic, isolated GH deficiency diagnosed at the age of 7 years. As part of a clinical trial, the patient was treated with 2 IU/M2 GH for a period of 5 years. At this time she...... became pregnant after donor insemination. The GH treatment was continued until variant GH production from the placenta was evident. Serum levels of GH, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 were measured monthly during pregnancy after 3 days off GH therapy. Abdominal ultrasound was performed five times. Hormonal levels were...

  18. Interpretation of growth hormone provocative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Orskov, H; Ranke, M B

    1995-01-01

    To compare interpretations of growth hormone (GH) provocative tests in laboratories using six different GH immunoassays (one enzymeimmunometric assay (EIMA, assay 1), one immunoradiometric assay (IRMA, assay 5), one time-resolved fluorimmunometric assay (TRFIA, assay 3) and three radioimmunoassays...... (RIAs, assays 2, 4 and 6)), aliquots of peak samples from GH provocative tests were distributed between the four participating laboratories, quantified in the respective immunoassays and interpreted according to the cut-off values for provocative tests defined for each assay method. There was a high...

  19. Growth hormone: a newly identified developmental organizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rajat K; Banerjee, Sarmistha; Shapiro, Bernard H

    2017-03-01

    The sexually dimorphic expression of cytochromes P450 (CYP) drug-metabolizing enzymes has been reported in all species examined. These sex differences are only expressed during adulthood and are solely regulated by sex differences in circulating growth hormone (GH) profiles. Once established, however, the different male- and female-dependent CYP isoform profiles are permanent and immutable, suggesting that adult CYP expression requires imprinting. As the hormone that regulates an adult function is likely the same hormone that imprints the function, we selectively blocked GH secretion in some newborn male rats, whereas others received concurrent physiologic replacement of rat GH. The results demonstrate that adult male GH activation of the signal transduction pathway regulating expression of the principal CYP2C11 isoform is obligatorily dependent on perinatal GH imprinting, without which CYP2C11 and drug metabolism would be permanently and profoundly suppressed. As there are other adult metabolic functions also regulated by GH, pediatric drug therapy known to disrupt GH secretion could unintentionally impair adult health. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  20. Growth hormone-mediated breakdown of body fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, T.; Malmlöf, K.; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    regimen. Twelve-month-old rats fed first a high-fat diet or a low-fat diet for 14 weeks were injected with saline or growth hormone (4 mg/kg/d) for four days or three weeks in different combinations with either high- or low-fat diets. In adipose tissue, growth hormone generally inhibited lipoprotein...... lipase and also attenuated the inhibiting effect of insulin on hormone-sensitive lipase activity. Growth hormone treatment combined with restricted high-fat feeding reduced the activity of both lipases in adipose tissue and stimulated hormone-sensitive lipase in muscle. Generally, plasma levels of free...... fatty acids, glycerol and cholesterol were reduced by growth hormone, and in combination with restricted high-fat feeding, triglyceride levels improved too. We conclude that growth hormone inhibits lipid storage in adipose tissue by reducing both lipoprotein lipase activity and insulin's inhibitory...

  1. Continuation of growth hormone therapy versus placebo in transition-phase patients with growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens; Nørrelund, Helene; Vahl, Nina

    2002-01-01

    In a placebo-controlled, parallel study of 18 patients with a mean age of 20 years who had confirmed growth hormone (GH) deficiency, we evaluated body composition, insulin sensitivity, and glucose turnover at baseline (when all were receiving GH replacement); after 12 months of continued GH therapy...

  2. Influence of gender on the correlation between plasma growth hormone profiles and urinary growth hormone excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jansson, C; Skakkebak, N

    1997-01-01

    A lot of interest has been directed towards the measurement of urinary growth hormone (GH) excretion instead of plasma GH profiles or provocation tests. We investigated the factors influencing the relationship between 24- and 3-hour plasma GH profiles and urinary GH excretion in a cohort of 113...

  3. Growth hormone action in rat insulinoma cells expressing truncated growth hormone receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møldrup, Annette; Allevato, G; Dyrberg, Thomas

    1991-01-01

    Transfection of the insulin-producing rat islet tumor cell line RIN-5AH with a full length cDNA of the rat hepatic growth hormone (GH) receptor (GH-R1-638) augments the GH-responsive insulin synthesis in these cells. Using this functional system we analyzed the effect of COOH-terminal truncation...

  4. Growth hormone and the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeiro, Christopher R; Anand, Rishi; Dardi, Inderpreet Kaur; Balasubramaniyam, Nivas; Schwarcz, Monica D; Weiss, Irene A

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) exerts its effects through insulin-like growth factor-1, and although ubiquitous in human tissues, it has a significant role in cardiovascular function. In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in GH as an etiologic factor in many cardiovascular disease states. Acromegaly, a state of endogenous GH excess, results in myocardial hypertrophy and decreased cardiac performance with increased cardiovascular mortality. Additional insight into the role of excess GH on the cardiovascular system has been gained from data collected in athletes doping with GH. Likewise, GH deficiency is associated with increased mortality, possibly from the associated increase in atherosclerosis, lipid abnormalities, and endothelial dysfunction. However, further research is required to clarify the benefit of GH treatment in both deficient states and in heart failure patients.

  5. Effects of Growth Hormone Replacement Therapy on Bone Mineral Density in Growth Hormone Deficient Adults: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xue

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Growth hormone deficiency patients exhibited reduced bone mineral density compared with healthy controls, but previous researches demonstrated uncertainty about the effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone in growth hormone deficient adults. The aim of this study was to determine whether the growth hormone replacement therapy could elevate bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Methods. In this meta-analysis, searches of Medline, Embase, and The Cochrane Library were undertaken to identify studies in humans of the association between growth hormone treatment and bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults. Random effects model was used for this meta-analysis. Results. A total of 20 studies (including one outlier study with 936 subjects were included in our research. We detected significant overall association of growth hormone treatment with increased bone mineral density of spine, femoral neck, and total body, but some results of subgroup analyses were not consistent with the overall analyses. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggested that growth hormone replacement therapy could have beneficial influence on bone mineral density in growth hormone deficient adults, but, in some subject populations, the influence was not evident.

  6. Effect of Growth Hormone Deficiency on Brain Structure, Motor Function and Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Emma A.; O'Reilly, Michelle A.; Clayden, Jonathan D.; Seunarine, Kiran K.; Chong, Wui K.; Dale, Naomi; Salt, Alison; Clark, Chris A.; Dattani, Mehul T.

    2012-01-01

    The growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis plays a role in normal brain growth but little is known of the effect of growth hormone deficiency on brain structure. Children with isolated growth hormone deficiency (peak growth hormone less than 6.7 [micro]g/l) and idiopathic short stature (peak growth hormone greater than 10 [micro]g/l)…

  7. Veterinary Drugs and Growth Promoters Residues in Meat and Processed Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

    Veterinary drugs, which comprise a large number of different types of substances, are generally intended for therapeutic (to control infectious diseases) and prophylactic (to prevent against infections) purposes in farm animals. Other substances with growth promoting effect may exert antimicrobial effect against the microbial flora in the gut to take maximum profit of nutrients in the feed or by affecting the animal’s metabolism. Most of these substances are orally active and can be administered either in the feed or in the drinking water. Other active hormones are applied in the form of small implants into the subcutaneous tissue of the ears. These are slow release (several weeks or months) devices and the ears are discarded at the slaughter. Growth promoters allow a better efficiency in the feed conversion rate. The net effect is an increased protein deposition, partly due to muscle proteases inhibition (Fiems, Buts, Boucque, Demeyer, & Cottyn, 1990), usually linked to fat utilization (Brockman & Laarveld, 1986). The result is a leaner meat (Lone, 1997) with some toughness derived from the production of connective tissue and collagen crosslinking (Miller, Judge, Diekman, Hudgens, & Aberle, 1989; Miller, Judge, & Schanbacher, 1990). Some recent fraudulent practices, consisting of the use of a kind of “cocktails” or mixtures of several substances like β-agonists and corticosteroids at very low amounts (Monsón et al., 2007), are difficult to detect with modern analytical instrumentation. They try to obtain a synergistic effect for a similar growth promotion with lower probability of detection by official control laboratories (Reig & Toldrá, 2007).

  8. Effects of Growth Hormone on Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritos, Nicholas A; Klibanski, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Describe the effects of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) on the skeleton. The GH and IGF-1 axis has pleiotropic effects on the skeleton throughout the lifespan by influencing bone formation and resorption. GH deficiency leads to decreased bone turnover, delayed statural growth in children, low bone mass, and increased fracture risk in adults. GH replacement improves adult stature in GH deficient children, increases bone mineral density (BMD) in adults, and helps to optimize peak bone acquisition in patients, during the transition from adolescence to adulthood, who have persistent GH deficiency. Observational studies suggest that GH replacement may mitigate the excessive fracture risk associated with GH deficiency. Acromegaly, a state of GH and IGF-1 excess, is associated with increased bone turnover and decreased BMD in the lumbar spine observed in some studies, particularly in patients with hypogonadism. In addition, patients with acromegaly appear to be at an increased risk of morphometric-vertebral fractures, especially in the presence of active disease or concurrent hypogonadism. GH therapy also has beneficial effects on statural growth in several conditions characterized by GH insensitivity, including chronic renal failure, Turner syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, postnatal growth delay in patients with intrauterine growth retardation who do not demonstrate catchup growth, idiopathic short stature, short stature homeobox-containing (SHOX) gene mutations, and Noonan syndrome. GH and IGF-1 have important roles in skeletal physiology, and GH has an important therapeutic role in both GH deficiency and insensitivity states. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cognitive impairments and mood disturbances in growth hormone deficient men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deijen, J.B.; de Boer, H.; Blok, G.J.; van der Veen, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    In order to establish whether reported psychological complaints in hypopituitary adults are related to growth hormone (GH) deficiency or other pituitary hormone deficiencies, emotional well-being and cognitive performance were evaluated in 31 men with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD)

  10. Postreceptor signaling mechanisms for Growth Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roupas, P; Herington, A C

    1994-01-01

    Recent data have shed significant new light on the mechanisms involved in the transmission of a biologic signal by GH. Following ligand-induced dimerization of the GH receptor, multiple cascades are involved in GH signaling. These include activation of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases, in particular JAK2, which is a mechanism shared by the newly described cytokine receptor superfamily. Furthermore, several classic pathways (for example, guanine-nucleotide-binding proteins and protein kinase C), shared by numerous hormones, growth factors, and neurotransmitters, are also involved in many of the actions of GH. The interrelationships between the various signaling pathways for GH have not yet been fully defined. This review briefly summarizes the current state of knowledge with respect to the processes involved in the effects of GH in target cells.

  11. Possible role of human growth hormone in penile erection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A J; Uckert, S; Stief, C G; Truss, M C; Machtens, S; Scheller, F; Knapp, W H; Hartmann, U; Jonas, U

    2000-12-01

    Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency increases nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). We examined the functional in vitro effects of recombinant human growth hormone on tissue tension and cyclic nucleotide levels of human corpus cavernosum and detected changes in growth hormone in the cavernous and peripheral blood during different phases of penile erection. Relaxant responses of human corpus cavernosum were investigated using the organ bath technique. Tissue levels of cGMP were determined by a specific radioimmunoassay after dose dependent exposition of isolated human corpus cavernosum strips to recombinant human growth hormone. In 35 healthy potent volunteers blood samples were obtained simultaneously from the corpus cavernosum and cubital vein during different functional conditions of the penis, including flaccidity, tumescence, rigidity and detumescence. Penile erection was induced by audiovisual and tactile stimulation. Serum growth hormone was determined by an immunoradiometric assay. Recombinant human growth hormone elicited dose dependent relaxation of human corpus cavernosum strips in vitro. The relaxing potency of recombinant human growth hormone was paralleled by its ability to elevate intracellular levels of cGMP. In vivo the peripheral growth hormone serum profile of the respective penile conditions did not significantly differ from those of cavernous serum. The main increase in growth hormone to greater than 90% was determined during developing penile tumescence, followed by a transient decrease afterward. These results suggest that penile erection may probably be induced by growth hormone through its cGMP stimulating activity on human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle.

  12. Growth Hormone Therapy in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Karen S.; Emerick, Jill E.

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is characterized by hyperphagia, obesity if food intake is not strictly controlled, abnormal body composition with decreased lean body mass and increased fat mass, decreased basal metabolic rate, short stature, low muscle tone, cognitive disability, and hypogonadism. In addition to improvements in linear growth, the benefits of growth hormone therapy on body composition and motor function in children with PWS are well established. Evidence is now emerging on the benefits of growth hormone therapy in adults with PWS. This review summarizes the current literature on growth hormone status and the use of growth hormone therapy in adults with PWS. The benefits of growth hormone therapy on body composition, muscle strength, exercise capacity, certain measures of sleep-disordered breathing, metabolic parameters, quality of life, and cognition are covered in detail along with potential adverse effects and guidelines for initiating and monitoring therapy. PMID:28943608

  13. Growth Hormone Therapy in Adults with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Vogt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS is characterized by hyperphagia, obesity if food intake is not strictly controlled, abnormal body composition with decreased lean body mass and increased fat mass, decreased basal metabolic rate, short stature, low muscle tone, cognitive disability, and hypogonadism. In addition to improvements in linear growth, the benefits of growth hormone therapy on body composition and motor function in children with PWS are well established. Evidence is now emerging on the benefits of growth hormone therapy in adults with PWS. This review summarizes the current literature on growth hormone status and the use of growth hormone therapy in adults with PWS. The benefits of growth hormone therapy on body composition, muscle strength, exercise capacity, certain measures of sleep-disordered breathing, metabolic parameters, quality of life, and cognition are covered in detail along with potential adverse effects and guidelines for initiating and monitoring therapy.

  14. Growth hormone deficiency: an unusual presentation of floating harbor syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli-Tsinopoulou, Assimina; Kyrgios, Ioannis; Emmanouilidou, Eleftheria; Maggana, Ioanna; Kotanidou, Eleni; Kokka, Paraskevi; Stylianou, Charilaos

    2011-01-01

    Floating-Harbor Syndrome (FHS) is a very rare condition of unknown etiology characterized by short stature, delayed bone age, characteristic facial features, delayed language skills and usually normal motor development. This syndrome has only once been associated with growth hormone deficiency and precocious puberty in the same patient. We describe a 5 4/12 year-old girl with the typical features of FHS in whom growth hormone deficiency was diagnosed and two years later central precocious puberty was noted. The patient showed a good response to human recombinant growth hormone as well as gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue treatment.

  15. Growth without growth hormone in combined pituitary hormone deficiency caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Soo Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is an essential element for normal growth. However, reports of normal growth without GH have been made in patients who have undergone brain surgery for craniopharyngioma. Normal growth without GH can be explained by hyperinsulinemia, hyperprolactinemia, elevated leptin levels, and GH variants; however, its exact mechanism has not been elucidated yet. We diagnosed a female patient aged 13 with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS. The patient has experienced recurrent hypoglycemic seizures since birth, but reached the height of 160 cm at the age of 13, showing normal growth. She grew another 8 cm for 3 years after the diagnosis, and she reached her final adult height of 168 cm which was greater than the midparental height, at the age of 16. The patient's blood GH and insulin-like growth factor-I levels were consistently subnormal, although her insulin levels were normal. Her physical examination conducted at the age of 15 showed truncal obesity, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis, which are metabolic features of GH deficiency (GHD. Herein, we report a case in which a PSIS-induced CPHD patient attained her final height above mid parental height despite a severe GHD.

  16. Continuation of growth hormone therapy versus placebo in transition-phase patients with growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens; Nørrelund, Helene; Vahl, Nina

    2002-01-01

    In a placebo-controlled, parallel study of 18 patients with a mean age of 20 years who had confirmed growth hormone (GH) deficiency, we evaluated body composition, insulin sensitivity, and glucose turnover at baseline (when all were receiving GH replacement); after 12 months of continued GH therapy...... or placebo; and after a 12-month open phase of GH therapy. In the placebo group, insulin sensitivity and fat mass increased and lipid oxidation decreased, whereas glucose oxidation increased (p...

  17. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 in acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Werner, S; Eggertsen, G

    2000-01-01

    Growth hormone therapy after myocardial infarction improves cardiac function and survival in animals. Beneficial effects in humans are reported from studies where patients with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were treated with growth hormone. We have studied the role of the endogenous growth...... hormone system in myocardial infarction....

  18. Optimizing Patient Management and Adherence for Children Receiving Growth Hormone

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bang, Peter; Acerini, Carlo L; Lehwalder, Dagmar; Wac, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Poor adherence with growth hormone (GH) therapy has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, which in children relates specifically to their linear growth and loss of quality of life. The “360° GH in Europe...

  19. Effects of Growth Hormones on Sprouting and Rooting of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to assess the effect of growth hormone on sprouting and rooting ability of Jatropha curcas (L). Stem cuttings from mature plants were treated with two types of growth hormones: Naphthalene Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid while the untreated cuttings were used as control.

  20. Growth hormone rescues hippocampal synaptic function after sleep deprivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunyoung; Bertolotti, Don; Green, Todd L.

    2010-01-01

    Sleep is required for, and sleep loss impairs, normal hippocampal synaptic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor function and expression, hippocampal NMDA receptor-dependent synaptic plasticity, and hippocampal-dependent memory function. Although sleep is essential, the signals linking sleep to hippocampal function are not known. One potential signal is growth hormone. Growth hormone is released during sleep, and its release is suppressed during sleep deprivation. If growth hormone links sleep to hippocampal function, then restoration of growth hormone during sleep deprivation should prevent adverse consequences of sleep loss. To test this hypothesis, we examined rat hippocampus for spontaneous excitatory synaptic currents in CA1 pyramidal neurons, long-term potentiation in area CA1, and NMDA receptor subunit proteins in synaptic membranes. Three days of sleep deprivation caused a significant reduction in NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents compared with control treatments. When rats were injected with growth hormone once per day during sleep deprivation, the loss of NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic currents was prevented. Growth hormone injections also prevented the impairment of long-term potentiation that normally follows sleep deprivation. In addition, sleep deprivation led to a selective loss of NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) from hippocampal synaptic membranes, but normal NR2B expression was restored by growth hormone injection. Our results identify growth hormone as a critical mediator linking sleep to normal synaptic function of the hippocampus. PMID:20237303

  1. Human Growth Hormone (HGH): Does It Slow Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Healthy aging Human growth hormone is described by some as the key to slowing the aging process. Before you sign up, get the ... slowdown has triggered an interest in using synthetic human growth hormone (HGH) as a way to stave ...

  2. Extrapituitary growth hormone synthesis in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ibave, Diana Cristina; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Iram Pablo; Garza-Rodríguez, María de Lourdes; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The gene for pituitary growth hormone (GH-N) in man belongs to a multigene locus located at chromosome 17q24.2, which also harbors four additional genes: one for a placental variant of GH-N (named GH-V) and three of chorionic somatommamotropin (CSH) type. Their tandem arrangement from 5' to 3' is: GH-N, CSH-L, CSH-1, GH-V and CSH-2. GH-N is mainly expressed in the pituitary from birth throughout life, while the remaining genes are expressed in the placenta of pregnant women. Pituitary somatotrophs secrete GH into the bloodstream to act at receptor sites in most tissues. GH participates in the regulation of several complex physiological processes, including growth and metabolism. Recently, the presence of GH has been described in several extrapituitary sites, such as neural, ocular, reproductive, immune, cardiovascular, muscular, dermal and skeletal tissues. It has been proposed that GH has an autocrine action in these tissues. While the body of evidence for its presence is constantly growing, research of its possible function and implications lag behind. In this review we highlight the evidence of extrapituitary synthesis of GH in humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Response of Indian growth hormone deficient children to growth hormone therapy: association with pituitary size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadilkar, Vaman V; Prasad, Hemchand Krishna; Ekbote, Veena H; Rustagi, Vaishakhi T; Singh, Joshita; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Anuradha V

    2015-05-01

    To ascertain the impact of pituitary size as judged by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), on response to Growth Hormone (GH) therapy in GH deficient children. Thirty nine children (9.1 ± 2.7 y, 22 boys) with non-acquired GH deficiency (21 Isolated GH deficiency and 18 Combined pituitary hormone deficiency) were consecutively recruited and followed up for one year. Clinical, radiological (bone age and MRI) and biochemical parameters were studied. Children with hypoplastic pituitary (pituitary height children with normal pituitary heights (p children with hypoplastic pituitaries (13.8 ± 3.6 and 28.7 % vs. 11.2 ± 4.1 and 21.4 %). Significant co-relation was observed between pituitary height and height for age Z-scores at baseline (r = 0.39, p children with hypoplastic pituitary when compared to an increase from 145.8 to 153.5 cm observed in children with normal pituitary height (p growth hormone deficient children with hypoplastic pituitary respond better to therapy with GH in short term.

  4. The physiology of growth hormone and sport.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Widdowson, W Matthew

    2012-02-01

    The growth hormone (GH)\\/ insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis exerts short-and long-term metabolic effects that are potentially important during exercise. Exercise is a potent stimulus to GH release and there is some evidence that the acute increase in GH is important in regulating substrate metabolism post-exercise. Regular exercise also increases 24-hour GH secretion rates, which potentially contributes to the physiologic changes induced by training. The effects of GH replacement in GH-deficient adults provide a useful model with which to study the effects of the more long-term effects of the GH\\/ IGF-I axis. There is convincing evidence that GH replacement increases exercise capacity. Measures of exercise performance including maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and ventilatory threshold (VeT) are impaired in GH deficiency and improved by GH replacement, probably through some combination of increased oxygen delivery to exercising muscle, increased fatty acid availability with glycogen sparing, increased muscle strength, improved body composition and improved thermoregulation. Administration of supraphysiologic doses of GH to athletes increases fatty acid availability and reduces oxidative protein loss particularly during exercise, and increases lean body mass. It is not known whether these effects translate to improved athletic performance, although recombinant human GH is known to be widely abused in sport. The model of acromegaly provides evidence that long-term GH excess does not result in improved performance but it is possible that a "window" exists in which the protein anabolic effects of supraphysiologic GH might be advantageous.

  5. Growth hormone treatment in non-growth hormone-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Loche

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Until 1985 growth hormone (GH was obtained from pituitary extracts, and was available in limited amounts only to treat severe growth hormone deficiency (GHD. With the availability of unlimited quantities of GH obtained from recombinant DNA technology, researchers started to explore new modalities to treat GHD children, as well as to treat a number of other non-GHD conditions. Although with some differences between different countries, GH treatment is indicated in children with Turner syndrome, chronic renal insufficiency, Prader-Willi syndrome, deletions/mutations of the SHOX gene, as well as in short children born small for gestational age and with idiopathic short stature. Available data from controlled trials indicate that GH treatment increases adult height in patients with Turner syndrome, in patients with chronic renal insufficiency, and in short children born small for gestational age. Patients with SHOX deficiency seem to respond to treatment similarly to Turner syndrome. GH treatment in children with idiopathic short stature produces a modest mean increase in adult height but the response in the individual patient is unpredictable. Uncontrolled studies indicate that GH treatment may be beneficial also in children with Noonan syndrome. In patients with Prader-Willi syndrome GH treatment normalizes growth and improves body composition and cognitive function. In any indication the response to GH seems correlated to the dose and the duration of treatment. GH treatment is generally safe with no major adverse effects being recorded in any condition.

  6. The effect of equine recombinant growth hormone on second intention wound healing in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dart, Andrew J; Cries, Lucile; Jeffcott, Leo B; Hodgson, David R; Rose, Reuben J

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of intramuscular administration of recombinant equine growth hormone on healing of full thickness skin wounds on equine limbs. Experimental. Nine Standardbred horses. In study 1, standardized full thickness skin wounds (2.5 x 2.5 cm) were made over the dorsomedial aspect of the mid-cannon bone of 1 forelimb and 1 hindlimb in 9 horses. Wounds were bandaged without treatment (control subjects) and videorecorded twice weekly until healed. Then, in study 2, similar wounds were created on the opposite limbs; 6 horses were administered intramuscular recombinant equine growth hormone (10 microg/kg daily for 7 days, then 20 microg/kg daily for 49 days), and 3 horses (control subjects) were administered equivalent volumes of sterile water. Wounds were videorecorded twice weekly until healed. Wound healing variables were measured from the videorecordings using a computer software package and analyzed as a randomized complete block design factorial analysis of variance; significance was set at P wounds in study 1 and the control wounds in study 2. In recombinant equine growth hormone-treated horses, wounds retracted more during treatment and contracted faster after treatment stopped when compared with wounds from untreated horses. No other treatment effects were detected. Recombinant equine growth hormone seemingly increases wound retraction. After treatment ceases, wound contraction increases. Intramuscular administration of recombinant equine growth hormone (10 microg/kg daily for 7 days, then 20 microg/kg daily for 49 days) does not appear to have any beneficial clinical effect on healing of equine limb wounds. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  7. A comparison of different definitions of growth response in short prepubertal children treated with growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, P; Bjerknes, R; Dahlgren, J

    2011-01-01

    How to define poor growth response in the management of short growth hormone (GH)-treated children is controversial. Aim: Assess various criteria of poor response.......How to define poor growth response in the management of short growth hormone (GH)-treated children is controversial. Aim: Assess various criteria of poor response....

  8. Growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonists inhibit growth of human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadia, A; Schally, A V; Halmos, G; Varga, J L; Seitz, S; Buchholz, S; Rick, F; Zarandi, M; Bellyei, S; Treszl, A; Szalontay, L; Lucci, J A

    2011-10-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among women with gynecologic malignancies. Antagonists of the growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) have been shown to inhibit growth of various cancers through endocrine, autocrine, and paracrine mechanisms. In this study, we have investigated the effects of GHRH antagonists (GHRHa) in ES-2 human clear cell ovarian cancer and in UCI-107 human serous ovarian cancer in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated the expression of mRNA for GHRH receptor, the binding to GHRH receptors, in specimens of ES-2 ovarian cancer. We evaluated also the in vitro effects of GHRHa on ES-2 cells and the in vivo effect of 2 different GHRHa on ES-2 and UCI-107 tumors. Nude mice bearing xenografts on ES-2 and UCI-107 ovarian cancer were treated with JMR-132 and MZ-J-7-118, respectively. Tumor growth was compared to control. ES-2 cells expressed mRNA for the functional splice variant SV1 of the GHRH receptor. JMR-132 inhibited cell proliferation in vitro by 42% and 18% at 10 and 1 μM concentration, respectively. Specific high affinity receptors for GHRH were detected in ES-2 cancer samples. In vivo daily subcutaneous injections of GHRHa significantly reduced tumor growth compared to a control group in both animal models. Our results indicate that GHRHa such as JMR-132 and MZ-J-7-118 can inhibit the growth of human ovarian cancer. The efficacy of GHRHa in ovarian cancer should be assessed in clinical trials. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Effect of testosterone and growth hormone injection before puberty ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Egg shell quality and egg internal quality are of major importance to the egg industry worldwide. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of testosterone and growth hormone (hGH) on egg production and characteristics. The aim of this trial is to test this hypothesis that one injection of these two hormones ...

  10. The role of synthetic growth hormones in crop multiplication and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Improved and disease resistant crops could easily be made available to farmers if the use of synthetic growth hormones for plantlet regeneration is vigorously pursued. In this technique, hormones like auxins, cytokinines and gibberellins could be made available at reduced cost to users for rapid multiplication of cultivated ...

  11. EFFECTS OF GROWTH HORMONE REPLACEMENT THERAPY ON THYROID FUNCTION TESTS IN GROWTH HORMONE DEFICIENT CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Moayeri

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nThere are numerous, often contradictory reports on the effect of growth hormone (GH therapy on thyroid function. These reports prompted us to evaluate the impact of GH therapy on thyroid function in previously euthyroid children with GH deficiency. Twenty five clinically and biochemically euthyroid children with GH deficiency were studied. A thyroid profile (T4, Free T4, T3 and TSH was performed at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months after GH therapy in 21 children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (group A and 4 children with organic GH deficiency (group B. We observed a significant reduction in serum T4 and free T4 concentrations during GH therapy in both groups (P < 0.01. No patient in group A had free T4 levels fell into the hypothyroid range, while in one of four patients in group B, free T4 value fell into the hypothyroid range during GH therapy. In both groups, no significant variation in serum TSH and T3 was recorded at any time. Our data suggest that GH therapy can introduce changes in thyroid function and so confirm the need of a careful monitoring of thyroid function in particular in children with organic GH deficiency during long-term GH therapy.

  12. Skin morphological changes in growth hormone deficiency and acromegaly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Merete Wolder; Thulesen, J; Feldt-Rasmussen, U

    2001-01-01

    To evaluate the histomorphology of skin and its appendages, especially eccrine sweat glands, in patients with GH disorders, because reduced sweating ability in patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is associated with increased risk of hyperthermia under stressed conditions....

  13. Sleep Characteristics in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Verrillo, Elisabetta; Bizzarri, Carla; Cappa, Marco; Bruni, Oliviero; Pavone, Martino; Ferri, Raffaele; Cutrera, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims: Growth hormone (GH) is preferentially secreted during slow wave sleep and the interactions between human sleep and the somatotropic system are well documented, although only few studies have investigated the sleep EEG...

  14. Identification of polymorphism in promoter region of growth hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... neuropeptide Y, growth hormone receptor, ghrelin, insulin- like growth factor2, and uncoupling protein2 and 3 genes and their associations with measures of growth, performance, feed efficiency and carcass merit in beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 86: 1-16. Signorelli F, Orru L, Napolitano F, Matteis GD, Scata MC, ...

  15. Growth hormone positive effects on craniofacial complex in Turner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juloski, Jovana; Dumančić, Jelena; Šćepan, Ivana; Lauc, Tomislav; Milašin, Jelena; Kaić, Zvonimir; Dumić, Miroslav; Babić, Marko

    2016-11-01

    Turner syndrome occurs in phenotypic females with complete or partial absence of X chromosome. The leading symptom is short stature, while numerous but mild stigmata manifest in the craniofacial region. These patients are commonly treated with growth hormone to improve their final height. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of long-term growth hormone therapy on craniofacial morphology in Turner syndrome patients. In this cross-sectional study cephalometric analysis was performed on 13 lateral cephalograms of patients with 45,X karyotype and the average age of 17.3 years, who have received growth hormone for at least two years. The control group consisted of 13 Turner syndrome patients naive to growth hormone treatment, matched to study group by age and karyotype. Sixteen linear and angular measurements were obtained from standard lateral cephalograms. Standard deviation scores were calculated in order to evaluate influence of growth hormone therapy on craniofacial components. In Turner syndrome patients treated with growth hormone most of linear measurements were significantly larger compared to untreated patients. Growth hormone therapy mainly influenced posterior face height, mandibular ramus height, total mandibular length, anterior face height and maxillary length. While the increase in linear measurements was evident, angular measurements and facial height ratio did not show statistically significant difference. Acromegalic features were not found. Long-term growth hormone therapy has positive influence on craniofacial development in Turner syndrome patients, with the greatest impact on posterior facial height and mandibular ramus. However, it could not compensate X chromosome deficiency and normalize craniofacial features. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuroprotective Actions of Ghrelin and Growth Hormone Secretagogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frago, Laura M.; Baquedano, Eva; Argente, Jesús; Chowen, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    The brain incorporates and coordinates information based on the hormonal environment, receiving information from peripheral tissues through the circulation. Although it was initially thought that hormones only acted on the hypothalamus to perform endocrine functions, it is now known that they in fact exert diverse actions on many different brain regions including the hypothalamus. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that stimulates growth hormone secretion and food intake to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight by binding to its receptor, growth hormone secretagogues–GH secretagogue-receptor, which is most highly expressed in the pituitary and hypothalamus. In addition, ghrelin has effects on learning and memory, reward and motivation, anxiety, and depression, and could be a potential therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative disorders where excitotoxic neuronal cell death and inflammatory processes are involved. PMID:21994488

  17. A controlled study on serum insulin-like growth factor-I and urinary excretion of growth hormone in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Main, K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1995-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that secretory deficiencies of growth hormone may play a pathophysiological role in fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was thus to evaluate the secretion of growth hormone in FM.......It has been hypothesized that secretory deficiencies of growth hormone may play a pathophysiological role in fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was thus to evaluate the secretion of growth hormone in FM....

  18. Growth hormone and the risk of atherosclerosis in growth hormone-deficient children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binay, Cigdem; Simsek, Enver; Yıldırım, Ali; Kosger, Pelin; Demiral, Meliha; Kılıç, Zubeyir

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone-deficient (GHD) children have been found to have higher cardiovascular mortality rates and an increased carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). This study investigated the risk of atherosclerosis and the effect of recombinant growth hormone (rhGH) replacement therapy on the lipid profile and CIMT in GHD children. A total of 40 GHD children (mean age: 12.3±2.04 years) were investigated before and after 1 year of rhGH therapy at a dosage of 0.03 mg/kg/day and 40 age- and sex-matched healthy children (mean age: 12.1±2.23 years) were enrolled as a control group, in the same pubertal stage. Fasting blood samples were obtained for lipid profile, IGF-1, and IGFBP-3 analyses. The patients and controls underwent CIMT measurements before and after 1 year of rhGH treatment. The growth velocity and height standard deviation scores increased significantly over 1 year of treatment in all patients. The total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and atherogenic index (Ai) values were increased while the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol value was decreased in the GHD children, as compared to the controls; however, the triglyceride (TG) level was comparable. After 1 year of treatment, a significant decrease in the TC, LDL cholesterol, and Ai values as well as a significant increase in the HDL value were observed in the GHD patients, with the values becoming similar to those in the control group. The mean CIMT was significantly greater in the GHD subjects than in the controls. After 1 year of therapy, the CIMT in the GHD subjects had decreased significantly; however, it was still greater than that in the control group. IGF-1 was negatively correlated with TC, LDL cholesterol, Ai, right CIMT, and left CIMT. GHD is associated with increased atherosclerotic risk in children. An improved lipid profile and CIMT were detected after 1 year of hormone replacement therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear translocation and retention of growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mertani, Hichem C; Raccurt, Mireille; Abbate, Aude

    2003-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that GH is subject to rapid receptor-dependent nuclear translocation. Here, we examine the importance of ligand activation of the GH-receptor (GHR)-associated Janus kinase (JAK) 2 and receptor dimerization for hormone internalization and nuclear translocation by use...... of cells stably transfected with cDNA for the GHR. Staurosporine and herbimycin A treatment of cells did not affect the ability of GH to internalize but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of hormone. Similarly, receptor mutations, which prevent the association and activation of JAK2, did not affect...... the ability of the hormone to internalize or translocate to the nucleus but resulted in increased nuclear accumulation of GH. These results were observed both by nuclear isolation and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Staurosporine treatment of cells in which human GH (hGH) was targeted to the cytoplasm...

  20. Adult growth hormone deficiency – benefits, side effects, and risks of growth hormone replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lim Reed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of growth hormone (GH in adults results in a syndrome characterized by decreased muscle mass and exercise capacity, increased visceral fat, impaired quality of life, unfavorable alterations in lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk, decrease in bone mass and integrity and increased mortality. When dosed appropriately, GH replacement therapy (GHRT is well tolerated, with a low incidence of side effects, and improves most of the alterations observed in GH deficiency (GHD; beneficial effects on mortality, cardiovascular events and fracture rates, however, remain to be conclusively demonstrated. The potential of GH to act as a mitogen has resulted in concern over the possibility of increased de novo tumors or recurrence of pre-existing malignancies in individuals treated with GH. Though studies of adults who received GHRT in childhood have produced conflicting reports in this regard, long term surveillance of adult GHRT has not demonstrated increased cancer risk or mortality.

  1. The association between growth response to growth hormone and baseline body composition of children with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esen, Ihsan; Demirel, Fatma; Tepe, Derya; Kara, Ozlem; Koc, Nevra

    2013-10-01

    We wanted to examine the relationship between initial growth response to recombinant human Growth Hormone (rhGH) treatment and body composition in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Forty-two patients (21 boys and 21 girls) aged between 5.7-15.5 years (mean age: 10.8 ± 2.6 years) with isolated GHD. The auxological and laboratory data (GH and IGF-I levels) and results of bioelectrical impedance analyses were evaluated. Children with GHD were followed up for 12 months and categorized according to growth response to rhGH into good and poor responders (change in height of > 0.7 SDS or growth response to rhGH therapy. At study entry, mean age, height SDS, weight SDS, serum IGF-1 SDS, IGFBP-3 SDS, growth velocity prior to rhGH therapy, GH after clonidine and l-dopa were similar in the two groups. At baseline, BMI SDS and waist-hip ratio were significantly higher in good responders (p = 0.02 and p = 0.006, respectively). Good responders had lower percentages of FFM (73.4 ± 8.9 vs. 83.1 ± 5.9) and total body water (TBW) (56.5 ± 5.3 vs. 63.1 ± 4.4), compared to poor responders (p children with GHD on rhGH treatment (r = -0.617 for percentage of FFM, r = -0.629 for percentage of TBW, p growth response was observed only in prepubertal subjects. Baseline body composition data in children with GHD can be used to predict the growth response to rhGH treatment. A management strategy that involves titrating rhGH dose according to FFM as a means of optimizing the growth response to intervention requires further study. Crown Copyright © 2013. All rights reserved.

  2. Ethylene and Hormonal Cross Talk in Vegetative Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Poel, Bram; Smet, Dajo; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2015-09-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone that most likely became a functional hormone during the evolution of charophyte green algae, prior to land colonization. From this ancient origin, ethylene evolved into an important growth regulator that is essential for myriad plant developmental processes. In vegetative growth, ethylene appears to have a dual role, stimulating and inhibiting growth, depending on the species, tissue, and cell type, developmental stage, hormonal status, and environmental conditions. Moreover, ethylene signaling and response are part of an intricate network in cross talk with internal and external cues. Besides being a crucial factor in the growth control of roots and shoots, ethylene can promote flowering, fruit ripening and abscission, as well as leaf and petal senescence and abscission and, hence, plays a role in virtually every phase of plant life. Last but not least, together with jasmonates, salicylate, and abscisic acid, ethylene is important in steering stress responses. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Compensatory growth assessment by plasma IGF-I hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to show the difference in compensatory growth (CG) with different starvation and feeding periods replications, depending on the IGF-I hormone level in the blood. There were 4 treatments in 3 replications. Other indexes like food coefficient ratio (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and daily food intake were ...

  4. Characterization of Growth Hormone Resistance in Experimental and Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soendergaard, Christoffer; Kvist, Peter Helding; Thygesen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) resistance may develop as a consequence of inflammation during conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, encompassing ulcerative colitis (UC). However, the specific role of the GH-insulin growth factor (IGF)-1-axis and/or the functional consequences of GH resistance in th...

  5. Five-year response to growth hormone in children with Noonan syndrome and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavras, Niki; Meazza, Cristina; Pilotta, Alba; Gertosio, Chiara; Pagani, Sara; Tinelli, Carmine; Bozzola, Mauro

    2015-10-06

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by specific features including short stature, distinctive facial dysmorphic features, congenital heart defects, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, skeletal anomalies and webbing of the neck. Molecular screening has shown that the majority of individuals with NS have a mutation in the PTPN11 gene. Noonan syndrome children may show an impaired growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor axis. Moreover, recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been shown to improve growth rate in patients with NS, although data are still limited. In the present study, we assessed growth response following GH therapy (0.25 mg/Kg/week) in 5 (2 M and 3 F) GH-deficient NS patients (NSGHD, mean age 8.5 years) and in 5 (2 M and 3 F) idiopathic GH deficient (IGHD, mean age 8.6 years) patients. We also evaluated the safety of rhGH therapy in NS patients with GHD. At the beginning of GH treatment, height and growth rate were statistically lower in NSGHD children than in IGHD ones. During the first three years of rhGH therapy, NSGHD patients showed a slight improvement in height (from -2.71 SDS to -2.44 SDS) and growth rate (from -2.42 SDS to -0.23 SDS), although the values were always significantly lower than in IGHD children. After five years of rhGH treatment, height gain was higher in IGHD children (mean 28.3 cm) than in NSGHD patients (mean 23.6 cm). During the first five years of rhGH therapy, regular cardiological and haematological check-ups were performed, leading to the conclusion that rhGH therapy was safe. In conclusion, pre-pubertal NS children with GHD slightly increased their height and growth rate during the first years of GH therapy, although the response to rhGH treatment was significantly lower than IGHD children. Furthermore, the therapy appeared to be safe since no severe adverse effects were reported, at least during the first five years. However, a close follow-up of these patients is mandatory, especially to

  6. Growth and hormone profiling in children with congenital melanocytic naevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waelchli, R; Williams, J; Cole, T; Dattani, M; Hindmarsh, P; Kennedy, H; Martinez, A; Khan, S; Semple, R K; White, A; Sebire, N; Healy, E; Moore, G; Kinsler, V A

    2015-12-01

    Multiple congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN) is a rare mosaic RASopathy, caused by postzygotic activating mutations in NRAS. Growth and hormonal disturbances are described in germline RASopathies, but growth and hormone status have not previously been investigated in individuals with CMN. To explore premature thelarche, undescended testes, and a clinically abnormal fat distribution with CMN through prospective endocrinological assessment of a cohort of subjects with CMN, and a retrospective review of longitudinal growth of a larger group of patients with CMN from outpatient clinics (which included all subjects in the endocrinological assessment group). Longitudinal growth in a cohort of 202 patients with single or multiple CMN was compared with the U.K. National Child Measurement Programme 2010. Forty-seven children had hormonal profiling including measurement of circulating luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotrophic hormone, growth hormone, prolactin, pro-opiomelanocortin, estradiol, testosterone, cortisol, thyroxine, insulin-like growth factor-1 and leptin; 10 had oral glucose tolerance testing 25 had dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans for body composition. Body mass index increased markedly with age (coefficient 0·119, SE 0·016 standard deviation scores per year), at twice the rate of the U.K. population, due to increased adiposity. Three per cent of girls had premature thelarche variant and 6% of boys had persistent undescended testes. Both fat and muscle mass were reduced in areas underlying large naevi, resulting in limb asymmetry and abnormal truncal fat distribution. Anterior pituitary hormone profiling revealed subtle and variable abnormalities. Oral glucose tolerance tests revealed moderate-severe insulin insensitivity in five of 10, and impaired glucose tolerance in one. Interpersonal variation may reflect the mosaic nature of this disease and patients should be considered individually

  7. Growth hormone replacement therapy in adults with growth hormone deficiency; thrice weekly low dose administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y. S.; Lee, H. C.; Hwang, S. K.; Paik, I. K.; Lee, J. H.; Huh, K. B.

    1994-01-01

    Recent reports on growth hormone (GH) therapy have shown that GH has various beneficial effects in GH deficient adults. In most of these studies, GH was administered daily. Because GH is still expensive and has to be delivered by subcutaneous injection, we studied the 6-month therapeutic effects of thrice weekly GH injection therapy and compared it with daily therapy. Twenty eight adult patients with GH deficiency were randomly assigned into group 1 (ten cases, thrice weekly injections of GH), group 2 (nine cases, daily injections), and group 3 (nine cases, placebo injections). Lean body mass, serum basal GH levels, and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels significantly increased after six months of GH therapy in both groups 1 and 2. According to computed tomography, the mean mid-thigh muscle mass significantly increased in group 1, while the visceral fat mass significantly decreased in group 2. GH levels significantly increased exercise rate-pressure product and hand grip strength only in group 1. These results suggest that thrice weekly injections of GH are as effective as daily injections in GH deficient adults. PMID:7986392

  8. cDNA cloning and sequencing of ostrich Growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doosti Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, industrial breeding of ostrich (Struthio camelus has been widely developed in Iran. Growth hormone (GH is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in different animals. The aim of this study was to clone and sequence the ostrich growth hormone gene in E. coli, done for the first time in Iran. The cDNA that encodes ostrich growth hormone was isolated from total mRNA of the pituitary gland and amplified by RT-PCR using GH specific PCR primers. Then GH cDNA was cloned by T/A cloning technique and the construct was transformed into E. coli. Finally, GH cDNA sequence was submitted to the GenBank (Accession number: JN559394. The results of present study showed that GH cDNA was successfully cloned in E. coli. Sequencing confirmed that GH cDNA was cloned and that the length of ostrich GH cDNA was 672 bp; BLAST search showed that the sequence of growth hormone cDNA of the ostrich from Iran has 100% homology with other records existing in GenBank.

  9. Efficacy and safety of sustained-release recombinant human growth hormone in Korean adults with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngsook; Hong, Jae Won; Chung, Yoon-Sok; Kim, Sung-Woon; Cho, Yong-Wook; Kim, Jin Hwa; Kim, Byung-Joon; Lee, Eun Jig

    2014-07-01

    The administration of recombinant human growth hormone in adults with growth hormone deficiency has been known to improve metabolic impairment and quality of life. Patients, however, have to tolerate daily injections of growth hormone. The efficacy, safety, and compliance of weekly administered sustained-release recombinant human growth hormone (SR-rhGH, Declage™) supplement in patients with growth hormone deficiency were evaluated. This trial is 12-week prospective, single-arm, open-label trial. Men and women aged ≥20 years with diagnosed growth hormone deficiency (caused by pituitary tumor, trauma and other pituitary diseases) were eligible for this study. Each subject was given 2 mg (6 IU) of SR-rhGH once a week, subcutaneously for 12 weeks. Efficacy and safety at baseline and within 30 days after the 12th injection were assessed and compared. Score of Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (AGHDA score) for quality of life and serum IGF-1 level. The IGF-1 level of 108.67±74.03 ng/mL was increased to 129.01±68.37 ng/mL (p=0.0111) and the AGHDA QoL score was decreased from 9.80±6.51 to 7.55±5.76 (p<0.0001) at week 12 compared with those at baseline. Adverse events included pain, swelling, erythema, and warmth sensation at the administration site, but many adverse events gradually disappeared during the investigation. Weekly administered SR-rhGH for 12 weeks effectively increased IGF-1 level and improved the quality of life in patients with GH deficiency without serious adverse events.

  10. EFFECT OF GROWTH-HORMONE TREATMENT ON CRANIOFACIAL GROWTH IN TURNERS SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RONGENWESTERLAKEN, C; VANDERBORN, E; PRAHLANDERSEN, B; VONTEUNENBROEK, A; MANESSE, P; OTTEN, BJ; VANDERTWEEL, [No Value; KUIJPERSJAGTMAN, AM; VANDERWAAL, HAD; DRAYER, NM; WIT, JM; VANDERBRANDE, JL

    A cephalometric study was performed in 19 patients with Turner's syndrome, aged 8.7-16.5 years. A lateral roentgencephalogram was taken before and after two years of treatment with biosynthetic growth hormone in a dose of 24 IU/m2/week. During two years of growth hormone treatment, the mandibular

  11. Hormonal regulation of wheat growth during hydroponic culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Donald

    1988-01-01

    Hormonal control of root growth has been explored as one means to alleviate the crowding of plant root systems experienced in prototype hydroponic biomass production chambers being developed by the CELSS Breadboard Project. Four plant hormones, or their chemical analogs, which have been reported to selectively inhibit root growth, were tested by adding them to the nutrient solutions on day 10 of a 25 day growth test using spring wheat in hydroponic cultures. Growth and morphological changes is both shoot and root systems were evaluated. In no case was it possible to inhibit root growth without a comparable inhibition of shoot growth. It was concluded that this approach is unlikely to prove useful for wheat.

  12. Homeorhetic hormones, metabolites and accelerated growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    control sheep remained constant ca. 125 nM/I, while the dietary restriction imposed on the experimental animals caused T4 concentrations to drop during the maintenance phase. During accelerated growth T4 concentrations rose by ca. 10nM/I, and the subsequent normal growth phase resulted in a drop of over 20 nM/i. 13.

  13. Growth hormone and testosterone: anabolic effects on muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Randall J

    2011-01-01

    The loss of skeletal muscle mass that occurs with aging, chronic disease or acute injury is clinically important in the health of humans. The mechanisms relating to the synthesis and breakdown of skeletal muscle are now being intensely investigated. Current studies and possible mechanisms for skeletal muscle protein synthesis and degradation will be reviewed with a specific focus on growth hormone and testosterone. Investigation of the mechanisms of action of growth hormone and testosterone in skeletal muscle will likely lead to new therapies to prevent skeletal muscle loss and new awareness of the importance of skeletal muscle in health and disease. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. [Benefits and risks of growth hormone in adults with growth hormone deficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Juan J; Cordido, Fernando

    2014-10-21

    Adult growth hormone (GH) deficiency is a well-recognized clinical syndrome with adverse health consequences. Many of these may improve after replacement therapy with recombinant GH. This treatment induces an increase in lean body mass and a decrease in fat mass. In long-term studies, bone mineral density increases and muscle strength improves. Health-related quality of life tends to increase after treatment with GH. Lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk also improve with therapy. Nevertheless, GH replacement therapy is not without risk. According to some studies, GH increases blood glucose, body mass index and waist circumference and may promote long-term development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Risk of neoplasia does not appear to be increased in adults treated with GH, but there are some high-risk subgroups. Methodological shortcomings and difficulties inherent to long-term studies prevent definitive conclusions about the relationship between GH and survival. Therefore, research in this field should remain active. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Neuroprotective actions of ghrelin and growth hormone secretagogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Frago

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The brain incorporates and coordinates information based on the hormonal environment, receiving information from peripheral tissues through the circulation. Although it was initially thought that hormones only acted on the hypothalamus to perform endocrine functions, it is now known that they in fact exert diverse actions on many different brain regions including the hypothalamus. Ghrelin is a gastric hormone that stimulates growth hormone (GH secretion and food intake to regulate energy homeostasis and body weight by binding to its receptor, GHS-R1a, which is most highly expressed in the pituitary and hypothalamus. In addition, ghrelin has effects on learning and memory, reward and motivation, anxiety and depression, and could be a potential therapeutic agent in neurodegenerative disorders where excitotoxic neuronal cell death and inflammatory processes are involved.

  16. Usability and Tolerability of the Norditropin NordiFlex® Injection Device in Children Never Previously Treated With Growth Hormone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-23

    Growth Hormone Disorder; Growth Hormone Deficiency in Children; Genetic Disorder; Turner Syndrome; Foetal Growth Problem; Small for Gestational Age; Chronic Kidney Disease; Chronic Renal Insufficiency; Delivery Systems

  17. Effects of hypothalamic dopamine on growth hormone-releasing hormone-induced growth hormone secretion and thyrotropin-releasing hormone-induced prolactin secretion in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jin; Hashizume, Tsutomu

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the effects of hypothalamic dopamine (DA) on the secretion of growth hormone (GH) in goats. The GH-releasing response to an intravenous (i.v.) injection of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH, 0.25 μg/kg body weight (BW)) was examined after treatments to augment central DA using carbidopa (carbi, 1 mg/kg BW) and L-dopa (1 mg/kg BW) in male and female goats under a 16-h photoperiod (16 h light, 8 h dark) condition. GHRH significantly and rapidly stimulated the release of GH after its i.v. administration to goats (P < 0.05). The carbi and L-dopa treatments completely suppressed GH-releasing responses to GHRH in both male and female goats (P < 0.05). The prolactin (PRL)-releasing response to an i.v. injection of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH, 1 μg/kg BW) was additionally examined in male goats in this study to confirm modifications to central DA concentrations. The treatments with carbi and L-dopa significantly reduced TRH-induced PRL release in goats (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that hypothalamic DA was involved in the regulatory mechanisms of GH, as well as PRL secretion in goats. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  18. Growth hormone effects on cortical bone dimensions in young adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldstrup, L; Conway, G S; Racz, K

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) treatment in young adults with childhood-onset GH deficiency has beneficial effects on bone mass. The present study shows that cortical bone dimensions also benefit from GH treatment, with endosteal expansion and increased cortical thickness leading to improved bone strength....... INTRODUCTION: In young adults with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency (CO GHD), GH treatment after final height is reached has been shown to have beneficial effects on spine and hip bone mineral density. The objective of the study was to evaluate the influence of GH on cortical bone dimensions. METHODS...

  19. Light-Mediated Hormonal Regulation of Plant Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Mieke; Galvão, Vinicius Costa; Fankhauser, Christian

    2016-04-29

    Light is crucial for plant life, and perception of the light environment dictates plant growth, morphology, and developmental changes. Such adjustments in growth and development in response to light conditions are often established through changes in hormone levels and signaling. This review discusses examples of light-regulated processes throughout a plant's life cycle for which it is known how light signals lead to hormonal regulation. Light acts as an important developmental switch in germination, photomorphogenesis, and transition to flowering, and light cues are essential to ensure light capture through architectural changes during phototropism and the shade avoidance response. In describing well-established links between light perception and hormonal changes, we aim to give insight into the mechanisms that enable plants to thrive in variable light environments.

  20. Effect of growth hormone treatment on craniofacial growth in children: Idiopathic short stature versus growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung-Hwan; Fan, Dong; Hwang, Mi-Soo; Lee, Hee-Kyung; Hwang, Chung-Ju

    2017-04-01

    Few studies have evaluated craniofacial growth in boys and girls with idiopathic short stature (ISS) during growth hormone (GH) treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of GH treatment on craniofacial growth in children with ISS, compared with those with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). This study included 36 children (mean age, 11.3 ± 1.8 years) who were treated with GH consecutively. Lateral cephalograms were analyzed before and 2 years after start of GH treatment. There were no significant differences in age and sex between ISS and GHD groups and the reference group from semilongitudinal study (10 boys and 8 girls from each group). Before treatment, girls with ISS showed a skeletal Class II facial profile compared with the GHD and reference groups (p = 0.003). During GH treatment, the amount of maxillary length increased beyond norm in the ISS and GHD groups in boys (p = 0.035) > 3 standard deviation score (SDS). Meanwhile, mandibular ramus height (p = 0.001), corpus length, and total mandibular length (p = 0.007 for both) increased more in girls with ISS than in girls with GHD. Lower and total anterior facial heights increased more in girls with ISS than in girls with GHD (p = 0.021 and p = 0.007, respectively), > 7-11 SDS. GH should be administered carefully when treating girls with ISS, because GH treatment has great effects on vertical overgrowth of the mandible and can result in longer face. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Effect of summer daylight exposure and genetic background on growth in growth hormone-deficient children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, C; Chatelain, P; Knight, C; Clayton, P; Stevens, A

    2016-11-01

    The response to growth hormone in humans is dependent on phenotypic, genetic and environmental factors. The present study in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) collected worldwide characterised gene-environment interactions on growth response to recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH). Growth responses in children are linked to latitude, and we found that a correlate of latitude, summer daylight exposure (SDE), was a key environmental factor related to growth response to r-hGH. In turn growth response was determined by an interaction between both SDE and genes known to affect growth response to r-hGH. In addition, analysis of associated networks of gene expression implicated a role for circadian clock pathways and specifically the developmental transcription factor NANOG. This work provides the first observation of gene-environment interactions in children treated with r-hGH.

  2. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism of growth hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yurnalis

    The pupose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphisms of bovine growth hormone gene exon. 4, and intron 4 in local cattle breeds in West Sumatera Province of Indonesia. DNA was isolated from 60 blood samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product of GH5 fragment (366 bp) were directly sequenced.

  3. Analysis of bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism of local and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of bovine growth hormone gene polymorphism of local and Holstein cattle breeds in Kerman province of Iran using polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... RFLPs in this segment were studied using AluI restriction enzyme.

  4. Binding properties of beetal recombinant caprine growth hormone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-23

    Jul 23, 2014 ... The aim of the study was to illustrate the radio-receptor assay of beetal recombinant caprine growth hormone (rcGH). Tracer (125I-rcGH) was prepared by iodinating beetal rcGH with iodine-125 and its biological activity was analyzed by rabbit anti-rcGH antibodies. Liver microsomal membranes of the.

  5. Growth hormone producing prolactinoma in juvenile cystinosis: a simple coincidence?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besouw, M.T.; Levtchenko, E.N.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Noordam, K.

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile cystinosis was diagnosed in a patient who presented with severe headache attacks and photophobia. Treatment with oral cysteamine and topical cysteamine eye drops was started. One-and-a-half years later, he developed unilateral gynecomastia and elevated prolactin and growth hormone levels. A

  6. Polymorphism of growth hormone gene and its association with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Polymorphism of growth hormone gene and its association with wool traits in Egyptian sheep breeds. Ibrahim M. Farag, Ahmed M. Darwish, Hassan R. Darwish, K. B AbdelAziz, W. A Ramadan, M.I. Mohamed, Othman E. Othman ...

  7. Human growth hormone alters carbohydrate storage in blood and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MJP

    2015-06-02

    secreting α-cells predominate in the islets of Langerhans of granivorous species, such as the chicken and duck.[1]. Insulin appears to be more dominant in carnivorous avian species.[1] The roles of growth hormone (GH) in regulation ...

  8. Growth hormone in the eye: A comparative update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Steve; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ávila-Mendoza, José; Luna, Maricela; Arámburo, Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Comparative studies have previously established that the eye is an extrapituitary site of growth hormone (GH) production and action in fish, amphibia, birds and mammals. In this review more recent literature and original data in this field are considered. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cell transfection as a tool to study growth hormone action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norstedt, G; Enberg, B; Francis, S

    1994-01-01

    The isolation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) cDNA clones has made possible the transfection of GHRs into cultured cells. Our aim in this minireview is to show how the application of such approaches have benefited GHR research. GH stimulation of cells expressing GHR cDNAs can cause an alteration...

  10. Oxandrolone in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, Leonie Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a disorder in females that is caused by the complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome. The main characteristics are gonadal dysgenesis and short stature, with adult patients being on average 20 cm shorter than healthy women. Growth hormone (GH) therapy

  11. Binding properties of beetal recombinant caprine growth hormone to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to illustrate the radio-receptor assay of beetal recombinant caprine growth hormone (rcGH). Tracer (125I-rcGH) was prepared by iodinating beetal rcGH with iodine-125 and its biological activity was analyzed by rabbit anti-rcGH antibodies. Liver microsomal membranes of the Bovidae species ...

  12. Effect of plant growth hormones and abiotic stresses on germination ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphatases are widely found in plants having intracellular and extracellular activities. Phosphatases are believed to be important for phosphorous scavenging and remobilization in plants, but its role in adaptation to abiotic stresses and growth hormones at germination level has not been critically evaluated. To address ...

  13. Interrelationship of growth hormone, glucose and lipid metabolism ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On the contrary, negative correlations were shown between GH vs the fasting levels of glucose,GH vs lipid and GH vs HSL. Conclusion: GH caused the reduction of the blood levels of glucose and, lipid using HSL as mediator, by inhibiting gluconeogenesis and stimulating lipolysis, respectively. Keywords: Growth hormone ...

  14. Polymorphisms in the pituitary growth hormone gene and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2010-12-06

    Dec 6, 2010 ... 'fetal programming' that relates to the influence of adverse fetal environment on development of metabolic and CVD ... ing recombinant growth hormone in children with GH de- ficiency (GHD) (Minczykowski et al. 2005) and in ... coronary artery disease; height; Asian Indian. Journal of Genetics, Vol. 89, No.

  15. Growth hormone and the heart in Noonan syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordam, C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clinical hallmarks of Noonan syndrome (NS) are facial dysmorphism, short stature and cardiac defects. As one of the common cardiac defects in NS is hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, there have been concerns regarding cardiac safety since the start of human growth hormone (hGH) therapy for

  16. Growth Hormone Treatment in Turner's Syndrome: A Real World Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Sheker Reddy Danda; Sreedevi, P.; Arun, G.; P Srinivas Rao

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Short stature is a universal clinical feature of Turner's syndrome (TS). Growth failure begins in fetal life, and adults with TS are on an average 20 cm shorter than the normal female population. Since there is a paucity of data from India regarding the effect of growth hormone (GH) on TS patients, we retrospectively analyzed the data of TS patients who are on GH treatment. Methods: This hospital-based observational retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of H...

  17. Growth hormone treatment in 35 prepubertal children with achondroplasia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Niels Thomas; Eklöf, Ole; Ivarsson, Sten

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with extreme, disproportionate, short stature. AIM: In a 5-y growth hormone (GH) treatment study including 1 y without treatment, we investigated growth and body proportion response in 35 children with achondroplasia. METHODS: Patients were...... treatment of children with achondroplasia improves height during 4 y of therapy without adverse effect on trunk-leg disproportion. The short-term effect is comparable to that reported in Turner and Noonan syndrome and in idiopathic short stature....

  18. [Use of growth hormone in children and adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergadá, Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone treatment for children and adolescents with growth disorders has been used for more than five decades. Since 1985 recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) is the only drug approved for treatment. In most of the countries rhGH is licensed for the treatment of children with growth hormone deficiency, Turner syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, chronic renal failure, and children born small for gestational age. The objective of the treatment is to improve the growth of these patients. The efficacy of rhGH treatment based on auxologic parameters has shown that growth response is variable and mostly dependent on each particular indication. Most of the reports on drug safety obtained from different databases that included thousands of patients, have shown that rhGH is a safe drug and that serious adverse events are rare. Regarding new indications to improve height in children, data on efficacy remains controversial, so we believe their ultimate indication must take into account potential risk versus benefits of this treatment.

  19. Veterinary Technologists and Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for veterinary technologists and technicians. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of veterinary technologists and ...

  20. Maternal and fetal placental growth hormone and IGF axis in type 1 diabetic pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, Mary F

    2012-01-01

    Placental growth hormone (PGH) is a major growth hormone in pregnancy and acts with Insulin Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) and Insulin Like Growth Hormone Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP3). The aim of this study was to investigate PGH, IGF-I and IGFBP3 in non-diabetic (ND) compared to Type 1 Diabetic (T1DM) pregnancies.

  1. Growth hormone deficiency and hyperthermia during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Hjortskov, N; Jepsen, Leif

    1995-01-01

    .001]. Consequently, the core temperatures of the patients increased significantly after exercise compared with those of the CTs [38.3 C (0.10 C) (MPD) and 38.1 C (0.06 C) (isolated GH deficiency) vs. 37.5 C (0.2 C) (CTs) (P exercise in the patients......-deficiency may be at risk for developing hyperthermia. To pursue this, we performed a controlled study on sweating and body temperature regulation during exercise in the heat in 16 GH-treated GH-deficient patients with normalized insulin-like growth factor-I and insulin-like growth factor/binding protein-3 serum...... levels [11 with multiple pituitary deficiency (MPD) and 5 with isolated GH deficiency] and in 10 healthy subjects as controls (CTs). Each subject exercised on a bicycle ergometer for 60 min at a workload corresponding to 45% of their individual maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), in a room maintained...

  2. A phase 2 trial of long-acting TransCon growth hormone in adult GH deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höybye, Charlotte; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Ferone, Diego

    2017-01-01

    TransCon growth hormone is a sustained release human growth hormone prodrug in development in which unmodified growth hormone is transiently linked to a carrier molecule. It is intended as an alternative to daily growth hormone in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. This was a multi-cente...

  3. Comparative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of a PEGylated recombinant human growth hormone and daily recombinant human growth hormone in growth hormone-deficient children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou L

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Ling Hou,1,* Zhi-hang Chen,2,* Dong Liu,3 Yuan-guo Cheng,2 Xiao-ping Luo1 1Department of Pediatrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 2Department of Pharmacy, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, 3Department of Pharmacy, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this study Objective: Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH replacement therapy in children generally requires daily subcutaneous (sc injections, which may be inconvenient for patients. Jintrolong® is a PEGylated rhGH with the purpose of weekly sc injections. The aim of the current study was to examine the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, safety, and tolerability of multiple sc doses of Jintrolong® vs daily doses of rhGH. Design and methods: Twelve children with growth hormone deficiency participated in this single-center, open-label, crossover Phase I trial. All subjects received daily sc injections of rhGH at 0.0286 mg/kg/d for 7 days, followed by a 4-week washout period and six weekly doses of Jintrolong® at 0.2 mg/kg/w. Results: In comparison with rhGH, sc injection of Jintrolong® produced a noticeably higher Cmax, significantly longer half-life (t1/2, and slower plasma clearance, signifying a profile suitable for long-term treatment. The ratio of the area under the concentration vs time curve (AUC after the seventh and first injections (AUC(0–∞7th/AUC(0–∞1st of rhGH was 1.02, while the AUC(0–∞6th/AUC(0–∞1st of Jintrolong® was 1.03, indicating no accumulation of circulating growth hormone. There was no significant difference in the change in insulin-like growth factor-1 expression produced by 7 days of sc rhGH and weekly Jintrolong® injections. There were no severe adverse events during the trial. Conclusion: The elimination rate of Jintrolong® was

  4. Human growth hormone binding and stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in cloned rat insulinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils

    1985-01-01

    Binding of 125I labelled human growth hormone to cloned insulin producing RIN-5AH cells is described. Binding was specific for somatotropic hormones since both human and rat growth hormone could compete for binding sites, whereas much higher concentrations of lactogenic hormones were needed...

  5. Pharmacokinetics and metabolic effects of growth hormone injected subcutaneously in growth hormone deficient patients: thich versus abdomen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    1994-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: The absorption of insulin following subcutaneous (s.c.) injection is faster in the abdomen than the thigh. We therefore studied the effect of changing the site of injection on the absorption and metabolic effects of human growth hormone. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS: In a cross...

  6. Adult height in children with growth hormone deficiency: a randomized, controlled, growth hormone dose-response trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, T.C.J.; Ridder, M.A. de; Wit, J.M.; Rotteveel, J.J.; Oostdijk, W.; Reeser, H.M.; Otten, B.J.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of 2 growth hormone (GH) doses on adult height (AH) in GH deficiency (GHD). METHODS: A multicenter, randomized, controlled dose-response trial compared attained AH minus target height (TH) between children receiving 0.7 mg/m(2)/day biosynthetic GH (approx. 0.025

  7. Adult Height in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency: A Randomized, Controlled, Growth Hormone Dose-Response Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, T.C.J.; de Ridder, M.A.J.; Wit, J.M.; Rotteveel, J.; Oostdijk, W.; Reeser, H.M.; Otten, B.J.; Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of 2 growth hormone (GH) doses on adult height (AH) in GH deficiency (GHD). Methods: A multicenter, randomized, controlled dose-response trial compared attained AH minus target height (TH) between children receiving 0.7 mg/m

  8. Growth hormone-dependent phosphorylation of tyrosine 333 and/or 338 of the growth hormone receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanderKuur, J A; Wang, X; Zhang, L

    1995-01-01

    Many signaling pathways initiated by ligands that activate receptor tyrosine kinases have been shown to involve the binding of SH2 domain-containing proteins to specific phosphorylated tyrosines in the receptor. Although the receptor for growth hormone (GH) does not contain intrinsic tyrosine...

  9. One year growth hormone replacement therapy does not alter colonic epithelial cell proliferation in growth hormone deficient adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, JAM; van Gorkom, BAP; Sluiter, WJ; de Vries, Emma; Kleibeuker, JH; Dullaart, RPF

    OBJECTIVE Increased colonic epithelial cell proliferation has been found in various conditions associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer including acromegaly. In a placebo-controlled study we determined the effect of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH deficient adults on the

  10. [How safe is the recombinant human growth hormone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada-León, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, several aspects related to the safety of the use of biosynthetic human growth hormone are reviewed. For example, its classification as a biosynthetic drug, the phases that need to be performed in Mexico to verify its safety (obtaining, purification, preclinical studies, clinical trials, and finally observational clinical studies), as well as the evidence that exists in relation to the association of intracranial hypertension, muscular events, scoliosis, slipped capital femoral epiphysis, obstructive sleep apnea, pancreatitis, alterations in cortisol, thyroid hormones alterations, cardiovascular disease, metabolic risk, mortality and cancer, adverse events not related to its use, and finally dosing and safety.

  11. THE ROLE OF GROWTH HORMONE IN LIPID METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gusti Ayu Dewi Ratnayanti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is one of the hormones that regulate metabolism, including lipid metabolism. GH can regulate the amount of fat in the tissue and also the level of lipid profile. Growth hormone affects the lipid in the tissue and blood by modulating the lipid metabolism, especially through the regulation of synthesis, excretion and breakdown of internal lipids. Research showed that GH could consistently lower the level of total cholesterol and LDL, whereas its effect on triglyceride and HDL level showed varying results. Growth hormone induces lypolisis by stimulating the activity of HSL and LPL and thereby influenced the triglyceride level and tissue fat storage. Cholesterol and lipoprotein levels are controlled by regulating the synthesis of cholesterol by lowering the activity of HMGCoA reductase. The excretion of cholesterol through the bile is also enhanced by stimulating the activity of enzymes C7?OH. The breakdown of VLDL and LDL are enhanced by increasing the expression of LDL receptor and ApoE as well as affecting the editing of mRNA ApoB100. Increase activity of LPL is also known to be the important factor in the HDL metabolism

  12. A controlled study on serum insulin-like growth factor-I and urinary excretion of growth hormone in fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, S; Main, K; Danneskiold-Samsøe, B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. It has been hypothesized that secretory deficiencies of growth hormone may play a pathophysiological role in fibromyalgia (FM). Our objective was thus to evaluate the secretion of growth hormone in FM. METHODS. The 24-h urinary growth hormone excretion and serum levels of insulin...

  13. Growth hormone treatment in cartilage-hair hypoplasia: effects on growth and the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca, G.; Weemaes, C.M.R.; Burgt, C.J.A. van der; Otten, B.J.

    2004-01-01

    Cartilage-hair hypoplasia (CHH) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by metaphyseal chondrodysplasia with severe growth retardation and impaired immunity. We studied the effects of growth hormone treatment on growth parameters and the immune system in four children with CHH. The

  14. Hormonal growth promoting agents in food producing animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephany, Rainer W

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to the use of hormonal doping agents in sports to enhance the performance of athletes, in the livestock industry hormonal growth promoters ("anabolics") are used to increase the production of muscle meat. This leads to international disputes about the safety of meat originating from animals treated with such anabolics.As a consequence of the total ban in the EU of all hormonal active growth promoters ("hormones") in livestock production, in contrast to their legal use [e.g. of five such hormones (17beta-estradiol, testosterone, progesterone, trenbolone and zeranol) as small solid ear implants and two hormones as feed additives for feedlot heifers (melengestrol acetate) and for swine (ractopamine) in the USA], the regulatory controls also differ sharply between the EU and the USA.In the EU the treatment of slaughter animals is the regulatory offence that has to be controlled in inspection programs. In the USA testing for compliance of a regulatory maximum residue level in the edible product (muscle, fat, liver or kidney) is the purpose of the inspection program (if any).The EU inspection programs focus on sample materials that are more suitable for testing for banned substances, especially if the animals are still on the farm, such as urine and feces or hair. In the case of slaughtered animals, the more favored sample materials are bile, blood, eyes and sometimes liver. Only in rare occasions is muscle meat sampled. This happens only in the case of import controls or in monitoring programs of meat sampled in butcher shops or supermarkets.As a result, data on hormone concentrations in muscle meat samples from the EU market are very rare and are obtained in most cases from small programs on an ad hoc basis. EU data for natural hormones in meat are even rarer because of the absence of "legal natural levels" for these hormones in compliance testing. With the exception of samples from the application sites - in the EU the site of injection of liquid hormone

  15. Growth hormone therapy influences endothelial function in children with renal failure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lilien, M.R.; Schröder, C.H.; Levtchenko, E.N.; Koomans, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction, an early step in atherogenesis, is prevalent in children with renal insufficiency. Endothelial dysfunction in growth hormone deficiency is reversed by growth hormone (rhGH) therapy. Renal failure induces growth hormone resistance at the receptor and post-receptor level,

  16. Growth Hormone Response to L-Dopa and Clonidine in Autistic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Realmuto, George M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Seven medication-free autistic subjects (ages 6-19) were administered clonidine and L-Dopa to investigate neuroendocrine responses through changes in growth hormone levels. Findings showed that, compared to normal controls, the L-Dopa-stimulated growth hormone peak was delayed and the clonidine growth hormone peak was premature. (Author/JDD)

  17. Impaired thermoregulation in adults with growth hormone deficiency during heat exposure and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Behrenscheer, A; Tims, T

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been shown that patients with growth hormone deficiency have a reduced sweating capacity. We hypothesize that reduced sweating might affect thermoregulation in growth hormone deficiency patients. In the present study we have examined thermoregulation in growth hormone deficiency...

  18. Influence of sex and growth hormone deficiency on sweating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Nilsson, K O; Skakkebaek, N E

    1991-01-01

    Sweat secretion rate (SSR) was measured by the pilocarpine iontophoresis test in (a) 254 healthy children and adolescents (aged 6.0 to 19.2 years, mean age 11.2 years); in (b) 58 healthy adults (aged 20.4 to 75.2 years, mean age 37.6 years); and in (c) eight prepubertal patients with growth hormone...... in sweat excretion rate from childhood to adulthood showed a difference between the sexes. Both pre-pubertal and pubertal boys had a lower secretion value than adult men (p less than 0.001 and 0.01, respectively), whereas girls showed higher secretion values than adult women (p less than 0.01 and p less...... min-1). We conclude that (a) sweat secretion pattern in children shows a significant sex difference and (b) sweating in children is dependent on growth hormone....

  19. The Growth Hormone Secretagogue Receptor: Its Intracellular Signaling and Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yue; Li, Yin; Zhang, Weizhen

    2014-01-01

    The growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), also known as the ghrelin receptor, is involved in mediating a wide variety of biological effects of ghrelin, including: stimulation of growth hormone release, increase of food intake and body weight, modulation of glucose and lipid metabolism, regulation of gastrointestinal motility and secretion, protection of neuronal and cardiovascular cells, and regulation of immune function. Dependent on the tissues and cells, activation of GHSR may trigger a diversity of signaling mechanisms and subsequent distinct physiological responses. Distinct regulation of GHSR occurs at levels of transcription, receptor interaction and internalization. Here we review the current understanding on the intracellular signaling pathways of GHSR and its modulation. An overview of the molecular structure of GHSR is presented first, followed by the discussion on its signaling mechanisms. Finally, potential mechanisms regulating GHSR are reviewed. PMID:24651458

  20. [Effects of growth hormone replacement therapy on bone metabolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2014-06-01

    Growth hormone (GH) as well as insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are essential hormones to maintain homeostasis of bone turnover by activating osteoblastogenesis and osteoclastogenesis. Results from GH replacement therapy for primary osteoporosis and adult-onset GH deficiency (AGHD) suggest that one year or more treatment period by this agent is required to gain bone mineral density (BMD) over the basal level after compensating BMD loss caused by dominant increase in bone resorption which was observed at early phase of GH treatment. A recent meta-analysis demonstrates the efficacy of GH replacement therapy on increases in BMD in male patients with AGHD. Additional analyses are needed to draw firm conclusions in female patients with AGHD, because insufficient amounts of GH might be administrated to them without considerations of influence of estrogen replacement therapy on IGF-1 production. Further observational studies are needed to clarify whether GH replacement therapy prevent fracture risk in these patients.

  1. AAS, growth hormone, and insulin abuse: psychological and neuroendocrine effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael R; Evans, Peter; Davies, Bruce; Baker, Julien S

    2008-01-01

    The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH) and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity. PMID:18827854

  2. Can growth hormone counteract the catabolic effects of steroids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauras, Nelly

    2009-11-01

    Chronic administration of glucocorticosteroids (GCs) can have significant catabolic effects in vivo in a host of metabolic systems, including amino acid metabolism, skeletal muscle, bone and linear growth. GCs inhibit protein synthesis and increase protein breakdown at the skeletal muscle and whole-body level and impair growth hormone (GH) secretion and action. Conversely, GH and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) are potent protein-anabolic and growth-promoting agents in vitro and in vivo. This review summarizes both the catabolic effects of GCs and the anabolic and metabolic effects of GH and IGF-I. Both GH and IGF-I may decrease the catabolic effects of chronic steroid use in humans, particularly by enhancing lean body mass accrual and, in children, by increasing linear growth. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Oxandrolone in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Menke, Leonie Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    Turner syndrome (TS) is a disorder in females that is caused by the complete or partial absence of the second sex chromosome. The main characteristics are gonadal dysgenesis and short stature, with adult patients being on average 20 cm shorter than healthy women. Growth hormone (GH) therapy increases adult height with 5 to 12 cm and the addition of the weak androgen oxandrolone (Ox) may further increase adult height. This thesis describes the results of the first randomized, double-blind, pla...

  4. Cockayne syndrome: a case with hyperinsulinemia and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S K; Chang, S H; Cho, S B; Baek, H S; Lee, D Y

    1994-02-01

    Cockayne syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of childhood characterized by cachectic dwarfism with senile-like appearance, mental retardation, photosensitive dermatitis, loss of adipose tissue, pigmentary degeneration of retina, microcephaly, deafness, skeletal and neurologic abnormalities. We describe here an 18 year old boy with Cockayne syndrome who had, in addition to the typical features of the disorder, fasting hyperinsulinemia and growth hormone deficiency.

  5. Milk minor constituents, enzymes, hormones, growth factors, and organic acids

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUES L. R.

    2013-01-01

    Milk and derived products contain essential nutrients, such as proteins, lactose, minerals, vitamins, and enzymes. Additionally, despite of their low concentrations in milk, many other minor constituents present important physiological and/or technological roles (e.g. hormones, growth factors). Dairy industries face many challenges regarding milk processing. Also, the full knowledge on these constituents’ physiological roles and effects on health is still lacking. Technological...

  6. AAS, growth hormone, and insulin abuse: psychological and neuroendocrine effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R Graham

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael R Graham1, Peter Evans2, Bruce Davies1, Julien S Baker11Health and Exercise Science Research Unit, Faculty of Health Sport and Science, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd, Wales, United Kingdom; 2Royal Gwent Hospital, Newport, Gwent, United KingdomAbstract: The nontherapeutic use of prescription medicines by individuals involved in sport is increasing. Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are the most widely abused drug. Much of our knowledge of the psychological and physiological effects of human growth hormone (hGH and insulin has been learned from deficiency states. As a consequence of the Internet revolution, previously unobtainable and expensive designer drugs, particularly recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH and insulin, have become freely available at ridiculously discounted prices from countries such as China and are being abused. These drugs have various physiological and psychological effects and medical personnel must become aware that such prescription medicine abuse appears to be used not only for performance and cosmetic reasons, but as a consequence of psychological pre-morbidity.Keywords: AAS, cosmesis, growth hormone, insulin, performance, strength

  7. POLYMORPHISMS OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE IN HARINGHATA BLACK CHICKEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saikhom

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with an aim to investigate the genetic variability of growth hormone gene in Haringhata Black chicken. Blood samples were collected from 82 experimental birds and genomic DNA was extracted using the modified high salt method. Amplification of specific DNA fragment of intron 4 of growth hormone gene yielded a product size of 713 bp and was analyzed for polymorphism using PCR-SSCP technique. The banding pattern of present investigation revealed two SSCP variants AA and BB genotype in all experimental birds. In the analysed flock of Haringhata Black Chicken, the genotype frequencies were found to be 0.915 for AA and 0.085 for BB genotype. The frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.915 and 0.085 respectively which indicated A allele was predominant in the studied Haringhata Black Chicken population of the farm. The Chi Square Test revealed that studied population was not in accordance with Hardy Weinberg equilibrium with respect to intron 4 of Growth hormone gene.

  8. Veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in animal products : annual report 2012 of the National Reference Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Sterk, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    This report if the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for residues of veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in products of animal origin according to Council Directive 96/23/EC describes the activities employed in 2012. The main tasks of the NRL are communication with Official Laboratories

  9. Veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in animal products : annual report 2011 of the National Reference Laborator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Sterk, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    This report of the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for residues of veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in products of animal origin according to Council Directive 96/23/EC describes the activities employed in 2011. The main tasks of the NRL are the communication with Routine Field

  10. Hormone and seed-specific regulation of pea fruit growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Jocelyn A; van Huizen, Rika; Reinecke, Dennis M

    2002-04-01

    Growth of young pea (Pisum sativum) fruit (pericarp) requires developing seeds or, in the absence of seeds, treatment with gibberellin (GA) or auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid). This study examined the role of seeds and hormones in the regulation of cell division and elongation in early pea fruit development. Profiling histone H2A and gamma-tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) gene expression during early fruit development identified the relative contributions of cell division and elongation to fruit growth, whereas histological studies identified specific zones of cell division and elongation in exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp tissues. Molecular and histological studies showed that maximal cell division was from -2 to 2 d after anthesis (DAA) and elongation from 2 to 5 DAA in pea pericarp. Maximal increase in pericarp gamma-TIP message level preceded the maximal rate of fruit growth and, in general, gamma-TIP mRNA level was useful as a qualitative marker for expanding tissue, but not as a quantitative marker for cell expansion. Seed removal resulted in rapid decreases in pericarp growth and in gamma-TIP and histone H2A message levels. In general, GA and 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid maintained these processes in deseeded pericarp similarly to pericarps with seeds, and both hormones were required to obtain mesocarp cell sizes equivalent to intact fruit. However, GA treatment to deseeded pericarps resulted in elevated levels of gamma-TIP mRNA (6 and 7 DAA) when pericarp growth and cell enlargement were minimal. Our data support the theory that cell division and elongation are developmentally regulated during early pea fruit growth and are maintained by the hormonal interaction of GA and auxin.

  11. Secretory pattern and regulatory mechanism of growth hormone in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Etsuko

    2016-02-01

    The ultradian rhythm of growth hormone (GH) secretion has been known in several animal species for years and has recently been observed in cattle. Although the physiological significance of the rhythm is not yet fully understood, it appears essential for normal growth. In this review, previous studies concerning the GH secretory pattern in cattle, including its ultradian rhythm, are introduced and the regulatory mechanism is discussed on the basis of recent findings. © 2015 The Authors. Animal Science Journal published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  12. Effect of growth hormone on short normal children.

    OpenAIRE

    Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C G

    1987-01-01

    The growth of 26 short normal prepubertal children (mean age 8.4, height velocity standard deviation score for chronological age between +0.4 and -0.8) was studied for two years. Sixteen children were treated with somatrem (methionyl growth hormone) during the second year, and the remaining 10 children served as controls. During one year of treatment the height velocity standard deviation score for chronological age increased from the pretreatment mean of -0.44 (SD 0.33) to +2.20 (1.03). Thes...

  13. Ghrelin stimulation of growth hormone-releasing hormone neurons is direct in the arcuate nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Osterstock

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ghrelin targets the arcuate nucleus, from where growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH neurones trigger GH secretion. This hypothalamic nucleus also contains neuropeptide Y (NPY neurons which play a master role in the effect of ghrelin on feeding. Interestingly, connections between NPY and GHRH neurons have been reported, leading to the hypothesis that the GH axis and the feeding circuits might be co-regulated by ghrelin.Here, we show that ghrelin stimulates the firing rate of identified GHRH neurons, in transgenic GHRH-GFP mice. This stimulation is prevented by growth hormone secretagogue receptor-1 antagonism as well as by U-73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor and by calcium channels blockers. The effect of ghrelin does not require synaptic transmission, as it is not antagonized by gamma-aminobutyric acid, glutamate and NPY receptor antagonists. In addition, this hypothalamic effect of ghrelin is independent of somatostatin, the inhibitor of the GH axis, since it is also found in somatostatin knockout mice. Indeed, ghrelin does not modify synaptic currents of GHRH neurons. However, ghrelin exerts a strong and direct depolarizing effect on GHRH neurons, which supports their increased firing rate.Thus, GHRH neurons are a specific target for ghrelin within the brain, and not activated secondary to altered activity in feeding circuits. These results support the view that ghrelin related therapeutic approaches could be directed separately towards GH deficiency or feeding disorders.

  14. Growth hormone therapy and craniofacial bones: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litsas, G

    2013-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has significant effects on linear bone growth, bone mass and bone metabolism. The primary role of GH supplementation in children with GH deficiency, those born small for gestational age or with other types of disorders in somatic development is to increase linear growth. However, GH therapy seems to elicit varying responses in the craniofacial region. Whereas the effects of GH administration on somatic development are well documented, comparatively little is known of its effects on the craniofacial region. The purpose of this review was to search the literature and compile results from both animal and human studies related to the impact of GH on craniofacial growth. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Growth hormone deficiency in children and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Oświęcimska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is a naturally occurring polypeptide hormone produced by somatotropic cells in the anterior pituitary. The main function of somatotropin is stimulation of linear growth, but it also affects carbohydrate metabolism, increases bone mass and has potent lipolytic, antinatriuretic and antidiuretic effects. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD may occur both in children and in adults. At the moment there is no gold standard for the diagnosis of GHD, and the diagnosis should take into account clinical, auxological, biochemical and radiological changes and, if necessary, genetic testing. Recent studies have highlighted that the biochemical diagnosis of GH deficiency is still imperfect. Stimuli used in the tests are non-physiological, and various substances are characterized by a different mechanism of action and potency. A few years ago it was thought that GHD treatment in children must be completed at the end of linear growth. Studies performed in the last two decades have shown that GHD deficiency in adults may result in complex clinical problems, and if untreated shortens the life expectancy and worsens its comfort. Discontinuation of GH therapy after the final height has been reached in fact negatively impacts the physiological processes associated with the transition phase, which is the period of human life between achieving the final height and 25-30 years of age. Given the adverse metabolic effects of GH treatment interruption after linear growth has been completed, the latest recommendations propose reassessment of GH secretion in the period at least one month after cessation of treatment and continuation of the therapy in case of persistent deficit.

  16. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.C.J. Smeets (Lin); V. Codd (Veryan); M. Denniff (Matthew); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Background__ Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA) are treated with growth hormone (GH), inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere

  17. The rationale and design of TransCon Growth Hormone for the treatment of growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennett Sprogøe

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental challenge of developing a long-acting growth hormone (LAGH is to create a more convenient growth hormone (GH dosing profile while retaining the excellent safety, efficacy and tolerability of daily GH. With GH receptors on virtually all cells, replacement therapy should achieve the same tissue distribution and effects of daily (and endogenous GH while maintaining levels of GH and resulting IGF-1 within the physiologic range. To date, only two LAGHs have gained the approval of either the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the European Medicines Agency (EMA; both released unmodified GH, thus presumably replicating distribution and pharmacological actions of daily GH. Other technologies have been applied to create LAGHs, including modifying GH (for example, protein enlargement or albumin binding such that the resulting analogues possess a longer half-life. Based on these approaches, nearly 20 LAGHs have reached various stages of clinical development. Although most have failed, lessons learned have guided the development of a novel LAGH. TransCon GH is a LAGH prodrug in which GH is transiently bound to an inert methoxy polyethylene glycol (mPEG carrier. It was designed to achieve the same safety, efficacy and tolerability as daily GH but with more convenient weekly dosing. In phase 2 trials of children and adults with growth hormone deficiency (GHD, similar safety, efficacy and tolerability to daily GH was shown as well as GH and IGF-1 levels within the physiologic range. These promising results support further development of TransCon GH.

  18. Growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity of chicken GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, S; Gineste, C; Gaylinn, B D

    2014-08-01

    Two peptides with sequence similarities to growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) have been identified by analysis of the chicken genome. One of these peptides, chicken (c) GHRH-LP (like peptide) was previously found to poorly bind to chicken pituitary membranes or to cloned and expressed chicken GHRH receptors and had little, if any, growth hormone (GH)-releasing activity in vivo or in vitro. In contrast, a second more recently discovered peptide, cGHRH, does bind to cloned and expressed cGHRH receptors and increases cAMP activity in transfected cells. The possibility that this peptide may have in vivo GH-releasing activity was therefore assessed. The intravenous (i.v.) administration of cGHRH to immature chickens, at doses of 3-100 μg/kg, significantly increased circulating GH concentrations within 10 min of injection and the plasma GH levels remained elevated for at least 30 min after the injection of maximally effective doses. The plasma GH responses to cGHRH were comparable with those induced by human (h) or porcine (p) GHRH preparations and to that induced by thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH). In marked contrast, the i.v. injection of cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on circulating GH concentrations in immature chicks. GH release was also increased from slaughterhouse chicken pituitary glands perifused for 5 min with cGHRH at doses of 0.1 μg/ml or 1.0 μg/ml, comparable with GH responses to hGHRH1-44. In contrast, the perifusion of chicken pituitary glands with cGHRH-LP had no significant effect on GH release. In summary, these results demonstrate that cGHRH has GH-releasing activity in chickens and support the possibility that it is the endogenous ligand of the cGHRH receptor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth of functional cranial components in rats with intrauterine growth retardation after treatment with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Fabián Anibal; Castro, Luis Eduardo; Luna, María Eugenia; Guimarey, Luis Manuel; Cesani, María Florencia; Fucini, María Cecilia; Villanueva, Myriam; Prio, Verónica; Oyhenart, Evelia Edith

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to analyse the effect of growth hormone (GH) on catch-up growth of functional facial (splanchnocranial) and neurocranial components in rats with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR). Wistar rats were divided into the following groups: control (C), sham-operated (SH), IUGR, and IUGR + GH. IUGR was surgically induced and GH was administered between 21 and 60 days of age. Radiographs were obtained at 1, 21, 42, 63, and 84 days of age in order to measure length, width, and height of neurocranium (NL, NW, and NH) and face length, width, and height (FL, FW, and FH). Analysis of variance was performed at 1 day of age and a principal components analysis (PCA) at 84 days of age. Neurocranial and facial volumetric indexes were calculated as NVI = (3)√NL × NW × NH and FVI = (3)√FL × FW × FH, respectively, and adjusted by non-linear regression analysis. On postnatal day 1, there were significant differences between SH and IUGR (P IUGR + GH (P cranial growth. The functional neurocranial and facial components in rats with IUGR presented different recovery strategies through modular behaviour, mainly related to modifications of growth rate as response to GH administration.

  20. Growth Hormone differentially modulates chemoresistance in human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentilin, Erica; Minoia, Mariella; Bondanelli, Marta; Tagliati, Federico; Degli Uberti, Ettore C; Zatelli, Maria Chiara

    2017-06-01

    Growth Hormone may influence neoplastic development of endometrial epithelium towards endometrial adenocarcinoma, which is one of the most occurring tumors in acromegalic patients. Since chemoresistance often develops in advanced endometrial adenocarcinoma, we investigated whether Growth Hormone might influence the development of chemoresistance to drugs routinely employed in endometrial adenocarcinoma treatment, such as Doxorubicin, Cisplatin, and Paclitaxel. Growth Hormone and Growth Hormone receptor expression was assessed by immunofluorescence in two endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines, AN3 CA and HEC-1-A cells. Growth Hormone effects were assessed investigating cell viability, caspase3/7 activation, ERK1/2, and protein kinase C delta protein expression. AN3 CA and HEC-1-A cells display Growth Hormone and Growth Hormone receptor. Growth Hormone does not influence cell viability in both cells lines, but significantly reduces caspase 3/7 activation in AN3 CA cells, an effect blocked by a Growth Hormone receptor antagonist. Growth Hormone rescues AN3 CA cells from the inhibitory effects of Doxorubicin and Cisplatin on cell viability, while it has no effect on Paclitaxel. Growth Hormone does not influence the pro-apoptotic effects of Doxorubicin, but is capable of rescuing AN3 CA cells from the pro-apoptotic effects of Cisplatin. On the other hand, Growth Hormone did not influence the effects of Doxorubicin and Paclitaxel on HEC-1A cell viability. The protective action of Growth Hormone towards the effects of Doxorubicin may be mediated by ERK1/2 activation, while the pro-apoptotic effects of Cisplatin may be mediated by protein kinase C delta inhibition. All together our results indicate that Growth Hormone may differentially contribute to endometrial adenocarcinoma chemoresistance. This may provide new insights on novel therapies against endometrial adenocarcinoma chemoresistant aggressive tumors.

  1. Short stature: a psychosocial burden requiring growth hormone therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, D E; Brook, A E; Campos, S P

    1994-12-01

    Changes in the diagnosis of endocrine-based growth disorders and the advent of biosynthetic growth hormone have altered the long-standing policy of treating only those individuals with "classic" growth hormone deficiency. One justification for treating short children is to improve their psychosocial adaptation. The present investigation assessed the positive and negative behavioral adaptation, self-perceptions of domain-specific competencies, and global self-worth of a large, diagnostically heterogeneous sample of children and adolescents referred to pediatric endocrinologists for a growth evaluation. All patients seen in a pediatric endocrine clinic (180 boys and 78 girls; 4 to 18 years) with a height at the fifth percentile or lower were included. Parents of all participating children completed the Child Behavior Checklist. Patients 8 years and older completed the Self-Perception Profile and those 11 years and older, in addition, completed the Youth Self Report. Short-stature (SS) subjects were compared with normative and psychiatric samples. The SS boys were described by parents as being significantly less socially competent and showing more behavioral and emotional problems than a normative sample selected for mental health. However, they were significantly more socially competent and showed fewer psychopathologic symptoms than a psychiatric referred sample of comparable age. The SS boys described themselves as less socially active but did not report more behavior disturbance than the normative sample. The SS boys' self-perceptions of domain-specific competencies and global self-worth were comparable to a normative comparison group with the exception that older subjects (13 years or older) described their athletic abilities more positively and their work competence more negatively. The SS girls were, with few exceptions, indistinguishable from the normal comparison groups on both parent- and self-report measures of social competency and behavior disturbance

  2. Recombinant growth hormone treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, R A; Melmed, S; Sherman, B; Frane, J; Munsat, T L; Festoff, B W

    1993-06-01

    Based on the known trophic effects of growth hormone (GH) on nerve and muscle 75 patients with ALS were treated for up to 18 months with synthetic human growth hormone (Protropin) or a placebo. The course of ALS was assessed serially using a quantitative (TQNE) neuromuscular and manual exam (MRC) and laboratory chemistries. Average insulin-related growth factor (IGF-I) values increased from 1.2 to 2.3 U/mL in the treated group. Surprisingly, serum insulin levels did not increase. Hyperglycemia was noted in only 2 patients of the 38 patients receiving hGH, and this resolved with cessation of treatment. Over the 12 months of treatment there were 11 deaths (6 controls, 5 treated). Survival analysis, performed approximately 12 months following cessation of treatment, did not reveal a difference between the treatment and placebo group. The TQNE scores declined inexorably in both the control and treated group. Retrospective analysis of the TQNE data indicated a poor prognosis for patients who lost arm strength early. A correlation between the TQNE and MRC scores was evident at early stages of motor unit loss, less so when muscle weakness was advanced.

  3. Growth hormone replacement normalizes impaired fibrinolysis: new insights into endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypopituitarism and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljic, D; Miljic, P; Doknic, M; Pekic, S; Stojanovic, M; Cvijovic, G; Micic, D; Popovic, V

    2013-12-01

    Cardiovascular morbidity in adult patients with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) and hypopituitarism is increased. Clustering of cardiovascular risk factors leading to endothelial dysfunction and impaired fibrinolysis has also been reported and may account for progression to overt vascular changes in these patients. However, effect of long lasting GH replacement therapy on fibrinolytic capacity in GH deficient patients has not been investigated so far. To investigate fibrinolysis before and after challenge with venous occlusion in GHD patients with hypopituitarism before and during one year of growth hormone replacement. Hospital based, interventional, prospective study. Twenty one patient with GHD and fourteen healthy control subjects matched for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Anthropometric, metabolic and fibrinolytic parameters were measured at the start and after three, six and twelve months of treatment with human recombinant GH. At baseline GHD patients had significantly impaired fibrinolysis compared to healthy persons. During treatment with GH, significant changes were observed in insulin like growth factor 1(IGF-1) [from baseline 6.9(2.4-13.5) to 22.0(9.0-33.0) nmol/l after one month of treatment; pfibrinolysis. Improvement in fibrinolysis was mostly attributed to improvement of stimulated endothelial tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) release in response to venous occlusion [from baseline 1.1(0.4-2.6) to 1.9(0.5-8.8) after one year of treatment; p<0.01]. Growth hormone replacement therapy has favorable effects on t-PA release from endothelium and net fibrinolytic capacity in GHD adults, which may contribute to decrease their risk of vascular complications. © 2013.

  4. A phase 2 trial of long-acting TransCon growth hormone in adult GH deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höybye, Charlotte; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Ferone, Diego

    2017-01-01

    was reported. No treatment-emergent anti-growth hormone binding antibodies were detected. TransCon GH demonstrated a linear, dose-dependent increase in growth hormone exposure without substantial accumulation. Growth hormone maximum serum concentration and insulin-like growth factor 1 exposure were similar......TransCon growth hormone is a sustained release human growth hormone prodrug in development in which unmodified growth hormone is transiently linked to a carrier molecule. It is intended as an alternative to daily growth hormone in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. This was a multi......-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial designed to compare the safety (including tolerability and immunogenicity), pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of three doses of weekly TransCon GH to daily growth hormone (Omnitrope). Thirty-seven adult males or females diagnosed with adult growth hormone...

  5. [Acral acanthosis nigricans associated with taking growth hormone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña Irún, A

    2014-01-01

    Acanthosis nigricans is a skin lesion characterized by the presence of a hyperpigmented, velvety cutaneous thickening that usually appears in flexural areas. Less frequently, it can occur in other locations, such as the dorsum of hands and feet. In this case it is called acral acanthosis nigricans. It is a dermatological manifestation of systemic disease. It is often associated with insulin resistance-mediated endocrine diseases. A case is presented on a patient with acanthosis nigricans secondary to the use of growth hormone. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Growth and growth hormone therapy in short children born preterm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguszewski, Margaret Cristina da Silva; Cardoso-Demartini, Adriane de Andre

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 15 million babies are born preterm across the world every year, with less than 37 completed weeks of gestation. Survival rates increased during the last decades with the improvement of neonatal care. With premature birth, babies are deprived of the intense intrauterine growth phase, and postnatal growth failure might occur. Some children born prematurely will remain short at later ages and adult life. The risk of short stature increases if the child is also born small for gestational age. In this review, the effects of being born preterm on childhood growth and adult height and the hormonal abnormalities possibly associated with growth restriction are discussed, followed by a review of current information on growth hormone treatment for those who remain with short stature during infancy and childhood. © 2017 European Society of Endocrinology.

  7. Purification and Cultivation of Human Pituitary Growth Hormones Secreting Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymer, W. C.; Todd, P.; Grindeland, R.; Lanham, W.; Morrison, D.

    1985-01-01

    The rat and human pituitary gland contains a mixture of hormone producing cell types. The separation of cells which make growth hormone (GH) is attempted for the purpose of understanding how the hormone molecule is made within the pituitary cell; what form(s) it takes within the cell; and what form(s) GH assumes as it leaves the cell. Since GH has a number of biological targets (e.g., muscle, liver, bone), the assessment of the activities of the intracellular/extracellular GH by new and sensitive bioassays. GH cells contained in the mixture was separated by free flow electrophoresis. These experiments show that GH cells have different electrophoretic mobilities. This is relevant to NASA since a lack of GH could be a prime causative factor in muscle atrophy. Further, GH has recently been implicated in the etiology of motion sickness in space. Continous flow electrophoresis experiment on STS-8 showed that GH cells could be partially separated in microgravity. However, definitive cell culture studies could not be done due to insufficient cell recoveries.

  8. Expression of functional growth hormone receptor in a mouse L cell line infected with recombinant vaccinia virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strous, G J; van Kerkhof, P; Verheijen, C; Rossen, J W; Liou, W; Slot, J W; Roelen, C A; Schwartz, A L

    The growth hormone receptor is a member of a large family of receptors including the receptors for prolactin and interleukins. Upon binding to one molecule of growth hormone two growth hormone receptor polypeptides dimerize. We have expressed the rabbit growth hormone receptor DNA in transfected

  9. Multicenter study on adult growth hormone level in postoperative pituitary tumor patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jing-min; Gu, Jian-wen; Kuang, Yong-qin; Ma, Yuan; Xia, Xun; Yang, Tao; Lu, Min; He, Wei-qi; Sun, Zhi-yong; Zhang, Yan-chao

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study is to observe the adult growth hormone level in postoperative pituitary tumor patients of multi-centers, and explore the change of hypophyseal hormones in postoperative pituitary tumor patients. Sixty patients with pituitary tumor admitted during March, 2011-March, 2012 were selected. Postoperative hypophyseal hormone deficiency and the change of preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative growth hormone levels were recorded. Growth hormone hypofunction was the most common hormonal hypofunction, which took up to 85.0 %. Adrenocortical hormone hypofunction was next to it and accounted for 58.33 %. GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn deficiency was the most common in postoperative hormone deficiency, which took up to 40.00 %, and GH + ACTH + TSH + Gn + AVP and GH deficiencies were next to it and accounted for 23.33 and 16.67 %, respectively. The hormone levels in patients after total pituitary tumor resection were significantly lower than those after partial pituitary tumor resection, and the difference was statistically significant; growth hormone and serum prolactin levels after surgery in two groups were decreased, and the difference was statistically significant. The incidence rate of growth hormone deficiency in postoperative pituitary tumor patients is high, which is usually complicated with deficiency of various hypophyseal hormones. In clinical, we should pay attention to the levels of the hypopnyseal hormones, and take timely measures to avoid postoperative complications.

  10. Estrogens regulate the hepatic effects of growth hormone, a hormonal interplay with multiple fates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández-Pérez, Leandro; Guerra, Borja; Díaz-Chico, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    The liver responds to estrogens and growth hormone (GH) which are critical regulators of body growth, gender-related hepatic functions, and intermediate metabolism. The effects of estrogens on liver can be direct, through the direct actions of hepatic ER, or indirect, which include the crosstalk...... with endocrine, metabolic, and sex-differentiated functions of GH. Most previous studies have been focused on the influence of estrogens on pituitary GH secretion, which has a great impact on hepatic transcriptional regulation. However, there is strong evidence that estrogens can influence the GH......-regulated endocrine and metabolic functions in the human liver by acting at the level of GHR-STAT5 signaling pathway. This crosstalk is relevant because the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. Therefore, GH or estrogen signaling deficiency as well as the influence of estrogens...

  11. Sleep in mice with nonfunctional growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obal, Ferenc; Alt, Jeremiah; Taishi, Ping; Gardi, Janos; Krueger, James M

    2003-01-01

    The role of the somatotropic axis in sleep regulation was studied by using the lit/lit mouse with nonfunctional growth hormone (GH)-releasing hormone (GHRH) receptors (GHRH-Rs) and control heterozygous C57BL/6J mice, which have a normal phenotype. During the light period, the lit/lit mice displayed significantly less spontaneous rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-REMS (NREMS) than the controls. Intraperitoneal injection of GHRH (50 microg/kg) failed to promote sleep in the lit/lit mice, whereas it enhanced NREMS in the heterozygous mice. Subcutaneous infusion of GH replacement stimulated weight gain, increased the concentration of plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and normalized REMS, but failed to restore normal NREMS in the lit/lit mice. The NREMS response to a 4-h sleep deprivation was attenuated in the lit/lit mice. In control mice, intraperitoneal injection of ghrelin (400 microg/kg) elicited GH secretion and promoted NREMS, and intraperitoneal administration of the somatostatin analog octretotide (Oct, 200 microg/kg) inhibited sleep. In contrast, these responses were missing in the lit/lit mice. The results suggest that GH promotes REMS whereas GHRH stimulates NREMS via central GHRH-Rs and that GHRH is involved in the mediation of the sleep effects of ghrelin and somatostatin.

  12. Enhancement of growth and chitosan production by Rhizopus oryzae in whey medium by plant growth hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sudipta; Chatterjee, Sandipan; Chatterjee, Bishnu P; Guha, Arun K

    2008-03-01

    The effect of some plant growth hormones, viz., gibberellic acid, indole-3-acetic acid, indole-3-butyric acid, and kinetin on chitosan production by Rhizopus oryzae in deproteinized whey was studied. Hormones, at different concentrations, increase the mycelial growth by 19-32%. However, increase in chitosan content of the mycelia was relatively small (1.7-14.3%) over the control. Maximum enhancement was observed with gibberellic acid. Fifty percent more chitosan could be obtained from 1L of whey containing 0.1mg/L gibberellic acid. Hormones, at higher dose, instead of stimulation inhibited both growth and mycelial chitosan content. This study showed that hormones have no influence on degree of deacetylation of chitosan but increase the quality of the chitosan by increasing weight average molecular weight and decreasing polydispersity. All the hormones had been found to enhance chitin deacetylase activity of R. oryzae by 1.067-1.267-fold and may be one of the reasons for increased chitosan production.

  13. Comparison Of Hormonal And Non-Hormonal Contraceptive Method Effects On The Mothers Milk And Infants Growth Among Lactating Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghi Poor H R

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This research was conducted for the purpose of determining the effect of hormonal and non-hormonal contraception on the mother milk and infants growth among lactating women received by south Tehran’s Health Centers. In this regard a broad spectrum study from December 2000 until February 2001 was done by Tehran university. Materials and Methods: By sampling method, 200 lactating women were chosen randomly. They were divided into two groups according to their preferred method of contraception: 67 women chose hormonal method and 133 women chose non –hormonal method. Results&Conclusion: During the time of the study on infants growth (increase in head circumstances, increase in height, increase in weight, There was no significant difference between the two groups. If we take the effect of contraceptive methods into consideration, the Triglyceride levels in non-hormonal group were increased considerably compared to the other group. Other ingredients were almost the same.

  14. Simultaneous determination of veterinary antibiotics and hormone in broiler manure, soil and manure compost by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Y B; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-11-02

    A multi-residue analytical method was developed to quantify nine antibiotics and one hormone in soil, broiler manure and manure compost. The developed method was based on ultrasonic extraction with MeOH:ACN:EDTA:McIlvaine buffer, solid phase extraction (SPE) using HLB (3 cc/60 mg) cartridge, followed by instrumental analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with 25 min total run time. It was validated and tested on soil, broiler manure and manure compost samples and showed that the method is able to simultaneously detect and quantify the target analytes with good selectivity and sensitivity. The developed method was linear in a concentration range from its instrumental quantification limit (IQL) to 500 ng/mL, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.999. The overall method performance was good for the majority of the analytes, with recoveries range from 63% to 121% in all the sample matrices. The method quantification limit (MQL) for the 10 target analytes in the soil, broiler manure and manure compost samples were 2-10, 3-16 and 5-15 μg/kg dry weight (DW), respectively. The method has also included tilmicosin, an antibiotic known to be reported in the environment for the first time. The developed method was then applied on broiler manure samples and its relative manure amended agricultural soil samples to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. These analytes were detected in broiler manure and soil samples, with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78516.1 μg/kg DW (doxycycline) and 1331.4 μg/kg DW (flumequine), respectively. The results showed that the method can potentially be adopted for the analysis of veterinary antibiotic and hormone wastes in solid environmental matrices. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of growth hormone and growth hormone receptor in oocyte maturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, MM; Izadyar, F

    2002-01-01

    Near the completion of growth, mammalian oocytes acquire the competence to resume and complete meiosis. In vivo the preovulatory LH surge triggers the resumption of meiosis in the oocyte contained in preovulatory follicles. When immature oocytes and the surrounding cumulus cells are released from

  16. Sexual hormones modulate compensatory renal growth and function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo J. Azurmendi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The role played by sexual hormones and vasoactive substances in the compensatory renal growth (CRG that follows uninephrectomy (uNx is still controversial. Intact and gonadectomized adult Wistar rats of both sexes, with and without uNx, performed at 90 days age, were studied at age 150 days. Daily urine volume, electrolyte excretion and kallikrein activity (UKa were determined. Afterwards, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure were measured, the kidneys weighed and DNA, protein and RNA studied to determine nuclei content and cell size. When the remnant kidney weight at age 150 days was compared with the weight of the kidney removed at the time of uNx, male uNx rats showed the greatest CRG (50% while growth in the other uNx groups was 25%, 15% and 19% in orchidectomized, female and ovariectomized rats, respectively. The small CRG observed in the uNx female rats was accompanied by the lowest glomerular filtration value, 0.56 ± 0.02 ml/min/g kwt compared, with the other uNx groups, p < 0.05. Cell size (protein or RNA/DNA was similar for all the groups except for uNx orchidectomized rats. In this group the cytoplasmatic protein or RNA content was lower than in the other groups while DNA (nuclei content was similar. Some degree of hyperplasia was determined by DNA content in the uNx groups. Male sexual hormones positively influenced CRG and its absence modulated cell size. Female sexual hormones, instead, did not appear to stimulate CRG. The kallikrein kinin system may not be involved in CRG.

  17. Sexual hormones modulate compensatory renal growth and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azurmendi, Pablo J; Oddo, Elisabet M; Toledo, Jorge E; Martin, Rodolfo S; Ibarra, Fernando R; Arrizurieta, Elvira E

    2013-01-01

    The role played by sexual hormones and vasoactive substances in the compensatory renal growth (CRG) that follows uninephrectomy (uNx) is still controversial. Intact and gonadectomized adult Wistar rats of both sexes, with and without uNx, performed at 90 days age, were studied at age 150 days. Daily urine volume, electrolyte excretion and kallikrein activity (UKa) were determined. Afterwards, glomerular filtration rate and blood pressure were measured, the kidneys weighed and DNA, protein and RNA studied to determine nuclei content and cell size. When the remnant kidney weight at age 150 days was compared with the weight of the kidney removed at the time of uNx, male uNx rats showed the greatest CRG (50%) while growth in the other uNx groups was 25%, 15% and 19% in orchidectomized, female and ovariectomized rats, respectively. The small CRG observed in the uNx female rats was accompanied by the lowest glomerular filtration value, 0.56 ± 0.02 ml/ min/g kwt compared, with the other uNx groups, p protein or RNA/DNA) was similar for all the groups except for uNx orchidectomized rats. In this group the cytoplasmatic protein or RNA content was lower than in the other groups while DNA (nuclei content) was similar. Some degree of hyperplasia was determined by DNA content in the uNx groups. Male sexual hormones positively influenced CRG and its absence modulated cell size. Female sexual hormones, instead, did not appear to stimulate CRG. The kallikrein kinin system may not be involved in CRG.

  18. Different effects of continuous and intermittent patterns of growth hormone administration on lipoprotein levels in growth hormone-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Lemming, Lone; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde

    1998-01-01

    Abstract BACKGROUND: Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) is a risk marker for the development of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease. Growth hormone (GH) administration to GH-deficient (GHD) adults increases serum Lp(a) concentrations, and the levels of Lp(a) and GH are correlated in patients...... to the impact of the pattern of GH administration on, e.g., the risk of developing coronary heart disease can be drawn....... continuous (p administration to GH-deprived GHD patients, whereas the increase after GH bolus injections alone was not significant (p = 0.14). In study B significantly higher (p

  19. The history of doping and growth hormone abuse in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, Richard I G; Erotokritou-Mulligan, Ioulietta; Sönksen, Peter H

    2009-08-01

    The earliest records of doping in sport come from the Ancient Olympics games when athletes are reported to have taken figs to improve their performance. With the advent of modern pharmacology in the 19th century, many athletes began to experiment with cocktails of drugs to improve strength and overcome fatigue. As this practice was not illegal, there are good records of the lengths athletes would go to in order to win. Alongside the benefits, came the dangers and following several fatalities, a code to ban performance enhancing drugs was gradually developed. Growth hormone was first isolated from the human pituitary gland in the 1950s. Its anabolic effects were soon recognised and athletes had begun to abuse it by the early 1980s, at least a decade before it was used therapeutically by adult endocrinologists. A number of high profile athletes have admitted using growth hormone. Detection of its abuse has been challenging and the lack of an effective test has undoubtedly encouraged its abuse. Only now are methodologies being developed that should stem this tide.

  20. Sleep characteristics in children with growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrillo, Elisabetta; Bizzarri, Carla; Cappa, Marco; Bruni, Oliviero; Pavone, Martino; Ferri, Raffaele; Cutrera, Renato

    2011-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is preferentially secreted during slow wave sleep and the interactions between human sleep and the somatotropic system are well documented, although only few studies have investigated the sleep EEG in children with GH deficiency (GHD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the sleep structure of children with dysregulation of the GH/insulin-like growth factor axis. Laboratory polysomnographic sleep recordings were obtained from 10 GHD children and 20 normal healthy age-matched children. The classical sleep parameters were evaluated together with sleep microstructure, by means of the cyclic alternating pattern (CAP), in GHD patients and compared to the control group. GHD children showed a significant decrease in total sleep time, sleep efficiency, movement time and in non-rapid eye movement sleep stage 2. Although some indicators of sleep fragmentation were increased in GHD children, we found a general decrease in EEG arousability represented by a significant global decrease in the CAP rate, involving all CAP A phase subtypes. The analysis of sleep microstructure by means of CAP, in children with GHD, showed a reduction of transient EEG amplitude oscillations. Further studies are needed in order to better clarify whether GH therapy is able to modify sleep microstructure in GHD children, and the relationships between sleep microstructure, hormonal secretion and neurocognitive function in these patients. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Extrapituitary growth hormone in the chicken reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Maricela; Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; Ahumada-Solórzano, Marisela S; Harvey, Steve; Carranza, Martha; Arámburo, Carlos

    2014-07-01

    Increasing evidence shows that growth hormone (GH) expression is not limited to the pituitary, as it can be produced in many other tissues. It is known that growth hormone (GH) plays a role in the control of reproductive tract development. Acting as an endocrine, paracrine and/or autocrine regulator, GH influences proliferation, differentiation and function of reproductive tissues. In this review we substantiate the local expression of GH mRNA and GH protein, as well as the GH receptor (GHR) in both male and female reproductive tract, mainly in the chicken. Locally expressed GH was found to be heterogeneous, with a 17 kDa variant being predominant. GH secretagogues, such as GHRH and TRH co-localize with GH expression in the chicken testis and induce GH release. In the ovarian follicular granulosa cells, GH and GHR are co-expressed and stimulate progesterone production, which was neutralized by a specific GH antibody. Both testicular and follicular cells in primary cultures were able to synthesize and release GH to the culture medium. We also characterized GH and GH mRNA expression in the hen's oviduct and showed that it had 99.6% sequence identity with pituitary GH. Data suggest local reproductive GH may have important autocrine/paracrine effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. International Comparison of Adult Height in Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency and Limitations of Growth Hormone Treatment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toshiaki

    2017-03-01

    The approved therapeutic dose of growth hormone (GH) for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) varies depending on the country. Japan has the lowest therapeutic dose globally, with a single dose of 0.175 mg/kg/week. GH treatment for GHD is considered as a replacement therapy and in fact, a dose of 0.175 mg/kg/week is slightly higher than GH secretion in prepubertal healthy children but nearly the same as that of pubertal children. Although the same growth rate as that of healthy children is expected in response to replacement therapy, the catch-up growth observed for the first 1 to 2 years of GH treatment was misinterpreted as an effect of the GH replacement therapy. The real effect of the GH replacement therapy was the growth rate appeared after more than 3 years of GH therapy, when patients showed nearly the same growth rate as healthy children. Therefore, children with GHD can have a higher growth rate than healthy children only for the first 1 to 2 years of GH therapy, after which their growth rate begins to wane. In the United States and Europe, the various therapeutic doses and high-dose treatment are accepted and the SD score of adult height after treatment is higher than that in Japan. The improvement degree of the height SD score and the adult height SD score with GH therapy are lower in Japan compared with other countries that administer a similar therapeutic dose. This suggests that the response to GH can be affected by race. Actual comparison of the response to GH between Japanese and Caucasian patients using KIGS (Pharmacia International Growth Database) data showed that both the short-term response and the effect on adult height were reduced in Japanese patients. As there is a strong positive correlation between adult height and height at the onset of puberty, treatment methods that can increase pubertal growth will be considered in the future for patients with GDH who enter puberty with short stature. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  3. Growth of short children born small for gestational age and their response to growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Hemchand Krishna; Khadilkar, Vaman V; Chiplonkar, Shashi A; Khadilkar, Anuradha V

    2013-05-08

    Growth hormone [GH] is licensed for use in children born small for gestational age (SGA) who fail to catch-up. We retrospectively compared the response of twenty children born SGA (who satisfied the auxological criteria) to growth hormone (Group I) versus randomly selected age and sex matched controls from a group of SGA children with growth related complaints, not treated with GH (Group II). After 2 years of GH therapy the HAZ increased from -2.8 to -1.6 in Group I, compared 2.2 to -1.7 in group II (P-value children rose from 55% to 65% in cases versus 60% to 75% in the controls (P>0.05). GH resulted in increase in growth velocity Z-score during the first year and (4.3±0.5 in Group-I versus - 0.5±0.6 in Group-II, Pchildren without accelerating pubertal progression.

  4. The cardiovascular system in growth hormone excess and growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, G; Di Somma, C; Grasso, L F S; Savanelli, M C; Colao, A; Pivonello, R

    2012-12-01

    The clinical conditions associated with GH excess and GH deficiency (GHD) are known to be associated with an increased risk for the cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, suggesting that either an excess or a deficiency in GH and/or IGF-I is deleterious for cardiovascular system. In patients with acromegaly, chronic GH and IGF-I excess commonly causes a specific cardiomyopathy characterized by a concentric cardiac hypertrophy associated with diastolic dysfunction and, in later stages, with systolic dysfunction ending in heart failure if GH/IGF-I excess is not controlled. Abnormalities of cardiac rhythm and anomalies of cardiac valves can also occur. Moreover, the increased prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and insulin resistance, as well as dyslipidemia, confer an increased risk for vascular atherosclerosis. Successful control of the disease is accompanied by a decrease of the cardiac mass and improvement of cardiac function and an improvement in cardiovascular risk factors. In patients with hypopituitarism, GHD has been considered the under- lying factor of the increased mortality when appropriate standard replacement of the pituitary hormones deficiencies is given. Either childhood-onset or adulthood-onset GHD are characterized by a cluster of abnormalities associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, including altered body composition, unfavorable lipid profile, insulin resistance, endothelial dysfunction and vascular atherosclerosis, a decrease in cardiac mass together with an impairment of systolic function mainly after exercise. Treatment with recombinant GH in patients with GHD is followed by an improvement of the cardiovascular risk factors and an increase in cardiac mass together with an improvement in cardiac performance. In conclusion, acromegaly and GHD are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but the control of GH/IGF-I secretion reverses cardiovascular

  5. Effect of growth hormone therapy on Taiwanese children with growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hua Huang

    2012-07-01

    Conclusion: The administration of GH to children with GHD results in a pronounced acceleration in linear growth during the first year of treatment, especially in those with MPHD. The diagnosis of GHD requires comprehensive auxological, biochemical, and brain magnetic resonance imaging assessment. We also suggest that patients with GHD, specifically IGHD, must undergo a re-evaluation of GH secretion after completion of GH therapy.

  6. Growth response of Egyptian children with idiopathic short stature during four years of growth hormone therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Nagwa Abdallah Ismail; Nermeen Salah Eldin Metwaly; Fatma Ahmed El-Moguy; Mona Hassan Hafez; Soha M Abd El Dayem; Tarek Mohamed Farid

    2011-01-01

    Background: Multiple factors affect the growth response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) in children with idiopathic short stature (ISS). Aim: To evaluate the growth responses of children with ISS treated with rhGH, aiming to identify the predictors of growth response. Materials and Methods: We studied 120 cases, 90 males (75%), with a mean age of 13.8±2.7 years and 30 females (25%), with a mean age of 12.3±2.5 years. All patients received rhGH with a standard dose of 20 IU ...

  7. Diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency in the paediatric and transitional age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinoy, A; Murray, P G

    2016-12-01

    Growth hormone deficiency is a rare cause of childhood short stature, but one for which treatment exists in the form of recombinant human growth hormone. A diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency is made based on auxology, biochemistry and imaging. Although no diagnostic gold standard exists, growth hormone provocation tests are considered the mainstay of diagnostic investigations. However, these must be interpreted with caution in view of issues with variability and reproducibility, as well as the limited evidence-base for cut-off values used to distinguish growth hormone deficient and non-growth hormone deficient subjects. In addition, nutritional and pubertal status can affect results, with no consensus on the role of priming with sex steroid hormones. Difficulties with assays exist both for growth hormone as well as insulin-like growth factor-1. Pituitary magnetic resonance imaging is a useful diagnostic, and possibly prognostic, aid. Although genetic testing is not routine, the discovery of more relevant mutations makes it an increasingly important investigation. Children with growth hormone deficiency are retested biochemically on completion of growth, to assess whether they remain so into adulthood. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Cognitive and Adaptive Advantages of Growth Hormone Treatment in Children with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dykens, Elisabeth M.; Roof, Elizabeth; Hunt-Hawkins, Hailee

    2017-01-01

    Background: People with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) typically have mild to moderate intellectual deficits, compulsivity, hyperphagia, obesity, and growth hormone deficiencies. Growth hormone treatment (GHT) in PWS has well-established salutatory effects on linear growth and body composition, yet cognitive benefits of GHT, seen in other patient…

  9. The SOCS2 Ubiquitin Ligase Complex Regulates Growth Hormone Receptor Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesterlund, Mattias; Zadjali, Fahad; Persson, Torbjörn

    2011-01-01

    Growth Hormone is essential for the regulation of growth and the homeostatic control of intermediary metabolism. GH actions are mediated by the Growth Hormone Receptor; a member of the cytokine receptor super family that signals chiefly through the JAK2/STAT5 pathway. Target tissue responsiveness...

  10. European audit of current practice in diagnosis and treatment of childhood growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Anders; Bernasconi, Sergio; Clayton, Peter E

    2002-01-01

    The present survey among members of the ESPE on current practice in diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone (GH) deficiency (GHD) is of great clinical relevance and importance in the light of the recently published guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of GHD by the Growth Hormone Research...... Society. We have found much conformity but also numerous discrepancies between the recommendations of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the current practice in Europe....

  11. The effects of growth hormone deficiency and growth hormone replacement therapy on intellectual ability, personality and adjustment in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puga González, B; Ferrández Longás, A; Oyarzábal, M; Nosas, R

    2010-06-01

    Traditionally, it has been assumed that intellectual development in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is distributed between ranges of a normal population based on the observation that it does not differ substantially from that of children of the same age. Nevertheless, few studies have investigated this assumption. This Spanish Collaborative study was prospectively planned with two main purposes: to study a possible influence of GHD on intelligence quotient (IQ), personality traits and adaptative capacity and to study the evolution of these parameters during substitution therapy with growth hormone (GH). Although the overall intellectual ability of children with GHD is comparable to that of a normal reference population, some areas such the motor-component scale (evaluated by McCarthy test) and performance IQ (evaluated by WISC-R) were below the mean at the beginning of the study, showing significant improvement during therapy. Emotional adjustment (normal at study start) also improved significantly during treatment. Females showed better adjustment capacity before and during GH therapy. Longer studies with an increased number of cases are needed to confirm these effects of GHD and its treatment in children.

  12. Growth hormone-specific induction of the nuclear localization of porcine growth hormone receptor in porcine hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, H N; Hong, P; Li, R N; Shan, A S; Zheng, X

    2017-10-01

    The phenomenon of nuclear translocation of growth hormone receptor (GHR) in human, rat, and fish has been reported. To date, this phenomenon has not been described in a domestic animal (such as pig). In addition, the molecular mechanisms of GHR nuclear translocation have not been thoroughly elucidated. To this end, porcine hepatocytes were isolated and used as a cell model. We observed that porcine growth hormone (pGH) can induce porcine GHR's nuclear localization in porcine hepatocytes. Subsequently, the dynamics of pGH-induced pGHR's nuclear localization were analyzed and demonstrated that pGHR's nuclear localization occurs in a time-dependent manner. Next, we explored the mechanism of pGHR nuclear localization using different pGHR ligands, and we demonstrated that pGHR's nuclear translocation is GH(s)-dependent. We also observed that pGHR translocates into cell nuclei in a pGH dimerization-dependent fashion, whereas further experiments indicated that IMPα/β is involved in the nuclear translocation of the pGH-pGHR dimer. The pGH-pGHR dimer may form a pGH-GHR-JAK2 multiple complex in cell nuclei, which would suggest that similar to its function in the cell membrane, the nuclear-localized pGH-pGHR dimer might still have the ability to signal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neuroendocrine and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adults with Pituitary Growth Hormone Deficiency (Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.I. Ismailov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article authors discussed the results of literature review, which has been dedicated to study of different complications of growth hormone deficiency in adults, referring to the literature of the last 10–15 years. Based on this analysis, the authors concluded that in adults with growth hormone deficiency there is an adverse profile of cardiovascular risk. Patients with growth hormone deficiency have an adverse lipid profile, elevated body mass index, increased waist circumference and a high risk of hypertension. These disorders are likely to explain the increased cardiovascular mortality observed in patients with hypopituitarism, regardless of the etiology of growth hormone deficiency in adults.

  14. Thyroid Hormone and Estrogen Regulate Exercise-Induced Growth Hormone Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Daniele Leão; da S. Silvestre, Diego H.; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Louzada, Ruy Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates whole body metabolism, and physical exercise is the most potent stimulus to induce its secretion in humans. The mechanisms underlying GH secretion after exercise remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of estrogen and pituitary type 1 deiodinase (D1) activation on exercise-induced GH secretion. Ten days after bilateral ovariectomy, animals were submitted to 20 min of treadmill exercise at 75% of maximum aerobic capacity and tissues were harvested immediately or 30 min after exercise. Non-exercised animals were used as controls. A significant increase in D1 activity occurred immediately after exercise (~60%) in sham-operated animals and GH was higher (~6-fold) 30 min after exercise. Estrogen deficient rats exhibited basal levels of GH and D1 activity comparable to those found in control rats. However, after exercise both D1 activity and serum GH levels were blunted compared to sedentary rats. To understand the potential cause-effect of D1 activation in exercise-induced GH release, we pharmacologically blocked D1 activity by propylthiouracil (PTU) injection into intact rats and submitted them to the acute exercise session. D1 inhibition blocked exercise-induced GH secretion, although basal levels were unaltered. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency impairs the induction of thyroid hormone activating enzyme D1 in the pituitary, and GH release by acute exercise. Also, acute D1 activation is essential for exercise-induced GH response. PMID:25874614

  15. Metabolic effects of growth hormone administered subcutaneously once or twice daily to growth hormone deficient adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    1994-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic effects of GH administered subcutaneously either once or twice daily. The actions of GH might depend upon a pulsatile pattern of serum GH. Pulsatile and continuous intravenous delivery of GH, however, induce similar short......-term metabolic effects in GH deficient patients. An improved growth response is obtained in GH deficient children when a fixed weekly GH dose is administered by daily subcutaneous injections instead of twice or thrice-weekly intramuscular injections. A more pulsatile pattern and serum GH levels above zero might...... be achieved by further increasing the injection frequency. Increased daytime GH levels might, however, adversely affect the circadian patterns of metabolic indices, which have been demonstrated to be more successfully reproduced by evening compared with morning GH administration. DESIGN AND MEASUREMENTS...

  16. Effects of Hypergravity Rearing on Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor in Rat Pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, L. A.; Chowdhury, J. H.; Grindeland, R. E.; Wade, C. E.; Ronca, A. E.

    2003-01-01

    Body weights of rat pups reared during exposure to hypergravity (hg) are significantly reduced relative to 1 g controls. In the present study, we examined in hg-reared rat pups two major contributors to growth and development, namely growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Beginning on Gestational day (G)11 of the rats 22 day pregnancy, rat dams and their litters were continuously exposed to either 1.5-g or 2.0-g. On Postnatal day (P)l0, plasma GH and IGF-1 were analyzed using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Both hormones were significantly elevated in hg pups relative to 1-g control pups. Together, these findings suggest that GH and IGF-1 are not primary determinants of reduced body weights observed in hg-reared pups. The significant elevations in pup GH and IGF-1 may be related to increased physical stimulation in hypergravity.

  17. Growth hormone receptor expression and function in pituitary adenomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lene R; Kristiansen, Mikkel T; Rasmussen, Lars M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Hypopituitarism, in particular GH deficiency, is prevalent in patients with clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) both before and after surgery. The factors regulating the growth of pituitary adenomas in general and residual tumour tissue in particular....... CONCLUSION: GH receptors are expressed in human pituitary adenoma cells but their functional role is uncertain. GH and IGF-I do not consistently influence the proliferation of cultured pituitary adenoma cells....... are not fully characterized, and the effect of GH and IGF-I on human pituitary cell proliferation has not previously been reported. In NFPA tissue from 14 patients we evaluated GH receptor (GHR) expression and signal transduction, and the effect of GH and IGF-I exposure on cell proliferation and hormone...

  18. Development of additional pituitary hormone deficiencies in pediatric patients originally diagnosed with isolated growth hormone deficiency due to organic causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child, Christopher J; Blum, Werner F; Deal, Cheri; Zimmermann, Alan G; Quigley, Charmian A; Drop, Stenvert L S; Cutler, Gordon B; Rosenfeld, Ron G

    2016-05-01

    To determine characteristics of children initially diagnosed with isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD) of organic aetiology, who later developed multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies (MPHD). Data were analysed for 716 growth hormone-treated children with organic IGHD, who were growth hormone-naïve at baseline in the multinational, observational Genetics and Neuroendocrinology of Short Stature International Study. Development of MPHD was ascertained from investigator-provided diagnoses, adverse events and concomitant medications. Analyses were performed for all patients and separately for those who developed MPHD within 4.5 years or had >3.5 years follow-up and continued to have IGHD (4-year cohort). MPHD developed in 71/716 (9.9%) children overall, and in 60/290 (20.7%) in the 4-year cohort. The most frequent additional deficiencies were thyroid-stimulating hormone (47 patients) and gonadotropins (23 patients). Compared with those who remained with IGHD, children who developed MPHD had more severe GHD at study entry, significantly lower baseline insulin-like growth factor1, peak stimulated growth hormone, and more frequent diagnosis of intracranial tumour or mutation of gene(s) controlling hypothalamic-pituitary development and/or function. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified female gender, longer follow-up, higher baseline age and lower peak stimulated growth hormone as predictors of MPHD development. MPHD is more likely to develop in patients with severe organic IGHD, especially those with history of intracranial tumour or mutation of gene(s) controlling hypothalamic-pituitary development and/or function. Older baseline age, female gender and longer follow-up duration were also associated with higher incidence of MPHD. Long-term monitoring of pituitary function is recommended, irrespective of the aetiology of GHD. © 2016 European Society of Endocrinology.

  19. The effect of long-term prednisone treatment on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prummel, M. F.; Wiersinga, W. M.; Oosting, H.; Endert, E.

    1996-01-01

    Due to a lack of longitudinal data the precise effect of long-term corticosteroid treatment on serum levels of the anabolic hormones Growth Hormone (GH) and Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) is unknown. Therefore, we prospectively followed GH and IGF-1 levels over a six month period in 18

  20. Effects of octreotide on insulin-like growth factor I and metabolic indices in growth hormone-treated growth hormone-deficient patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Torben; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Ørskov, Hans

    1993-01-01

    Abstract Animals studies have demonstrated that in addition to inhibiting growth hormone (GH) secretion octreotide inhibits in a direct manner hepatic or peripheral insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) generation. To test this hypothesis in humans we studied ten GH-deficient patients with frequent.......5 +/- 1.47 (octreotide) and 12.8 +/- 1.42 (placebo) (p = 0.83), and Tmax (h) was 6.1 +/- 0.97 (octreotide) and 5.2 +/- 0.65 (placebo) (p = 0.49). Growth hormone administration was associated with an increase in serum IGF-I (microgram/l), which was identical during the two studies, from 85.3 +/- 19...

  1. Genetic polymorphisms and protein structures in growth hormone, growth hormone receptor, ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor 1 and leptin in Mehraban sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, A; Behzadi, Sh; Miraei-Ashtiani, S R; Roh, S-G; Katoh, K

    2013-09-15

    The somatotropic axis, the control system for growth hormone (GH) secretion and its endogenous factors involved in the regulation of metabolism and energy partitioning, has promising potentials for producing economically valuable traits in farm animals. Here we investigated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the genes of factors involved in the somatotropic axis for growth hormone (GH1), growth hormone receptor (GHR), ghrelin (GHRL), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and leptin (LEP), using polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) and DNA sequencing methods in 452 individual Mehraban sheep. A nonradioactive method to allow SSCP detection was used for genomic DNA and PCR amplification of six fragments: exons 4 and 5 of GH1; exon 10 of GH receptor (GHR); exon 1 of ghrelin (GHRL); exon 1 of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and exon 3 of leptin (LEP). Polymorphisms were detected in five of the six PCR products. Two electrophoretic patterns were detected for GH1 exon 4. Five conformational patterns were detected for GH1 exon 5 and LEP exon 3, and three for IGF-I exon 1. Only GHR and GHRL were monomorphic. Changes in protein structures due to variable SNPs were also analyzed. The results suggest that Mehraban sheep, a major breed that is important for the animal industry in Middle East countries, has high genetic variability, opening interesting prospects for future selection programs and preservation strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. IDENTIFICATION OF GROWTH HORMONE GENE OF Pangasionodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raden Roro Sri Pudji Sinarni Dewi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of growth hormone (GH gene in a target fish is the first step in the construction of “all fish genes transfer vector” to generate transgenic fish. The research was done to identify and characterize the GH gene of Pangasionodon hypophthalmus. There were several activities performed in identifying the GH gene: RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, PCR amplification, and DNA fragment isolation. The characterizations were done using the nucleotide sequencing engine ABIPRISM 3100. The results were then analyzed using BLASTN/P and GENETYX version 7 program. The full-length GH gene of P. hypophthalmus was 1151 bp in length, coding for an open reading frame (ORF of 603 bp. The 5’ and 3’ untranslated regions of the GH gene were 22 bp and 526 bp long, respectively. The GH gene of P. hypophthalmus had some common characteristics that are owned by GH genes, such as single tryptophan residue (W on the 104th amino acid, 5 cysteine residues (C on the amino acid 71, 135, 173, 190, and 198 and a motif of Asn-Xaa-Thr on C terminus which is the potential location for N-linked glycosilation. Polyadenylation signal (aataaa was on the 14 bp at the upstream of polyadenylation location. Growth hormone of P. hypophthalmus consisted of over 200 amino acids from GH cDNA deduction. The highest proportion of amino acid composition was leusin (14% while the lowest was tryptophan (0.5%.

  3. Understanding burden of illness for child growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brod, Meryl; Alolga, Suzanne Lessard; Beck, Jane F; Wilkinson, Lars; Højbjerre, Lise; Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2017-07-01

    Research demonstrates that children and adolescents with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) are impacted in multiple ways beyond their short stature; however, there are no disease-specific measures to assess these impacts. The purpose of this study was to examine the burden of GHD on children and adolescents, and to conduct concept elicitation to develop a model of the impact of GHD to support a disease-specific outcome measure. Four focus groups and 52 telephone interviews were conducted with children with GHD and parents/guardians of children with GHD to understand the experience and impacts from the child's perspective, reported by children or parent-observers about the impact on the child. The interviews and focus groups were conducted in Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Interview transcripts were analyzed thematically based on modified grounded theory principles. There were 73 descriptions of patient's experiences elicited from 70 respondents, as three respondents spoke for two children each. A majority of GHD descriptive narratives refer to boy children (n = 51, 69.9%) and a majority of children had taken GHD treatment (n = 64, 89%). Analysis identified four major areas of GHD impact: Signs and Symptoms (beyond short stature), Physical Aspects of Daily Life, Social Well-Being, and Emotional Well-Being. The burden of GHD in children and adolescents is considerable and not limited to short stature. The severity of GHD impact on children and adolescents appears to be variable and individualized, but these data indicate that early identification and growth hormone treatment may lead to fewer impacts.

  4. Final height in girls with Turner's syndrome treated with once or twice daily growth hormone injections. Dutch Advisory Group on Growth Hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C.J. Sas (Theo); T. Vulsma (Thomas); W.J. Gerver; S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); H.M. Reeser (Maarten); M. Jansen (Maarten); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); Th. Stijnen (Theo); A. van Teunenbroek (Arne); A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita); J.J.J. Waelkens (Johan); G.G. Massa; H.A. Delemarre-van de Waal (Henriette)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To study final height in girls with Turner's syndrome treated with once or twice daily injections of growth hormone (GH) in combination with low dose ethinyl oestradiol. DESIGN: Until final height was reached, the effect of fractionated

  5. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of growth hormone gene expression in cultured rat pituitary cells by thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, B.M.

    1989-01-01

    In cultured GC cells, a rat pituitary tumor cell line, growth hormone (GH) is induced in a synergistic fashion by physiologic concentrations of thyroid and glucocorticoid hormones. Abundant evidence indicates that these hormones mediate this response via their specific receptors. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the mechanisms by which these hormones affect GH production. When poly (A){sup +} RNA was isolated from cells grown both with and without hormones and translated in a cell-free wheat germ system, the preGH translation products were shown to be proportional to immunoassayable GH production under all combinations of hormonal milieux, indicating that changes in GH production is modulated at a pretranslational level. A cDNA library was constructed from poly (A){sup +}RNA and one clone containing GH cDNA sequences was isolated. This was used to confirm the above results by Northern dot blot analysis. This probe was also used to assess hormonal effects on GH mRNA half-life and synthetic rates as well as GH gene transcription rates in isolated nuclei. Using a pulse-chase protocol in which cellular RNA was labeled in vivo with ({sup 3}H)uridine, and quantitating ({sup 3}H)GHmRNA directly by hybridization to GH cDNA bound to nitrocellulose filters, GHmRNA was found to have a half-life of approximately 50 hours, and was not significantly altered by the presence of inducing hormones.

  6. The effect of short-term cortisol changes on growth hormone responses to the pyridostigmine-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone test in healthy adults and patients with suspected growth hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M; Støving, R K; Hangaard, J

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The interaction between cortisol and growth hormone (GH)-levels may significantly influence GH-responses to a stimulation test. In order to systematically analyse the interaction in a paired design, it is necessary to use a test, which has been proven safe and reliable such a...... nor by conventional HC therapy itself. However, our results also demonstrated that a GH-stimulation test should not be performed on patients, suffering from acute stress....... such as the pyridostigmine-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone (PD-GHRH) test. Three groups of subjects with a different GH-secretory capacity were included. STUDY A: Eight healthy adults were tested seven times, once with placebo throughout the examination and six times with the PD-GHRH test following no glucocorticoid......-responses to a PD-GHRH test were reduced in all individuals during acute stress-appropriate cortisol levels and the percentage reduction in GH-levels was independent of the GH-secretory capacity. Clinically, we found that peak GH-responses were not significantly affected by a short break in conventional HC therapy...

  7. Introduction of exogenous growth hormone receptors augments growth hormone-responsive insulin biosynthesis in rat insulinoma cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, N; Møldrup, A; Serup, P

    1990-01-01

    The stimulation of insulin biosynthesis in the pancreatic insulinoma cell line RIN5-AH by growth hormone (GH) is initiated by GH binding to specific receptors. To determine whether the recently cloned rat hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the insulinotropic effect of GH, we have transfected...... of GH receptors in one clone (1.24) selected for detailed analysis was increased 2.6-fold compared to untransfected cells. The increased GH receptor expression was accompanied by an increased responsiveness to GH. Thus, the maximal GH-stimulated increase of insulin biosynthesis was 4.1-fold in 1...... magnitude of GH-stimulated insulin biosynthesis. A close stoichiometric relationship between the level of receptor expression and the level of GH-stimulated insulin biosynthesis was observed. We conclude from these results that the hepatic GH receptor is able to mediate the effect of GH on insulin...

  8. Gigantism caused by growth hormone secreting pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noorisaem Rhee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gigantism indicates excessive secretion of growth hormones (GH during childhood when open epiphyseal growth plates allow for excessive linear growth. Case one involved a 14.7-year-old boy presented with extreme tall stature. His random serum GH level was 38.4 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was noted during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT; nadir serum GH, 22.7 ng/mL. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed a 12-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Transsphenoidal surgery was performed and a pituitary adenoma displaying positive immunohistochemical staining for GH was reported. Pituitary MRI scan was performed 4 months after surgery and showed recurrence/residual tumor. Medical treatment with a long-acting somatostatin analogue for six months was unsuccessful. As a result, secondary surgery was performed. Three months after reoperation, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and insulin-like growth factor 1 was 205 ng/mL. Case two involved a 14.9-year-old boy, who was referred to our department for his tall stature. His basal GH level was 9.3 ng/mL, and failure of GH suppression was reported during OGTT (nadir GH, 9.0 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI showed a 6-mm-sized pituitary adenoma. Surgery was done and histopathological examination demonstrated a pituitary adenoma with positive staining for GH. Three months after surgery, the GH level was 0.2 ng/mL and nadir GH during OGTT was less than 0.1 ng/mL. Pituitary MRI scans showed no residual tumor. We present two cases of gigantism caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma with clinical and microscopic findings.

  9. MRI of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas: factors determining pretreatment hormone levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeki, N.; Iuchi, T.; Eda, M.; Yamaura, A. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Chiba University School of Medicine (Japan); Isono, S. [Dept. of Neurological Surgery, Anesthesiology, Chiba University School of Medicine, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-10-01

    Preoperative serum growth hormone (GH) level is one of the most important determinants of outcome. Our aim was to assess MRI findings which may correlate with pretreatment GH levels in GH-secreting adenomas. We retrospectively studied 29 patients with acromegaly caused by a pituitary adenoma. Tumor size (height, width, thickness and volume), suprasellar extension, sphenoid or cavernous sinus invasion, signal intensity and contrast enhancement were studied. Linear regression analysis or Fisher's exact probability test was used for statistical analysis. Factors related to high GH levels were the maximum dimension of the tumour (r = 0.496, P < 0.01), its volume (r = 0.439, P < 0.05), spenoid sinus invasion (P < 0.01) and intracavernous carotid artery encasement (P < 0.01). The other items were not related to serum GH levels. Since we believe surgery is the first choice of treatment and the cavernous sinus is difficult of access with a conventional surgical approach, preoperative assessment of invasion into the cavernous sinus is critical for predicting the surgical outcome. Low GH levels (5-50 ng/ml) were found with tumours medial to the intercarotid line and high levels (more than 101 ng/ml) with invasive tumours with carotid artery encasement. Variable GH levels were noted with tumours extending beyond the intercarotid line. Because functioning adenomas invading the cavernous sinus tend to have markedly high hormone levels, and only patients with carotid artery encasement showed markedly elevated GH levels, we believe carotid artery encasement a reliable MRI indicator of cavernous sinus invasion. (orig.)

  10. Gender influences short-term growth hormone treatment response in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sävendahl, Lars; Blankenstein, Oliver; Oliver, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment.......Gender may affect growth hormone (GH) treatment outcome. This study assessed gender-related differences in change from baseline height standard deviation scores (ΔHSDS) after 2 years' GH treatment....

  11. Molecular cloning of growth hormone encoding cDNA of Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    363–369. Miller W L and Eberhardt N L 1983 Structure and evolution of the growth hormone gene family; Endrocr. Rev. 4 97–130. Nial H D, Hogan M L and Saver R 1971 Sequence of pituitary and placental lactogenic and growth hormones: Evaluation from a primoridial peptide by gene reduplication; Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.

  12. DOES GROWTH-HORMONE TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH TURNERS SYNDROME CAUSE AN ABNORMAL BODY SHAPE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GERVER, WJM; DRAYER, NM; VANES, A

    The effect of human growth hormone on the body shape of 51 patients with Turner's syndrome (aged 6-19 years) was evaluated. Biosynthetic growth hormone was given in a dose of 24 IU/m2 body surface/week for two years. Karyotype analysis on peripheral blood was performed. Patients older than 12 years

  13. Growth hormone-releasing factor stimulates proliferation of somatotrophs in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; Swanson, L W; Vale, W

    1986-01-01

    The mitogenic effect of the hypothalamic peptides growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) and somatostatin on cultured growth hormone (GH)-producing cells (somatotrophs) was studied. Using autoradiographic detection of [3H]thymidine uptake and immunocytochemical identification of GH-producing cells...

  14. Adult height after growth hormone treatment in Japanese children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency: analysis from the KIGS Japan database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Kenji; Tanaka, Toshiaki; Takano, Kazue; Chihara, Kazuo; Seino, Yoshiki; Irie, Minoru

    2011-01-01

    To identify factors affecting adult height in Japanese patients with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD), who received growth hormone (GH) treatment during childhood. A retrospective pharmaco-epidemiological study of the effect of GH treatment on adult height standard deviation scores (SDS) was conducted in 374 Japanese patients with idiopathic GHD. During childhood, GH (0.146 +/- 0.023 mg/kg/week) was administered for a mean of 6.4 +/- 2.6 years. The mean adult height was 160.6 +/- 6.3 cm (-1.75 SD; n = 232) in boys and 146.9 +/- 7.3 cm (-2.20 SD; n = 158) in girls after GH therapy. The mean increases in height SDS in boys and girls with severe GHD were 2.13 SD and 1.66 SD, respectively (p < 0.05). These increases were greater than those observed in patients with moderate GHD and mild GHD. The mean adult height of male patients with GHD and gonadotropin deficiency (166.8 cm) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of isolated GHD patients who were either receiving (159.1 cm) or not receiving (160.5 cm) gonadal suppression therapy. The mean adult heights of female patients were 149.6, 146.7, and 146.9 cm, respectively, and these values did not significantly differ. Linear multiple regression analyses of Japanese patients with severe GHD (n = 61) revealed three independent variables that influenced adult height: gonadotropin deficiency, initial height SDS and height velocity during the first year after the initiation of GH therapy.

  15. Auxological outcome of growth hormone therapy at cessation of treatment in a cohort of growth hormone deficient Sri Lankan patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, K S H; Muhandiram, M E C

    2015-06-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (r-hGH) for growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has been available free in the state hospitals of Sri Lanka since 2009. The aims were to compare height standard deviation scores (SDS) before and after treatment and compare heights at final assessment in relation to the target height (TH) and TH range. Patients with confirmed GHD followed up at the University Unit of the Lady Ridgeway Hospital, Colombo were studied. Anthropometric data were prospectively recorded from presentation to cessation of therapy. The height SDS before and after treatment were calculated and the heights at final assessment were compared with the TH and TH range. Sixteen patients (15 boys) had completed treatment. The mean age at diagnosis was 145.38 (SD=34.28) months with a mean skeletal age of 97.5 (SD=42.85) months. Mean ages at commencement was 164.75 (SD=36.81) months and at cessation of therapy 212.06 (SD=30.12) months duration of therapy was 47.31 (SD=23.99) months.Majority had isolated GHD and 8 patients had pituitary hypoplasia on neuro-imaging. The height SDS improved significantly with treatment from -4.438 (1.18) to -3.37 (0.81), p<0.001. When finally assessed at ages ranging from 15 years 10 months to 26 years 9 months, one patient had reached the TH while six were in the TH range. Auxological response to therapy was significant although treatment was started late due to financial constraints.

  16. Is the growth outcome of children with idiopathic short stature and isolated growth hormone deficiency following treatment with growth hormone and a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist superior to that obtained by GH alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colmenares, Ana; González, Laura; Gunczler, Peter; Lanes, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined therapy with growth hormone (GH) and luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist (LHRHa) on the near-final height (NFH) of children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) and growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in early puberty. A retrospective analysis of 20 patients with ISS and 9 patients with GHD treated with combined therapy was undertaken. Twelve children with ISS and ten with GHD, treated with GH alone, served as controls. Patients were matched at baseline for chronological age, bone age, height standard deviation score (SDS), and pubertal development. Patients with ISS or GHD treated with combined therapy improved both their predicted adult height (PAH) at 2 years of therapy (ISS, p children, an increase of 7.9 +/- 4.9 cm with combined therapy vs. 7.3 +/- 6.0 cm with GH; GHD children, an increase of 6.8 +/- 7.8 cm with combined therapy vs. 5 +/- 5.9 cm with GH). The total height gain SDS was higher in patients treated with GH alone compared with those with combined therapy, but the difference was not significant (ISS children, a gain of 2.4 SDS with GH vs. 0.8 SDS with combined therapy; GHD children, a gain of 1.8 SDS with GH vs. 0.6 SDS with combined therapy). Although 2 years of combined treatment with GH and LHRHa improved the PAH and the NFH of ISS and GHD patients in early puberty, this improvement was not significant compared with that observed in similar subjects treated with GH alone.

  17. Growth hormone treatment in Turner's syndrome: A real world experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Sheker Reddy Danda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Short stature is a universal clinical feature of Turner's syndrome (TS. Growth failure begins in fetal life, and adults with TS are on an average 20 cm shorter than the normal female population. Since there is a paucity of data from India regarding the effect of growth hormone (GH on TS patients, we retrospectively analyzed the data of TS patients who are on GH treatment. Methods: This hospital-based observational retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Hyderabad. The data such as height, weight, and bone age of 16 patients who are diagnosed with TS on GH therapy for at least 6 months were included in the study. All the patients were treated with human recombinant GH at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg/week administered as daily subcutaneous injections. Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 12.7 years. The mean height at the start of GH therapy was 1.26 m, and mean height standard deviation score (HSDS was-0.61 when compared to Turner's specific reference data. With a mean duration of GH therapy of 25 months, the mean height at the end of therapy was 1.37 m and the mean height as per HSDS was + 0.37 resulting in a mean height gain of + 0.99 HSDS. Conclusion: Our observation shows that girls with TS benefit from early diagnosis and initiation of treatment with GH.

  18. Growth Hormone Treatment in Turner's Syndrome: A Real World Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy Danda, Vijay Sheker; Sreedevi, P; Arun, G; Rao, P Srinivas

    2017-01-01

    Short stature is a universal clinical feature of Turner's syndrome (TS). Growth failure begins in fetal life, and adults with TS are on an average 20 cm shorter than the normal female population. Since there is a paucity of data from India regarding the effect of growth hormone (GH) on TS patients, we retrospectively analyzed the data of TS patients who are on GH treatment. This hospital-based observational retrospective study was conducted in a tertiary care hospital of Hyderabad. The data such as height, weight, and bone age of 16 patients who are diagnosed with TS on GH therapy for at least 6 months were included in the study. All the patients were treated with human recombinant GH at the dose of 0.3 mg/kg/week administered as daily subcutaneous injections. The mean age at diagnosis was 12.7 years. The mean height at the start of GH therapy was 1.26 m, and mean height standard deviation score (HSDS) was-0.61 when compared to Turner's specific reference data. With a mean duration of GH therapy of 25 months, the mean height at the end of therapy was 1.37 m and the mean height as per HSDS was + 0.37 resulting in a mean height gain of + 0.99 HSDS. Our observation shows that girls with TS benefit from early diagnosis and initiation of treatment with GH.

  19. JAK2 activation by growth hormone and other cytokines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Michael J.; Brooks, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and structurally related cytokines regulate a great number of physiological and pathological processes. They do this by coupling their single transmembrane domain (TMD) receptors to cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases, either as homodimers or heterodimers. Recent studies have revealed that many of these receptors exist as constitutive dimers rather than being dimerized as a consequence of ligand binding, which has necessitated a new paradigm for describing their activation process. In the present study, we describe a model for activation of the tyrosine kinase Janus kinase 2 (JAK2) by the GH receptor homodimer based on biochemical data and molecular dynamics simulations. Binding of the bivalent ligand reorientates and rotates the receptor subunits, resulting in a transition from a form with parallel TMDs to one where the TMDs separate at the point of entry into the cytoplasm. This movement slides the pseudokinase inhibitory domain of one JAK kinase away from the kinase domain of the other JAK within the receptor dimer–JAK complex, allowing the two kinase domains to interact and trans-activate. This results in phosphorylation and activation of STATs and other signalling pathways linked to this receptor which then regulate postnatal growth, metabolism and stem cell activation. We believe that this model will apply to most if not all members of the class I cytokine receptor family, and will be useful in the design of small antagonists and agonists of therapeutic value. PMID:25656053

  20. Growth hormone transgenic salmon pay for growth potential with increased predation mortality.

    OpenAIRE

    Sundström, L Fredrik; Lõhmus, Mare; Johnsson, Jörgen I; Devlin, Robert H

    2004-01-01

    Recent advances in gene technology have been applied to create fast-growing transgenic fish, which are of great commercial interest owing to their potential to shorten production cycles and increase food production. However, there is growing concern and speculation over the impact that escaped growth hormone (GH)-transgenic fish may have on the natural environment. To predict these risks it is crucial to obtain empirical data on the relative fitness of transgenic and non-transgenic fish under...

  1. Inhibition of somatotroph growth and growth hormone biosynthesis by activin in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, Nils; González-Manchón, C; Potter, E

    1990-01-01

    ]methionine-labeled cells, could be observed after 24 h of activin treatment, and maximal (70%) inhibition of GH biosynthesis was observed after 3 days. Activin inhibited basal as well as GH-releasing factor (GRF)-, glucocorticoid-, and thyroid hormone-stimulated GH biosynthesis. Inhibin, which is known to reverse...... was observed. These data demonstrate that activin, in addition to its stimulatory effect on FSH secretion, is able to inhibit both expression of GH and growth of somatotropic cells....

  2. Luteinizing hormone responses to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone, and growth hormone and cortisol responses to insulin induced hypoglycaemia in functional secondary amenorrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirvonen, E; Seppälä, M; Karonen, S L; Adlercreutz, H

    1977-02-01

    Luteinizing hormone (LH) responses to luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), and growth hormone (GH) and cortisol responses to insulin induced hypoglycaemia were studied in 56 women classified into 4 distinct groups of functional secondary amenorrhoea. The groups were: I, self-induced weight reduction (20 patients); II, post pill amenorrhoea (14 patients); III, anorexia nervosa (10 patients); and IV, idiopathic secondary amenorrhoea (12 patients). Only patients with no overlapping anamnestic factors were included. Group I patients had the most heavily impaired LHRH-LH responses, and the GH response to hypoglycaemia was smaller than in other groups. Cortisol responses were normal. Group II patients showed blunted LH responses and normal GH and cortisol responses. Group III patients showed normal or exaggerated LH responses in the recovery phase of anorexia nervosa, while those two patients who were in the static phase of the illness had impaired responses. GH responses varied greatly. Group IV patients had normal basal levels of LH and normal LH, GH and cortisol responses. The restoration of LH response is not solely correlated to body mass, since patients recovering from anorexia nervosa showed greater LHRH-LH responses with nutritional rehabilitation at 76% of ideal body weight than patients with self-induced weight reduction at 87% of ideal body weight. In idiopathic amenorrhoea the hypothalamic pituitary axis seems to be practically intact. The function of hypothalamic-pituitary axis may be impaired selectively in functional amenorrhoea. Corticotrophin releasing hormone function remains intact, and GH-response may be impaired or normal independently of the LH-response to LHRH. In self-induced weight reduction both functions were impaired. These tests are easily carried out with out-patients, and they give more information about the functional state of hypothalamic-pituitary axis than basal analyses of hypothalamic-pituitary axis than basal analyses of

  3. Long-term results of growth hormone treatment in France in children of short stature: population, register based study.

    OpenAIRE

    Coste, J.; Letrait, M.; Carel, J C; Tresca, J. P.; Chatelain, P; Rochiccioli, P.; Chaussain, J. L.; Job, J. C.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the growth of children treated with growth hormone and to evaluate the prognostic factors for height at the end of treatment. DESIGN: Register based cohort study. SETTING: French national register of all children treated with growth hormone. SUBJECTS: 3233 short stature children (3165 of whom were deficient in growth hormone) who were treated with growth hormone (excluding children with Turner's syndrome) and whose treatment started between 1973 and 1989, last data bei...

  4. Antagonists of Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone Inhibit the Growth of U-87MG Human Glioblastoma in Nude Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hippokratis Kiaris

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone(GH-RH inhibit the growth of various cancers by mechanisms that involve the suppression of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF -I and/or IGF-II. In view of the importance of the IGF system in glioma tumorigenesis, the effects of GH-RH antagonists MZ-5-156 and JV-1-36 were investigated in nude mice bearing subcutaneous and orthotopic xenografts of U-87MG human glioblastomas. After 4 weeks of therapy with MZ-5-156 or JV-1-36 at the dose of 20 µmg/day per animal, the final volume of subcutaneous U-87MG tumors was significantly (P < .01 decreased by 84% and 76%, respectively, as compared with controls. Treatment with GHRH antagonists also reduced tumor weight and the levels of mRNA for IGF receptor type I (IGFR-I. A reduction in the mRNA levels for IGF-II was found in tumors of mice treated with MZ-5-156. Treatment with MZ-5-156 or JV-1-36 also extended the survival of nude mice implanted orthotopically with U-87MG glioblastomas by 81% (P < .005 and 18%, respectively, as compared with the controls. Exposure in vitro to GH-RH antagonists MZ-5-156 or JV-1-36 at 1 MM concentration for 24 hours decreased the tumorigenicity of U-87MG cells in nude mice by 10% to 30% and extended the latency period for the development of subcutaneous palpable tumors by 31% to 56%, as compared with the controls. Exposure of U-87MG cells to GH-RH antagonists in vitro also resulted in a time-dependent increase in the mRNA levels of IGFR-II or a decrease in the mRNA levels of IGFR-I. mRNA for GH-RH was detected in U87MG cells and xenografts implying that GH-RH may play a role in the pathogenesis of this tumor. Our results suggest that GH-RH antagonists MZ-5-156 and JV-136 inhibit the growth of U-87MG human glioblastoma by mechanisms that involve the suppression of IGF system. Antagonistic analogs of GH-RH merit further development for the treatment of malignant glioblastoma.

  5. Physiological role of somatostatin on growth hormone regulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorner, M O; Vance, M L; Hartman, M L; Holl, R W; Evans, W S; Veldhuis, J D; Van Cauter, E; Copinschi, G; Bowers, C Y

    1990-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) secretion in man is pulsatile and this pattern is regulated by both GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin. A large body of experimental evidence in both man and animals supports the model that bursts of GH secretion are mediated by a reduction of tonic hypothalamic somatostatin secretion. Our studies have been performed in normal subjects with frequent blood sampling for GH measurements (from 20-minute to 30-second intervals); the data have been analyzed by computer algorithms to objectively determine pulse characteristics and, in some studies, to estimate both pituitary secretion and clearance rates using deconvolution analysis. The studies include profiles of GH secretion in normal men and women in fed and fasted states; analysis of GH secretion during sleep; and administration of GHRH during different stages of sleep and after sleep deprivation. The variable GH response to exogenous GHRH and the attenuated response after 6 hours of GHRH infusion to GHRH, while not to hypoglycemia, as well as the pulsatile profile of GH secretion in response to continuous GHRH infusions (24 hours to 14 days), all support the thesis that it is hypothalamic somatostatin that determines the timing of bursts of GH secretion. This is further confirmed by the profile of GH secretion in a patient with ectopic GHRH secretion. Recently, we have initiated studies with the novel synthetic GH releasing hexapeptide, HisDTrpAlaTrpDPheLysNH2 (GHRP). Our studies show that it acts synergistically with GHRH. Several lines of evidence suggest that GHRP stimulates GH secretion independently of GHRH receptors and acts at both the hypothalamic and pituitary levels. It may act to functionally antagonize somatostatin.

  6. Comparison of response to 2-years' growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Peter A; Sävendahl, Lars; Oliver, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have compared the response to growth hormone (GH) treatment between indications such as isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD), born small for gestational age (SGA), idiopathic short stature (ISS), and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD). The aim of this analysis of data......, collected from two large ongoing observational outcome studies, was to evaluate growth and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) response data for children of short stature with IGHD, MPHD, SGA, or ISS following two years of treatment with the recombinant GH product Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd...

  7. Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormones are your body's chemical messengers. They travel in your bloodstream to tissues or organs. They work ... glands, which are special groups of cells, make hormones. The major endocrine glands are the pituitary, pineal, ...

  8. Osteocalcin induces growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 system by promoting testosterone synthesis in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Li, K

    2014-10-01

    Osteocalcin has been shown to enhance testosterone production in men. In the present study, we investigated the effects of osteocalcin on testosterone and on induction of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis. Osteocalcin injection stimulated growth, which could be inhibited by castration. In addition, osteocalcin induced testosterone secretion in testes both in vivo and in vitro. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, we showed that growth hormone expression was significantly increased in the pituitary after osteocalcin injection (pGrowth hormone expression in CLU401 mouse pituitary cells was also significantly stimulated (pgrowth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 (pgrowth hormone receptor and insulin-like growth factor-1 expression in NCTC1469 cells. These results suggest that the growth-stimulating activities of osteocalcin are mediated by testicular testosterone secretion, and thus provide valuable information regarding the regulatory effects of osteocalcin expression on the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis via reproductive activities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Cloning and sequencing of growth hormone gene of Iranian Lori Bakhtiari sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dayani-Nia

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH is a peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and animals. It is a 191-amino acid, single chain polypeptide hormone which is synthesized, stored, and secreted by the somatotroph cells within the lateral wings of the anterior pituitary gland. The goal of this research was to clone and sequence sheep growth hormone of Lori Bakhtiary breed in Iran. For this purpose, RNA was extracted from the pituitary gland of freshly slaughtered sheep and cDNA of growth hormone produced. The T/A cloning technique was used to clone the cDNA of growth hormone and then the synthesized construct was transferred into E. coli as the host. Once the correct recombinants were further confirmed by colony PCR or restriction enzyme digestion, sequencing was done. The sequencing results showed that, the length of sheep growth hormone cDNA was 690 bp fragments. Comparison of sequence of growth hormone inside the synthesized construct with those recorded in Genebank (NCBI, Blast indicated high degrees of similarity between Iranian native sheep and other sheep breeds of the world.

  10. Predicting the Probability of Abnormal Stimulated Growth Hormone Response in Children After Radiotherapy for Brain Tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua Chiaho, E-mail: Chia-Ho.Hua@stjude.org [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Wu Shengjie [Department of Biostatistics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Chemaitilly, Wassim [Division of Endocrinology, Department of Pediatric Medicine, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Lukose, Renin C.; Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. Methods and Materials: We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n = 72), low-grade glioma (n = 28) or craniopharyngioma (n = 6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test {>=}7 ng/mL. Results: Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (p < 0.0001) included IGF-1 z score, weight z score, and hypothalamic dose. The developed predictive model demonstrated a strong discriminatory power with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.883. At a potential cutoff point of probability of 0.3 the sensitivity was 80% and specificity 78%. Conclusions: Without unpleasant and expensive frequent stimulation tests, our model provides a quantitative approach to closely follow the growth hormone secretory capacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency.

  11. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on pituitary hormone secretion and hormone replacement therapies in GHD adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hubina, Erika; Mersebach, Henriette; Rasmussen, Ase Krogh

    2004-01-01

    We tested the impact of commencement of GH replacement therapy in GH-deficient (GHD) adults on the circulating levels of other anterior pituitary and peripheral hormones and the need for re-evaluation of other hormone replacement therapies, especially the need for dose changes....

  12. Optimizing Patient Management and Adherence for Children Receiving Growth Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo L. Acerini

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Poor adherence with growth hormone (GH therapy has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, which in children relates specifically to their linear growth and loss of quality of life. The “360° GH in Europe” meeting, held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2016 and funded by Merck KGaA (Germany, examined many aspects of GH diseases. The three sessions, entitled “Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral,” “Optimizing Patient Management,” and “Managing Transition,” each benefited from three guest speaker presentations, followed by an open discussion and are reported as a manuscript, authored by the speakers. Reported here is a summary of the proceedings of the second session, which reviewed the determinants of GH therapy response, factors affecting GH therapy adherence and the development of innovative technologies to improve GH treatment in children. Response to GH therapy varies widely, particularly in regard to the underlying diagnosis, although there is little consensus on the definition of a poor response. If the growth response is seen to be less than expected, the possible reasons should be discussed with patients and their parents, including compliance with the therapy regimen. Understanding and addressing the multiple factors that influence adherence, in order to optimize GH therapy, requires a multi-disciplinary approach. Because therapy continues over many years, various healthcare professionals will be involved at different periods of the patient’s journey. The role of the injection device for GH therapy, frequent monitoring of response, and patient support are all important for maintaining adherence. New injection devices are incorporating electronic technologies for automated monitoring and recording of clinically relevant information on injections. Study results are indicating that such devices can at least maintain GH adherence; however, acceptance of novel devices needs to be assessed and there remains an on

  13. Late effects of early growth hormone treatment in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrelid, Å; Bergman, S; Elfvik Strömberg, M; Jonsson, B; Nyberg, F; Gustafsson, J; Annerén, G

    2010-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with short stature and psychomotor delay. We have previously shown that growth hormone (GH) treatment during infancy and childhood normalizes growth velocity and improves fine motor skill performance in DS. The aim of this study was to investigate late effects of early GH treatment on growth and psychomotor development in the DS subjects from the previous trial. Twelve of 15 adolescents with DS (3 F) from the GH group and 10 of 15 controls (5 F) participated in this follow-up study. Fifteen other subjects with DS (6 F) were included as controls in anthropometric analyses. Cognitive function was assessed with the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and selected subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third edition (WISC-III). The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second edition (BOT-2), was used to assess general motor ability. Although early GH treatment had no effect on final height, the treated subjects had a greater head circumference standard deviation score (SDS) than the controls (-1.6 SDS vs. -2.2 SDS). The adolescents previously treated with GH had scores above those of the controls in all subtests of Leiter-R and WISC-III, but no difference in Brief IQ-score was seen between the groups. The age-adjusted motor performance of all subjects was below -2 SD, but the GH-treated subjects performed better than the controls in all but one subtest. The combined finding of a greater head circumference SDS and better psychomotor performance indicates that DS subjects may benefit from early GH treatment.

  14. Human growth hormone and gonadotropin releasing hormone analog combination therapy increases predicted height in short normal girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniati-Christidi, M; Livadas, S; Voutetakis, A; Tolis, G; Dacou-Voutetakis, C

    2003-01-01

    The "short normal" child constitutes a real challenge for the pediatric endocrinologist. In a subgroup of short normal children, puberty starts at a normal age but with low height, and hence, the final height is expected to be quite compromised. Efforts to improve the outcome in this group have been made in the past with equivocal results. We present the growth data of 8 short girls with normal growth hormone values on provocative testing and low height at puberty initiation. At intervention the height and the stage of puberty were 129.3 +/- 5 cm and II to III, respectively, and the predicted height was 148.8 +/- 2.6 cm. Gonadotropin releasing hormone analog, triptorelin (3.6 +/- 0.5 microg/kg/day) and growth hormone (0.5 IU/kg/week) were used in different sequential order and simultaneously in each child. The mean total treatment period was 47.6 +/- 11.2 months. The mean predicted and the mean final height in the total group were 148.8 +/- 2.6 and 154.5 +/- 3.6 cm, respectively (p:0.028). The final height did not differ from the target height (154.8 +/- 8 cm versus 154.5 +/- 3.6 cm), while in 4 children, the final height was greater than the target height. The height gain (delta Final height - Predicted height) was 5.7 +/- 1.3 cm. If we analyze separately the girls in whom growth hormone was started first and gonadotropin releasing hormone analog followed versus those who started the analog first, the delta Final height - Predicted height was 8 +/- 3 cm in the former and 4.8 +/- 3.1 cm in the latter (p:0.03). It seemed that the difference was accounted for by duration of growth hormone therapy (51.3 +/- 10.6 months versus 28.6 +/- 10.6 months) (p:0.026), rather than by other factors. In conclusion, under the conditions of the present study, the combination of puberty arrest and growth hormone therapy significantly improved predicted height. The most significant determinant of the height gain was the duration of growth hormone therapy.

  15. Corneal properties in children with congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinar Nalcacioglu-Yuksekkaya

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To compare the corneal parameters of children with congenital isolated growth hormone deficiency and healthy subjects.METHODS: In this cross-sectional, prospective study, 50 cases with growth hormone (GH deficiency treated with recombinant GH and 71 healthy children underwent a complete ophthalmic examination. The corneal hysteresis (CH, corneal resistance factor (CRF, Goldmann-correlated intraocular pressure (IOPg and corneal-compensated intraocular pressure (IOPcc were measured with the Ocular Response Analyzer (ORA. Central corneal thickness (CCT was measured by a ultrasonic pachymeter.RESULTS: The mean age was 13.0±3.0 years in the GH deficiency group consisting of 21 females and 29 males and 13.4±2.4 years in the healthy children group consisting of 41 females and 30 males. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups for gender or age (Chi-square test, P=0.09; independent t-test, P=0.28, respectively. The mean duration of recombinant GH therapy was 3.8±2.4y in the study group. The mean CH, CRF, IOPg and IOPcc values were 11.0±2.0, 10.9±1.9, 15.1±3.3, and 15.1±3.2 mm Hg respectively in the study group. The same values were 10.7±1.7, 10.5±1.7, 15.2±3.3, and 15.3±3.4 mm Hg respectively in the control group. The mean CCT values were 555.7±40.6, 545.1±32.5 µm in the study and control groups respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups for CH, CRF, IOPg, IOPcc measurements or CCT values (independent t-test, P=0.315, 0.286, 0.145, 0.747, 0.13 respectively.CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that GH deficiency does not have an effect on the corneal parameters and CCT values. This observation could be because of the duration between the beginning of disease and the diagnosis and beginning of GH therapy.

  16. Protective Role of Growth Hormone against Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced Glomerular Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Caixia; Xia, Min; Abais, Justine M.; Liu, Xiaocheng; Li, Ningjun; Boini, Krishna M.; Li, Pin-Lan

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the protective role of growth hormone (GH) against hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys)-induced activations of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and consequent glomerular injury. A hyperhomocysteinemia (hHcys) model was induced by folate free (FF) diet in mice. The urine protein excretion significantly increased while plasma GH levels dramatically decreased in hHcys. Real time RT-PCR showed that GH receptor (GHR) level increased in the cortex of hHcys mice, which mainly occurred in podocytes as shown by confocal microscopy. Recombinant mouse growth hormone (rmGH) treatment (0.02 mg/kg, once a day for 6 weeks) significantly restored the plasma GH, inhibited GHR up-regulation and attenuated proteinuria. Correspondingly, rmGH treatment also blocked hHcys-induced decrease in the expression of podocin, a podocyte slit diaphragm molecule, and inhibited the increases in the expression of desmin, a podocyte injury marker. It was also demonstrated that in hHcys the expression of epithelial markers, p-cadherin and ZO-1, decreased, while the expression of mesenchymal markers, FSP-1 and α-SMA, increased in podocytes, which together suggest the activation of EMT in podocytes. NADPH oxidase (Nox)-dependent superoxide anion (O2·−) and HIF-1α level in the hHcys mice cortex was markedly enhanced. These hHcys-induced EMT enhancement and Nox-dependant O2·−/HIF-1α activation were significantly attenuated by rmGH treatment. HIF-1α level increased in Hcys-treated cultured podocytes, which were blocked by rmGH treatment. Meanwhile, Hcys-induced EMT in cultured podocytes was significantly reversed by HIF-1α siRNA. All these results support the view that GH ameliorates hHcys-induced glomerular injury by reducing Nox-dependent O2·−/HIF-1α signal pathway and EMT. PMID:23529346

  17. Insulin-like growth factor 1 and growth hormone in chronic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Becker, Povl Ulrik

    1992-01-01

    mainly due to the decreased liver function. Low levels of somatomedins are also seen in patients with growth hormone (GH) insufficiency, renal impairment, and malnutrition. GH stimulates the production of IGF-1, and both are part of a negative feedback system acting on hepatic, pituitary......Somatomedins or insulin-like growth factors (IGF) are peptides synthesized in the liver. IGFs have different anabolic and metabolic actions and are important in normal growth and development. The concentration of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is low in patients with chronic liver disease......, and hypothalamic levels. The basal and stimulated GH concentration is pathologically elevated in patients with chronic liver disease and may be due to a disturbed regulation. Alterations in liver IGF receptors in patients with chronic liver disease still require investigation as they may be important for the liver...

  18. Growth hormone signaling is necessary for lifespan extension by dietary methionine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Borg, Holly M; Rakoczy, Sharlene G; Wonderlich, Joseph A; Rojanathammanee, Lalida; Kopchick, John J; Armstrong, Vanessa; Raasakka, Debbie

    2014-12-01

    Growth hormone significantly impacts lifespan in mammals. Mouse longevity is extended when growth hormone (GH) signaling is interrupted but markedly shortened with high-plasma hormone levels. Methionine metabolism is enhanced in growth hormone deficiency, for example, in the Ames dwarf, but suppressed in GH transgenic mice. Methionine intake affects also lifespan, and thus, GH mutant mice and respective wild-type littermates were fed 0.16%, 0.43%, or 1.3% methionine to evaluate the interaction between hormone status and methionine. All wild-type and GH transgenic mice lived longer when fed 0.16% methionine but not when fed higher levels. In contrast, animals without growth hormone signaling due to hormone deficiency or resistance did not respond to altered levels of methionine in terms of lifespan, body weight, or food consumption. Taken together, our results suggest that the presence of growth hormone is necessary to sense dietary methionine changes, thus strongly linking growth and lifespan to amino acid availability. © 2014 The Authors. Aging Cell published by the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Does growth hormone treatment influence pubertal development in short children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Anna-Karin; Ankarberg-Lindgren, Carina; Tuvemo, Torsten; Jonsson, Björn; Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin; Ritzén, E Martin

    2011-01-01

    To study the influence of growth hormone (GH) treatment on the initiation and progression of puberty in short children. This prospective, randomized, controlled study included 124 short children (33 girls) who received GH treatment (Genotropin®; Pfizer Inc.) from a mean age of 11 years until near adult height [intent-to-treat (ITT) population]. Children were randomized into three groups: controls (n = 33), GH 33 μg/kg/day (n = 34) or GH 67 μg/kg/day (n = 57). Prepubertal children at study start constituted the per-protocol (PP) population (n = 101). Auxological measurements were made and puberty was staged every 3 months. Serum sex-steroid concentrations were assessed every 6 months. No significant differences were found between the groups, of both PP and ITT populations, in time elapsed from start of treatment until either onset of puberty, age at start of puberty or age at final pubertal maturation in either sex. In the ITT population, pubertal duration was significantly longer in GH-treated girls, and maximum mean testicular volume was significantly greater in GH-treated boys than controls, but there were no differences in testosterone levels between the groups. GH treatment did not influence age at onset of puberty and did not accelerate pubertal development. In boys, GH treatment appeared to increase testicular volume. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Dissolving microneedle patch for transdermal delivery of human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong Woo; Choi, Seong-O; Felner, Eric I; Prausnitz, Mark R

    2011-02-18

    The clinical impact of biotechnology has been constrained by the limitations of traditional hypodermic injection of biopharmaceuticals. Microneedle patches have been proposed as a minimally invasive alternative. In this study, the translation of a dissolving microneedle patch designed for simple, painless self-administration of biopharmacetucials that generates no sharp biohazardous waste is assessed. To study the pharmacokinetics and safety of this approach, human growth hormone (hGH) was encapsulated in 600 μm-long dissolving microneedles composed of carboxymethylcellulose and trehalose using an aqueous, moderate-temperature process that maintained complete hGH activity after encapsulation and retained most activity after storage for up to 15 months at room temperature and humidity. After manual insertion into the skin of hairless rats, hGH pharmacokinetics were similar to conventional subcutaneous injection. After patch removal, the microneedles had almost completely dissolved, leaving behind only blunt stubs. The dissolving microneedle patch was well tolerated, causing only slight, transient erythema. This study suggests that a dissolving microneedle patch can deliver hGH and other biopharmaceuticals in a manner suitable for self-administration without sharp biohazardous waste. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Urinary growth hormone excretion in 657 healthy children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K; Philips, M; Jørgensen, M

    1991-01-01

    .0001) with maximum values in Tanner stage 3 for girls and 4 for boys. This corresponded to a peak in u-GH excretion between 11.5-14.5 years in girls and 12.5-16 years in boys. Additionally, u-GH excretion in adults was significantly higher than in prepubertal children (p less than 0.001). The day/night ratio of u......-GH excretion (pg/h) was significantly higher in females than in males (p less than 0.01). In Tanner stages 1-4, u-GH excretion during the day was lower than that at night, whereas the opposite was true in late puberty and in adult women. The interindividual variation of u-GH excretion within the same Tanner......Urinary growth hormone (u-GH) excretion was measured in 547 healthy children and 110 adults by ELISA with a detection limit of 1.1 ng/l u-GH after prior concentration of the urine samples (20- to 30-fold). u-GH excretion values were significantly dependent on the pubertal stage (p less than 0...

  2. Growth hormone regulates the expression of UCP2 in myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Futawaka, Kumi; Tagami, Tetsuya; Fukuda, Yuki; Koyama, Rie; Nushida, Ayaka; Nezu, Syoko; Imamoto, Miyuki; Kasahara, Masato; Moriyama, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    To determine if and how growth hormone (GH) signaling is involved in energy metabolism. We used human embryonic kidney TSA201 cells, human H-EMC-SS chondrosarcoma cells, rat L6 skeletal muscle cells, and murine C2C12 skeletal muscle myoblasts to investigate GH-induced expression of uncoupling protein2 (UCP2) to the GHR/JAK/STAT5 pathway by a combination of a reporter assay, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), real-time quantitative PCR, Western blotting. We demonstrated that the regulation energy metabolism, which was hypothesized to be directly acted on by GH, involves UCP2 via activated STAT5B, a signal transducer downstream of GH. We also showed that the sequence at the -586 'TTCnGA' may function as a novel putative consensus sequence of STAT5s. The results suggest that GH regulates energy metabolism directly in myocytes and that UCP2 participates in the signal transduction pathway that functions downstream of the GHR/JAK/STAT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Growth Hormone Inhibits Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis in Adult Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Majumdar, Neena; List, Edward O.; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Frank, Stuart J.; Manzano, Anna; Bartrons, Ramon; Puchowicz, Michelle; Kopchick, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are reported to have low growth hormone (GH) production and/or hepatic GH resistance. GH replacement can resolve the fatty liver condition in diet-induced obese rodents and in GH-deficient patients. However, it remains to be determined whether this inhibitory action of GH is due to direct regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Therefore, an adult-onset, hepatocyte-specific, GH receptor (GHR) knockdown (aLivGHRkd) mouse was developed to model hepatic GH resistance in humans that may occur after sexual maturation. Just 7 days after aLivGHRkd, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) was increased in male and female chow-fed mice, compared with GHR-intact littermate controls. However, hepatosteatosis developed only in male and ovariectomized female aLivGHRkd mice. The increase in DNL observed in aLivGHRkd mice was not associated with hyperactivation of the pathway by which insulin is classically considered to regulate DNL. However, glucokinase mRNA and protein levels as well as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels were increased in aLivGHRkd mice, suggesting that enhanced glycolysis drives DNL in the GH-resistant liver. These results demonstrate that hepatic GH actions normally serve to inhibit DNL, where loss of this inhibitory signal may explain, in part, the inappropriate increase in hepatic DNL observed in NAFLD patients. PMID:26015548

  4. Growth hormone receptor/binding protein: physiology and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, A C; Ymer, S I; Stevenson, J L; Roupas, P

    1994-07-01

    Soluble truncated forms of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) are present in the circulation of many species and are also produced by many tissues/cell types. The major high-affinity forms of these GH-binding proteins (GHBP) are derived by alternative splicing of GHR mRNA in rodents, but probably by proteolytic cleavage in other species. Questions still remain with respect to the origins, native molecular form(s), physiology, and function of the GHBPs, however. The observation that GH induces dimerization of the soluble GHBP and membrane GHR, and that dimerization of GHR appears to be critical for GH bioactivity suggests that the presentation of GH to target cells, in an unbound form or as a monomeric or dimeric complex with GHBP, may have significant implications for the ability of GH to activate specific postreceptor signaling pathways (tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C, G-protein pathways) known to be utilized by GH for its diverse biological effects. This minireview addresses some of these aspects and highlights several new questions which have arisen as a result of recent advances in our understanding of the structure, function, and signaling mechanisms of the membrane bound GHR.

  5. Growth hormone receptor/binding protein: Physiology and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herington, A.C.; Ymer, S.I.; Stevenson, J.L.; Roupas, P. [Royal Children`s Hospital, Melbourne (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Soluble truncated forms of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) are present in the circulation of many species and are also produced by many tissues/cell types. The major high-affinity forms of these GH-binding proteins (GHBP) are derived by alternative splicing of GHR mRNA in rodents, but probably by proteolytic cleavage in other species. Questions still remain with respect to the origins, native molecular forms(s), physiology, and function of the GHBPs, however. The observation that GH induces dimerization of the soluble GHBP and a membrane GHR, and that dimerization of GHR appears to be critical for GH bioactivity suggests that the presentation of GH to target cells, in an unbound form or as a monomeric or dimeric complex with GHBP, may have significant implications for the ability of GH to activate specific postreceptor signaling pathways (tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C, G-protein pathways) known to be utilized by GH for its diverse biological effects. This minireview addresses some of these aspects and highlights several new questions which have arisen as a result of recent advances in our understanding of the structure, function, and signaling mechanisms of the membrane bound GHR. 43 refs.

  6. Hearing loss in children with growth hormone deficiency.

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    Muus, John S; Weir, Forest W; Kreicher, Kathryn L; Bowlby, Deborah A; Discolo, Christopher M; Meyer, Ted A

    2017-09-01

    Although insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) has been shown to be important for inner-ear development in animal models, little is known about the otologic and audiologic findings of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, type, and severity of hearing impairment in children with GHD. Audiologic, otologic, and demographic data were recorded for children with a diagnosis of GHD in the AudGen database. Data for each patient were selected based on the first encounter with available complete audiometric data or the first encounter with a type of hearing loss documented. The patients were then stratified by type and severity of hearing loss, and otologic issues were documented. A separate cohort comprised of children with GHD without hearing loss was compared as a control. 209 children with GHD met inclusion criteria. 173 (83%) of these patients had hearing loss. 79% of losses were bilateral and 21% were unilateral (309 total ears with hearing loss). 293 of the 309 ears with hearing loss had audiograms with ear-specific thresholds; 47 had conductive, 24 had sensorineural, 65 had mixed and 157 had undefined hearing loss with incomplete audiograms. Pure-tone averages (PTA) were higher among patients with mixed hearing loss compared to patients with all other loss types. Hearing loss is prevalent in children with GHD with a predisposition to be bilateral. These findings suggest the need for increased awareness and routine hearing screening for patients with GHD. Further studies may elucidate the etiology of the hearing impairment in children with GHD to better aid pediatricians, endocrinologists, otolaryngologists and audiologists when assessing and managing these children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise‐Induced growth hormone during acute sleep deprivation

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    Ritsche, Kevin; Nindl, Bradly C.; Wideman, Laurie

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The effect of acute (24‐h) sleep deprivation on exercise‐induced growth hormone (GH) and insulin‐like growth factor‐1 (IGF‐1) was examined. Ten men (20.6 ± 1.4 years) completed two randomized 24‐h sessions including a brief, high‐intensity exercise bout following either a night of sleep (SLEEP) or (24‐h) sleep deprivation (SLD). Anaerobic performance (mean power [MP], peak power [PP], minimum power [MinP], time to peak power [TTPP], fatigue index, [FI]) and total work per sprint [TWPS]) was determined from four maximal 30‐sec Wingate sprints on a cycle ergometer. Self‐reported sleep 7 days prior to each session was similar between SLEEP and SLD sessions (7.92 ± 0.33 vs. 7.98 ± 0.39 h, P =0.656, respectively) and during the actual SLEEP session in the lab, the total amount of sleep was similar to the 7 days leading up to the lab session (7.72 ± 0.14 h vs. 7.92 ± 0.33 h, respectively) (P =0.166). No differences existed in MP, PP, MinP, TTPP, FI, TWPS, resting GH concentrations, time to reach exercise‐induced peak GH concentration (TTP), or free IGF‐1 between sessions. GH area under the curve (AUC) (825.0 ± 199.8 vs. 2212.9 ± 441.9 μg/L*min, P exercise‐induced peak GH concentration (17.8 ± 3.7 vs. 39.6 ± 7.1 μg/L, P exercise‐induced GH response was significantly augmented in sleep‐deprived individuals. PMID:25281616

  8. Managing Transition in Patients Treated with Growth Hormone

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    Berthold P. Hauffa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH promotes growth in children, but is also essential for bone strength, body composition, metabolic factors, such as lipid profile, and maintenance of quality of life. The Merck KGaA (Germany funded “360° GH in Europe” meeting, held in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 2016, comprised three sessions entitled “Short Stature Diagnosis and Referral,” “Optimizing Patient Management and Adherence,” and “Managing Transition.” The scientific program covered all stages of pediatric GH treatment, and reported here are the outcomes of the third session of the meeting, which considered transition from pediatric GH treatment to teenage and young adult GH therapy. A large number of patients with chronic diseases, including GH deficiency, drop out of therapy during the transition period. Multiple factors are associated with this, such as lack of understanding of the disease process, insufficient knowledge of treatment options, the patient becoming more independent, and requirement for interaction with a new set of health-care workers. Education regarding disease management and treatment options should be provided from an early age and right through the transition period. However, endocrine specialists will view the transition period differently, depending on whether they are pediatric endocrinologists who mainly deal with congenital diseases, in which auxology is important, or adult endocrinologists who are more concerned with body composition and metabolic factors. View points of both a pediatric and an adult endocrine specialist are presented, together with a case study outlining practical aspects of transition. It was noted in the meeting discussion that having one person to guide a patient through transition from an early age is important, but may be constrained by various factors such as finances, and options will differ by country.

  9. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Enhances the Growth Hormone Receptor Expression in Tendon Fibroblasts

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    Chung-Hsun Chang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to explore the effect of BPC 157 on tendon fibroblasts isolated from Achilles tendon of male Sprague-Dawley rat. From the result of cDNA microarray analysis, growth hormone receptor was revealed as one of the most abundantly up-regulated genes in tendon fibroblasts by BPC 157. BPC 157 dose- and time-dependently increased the expression of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels as measured by RT/real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The addition of growth hormone to BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts dose- and time-dependently increased the cell proliferation as determined by MTT assay and PCNA expression by RT/real-time PCR. Janus kinase 2, the downstream signal pathway of growth hormone receptor, was activated time-dependently by stimulating the BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts with growth hormone. In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon.

  10. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 enhances the growth hormone receptor expression in tendon fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Hsun; Tsai, Wen-Chung; Hsu, Ya-Hui; Pang, Jong-Hwei Su

    2014-11-19

    BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to explore the effect of BPC 157 on tendon fibroblasts isolated from Achilles tendon of male Sprague-Dawley rat. From the result of cDNA microarray analysis, growth hormone receptor was revealed as one of the most abundantly up-regulated genes in tendon fibroblasts by BPC 157. BPC 157 dose- and time-dependently increased the expression of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels as measured by RT/real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The addition of growth hormone to BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts dose- and time-dependently increased the cell proliferation as determined by MTT assay and PCNA expression by RT/real-time PCR. Janus kinase 2, the downstream signal pathway of growth hormone receptor, was activated time-dependently by stimulating the BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts with growth hormone. In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon.

  11. Primary growth hormone insensitivity (Laron syndrome and acquired hypothyroidism: a case report

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    Corneli Ginevra

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Primary growth hormone resistance or growth hormone insensitivity syndrome, also known as Laron syndrome, is a hereditary disease caused by deletions or different types of mutations in the growth hormone receptor gene or by post-receptor defects. This disorder is characterized by a clinical appearance of severe growth hormone deficiency with high levels of circulating growth hormone in contrast to low serum insulin-like growth factor 1 values. Case presentation We report the case of a 15-year-old Caucasian girl who was diagnosed with Silver-Russell syndrome at the age of four and a half years. Recombinant growth hormone was administered for 18 months without an appropriate increase in growth velocity. At the age of seven years, her serum growth hormone levels were high, and an insulin-like growth factor 1 generation test did not increase insulin-like growth factor 1 levels (baseline insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, 52 μg/L; reference range, 75 μg/L to 365 μg/L; and peak, 76 μg/L and 50 μg/L after 12 and 84 hours, respectively, from baseline. The genetic analysis showed that the patient was homozygous for the R217X mutation in the growth hormone receptor gene, which is characteristic of Laron syndrome. On the basis of these results, the diagnosis of primary growth hormone insensitivity syndrome was made, and recombinant insulin-like growth factor 1 therapy was initiated. The patient's treatment was well tolerated, but unexplained central hypothyroidism occurred at the age of 12.9 years. At the age of 15 years, when the patient's sexual development was almost completed and her menstrual cycle occurred irregularly, her height was 129.8 cm, which is 4.71 standard deviations below the median for normal girls her age. Conclusion The most important functional tests for the diagnosis of growth hormone insensitivity are the insulin-like growth factor 1 generation test and genetic analysis. Currently, the only effective

  12. Serum Growth Hormone and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Levels in Women with Postadolescent Acne

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    Mualla Polat

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous unit. It usually starts after puberty but may continue into adulthood. We studied Growth hormone (GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 levels in women patients with acne vulgaris in whom all other hormon levels were normal. We aimed to show any relation of the acne vulgaris lesion type and GH and IGF-1 levels. Material and Method: The study conducted on the postadolesance period woman patients applying to out patient dermatology department with complaint of acne symptoms between Semtember 2005 and July 2006. All other hormonal parameters were normal in patients. 25 healthy similar age women were accepted as control. IGF-I and GH were quantified by solid-phase competitive chemiluminescence assays. Results: There was no difference according to age between the groups (p=0.726. The mean IGF-1 level was 336.5±112.88 ng/ml in patients and 194±31.32 ng/ml in control; the difference was significantly important (p=0.000. The mean GH level was 3.16±4.35 µIU/ml in patients and 1.15±1.21 µIU/ml in control; and the diffrence was not found as important (p=0.03. IGF-1 level was significantly important in patients with noduler involvement (p=0.015, and GH level was also significantly important in patients with cystic involvement (p=0.05. Conclusion: We supported the hypothesis that GH and IGF-1 levels were important in postadolasence period women patients with acne vulgaris. We recommend new studies comparing GH and IGF-1 levels in adolesence and postadolesence period women patients in order to support the role of these hormones in pathogenesis of acne vulgaris.

  13. Current indications for growth hormone therapy for children and adolescents.

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    Richmond, Erick; Rogol, Alan D

    2010-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) therapy has been appropriate for severely GH-deficient children and adolescents since the 1960s. Use for other conditions for which short stature was a component could not be seriously considered because of the small supply of human pituitary-derived hormone. That state changed remarkably in the mid-1980s because of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease associated with human pituitary tissue-derived hGH and the development of a (nearly) unlimited supply of recombinant, 22 kDa (r)hGH. The latter permitted all GH-deficient children to have access to treatment and one could design trials using rhGH to increase adult height in infants, children and adolescents with causes of short stature other than GH deficiency, as well as trials in adult GH-deficient men and women. Approved indications (US Food and Drug Administration) include: GH deficiency, chronic kidney disease, Turner syndrome, small-for-gestational age with failure to catch up to the normal height percentiles, Prader-Willi syndrome, idiopathic short stature, SHOX gene haploinsufficiency and Noonan syndrome (current to October 2008). The most common efficacy outcome in children is an increase in height velocity, although rhGH may prevent hypoglycemia in some infants with congenital hypopituitarism and increase the lean/fat ratio in most children - especially those with severe GH deficiency or Prader-Willi syndrome. Doses for adults, which affect body composition and health-related quality of life, are much lower than those for children, per kilogram of lean body mass. The safety profile is quite favorable with a small, but significant, incidence of raised intracranial pressure, scoliosis, muscle and joint discomfort, including slipped capital femoral epiphysis. The approval of rhGH therapy for short, non-GH-deficient children has validated the notion of GH sensitivity, which gives the opportunity to some children with significant short stature, but with normal stimulated GH test results, to benefit from

  14. Parents' views on growth hormone treatment for their children: psychosocial issues

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    van Dongen N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Nadine van Dongen,1 Ad A Kaptein21Patient Intelligence Panel Health Ltd, London, United Kingdom; 2Section Medical Psychology, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden, The NetherlandsBackground: We evaluated the opinions of parents in The Netherlands concerning treatment of their children with growth hormone, and examined beliefs and perceptions about treatment and quality of health care communication and support.Methods: An Internet survey was completed by 69 parents who had children prescribed growth hormone and were part of the Patient Intelligence Panel. Acceptance of the diagnosis and treatment was investigated with reference to four topics, ie, search and quality of information, involvement in decision-making process, operational aspects, and emotional problems and support.Results: Among the parents surveyed, 48% reported a lack of freedom to choose the type of growth hormone device that best suited their needs, 92% believed that their children (and they themselves would benefit if the children self-administered growth hormone, and 65% believed training to support self-administration would be helpful. According to 79%, the availability of support from another parent with experience of treating their own child with growth hormone, alongside their doctor, would be valuable. Thirty-seven percent of the parents indicated that their children felt anxious about administration of growth hormone, and 83% of parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome their anxiety. An increase in reluctance to receive treatment with growth hormone was observed by 40% of parents after the children reached puberty, and 57% of these parents would appreciate psychological support to overcome this reluctance.Conclusion: Understanding how growth hormone treatments and their implications are perceived by parents is a first step towards addressing quality of growth hormone treatment, which may be instrumental in improving adherence. The data show a need for

  15. Intra-myocardial growth hormone administration ameliorates arrhythmogenesis during ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontonika, Marianthi; Barka, Eleonora; Roumpi, Maria; Vilaeti, Agapi D; Baltogiannis, Giannis G; Vlahos, Antonios P; Agathopoulos, Simeon; Kolettis, Theofilos M

    Growth hormone, currently under evaluation for the prevention of left ventricular remodeling post-myocardial infarction, displays antiarrhythmic properties in the acute setting. However, it is uncertain whether these actions are retained after ischemia/reperfusion. Using implanted telemetry transmitters, we examined the effects of prolonged, intra-myocardial growth hormone administration in conscious rats. During a 24-h observation period, ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sympathetic activation were attenuated in treated rats, whereas infarct-size was unchanged. These findings call for further study on the antiarrhythmic effects of growth hormone and on the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Pseudotumor Cerebri in a Child with Idiopathic Growth Hormone Insufficiency Two Months after Initiation of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Treatment

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    Eleni Loukianou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report a rare case of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC in a child two months after receiving treatment with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH and to emphasize the need of close collaboration between ophthalmologists and pediatric endocrinologists in monitoring children receiving rhGH. Methods. A 12-year-old boy with congenital hypothyroidism started treatment with rhGH on a dose of 1,5 mg/daily IM (4.5 IU daily. Eight weeks later, he was complaining of severe headache without any other accompanying symptoms. The child was further investigated with computed tomography scan and lumbar puncture. Results. Computed tomography scan showed normal ventricular size and lumbar puncture revealed an elevated opening pressure of 360 mm H2O. RhGH was discontinued and acetazolamide 250 mg per os twice daily was initiated. Eight weeks later, the papilledema was resolved. Conclusions. There appears to be a causal relationship between the initiation of treatment with rhGH and the development of PTC. All children receiving rhGH should have a complete ophthalmological examination if they report headache or visual disturbances shortly after the treatment. Discontinuation of rhGH and initiation of treatment with acetazolamide may be needed and regular follow-up examinations by an ophthalmologist should be recommended.

  17. Polyacrylamide gels with selective recognition of the tetrameric molecular form of human growth hormone

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    R. Kublickas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Networks of polyacrylamide were studied for the possibility of imprinting of the oligomeric form of human growth hormone. The tetrameric molecular form of human growth hormone was molecularly imprinted for the first time. The results show that approximately 50–70% (w/w of the templates (depending on polymerization conditions could be extracted from the molecularly imprinted acrylamide polymers. The resulting ‘gel antibodies’ against this form of human growth hormone in the form of granules of polyacrylamide were compared with granules of non-imprinted polymer. The selectivity of the artificial gel antibodies was studied. Investigation of the binding to imprinted polymer of the template hormone, other molecular forms of the hormone and other proteins shows the selectivity of the developed artificial gel antibodies.

  18. Kidney growth and renal functions under the growth hormone replacement therapy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ece, Aydın; Çetinkaya, Semra; Ekşioğlu, Seçil; Şenel, Saliha; Özkasap, Serdar; Giniş, Tayfur; Sen, Velat; Şahin, Cahit

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the kidney growth and renal functions in children receiving recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment. A total of 37 children who received rhGH for 1.5 years before the study was started and 48 healthy controls were included at first evaluation. Hormone levels were determined and kidney sizes were measured by ultrasound. Kidney functions were assessed by serum creatinine and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). After 3 years of first evaluation, 23 patients were re-assessed. Kidney sizes were found to be lower in rhGH received children compared with controls at first evaluation (pchildren (p0.05). Although no abnormal renal function test results were found at first and second evaluations; rhGH received children had significantly lower eGFR, at first evaluation, compared with controls; however, renal functions significantly increased after 3 years of follow-up (pgrowth is parallel to growth in body height and other visceral organs. A 3-years rhGH treatment resulted in significant increases in renal functions.

  19. Predicting the probability of abnormal stimulated growth hormone response in children after radiotherapy for brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Chiaho; Wu, Shengjie; Chemaitilly, Wassim; Lukose, Renin C; Merchant, Thomas E

    2012-11-15

    To develop a mathematical model utilizing more readily available measures than stimulation tests that identifies brain tumor survivors with high likelihood of abnormal growth hormone secretion after radiotherapy (RT), to avoid late recognition and a consequent delay in growth hormone replacement therapy. We analyzed 191 prospectively collected post-RT evaluations of peak growth hormone level (arginine tolerance/levodopa stimulation test), serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), IGF-binding protein 3, height, weight, growth velocity, and body mass index in 106 children and adolescents treated for ependymoma (n=72), low-grade glioma (n=28) or craniopharyngioma (n=6), who had normal growth hormone levels before RT. Normal level in this study was defined as the peak growth hormone response to the stimulation test≥7 ng/mL. Independent predictor variables identified by multivariate logistic regression with high statistical significance (pcapacity of brain tumor survivors. It allows identification of high-risk children for subsequent confirmatory tests and in-depth workup for diagnosis of growth hormone deficiency. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Growth hormone deficiency and pituitary malformation in a recurrent Cat-Eye syndrome: a family report.

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    Jedraszak, Guillaume; Braun, Karine; Receveur, Aline; Decamp, Matthieu; Andrieux, Joris; Rabbind Singh, Amrathlal; Copin, Henri; Bremond-Gignac, Dominique; Mathieu, Michèle; Rochette, Jacques; Morin, Gilles

    2015-10-01

    Growth hormone deficiency affects roughly between one in 3000 and one in 4000 children with most instances of growth hormone deficiency being idiopathic. Growth hormone deficiency can also be associated with genetic diseases or chromosome abnormalities. Association of growth hormone deficiency together with hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation and Cat-Eye syndrome is a very rare condition. We report a family with two brothers presenting with growth delay due to a growth hormone deficiency associated with a polymalformation syndrome. They both displayed pre-auricular pits and tags, imperforate anus and Duane retraction syndrome. Both parents and a third unaffected son displayed normal growth pattern. Cerebral MRI showed a hypothalamic-pituitary axis malformation in the two affected brothers. Cytogenetic studies revealed a type I small supernumerary marker chromosome derived from chromosome 22 resulting in a tetrasomy 22pter-22q11.21 characteristic of the Cat-Eye syndrome. The small supernumerary marker chromosome was present in the two affected sons and the mother in a mosaic state. Patients with short stature due to growth hormone deficiency should be evaluated for chromosomal abnormality. Family study should not be underestimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth hormone STAT5-mediated signaling and its modulation in mice liver during the growth period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Carolina S; Piazza, Verónica G; Ratner, Laura D; Matos, Marina N; González, Lorena; Rulli, Susana B; Miquet, Johanna G; Sotelo, Ana I

    2013-01-01

    Postnatal growth exhibits two instances of rapid growth in mice: the first is perinatal and independent of growth hormone (GH), the second is peripuberal and GH-dependent. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) is the main GH-signaling mediator and it is related to IGF1 synthesis and somatic growth. The aim of this work was to assess differential STAT5 sensitivity to GH during the growth period in mouse liver of both sexes. Three representative ages were selected: 1-week-old animals, in the GH-independent phase of growth; 2.5-week-old mice, at the onset of the GH-dependent phase of growth; and 9-week-old young adults. GH-signaling mediators were assessed by immunoblotting, quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. GH-induced STAT5 phosphorylation is low at one-week and maximal at 2.5-weeks of age when compared to young adults, accompanied by higher protein content at the onset of growth. Suppressor CIS and phosphatase PTP1B exhibit high levels in one-week animals, which gradually decline, while SOCS2 and SOCS3 display higher levels at adulthood. Nuclear phosphorylated STAT5 is low in one-week animals while in 2.5-week animals it is similar to 9-week control; expression of SOCS3, an early response GH-target gene, mimics this pattern. STAT5 coactivators glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and hepatic nuclear factor 1 (HNF1) abundance is higher in adulthood. Therefore, GH-induced STAT5 signaling presents age-dependent activity in liver, with its maximum coinciding with the onset of GH-dependent phase of growth, accompanied by an age-dependent variation of modulating factors. This work contributes to elucidate the molecular mechanisms implicated in GH responsiveness during growth. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Growth in Boys with 45,X/46,XY Mosaicism: Effect of Growth Hormone Treatment on Statural Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelloni, Silvano; Baroncelli, Giampiero I; Massart, Francesco; Toschi, Benedetta

    2015-01-01

    45,X/46,XY mosaicism is a rare sex chromosome disorder of sex development. Short stature is a main feature of boys with this condition. Different causes likely contribute to growth impairment. Growth hormone (GH) has been administered to treat short stature in boys with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, but conflicting data are available. Here, spontaneous growth patterns as well as short- and long-term follow-up studies during GH therapy in these patients are reviewed. Short- and mid-term data showed an improvement of the growth pattern in GH-treated boys, mainly when hormonal therapy was started early, while long-term follow-up demonstrated similar adult heights in GH-treated and untreated patients. Individual biological factors (e.g. different chromosome constitution, different mosaicism among various tissues, impaired pubertal growth spurt), non-homogeneous GH doses and different ages at start of therapy may contribute to the variable results. Thus, early GH therapy at pharmacological doses may improve the growth pattern of short boys with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism, but data on adult height are disappointing. Evaluation of larger patient samples treated by homogeneous doses and long-term follow-up studies assessing adult height and safety are needed to reach definitive conclusions on GH therapy in boys with 45,X/46,XY mosaicism. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Disease resistance or growth: the role of plant hormones in balancing immune responses and fitness costs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denance, N.; Sanchez Vallet, A.; Goffner, D.; Molina, A.

    2013-01-01

    Plant growth and response to environmental cues are largely governed by phytohormones. The plant hormones ethylene, jasmonic acid, and salicylic acid (SA) play a central role in the regulation of plant immune responses. In addition, other plant hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid (ABA),

  4. Growth hormone signaling and hippocampal neurogenesis: insights from genetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransome, Mark I; Turnley, Ann M

    2008-01-01

    Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) is modulated by a variety of factors through effects on the proliferation-differentiation-survival regulatory axis. We have employed growth hormone receptor knockout (GH-R-/-) and suppressor of cytokine signaling-2 transgenic (SOCS-2 Tg) mice as models of altered GH-signaling to assess their affects on basal and exercised-induced hippocampal neurogenesis. Assessment of proliferation 24-h after 7-days of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling with or without voluntary running showed that the density of BrdU(+) cells in the subgranular zone remained unchanged between genotypes in control housing, while running induced significant increases in BrdU-labeled cells in WT, GH-R-/-, and SOCS-2 Tg mice. The proportion of BrdU/doublecortin and BrdU/S100beta cells did not vary between genotype or running conditions at this time-point. Assessment of cell survival 28-days after BrdU labeling showed that SOCS-2 Tg animals had significantly higher BrdU(+) cell densities in the granule cell layer compared to WT and GH-R-/- animals in control housing and after voluntary running. There were no differences in cell survival between WT and GH-R-/- mice with or without running. Mature phenotype analysis showed similar proportions of BrdU/NeuN and BrdU/S100beta in all groups. While SOCS-2 Tg mice had similar social interaction behaviors and sensorimotor gating, they appeared to be less anxious with heightened basal locomotor activity and showed enhanced performance in the Morris watermaze test. Overall, our data indicated that mice over-expressing SOCS-2 showed increased survival of neurons generated during AHN, which correlated with improved performance in a hippocampal-dependent cognitive task. Furthermore, voluntary running increased AHN in WT, SOCS-2 Tg, and serum-IGF-1-deficient GH-R-/- mice.

  5. Growth Hormone Inhibits Hepatic De Novo Lipogenesis in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba-Chacon, Jose; Majumdar, Neena; List, Edward O; Diaz-Ruiz, Alberto; Frank, Stuart J; Manzano, Anna; Bartrons, Ramon; Puchowicz, Michelle; Kopchick, John J; Kineman, Rhonda D

    2015-09-01

    Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are reported to have low growth hormone (GH) production and/or hepatic GH resistance. GH replacement can resolve the fatty liver condition in diet-induced obese rodents and in GH-deficient patients. However, it remains to be determined whether this inhibitory action of GH is due to direct regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. Therefore, an adult-onset, hepatocyte-specific, GH receptor (GHR) knockdown (aLivGHRkd) mouse was developed to model hepatic GH resistance in humans that may occur after sexual maturation. Just 7 days after aLivGHRkd, hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) was increased in male and female chow-fed mice, compared with GHR-intact littermate controls. However, hepatosteatosis developed only in male and ovariectomized female aLivGHRkd mice. The increase in DNL observed in aLivGHRkd mice was not associated with hyperactivation of the pathway by which insulin is classically considered to regulate DNL. However, glucokinase mRNA and protein levels as well as fructose-2,6-bisphosphate levels were increased in aLivGHRkd mice, suggesting that enhanced glycolysis drives DNL in the GH-resistant liver. These results demonstrate that hepatic GH actions normally serve to inhibit DNL, where loss of this inhibitory signal may explain, in part, the inappropriate increase in hepatic DNL observed in NAFLD patients. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy in a boy with Dent's disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzic, Mira; Pavicevic, Snezana; Ludwig, Michael; Bogdanovic, Radovan

    2011-08-22

    Dent's disease is an X-linked recessive proximal tubulopathy characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis and progressive renal failure. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the third report on the use of growth hormone therapy in a child with poor growth associated with Dent's disease. We report on a 7-year-old Montenegrin boy with proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, rickets and short stature with unimpaired growth hormone secretion. A molecular genetic analysis showed S244L substitution on the CLCN5 gene. After two years of conventional treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, laboratory tests revealed more prominent proteinuria, mild hypophosphatemia, increased values of alkaline phosphatase and features of rickets. Phosphate salts, calcitriol, potassium citrate and growth hormone were included in the therapy. After three years of therapy, his adjusted parental stature was 1.53 standard deviations higher than at the initiation of growth hormone therapy. His global kidney functions and levels of proteinuria and calciuria remained relatively stable. In spite of the growth hormone therapy, his tubular reabsorption of phosphate deteriorated. Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone may have a positive effect on final height in poorly growing children with Dent's disease and hypophosphatemic rickets. However, it is not possible to reach definite conclusions due to the small sample within the literature and the brief duration of the therapy.

  7. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy in a boy with Dent's disease: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Michael

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dent's disease is an X-linked recessive proximal tubulopathy characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis and progressive renal failure. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the third report on the use of growth hormone therapy in a child with poor growth associated with Dent's disease. Case presentation We report on a 7-year-old Montenegrin boy with proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, rickets and short stature with unimpaired growth hormone secretion. A molecular genetic analysis showed S244L substitution on the CLCN5 gene. After two years of conventional treatment with hydrochlorothiazide, laboratory tests revealed more prominent proteinuria, mild hypophosphatemia, increased values of alkaline phosphatase and features of rickets. Phosphate salts, calcitriol, potassium citrate and growth hormone were included in the therapy. After three years of therapy, his adjusted parental stature was 1.53 standard deviations higher than at the initiation of growth hormone therapy. His global kidney functions and levels of proteinuria and calciuria remained relatively stable. In spite of the growth hormone therapy, his tubular reabsorption of phosphate deteriorated. Conclusion Treatment with recombinant human growth hormone may have a positive effect on final height in poorly growing children with Dent's disease and hypophosphatemic rickets. However, it is not possible to reach definite conclusions due to the small sample within the literature and the brief duration of the therapy.

  8. GROWTH HORMONE LEVEL EVOLUTION IN CHILDREN WITH HEPATOBILIARY DISEASES, UNDERGOING LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Shevchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available End stage liver disease is often associated with growth retardation in children with congenital and hereditary diseases of hepatobiliary system. The aim was to investigate the serum growth hormone level before and after liver transplantation in 52 children with congenital and hereditary diseases of hepatobiliary system. Data of our research work revealed increased serum level of growth hormone in children with liver cirrhosis (3,32 ± 7,7 ng/ml vs. 1,16 ± 1,46 ng/ml in healthy children, p = 0,01, which correlates with PELD score (r = 0,62, p < 0,001. In a month after liver transplantation growth hormone concentration decreases (p < 0,001 and in a year after transplantation it doesn’t differ from healthy children. There wasn’t revealed any interaction between serum growth hormone level and anthropometric parameters before liver transplantation, but in a year after there was significant correlation between growth hormone concentration and height (r = 0,79, p = 0,01. Investigation of growth hormone level in children with liver cirrhosis and its evolution after liver transplantation is of interest as objective criterion of recovery of physical development regulation and as an additional parameter, which cor- relates with severity of end-stage liver disease. 

  9. Growth and development in a child with resistance to thyroid hormone and ectopic thyroid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather, Natasha; Hall, Kate; Neas, Katherine; Potter, Howard; Wiltshire, Esko

    2012-03-01

    Resistance to thyroid hormone is an uncommon problem, which has rarely been associated with thyroid dysgenesis. We report a case with both thyroid gland ectopy and resistance to thyroid hormone and, thus, a reduced capacity to produce and respond to thyroid hormone. The patient presented at 2 years of age with developmental delay, dysmorphic features, and elevation in both thyroxine and thyrotropin. We document her response to therapy with thyroxine, with particular regard to her growth and development. Persistent elevation of thyrotropin is commonly recognized during treatment of congenital hypothyroidism. Resistance to thyroid hormone may be an important additional diagnosis to consider in cases where thyrotropin remains persistently elevated.

  10. Lipoprotein metabolism in hypothyroidism : the contribution of growth hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    1992-01-01

    textabstractCurrent data suggest a role for GH in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. In hypothyroidism not only the secretion of thyroid hormone, but also of GH is decreased. Generally the effects on plasma lipids seen in hypothyroid individuals are considered to be a consequence of decreased thyroid hormone levels. More then twenty years ago evidence was found that treatment of hypothyroid rats with GH in supraphysiologic doses affects plasma lipid concentrations, but whether a lack o...

  11. Hormonal and Growth Factor Responses to Heavy Resistance Exercise Protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    calculated as weight periods. The load control workout for series I used a 10- times the vertical distance moved per repetition times RM load and was... time of day to reduce the effects of any diurnal variations on the RESULTS hormonal concentrations. Before a resting blood sample was obtained, a 20...sustained elevations over time . In contrast, creases in hormonal responses previously thought to alterations in serum testosterone and somatomedin-C

  12. Effect of sodium oxybate on growth hormone secretion in narcolepsy patients and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donjacour, C.E.; Aziz, N.A.; Roelfsema, F.; Frolich, M.; Overeem, S.; Lammers, G.J.; Pijl, H.

    2011-01-01

    Hypocretin deficiency causes narcolepsy and may affect neuroendocrine systems and body composition. Additionally, growth hormone (GH) alterations my influence weight in narcolepsy. Symptoms can be treated effectively with sodium oxybate (SXB; gamma-hydroxybutyrate) in many patients. This study

  13. Growth hormone response to clonidine in the nervous pointer dog model of anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhde, T W; Malloy, L C; Benson, B B

    1994-01-01

    Blunted growth hormone responses to clonidine have been reported in most studies of humans with panic disorder but have been an inconsistent finding in the study of other anxiety syndromes. The growth hormone response to oral clonidine (100 micrograms/kg) was investigated in the adult nervous pointer dog, a genetic animal model of anxiety. Compared with placebo, clonidine produced significant increases in plasma levels of growth hormone; however, there were no differences in the growth hormone (GH) responses to clonidine in the nervous compared with the normal pointer dogs. Findings in this animal model are discussed within the context of noradrenergic-hypothalamic-GH dysfunction reported in some but not all types of anxiety disorders in humans.

  14. Growth hormone-independent suppression of growth hormone-dependent female isoforms of cytochrome P450 by the somatostatin analog octreotide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Sarmistha; Das, Rajat Kumar; Shapiro, Bernard H.

    2013-01-01

    Octreotide is a potent somatostatin analog therapeutically used to treat several conditions including hyper growth hormone secretion in patients with acromegaly. We infused octreotide into female Sprague Dawley rats every 12 h for 6 days at levels considerably greater than typical human therapeutic doses. Resulting circulating growth hormone profiles were characterized by ~25% reduction in plasma levels, including both pulse and interpulse components, but still contained in an otherwise female-like “continuous” secretory profile. The normally elevated feminine expression levels (protein and/or mRNA) of CYP2C12, CYP2A1, CYP2C7 and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), all dependent on the continuous feminine growth hormone profile, were dramatically down-regulated. Octreotide suppression of the female-dependent levels of CYPs (cytochromes P450) and IGF-1 could not be explained by the apparently inconsequential alterations in the feminine circulating growth hormone profile. In this regard, somatostatin and its analogs are known to have a myriad of extra-pituitary actions effecting nearly all tissues in the body. Focusing our attention on CYP2C12, accounting for >40% of the total hepatic cytochrome P450 content in the female rat liver, we found an ~4-fold increase in hepatic ubiquitin-CYP2C12 levels in octreotide treated rats suggesting a possible contributing factor for the >60% suppression of CYP2C12 protein concentrations. PMID:23707186

  15. The effect of Bovine Growth Hormone on Growth, Carcass Composition and Meat Quality of Dairy Heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Mogens; Sejrsen, Kristen; Foldager, John

    1993-01-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of bovine growth hormone (bGH) on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of dairy heifers. Nine monozygotic twin pairs of Friesian or Red Danish cattle were used, and pair-fed diet consisting of grass silage, barley and soybean meal. Within each pair......, one animal was given daily subcutaneous injections of 20 IU of pituitary-derived bGH (15-20 mg), while the other animal was injected with saline (excipient). Treatments started at 179±2 kg body weight and lasted for 15.6 weeks. At slaughter, carcass composition and meat quality were analyzed. b......GH treatment increased gain by 8% (948 vs. 877 g/d; P meat in carcass and lean content of four main carcass cuts were on average increased by 2% (P

  16. Growth factors, glucose and insulin kinetics after low dose growth hormone in HIV - lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low-dose growth hormone (GH) administration has been suggested as a treatment for HIV-lipodystrophy. METHODS: Postglucose GH-secretion, kinetics of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), insulin, and glucose metabolism were examined in six male HIV-infected lipodystrophic patients (two...... during a 5h oral glucose-tolerance test. Near lower normal limits in all patients before GH-therapy, total and free IGF-I increased between 87 and 152% during the GH-therapy (P... on circulating IGF-I, glucose metabolism, and insulin kinetics, 0.7 mg/day of GH may be expedient for treatment of HIV-infected males with lipodystrophy. Whether the patients' glucose metabolic status matters for the IGF-response to low-dose GH-therapy awaits further investigation....

  17. Growth factors, glucose and insulin kinetics after low dose growth hormone in HIV - lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Steen B; Andersen, Ove; Flyvbjerg, Allan

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Low-dose growth hormone (GH) administration has been suggested as a treatment for HIV-lipodystrophy. METHODS: Postglucose GH-secretion, kinetics of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), insulin, and glucose metabolism were examined in six male HIV-infected lipodystrophic patients (two...... and temporary reduction in insulin sensitivity was caused by a reduction in non-oxidative glucose metabolism (n=5). GH-administration reduced hepatic extraction of insulin alleviating the demand for insulin secretion (n=5). No adverse effects of GH were detected. CONCLUSIONS: As judged from effects...... on circulating IGF-I, glucose metabolism, and insulin kinetics, 0.7 mg/day of GH may be expedient for treatment of HIV-infected males with lipodystrophy. Whether the patients' glucose metabolic status matters for the IGF-response to low-dose GH-therapy awaits further investigation....

  18. A role for central nervous growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling in the consolidation of declarative memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Hallschmid

    Full Text Available Contributions of somatotropic hormonal activity to memory functions in humans, which are suggested by clinical observations, have not been systematically examined. With previous experiments precluding a direct effect of systemic growth hormone (GH on acute memory formation, we assessed the role of central nervous somatotropic signaling in declarative memory consolidation. We examined the effect of intranasally administered growth hormone releasing-hormone (GHRH; 600 µg that has direct access to the brain and suppresses endogenous GHRH via an ultra-short negative feedback loop. Twelve healthy young men learned word-pair associates at 2030 h and were administered GHRH and placebo, respectively, at 2100 h. Retrieval was tested after 11 hours of wakefulness. Compared to placebo, intranasal GHRH blunted GH release within 3 hours after substance administration and reduced the number of correctly recalled word-pairs by ∼12% (both P<0.05. The impairment of declarative memory consolidation was directly correlated to diminished GH concentrations (P<0.05. Procedural memory consolidation as examined by the parallel assessment of finger sequence tapping performance was not affected by GHRH administration. Our findings indicate that intranasal GHRH, by counteracting endogenous GHRH release, impairs hippocampal memory processing. They provide first evidence for a critical contribution of central nervous somatotropic activity to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  19. Association between decreased klotho blood levels and organic growth hormone deficiency in children with growth impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Ido; Shahmoon, Shiri; Ben Ami, Michal; Levy-Shraga, Yael; Mazor-Aronovitch, Kineret; Pinhas-Hamiel, Orit; Yeshayahu, Yonatan; Hemi, Rina; Kanety, Hannah; Rubinek, Tami; Modan-Moses, Dalit

    2014-01-01

    Klotho is an aging-modulating protein expressed mainly in the kidneys and choroid plexus, which can also be shed, released into the circulation and act as a hormone. Klotho deficient mice are smaller compared to their wild-type counterparts and their somatotropes show marked atrophy and reduced number of secretory granules. Recent data also indicated an association between klotho levels and growth hormone (GH) levels in acromegaly. We aimed to study the association between klotho levels and GH deficiency (GHD) in children with growth impairment. Prospective study comprising 99 children and adolescents (aged 9.0 ± 3.7 years, 49 male) undergoing GH stimulation tests for short stature (height-SDS = -2.1 ± 0.6). Klotho serum levels were measured using an α-klotho ELISA kit. Klotho levels were significantly lower (pchildren with organic GHD (n = 11, 727 ± 273 pg/ml) compared to both GH sufficient participants (n = 59, 1497 ± 754 pg/ml) and those with idiopathic GHD (n = 29, 1645 ± 778 pg/ml). The difference between GHS children and children with idiopathic GHD was not significant. Klotho levels positively correlated with IGF-1- standard deviation scores (SDS) (R = 0.45, p<0.001), but were not associated with gender, pubertal status, age or anthropometric measurements. We have shown, for the first time, an association between low serum klotho levels and organic GHD. If validated by additional studies, serum klotho may serve as novel biomarker of organic GHD.

  20. Microarchitecture, but Not Bone Mechanical Properties, Is Rescued with Growth Hormone Treatment in a Mouse Model of Growth Hormone Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Kristensen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH deficiency is related to an increased fracture risk although it is not clear if this is due to compromised bone quality or a small bone size. We investigated the relationship between bone macrostructure, microarchitecture and mechanical properties in a GH-deficient (GHD mouse model undergoing GH treatment commencing at an early (prepubertal or late (postpubertal time point. Microcomputed tomography images of the femur and L4 vertebra were obtained to quantify macrostructure and vertebral trabecular microarchitecture, and mechanical properties were determined using finite element analyses. In the GHD animals, bone macrostructure was 25 to 43% smaller as compared to the GH-sufficient (GHS controls (P<0.001. GHD animals had 20% and 19% reductions in bone volume ratio (BV/TV and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th, respectively. Whole bone mechanical properties of the GHD mice were lower at the femur and vertebra (67% and 45% resp. than the GHS controls (P<0.001. Both early and late GH treatment partially recovered the bone macrostructure (15 to 32 % smaller than GHS controls and the whole bone mechanical properties (24 to 43% larger than GHD animals although there remained a sustained 27–52% net deficit compared to normal mice (P<0.05. Importantly, early treatment with GH led to a recovery of BV/TV and Tb.Th with a concomitant improvement of trabecular mechanical properties. Therefore, the results suggest that GH treatment should start early, and that measurements of microarchitecture should be considered in the management of GHD.

  1. Changes in growth hormone-binding protein in girls with central precocious puberty treated with a depot preparation of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, S B; Donnadieu, M; Chaussain, J L

    1993-01-01

    Growth hormone-binding protein (GHBP) was studied in 11 girls with true precocious puberty, aged 7.3 +/- 0.2 years (mean +/- SE), before and after the first 6 months of treatment with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone analogue D-Trp6-LHRH. The 125I-human GH was incubated with 150 microliters of serum, bound and free GH were separated by gel filtration. The levels of GHBP increased significantly from 24.2 +/- 1.3 to 28.1 +/- 1.9% (p pubertal spurt is mediated by a sex-steroid-induced rise in GH concentration, and they suggest that the levels of GHBP may be related to the GH secretion and its variation with treatment.

  2. The use of selected biomarkers to determine the effects of veterinary growth stimulants in the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Sc. (Zoology) There has been an increasing concern worldwide regarding the possible adverse effects of pharmaceutical supplements present in our aquatic ecosystems and whether or not they modify the physiological functioning in humans and wildlife. Trenbolone acetate (TBA) and zeranol (Z) for example, are two commonly used synthetic anabolic growth promoting hormones in cattle production. TBA is metabolized into trenbolone-β and excreted as both trenbolone-α and -β. In liquid manure tren...

  3. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide in patients with growth hormone disturbances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mikkel; Faber, Jens; Vestergaard, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Acromegaly is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypertension and subsequent congestive heart failure. Impairment of cardiac function has also been associated with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs) have emerged as strong diagnostic and prognostic risk m...... markers. They are cardioprotective hormones that compensate heart disease by promoting natriuresis and modulation of cardiac hypertrophy in response to volume expansion and ventricular wall stretch.......Acromegaly is associated with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, hypertension and subsequent congestive heart failure. Impairment of cardiac function has also been associated with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). B-type natriuretic peptides (BNPs) have emerged as strong diagnostic and prognostic risk...

  4. Complete adrenocorticotropin deficiency after radiation therapy for brain tumor with a normal growth hormone reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Haruna; Yoshioka, Katsunobu; Yamagami, Keiko [Osaka City General Hospital (Japan)] (and others)

    2002-06-01

    A 34-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1, who had received radiation therapy after the excision of a brain tumor 5 years earlier, was admitted to our hospital with vomiting and weight loss. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) were undetectable before and after administration of 100 {mu}g corticotropin releasing hormone. The level of growth hormone without stimulation was 24.7 ng/ml. We diagnosed him to have complete ACTH deficiency attributable to radiation therapy. This is the first known case of a patient with complete ACTH deficiency after radiation therapy and a growth hormone reserve that remained normal. (author)

  5. Age-related changes in Serum Growth Hormone, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 and Somatostatin in System Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malemud Charles J

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic lupus erythematosus is an age- and gender-associated autoimmune disorder. Previous studies suggested that defects in the hypothalamic/pituitary axis contributed to systemic lupus erythematosus disease progression which could also involve growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin function. This study was designed to compare basal serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin levels in female systemic lupus erythematosus patients to a group of normal female subjects. Methods Basal serum growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and somatostatin levels were measured by standard radioimmunoassay. Results Serum growth hormone levels failed to correlate with age (r2 = 3.03 in the entire group of normal subjects (i.e. 20 – 80 years. In contrast, serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were inversely correlated with age (adjusted r2 = 0.092. Of note, serum growth hormone was positively correlated with age (adjusted r2 = 0.269 in the 20 – 46 year range which overlapped with the age range of patients in the systemic lupus erythematosus group. In that regard, serum growth hormone levels were not significantly higher compared to either the entire group of normal subjects (20 – 80 yrs or to normal subjects age-matched to the systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 levels were significantly elevated (p 55 yrs systemic lupus erythematosus patients. Conclusions These results indicated that systemic lupus erythematosus was not characterized by a modulation of the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 paracrine axis when serum samples from systemic lupus erythematosus patients were compared to age- matched normal female subjects. These results in systemic lupus erythematosus differ from those previously reported in other musculoskeletal disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, fibromyalgia, diffuse idiopathic skeletal

  6. A retrospective review of pituitary MRI findings in children on growth hormone therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Sarah L.; Lawrence, Sarah [University of Ottawa, Division of Endocrinology, Children' s Hospital of Eastern Ontario, Ottawa (Canada); Laffan, Eoghan [Children' s University Hospital, Pediatric Radiology, Dublin 1 (Ireland)

    2012-07-15

    Patients with congenital hypopituitarism might have the classic triad of pituitary stalk interruption syndrome, which consists of: (1) an interrupted or thin pituitary stalk, (2) an absent or ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), and (3) anterior pituitary hypoplasia or aplasia. To examine the relationship between pituitary anatomy and the degree of hormonal dysfunction. This study involved a retrospective review of MRI findings in all children diagnosed with congenital growth hormone deficiency from 1988 to 2010 at a tertiary-level pediatric hospital. Of the 52 MRIs reviewed in 52 children, 26 children had normal pituitary anatomy and 26 had one or more elements of the classic triad. Fourteen of fifteen children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies had structural anomalies on MRI. Twelve of 37 children with isolated growth hormone deficiency had an abnormal MRI. Children with multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies were more likely to have the classic triad than children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. A normal MRI was the most common finding in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency. (orig.)

  7. Final height in girls with Turner's syndrome treated with once or twice daily growth hormone injections. Dutch Advisory Group on Growth Hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sas, T. C.; de Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S. M.; Stijnen, T.; van Teunenbroek, A.; Hokken-Koelega, A. C.; Waelkens, J. J.; Massa, G. G.; Vulsma, T.; Gerver, W. J.; Reeser, H. M.; Delemarre-van de Waal, H. E.; Jansen, M.; Drop, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    To study final height in girls with Turner's syndrome treated with once or twice daily injections of growth hormone (GH) in combination with low dose ethinyl oestradiol. Until final height was reached, the effect of fractionated subcutaneous injections given twice daily was compared with once daily

  8. Growth hormone receptor C-terminal domains required for growth hormone-induced intracellular free Ca2+ oscillations and gene transcription

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, N; Bouchelouche, P; Allevato, G

    1995-01-01

    The biological effects of growth hormone (GH) are initiated by its binding to the GH receptor (GHR) followed by association and activation of the tyrosine kinase JAK2. Here we report that GH can stimulate an increase in intracellular free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in cells expressing wild-type...

  9. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy on plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer protein activities in growth hormone-deficient adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beentjes, JAM; van Tol, A; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    The effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement on plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), factors involved in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism, We unknown. We carried out a 6 mouths study in 24

  10. Different growth hormone sensitivity of target tissues and growth hormone response to glucose in HIV-infected patients with and without lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-secretion in HIV-lipodystrophy is impaired; however, GH-sensitivity of GH-target tissues remains to be evaluated. We measured overnight fasting concentrations of GH-sensitive insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) including GH binding protein ...... glucose in LIPO compared with NONLIPO and NAIVE (p inversely correlated with AUC-GH (p

  11. A phase 2 trial of long-acting TransCon growth hormone in adult GH deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Höybye

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available TransCon growth hormone is a sustained-release human growth hormone prodrug under development in which unmodified growth hormone is transiently linked to a carrier molecule. It is intended as an alternative to daily growth hormone in the treatment of growth hormone deficiency. This was a multi-center, randomized, open-label, active-controlled trial designed to compare the safety (including tolerability and immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of three doses of weekly TransCon GH to daily growth hormone (Omnitrope. Thirty-seven adult males and females diagnosed with adult growth hormone deficiency and stable on growth hormone replacement therapy for at least 3 months were, following a wash-out period, randomized (regardless of their pre-study dose to one of three TransCon GH doses (0.02, 0.04 and 0.08 mg GH/kg/week or Omnitrope 0.04 mg GH/kg/week (divided into 7 equal daily doses for 4 weeks. Main outcomes evaluated were adverse events, immunogenicity and growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. TransCon GH was well tolerated; fatigue and headache were the most frequent drug-related adverse events and reported in all groups. No lipoatrophy or nodule formation was reported. No anti-growth hormone-binding antibodies were detected. TransCon GH demonstrated a linear, dose-dependent increase in growth hormone exposure without accumulation. Growth hormone maximum serum concentration and insulin-like growth factor 1 exposure were similar after TransCon GH or Omnitrope administered at comparable doses. The results suggest that long-acting TransCon GH has a profile similar to daily growth hormone but with a more convenient dosing regimen. These findings support further TransCon GH development.

  12. Growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol response to exercise in patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Mohammad-Nezhad, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A blunted growth hormone and prolactin response to pharmacological stress test have previously been found in depressed patients, as well as an increased cortisol response to psychosocial stress. This study investigated these hormones in response to acute exercise using an incremental...... bicycle test. METHOD: A cross-sectional comparison of cortisol, growth hormone, and prolactin in depressed (n=137) and healthy (n=44) subjects during rest and in response to an incremental bicycle test. Secondly, we tested the depressed patients again after a 4-month randomized naturalistic exercise...... intervention. RESULTS: Resting plasma levels of growth hormone (GH), cortisol, or prolactin (PRL) did not differ between depressed and healthy subjects (all p-values>.12). In response to an incremental bicycle test the GH (p=.02) and cortisol (p=.05) response in depressed was different compared to healthy...

  13. Pituitary adenomas in mice transgenic for growth hormone-releasing hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asa, S L; Kovacs, K; Stefaneanu, L

    1992-01-01

    It has been shown that mice transgenic for human GH-releasing hormone (GRH) develop hyperplasia of pituitary somatotrophs, lactotrophs, and mammosomatotrophs, cells capable of producing both GH and PRL, by 8 months of age. We now report that GRH transgenic mice 10-24 months of age develop pituitary...

  14. Position stand on androgen and human growth hormone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Kraemer, William J; Bhasin, Shalender; Storer, Thomas; Ratamess, Nicholas A; Haff, G Gregory; Willoughby, Darryn S; Rogol, Alan D

    2009-08-01

    Hoffman, JR, Kraemer, WJ, Bhasin, S, Storer, T, Ratamess, NA, Haff, GG, Willoughby, DS, and Rogol, AD. Position stand on Androgen and human growth hormone use. J Strength Cond Res 23(5): S1-S59, 2009-Perceived yet often misunderstood demands of a sport, overt benefits of anabolic drugs, and the inability to be offered any effective alternatives has fueled anabolic drug abuse despite any consequences. Motivational interactions with many situational demands including the desire for improved body image, sport performance, physical function, and body size influence and fuel such negative decisions. Positive countermeasures to deter the abuse of anabolic drugs are complex and yet unclear. Furthermore, anabolic drugs work and the optimized training and nutritional programs needed to cut into the magnitude of improvement mediated by drug abuse require more work, dedication, and preparation on the part of both athletes and coaches alike. Few shortcuts are available to the athlete who desires to train naturally. Historically, the NSCA has placed an emphasis on education to help athletes, coaches, and strength and conditioning professionals become more knowledgeable, highly skilled, and technically trained in their approach to exercise program design and implementation. Optimizing nutritional strategies are a vital interface to help cope with exercise and sport demands (). In addition, research-based supplements will also have to be acknowledged as a strategic set of tools (e.g., protein supplements before and after resistance exercise workout) that can be used in conjunction with optimized nutrition to allow more effective adaptation and recovery from exercise. Resistance exercise is the most effective anabolic form of exercise, and over the past 20 years, the research base for resistance exercise has just started to develop to a significant volume of work to help in the decision-making process in program design (). The interface with nutritional strategies has been less

  15. Short-term effect of recombinant human growth hormone in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Becker, U; Grønbaek, M

    1994-01-01

    , and liver function. Twenty consecutive patients with cirrhosis were randomized to recombinant human growth hormone (Norditropin, 4 I.U. twice daily) subcutaneously for 6 weeks (n = 10) or conventional medical treatment (n = 10). The serum concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-I in the recombinant...... human growth hormone group increased after 3 (p group. The change in insulin-like growth factor-I during the treatment period was expressed as area under the curve (AUC). The AUCIGF-I was significantly larger...... in the recombinant human growth hormone group (median AUCIGF-I: 12.1, range: 0.0-54.7 weeks.nmol/l) than in the control group (median AUCIGF-I: 0.2, range: -10.6-9.9 weeks.nmol/l) (p

  16. Growth hormone-insuline-like growth factor-I system in pejerrey Odontesthes bonariensis (Atheriniformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Arranz

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Using biotechnology to increase the growth rates of fish is likely to reduce production costs per unit of food. Among vertebrates, fish appear to occupy a unique position, when growth patterns are considered. With few exceptions, fish species tend to grow indeterminately, implying that size is never fixed. Both hyperplasia and hypertrophy contribute to post-larval muscle growth in fish. Growth hormone (GH - Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-I is the most important growth axis in fish. Our experimental model, the pejerrey, Odontesthes bonariensis (Ateriniformes is a South American inland water fish considered to be a promising species for intensive aquaculture. However, one major drawback to achieve this goal is its slow growth in captivity. In order to understand how growth is regulated in this species, our first objective was to characterized pejerrey GH- IGF-I axis. We first cloned and characterized pejerrey (pj GH, IGF-I and the growth hormone receptors (GHRs I and II. In addition to providing valuable data for evolutionary comparison of GH, investigation of GH action in teleosts is particularly important because of its potential application in aquaculture. GH can not only promote the somatic growth in fish but also lower dietary protein requirements. A prerequisite for providing sufficient amounts of GH for basic research and aquaculture application is a large-scale production of GH. For that purpose, recombinant pjGH was expressed in a bacterial system. Protocols for solubilization and proper folding were achieved. Activity of recombinant pjGH was assessed in fish by measuring the liver IGF-I response to different doses of GH. IGF-I transcript was measured in the liver after pjGHr in vivo stimulation by means of quantitative real-time PCR assays. A dose-dependent response of IGF-I mRNA was observed after pjGHr administration, and reached a 6 fold IGF-I maximum increase over control group when 2.5 µg pjGH /g-body weight were injected

  17. Chronic alterations in growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I signaling lead to changes in mouse tendon structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, R H; Clausen, N M; Schjerling, P

    2014-01-01

    The growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I (GH/IGF-I) axis is an important stimulator of collagen synthesis in connective tissue, but the effect of chronically altered GH/IGF-I levels on connective tissue of the muscle-tendon unit is not known. We studied three groups of mice; 1) giant...

  18. Growth of white shrimp post-larvae immersed in recombinant fish growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dita Puji Laksana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This research was conducted to determine the optimum immersion time of recombinant giant grouper growth hormone (Ephinephelus lanceolatus; rElGH at a dose of 15 mg/L that generated highest growth of white shrimp post-larvae (PL. PL was bath-immersed for one, two, and three hours. Two types of control was provided, namely it was without any treatment (control, and immersion in water containing 0.01% bovine serum albumin (BSA and total protein of Escherichia coli without rElGH (pCold control. All treatments and controls were consisted of three replications. A total of 1,500 PL-2 shrimp were bath-immersed in a plastic packing containing 1 L of sea water, 15 mg/L rElGH, and 0.01% BSA. PL was further reared for 21 days in the 60 L glass aquarium, and fed nauplii Artemia two times and flake commercial diet five times daily, at satiation. The results showed that the highest of biomass (36.29±1.46 g, specific growth rate (29.81±0.87%/day, and body length (20.08±0.42 mm were obtained in three hours immersion treatment (P<0.05. Biomass of PL in three hours immersion treatment was approximately 66.0% higher compared to the control (21.87±2.53 g. Survival of shrimp in all treatment and control were similar (P>0.05. Thus, growth of white shrimp PL could be improved by bath immersion for three hours in rElGH solution of 15 mg/L water. Keywords: recombinant growth hormone, different immersion time, Pacific white shrimp, biomass  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menentukan lama waktu perendaman hormon pertumbuhan rekombinan ikan kerapu kertang (Ephinephelus lanceolatus; rElGH dosis 15 mg/L yang menghasilkan pertumbuhan tertinggi pada pascalarva (PL udang vaname. Perendaman PL dilakukan satu, dua, dan tiga jam. Dua jenis kontrol dibuat yakni udang vaname PL-2 tidak diberi perlakuan (kontrol, dan direndam dalam air mengandung serum albumin sapi (BSA 0,01% dan protein Escherichia coli tanpa rElGH (kontrol pCold. Setiap perlakuan dan kontrol

  19. Kisspeptin stimulates growth hormone release by utilizing Neuropeptide Y pathways and is dependent on the presence of ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although kisspeptin is the primary stimulator of gonadotropin releasing hormone secretion and therefore the hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis, new findings suggest kisspeptin can also regulate additional neuroendocrine processes including release of growth hormone (GH). Central delivery of kisspep...

  20. Active immunization of pigs against growth hormone-releasing factor: effect on concentrations of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J D; Esbenshade, K L; Johnson, J L; Coffey, M T; Heimer, E; Campbell, R M; Mowles, T; Felix, A

    1990-02-01

    Cyclic gilts (96 +/- 1 kg) were used to determine the effect of active immunization against growth hormone-releasing factor GRF(1-29)-NH2 on concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Gilts were immunized against GRF conjugated to human serum albumin (GRF-HSA, n = 5) or HSA alone at 180 d of age (wk 0). Booster doses were administered at wk 9 and 13. Seven days after the second booster (wk 14), blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals for 6 h before feeding and 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after feeding. Eight days after the second booster, all gilts were administered a GRF analog, [desNH2Tyr1,Ala15]-GRF(1-29)-NH2, followed by an opioid agonist, FK33-824. Blood samples were collected at 15-min intervals from -30 to 240 min after injection. Immunization against GRF-HSA resulted in antibody titers, expressed as dilution required to bind 50% of [125I]GRF, ranging from 1:11,000 to 1:60,000 (wk 11 and 14); binding was not detectable or was less than 50% at 1:100 in HSA gilts (P less than .05). Episodic release of GH was abolished by immunization against GRF-HSA (P less than .05). Mean GH was decreased (P less than .07), but basal GH concentrations were not altered (P greater than .15) by immunization against GRF-HSA. Serum concentrations of IGF-1 were similar at wk 0, but concentrations were lower in GRF-HSA than in HSA gilts (P less than .05) at wk 14.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Growth and Growth hormone - Insulin Like Growth Factor -I (GH-IGF-I) Axis in Chronic Anemias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, Ashraf T; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Yassin, Mohamed; Adel, Ashraf

    2017-04-28

    Anaemia is a global public health problem affecting both developing and developed countries with major consequences for human health as well as social and economic development. It occurs at all stages of the life cycle, but is more prevalent in pregnant women and young children. Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) was considered to be among the most important contributing factors to the global burden of disease. Prolonged and/or chronic anemia has a negative effect on linear growth especially during the rapid phases (infancy and puberty). Additionally infants with chronic IDA have delayed cognitive, motor, and affective development that may be long-lasting. In view of the significant impact of chronic anemias on growth, pediatricians endocrinologists and hematologists should advocate primary prevention and screening for growth disturbance in these forms of anemias. The extent of the negative effect of different forms of chronic anemias on linear growth and its possible reversibilty is addressed in this review. The possible mechanisms that may impair growth in the different forms of anemias are addressed with special attention to their effect on the growth hormone (GH) - insulin like growth factor -I (IGF-I).

  2. Lipoprotein metabolism in hypothyroidism : the contribution of growth hormone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Hoogerbrugge (Nicoline)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractCurrent data suggest a role for GH in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism. In hypothyroidism not only the secretion of thyroid hormone, but also of GH is decreased. Generally the effects on plasma lipids seen in hypothyroid individuals are considered to be a consequence of

  3. Galactopoiesis/Effects of hormones and growth factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    The term galactopoiesis was originally coined to describe the enhancement of an established lactation. In this sense, only exogenous somatotropin and thyroid hormones are clearly demonstrated galactopoietic agents in dairy animals. However, in a more inclusive sense, galactopoiesis has been used t...

  4. Hormones & growth regulators can be useful to foresters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert G., Jr. Snow

    1959-01-01

    Trees, like other plants, contain many natural chemicals of the sort that we call hormones. Research is gradually revealing that, in the behavior of a tree, these chemicals may be almost as important as the basic influences of heredity and environment.

  5. Growth hormone secretory in healthy aged women and men of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This perturbation may be involved in aggravations of numerous abnormalities. In 64 healthy elderly, we determined the concentrations of GH in both sexes and its correlation with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), the descriptive data, BMI, electrolytic assessment and some biochemical parameters. Collected data suggest ...

  6. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor 1 affect the severity of Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Cerbo, Alfredo; Pezzuto, Federica; Di Cerbo, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    Graves' disease, the most common form of hyperthyroidism in iodine-replete countries, is associated with the presence of immunoglobulins G (IgGs) that are responsible for thyroid growth and hyperfunction. In this article, we report the unusual case of a patient with acromegaly and a severe form of Graves' disease. Here, we address the issue concerning the role of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in influencing thyroid function. Severity of Graves' disease is exacerbated by coexistent acromegaly and both activity indexes and symptoms and signs of Graves' disease improve after the surgical remission of acromegaly. We also discuss by which signaling pathways GH and IGF1 may play an integrating role in regulating the function of the immune system in Graves' disease and synergize the stimulatory activity of Graves' IgGs. Clinical observations have demonstrated an increased prevalence of euthyroid and hyperthyroid goiters in patients with acromegaly.The coexistence of acromegaly and Graves' disease is a very unusual event, the prevalence being Graves' disease associated with acromegaly and show that surgical remission of acromegaly leads to a better control of symptoms of Graves' disease.

  7. Effects of size at birth, childhood growth patterns and growth hormone treatment on leukocyte telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina C J Smeets

    Full Text Available Small size at birth and rapid growth in early life are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. Short children born small for gestational age (SGA are treated with growth hormone (GH, inducing catch-up in length. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a marker of biological age and shorter LTL is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.To investigate whether LTL is influenced by birth size, childhood growth and long-term GH treatment.We analyzed LTL in 545 young adults with differences in birth size and childhood growth patterns. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA (SGA-GH were compared to untreated short SGA (SGA-S, SGA with spontaneous catch-up to a normal body size (SGA-CU, and appropriate for gestational age with a normal body size (AGA-NS. LTL was measured using a quantitative PCR assay.We found a positive association between birth length and LTL (p = 0.04, and a trend towards a positive association between birth weight and LTL (p = 0.08, after adjustments for gender, age, gestational age and adult body size. Weight gain during infancy and childhood and fat mass percentage were not associated with LTL. Female gender and gestational age were positively associated with LTL, and smoking negatively. After adjustments for gender, age and gestational age, SGA-GH had a similar LTL as SGA-S (p = 0.11, SGA-CU (p = 0.80, and AGA-NS (p = 0.30.Larger size at birth is positively associated with LTL in young adulthood. Growth patterns during infancy and childhood are not associated with LTL. Previously GH-treated young adults born SGA have similar LTL as untreated short SGA, SGA with spontaneous catch-up and AGA born controls, indicating no adverse effects of GH-induced catch-up in height on LTL.

  8. Response of the growth plate of uremic rats to human growth hormone and corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.F. Barbosa

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Children with chronic renal failure in general present growth retardation that is aggravated by corticosteroids. We describe here the effects of methylprednisolone (MP and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH on the growth plate (GP of uremic rats. Uremia was induced by subtotal nephrectomy in 30-day-old rats, followed by 20 IU kg-1 day-1 rhGH (N = 7 or 3 mg kg-1 day-1 MP (N = 7 or 20 IU kg-1 day-1 rhGH + 3 mg kg-1 day-1 MP (N = 7 treatment for 10 days. Control rats with intact renal function were sham-operated and treated with 3 mg kg-1 day-1 MP (N = 7 or vehicle (N = 7. Uremic rats (N = 7 were used as untreated control animals. Structural alterations in the GP and the expression of anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and anti-insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I by epiphyseal chondrocytes were evaluated. Uremic MP rats displayed a reduction in the proliferative zone height (59.08 ± 4.54 vs 68.07 ± 7.5 µm, P < 0.05 and modifications in the microarchitecture of the GP. MP and uremia had an additive inhibitory effect on the proliferative activity of GP chondrocytes, lowering the expression of PCNA (19.48 ± 11.13 vs 68.64 ± 7.9% in control, P < 0.0005 and IGF-I (58.53 ± 0.96 vs 84.78 ± 2.93% in control, P < 0.0001, that was counteracted by rhGH. These findings suggest that in uremic rats rhGH therapy improves longitudinal growth by increasing IGF-I synthesis in the GP and by stimulating chondrocyte proliferation.

  9. Effects of epidermal growth factor, platelet derived growth factor and growth hormone on cultured rat keratinocytes cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Manouchehr; Ghahari, Laya; Zoroufchi, M D Babak Hossein Zadeh

    2014-07-01

    Some growth factors, such as Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Growth Hormone (GH) and Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) have beneficial effects on keratinocyte proliferation and wound healing. Although the mechanism of these factors is unclear. In response to injury, growth factors are secreted by kinds of cutaneous cells. The goal of this project is to investigate the factors that could cause proliferate of the keratinocyte cells in vitro. The keratinocytes were removed from rat pups (10 days). Cultured in media with different concentration of GH, PDGF and EGF separately. The proliferation of cells was evaluated by the method of MTT and 3H-thymidine incorporation. Proliferation of keratinocytes was significantly higher in experimental groups than in control group. EGF maximally stimulated at 10 and 25 ng mL(-1). PDGF-BB maximally stimulated at 50 ng mL(-1), respectively. And maximal stimulation of GH was 2.5 IU L(-1). GH, PDGF-BB and EGF stimulate keratinocyte cells proliferation in different concentration. These growth factors could play in healing of the skin.

  10. Ethylene and Hormonal Cross Talk in Vegetative Growth and Development1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Poel, Bram; Smet, Dajo; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Ethylene is a gaseous plant hormone that most likely became a functional hormone during the evolution of charophyte green algae, prior to land colonization. From this ancient origin, ethylene evolved into an important growth regulator that is essential for myriad plant developmental processes. In vegetative growth, ethylene appears to have a dual role, stimulating and inhibiting growth, depending on the species, tissue, and cell type, developmental stage, hormonal status, and environmental conditions. Moreover, ethylene signaling and response are part of an intricate network in cross talk with internal and external cues. Besides being a crucial factor in the growth control of roots and shoots, ethylene can promote flowering, fruit ripening and abscission, as well as leaf and petal senescence and abscission and, hence, plays a role in virtually every phase of plant life. Last but not least, together with jasmonates, salicylate, and abscisic acid, ethylene is important in steering stress responses. PMID:26232489

  11. Evaluation of pulsatile plasma concentrations of growth hormone in healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerink, N.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31147764X; Lee, W.M.; Stokhof, A.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067528937; Voorhout, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073903329; Mol, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070918775; Kooistra, H.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/205285864

    2011-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy dogs and large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ANIMALS: 8 dogs with DCM and 8 healthy control dogs of comparable age and body weight. PROCEDURES: Blood

  12. Hypothalamic growth hormone deficiency in a patient with ring chromosome 18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, A; Boccone, L; Angius, L; Loche, S; Falchi, A M; Cao, A

    1994-02-01

    We report on a boy with a ring 18 chromosome associated with hypothalamic growth hormone (GH) deficiency. A 12-month trial of GH replacement therapy (0.5 U/kg/week) resulted in a marked growth acceleration. Our findings emphasise the need of evaluating GH secretion in patients with abnormalities of the 18 chromosome.

  13. Effect of ten weeks of combined exercise on growth hormone, insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 10 weeks of combined exercise on growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF-2) and myostatin levels in elderly Korean women. Subjects were randomly assigned to the combined exercise group (CEG; n=17) or the control group (CG; n=17).

  14. Growth Hormone Receptor Signaling Pathways and its Negative Regulation by SOCS2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández Pérez, Leandro; Flores-Morales, Amilcar; Guerra, Borja

    2016-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a critical regulator of linear body growth during childhood but continues to have important metabolic actions throughout life. The GH receptor (GHR) is ubiquitously expressed, and deficiency of GHR signaling causes a dramatic impact on normal physiology during somatic devel...

  15. SOCS2 mediates the cross talk between androgen and growth hormone signaling in prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Gato, Diego; Chuan, Yin Choy; Wikström, Pernilla

    2014-01-01

    Anabolic signals such as androgens and the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis play an essential role in the normal development of the prostate but also in its malignant transformation. In this study, we investigated the role of suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2) a...

  16. The pubertal spurt: effects of sex steroids on growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caufriez, A

    1997-02-01

    In puberty, the growth spurt and the appearance of secondary sex characteristics occur concomitantly with an increase of sex steroids, growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). A number of experiments indicate that sex steroids exert a stimulatory action on the somatotropic axis. This effect is due to an amplifying action of oestradiol (secreted by the ovaries or after testosterone aromatization) on the neuroendocrine regulation of pulsatile GH release.

  17. Growth conditions of clostridium perfringens type B for production of toxins used to obtain veterinary vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana Brandi, Igor; Domenici Mozzer, Otto; Jorge, Edson Vander; Vieira Passos, Frederico Jose; Lopes Passos, Flavia Maria; Cangussu, Alex Sander Rodrigues; Macedo Sobrinho, Eliane

    2014-09-01

    The diseases caused for Clostridium perfringens are generically called enterotoxemias because toxins produced in the intestine may be absorbed into the general circulation. C. perfringens type B, grown in batch fermentation, produced toxins used to obtain veterinary vaccines. Glucose in concentrations of 1.4-111.1 mM was used to define the culture medium. The minimum concentration for a satisfactory production of vaccines against clostridial diseases was 55.6 mM. Best results were brought forth by meat and casein peptones, both in the concentration 5.0 g l(-1) in combination with glucose and a culture pH maintained at 6.5 throughout the fermentation process. The production of lactic, acetic and propionic organic acids was observed. Ethanol was the metabolite produced in the highest concentration when cultures maintained steady pH of 6.5 with exception of cultures with initial glucose concentration of 1.4 mM, where the highest production was of propionic acid. Maximal cell concentration and the highest toxin title concomitantly low yield coefficient to organic acids and ethanol were obtained using basal medium containing 111.1 mM glucose under a controlled pH culture (pH) 6.5 in batch fermentations of C. perfringens type B. These data contribute to improve process for industrial toxin production allowing better condition to produce a toxoid vaccine.

  18. Growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol response to exercise in patients with depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Mohammad-Nezhad, Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A blunted growth hormone and prolactin response to pharmacological stress test have previously been found in depressed patients, as well as an increased cortisol response to psychosocial stress. This study investigated these hormones in response to acute exercise using an incremental...... bicycle test. METHOD: A cross-sectional comparison of cortisol, growth hormone, and prolactin in depressed (n=137) and healthy (n=44) subjects during rest and in response to an incremental bicycle test. Secondly, we tested the depressed patients again after a 4-month randomized naturalistic exercise...... controls. The effect of acute exercise stress on PRL (p=.56) did not differ between depressed and healthy subjects. Apart from a decrease in GH response in the strength-training group (p=.03) the pragmatic exercise intervention did not affect resting hormonal levels, or the response to acute exercise...

  19. Changes of growth hormone-releasing hormone and somatostatin neurons in the rat hypothalamus induced by genistein: a stereological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifunović, Svetlana; Manojlović-Stojanoski, Milica; Ristić, Nataša; Nestorović, Nataša; Medigović, Ivana; Živanović, Jasmina; Milošević, Verica

    2016-12-01

    Genistein is a plant-derived estrogenic isoflavone commonly found in dietary and therapeutic supplements, due to its potential health benefits. Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SS) are neurosecretory peptides synthesized in neurons of the hypothalamus and regulate the growth hormone secretion. Early reports indicate that estrogens have highly involved in the regulation of GHRH and SS secretions. Since little is known about the potential effects of genistein on GHRH and SS neurons, we exposed rats to genistein. Genistein were administered to adult rats in dose of 30 mg/kg, for 3 weeks. The estradiol-dipropionate treatment was used as the adequate controls to genistein. Using applied stereology on histological sections of hypothalamus, we obtained the quantitative information on arcuate (Arc) and periventricular (Pe) nucleus volume and volume density of GHRH neurons and SS neurons. Image analyses were used to obtain GHRH and SS contents in the median eminence (ME). Administration of estradiol-dipropionate caused the increase of Arc and Pe nucleus volume, SS neuron volume density, GHRH and SS staining intensity in the ME, when compared with control. Genistein treatment increased: Arc nucleus volume and the volume density of GHRH neurons (by 26%) and SS neurons (1.5 fold), accompanied by higher GHRH and SS staining intensity in the ME, when compared to the orhidectomized group. These results suggest that genistein has a significant effect on hypothalamic region, involved in the regulation of somatotropic system function, and could contribute to the understanding of genistein as substance that alter the hormonal balance.

  20. Optimum method for administration of biosynthetic human growth hormone: a randomised crossover trial of an Auto Injector and a pen injection system.

    OpenAIRE

    Stanhope, R; Albanese, A; Moyle, L; Hamill, G

    1992-01-01

    The use of optimum conventional growth hormone administration, using a growth hormone vial combined with an Auto Injector, was compared with a pen injection system using a cartridge of growth hormone. In both methods of administration the concentration of growth hormone was 16 IU/ml. Thirty patients (22 boys, eight girls) who had all previously been treated with growth hormone (4 IU/ml) administered using needles and syringes (without an Auto Injector) were randomised into receiving one of ei...

  1. Slipped capital femoral epiphysis in a patient with Turner syndrome receiving growth hormone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Mona P; Der-Boghossian, Asdghig H; Haidar, Rachid K

    2012-01-01

    To report a case of slipped capital femoral epiphysis in a young patient with Turner syndrome (TS) receiving growth hormone therapy and to emphasize the importance of keeping this orthopedic condition in mind during management of this patient group. Clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings are presented, and risk factors for slipped capital femoral epiphysis are discussed. A child with TS presented for medical assessment because of a limp but with no history of trauma or febrile illness. Growth hormone therapy had been administered for 1 year because of her short stature. Physical examination and pelvic radiography of the patient showed the presence of bilateral slipped capital femoral epiphysis. She underwent bilateral pinning in situ, and growth hormone therapy was terminated. At follow-up after more than 2 years, no sequelae were noted. Patients with TS are at high risk for developing certain orthopedic conditions, such as slipped capital femoral epiphysis. Furthermore, slipped capital femoral epiphysis is a known complication of growth hormone therapy in growing children. A limp, hip pain, knee pain, or thigh pain might be a symptom of slipped capital femoral epiphysis in patients with TS, especially those receiving growth hormone therapy. Prompt recognition and treatment of this condition are important for prevention of sequelae.

  2. Tumor growth inhibition in patients with prostatic carcinoma treated with luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolis, G; Ackman, D; Stellos, A; Mehta, A; Labrie, F; Fazekas, A T; Comaru-Schally, A M; Schally, A V

    1982-01-01

    Ten patients with prostatic carcinoma--six with stage C and four with stage D disease--were treated for 6 weeks to 12 months with agonistic analogues of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH). [D-Trp6]LH-RH was given subcutaneously once daily at a dose of 100 microgram and [D-Ser(But)6]des-GlyNH2(10)-LH-RH ethylamide (HOE 766) was given subcutaneously (50 microgram once daily) or intranasally (500 microgram twice daily). In all patients, mean plasma testosterone levels showed a 75% suppression by the third week of treatment and remained low thereafter. This was followed by a decrease or normalization of plasma acid phosphatase levels by the second month of treatment and a 47% decrease in serum alkaline phosphatase by the 10th week of treatment in all but one patient. In patients with stage C disease presenting with prostatism or urinary outflow obstruction, there was a noticeable clinical improvement. In two such patients, a decrease in the size of the prostate was confirmed by ultrasonography. In patients with stage D disease manifested by diffuse bone metastases, there was relief of bone pain, and in one patient treated for greater than 12 months the improvement was documented by radioisotope bone imaging. It is concluded that superactive agonistic LH-RH analogues hold promise as therapeutic agents in patients with androgen-sensitive prostatic adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the analogous of LH-RH may be used to assess the responsiveness of patients to surgical castration. Long-term administration of LH-RH analogues could become an alternative to surgical castration and estrogen therapy for the treatment of hormone-dependent prostatic carcinoma. Images PMID:6461861

  3. Hepatic growth hormone and glucocorticoid receptor signaling in body growth, steatosis and metabolic liver cancer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kristina M.; Themanns, Madeleine; Friedbichler, Katrin; Kornfeld, Jan-Wilhelm; Esterbauer, Harald; Tuckermann, Jan P.; Moriggl, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and glucocorticoids (GCs) are involved in the control of processes that are essential for the maintenance of vital body functions including energy supply and growth control. GH and GCs have been well characterized to regulate systemic energy homeostasis, particular during certain conditions of physical stress. However, dysfunctional signaling in both pathways is linked to various metabolic disorders associated with aberrant carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In liver, GH-dependent activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 controls a variety of physiologic functions within hepatocytes. Similarly, GCs, through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), influence many important liver functions such as gluconeogenesis. Studies in hepatic Stat5 or GR knockout mice have revealed that they similarly control liver function on their target gene level and indeed, the GR functions often as a cofactor of STAT5 for GH-induced genes. Gene sets, which require physical STAT5–GR interaction, include those controlling body growth and maturation. More recently, it has become evident that impairment of GH-STAT5 signaling in different experimental models correlates with metabolic liver disease, ranging from hepatic steatosis to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). While GH-activated STAT5 has a protective role in chronic liver disease, experimental disruption of GC-GR signaling rather seems to ameliorate metabolic disorders under metabolic challenge. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge about hepatic GH-STAT5 and GC-GR signaling in body growth, metabolism, and protection from fatty liver disease and HCC development. PMID:22564914

  4. Non-compliance with growth hormone treatment in children is common and impairs linear growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayne S Cutfield

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: GH therapy requires daily injections over many years and compliance can be difficult to sustain. As growth hormone (GH is expensive, non-compliance is likely to lead to suboptimal growth, at considerable cost. Thus, we aimed to assess the compliance rate of children and adolescents with GH treatment in New Zealand. METHODS: This was a national survey of GH compliance, in which all children receiving government-funded GH for a four-month interval were included. Compliance was defined as ≥ 85% adherence (no more than one missed dose a week on average to prescribed treatment. Compliance was determined based on two parameters: either the number of GH vials requested (GHreq by the family or the number of empty GH vials returned (GHret. Data are presented as mean ± SEM. FINDINGS: 177 patients were receiving GH in the study period, aged 12.1 ± 0.6 years. The rate of returned vials, but not number of vials requested, was positively associated with HVSDS (p < 0.05, such that patients with good compliance had significantly greater linear growth over the study period (p<0.05. GHret was therefore used for subsequent analyses. 66% of patients were non-compliant, and this outcome was not affected by sex, age or clinical diagnosis. However, Maori ethnicity was associated with a lower rate of compliance. INTERPRETATION: An objective assessment of compliance such as returned vials is much more reliable than compliance based on parental or patient based information. Non-compliance with GH treatment is common, and associated with reduced linear growth. Non-compliance should be considered in all patients with apparently suboptimal response to GH treatment.

  5. Relationships between performance traits and the expressions of growth hormone, insulin-Like growth facto -I, and insulin in pigs selected for growth or leanness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Gerritsen, C.L.M.; Visscher, A.H.; Greef, de K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Selection for growth rate or backfat thickness (BFT) in pigs is related with changes in the blood plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I). Two experimental pig selection lines based upon a common commercial Large White (LW) selection line were selected

  6. [Response to 3 years of growth hormone therapy in small for gestational age children: clinical, hormonal and metabolic parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güemes Hidalgo, M; Fernández de Larrea Baz, N; Muñoz Calvo, M T; Argente, J

    2013-05-01

    To analyze the effectiveness and safety of growth hormone (GH) treatment, administered over a 3 year period to children small for gestational age (SGA) without catch-up growth, followed up in the Department of Endocrinology at the University Hospital Niño Jesús in Madrid between 2003 and 2011. Anthropometric and analytical data from 52 SGA patients receiving GH therapy (mean dose: 0.035mg/kg/day) were retrospectively examined in order to determine its influence on linear growth, body composition, bone maturation, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, thyroid hormone profile and blood pressure. GH treatment induced a significant increase in growth velocity, with the highest rise occurring during the first 12 months of its administration and in children under 5 years of age. Insulin-like growth factor-I levels increased significantly, along with a significant acceleration in bone maturation, with both parameters remaining within normal limits. A progressive rise in fasting glucose levels, glycosylated hemoglobin, baseline insulin, and homeostasis model assessment index, were also found. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) levels decreased and high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (HDL-c) increased significantly. The atherogenic ratios of total-cholesterol/HDL-c and LDL-c/HDL-c also decreased significantly. GH treatment promotes physical growth in SGA patients, generates certain resistance to the action of insulin, and improves atherogenic risk ratios after 3 years of therapy. Long-term monitoring is required until adult height is reached. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. GROWTH HORMONE-, ALPHA-SUBUNIT AND THYROTROPIN-COSECRETING PITUITARY-ADENOMA IN FAMILIAL SETTING OF PITUITARY-TUMOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LINKS, TP; MONKELBAAN, JF; DULLAART, RPF; VANHAEFTEN, TW

    1993-01-01

    A patient with acromegaly and hyperthyroidism due to a growth hormone-, thyrotrophin- and alpha-subunit-secreting pituitary adenoma is described. His deceased father had suffered from a pituitary tumour, and was likely to have had acromegaly as well. Plasma growth hormone and insulin-like growth

  8. Growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 and the aging brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpole, Nicole M; Sanders, Jessica E; Hodges, Erik L; Yan, Han; Sonntag, William E

    2015-08-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 regulate the development and function of cells throughout the body. Several clinical diseases that result in a decline in physical and mental functions are marked by mutations that disrupt GH or IGF-1 signaling. During the lifespan there is a robust decrease in both GH and IGF-1. Because GH and IGF-1 are master regulators of cellular function, impaired GH and IGF-1 signaling in aging/disease states leads to significant alterations in tissue structure and function, especially within the brain. This review is intended to highlight the effects of the GH and IGF-1 on neuronal structure, function, and plasticity. Furthermore, we address several potential mechanisms through which the age-related reductions in GH and IGF-1 affect cognition. Together, the studies reviewed here highlight the importance of maintaining GH and IGF-1 signaling in order to sustain proper brain function throughout the lifespan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. New directions for veterinary technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.

  10. DNA polymorphism at locus-2 of growth hormone gene of Madura cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NITA ETIKAWATI

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the research were to detect DNA polymorphism at locus 2 of bovine growth hormone gene of Madura cattle and to know its genetic diversity. DNA polymorphisms and their effect on phenotypic traits have been studied widely in dairy cattle but not for beef cattle, especially for Indonesian local cattle. Polymorphism was detected using PCR-RFLP using primer GH-5 and GH-6 for amplifying locus 2 of growth hormone gene. Genetic diversity was analyzed based on the formula of Nei (1973, 1975. DNA polymorphism was found on locus 2 of growth hormone gene using MspI restriction enzyme. This polymorphism may be caused the lost of restriction MspI site. The genetic diversity was 0.4422.

  11. Growth hormone ameliorates adipose dysfunction during oxidative stress and inflammation and improves glucose tolerance in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, M; Okamoto, Y; Katsumata, H; Ishikawa, M; Ishii, S; Okamoto, M; Minami, S

    2014-08-01

    Patients with adult growth hormone deficiency exhibit visceral fat accumulation, which gives rise to a cluster of metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia. Plasma growth hormone levels are lower in obese patients with metabolic syndrome than in healthy subjects. Here we examined the hypothesis that exogenous growth hormone administration regulates function of adipose tissue to improve glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese mice. Twelve-week-old obese male C57BL/6 J mice received bovine growth hormone daily for 6 weeks. In epididymal fat, growth hormone treatment antagonized diet-induced changes in the gene expression of adiponectin, leptin, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and significantly increased the gene expression of interleukin-10 and CD206. Growth hormone also suppressed the accumulation of oxidative stress marker, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, in the epididymal fat and enhanced the gene expression of anti-oxidant enzymes. Moreover, growth hormone significantly restored glucose tolerance in obese mice. In cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes, growth hormone prevented the decline in adiponectin gene expression in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. These results suggest that growth hormone administration ameliorates glucose intolerance in obese mice presumably by decreasing adipose mass, oxidative stress, and chronic inflammation in the visceral fat. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. EXPERIENCE OF ADMINISTRATION OF GROWTH HORMONE IN TREATMENT OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF MICROSOMIA IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Peterkova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunities of receiving of genetically engineered medications, e.g. somatotropic hormone (STG are almost unrestricted, and treatment and monitoring of patients with different types of microsomia can be held on modern, new level with the help of it. STG provides normal stature and valuable quality of life in these patients. Treatment with growth hormone influences on hormonal, metabolic and psychical status of patient. Metabolic effects are: increasing of muscle strength, improving of renal blood flow, increasing of cardiac output, absorbability of calcium in intestines and mineralization of bones. The level of blood cholesterol, lipoproteins is descended; blood alkaline phosphatase, phosphorus, urine and fatty acid are increased. Patients' vitality and quality of life are normalized. Besides somatotropic insufficiency, growth hormone is widely used in growth_stimulating treatment of different types of dwarism in children: microsomia due to pre_natal growth delay, genetic syndromes: Silwer–Russell, Shereshevsky–Turner, Nunan, Prader–Willi, and microsomia in patients with chronic renal disease.Key words: children, microsomia, somatotropic hormone, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(2:86-93

  13. [Fish growth-hormone genes: functionality evidence of paralogous genes in Levanidov's charr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenskaya, D N; Pankova, M V; Atopkin, D M; Brykov, V A

    2015-01-01

    In the genome of most vertebrates growth-hormone gene is presented in a single copy, while in salmonids after one of the duplication events many genes were multiplied, including growth hormone gene. In salmonids, the growth-hormone gene exists as two independently inherited functional paralogues, gh1 and gh2. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of gh1 and gh2 growth-hormone genes and their adjacent sequences in Levanidov's charr Salvelinus levanidovi to determine their functionality and define the potential differences. We found that both genes have the same gene structure and are composed of six exons (I-VI) and five introns (A, B, C, D, E). However, the respective gene sequences differ in length. A comparison of exons showed that the size of each exon is identical in both paralogues. The overall length of genes differs due to the varying lengths of introns. Coding sequence of both genes contains an open reading frame for 210 amino acids. We identified regulatory elements in the promoter region of both genes: TATA box, A/T-rich regions that contain binding sites for pituitary-specific transcriptional activator Pit-1, and regions responsible for interaction with other transcriptional activators and initiators, in particular hormone receptors. The obtained data indicate that both genes are functional.

  14. Effects of growth hormone therapeutic supplementation on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in children with growth hormone deficiency: focus on proliferation and differentiation capabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kawa, M. P.; Stecewicz, I.; Piecyk, K.; Pius-Sadowska, E.; E Paczkowska; Rogi?ska, D.; Sobu?, A.; ?uczkowska, K.; Gawrych, E.; Petriczko, E.; Walczak, M.; Machali?ski, B.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the direct effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy (GH-RT) on hematopoiesis in children with GH deficiency (GHD) with the special emphasis on proliferation and cell cycle regulation. Peripheral blood (PB) was collected from sixty control individuals and forty GHD children before GH-RT and in 3rd and 6th month of GH-RT to measure hematological parameters and isolate CD34+-enriched hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Selected parameters of PB were analyzed by hemat...

  15. Placental hormones and the control of maternal metabolism and fetal growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbern, Dorothee; Freemark, Michael

    2011-12-01

    To examine the roles of the placental and pituitary hormones in the control of maternal metabolism and fetal growth. In addition to promoting growth of maternal tissues, placental growth hormone (GH-V) induces maternal insulin resistance and thereby facilitates the mobilization of maternal nutrients for fetal growth. Human placental lactogen (hPL) and prolactin increase maternal food intake by induction of central leptin resistance and promote maternal beta-cell expansion and insulin production to defend against the development of gestational diabetes mellitus. The effects of the lactogens are mediated by diverse signaling pathways and are potentiated by glucose. Pathologic conditions of pregnancy are associated with dysregulation of GH-V and hPL gene expression. The somatogenic and lactogenic hormones of the placenta and maternal pituitary gland integrate the metabolic adaptations of pregnancy with the demands of fetal and neonatal development. Dysregulation of placental growth hormone and/or placental lactogen in pathologic conditions of pregnancy may adversely impact fetal growth and postnatal metabolic function.

  16. Compensatory growth assessment by plasma IGF-I hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... Effects of insulin like growth factor and insulin on the in vitro uptake of sulfate by eel branchial cartilage: evidence for the presence of independent hepatic and panceratic sulfation factors. J. Endocrinol. 139: 243 - 252. Duan C (1998). Nutritional developmental regulation of insulin-like growth factors in fish .

  17. Shared decision making and patient choice for growth hormone therapy: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Belinda George, Vageesh Ayyar Department of Endocrinology, St. John’s Medical College Hospital, Bangalore, Karnataka, India Abstract: Growth hormone has now been available in medical practice for close to 50 years. Its use has provided dramatic results in patients with growth hormone deficiency and it is associated with an overall favorable safety profile. Over the years, the utility of growth hormone has expanded to include treatment for short stature associated with conditions other than growth hormone deficiency, and this situation warrants greater involvement of the child and parents in the shared decision-making process. Shared decision making is in good conformance to the principle of informed consent, and it also improves the compliance and adherence to therapy as the patient fully understands the benefit and safety of the treatment. In the pediatric-care setting, the decision-making interactions usually occur between the health care provider, patient, and parents. The process may range from an autonomous decision-making pattern, where the patient or parents are fully responsible for the decision taken, to the paternalistic decision-making pattern, where the health care provider assumes full responsibility for the decision taken. However, the ideal situation is one where a truly shared decision-making process happens, in which the doctor and patient/parents work together to choose an evidence-based option, in line with the patient’s preferences and wishes. The limited data available on shared decision making with regard to growth hormone replacement, however, is not very encouraging and suggests that the actual involvement of the parents as perceived by them is less than optimal. Introduction of a simple structured model for a shared decision-making process that can be easily incorporated into clinical practice and familiarization of health care providers with the same is essential to improve our shared decision-making practices

  18. Pituitary gonadotropins, prolactin and growth hormone differentially regulate AQP1 expression in the porcine ovarian follicular cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skowronski, Mariusz T.; Mlotkowska, Patrycja; Tanski, Damian

    2018-01-01

    -stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH) for 24 h in separated cells and co-cultures of these cells. Real-time PCR, Western blotting, immunofluorescence and volumetric analysis were then performed. Gonadotropins, PRL and GH had a stimulatory impact on AQP1 m...

  19. Effects of 1-year growth hormone replacement therapy on thyroid volume and function of the children and adolescents with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Meliksah; Bayramoglu, Elvan; Aycan, Zehra

    2017-10-17

    There are different opinions about the effects of growth hormone replacement therapy (GHRT) on thyroid function and volume. This study aimed to assess the effects of GHRT on thyroid volume and function in the children and adolescents with growth hormone (GH) deficiency. A total of 29 patients diagnosed with GH deficiency were enrolled in the study. The control group consisted of 29 cases matched for age, gender and pubertal period with the patients. Thyroid function tests and insulin-like growth factor levels were measured, simultaneously thyroid volumes were assessed by ultrasonography at the initiation period and at the end of GHRT. Thyroid volumes of the patient group was -0.55±1.1 standard deviations (SDs) initially; whereas at the end of 1 year it was found to be -0.29±1.29 SDs and both SDs of thyroid volumes did not differ significantly. The SDs of thyroid volume of the control group was -0.85±1.03 SDs initially and -0.72±0.85 SDs at the end of 1 year; and they did not differ significantly. On the other hand, after GHRT of 1 year, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine (T4) levels decreased. It was observed that SDs of thyroid gland volumes did not change in GH deficient children and adolescents after GHRT.

  20. Thyroid, cortisol and growth hormone levels in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udenze, Ifeoma Christiana; Olowoselu, Olusola Festus; Egbuagha, Ephraim Uchenna; Oshodi, Temitope Adewunmi

    2017-01-01

    The similarities in presentation of cortisol excess, growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome suggest that subtle abnormalities of these endocrine hormones may play a causal role in the development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the levels of cortisol, thyroid and growth hormones in adult Nigerians with metabolic syndrome and determine the relationship between levels of these hormones and components of the syndrome. This was a case control study conducted at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. Participants were fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty, age and sex matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the NCEP-ATPIII criteria. Written Informed consent was obtained from the participants. Socio demographic and clinical data were collected using a structured questionnaire. Venous blood was collected after an over-night fast. The Ethics committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparison of continuous variables was done using the Student's t test. Correlation analysis was employed to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at Psignificantly decreased (psignificantly increased ( psignificantly with waist circumference (p=0.004), glucose (p= 0.002), total cholesterol ( p=0.001) and LDL- cholesterol ( psignificant correlation with waist circumference (p=0.004). Cortisol and growth hormone levels were similar in metabolic syndrome and controls. Cortisol however had a positive significant correlation with waist/hip ratio (pcortisol and growth hormones correlated with components of the syndrome. A therapeutic role may exit for these hormones in the management of metabolic syndrome and related disorders.

  1. Growth hormone used to control intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Xia, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Zheng-Sen; Lu, Xin-Liang

    2015-08-21

    Intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis is rare. We describe a 69-year-old man with intractable hemorrhagic gastritis induced by postoperative radiotherapy for the treatment of esophageal carcinoma. Although anti-secretory therapy with or without octreotide was initiated for hemostasis over three months, melena still occurred off and on, and the patient required blood transfusions to maintain stable hemoglobin. Finally growth hormone was used in the treatment of hemorrhage for two weeks, and hemostasis was successfully achieved. This is the first report that growth hormone has been used to control intractable bleeding caused by radiation-induced gastritis.

  2. Effects of cortisol, growth hormone and prolactin on gill claudin expression in Atlantic salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbæk; Jørgensen, Charlotte; Brande-Lavridsen, Nanna

    2009-01-01

    We recently showed that a series of tight junction proteins of the claudin family are regulated in the gill of salmon during salinity acclimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) on regulation of expression of these iso......We recently showed that a series of tight junction proteins of the claudin family are regulated in the gill of salmon during salinity acclimation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of cortisol, growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) on regulation of expression...

  3. Cardiovascular effects of growth hormone in adult hemodialysis patients: results from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Rustom, Rana; Wiedmann, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD.......The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD....

  4. Molecular cloning and nucleotide sequence of the human growth hormone structural gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, W G; Rougeon, F

    1979-01-01

    An almost complete cDNA copy of human growth hormone has been cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence confirms the known protein sequence and predicts the sequence of a precursor region of 26 amino acids. We have compared the nucleotide sequence to that for the homolgous proteins, rat growth hormone and human chorionic somatomammotropin (Seeburg et al. and Shine et al., Nature 270, 486 (1977)). There appears to be evolutionary conservation of mRNA sequence features not related to protein structure. Images PMID:386281

  5. Different growth hormone sensitivity of target tissues and growth hormone response to glucose in HIV-infected patients with and without lipodystrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Haugaard, Steen B; Hansen, Birgitte R

    2004-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH)-secretion in HIV-lipodystrophy is impaired; however, GH-sensitivity of GH-target tissues remains to be evaluated. We measured overnight fasting concentrations of GH-sensitive insulin-like growth-factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) including GH binding protein...... (GHBP), a marker of GH-receptor sensitivity, in antiretroviral treated HIV-infected patients with (LIPO) and without lipodystrophy (NONLIPO) and antiretroviral naive HIV-infected patients (NAIVE). Three h GH-suppression tests using oral glucose were undertaken to determine dynamics of GH-secretion. IGF...... glucose in LIPO compared with NONLIPO and NAIVE (p lipodystrophy....

  6. Growth hormone responsiveness: peak stimulated growth hormone levels and other variables in idiopathic short stature (ISS): data from the National Cooperative Growth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Wayne V; Dana, Ken; Frane, James; Lippe, Barbara

    2008-09-01

    In children with idiopathic short stature (ISS), growth hormone (GH) response to a provocative test will be inversely related to the first year response to hGH and be a variable accounting for a degree of responsiveness. Because high levels of GH are a characteristic of GH insensitivity, such as in Laron syndrome, it is possible that a high stimulated GH is associated with a lower first year height velocity among children diagnosed as having ISS. We examined the relationship between the peak stimulated GH levels in 3 ISS groups; GH >10 -40 ng/mL and the first year growth response to rhGH therapy. We also looked at 8 other predictor variables (age, sex, height SDS, height age, body mass index (BMI), bone age, dose, and SDS deficit from target parental height. Multiple regression analysis with the first year height as the dependent variable and peak stimulated GH was the primary endpoint. The predictive value of adding each of the other variables was then assessed. Mean change in height velocity was similar among the three groups, with a maximum difference among the groups of 0.6 cm/yr. There was a small but statistically significant correlation (r=-0.12) between the stimulated GH and first year height velocity. The small correlation between first year growth response and peak GH is not clinically relevant in defining GH resistance. No cut off level by peak GH could be determined to enhance the usefulness of this measure to predict response. Baseline age was the only clinically significant predictor, R-squared, 6.4%. All other variables contributed less than an additional 2% to the R-squared.

  7. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 in Postrenal Transplant: An Often Forgotten Hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Fateme Shamekhi; Khatami, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 is likely to be the most important regulator of phosphate homeostasis, which mediates its functions through fibroblast growth factor receptors and the coreceptor Klotho. In addition to reducing expression of the sodium-phosphate cotransporters NPT2a and NPT2c in the proximal tubules, fibroblast growth factor 23 inhibits renal 1α-hydroxylase and stimulates 24-hydroxylase and appears to reduce parathyroid hormone secretion in short-term studies. Fibroblast growth factor 23 synthesis and secretion by osteocytes and osteoblasts are upregulated through 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and through an increased dietary phosphate intake. Recent studies have indicated that a low-protein diet and calcium deficiency reduce circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 levels, but magnesium deficiency increases fibroblast growth factor levels. Drugs such as phosphate binders, bisphosphonate, and estrogens have various effects on circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 levels. The high cardiovascular disease event rates and mortality associated with elevated levels of this hormone may be due to various effects on the cardiovascular system, including left ventricular hypertrophy, arterial stiffness, vascular calcifications, endothelial dysfunction, and increased levels of inflammatory markers. In addition, elevated levels of this hormone may contribute to mineral bone metabolism disorders and to patient and allograft survival after renal transplant. Here, we discuss the effects of fibroblast growth factor 23 on adverse renal, bone, and cardiovascular outcomes after kidney transplant.

  8. Deficiency of growth hormone-releasing hormone signaling is associated with sleep alterations in the dwarf rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obál, F; Fang, J; Taishi, P; Kacsóh, B; Gardi, J; Krueger, J M

    2001-04-15

    The somatotropic axis, and particularly growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), is implicated in the regulation of sleep-wake activity. To evaluate sleep in chronic somatotropic deficiency, sleep-wake activity was studied in dwarf (dw/dw) rats that are known to have a defective GHRH signaling mechanism in the pituitary and in normal Lewis rats, the parental strain of the dw/dw rats. In addition, expression of GHRH receptor (GHRH-R) mRNA in the hypothalamus/preoptic region and in the pituitary was also determined by means of reverse transcription-PCR, and GHRH content of the hypothalamus was measured. Hypothalamic/preoptic and pituitary GHRH-R mRNA levels were decreased in the dw/dw rats, indicating deficits in the central GHRHergic transmission. Hypothalamic GHRH content in dw/dw rats was also less than that found in Lewis rats. The dw/dw rats had less spontaneous nonrapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) (light and dark period) and rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) (light period) than did the control Lewis rats. After 4 hr of sleep deprivation, rebound increases in NREMS and REMS were normal in the dw/dw rat. As determined by fast Fourier analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG), the sleep deprivation-induced enhancements in EEG slow-wave activity in the dw/dw rats were only one-half of the response in the Lewis rats. The results are compared with sleep findings previously obtained in GHRH-deficient transgenic mice. The alterations in NREMS are attributed to the defect in GHRH signaling, whereas the decreases in REMS might result from the growth hormone deficiency in the dw/dw rat.

  9. Ovine prolactin and human growth hormone derivatives. Specific modification of their alpha-amino groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caridad, J J; Nowicki, C; Santomé, J A; Wolfenstein-Todel, C

    1988-06-01

    The alpha-amino group of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and human growth hormone (hGH) was selectively modified by transamination with glyoxylic acid. No difference was found in the binding capacity of transaminated oPRL to rat liver lactogenic receptors with respect to its control, although both samples showed a decrease in its binding capacity with reference to the native hormone. This decrease was due to conformational changes caused by the reaction conditions and not by the transamination itself, as shown by the circular dichroism spectra. Transaminated hGH retained the full binding capacity of the hormone. These results suggest that the alpha-amino group is not relevant for the binding to lactogenic liver receptors in both lactogenic hormones.

  10. Adult height in girls with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist with or without growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mo Kyung; Song, Kyung Chul; Kwon, Ah Reum; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Duk Hee; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2014-12-01

    There is controversy surrounding the growth outcomes of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) in central precocious puberty (CPP). We analyzed height preservation after treatment with GnRHa with and without growth hormone (GH) in girls with CPP. We reviewed the medical records of 82 girls with idiopathic CPP who had been treated with GnRHa at Severance Children's Hospital from 2004 to 2014. We assessed the changes in height standard deviation score (SDS) for bone age (BA), and compared adult height (AH) with midparental height (MPH) and predicted adult height (PAH) during treatment in groups received GnRHa alone (n=59) or GnRHa plus GH (n=23). In the GnRHa alone group, the height SDS for BA was increased during treatment. AH (160.4±4.23 cm) was significantly higher than the initial PAH (156.6±3.96 cm) (Pheight SDS for BA was also increased during treatment. AH (159.3±5.33 cm) was also higher than the initial PAH (154.6±2.55 cm) (PHeight gain was slightly higher than that in the GnRHa alone group, however it statistically showed no significant correlation with GH treatment. In CPP girls treated with GnRHa, the height SDS for BA was increased, and the AH was higher than the initial PAH. Combined GH treatment showed a limited increase in height gain.

  11. Insulin-like growth factor-I feedback regulation of growth hormone and luteinizing hormone secretion in the pig: evidence for a pituitary site of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barb, C R; Hausman, G J

    2009-06-01

    Three experiments (EXP) were conducted to determine the role of insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in the control of growth hormone (GH) and LH secretion. In EXP I, prepuberal gilts, 65 ± 6 kg body weight and 140 days of age received intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of saline (n = 4), 25 μg (n = 4) or 75 μg (n = 4) IGF-I and jugular blood samples were collected. In EXP II, anterior pituitary cells in culture collected from 150-day-old prepuberal gilts (n = 6) were challenged with 0.1, 10 or 1000 nM [Ala15]-h growth hormone-releasing hormone-(1-29)NH2 (GHRH), or 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 30 nM IGF-I individually or in combinations with 1000 nM GHRH. Secreted GH was measured at 4 and 24 h after treatment. In EXP III, anterior pituitary cells in culture collected from 150-day-old barrows (n = 5) were challenged with 10, 100 or 1000 nM gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) or 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 30 nM IGF-I individually or in combinations with 100 nM GnRH. Secreted LH was measured at 4 h after treatment. In EXP I, serum GH and LH concentrations were unaffected by ICV IGF-I treatment. In EXP II, relative to control all doses of GHRH increased (P 0.1). In conclusion, under these experimental conditions the results suggest that the pituitary is the putative site for IGF-I modulation of GH and LH secretion. Further examination of the role of IGF-I on GH and LH secretion is needed to understand the inhibitory and stimulatory action of IGF-I on GH and LH secretion.

  12. Changes of plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I, thyroid hormones, and testosterone concentrations in embryos and broiler chickens incubated under monochromatic green light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies showed that monochromatic green light stimuli during embryogenesis accelerated posthatch body weight and pectoral muscle growth of broilers. In this experiment, we further investigated whether the regulation of broiler embryonic or posthatch growth by green light stimulus during incubation is associated with the changes of some important hormones at different ages of embryos and broiler chickens. Fertile broiler eggs (Arbor Acres, n=880 were pre-weighed and randomly assigned 1 of 2 incubation treatment groups: i dark condition (control group, and ii monochromatic green light group (560 nm. The monochromatic lighting systems sourced from light-emitting diode lamps were equalised at the intensity of 15 lux (lx at eggshell level. The dark condition was set as a commercial control from day one until hatching. After hatch, 120 day-old male chicks from each group were housed under white light with an intensity of 30 lx at bird-head level. Compared with the dark condition, chicks incubated under the green light showed significantly higher growth hormone (GH levels from 19 d of embryogenesis (E19 to 5 d of posthatch (H5, and higher plasma insulinlike growth factor (IGF-I levels from both E17 to E19 and H3 to H35. No significant differences were found in plasma thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and testosterone in embryos or hatched birds between the 2 groups. These results indicate that somatotropic axis hormones (GH and IGF-I may be the most important contributor to chicken growth promoted by green light stimuli during embryogenesis.

  13. Growth hormone (GH) activity is associated with increased serum oestradiol and reduced Anti-Müllerian Hormone in healthy male volunteers treated with GH and a GH antagonist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, M; Frystyk, Jan; Faber, J

    2013-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) receptors are present on pituitary gonadotrophs and on testicular Leydig and Sertoli cells. Thus, the GH/IGF-I system may modulate the pituitary-gonadal axis in males. This is a randomized cross-over study. Eight healthy male volunteers...... of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, testosterone, oestradiol, sex hormone-binding globulin, inhibin B and Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) were measured. During GH treatment, IGF-I increased [(median (IQR)] 166 (162-235) vs. 702 (572-875) μg/L, p .../IGF-I stimulates aromatase activity in vivo. As a novel observation, we found that high GH activity was associated with reduced levels of the Sertoli cell marker AMH. Further studies are needed to evaluate possible effects of GH on Sertoli cell function and/or spermatogenesis....

  14. Cortisol, prolactin, growth hormone and neurovegetative responses to emotions elicited during an hypnoidal state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrinho, L G; Simões, M; Barbosa, L; Raposo, J F; Pratas, S; Fernandes, P L; Santos, M A

    2003-01-01

    The present study describes the responses of cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone (GH) to emotions elicited during sessions in which an hypnoidal state was induced. The purpose of the study was to provide answers for the following questions: 1) Do sessions with an emotional content have more hormonal surges than baseline, relaxation-only, sessions? 2) Does the induction of a fantasy of pregnancy and nursing elicit a prolactin response? 3) Are there any associations between surges of different hormones? 4) Are hormonal responses related to the intensity, type, or mode of expression of the emotions? For this purpose, thirteen volunteers and twelve patients with minor emotional difficulties were studied during sessions under hypnosis. The period of observation lasted for about three hours. Heart rate (HR), skin conductance (SC) and vagal tone (VT) were monitored. Serum cortisol, prolactin and growth hormone were sampled every 15 minutes. The volunteers had three types of sessions- "blank", consisting of relaxation only (12 sessions), "breast feeding", in which a fantasy of pregnancy and breast feeding was induced (12 sessions) and "free associations" in which the subjects were encouraged to evoke experiences or feelings (17 sessions). The patients had only sessions of free associations (38 sessions). Sessions of free associations had more hormonal surges than "blank" and "breast feeding" sessions. This was true for cortisol (8/17 v.3/24; p emotions were positively associated with GH surges (p types of emotions. The present study provides evidence that cortisol, prolactin and GH respond to psychological stress in humans. However, they are regulated differently from one another. Cortisol and prolactin surges appear to be alternative forms of response to specific emotions. GH surges depend on the intensity of the emotion, probably as a consequence of the associated muscular activity. The current paradigm of stress, implying corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) as the

  15. Attenuation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling by growth hormone (GH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Lorena; Miquet, Johanna G; Irene, Pablo E; Díaz, M Eugenia; Rossi, Soledad P; Sotelo, Ana I; Frungieri, Mónica B; Hill, Cristal M; Bartke, Andrzej; Turyn, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Transgenic mice overexpressing growth hormone (GH) show increased hepatic protein content of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), which is broadly associated with cell proliferation and oncogenesis. However, chronically elevated levels of GH result in desensitization of STAT-mediated EGF signal and similar response of ERK1/2 and AKT signaling to EGF compared to normal mice. To ascertain the mechanisms involved in GH attenuation of EGF signaling and the consequences on cell cycle promotion, phosphorylation of signaling mediators was studied at different time points after EGF stimulation, and induction of proteins involved in cell cycle progression was assessed in normal and GH-overexpressing transgenic mice. Results from kinetic studies confirmed the absence of STAT3 and 5 activation and comparable levels of ERK1/2 phosphorylation upon EGF stimulation, which was associated with diminished or similar induction of c-MYC, c-FOS, c-JUN, CYCLIN D1 and CYCLIN E in transgenic compared to normal mice. Accordingly, kinetics of EGF-induced c-SRC and EGFR phosphorylation at activating residues demonstrated that activation of these proteins was lower in the transgenic mice with respect to normal animals. In turn, EGFR phosphorylation at serine 1046/1047, which is implicated in the negative regulation of the receptor, was increased in the liver of GH-overexpressing transgenic mice both in basal conditions and upon EGF stimulus. Increased basal phosphorylation and activation of the p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase might account for increased Ser 1046/1047 EGFR. Hyperphosphorylation of EGFR at serine residues would represent a compensatory mechanism triggered by chronically elevated levels of GH to mitigate the proliferative response induced by EGF. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Uptake of /sup 35/S sulphate by Xenopus cartilage. The influence of growth hormone and prolactin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, Takehisa; Kikuyama, Sakae (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1984-08-01

    Hypohysectomized juvenile Xenopus were injected with growth hormone (GH) or prolactin (PRL) of either ovine or bullfrog origin. The growth promoting activity of these hormones was measured by monitoring the uptake of /sup 35/S sulphate by the xiphisternal cartilage in vitro. Analysis of the labelled cartilage revealed that the acid mucopolysaccharide fraction contained about 60-80 % of the label most of which was incorporated into chondroitin sulphates. All of the hormones tested enhaced the /sup 35/S sulphate uptake dose-dependently. Among them bullfrog GH was most effective, then followed ovine GH and ovine PRL. Bullfrog PRL was far less effective than other three. The sensitive assay for frog GH developed in the present experiment may be applicable to the assay for somatomedin-like activity and contribute to the analysis of the mode of action of GH in amphibians.

  17. Model for growth hormone receptor activation based on subunit rotation within a receptor dimer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Richard J.; Adams, Julian J.; Pelekanos, Rebecca A.; Wan, Yu; McKinstry, William J.; Palethorpe, Kathryn; Seeber, Ruth M.; Monks, Thea A.; Eidne, Karin A.; Parker, Michael W.; Waters, Michael J. (UWA); (St. Vincent); (Queensland)

    2010-07-13

    Growth hormone is believed to activate the growth hormone receptor (GHR) by dimerizing two identical receptor subunits, leading to activation of JAK2 kinase associated with the cytoplasmic domain. However, we have reported previously that dimerization alone is insufficient to activate full-length GHR. By comparing the crystal structure of the liganded and unliganded human GHR extracellular domain, we show here that there is no substantial change in its conformation on ligand binding. However, the receptor can be activated by rotation without ligand by inserting a defined number of alanine residues within the transmembrane domain. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and coimmunoprecipitation studies suggest that receptor subunits undergo specific transmembrane interactions independent of hormone binding. We propose an activation mechanism involving a relative rotation of subunits within a dimeric receptor as a result of asymmetric placement of the receptor-binding sites on the ligand.

  18. Impact of sex hormones, insulin, growth factors and peptides on cartilage health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, Horst; Schicht, Martin; Paulsen, Friedrich

    2011-02-01

    Sex hormones contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) in both sexes. OA is normally not seen in pre-menopausal women, whereas men may develop the disease as early as the 30th year of life. OA also shows increased incidence in association with diseases such as diabetes mellitus. Recent years have seen characterization of essential components of a functional endocrinal network in the articular cartilage comprising not only sex hormones but apparently insulin, growth factors and various peptides as well. In this review, we summarize the latest information regarding the influence of sex hormones, insulin, growth factors and some peptides on healthy cartilage and their involvement in osteoarthritis. Both animal and human research data were considered. The results are presented in an information matrix that identifies what is known, with supporting references, and identifies areas for further investigation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Growth hormone and tesamorelin in the management of HIV-associated lipodystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedimo R

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Roger BedimoInfectious Disease section, VA North Texas Health Care System, TX, USAAbstract: HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART develop a complex of body composition changes known, including peripheral fat loss (lipoatrophy and central fat accumulation (lipohypertrophy. These changes may cause significant patient distress, which could in turn interfere with adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Treatment options – including antiretroviral switch, insulin sensitizers, and surgical approaches – have been associated with limited success and potential complications. The observation that low growth hormone levels are associated with central fat accumulation among HIV patients has led to the development of tesamorelin (a growth hormone releasing hormone analog for the management of central fat accumulation. Randomized controlled trials have shown that administration of tesamorelin is safe and effective in reducing central fat accumulation among HIV-infected patients. This effect is transient, however, and its association with improved cardiovascular risk remains unclear.Keywords: HAART, HIV, tesamorelin, lipodystrophy

  20. Accurate long-term prediction of height during the first four years of growth hormone treatment in prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency or Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranke, Michael B; Lindberg, Anders; Brosz, Mathias; Kaspers, Stefan; Loftus, Jane; Wollmann, Hartmut; Kołtowska-Haggstrom, Maria; Roelants, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    The study aim was to develop and validate models for long-term prediction of growth in prepubertal children with idiopathic growth hormone deficiency (GHD) or Turner syndrome (TS) for optimal, cost-effective growth hormone (GH) therapy. Height was predicted by sequential application of annual prediction algorithms for height velocity in cohorts of GHD (n = 664) and TS (n = 607) as documented within KIGS (Pfizer International Growth Database). As height prediction models also require an estimate of weight, new algorithms for weight increase during the first to fourth prepubertal years on GH were developed. When height was predicted from the start of GH treatment, the predicted and observed mean (SD) gain over 4 years was 30.4 (3.4) cm and 30.1 (4.9) cm, respectively, in GHD patients, and 27.2 (2.2) cm and 26.6 (3.5) cm, respectively, in TS patients. For all 4 years, gains of weight SD scores (SDS) were accurately described as a function of weight SDS and observed gain in height SDS (R(2) > 0.89). In GHD and TS patients treated with GH, an accurate prepubertal long-term prediction of height development in groups is possible. Based on this, an optimal individual height outcome could be simulated. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Unmasking a Growth-promoting Effect of the Adrenocorticotropic Hormone in Y1 Mouse Adrenocortical Tumor Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Claudimara F. P. Lotfi; Zana Todorovic; Hugo A. Armelin; Bernard P. Schimmer

    1997-01-01

    The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) inhibits the growth of Y1 mouse adrenocortical tumor cells as well as normal adrenocortical cells in culture but stimulates adrenocortical cell growth in vivo...

  2. Growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome) in black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-Caucasians with growth honnone receptor (GHR) deficiency/Lamn syndrome among the approximately 180 recognised cases are rare, and include a Japanese and 3. African Americans. Black African siblings, a brother and a sister seen initially at 11 years 9 months and 5 years 6 months of age respectively were -7,4 ...

  3. Growth hormone receptor deficiency (Laron syndrome) in black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-Caucasians with growth honnone receptor (GHR) deficiency/Lamn syndrome among the approximately 180 recognised cases are rare, and include a Japanese and 3 African Americans. Black African siblings, a brother and a sister seen initially at 11 years 9 months and 5 years 6 months of age respectively were -7,4 ...

  4. Pattern of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women globally. With immunohistochemistry (IHC), breast cancer is classified into four groups based on IHC profile of estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/neu) expression, positive (+) and/or ...

  5. Should we start and continue growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in adults with GH deficiency?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Maaten, JC

    2000-01-01

    During the last decade, growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in adults has been described as a clinical syndrome. Central features of this entity include increased fat mass, reduced muscle and bone mass, as well as impaired exercise capacity and quality of life. GH replacement therapy has been initiated

  6. Effect of Growth Hormones on the Germination of Shea-Nut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A trial on the influence of pre-treatments and growth hormones/solutions on the germination of Shea-nut (Vitellaria paradoxa) was carried out in September, 2001- February, 2002 at the experimental Research Farm of University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria. The aim of this trial was to find the possible ways in inducing the ...

  7. Prader-Willi Syndrome: New perspectives and effects of growth hormone treatment in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.F.A. de Lind van Wijngaarden (Roderick)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis encompasses studies embedded in the Dutch national growth hormone trial for children with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). The syndrome was fi rst described by Prader, Labhart, and Willi in 1956, reporting a combination of obesity, short stature, cryptorchidism, oligophrenia, and

  8. Gene study within the 5' flanking regions of growth hormone gene of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-01-17

    Jan 17, 2011 ... Growth hormone (GH) is a main regulatory protein secreted by pituitary gland and placenta, involved in most anabolic processes in mammals. Expression of more than one gene for GH has been reported, indicating polymorphism at gene and protein level; apart from this, silent mutations has also been.

  9. Fractures in pituitary adenoma patients from the Dutch National Registry of Growth Hormone Treatment in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Varsseveld, N.C.; van Bunderen, Christa C; Franken, A.A.M.; Koppeschaar, H.P.F.; van der Lely, A.J.; Drent, M L

    PURPOSE: The effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy on fracture risk in adult GH deficient (GHD) patients with different etiologies of pituitary GHD are not well known, due to limited data. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics and fracture occurrence at start of

  10. Noonan syndrome and Turner syndrome patients respond similarly to 4 years' growth-hormone therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Peter A; Ross, Judith L; Pedersen, Birgitte Tønnes

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Turner syndrome (TS) and Noonan syndrome (NS) are distinct syndromes associated with short stature and other similar phenotypic features. We compared the responses to growth hormone (GH) therapy of TS and NS patients enrolled in the NordiNet® International Outcome Study (IOS) or the A...

  11. Gene study within the 5' flanking regions of growth hormone gene of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth hormone (GH) is a main regulatory protein secreted by pituitary gland and placenta, involved in most anabolic processes in mammals. Expression of more than one gene for GH has been reported, indicating polymorphism at gene and protein level; apart from this, silent mutations has also been reported, relating to ...

  12. Increased daylength stimulates plasma growth hormone and gill Na+, K+ and -ATPase Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar )

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, S.D.; Bjornsson, Bjorn Thrandur; Sheridan, M.; Eilertson, C.; Carey, J.B.; O'Dea, M.

    1995-01-01

    Atlantic salmon juveniles reared at constant temperature (9–10°C) were exposed to four photoperiod treatment and sampled every 2 weeks from January through May. Fish reared under normal photoperiod exhibited eight-and three fold increases in plasma growth hormone and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity, respectively, between January and April. Fish exposed to abrupt increases in daylength (LD 15:9) in February or March responded with earlier increases in plasma growth hormone and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity, and earlier decreases in condition factor relative to fish in the normal photoperiod group. Fish maintained under short daylength (LD 9:15) from January to May exhibited delayed and muted increases in plasma growth hormone and gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity. Plasma thyroxine exhibited a 2.5-fold increase from February to late March in the normal photoperiod group, was generally lower in the LD 9:15 group, but exhibited no obvious response to abrupt increases in daylength. There was an increase in plasma 3,5,3′-triiodo-l-thyronine with time in all groups (43–80%) but no significant response to photoperiod. Plasma levels of somatostatin-25 were highest in the LD 9:15 group, but there was no detectable response to increased daylength in any of the photoperiod treatments. The results indicate that plasma growth hormone is responsive to increased daylength and may be causally related to subsequent increases in gill Na+, K+-ATPase.

  13. Cardiovascular effects of growth hormone in adult hemodialysis patients: results from a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Køber, Lars; Rustom, Rana; Wiedmann, Jonas

    2010-01-01

    The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD....

  14. The effect of oxandrolone on voice frequency in growth hormone-treated girls with Turner syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menke, L.A.; Sas, T.C.J.; Koningsbrugge, S.H. van; Ridder, M.A. de; Zandwijken, G.R.; Boersma, B.; Dejonckere, P.H.; Muinck Keizer-Schrama, S.M.P.F. de; Otten, B.J.; Wit, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Oxandrolone (Ox) increases height gain but may also cause voice deepening in growth hormone (GH)-treated girls with Turner syndrome (TS). We assessed the effect of Ox on objective and subjective speaking voice frequency in GH-treated girls with TS. STUDY DESIGN: A multicenter,

  15. Molecular cloning of growth hormone encoding cDNA of Indian ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A modified rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) strategy has been developed for cloning highly conserved cDNA sequences. Using this modified method, the growth hormone (GH) encoding cDNA sequences of Labeo rohita, Cirrhina mrigala and Catla catla have been cloned, characterized and overexpressed in ...

  16. Effects of growth hormone on glucose and fat metabolism in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jens O L; Møller, Louise; Krag, Morten Brøgger

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on in vivo data from tests performed in normal subjects and in patients who had abnormal growth hormone (GH) status. Experimental data in human subjects demonstrate that GH acutely inhibits glucose disposal in skeletal muscle. At the same time GH stimulates the turnover and o......, but it is recommended that overdosing be avoided and glycemic control be monitored....

  17. Reduced growth hormone secretion after cranial irradiation contributes to neurocognitive dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, E H|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834467; Valk, G D|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/163319391; Drent, M L; Stalpers, L J A; Kenemans, J L|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/075148897; Koppeschaar, H P F; van Dam, P S

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between growth hormone (GH) and attentional electro-cortical responses to task-relevant stimuli (N2b), target detections, speed of responding, P300 latencies, and performance on neuropsychological tests in 19 patients who received external

  18. PSYCHOSOCIAL EFFECTS OF 2 YEARS OF HUMAN GROWTH-HORMONE TREATMENT IN TURNER SYNDROME

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SLIJPER, FME; SINNEMA, G; AKKERHUIS, GW; BRUGMANBOEZEMAN, A; FEENSTRA, J; DENHARTOG, L; HEUVEL, F

    1993-01-01

    Thirty-eight girls with Turner syndrome were treated for 2 years with human growth hormone. Both parents and patients carried out assessments of the effects of treatment on various aspects of psychosocial functioning. The children used the Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale and the Social Anxiety Scale

  19. Peptide YY Levels across Pubertal Stages and Associations with Growth Hormone

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Benjamin; Ravi, Praful; Mendes, Nara; Klibanski, Anne; Misra, Madhusmita

    2010-01-01

    Context: Changes in appetite-regulating peptides may impact food intake during puberty and facilitate the pubertal growth spurt. Peptide YY (PYY) is an anorexigenic hormone that is high in anorexia nervosa and low in obesity, inhibits GnRH secretion, and is suppressed by GH administration. The relationship between PYY and GH has not been examined across puberty.

  20. Reduced growth hormone secretion after cranial irradiation contributes to neurocognitive dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quik, E. H.; Valk, G. D.; Drent, M. L.; Stalpers, L. J. A.; Kenemans, J. L.; Koppeschaar, H. P. F.; van Dam, P. S.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between growth hormone (GH) and attentional electro-cortical responses to task-relevant stimuli (N2b), target detections, speed of responding, P300 latencies, and performance on neuropsychological tests in 19 patients who received external

  1. Local Application of Growth Hormone to Enhance Osseointegration in Osteoporotic Bones: A Morphometric and Densitometric Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Monge, Elena; Tresguerres, Isabel F; Clemente, Celia; Tresguerres, Jesús Af

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of local application of growth hormone on osseointegration of dental implants inserted in osteoporotic bones. Twenty female New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Ten were ovariectomized and fed a low-calcium diet for 6 weeks, and the others remained intact. A titanium implant was inserted into each tibia, in both groups. In half of the rabbits, 2 IU of growth hormone was placed into the ostectomy prior to the implant insertion. Two weeks after implant surgery, all animals were sacrificed. Tibiae were dissected from soft tissues, and included in methacrylate to be studied under light microscopy. Bone-to-implant contact (BIC) and bone mineral density (BMD) were measured by morphometric and densitometric analysis, respectively. Multifactorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical evaluation. P growth hormone was able to increase the BIC in the ovariectomized group, with statistically significant differences with respect to the control group (P growth hormone at the moment of titanium implant insertion in rabbit tibiae significantly enhanced the BIC around titanium implants 15 days after the implantation in this experimental osteoporotic animal model, without affecting the BMD.

  2. Growth hormone and reproduction in the female rat: a central role for somatostatin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vugt, van H.H.

    2004-01-01

    It is well known that the somatotropic and gonadotropic axes are closely related: Both underproduction and overproduction of growth hormone (GH) affect reproduction. During aging, the decline in GH release and reproductive function appear to occur concurrently. Data from the literature suggest that

  3. Growth hormone therapy, muscle thickness, and motor development in Prader-Willi Syndrome: An RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reus, L.; Pillen, S.; Pelzer, B.J.; Velden, J.A.M. van der; Hokken-Koelega, A.C.; Zwarts, M.; Otten, B.J.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of physical training combined with growth hormone (GH) on muscle thickness and its relationship with muscle strength and motor development in infants with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 22 infants with PWS (12.9 +/- 7.1

  4. Effects of growth media and hormones on the sprouting and rooting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Massularia acuminata is both a medicinal and economic tree species. Despite its usefulness, adequate attention has not been given to its propagation and cultivation. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of growth media and hormonal concentration on the sprouting and rooting of M. acuminata stem cuttings using ...

  5. Short-term effects of recombinant human growth hormone and feeding on gluconeogenesis in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    After a short-term fast, lactating women have increased rates of glucose production but not gluconeogenesis (GNG) despite relative hypoinsulinemia. We explored the effects of non-insulin-dependent increase in glucose utilization and recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on glucose production, glyc...

  6. Childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency, cognitive function and brain N-acetylaspartate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, PS; de Winter, CF; de Vries, R; van der Grond, J; Drent, ML; Lijffijt, M; Kenemans, JL; Aleman, A; de Haan, EHF; Koppeschaar, HPF

    Cognitive deficits have been reported in adults with childhood-onset growth hormone (GH) deficiency. We evaluated cognitive deficits simultaneously with parameters for neuronal integrity using H-1 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in a cross-sectional design. We studied 11 adults (mean age 24.5

  7. Domains of the growth hormone receptor required for association and activation of JAK2 tyrosine kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanderKuur, J A; Wang, X; Zhang, L

    1994-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has recently been shown to activate the GH receptor (GHR)-associated tyrosine kinase JAK2. In the present study, regions of the GHR required for JAK2 association with GHR were identified. GH-dependent JAK2 association with GHR was detected in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells...

  8. Fractures in pituitary adenoma patients from the Dutch National Registry of Growth Hormone Treatment in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.C. Van Varsseveld; C.C. van Bunderen (Christa); A.A.M. Franken (Anton); H.P.F. Koppeschaar (Hans); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); M.L. Drent (Madeleine)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: The effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy on fracture risk in adult GH deficient (GHD) patients with different etiologies of pituitary GHD are not well known, due to limited data. The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics and fracture occurrence at

  9. OPPORTUNITY™: a large-scale randomized clinical trial of growth hormone in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopple, Joel D; Cheung, Alfred K; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2011-01-01

    Adult maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients experience high mortality and morbidity and poor quality of life (QoL). Markers of protein-energy wasting are associated with these poor outcomes. The OPPORTUNITY™ Trial examined whether recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) reduces mortality...

  10. OPPORTUNITYTM: a large-scale randomized clinical trial of growth hormone in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopple, Joel D; Cheung, Alfred K; Christiansen, Jens Sandahl

    2011-01-01

    Adult maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients experience high mortality and morbidity and poor quality of life (QoL). Markers of protein-energy wasting are associated with these poor outcomes. The OPPORTUNITY™ Trial examined whether recombinant human growth hormone (hGH) reduces mortality...

  11. Effect of growth hormone replacement therapy in a boy with Dent's disease: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Ludwig Michael; Pavicevic Snezana; Samardzic Mira; Bogdanovic Radovan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Dent's disease is an X-linked recessive proximal tubulopathy characterized by low molecular weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, nephrolithiasis and progressive renal failure. To the best of our knowledge, this is only the third report on the use of growth hormone therapy in a child with poor growth associated with Dent's disease. Case presentation We report on a 7-year-old Montenegrin boy with proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, rickets and s...

  12. Treatment of short stature and growth hormone deficiency in children with somatotropin (rDNA origin)

    OpenAIRE

    Hardin, Dana S

    2008-01-01

    Dana S HardinOhio State University and Columbus Children’s Hospital, Columbus, Ohio, USAAbstract: Somatotropin (growth hormone, GH) of recombinant DNA origin has provided a readily available and safe drug that has greatly improved management of children and adolescents with GH deficiency (GHD) and other disorders of growth. In the US and Europe, regulatory agencies have given approval for the use of GH in children and adults who meet specific criteria. However, clinical and ethical ...

  13. MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM--mechanism of growth hormone stimulation of skeletal muscle growth in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, H; Ge, X

    2014-01-01

    Growth hormone, also called somatotropin (ST), is a polypeptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. The major functions of GH include stimulating bone and skeletal muscle growth, lipolysis, milk production, and expression of the IGF-I gene in the liver. Based on these functions, recombinant bovine ST (bST) and recombinant porcine ST (pST) have been used to improve milk production in dairy cows and lean tissue growth in pigs, respectively. However, despite these applications, the mechanisms of action of GH are not fully understood. Indeed, there has been a lot of controversy over the role of liver-derived circulating IGF-I and locally produced IGF-I in mediating the growth-stimulatory effect of GH during the last 15 yr. It is in this context that we have conducted studies to further understand how GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results do not support a role of skeletal muscle-derived IGF-I in GH-stimulated skeletal muscle growth in cattle. Our results indicate that GH stimulates skeletal muscle growth in cattle, in part, by stimulating protein synthesis in muscle through a GH receptor-mediated, IGF-I-independent mechanism. In this review, besides discussing these results, we also argue that liver-derived circulating IGF-I should be still considered as the major mechanism that mediates the growth-stimulatory effect of GH on skeletal muscle in cattle and other domestic animals.

  14. GROWTH HORMONE TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH SHORT STATURE LIVED IN SAMARA REGION

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    E.G. Mikhailova

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Growth inhibition in children is heterogeneous state, and it may accompany many endocrine, somatic, genetic and chromosome diseases. Generally recognized medications for treatment of somatotropic insufficiency in present times are biosynthetic analogs of human growth hormone (hGH, obtained with DNA-recombinant technology. This article presents the results of estimation of effectiveness of hGH in treatment of children with short stature (n=77 with isolated deficiency of growth hormone, panhypopituitarism, Turner's syndrome, treated with hGH during 3 years. All patients had significant positive dynamics of clinical status, the velocity of grouth increased from 1.9 cm (initial per year to 11.0 cm (the end of first year, with following decrease to 5.3 cm per year. SDS index of growth had stable tendency to increase: medium SDS index of growth initially was -3.9 SD, on the end of third year – -2.0 SD. It was shown, that treatment with hGH is effective in any types of short stature.Key words: children, short stature, treatment, human growth hormone.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(1:108-113

  15. Intracerebroventricular injection of RFRP-3 delays puberty onset and stimulates growth hormone secretion in female rats.

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    Han, Xinghui; He, Yuanyuan; Zeng, Gulan; Wang, Yonghong; Sun, Wen; Liu, Junchao; Sun, Yanyan; Yu, Jian

    2017-05-02

    Puberty onset is a complex, organized biological process with multilevel regulation, and its physiopathological mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. RFRP-3, the mammalian ortholog to gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone, is implicated in inhibiting the synthesis and release of gonadotropin in mammals. However, it is unclear whether RFRP-3 participates in regulating pubertal development. This study investigated the functional significance and regulatory mechanism of hypothalamic RFRP-3 neuropeptide in the onset of puberty in young female rats. On postnatal day 22, we implanted cannulas into the lateral ventricles of female rat pups. From postnatal day 28 to postnatal day 36, the intracerebroventricular injection of RFRP-3, or vehicle, was conducted twice a day. To investigate whether puberty onset was affected, we examined the body weight, age of vaginal opening, serum hormone levels, uterus and ovary development, and hypothalamic Kiss-1 mRNA expression. Intracerebroventricular injection of RFRP-3 significantly decreased the serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone and estradiol, delayed uterine maturation, and postponed the time of vaginal opening. This study suggests that RFRP-3 can delay the onset of puberty in young female rats; the expression of Kiss-1 mRNA is potently inhibited in the RFRP-3 group. Moreover, our data show that RFRP-3 elevates serum growth hormone levels. These data suggest that intracerebroventricular injection of RFRP-3 significantly delays the onset of puberty in female rats. Additionally, RFRP-3 may be associated with prepubertal rise in the secretion of growth hormone.

  16. [Study on exogenous hormones inducing parthenocarpy fruit growth and development and quality of Siraitia grosvenorii].

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    Huang, Jie; Tu, Dong-ping; Ma, Xiao-jun; Mo, Chang-ming; Pan, Li-mei; Bai, Long-hua; Feng, Shi-xin

    2015-09-01

    To explore the growth and development and analyze the quality of the parthenocarpy fruit induced by exogenous hormones of Siraitia grosvenorii. the horizontal and vertical diameter, volume of the fruit were respectively measured by morphological and the content of endogenous hormones were determined by ELISA. The size and seed and content of mogrosides of mature fruit were determined. The results showed that the fruit of parthenocarpy was seedless and its growth and development is similar to the diploid fruit by hand pollination and triploid fruit by hand pollination or hormones. But the absolute value of horizontal and vertical diameter, volume of parthenocarpy fruit was less than those of fruit by hand pollination, while triploid was opposite. The content of IAA, ABA and ratio of ABA/GA was obviously wavy. At 0-30 d the content of IAA and ABA of parthenocarpy fruit first reduced then increased, content of IAA and GA parthenocarpy fruit was higher than that of fruit by hand pollination. Mogrosides of parthenocarpy fruit was close to pollination fruit. Hormones can induce S. grosvenorii parthenocarpy to get seedless fruit and the fruit shape and size and quality is close to normal diploid fruit by hand pollination and better than triploid fruit by hormone or hand pollination.

  17. Growth hormone replacement delays the progression of chronic heart failure combined with growth hormone deficiency: an extension of a randomized controlled single-blind study.

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    Cittadini, Antonio; Marra, Alberto M; Arcopinto, Michele; Bobbio, Emanuele; Salzano, Andrea; Sirico, Domenico; Napoli, Raffaele; Colao, Annamaria; Longobardi, Salvatore; Baliga, Ragavendra R; Bossone, Eduardo; Saccà, Luigi

    2013-08-01

    This study sought to evaluate the efficacy and safety of long-term growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy in GH-deficient patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Recent evidence indicates that growth hormone deficiency (GHD) affects as many as 40% of patients with CHF, and short-term GH replacement causes functional benefit. Whether long-term GH replacement also affects CHF progression is unknown. The study is an extension of a previous randomized, controlled single-blind trial that screened 158 consecutive CHF patients (New York Heart Association classes II to IV) and identified 63 who had GHD by the growth hormone releasing hormone plus arginine test. Fifty-six patients were randomized to receive either GH therapy or standard CHF therapy. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after a 4-year follow-up. The primary endpoint was peak oxygen consumption (VO2). Secondary endpoints included left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction and volumes, serum amino terminal fragment of the pro-hormone brain-type natriuretic peptide, quality of life, and safety. Seventeen patients in the GH group and 14 in the control group completed the study. In the GH group, peak VO2 improved over the 4-year follow-up. The treatment effect was 7.1 ± 0.7 ml/kg/min versus -1.8 ± 0.5 ml/kg/min in the GH and control groups, respectively. At 4 years, LV ejection fraction increased by 10 ± 3% in the GH group, whereas it decreased by 2 ± 5% in control patients. The treatment effect on LV end-systolic volume index was -22 ± 6 ml and 8 ± 3 ml/m(2) in the GH and control groups, respectively (all p < 0.001). No major adverse events were reported in the patients who received GH. Although this is a preliminary study, the finding suggests a new therapeutic approach to a large proportion of GHD patients with CHF. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Abuse of growth hormone increases the risk of persistent de Quervain tenosynovitis.

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    Pagonis, Thomas; Ditsios, Konstantinos; Givissis, Panagiotis; Pagonis, Athanasios; Christodoulou, Anastasios

    2009-11-01

    de Quervain tenosynovitis usually responds well to nonsurgical treatment. Growth hormone abuse is associated with increased de Quervain tenosynovitis incidence in weight-training persons. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. We treated 19 weight-training male patients with de Quervain tenosynovitis. Nine were abusing growth hormone (group A), and 10 were not (group B). Four group A patients elected to cease growth hormone abuse. Treatment was stratified into 3 grades: (1) splinting and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, (2) same as first grade but with the addition of cortisone injections, and (3) surgical decompression (after failure of treatment of first and second grades). Follow-up was at 3, 9, and 24 months. First follow-up: Only 33.3% of those using growth hormone in group A responded to splinting and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, compared with 90% in group B. Six patients (66.6%) in group A experienced persistent symptoms and received second-grade treatment, compared with 1 patient in group B (10%). Second follow-up: Four patients (44.4%) in group A moved from second- to third-grade treatment, 1 symptom-free patient (11.1%) relapsed and received second-grade treatment while 2 (22.2%) requested conservative treatment, declining surgery. Group B patients were 100% symptom-free. Final follow-up: Six patients (66.6%) in group A were operated on and 1 (11.1%) suffered from persistent de Quervain tenosynovitis, declining surgery. In group B, 1 patient relapsed and was started on second-grade treatment. No patients in group B had surgery. Our results suggest that growth hormone abuse is associated with a more recalcitrant form of de Quervain tenosynovitis that does not respond well to nonsurgical treatment, thus leading to increased likelihood of surgical decompression.

  19. Elevated levels of growth-related hormones in autism and autism spectrum disorder.

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    Mills, James L; Hediger, Mary L; Molloy, Cynthia A; Chrousos, George P; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Yu, Kai F; Brasington, Mark; England, Lucinda J

    2007-08-01

    Children with autism are known to have larger head circumferences; whether they are above average in height and weight is less clear. Moreover, little is known about growth-related hormone levels in children with autism. We investigated whether children with autism were taller and heavier, and whether they had higher levels of growth-related hormones than control children did. A case-control study design was employed. Boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or autism (n = 71) and age-matched control boys (n = 59) were evaluated at Cincinnati Children's Hospital. Height, weight and head circumference were measured. Blood samples were assayed for IGF-1 and 2, IGFBP-3, growth hormone binding protein (GHBP) and for dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and DHEA sulphate (DHEAS). Subjects with autism/ASD had significantly (P = 0.03) greater head circumferences (mean z-score 1.24, SD 1.35) than controls (mean z-score 0.78, SD 0.93). Subjects with autism also had significantly (P = 0.01) greater weights (mean z-score 0.91, SD 1.13) than controls (mean z-score 0.41, SD 1.11). Height did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.65); subjects with autism/ASD had significantly (P = 0.003) higher body mass indices (BMI) (mean z-score 0.85, SD 1.19) than controls (mean z-score 0.24, SD 1.17). Levels of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3 and GHBP in the group with autism/ASD were all significantly higher (all P autism/ASD had significantly higher levels of many growth-related hormones: IGF-1, IGF-2, IGFBP-3 and GHBP. These findings could help explain the significantly larger head circumferences and higher weights and BMIs seen in these subjects. Future studies should examine the potential role of growth-related hormones in the pathophysiology of autism.

  20. Polymorphism of growth hormone receptor (GHR gene in Holstein Friesian dairy cattle

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    Restu Misrianti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone gene have a critical role in the regulation of lactation, mammary gland development and growth process through its interaction with a specific receptor. Growth hormone (GH is an anabolic hormone which is synthesized and secreted by somatotrop cell in pituitary anterior lobe, and interacts with a specific receptor on the surface of the target cells. Growth hormone receptor (GHR has been suggested as candidate gene for traits related to milk production in Bovidae. The purpose of this study was to identify genetic polymorphism of the Growth Hormone Receptor (GHR genes in Holstein Friesian (HF cattle. Total of 353 blood samples were collected from five populations belonging to Cikole Dairy Cattle Breeding Station (BPPT-SP Cikole (88 samples, Pasir Kemis (95 samples, Cilumber (98 samples, Cipelang Livestock Embryo Center (BET Cipelang (40 samples, Singosari National Artificial Insemination Centre (BBIB Singosari (32 samples and 17 frozen semen samples from Lembang Artificial Insemination Center (BIB Lembang. Genomic DNAs were extracted by a standard phenol-chloroform protocol and amplified by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques then PCR products were genotyped by the Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP methods. There were two allele dan three genotypes were found namely: allele A and G, Genotype AA, AG and GG repectively. Allele A frequency (0.70-0.82 relatively higher than allele G frequency (0.18-0.30. Chi square test show that on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang and BBIB Singosari population were not significantly different (0.00-0.93, while on group of BET Cipelang, BIB Lembang dan BBIB Singosari population were significantly different (6.02-11.13. Degree of observed heterozygosity (Ho ranged from 0.13-0.42 and expected heterozygosity (He ranged from 0.29-0.42.

  1. Capromorelin increases food consumption, body weight, growth hormone, and sustained insulin-like growth factor 1 concentrations when administered to healthy adult Beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollers, B; Rhodes, L; Smith, R G

    2017-04-01

    This study's objective was to determine the effects in dogs of oral capromorelin, a ghrelin agonist, at different doses for 7 days on food consumption, body weight and serum concentrations of growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and cortisol. Adult Beagles (n = 6) were dosed with placebo BID, capromorelin at 3.0 mg/kg SID, 4.5 mg/kg SID, or 3.0 mg/kg BID. Food consumption, body weight, serum capromorelin, GH, IGF-1, and cortisol were measured at intervals on days 1, 4, 7, and 9. Capromorelin increased food consumption and body weight compared to placebo and caused increased serum GH, which returned to the baseline by 8 h postdose. The magnitude of the GH increase was less on days 4 and 7 compared to Day 1. IGF-1 concentrations increased on Day 1 in capromorelin-treated dogs and this increase was sustained through Day 7. Serum cortisol increased postdosing and returned to the baseline concentrations by 8 h. The magnitude of the increase was less on days 4 and 7 compared to Day 1. A dose of 3 mg/kg was chosen for further study in dogs based on this dose causing increased food consumption and sustained IGF-1 serum concentrations that may increase lean muscle mass when administered over extended periods. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Estrogens regulate the hepatic effects of Growth Hormone, a hormonal interplay with multiple fates

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    Leandro eFernandez-Perez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The liver responds to estrogens and GH which are critical regulators of body growth, gender-related hepatic functions, and intermediate metabolism. The effects of estrogens on liver can be direct, through the direct actions of hepatic ER, or indirect, which include the crosstalk with endocrine, metabolic, and sex-differentiated functions of GH. Most previous studies have been focused on the influence of estrogens on pituitary GH secretion, which has a great impact on hepatic transcriptional regulation. However, there is strong evidence that estrogens can influence the GH-regulated endocrine and metabolic functions in the human liver by acting at the level of GHR-STAT5 signaling pathway. This cross-talk is relevant because the widespread exposition of estrogen or estrogen-related compounds in human. Therefore, GH or estrogen signaling deficiency as well as the influence of estrogens on GH biology can cause a dramatic impact in liver physiology during mammalian development and in adulthood. In this review, we will summarize the current status of the influence of estrogen on GH actions in liver. A better understanding of estrogen-GH interplay in liver will lead to improved therapy of children with growth disorders and of adults with GH deficiency.

  3. Effect of long term glucocorticoid treatment on human growth hormone secretion in children and adolescents and the safety and effectiveness of recombinant human growth hormone treatment.

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    Kang, Li; Dian-Chi, Zhang; Qi-Yong, Wu; Hui-Juan, Zhu; Feng-Yang, Gong; Hui, Pan; Zi-meng, Jin; Jie-ying, Deng; Yi-fan, Shi

    2011-02-01

    Long term glucocorticoid (prednisolone) treatment on human growth hormone (hGH) secretion in children and adolescents and to investigate the effectiveness and safety of the recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) treatment. Twelve patients (age: 10.4∓1.2 years) who were treated in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from September 1999 to November 2009 were enrolled in this study. All of them had taken prednisolone with a dose of 0.5∓2.0 mg/(kg.d) for 6~18 months. Two different hGH stimulating tests was done and their growth and development was evaluated at regular intervals. Seven patients were given rhGH with a dose of 0.1 U/(kg.d) for 6~12 months to improve their growth and development after half a year of prednisolone withdrawal when their disease conditions were improved. The growth speed of these 12 children decreased significantly during prednisolone treatment compared with before prednisolone treatment (1.2∓0.3cm/year vs.3.7∓1.2 cm/year,P12 months than those with a 6~12 months course (P0.05). The growth speed of seven children who received rhGH therapy for half a year were increased from 2.2∓0.1cm/year to 7.8∓0.5cm/year (Pgrowth and development in these children after their primary diseases are improved and glucocorticoids are withdrawn.

  4. Structural and functional divergence of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptors in early sarcopterygians: lungfish and Xenopus.

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    Janice K V Tam

    Full Text Available The evolutionary trajectories of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH receptor remain enigmatic since the discovery of physiologically functional GHRH-GHRH receptor (GHRHR in non-mammalian vertebrates in 2007. Interestingly, subsequent studies have described the identification of a GHRHR(2 in chicken in addition to the GHRHR and the closely related paralogous receptor, PACAP-related peptide (PRP receptor (PRPR. In this article, we provide information, for the first time, on the GHRHR in sarcopterygian fish and amphibians by the cloning and characterization of GHRHRs from lungfish (P. dolloi and X. laevis. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated structural resemblance of lungfish GHRHR to their mammalian orthologs, while the X. laevis GHRHR showed the highest homology to GHRHR(2 in zebrafish and chicken. Functionally, lungfish GHRHR displayed high affinity towards GHRH in triggering intracellular cAMP and calcium accumulation, while X. laevis GHRHR(2 was able to react with both endogenous GHRH and PRP. Tissue distribution analyses showed that both lungfish GHRHR and X. laevis GHRHR(2 had the highest expression in brain, and interestingly, X. laevis(GHRHR2 also had high abundance in the reproductive organs. These findings, together with previous reports, suggest that early in the Sarcopterygii lineage, GHRHR and PRPR have already established diverged and specific affinities towards their cognate ligands. GHRHR(2, which has only been found in xenopus, zebrafish and chicken hitherto, accommodates both GHRH and PRP.

  5. Growth hormone-releasing hormone attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and improves heart function in pressure overload-induced heart failure.

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    Gesmundo, Iacopo; Miragoli, Michele; Carullo, Pierluigi; Trovato, Letizia; Larcher, Veronica; Di Pasquale, Elisa; Brancaccio, Mara; Mazzola, Marta; Villanova, Tania; Sorge, Matteo; Taliano, Marina; Gallo, Maria Pia; Alloatti, Giuseppe; Penna, Claudia; Hare, Joshua M; Ghigo, Ezio; Schally, Andrew V; Condorelli, Gianluigi; Granata, Riccarda

    2017-11-07

    It has been shown that growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) reduces cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis, prevents ischemia/reperfusion injury, and improves cardiac function in ischemic rat hearts. However, it is still not known whether GHRH would be beneficial for life-threatening pathological conditions, like cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Thus, we tested the myocardial therapeutic potential of GHRH stimulation in vitro and in vivo, using GHRH or its agonistic analog MR-409. We show that in vitro, GHRH(1-44)NH 2 attenuates phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in H9c2 cardiac cells, adult rat ventricular myocytes, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived CMs, decreasing expression of hypertrophic genes and regulating hypertrophic pathways. Underlying mechanisms included blockade of Gq signaling and its downstream components phospholipase Cβ, protein kinase Cε, calcineurin, and phospholamban. The receptor-dependent effects of GHRH also involved activation of Gα s and cAMP/PKA, and inhibition of increase in exchange protein directly activated by cAMP1 (Epac1). In vivo, MR-409 mitigated cardiac hypertrophy in mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction and improved cardiac function. Moreover, CMs isolated from transverse aortic constriction mice treated with MR-409 showed improved contractility and reversal of sarcolemmal structure. Overall, these results identify GHRH as an antihypertrophic regulator, underlying its therapeutic potential for HF, and suggest possible beneficial use of its analogs for treatment of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  6. Recombinant growth hormone therapy for cystic fibrosis in children and young adults.

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    Thaker, Vidhu; Haagensen, Alexandra L; Carter, Ben; Fedorowicz, Zbys; Houston, Brian W

    2015-05-20

    Cystic fibrosis is an inherited condition causing disease most noticeably in the lungs, digestive tract and pancreas. People with cystic fibrosis often have malnutrition and growth delay. Adequate nutritional supplementation does not improve growth optimally and hence an anabolic agent, recombinant growth hormone, has been proposed as a potential intervention. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of recombinant human growth hormone therapy in improving lung function, quality of life and clinical status of children and young adults with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Trials Register comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings. Date of latest search: 11 February 2015.We conducted a search of relevant endocrine journals and proceedings of the Endocrinology Society meetings using Scopus and Proceedings First. Date of latest search: 04 March 2015. Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials of all preparations of recombinant growth hormone compared to either no treatment, or placebo, or each other at any dose (high-dose and low-dose) or route and for any duration, in children or young adults aged up to 25 years diagnosed with cystic fibrosis (by sweat test or genetic testing). Two authors independently screened papers, extracted trial details and assessed their risk of bias. Four controlled trials were included in this review (with 161 participants in total), each with an unclear risk of bias. Analysis of data obtained from these trials shows improvement in height for all comparisons, but improvements in weight and lean tissue mass were only reported in the comparison of standard dose recombinant growth hormone versus no treatment. One study showed moderate improvement at one time point in one parameter of pulmonary function tests, forced vital capacity (per cent predicted) when

  7. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in Growth Hormone Gene and Their Association with Growth Traits in Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky

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    Changxu Tian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH has been considered as a candidate gene for growth traits in fish. In this study, polymorphisms of the GH gene were evaluated for associations with growth traits in 282 Siniperca chuatsi individuals. Using directly sequencing, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs were identified in GH gene, with two mutations in intron 4 (g.4940A>C, g.4948A>T, one mutation in exon 5 (g.5045T>C and one in intron 5 (g.5234T>G. Notably, three of them were significantly associated with growth performance, particularly for g.4940A>C which was highly correlated with all the four growth traits. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that these SNPs in GH gene could influence growth performance of S.chuatsi and could be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS in this species.

  8. Understanding the multifactorial control of growth hormone release by somatotropes: lessons from comparative endocrinology.

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    Gahete, Manuel D; Durán-Prado, Mario; Luque, Raúl M; Martínez-Fuentes, Antonio J; Quintero, Ana; Gutiérrez-Pascual, Ester; Córdoba-Chacón, José; Malagón, María M; Gracia-Navarro, Francisco; Castaño, Justo P

    2009-04-01

    Control of postnatal growth is the main, but not the only, role for growth hormone (GH) as this hormone also contributes to regulating metabolism, reproduction, immunity, development, and osmoregulation in different species. Likely owing to this variety of group-specific functions, GH production is differentially regulated across vertebrates, with an apparent evolutionary trend to simplification, especially in the number of stimulatory factors governing substantially GH release. Thus, teleosts exhibit a multifactorial regulation of GH secretion, with a number of factors, from the newly discovered fish GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) to pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) but also gonadotropin-releasing hormone, dopamine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, and somatostatin(s) directly controlling somatotropes. In amphibians and reptiles, GH secretion is primarily stimulated by the major hypothalamic peptides GHRH and PACAP and inhibited by somatostatin(s), while other factors (ghrelin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone) also influence GH release. Finally, in birds and mammals, primary control of GH secretion is exerted by a dual interplay between GHRH and somatostatin. In addition, somatotrope function is modulated by additional hypothalamic and peripheral factors (e.g., ghrelin, leptin, insulin-like growth factor-I), which together enable a balanced integration of feedback signals related to processes in which GH plays a relevant regulatory role, such as metabolic and energy status, reproductive, and immune function. Interestingly, in contrast to the high number of stimulatory factors impinging upon somatotropes, somatostatin(s) stand(s) as the main primary inhibitory regulator(s) for this cell type.

  9. Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone inhibit the proliferation of experimental non-small cell lung carcinoma.

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    Szereday, Zoltan; Schally, Andrew V; Varga, Jozsef L; Kanashiro, Celia A; Hebert, Francine; Armatis, Patricia; Groot, Kate; Szepeshazi, Karoly; Halmos, Gabor; Busto, Rebeca

    2003-11-15

    Recent studies show that antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) inhibit proliferation of various cancers indirectly through blockage of the endocrine GH-insulin-like growth factor (IGF) I axis and directly by an action on tumor cells involving the suppression of autocrine/paracrine IGF-I, IGF-II, or GH-RH. The effectiveness of therapy with GH-RH antagonist JV-1-38 and its mechanisms of action were investigated in NCI-H838 non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) xenografted s.c. into nude mice and in vitro. Treatment with GH-RH antagonist JV-1-38 significantly (P < 0.05-0.001) inhibited tumor growth as demonstrated by a 58% decrease in final tumor volume, 54% reduction in tumor weight, and the extension of tumor-doubling time from 8.5 +/- 1.38 to 12 +/- 1.07 days as compared with controls. Using ligand competition assays with (125)I-labeled GH-RH antagonist JV-1-42, specific high-affinity binding sites for GH-RH were found on tumor membranes. Reverse transcription-PCR revealed the expression of mRNA for GH-RH and splice variant 1 (SV(1)) of GH-RH receptor in H838 tumors. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis also demonstrated that H838 tumors express IGF-I and IGF-I receptors. Tumoral concentration of IGF-I and its mRNA expression were significantly decreased by 25% (P = 0.05) and 65% (P < 0.001), respectively, in animals receiving JV-1-38, whereas serum IGF-I levels remained unchanged. In vitro studies showed that H838 cells secreted GH-RH and IGF-I into the medium. The growth of tumor cells in vitro was stimulated by IGF-I and inhibited by GH-RH antagonist JV-1-38 and a GH-RH antiserum. Our results extend the findings on the involvement of IGF-I in NSCLC and suggest that GH-RH may be an autocrine growth factor for H838 NSCLC. The antitumorigenic action of GH-RH antagonists could be partly direct and mediated by SV(1) of tumoral GH-RH receptors. The finding of GH-RH and SV(1) of GH-RH receptors in NSCLC provides a new approach to the treatment of this

  10. Influence of autocrine growth hormone on NF-κB activation leading to epithelial-mesenchymal transition of mammary carcinoma.

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    Baskari, Srinivas; Govatati, Suresh; Madhuri, Vijaya; Nallabelli, Nayudu; K, Paul Marx; Naik, Srinivas; Poornachandar; Balka, Swarna; Tamanam, Raghava Rao; Devi, Venkata Ramana

    2017-10-01

    Progression of breast cancers often depends on hormones among which human growth hormone is prominently involved in breast cancer progression. Earlier studies have reported constitutive activation of nuclear factor-κB, a key regulator of growth hormone receptor-mediated signaling pathway in breast carcinoma, but the precise molecular mechanisms are still elusive. In this study, we investigated the effect of human growth hormone on nuclear factor-κB activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in breast carcinoma. Our results explored that autocrine production of human growth hormone enhances cellular proliferation by the activation of nuclear factor-κB (65 kDa) and downregulation of E-cadherin expression. Furthermore, enhanced nuclear factor-κB expression significantly increases cell proliferation and diminishes apoptosis in MCF-7 cell line. Increased expression of nuclear factor-κB significantly enhances mammary carcinoma cell migration and invasion stimulated by autocrine human growth hormone, which results in epithelial-mesenchymal transition of MCF-7 cells. In conclusion, our study revealed the influence of human growth hormone on nuclear factor-κB activity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition in mammary carcinoma. Our findings will help to understand molecular role of "growth hormone-nuclear factor-κB axis" in mammary carcinogenesis which may facilitate the discovery of suitable pathway inhibitors for disease treatment.

  11. Inhibition of growth and reduction in tumorigenicity of UCI-107 ovarian cancer by antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone and vasoactive intestinal peptide.

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    Chatzistamou, I; Schally, A V; Varga, J L; Groot, K; Armatis, P; Bajo, A M

    2001-11-01

    To evaluate the tumor inhibitory activities of antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in UCI-107 human ovarian cancer model, and to investigate the role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in the response. In the present study we investigated the effects of GH-RH antagonist JV-1-36 and VIP antagonist JV-1-52, on the growth and tumorigenicity of UCI-107 ovarian cell carcinoma xenografted into nude mice. Studies on the effects of hGH-RH(1-29)NH2, IGF-I, IGF-II, JV-1-36, and JV-1-52 on the proliferation of UCI-107 cells cultured in vitro were also performed. After 22 days of therapy with JV-1-36 or JV-1-52 at the dose of 20 microg/day, the final volume of UCI-107 tumors was significantly (PUCI-107 cells in nude mice. All ten mice injected with cells treated with medium alone developed tumors within 23 days after cell inoculation, while only eight of ten and four of ten mice injected with cells exposed to JV-1-36 or JV-1-52, respectively, had tumors. In vitro exposure of UCI-107 cells to 5-35 ng/ml IGF-II produced a significant suppression in the rate of cell proliferation (P UCI-107 ovarian cell carcinoma by mechanisms that appear to involve direct effects on the cancer cells.

  12. Effects of growth hormone and low dose estrogen on bone growth and turnover in long bones of hypophysectomized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, L. S.; Schmidt, I. U.; Evans, G. L.; Turner, R. T.

    1997-01-01

    Pituitary hormones are recognized as critical to longitudinal growth, but their role in the radial growth of bone and in maintaining cancellous bone balance are less clear. This investigation examines the histomorphometric effects of hypophysectomy (Hx) and ovariectomy (OVX) and the subsequent replacement of growth hormone (GH) and estrogen (E), in order to determine the effects and possible interactions between these two hormones on cortical and cancellous bone growth and turnover. The replacement of estrogen is of interest since Hx results in both pituitary and gonadal hormone insufficiencies, with the latter being caused by the Hx-associated reduction in follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). All hypophysectomized animals received daily supplements of hydrocortisone (500 microg/kg) and L-thyroxine (10 microg/kg), whereas intact animals received daily saline injections. One week following surgery, hypophysectomized animals received either daily injections of low-dose 17 beta-estradiol (4.8 microg/kg s.c.), 3 X/d recombinant human GH (2 U/kg s.c.), both, or saline for a period of two weeks. Flurochromes were administered at weekly intervals to label bone matrix undergoing mineralization. Whereas Hx resulted in reductions in body weight, uterine weight, and tibial length, OVX significantly increased body weight and tibial length, while reducing uterine weight. The combination of OVX and Hx resulted in values similar to Hx alone. Treatment with GH normalized body weight and bone length, while not affecting uterine weight in hypophysectomized animals. Estrogen increased uterine weight, while not impacting longitudinal bone growth and reduced body weight. Hypophysectomy diminished tibial cortical bone area through reductions in both mineral appositional rate (MAR) and bone formation rate (BFR). While E had no effect, GH increased both MAR and BFR, though not to sham-operated (control) levels. Hypophysectomy reduced proximal tibial trabecular number and cancellous bone

  13. Imbalance in the blood antioxidant system in growth hormone-deficient children before and after 1 year of recombinant growth hormone therapy

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    Maria S. Pankratova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the effects of 12-month therapy with recombinant growth hormone (rGH on the blood antioxidant system in children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC of plasma was measured by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power or ferric reducing ability of plasma; activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT in erythrocytes were assessed; non-protein thiols (NT and ceruloplasmin (CP levels were also measured. These parameters were determined before and after 12 month of rGH treatment. Eleven treatment-naive prepubertal children with growth hormone deficiency were included in the study. Another 11 prepubertal children comprised a control group. Before rGH treatment, TAC of plasma and NT level in the control group were significantly lower (726 ± 196 vs. 525 ± 166 µmol/L, P = 0.0182 and 0.92 ± 0.18 vs. 0.70 ± 0.22 µmol/ml, P = 0.0319, before and after the therapy, respectively. The only parameter that significantly (19.6 ± 4.7 vs. 14.5 ± 3.4 Units/g Hb, P = 0.0396 exceeded the same in the control group after rGH therapy was SOD activity. However, none of the measured parameters of antioxidant system in GHD children, except for TAC (525 ± 166 vs. 658 ± 115 µmol/L, P = 0.0205, exhibited significant improvement toward the end of the 12-month treatment period, although non-significant changes in CAT activity and CP level were also observed. This work has demonstrated that some parameters of the blood antioxidant system are out of balance and even impaired in GHD children. A 12-month treatment with rGH resulted in a partial improvement of the antioxidant system.

  14. Identification of the Bovine Growth Hormone Gene and Alui Loci Polymorphism by PCR – RFLP Method

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    Nina Moravčíková

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was detection of polymorphism in the bovine growth hormone gene using PCR – RFLP asan efficient method for genetic analysis of polymorphism. A polymorphic site of the growth hormone gene (AluIpolymorphism that results in an amino acid change at position 127 of the protein chain (leucine, L to valine, V hasbeen linked to differences in circulating metabolites and metabolic hormones and to milk yield traits. The growthhormone gene is a candidate gene for body weight and weight gain in cattle since it plays a fundamental role ingrowth regulation. The polymorphism of growth hormone gene was studied in a group of 58 bulls of Slovak spottedbreed. A strategy employing PCR was used to amplify 428 bp products from blood samples. Digestion of PCRproducts with restriction enzyme AluI revealed two alleles: allele L was 265, 96, 51, 16 fragments and allele V was265, 147 and 16. Three patterns were observed and with frequencies 0.404, 0.473 and 0.123 for LL, LV and VV,respectively. The frequency of alleles L was 0.6404 and V was 0.3596.

  15. Treatment of Turner's syndrome with recombinant human growth hormone (somatrem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippe, B; Rosenfeld, R G; Hintz, R L; Johanson, A J; Frane, J; Sherman, B

    1988-01-01

    This report extends to 3 years the prospective study of the effects of somatrem alone or in combination with oxandrolone on growth in Turner's syndrome. Sixty-seven patients completed the 1-year study period during which all treatment groups had statistically increased height velocities as compared to the control group. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin responses remained unchanged after 1 year of somatrem treatment. The group receiving oxandrolone experienced an increase in integrated glucose response and the group receiving combined therapy an increase in both integrated glucose and insulin responses. During the second and third years the somatrem group remained on the same dose and treatment schedule and grew at mean velocities of 5.4 +/- 1.1 and 4.6 +/- 1.4 cm/year. The dose of oxandrolone was reduced by 50% during the second and third years for the combination group. The somatrem dose remained unchanged. This group had height velocities of 7.4 +/- 1.4 cm and 6.1 +/- 1.5 cm/year. The control group and the group treated with oxandrolone alone were converted to combined therapy at the lowered oxandrolone dose. Their growth rates during the second year were 8.3 +/- 1.2 and 7.1 +/- 1.6 cm/year, respectively. Using bone age determinations and the methods of Bayley and Pinneau, all groups currently show predicted increases in final adult height.

  16. Growth rates and the prevalence and progression of scoliosis in short-statured children on Australian growth hormone treatment programmes

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    McPhee Ian

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study design and aim This was a longitudinal chart review of a diverse group (cohort of patients undergoing HGH (Human Growth Hormone treatment. Clinical and radiological examinations were performed with the aim to identify the presence and progression of scoliosis. Methods and cohort 185 patients were recruited and a database incorporating the age at commencement, dose and frequency of growth hormone treatment and growth charts was compiled from their Medical Records. The presence of any known syndrome and the clinical presence of scoliosis were included for analysis. Subsequently, skeletally immature patients identified with scoliosis were followed up over a period of a minimum four years and the radiologic type, progression and severity (Cobb angle of scoliosis were recorded. Results Four (3.6% of the 109 with idiopathic short stature or hormone deficiency had idiopathic scoliosis (within normal limits for a control population and scoliosis progression was not prospectively observed. 13 (28.8% of 45 with Turner syndrome had scoliosis radiologically similar to idiopathic scoliosis. 11 (48% of 23 with varying syndromes, had scoliosis. In the entire cohort, the growth rates of those with and without scoliosis were not statistically different and HGH treatment was not ceased because of progression of scoliosis. Conclusion In this study, there was no evidence of HGH treatment being responsible for progression of scoliosis in a small number of non-syndromic patients (four. An incidental finding was that scoliosis, similar to the idiopathic type, appears to be more prevalent in Turner syndrome than previously believed.

  17. The Impact of Growth Hormone Therapy on the Apoptosis Assessment in CD34+ Hematopoietic Cells from Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Miłosz Piotr Kawa; Iwona Stecewicz; Katarzyna Piecyk; Edyta Paczkowska; Dorota Rogińska; Anna Sobuś; Karolina Łuczkowska; Ewa Pius-Sadowska; Elżbieta Gawrych; Elżbieta Petriczko; Mieczysław Walczak; Bogusław Machaliński

    2017-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) modulates hematopoietic cell homeostasis and is associated with apoptosis control, but with limited mechanistic insights. Aim of the study was to determine whether GH therapeutic supplementation (GH-TS) could affect apoptosis of CD34+ cells enriched in hematopoietic progenitor cells of GH deficient (GHD) children. CD34+ cells from peripheral blood of 40 GHD children were collected before and in 3rd and 6th month of GH-TS and compared to 60 controls adjusted for bone age, s...

  18. Antiproliferative effect of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH antagonist on ovarian cancer cells through the EGFR-Akt pathway

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    Varga Jozsef

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antagonists of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH are being developed for the treatment of various human cancers. Methods MTT assay was used to test the proliferation of SKOV3 and CaOV3. The splice variant expression of GHRH receptors was examined by RT-PCR. The expression of protein in signal pathway was examined by Western blotting. siRNA was used to block the effect of EGFR. Results In this study, we investigated the effects of a new GHRH antagonist JMR-132, in ovarian cancer cell lines SKOV3 and CaOV3 expressing splice variant (SV1 of GHRH receptors. MTT assay showed that JMR-132 had strong antiproliferative effects on SKOV3 and CaOV3 cells in both a time-dependent and dose-dependent fashion. JMR-132 also induced the activation and increased cleaved caspase3 in a time- and dose-dependent manner in both cell lines. In addition, JMR-132 treatments decreased significantly the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR level and the phosphorylation of Akt (p-Akt, suggesting that JMR-132 inhibits the EGFR-Akt pathway in ovarian cancer cells. More importantly, treatment of SKOV3 and CaOV3 cells with 100 nM JMR-132 attenuated proliferation and the antiapoptotic effect induced by EGF in both cell lines. After the knockdown of the expression of EGFR by siRNA, the antiproliferative effect of JMR-132 was abolished in SKOV3 and CaOV3 cells. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that the inhibitory effect of the GHRH antagonist JMR-132 on proliferation is due, in part, to an interference with the EGFR-Akt pathway in ovarian cancer cells.

  19. Adult height in girls with central precocious puberty treated with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist with or without growth hormone

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    Mo Kyung Jung

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available PurposeThere is controversy surrounding the growth outcomes of treatment with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa in central precocious puberty (CPP. We analyzed height preservation after treatment with GnRHa with and without growth hormone (GH in girls with CPP.MethodsWe reviewed the medical records of 82 girls with idiopathic CPP who had been treated with GnRHa at Severance Children's Hospital from 2004 to 2014. We assessed the changes in height standard deviation score (SDS for bone age (BA, and compared adult height (AH with midparental height (MPH and predicted adult height (PAH during treatment in groups received GnRHa alone (n=59 or GnRHa plus GH (n=23.ResultsIn the GnRHa alone group, the height SDS for BA was increased during treatment. AH (160.4±4.23 cm was significantly higher than the initial PAH (156.6±3.96 cm (P<0.001, and it was similar to the MPH (159.9±3.52 cm. In the GnRHa plus GH group, the height SDS for BA was also increased during treatment. AH (159.3±5.33 cm was also higher than the initial PAH (154.6±2.55 cm (P<0.001, which was similar to the MPH (158.1±3.31 cm. Height gain was slightly higher than that in the GnRHa alone group, however it statistically showed no significant correlation with GH treatment.ConclusionIn CPP girls treated with GnRHa, the height SDS for BA was increased, and the AH was higher than the initial PAH. Combined GH treatment showed a limited increase in height gain.

  20. Impact of overweight on effectiveness of treatment with human growth hormone in growth hormone deficient children: analysis of German KIGS data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinehr, T; Bechtold-Dalla Pozza, S; Bettendorf, M; Doerr, H-G; Gohlke, B; Hauffa, B P; Kaspers, S; Land, C; Mehls, O; Schwab, K-O; Stahnke, N; Ranke, M B

    2011-10-01

    We hypothesized that overweight children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD) demonstrate a lower response to growth hormone (GH) as a result of a misclassification since obesity is associated with lower GH peaks in stimulation tests. Anthropometric data, response, and responsiveness to GH in the first year of treatment were compared in 1.712 prepubertal children with GHD from the German KIGS database according to BMI (underweight=group A, normal weight=group B, overweight=group C) (median age: group A, B, C: 7.3, 7.28, and 8.4 years). Maximum GH levels to tests (median: group A, B, C: 5.8, 5.8, and 4.0 µg/ml) were significantly lower in group C. IGF-I SDS levels were not different between the groups. Growth velocity in the first year of GH treatment was significantly lower in the underweight cohort (median: group A, B, C: 8.2, 8.8, and 9.0 cm/yr), while the gain in height was not different between groups. The difference between observed and predicted growth velocity expressed as Studentized residuals was not significantly different between groups. Separating the 164 overweight children into obese children (BMI>97th centile; n=71) and moderate overweight children (BMI>90th to 97th centile, n=93) demonstrated no significant difference in any parameter. Overweight prepubertal children with idiopathic GHD demonstrated similar levels of responsiveness to GH treatment compared to normal weight children. Furthermore, the IGF-I levels were low in overweight children. Therefore, a misclassification of GHD in overweight prepubertal children within the KIGS database seems unlikely. The first year growth prediction models can be applied to overweight and obese GHD children. © J. A. Barth Verlag in George Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Turner syndrome in Albania and the efficacy of its treatment with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoxha, Petrit; Babameto-Laku, Anila; Vyshka, Gentian; Gjoka, Klodiana; Minxuri, Dorina; Myrtaj, Elira; Çakërri, Luljeta

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of Turner syndrome inside the Albanian population, its clinical, cytological and genetic characteristics, the accompanying pathologies, and the efficacy of the treatment with the growth hormone. We performed a retrospective analysis of 59 patients suffering from this syndrome (aging from 5 to 23 years old). The diagnosis of female patients suffering from Turner syndrome is delayed, with a mean age at the moment of diagnosis of 13.74 years (5-23 years). The main reason for seeking medical advice was the growth retardation or a delayed puberty. Available data for 52 patients showed that the most frequent accompanying pathologies were the following: thyroid autoimmune disorders (59%), cardiovascular anomalies (43%), renal pathologies (41%), hearing impairment (4.3%) and hypertension (3.3%). Follow-up for the growth rate was possible for 52 patients out of the total of 59 patients. Twenty-five of the female patients suffering Turner syndrome and forming part of our study sample were treated with growth hormone for a period averaging 3 years and 4 months. A variety of reasons was identified as responsible for the missed treatment in 27 patients. We saw an enhanced growth (in terms of body height) within the treated subgroup, when compared with the untreated subgroup (27 patients), especially during the first 3 years of the follow-up. No side effects of this treatment were reported. Both groups of patients initiated as well a sexual hormone therapy (estrogens and progesterone) for inducing puberty at the age of 12 years. Further work is needed for an early diagnosis of this syndrome, the prompt treatment with growth hormone and the monitoring of accompanying disorders. This will ensure a better quality of life and an improvement of the longevity of patients suffering from the Turner syndrome.

  2. Short Stature in Chronic Kidney Disease Treated with Growth Hormone and an Aromatase Inhibitor

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    Susan R. Mendley

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe an alternative strategy for management of severe growth failure in a 14-year-old child who presented with advanced chronic kidney disease close to puberty. The patient was initially treated with growth hormone for a year until kidney transplantation, followed immediately by a year-long course of an aromatase inhibitor, anastrozole, to prevent epiphyseal fusion and prolong the period of linear growth. Outcome was excellent, with successful transplant and anticipated complete correction of height deficit. This strategy may be appropriate for children with chronic kidney disease and short stature who are in puberty.

  3. Efficacy and safety of growth hormone treatment for children born small for gestational age

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    Hwang, Il Tae

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant growth hormone (GH) is an effective treatment for short children who are born small for gestational age (SGA). Short children born SGA who fail to demonstrate catch-up growth by 2-4 years of age are candidates for GH treatment initiated to achieve catch-up growth to a normal height in early childhood, maintain a normal height gain throughout childhood, and achieve an adult height within the normal target range. GH treatment at a dose of 35-70 µg/kg/day should be considered for tho...

  4. Growth hormone deficiency after traumatic brain injury in adults: when to test and how to treat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelestimur, Fahrettin

    2009-06-01

    Hypopituitarism has numerous potential causes, and it is becoming clear that traumatic brain injury (TBI), including traffic accidents and sport-related injuries, is commonly associated with pituitary dysfunction. Mechanisms of pituitary damage after TBI include direct injury and vascular problems, and more recent research suggests that autoimmunity may also be involved. There may also be a genetic influence, as the E3 allele of the ApoE gene may provide some protection from post-traumatic hypopituitarism. Studies suggest that patients with mild or moderate TBI are likely to recover pituitary function over time. In patients with severe TBI, however, adrenocorticotrophic hormone and growth hormone deficiencies may persist. Patients who experience TBI should, therefore, be followed up carefully and evaluated for pituitary dysfunction to ensure that appropriate hormone replacement therapy can be provided if needed.

  5. Growth hormone deficiency and diabetes insipidus as a complication of endoscopic third ventriculostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuri, Kimberly S; Wilson, Thomas A

    2012-12-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) has become the procedure of choice for the treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus in children and adults. Endocrinological complications of ETV in children are rare. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is the most common and accounts for only 0.5% of complications from ETV. The majority of documented cases are transient. To date, there are no documented cases of multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. We present here a 6-year-old girl with growth hormone deficiency and permanent DI which developed as a complication of ETV. This patient is unique in both demonstrating multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies and the classical triphasic response of DI after ETV. We postulate that these complications were caused by compression of the pituitary stalk and hypothalamic injury during the procedure. We compare our case presentation to experimental studies conducted in rats.

  6. Endocrine control of canine mammary neoplasms: serum reproductive hormone levels and tissue expression of steroid hormone, prolactin and growth hormone receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoerri, Michèle; Guscetti, Franco; Hartnack, Sonja; Boos, Alois; Oei, Christine; Balogh, Orsolya; Nowaczyk, Renata M; Michel, Erika; Reichler, Iris M; Kowalewski, Mariusz P

    2015-09-15

    Neoplasms of the mammary gland are among the most common diseases in female domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). It is assumed that reproductive hormones influence tumorigenesis in this species, although the precise role of the endocrine milieu and reproductive state is subject to continuing discussion. In line with this, a recent systematic review of available data on the development of mammary neoplasms revealed weak evidence for risk reduction after neutering and an effect of age at neutering. Investigation of several hormone receptors has revealed decreased expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERα, ESR1), progesterone (P4) receptor (PGR), prolactin (PRL) receptor (PRLR) and growth hormone receptor (GHR) associated with neoplastic differentiation of mammary tissues. In other studies, increased levels of estrogens, progesterone and prolactin were found in serum and/or tissue homogenates of dogs with malignant neoplasms. However, the association between these entities within one animal population was never previously examined. Therefore, this study investigated the association between circulating serum concentrations of estradiol-17β, progesterone and prolactin, and gene expression of ERα (ESR1), ERβ (ESR2), PGR, PRLR, PRL and GHR, with respect to reproductive state (spayed vs. intact) and cycle stage (anestrus vs. diestrus). Additionally, the expression of E-cadherin (CDH-1) was evaluated as a possible indicator of metastatic potential. For all receptors, the lowest gene expression was found in malignant tumors compared to normal tissues of affected dogs. Steroid levels were not influenced by their corresponding receptor expression in mammary neoplasms, but increased PRL levels were negatively associated with low PRLR gene expression in malignant tumors. The expression of CDH-1 was influenced by tumor malignancy and cycle stage, i.e., the highest gene expression was found in benign mammary tumors in diestrous dogs compared to normal and malignant mammary

  7. Growth, Morphology and Growth Related Hormone Level in Kappaphycus alvarezii Produced by Mass Selection in Gorontalo Waters, Indonesia

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    Siti Fadilah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of high quality seed can support the success of the seaweed cultivation. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, morphology and growth related hormone level of brown strain seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii seed produced by mass selection. Selection was performed in the Tomini Gulf, Gorontalo, based on mass selection of seaweed seed protocol with a slight modification in cut-off 10% of the highest daily growth rate. Selection was carried out for four generations. The selected 4th generation of seed was then used in cultivation performance test in the Celebes Sea, North Gorontalo, for three production cycles. The results showed that the selected K. alvarezii has higher clump weight and daily growth rate, longer thallus, more number of branches, and shorter internodes compared to the unselected control and seaweed from the farmer as external control. Furthermore, total sugar content, levels of kinetin hormone and kinetin:indole-3-acetic acid ratio were higher in selected seaweeds than that of unselected control and external control. Thus, mass selection method could be used to produce high growth of seed, and kinetin and indole-3-acetic acid play an important role in growth of K. alvarezii.

  8. Growth, Morphology and Growth Related Hormone Level in Kappaphycus alvarezii Produced by Mass Selection in Gorontalo Waters, Indonesia

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    Siti Fadilah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of high quality seed can support the success of the seaweed cultivation. This study was conducted to evaluate the growth performance, morphology and growth related hormone level of brown strain seaweed Kappaphycus alvarezii seed produced by mass selection. Selection was performed in the Tomini Gulf, Gorontalo, based on mass selection of seaweed seed protocol with a slight modification in cut-off 10% of the highest daily growth rate. Selection was carried out for four generations. The selected 4th generation of seed was then used in cultivation performance test in the Celebes Sea, North Gorontalo, for three production cycles. The results showed that the selected K. alvarezii has higher clump weight and daily growth rate, longer thallus, more number of branches, and shorter internodes compared to the unselected control and seaweed from the farmer as external control. Furthermore, total sugar content, levels of kinetin hormone and kinetin:indole-3-acetic acid ratio were higher in selected seaweeds than that of unselected control and external control. Thus, mass selection method could be used to produce high growth of seed, and kinetin and indole-3-acetic acid play an important role in growth of K. alvarezii.

  9. Sleep and Endocrinology: Hypothalamic-pituitary- adrenal axis and growth hormone

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    Ravinder Goswami

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The supra-chiasmatic nucleus (SCN is the primarily biological clock determining thecircadian rhythm. The neurons of the nucleus making this clock have inherent rhythmand set in biological day and night. These periods usually corresponds to day/night, andindirectly to sleep-wakefulness cycle, in most individuals. Retino-hypothalamic tractcarrying photic information from the retina provides the most important input tomaintain the inherent rhythm of the SCN. The rhythmic discharges from the SCN tovarious neurons of the central nervous system, including pineal gland andhypothalamus, translate into circadian rhythm characteristic of several hormones andmetabolites such as glucose. As a result there is a pattern of hormonal changesoccurring during cycle of sleep wakefulness. Most characteristic of these changes aresurge of melatonin with biological night, surge of growth hormone-releasing hormone(GHRHat onset of sleep and surge of corticotropin-releasinghormone(CRHduring late part of the sleep. The cause and effect relationship of the hypothalamicreleasing hormones and their target hormones on various phases of sleep includinginitial non rapid eye movement (NREM phase at onset of sleep, and rapid eyemovement (REM phase near awakening, is an upcoming research area. Sleepelectroencephalogram (EEG determining the onset of NREM and REM sleep is animportant tool complimenting the studies assessing relationship between varioushormones and phases of sleep. The slow wave activity (SWA corresponds to theintensity of sleep at its onset during the biological night of an individual. Besides,GHRH and CRH, several other peptide and steroid hormones such as growthhormone (GH, its secretagogues, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, estrogen anddehydroepiandrosterone sulfate are associated or have the potential to change phases ofsleep including initial slow wave-NREM sleep.

  10. Individualised growth response optimisation (iGRO) tool: an accessible and easy-to-use growth prediction system to enable treatment optimisation for children treated with growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Jane; Lindberg, Anders; Aydin, Ferah; Gomez, Roy; Maghnie, Mohamad; Rooman, Raoul; Steinkamp, Heinz; Doerr, Helmuth; Ranke, Michael; Camacho-Hubner, Cecilia

    2017-10-26

    Growth prediction models (GPMs) exist to support clinical management of children treated with growth hormone (GH) for growth hormone deficiency (GHD), Turner syndrome (TS) and for short children born small for gestational age (SGA). Currently, no prediction system has been widely adopted. The objective was to develop a stand-alone web-based system to enable the widespread use of an 'individualised growth response optimisation' (iGRO) tool across European endocrinology clinics. A modern platform was developed to ensure compatibility with IT systems and web browsers. Seventeen GPMs derived from the KIGS database were included and tested for accuracy. The iGRO system demonstrated prediction accuracy and IT compatibility. The observed discrepancies between actual and predicted height may support clinicians in investigating the reasons for deviations around the expected growth and optimise treatment. This system has the potential for wide access in endocrinology clinics to support the clinical management of children treated with GH for these three indications.

  11. Thyroid hormone promotes transient nerve growth factor synthesis in rat cerebellar neuroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrasse, S; Jehan, F; Confort, C; Brachet, P; Clos, J

    1992-01-01

    Primary cultures of cerebellum from 5-day-old rats indicated that proliferating neuroblasts synthesize and release nerve growth factor (NGF). Since NGF promotes DNA synthesis in these cells, our findings demonstrate that the early developing cerebellum is a suitable physiological model for studying the autocrine mitogenic action of NGF. Thyroid deficiency led to a greater reduction in the NGF content of the cerebellum than of the olfactory bulbs or hippocampus. Cerebellar NGF mRNA was also very sensitive to hormone deprivation. Physiological amounts of thyroid hormone stimulated both the mitotic activity and NGF production of cultured cerebellar neuroblasts. A lack of thyroid hormone is known to markedly alter cell formation in the cerebellum where postnatal neurogenesis is highly significant, in contrast to the olfactory bulbs and hippocampus. Taken together, these results suggest that the hormonal control of cell formation in the cerebellum is, at least partly, mediated by the autocrine mitogenic action of NGF. The thyroid hormone could temporally regulate the transient NGF synthesis by cerebellar neuroblasts directly and/or through its ontogenetic action, and hence all the NGF-dependent trophic effects.

  12. Growth hormone treatment improves vitality and behavioural issues in children with Prader-Willi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Birgitta; Ritzén, E Martin; Lindgren, Ann Christin

    2015-01-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome is a neurogenetic disorder, with characteristics such as obesity, short stature, muscular weakness, intellectual deficiencies and deviant social behaviour. This study evaluated whether growth hormone treatment of children with Prader-Willi syndrome resulted in possible and lasting effects on their cognition and behaviour. We randomised six girls and 13 boys to either a treatment group or a control group. The treatment group received growth hormone (Genotropin(®) 0.033 mg/kg/day) for 2 years, while the control group did not receive treatment in the first year and then received a double dose in the second year. Treatment was then stopped in both groups for 6 months. Both groups showed the same intellectual disabilities at the start of the study, and no difference was found after the first and second years. The parents reported that the children showed increased vitality during treatment. When treatment was stopped, the children showed a marked exacerbation of behavioural problems, a significant increase in body fat and a decrease in insulin-like growth factor 1 levels. We believe this is the first study to show that abrupt-ceasing growth hormone treatment led to a successive deterioration in behavioural problems in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. ©2014 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. [Changes of the immune cells, cytokines and growth hormone in teenager drug addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Ying-min; Zhu, Yue-chun; Kuang, Ying; Sun, Yuan; Hua, Chen; He, Wen-yi

    2007-09-01

    To investigate the effect of heroin on the immune function, growth and development in the teenager heroin addicts by measuring their T-lymphocyte subsets, Th1/Th2 cytokines and serum growth hormone. Tlymphocyte subsets of peripheral blood from the teenager heroin addicts were measured by direct microvolume whole blood immunofluorescent staining technique by flow cytometer (FCM). Thl / Th2 cytokines were measured by BD cytometric bead array and serum growth hormone was assayed using the chemiluminescence method in the 20 teenager heroin addicts and 23 healthy teenagers. The levels of CD3(+), CD3(+) + CD4(+), CD3(+) + CD4(+)/CD3(+)+ CD8(+), Th1 cytokines(IL-2, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma) and Th2 cytokines(IL-4 and IL-10) reduced significantly in the teenager heroin addicts compared with the healthy control group (P teenager heroin addicts was remarkably higher than that in control group (Pteenager heroin addicts. Besides, it can increase the level of serum growth hormone of the teenager heroin addicts.

  14. Auxologic parameters and response to 2-year therapy with recombinant human growth hormone in growth hormone deficient children with an ectopic posterior pituitary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalina, Maria; Kalina-Faska, Barbara; Gruszczyńska, Katarzyna; Baron, Jan; Cisowska, Anita; Morawiec, Karolina; Biel-Lewandowska, Paulina; Małecka-Tendera, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Structural defects of the hypothalamic-pituitary area in MRI are suggested as being a more accurate marker of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) than laboratory assays. To compare auxological characteristics in GHD children with normal pituitary (NP) function and with ectopic posterior pituitary (EPP), prior to therapy with recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), extending the follow-up to two years following treatment. Eighty-six (86) GHD patients were divided into two groups depending on the pituitary MRI: the EPP (23 children, 3.2-16.8 years old) and the NP group (63 children, 3.3-14.8 years old). Height deficits in the population (hSD) and parents (hSD-mpSD) and the change of hSD and bone/chronological age ratio were assessed before and after 12 and 24 months of rhGH therapy. Height deficits before treatment were significantly greater in EPP compared to NP [median -4.07 (-7.06, -2.75) vs -3.15 (-4.9, -2.35) for hSD, and -3.65 (-7.06, -1.21) vs -1.83 (-4.31, -0.28) for hSD-mpSD; pgrowth compared to NP [ΔhSD=1.2 (0.42, 2.69) vs 0.74 (0.05, 1.48); pchildren, as well as beneficial effects of rhGH therapy in both groups.

  15. Growth hormone therapy in a girl with Turner syndrome and diabetes type 1 - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara-Moszynska, Monika; Banaszak, Magdalena; Niedziela, Marek

    2015-01-01

    The studies indicate the complex etiology of abnormal glucose metabolism in the Turner syndrome (TS). In the light of these carbohydrate disorders a therapy with recombinant growth hormone (rGH) in TS may be associated with complications, as growth hormone has a diabetogenic potential. Perinatal history is unknown since the patient was adopted at the age of 4 years. At 11 years old, due to typical phenotype, TS was diagnosed. The karyotype was 45,X[43]/46,X,i(X)(q10)[7]. At the same age, basing on laboratory results, insulin dependent diabetes was diagnosed and the conventional insulin therapy was initiated. During the hospitalization, at the age of 12 years, the patient was 123.5cm (-4.4SD). At the same age rGH tre-atment was initiated, with the dose 0.045 mg/kg/d. After 3 months of therapy the height velocity rose to 8.2 cm/ year. At the age of 13 years, substitution with 17β-estradiol was started. After 3 years and 4 months the growth hormone treatment was stopped because of poor height velocity. The final height of the patient was 140 cm (-4,OSD). Two years after the end of rGH treatment the height was 141.2 cm. After termination of rGH treatment the need for daily insulin dose decreased from 50-60U/d to 38-44U/d. The decision of rGH therapy in TS with diabetes is certainly difficult. While starting the growth hormone treatment the clinician must keep in mind the risk of metabolic complications, but also the awareness that gives the patient a chance to improve the final height. In terms of the proper psycho-emotional development the reduction of growth deficit is very important. © Polish Society for Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetology.

  16. Environmental estrogens inhibit mRNA and functional expression of growth hormone receptors as well as growth hormone signaling pathways in vitro in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Andrea M; Ickstadt, Alicia T; Marquart, Dillon J; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Sheridan, Mark A

    2017-05-15

    Fish in aquatic habitats are exposed to increasing concentrations and types of environmental contaminants, including environmental estrogens (EE). While there is growing evidence to support the observation that endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) possess growth-inhibiting effects, the mechanisms by which these physiological effects occur are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the direct effects of EE, specifically 17β-estradiol (E2), β-sitosterol (βS), and 4-n-nonylphenol (NP), on GH sensitivity as assessed by mRNA expression and functional expression of growth hormone receptor in hepatocytes, gill filaments, and muscle in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Additionally, we examined the effects of EE on signaling cascades related to growth hormone signal transduction (i.e., JAK-STAT, MAPK, and PI3K-Akt). Environmental estrogens directly suppressed the expression of GHRs in a tissue- and compound-related manner. The potency and efficacy varied with EE; effects were most pronounced with E2 in liver. EE treatment deactivated the JAK-STAT, MAPK, and PI3K-Akt pathways in liver a time-, EE- and concentration-dependent manner. Generally, E2 and NP were most effective in deactivating pathway elements; maximum suppression for each pathway was rapid, typically occurring at 10-30min. The observed effects occurred via an estrogen-dependent pathway, as indicated by treatment with an ER antagonist, ICI 182,780. These findings suggest that EEs suppress growth by reducing GH sensitivity in terms of reduced GHR synthesis and reduced surface GHR expression and by repressing GH signaling pathways. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Thyroid hormone dysregulation in intrauterine growth retardation associated with maternal malnutrition and/or anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S D; Aalinkeel, R; Singh, S; Shah, P; Gupta, N; Kochupillai, N

    2005-10-01

    Data on the effect of maternal malnutrition and/or anemia on thyroid hormone regulation in human fetuses are scarce, and would be of great importance in examining the relevance of Barker's hypothesis, which proposes adaptation of fetuses to undernutrition leading to permanent metabolic and endocrine changes that form the basis of adult diseases. To examine the quantitative variations in thyroid hormone profile of neonates born to malnourished and/or anemic mothers, we quantitated the T3, T4, rT3 and TSH levels in cord blood of neonates and maternal blood of their corresponding mothers that are malnourished and/or anemic. Further, we classified neonates born to each of these groups of mothers into Small for Gestational Age (SGA) or Appropriate for Gestational Age (AGA) based on the intrauterine growth curve for our population, and examined the thyroid hormone profile in these neonates. Our results show that firstly, the effects of malnutrition or anemia on thyroid hormone profile are distinct, secondly, significantly higher levels of cord blood T4 and correspondingly lower levels of T3 and rT3 are observed in the neonates born to anemic and malnourished mothers and thirdly, decreases in cord blood T3 levels were observed in Small for Gestational Age neonates born to anemic mothers. These observations lead us to speculate that alterations in the pituitary-thyroid function result in beneficial adaptations to the hostile intrauterine environment in malnutrition related growth retardation and anemia.

  18. The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Lucy Ann

    2011-03-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

  19. The interaction between growth hormone and the thyroid axis in hypopituitary patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Behan, Lucy Ann

    2012-02-01

    Alterations in the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid axis have been reported following growth hormone (GH) administration in both adults and children with and without growth hormone deficiency. Reductions in serum free thyroxine (T4), increased tri-iodothyronine (T3) with or without a reduction in serum thyroid-stimulating hormone secretion have been reported following GH replacement, but there are wide inconsistencies in the literature about these perturbations. The clinical significance of these changes in thyroid function remains uncertain. Some authors report the changes are transient and revert to normal after a few months or longer. However, in adult hypopituitary patients, GH replacement has been reported to unmask central hypothyroidism biochemically in 36-47% of apparently euthyroid patients, necessitating thyroxine replacement and resulting in an attenuation of the benefit of GH replacement on quality of life in those who became biochemically hypothyroid after GH replacement. The group at highest risk are those with organic pituitary disease or multiple pituitary hormone deficiencies. It is therefore prudent to monitor thyroid function in hypopituitary patients starting GH therapy to identify those who will develop clinical and biochemical features of central hypothyroidism, thus facilitating optimal and timely replacement.

  20. Growth hormone (GH) and GH-releasing hormone (GHRH): Co-localization and action in the chicken testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Moreno, Carlos G; López-Marín, Luz M; Carranza, Martha; Giterman, Daniel; Harvey, Steve; Arámburo, Carlos; Luna, Maricela

    2014-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) gene expression is not confined to the pituitary gland and occurs in many extrapituitary tissues, including the chicken testis. The regulation and function of GH in extrapituitary tissues is, however, largely unknown. The possibility that chicken testicular GH might be regulated by GH-releasing hormone (GHRH), as in the avian pituitary gland, was investigated in the present study. GHRH co-localized with GH in the germinal epithelium and in interstitial zones within the chicken testes, particularly in the spermatogonia and spermatocytes. In testicular cell cultures, exogenous human GHRH1-44 induced (at 1, 10 and 100nM) a dose-related increase in GH release. Western blot analysis showed a heterogeneous pattern in the GH moieties released during GHRH stimulation. 26kDa monomer GH was the most abundant moiety under basal conditions, but 15 and 17kDa isoforms were more abundant after GHRH stimulation. GHRH treatment also increased the abundance of PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) immunoreactivity in the testes. This may have been GH-mediated, since exogenous GH similarly increased the incorporation of ((3)H)-thymidine into cultured testicular cells and increased their metabolic activity, as determined by increased MTT reduction. Furthermore, GH and GHRH immunoneutralization blocked GHRH-stimulated proliferative activity. In summary, these results indicate that GHRH stimulates testicular GH secretion in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Data also demonstrate proliferative actions of GHRH on testicular cell number and suggest that this action is mediated by local GH production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Long-term Safety of Testosterone and Growth Hormone Supplementation: A Retrospective Study of Metabolic, Cardiovascular, and Oncologic Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Ginzburg, Enrique; Klimas, Nancy; Parvus, Chad; Life, Jeff; Willix, Robert; Barber, Michale J.; Lin, Alvin; Comite, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Background Clinical research into the effects of hormonal supplementation has tended to focus on beneficial changes in anthropometric measures. There are fewer data on long-term safety with extended hormonal supplementation. Methods As part of a retrospective database survey, clinical outcomes were tabulated among patients who received at least 1 year of testosterone and/or growth hormone (GH) supplementation. In patients who were treated for at least 2 years, changes in markers of glucose an...

  2. Growth Hormone Deficiency in Prepubertal Children: Predictive Markers of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leonibus, Chiara; De Marco, Stefania; Stevens, Adam; Clayton, Peter; Chiarelli, Francesco; Mohn, Angelika

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) risk factors have been identified in adults with untreated growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Existing evidence suggests that the development of the atheromatous plaque begins early in childhood. Previous reports have shown that GHD children are prone to increased CV risks including impaired cardiac function, dyslipidemia and abnormalities in body composition. Recent studies in epigenetics and metabolomics have defined specific fingerprints that might be associated with an increased risk of CV disease. The aim of this review is to point out the most significant biochemical and clinical predictive markers of CV disease in prepubertal children and to evaluate the effect of recombinant human growth hormone therapy on most of these alterations. The novel findings in epigenetics and metabolomics are also reviewed, with a particular focus on translating them into clinical practice. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Evidence for association of the cloned liver growth hormone receptor with a tyrosine kinase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, X; Uhler, M D; Billestrup, N

    1992-01-01

    in a variety of cell types. The finding that the level of phosphorylation of GH receptor appears to vary with cell type is consistent with the cloned liver GH receptor being a substrate for an associated tyrosine kinase and with the amount of such a GH receptor-associated tyrosine kinase being cell type-specific.......The ability of the cloned liver growth hormone (GH) receptor, when expressed in mammalian cell lines, to copurify with tyrosine kinase activity and be tyrosyl phosphorylated was examined. 125I-human growth hormone-GH receptor complexes isolated from COS-7 cells transiently expressing high levels...... of the cloned liver GH receptor bound to anti-phosphotyrosine antibody, suggesting that the cloned GH receptor is tyrosyl phosphorylated in vivo. GH-GH receptor complexes purified from transfected COS-7 cells using anti-GH antibody incorporated 32P when incubated with [gamma-32P]ATP, indicating association...

  4. Cat eye syndrome and growth hormone deficiency with pituitary anomalies: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Cláudia; Gama-de-Sousa, Susana; Almeida, Filipa; Rendeiro, Paula; Tavares, Purificação; Cardoso, Helena; Carvalho, Sónia

    2013-10-15

    Cat eye syndrome is a rare congenital disease characterized by the existence of a supernumerary chromosome derived from chromosome 22, with a variable phenotype comprising anal atresia, coloboma of the iris and preauricular tags or pits. We report a girl with cat eye syndrome, presenting short stature, with growth hormone deficiency due to posterior pituitary ectopia. Short stature is a common feature of this syndrome, and the association with a structural pituitary anomaly has been described, however growth hormone deficiency and the underlying mechanisms are rarely reported. A review on short stature and growth hormone deficiency in cat eye syndrome is conducted. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Do hormonal contraceptives stimulate growth of neurofibromas? A survey on 59 NF1 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mautner Victor-Felix

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neurofibromas are benign tumors of the peripheral nerves and hallmark of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1, a tumor suppressor gene syndrome. Neurofibromas mostly start developing at puberty and can increase in size and number during pregnancy. Expression of progesterone receptors has been found in 75% of the tumors. Many female NF1 patients are thus concerned about the possibility that hormonal contraceptives may stimulate the growth of their neurofibromas. Methods A survey was carried out on 59 female NF1 patients who are practicing or have practiced hormonal contraception to examine the effect of the various contraceptives on the growth of neurofibromas. Results Majority (53 out of 58 of patients who received oral estrogen-progestogen or pure progestogen preparations reported no associated tumor growth. In contrast, significant tumor growth was reported by two patients who received depot contraceptive containing high dose of synthetic progesterone. Conclusions Oral contraceptives do not seem to stimulate the growth of neurofibromas in NF1 patients. High doses of progesterone might stimulate the growth of neurofibromas and deserve more caution.

  6. Final height in girls with Turner's syndrome treated with once or twice daily growth hormone injections

    OpenAIRE

    Sas, T.; Keizer-Schrama, S; Stijnen, T.; van Teunenbroek, A; Hokken-Koelega, A.; Waelkens, J.; Massa, G.; Vulsma, T.; Gerver, W; Reeser, H; de Waal, H E D.-v.; Jansen, M.; Drop, S.; The, D.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To study final height in girls with Turner's syndrome treated with once or twice daily injections of growth hormone (GH) in combination with low dose ethinyl oestradiol.
DESIGN—Until final height was reached, the effect of fractionated subcutaneous injections given twice daily was compared with once daily injections of a total GH dose of 6 IU/m2/day. Twice daily injections were given as one third in the morning and two thirds at bedtime. All girls concurrently ...

  7. The Challenge of Growth Hormone Deficiency Diagnosis and Treatment during the Transition from Puberty into Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Inzaghi, Elena; Cianfarani, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    In children with childhood-onset growth hormone deficiency, replacement GH therapy is effective in normalizing height during childhood and achieving adult height within the genetic target range. GH has further beneficial effects on body composition and metabolism through adult life. The transition phase, defined as the period from mid to late teens until 6–7 years after the achievement of final height, represents a crucial time for reassessing children’s GH secretion and deciding whether GH t...

  8. Digestive enzymes activities in Oreochromis niloticus fed diet supplemented with recombinant growth hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apriana Vinasyiam

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The specific activity of the digestive enzymes, namely: pepsin, amylase, lipase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin were studied in Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus fed diet supplemented with recombinant Ephinephelus lanceolatus growth hormone (rElGH. The results showed that fish treated with rE1GH showed lower lipase and chymotrypsin specific activities (P>0.05, while the trypsin/chymotrypsin specific activity (T/C ratio was found higher compared to control fish. Moreover, higher protein digestibility, higher protein retention and a lower ammonia excretion rate were measured for rE1GH treated fish. Oral rElGH administration enhanced Nile tilapia growth up to 20.04%, without affecting survival. This study suggested that rapid growth performance induced by rElGH was linked with T/C ratio rather than the specific activity of other digestive enzymes. Keywords: recombinant growth hormone, digestive enzyme, digestibility, Oreochromis niloticus  ABSTRAK Aktivitas spesifik enzim pencernaan pepsin, amilase, lipase, tripsin, dan kemotripsin diamati pada ikan nila Oreochromis niloticus yang diberi pakan mengandung hormon pertumbuhan rekombinan ikan kerapu kertang Ephinephelus lanceolatus (rElGH. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa ikan uji pada perlakuan rElGH memiliki aktivitas spesifik enzim lipase dan kemotripsin yang lebih rendah, sedangkan rasio tripsin/kemotripsin (rasio T/C yang lebih tinggi dibandingan ikan kontrol. Kecernaan protein dan retensi protein bernilai lebih tinggi sementara laju ekskresi amonia bernilai lebih rendah pada ikan perlakuan. Pemberian rElGH secara oral mampu mempercepat laju pertumbuhan ikan nila hingga 20,04% tanpa memengaruhi kelangsungan hidup. Berdasarkan penelitian ini, dapat disimpulkan bahwa laju pertumbuhan cepat yang diinduksi oleh rElGH berhubungan dengan rasio T/C dibandingkan dengan aktivitas spesifik enzim pencernaan lain. Kata kunci: hormon pertumbuhan rekombinan, enzim pencernaan, kecernaan, Oreochromis niloticus 

  9. Growth hormone enhances effects of endurance training on oxidative muscle metabolism in elderly women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, K H; Isaksson, F; Juul, A

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated whether recombinant human (rh) growth hormone (GH) combined with endurance training would have a larger effect on oxidative capacity, metabolism, and body fat than endurance training alone. Sixteen healthy, elderly women, aged 75 yr, performed closely monitored...... in the two subjects receiving rhGH. In conclusion, rhGH adds to the effects of endurance training on muscle oxidative enzymes and causes a reduction in body fat in elderly women....

  10. Current Practice in Diagnosis and Treatment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Childhood: A Survey from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Poyrazo?lu, ??kran; Ak?ay, Teoman; Arslano?lu, ?lknur; Atabek, Mehmet Emre; Atay, Zeynep; Berbero?lu, Merih; Bereket, Abdullah; Bideci, Aysun; Bircan, ?ffet; B?ber, Ece; Can, ?ule; Cesur, Ya?ar; Darcan, ??kran; Demir, Korcan; D?ndar, Bumin

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Approaches to diagnosis and treatment of growth hormone deficiency (GHD) in children vary among countries and even among centers in the same country. This survey, aiming to facilitate the process of preparing the new consensus on GHD by the Turkish Pediatric Endocrinology and Diabetes Society, was designed to evaluate the current practices in diagnosis and treatment of GHD in different centers in Turkey. Methods: A questionnaire covering relevant items for diagnosis and treatment o...

  11. Identification of intracellular domains in the growth hormone receptor involved in signal transduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billestrup, N; Allevato, G; Norstedt, G

    1994-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH) receptor belongs to the GH/prolactin/cytokine super-family of receptors. The signal transduction mechanism utilized by this class of receptors remains largely unknown. In order to identify functional domains in the intracellular region of the GH receptor we generated......) for metabolic effects, a domain located in or near the proline-rich region is of importance; and (iii) for internalization, phenylalanine 346 is necessary....

  12. Growth Hormone Mediates Its Protective Effect in Hepatic Apoptosis through Hnf6

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Kewei; Wang, Minhua; Gannon, Maureen; Holterman, AiXuan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Growth hormone (GH) not only supports hepatic metabolism but also protects against hepatocyte cell death. Hnf6 (or Oc1) belonging to the Onecut family of hepatocyte transcription factors known to regulate differentiated hepatic function, is a GH-responsive gene. We evaluate if GH mediates Hnf6 activity to attenuate hepatic apoptotic injury. Methods We used an animal model of hepatic apoptosis by bile duct ligation (BDL) with Hnf6 -/- (KO) mice in which hepatic Hnf6 was con...

  13. Deletion of amino acid residues 33-46 in growth hormone alters the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth hormone (GH) variants have been studied for the structure-function relationship of the molecule. The presence of a potential alternate splicing point in mRNA in bGH gene at exon 3, similar to hGH has been reported by workers. Early investigation on the characteristics of the chemistry of 20k oGH showed that the ...

  14. Growth hormone secretion is diminished and tightly controlled in humans enriched for familial longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Spoel, Evie; Jansen, Steffy W; Akintola, Abimbola A

    2016-01-01

    Reduced growth hormone (GH) signaling has been consistently associated with increased health and lifespan in various mouse models. Here, we assessed GH secretion and its control in relation with human familial longevity. We frequently sampled blood over 24 h in 19 middle-aged offspring of long...... and more tight control. These data imply that the highly conserved GH signaling pathway, which has been linked to longevity in animal models, is also associated with human longevity....

  15. Free Access to Running Wheels Abolishes Hyperphagia in Human Growth Hormone Transgenic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    KOMATSUDA, Mugiko; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Nishihara, Masugi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Obesity is a major health problem, and increased food intake and decreased physical activity are considered as two major factors causing obesity. Previous studies show that voluntary exercise in a running wheel decreases not only body weight but also food intake of rats. We previously produced human growth hormone transgenic (TG) rats, which are characterized by severe hyperphagia and obesity. To gain more insight into the effects on physical activity to food consumption and obesity,...

  16. Educating children and families about growth hormone deficiency and its management: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jacqueline; Whitehead, Amanda; Walker, Jenny

    2016-02-01

    The management of growth hormone deficiency is long term. Children may be diagnosed at pre-school age meaning relationships with the paediatric endocrine team may last more than 15 years. The education role of the paediatric endocrine nurse specialist is essential in working in partnership with families over a long period of time. Children and young people have changing needs for information to help them understand their condition and growth hormone deficiency treatment as they grow up. Developing positive working relationships with parents, children and young people enables their developmental needs and the context in which they live their lives to be central to any educational planning for them. Addressing developmental needs when providing information on growth hormone deficiency to children and young people reinforces the need for education to be an ongoing process and not a one-off event. This is part one of a two-part article. The second part will be published in the March issue of Nursing Children and Young People and it focuses on educating children, young people and their parents about the condition, and includes case studies.

  17. Dental caries and vitamin D3 in children with growth hormone deficiency: A STROBE compliant study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Dorota; Krzewska, Aleksandra; Szalewski, Leszek; Pietryka-Michałowska, Elżbieta; Szalewska, Magdalena; Krzewski, Szymon; Pels, Elżbieta; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona

    2018-02-01

    Vitamin D may prevent dental caries. To date, no attempts have been made to examine the correlation between the incidence of caries and the concentrations of vitamin D in children with pituitary growth hormone deficiency.The study observed patients of the Department of Endocrinology and Diabetology of the University Paediatric Hospital of the Medical University of Lublin treated with human recombinant growth hormone for pituitary growth hormone deficiency (GHD). The study was conducted between October 2014 and June 2015. The study group consisted of 121 children and adolescents (6-17 years old), including 56 children from rural areas and 65 children from urban areas. The study group was stratified by area of residence.In our study, the increase in vitamin D3 [25(OH)D] levels reduced the D component by 0.66 per each 10 ng/mL of vitamin D3 concentration. The percentage of children with active caries in rural areas is 91.07% (n = 51), which is significantly higher than the percentage of children with active caries in urban areas (81.54%, n = 53).To date, information regarding the potential possibility of reducing the incidence of dental caries by means of increasing the levels of vitamin D was sidelined by paediatricians and dentists alike. Therefore, this aspect of caries prevention should be highlighted.

  18. Educating children and families about growth hormone deficiency and its management: part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Jacqueline; Whitehead, Amanda; Walker, Jenny

    2016-03-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is a long-term condition, therefore creating ongoing partnerships with families is a fundamental part of the role of a paediatric endocrine nurse specialist (PENS). Teaching children, young people and their families about GHD and exploring what it means to them and how they can manage their ongoing treatment is central to building positive relationships. Educating children about the management of their growth hormone treatment (GHT) is an ongoing process and professionals must respond to the changing needs for that information children may have as they grow and develop. Long-term relationships with families are strengthened by recognising and respecting the developing expertise of families as they gain confidence and competence to manage GHT. This article is the second of two parts. Part one was published in the February issue of Nursing Children and Young People and covered an overview of growth hormone, causes and clinical presentation of GHD, development and availability of GHT and the role of the PENS in building partnerships with parents. The focus of this article is the education role of the PENS and the importance of providing information that is appropriate to the child or young person's developmental age.

  19. Growth hormone therapy in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy: preliminary observations of a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, V J; Zechariah, T U; George, P; Jonathan, V

    1999-01-01

    The effects of growth hormone in six patients with dilated cardiomyopathy were evaluated in this study. The patients were studied at baseline, after six months of therapy and at six months after stopping the treatment. They were given two units of growth hormone on alternate days by subcutaneous injection. There was marked improvement in the symptomatic class with treatment (NYHA class 3.4 +/- 0.5 vs 2 +/- 0; p = 0.04). There was also significant increase in the inteventricular septal wall thickness (6.4 +/- 1.5 mm vs 10.4 +/- 0.5 mm; p = 0.04). Left ventricular posterior wall thickness also increased significantly (7.2 +/- 1.3 mm vs 10.2 +/- 0.8 mm; p = 0.04). These changes were partially reversed by the end of six months of treatment but the symptomatic status of these patients was better than before. The administration of growth hormone for six months in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy results in significant improvement in the symptomatic class, which could be considered as an additional line of management in patients with heart failure in dilated cardiomyopathy.

  20. Interaction between ractopamine and growth hormone in the metabolism of hypophysectomized female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Sacramento Barros

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ractopamine and growth hormone have been extensively studied due to their ability to generate a better partition of nutrients in the body, providing an increased muscle protein synthesis and lipolysis in adipose tissue. Thus, this article aims to check the effects of interaction between these substances on the metabolism of hypophysectomized female rats, and their individual effects on the body composition of these animals. Thirty Fisher rats were distributed into five treatments, one of them was a normal control group, one was a hypophysectomized control group, and the other three were hypophysectomized animal groups treated with ractopamine (80 mg/kg/day, with growth hormone (4 mg/kg/day, and with a combination of them, all with six replicates in each group. The association between these substances provided a higher percentage of protein and decreased ether extract in the animals’ carcass. Furthermore, it caused an increase in water intake, in urine production, and decreased relative weight of kidneys, liver, and spleen when compared to the control group. The use of growth hormone provided a higher final weight gain and feeding effectiveness, lower heart weight and increased blood glucose level, and the use of ractopamine resulted in a higher lung weight, increased total cholesterol and IGF-1, and decreased peptide C concentration.

  1. Netnography of Female Use of the Synthetic Growth Hormone CJC-1295: Pulses and Potions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Hearne, Evelyn

    2016-01-02

    Communal online folk pharmacology fuels the drive for short cuts in attaining muscle enhancement, fat loss, and youthful skin. The study used "netnography" to explore female use of CJC-1295, a synthetic growth hormone analogue from the perspectives contained in Internet forum activity. A systematic Internet search was conducted using variation of the term "CJC-1295"; and combined with "forum." Ninety-six hits related to bodybuilding websites where CJC-1295 was mentioned. Following application of exclusion criteria to confine to female use and evidence of forum activity, 9 sites remained. These were searched internally for reference to CJC-1295. Twenty-three discussion threads relating to female use of CJC-1295 formed the end data set, and analyzed using the Empirical Phenomenological Psychological method. Forum users appeared well versed and experienced in the poly use of performance and image drug supplementation. Choice to use CJC-1295 centered on weight loss, muscle enhancement, youthful skin, improved sleep, and injury healing. Concerns were described relating to female consequences of use given gender variations in growth hormone pulses affecting estimation of dosage, cycling, and long-term consequences. Public health interventions should consider female self-medicating use of synthetic growth hormone within a repertoire of product supplementation, and related adverse health consequences.

  2. Amelioration of Hypophosphatemic Rickets and Osteoporosis With Pamidronate and Growth Hormone in Lowe Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Woei Hou

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe, an X-linked multisystem disorder, was diagnosed in a male patient who presented with typical abnormalities of the eyes, kidneys and nervous system. Besides congenital cataracts, renal tubular dysfunction and psychomotor retardation, the patient had also suffered from profound failure to thrive, growth hormone deficiency, severe osteoporosis with hypophosphatemic rickets, and progressive renal dysfunction since early childhood, which were attributed to the metabolic derangements following Fanconi syndrome. Direct sequencing of the OCRL1 gene (responsible for the oculocerebrorenal syndrome of Lowe revealed a de novo c.2282_2283insT in exon 20, which resulted in premature termination of translation (D762X. After monthly intravenous administration of pamidronate since the age of 17.8 years, his urine creatinine clearance and tubular resorption of phosphate increased slightly and bone mineral density was much improved (Z score increased from −7.3 to −3.3 without deterioration of renal function. Simultaneous growth hormone therapy enhanced the positive response. The beneficial osseous and renal effects of the bisphosphonate, along with growth hormone treatment in Lowe syndrome with hypophosphatemia, may be related to reduced renal calcium and phosphate excretion.

  3. Growth hormone deficiency and central hypogonadism in retired professional football players

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    Gábor László Kovács

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the possible impact of multiple mild head traumas sustained during a long-term football career on the presence of central hypogonadism and growth hormone (GH deficiency. Methods: Twenty-seven retired, former professional male football players were investigated. All subjects were assessed for serum levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1, luteinizing hormone (LH and total testosterone (TT. Quality of life was quantified using the Assessment of Growth Hormone Deficiency in Adults (QoL-AGHDA questionnaire. Results: Subjects had a median age of 48.0 (42.0 – 53.0 years and a median football career of 29.0 years (22.0 – 32.0. One subject had central hypogonadism and none had growth hormone deficiency. Nine subjects reported sport-related head injuries. We found a negative correlation between sport-related head injuries and serum LH (p = -0.459, P = 0.016. Subjects with a history of sport-related head injury had a median LH of 3.3 U/L (2.7 – 3.6, while those without a history of sport-related head injury had a median LH of 4.1 (U/L (3.6 – 5.7, P = 0.017. However, there were no differences in other hormones between the two groups. Moreover, we did not find any correlation between the duration of the player’s career nor their field position with hormone profiles or QoL-AGHDA. Conclusion: Although retired footfall players with a history of sport-related head injury had lower LH levels, we did not find strong evidence of an increased prevalence of central hypogonadism or GH deficiency in these patients. Our results suggest that a long-term football career, which includes headings and repetitive mild head traumas, does not damage the most vulnerable anterior pituitary cells.

  4. Hormone and Seed-Specific Regulation of Pea Fruit Growth1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Jocelyn A.; van Huizen, Rika; Reinecke, Dennis M.

    2002-01-01

    Growth of young pea (Pisum sativum) fruit (pericarp) requires developing seeds or, in the absence of seeds, treatment with gibberellin (GA) or auxin (4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid). This study examined the role of seeds and hormones in the regulation of cell division and elongation in early pea fruit development. Profiling histone H2A and γ-tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP) gene expression during early fruit development identified the relative contributions of cell division and elongation to fruit growth, whereas histological studies identified specific zones of cell division and elongation in exocarp, mesocarp, and endocarp tissues. Molecular and histological studies showed that maximal cell division was from −2 to 2 d after anthesis (DAA) and elongation from 2 to 5 DAA in pea pericarp. Maximal increase in pericarp γ-TIP message level preceded the maximal rate of fruit growth and, in general, γ-TIP mRNA level was useful as a qualitative marker for expanding tissue, but not as a quantitative marker for cell expansion. Seed removal resulted in rapid decreases in pericarp growth and in γ-TIP and histone H2A message levels. In general, GA and 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid maintained these processes in deseeded pericarp similarly to pericarps with seeds, and both hormones were required to obtain mesocarp cell sizes equivalent to intact fruit. However, GA treatment to deseeded pericarps resulted in elevated levels of γ-TIP mRNA (6 and 7 DAA) when pericarp growth and cell enlargement were minimal. Our data support the theory that cell division and elongation are developmentally regulated during early pea fruit growth and are maintained by the hormonal interaction of GA and auxin. PMID:11950986

  5. Veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in animal products : annual report 2010 of the National Reference Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Sterk, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    This report of the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for residues of veterinary drugs in products of animal origin according to 96/23/EC describes the activities employed in 2010. The main tasks of the NRL are the communication with Routine Field Laboratories (RFL), the preparation of quality

  6. Hormonal regulation of the growth of leaves and inflorescence stalk in Muscari armeniacum Leichtl.

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    Marian Saniewski

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available It is known that chilling of Muscari bulbs is necessary for the growth of the inflorescence stalk and flowering, but not for the growth of leaves. Gibberellic acid (GA accelerated stem growth and flowering in chilled Muscari bulbs. In the present experiment it was shown that in unchilled derooted Muscari bulbs the growth of leaves, but not the growth of the inflorescence stalk, was observed when bulbs were stored in water, GA at a concentration of 50 and 100 mg/L, benzyladenine (BA at a concentration of 25 and 50 mg/L, or a mixture of GA+BA (50+25 mg/L, but abscisic acid (ABA at a concentration of 10 mg/L greatly inhibited the growth of leaves. In chilled derooted Muscari bulbs the growth of leaves and inflorescence stalk was observed when bulbs were stored in water or GA, but BA and GA+BA treatments totally inhibited the growth of the inflorescence stalk without an effect on the growth of leaves. These results clearly showed that the growth of leaves and inflorescence stalk in Muscari bulbs are controlled by plant growth regulators in different ways. ABA totally inhibited the growth of leaves and inflorescence stalk in chilled derooted Muscari bulbs. It was shown that after the excision of the inflorescence bud in cultivated chilled Muscari bulbs, the inflorescence stalk died, but application of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA 0.5% in the place of the removed inflorescence bud induced the growth of the inflorescence stalk. IAA applied under the inflorescence bud inhibited the development of flowers (flower-bud blasting and induced the growth of the inflorescence stalk below the treatment site. These results are discussed with reference to hormonal regulation of stem (stalk growth in tulip, narcissus, hyacinth, and Hippeastrum.

  7. Comparison of response to 2-years’ growth hormone treatment in children with isolated growth hormone deficiency, born small for gestational age, idiopathic short stature, or multiple pituitary hormone deficiency: combined results from two large observational studies

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    Lee Peter A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared the response to growth hormone (GH treatment between indications such as isolated growth hormone deficiency (IGHD, born small for gestational age (SGA, idiopathic short stature (ISS, and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD. The aim of this analysis of data, collected from two large ongoing observational outcome studies, was to evaluate growth and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I response data for children of short stature with IGHD, MPHD, SGA, or ISS following two years of treatment with the recombinant GH product Norditropin® (Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark. Methods Analysis of auxologic data from two ongoing prospective observational studies, NordiNet® International Outcomes Study (NordiNet® IOS and NovoNet®/American Norditropin® Studies: Web-enabled Research (ANSWER Program®. Results 4,582 children aged p = 0.047; p  0.001 vs. IGHD, respectively. Height gain was comparable between IGHD and MPHD. In pre-pubertal children vs. total population, height SDS change after two years was: IGHD, +1.24 vs. +0.97; SGA, +1.17 vs. +1.03; ISS, +1.04 vs. +0.84; and MPHD, +1.16 vs. +0.99 (all p  Conclusions After two years’ GH treatment, change in height SDS was greater in SGA and less in ISS, compared with IGHD; the discrepancy in responses may be due to the disease nature or confounders (i.e. age. Height SDS increase was greatest in pre-pubertal children, supporting early treatment initiation to optimize growth outcomes.

  8. Adult growth hormone deficiency treatment with a combination of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 resulting in elevated sustainable insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 plasma levels: a case report

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    Madigan Margaret

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Adult Growth hormone Deficiency is a well known phenomenon effecting both males and females. Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency is marked by a number of neuropsychiatric, cognitive performance, cardiac, metabolic, muscular, and bone symptoms and clinical features. There is no known standardized acceptable therapeutic modality to treat this condition. A recent meta-analysis found that after 16 years of Growth Hormone replacement therapy a large proportion of the patients still had Growth Hormone associated symptoms especially related to executive functioning. A major goal is to increase plasma levels of both insulin-like growth factor (insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3. Case Presentation We report a case of a 45-year-old caucasian woman with early ovarian failure for 2 years and amenorrhea since the age of 43, who presented with Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency and an IGF-1 of 126 ng/mL. Since her insulin-like growth factor-1 was lowest at 81 ng/mL, she was started on insulin-like growth factor-1 Increlex at 0.2 mg at bedtime, which immediately raised her insulin-like growth factor-1 levels to 130 ng/mL within 1 month, and 193 ng/mL, 249 ng/mL, and 357 ng/mL, after 3, 4, and 5 months, respectively, thereafter. Her insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 continued to decrease. It was at this point when we added back the Growth Hormone and increased her Increlex dosage to 1.3 - 1.5 mg that her insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 began to increase. Conclusion It appears that in some patients with Adult Growth Hormone Deficiency, insulin-like growth factor-1 elevation is resistant to direct Growth Hormone treatment. Furthermore, the binding protein may not rise with insulin-like growth factor-1. However, a combination of Growth Hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 treatment may be a solution.

  9. Klotho and the Growth Hormone/Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 Axis: Novel Insights into Complex Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinek, T; Modan-Moses, D

    2016-01-01

    The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis is pivotal for many metabolic functions, including proper development and growth of bones, skeletal muscles, and adipose tissue. Defects in the axis' activity during childhood result in growth abnormalities, while increased secretion of GH from the pituitary results in acromegaly. In order to keep narrow physiologic concentration, GH and IGF-1 secretion and activity are tightly regulated by hypothalamic, pituitary, endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors. Klotho was first discovered as an aging-suppressor gene. Mice that do not express klotho die prematurely with multiple symptoms of aging, several of them are also characteristic of decreased GH/IGF-1 axis activity. Klotho is highly expressed in the brain, the kidney, and parathyroid and pituitary glands, but can also serve as a circulating hormone by its shedding, forming soluble klotho that can be detected in blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and urine. Several lines of evidence suggest an association between klotho levels and activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis: the GH-secreting cells in the anterior pituitary of klotho-deficient mice are hypotrophic; klotho levels are altered in subjects with pathologies of the GH/IGF-1 axis; and accumulating data indicate that klotho is a direct regulator of GH secretion. Thus, klotho seems to be a new player in the intricate regulation of the GH/IGF-1 axis. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Challenges in the Diagnosis and Management of Growth Hormone Deficiency in India

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    Mathew John

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, every year approximately 150,000 children are referred with short stature (SS based on a cut-off of fifth percentile. The most important endocrine and treatable cause of SS is growth hormone deficiency (GHD. The lack of reliable data on the prevalence of GHD in India limits estimation of the magnitude of this problem. The diagnosis and treatment of GHD are hurdled with various challenges, restricting the availability of growth hormone (GH therapy to only a very limited segment of the children in India. This review will firstly summarize the gaps and challenges in diagnosis and treatment of GHD based on literature analysis. Subsequently, it presents suggestions from the members at advisory board meetings to overcome these challenges. The advisory board suggested that early initiation of the therapy could better the chances of achieving final adult height within the normal range for the population. Education and awareness about growth disorders among parents, regular training for physicians, and more emphasis on using the Indian growth charts for growth monitoring would help improve the diagnosis and treatment of children with GHD. Availability of an easy-to-use therapy delivery system could also be beneficial in improving adherence and achieving satisfactory outcomes.

  11. A female survivor of childhood medulloblastoma presenting with growth-hormone-induced edema and inflammatory lesions: a case report

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    Biassoni Veronica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The improved survival of children with brain tumors has increased concerns about treatment-related sequelae. Growth hormone deficiency is frequently observed after craniospinal irradiation for medulloblastoma. It has been widely reported that growth hormone replacement therapy does not increase the risk of second tumors, but there are reports in the literature of growth hormone, and its downstream mediator insulin-like Growth Factor 1, having an important proinflammatory action. There are few reports, however, on the "in-vivo" induction of edema and symptomatic inflammatory lesions during replacement therapy. Case presentation We report the case of a 7-year-old girl treated for metastatic medulloblastoma who developed growth hormone deficiency 2 years after oncological treatment. Three months after replacement therapy, magnetic resonance imaging showed exacerbation of her brain edema, which was already present after oncological treatment. We consequently suspended the growth hormone until a new magnetic resonance image obtained 3 months later documented a reduction of the inflammatory areas. We then re-introduced somatotropin at lower doses with no further increase in brain edema in subsequent radiological controls. Conclusion This case and its iconography suggest a strong association between growth hormone administration and the exacerbation of inflammatory reactions within the tumor bed. Replacement therapy should be carefully monitored in this particular subset of patients.

  12. Growth hormone-binding proteins in high-speed cytosols of multiple tissues of the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herington, A C; Ymer, S; Roupas, P; Stevenson, J

    1986-04-11

    Soluble, specific binding protein(s) for growth hormone (GH) have been identified and partially characterized in high-speed cytosolic preparations from a number of rabbit tissues. The binding of 125I-labelled human GH to proteins in liver, heart, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and kidney cytosols was dependent on time and cytosolic protein concentration. By Scatchard analysis, the binding affinities (KA: (2-7) X 10(9) M-1) were somewhat higher than those generally reported for membrane GH receptors. The binding proteins had a greater specificity for somatotrophic hormones than lactogenic hormones, although the kidney appeared to have, in addition, a lactogen-binding protein. By gel filtration, the Mr of the cytosolic GH-binding protein was approximately 100 000 in all tissues. None of the binding proteins was detectable by the poly(ethylene glycol) precipitation method used widely for soluble hormone receptors. The cytosolic GH-binding proteins also cross-reacted with a monoclonal antibody to the rabbit liver membrane GH receptor. These results indicate the ubiquitous presence of apparently naturally soluble GH-binding proteins in the cytosolic fractions of several tissues in the rabbit. Of great interest is their presence in muscle, where GH receptors or binding proteins have not previously been detected, despite muscle being recognized as a classical GH target tissue.

  13. Editorial Foreword: Comments on "Growth hormone (GH-releasing hormone and GH secretagogues in normal aging" || FREE PAPER ||

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    Richard F Walker

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Richard F WalkerInternational Society for Applied Research in Aging (SARAThis issue of Clinical Interventions in Aging contains a quite interesting and informative article about a topic that is popular and also controversial among practitioners of age-management medicine. Appropriate to that controversy, Drs Hersch and Merriam (2008 have asked the question in the title of their paper, does the use of growth hormone secretagogues in age management medicine hold the promise of a fountain of youth, or that of a pool of Tantalus? While there is universal understanding of the fountain imagery, the meaning of the pool is perhaps less obvious. It derives, of course, from the Greek myth of Tantalus, who had both a hidden, divine sire and a mortal one. As the son of Zeus, he was uniquely favored among mortals and was invited to share the food of the gods. However, driven by pride, he shared the divine ambrosia with other mortals, and thus aroused the ire of the gods. As punishment, he was made to stand chin-deep in water with a variety of sweet-smelling and delicious fruit dangling just over his head. However, whenever he tried to drink or eat, the water would magically recede or the fruit would miraculously be lifted just out of his reach. Thus, it is that torment, through which something seems to be offered only to be withdrawn again, that has been called “tantalizing” in memory of its best known victim.

  14. Beneficial Effects of Long-Term Growth Hormone Treatment on Adaptive Functioning in Infants With Prader-Willi Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Sin T; Festen, Dederieke A M; Tummers-de Lind van Wijngaarden, Roderick F A; Collin, Philippe J L; Hokken-Koelega, Anita C S

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of growth hormone treatment on adaptive functioning in children with Prader-Willi syndrome. Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale (VABS) was assessed during a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and after 7 years of growth hormone treatment. In the RCT, 75 children (42 infants and 33 prepubertal children) with Prader-Willi syndrome were included. Subsequently, 53 children were treated with long-term growth hormone. Our study demonstrates a marked delay in adaptive functioning in infants and children with Prader-Willi syndrome, which was associated with older age and lower intelligence. Results of the repeated measurements show that the earlier growth hormone treatment was started during infancy, the better the adaptive skills were on the long-term.

  15. Maternal and fetal placental growth hormone and IGF axis in type 1 diabetic pregnancy.

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    Mary F Higgins

    Full Text Available AIM: Placental growth hormone (PGH is a major growth hormone in pregnancy and acts with Insulin Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I and Insulin Like Growth Hormone Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP3. The aim of this study was to investigate PGH, IGF-I and IGFBP3 in non-diabetic (ND compared to Type 1 Diabetic (T1DM pregnancies. METHODS: This is a prospective study. Maternal samples were obtained from 25 ND and 25 T1DM mothers at 36 weeks gestation. Cord blood was obtained after delivery. PGH, IGF-I and IGFBP3 were measured using ELISA. RESULTS: There was no difference in delivery type, gender of infants or birth weight between groups. In T1DM, maternal PGH significantly correlated with ultrasound estimated fetal weight (r = 0.4, p = 0.02, birth weight (r = 0.51, p<0.05 and birth weight centile (r = 0.41, p = 0.03 PGH did not correlate with HbA1c. Maternal IGF-I was lower in T1DM (p = 0.03. Maternal and fetal serum IGFBP3 was higher in T1DM. Maternal third trimester T1DM serum had a significant band at 16 kD on western blot, which was not present in ND. CONCLUSION: Maternal T1DM PGH correlated with both antenatal fetal weight and birth weight, suggesting a significant role for PGH in growth in diabetic pregnancy. IGFBP3 is significantly increased in maternal and fetal serum in T1DM pregnancies compared to ND controls, which was explained by increased proteolysis in maternal but not fetal serum. These results suggest that the normal PGH-IGF-I-IGFBP3 axis in pregnancy is abnormal in T1DM pregnancies, which are at higher risk of macrosomia.

  16. Maternal and Fetal Placental Growth Hormone and IGF Axis in Type 1 Diabetic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Mary F.; Russell, Noirin E.; Crossey, Paul A.; Nyhan, Kristine C.; Brazil, Derek P.; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Placental growth hormone (PGH) is a major growth hormone in pregnancy and acts with Insulin Like Growth Factor I (IGF-I) and Insulin Like Growth Hormone Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP3). The aim of this study was to investigate PGH, IGF-I and IGFBP3 in non-diabetic (ND) compared to Type 1 Diabetic (T1DM) pregnancies. Methods This is a prospective study. Maternal samples were obtained from 25 ND and 25 T1DM mothers at 36 weeks gestation. Cord blood was obtained after delivery. PGH, IGF-I and IGFBP3 were measured using ELISA. Results There was no difference in delivery type, gender of infants or birth weight between groups. In T1DM, maternal PGH significantly correlated with ultrasound estimated fetal weight (r = 0.4, p = 0.02), birth weight (r = 0.51, p<0.05) and birth weight centile (r = 0.41, p = 0.03) PGH did not correlate with HbA1c. Maternal IGF-I was lower in T1DM (p = 0.03). Maternal and fetal serum IGFBP3 was higher in T1DM. Maternal third trimester T1DM serum had a significant band at 16 kD on western blot, which was not present in ND. Conclusion Maternal T1DM PGH correlated with both antenatal fetal weight and birth weight, suggesting a significant role for PGH in growth in diabetic pregnancy. IGFBP3 is significantly increased in maternal and fetal serum in T1DM pregnancies compared to ND controls, which was explained by increased proteolysis in maternal but not fetal serum. These results suggest that the normal PGH-IGF-I-IGFBP3 axis in pregnancy is abnormal in T1DM pregnancies, which are at higher risk of macrosomia. PMID:22363400

  17. The Impact of Growth Hormone Therapy on the Apoptosis Assessment in CD34+ Hematopoietic Cells from Children with Growth Hormone Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, Miłosz Piotr; Stecewicz, Iwona; Piecyk, Katarzyna; Paczkowska, Edyta; Rogińska, Dorota; Sobuś, Anna; Łuczkowska, Karolina; Pius-Sadowska, Ewa; Gawrych, Elżbieta; Petriczko, Elżbieta; Walczak, Mieczysław; Machaliński, Bogusław

    2017-01-07

    Growth hormone (GH) modulates hematopoietic cell homeostasis and is associated with apoptosis control, but with limited mechanistic insights. Aim of the study was to determine whether GH therapeutic supplementation (GH-TS) could affect apoptosis of CD34+ cells enriched in hematopoietic progenitor cells of GH deficient (GHD) children. CD34+ cells from peripheral blood of 40 GHD children were collected before and in 3rd and 6th month of GH-TS and compared to 60 controls adjusted for bone age, sex, and pubertal development. Next, apoptosis assessment via different molecular techniques was performed. Finally, to comprehensively characterize apoptosis process, global gene expression profile was determined using genome-wide RNA microarray technology. Results showed that GH-TS significantly reduced spontaneous apoptosis in CD34+ cells (p human GH has a direct anti-apoptotic activity in hematopoietic CD34+ cells derived from GHD subjects in course of GH-TS.

  18. Alterations of growth, blood biochemical components and hormone profiles by intensified nutrition in growth retarded Japanese Black cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Daisaku; Ikeda, Hiroki; Kazamatsuri, Hiroyuki; Ando, Takaaki; Ohtsuka, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Oikawa, Masaaki; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

    2010-09-01

    In order to determine the clinical conditions of Japanese Black (JB) cattle with growth retardation, we determined the changes of body growth, blood profiles of metabolism and hormones caused by intensified nutrition (sufficient total digestible nutrients and digestible crude protein for a target daily gain set at 1.2-1.3 kg/day) in three cattle. The daily gain (DG) was increased during the intensified period (Intense) compared with the preparation period (Pre), but the DG in the Intense period was 36-66% of the target DG. Serum albumin, total cholesterol, insulin and IGF-1 increased during the Intense period compared with the Pre period. Serum GH showed high levels in the Pre period, whereas it showed lower levels in the Intense period. These results suggested that the present growth retarded cattle had abnormalities in their metabolic systems and lacked nutrient absorption.

  19. Gingival fibromatosis and growth hormone deficiency syndrome--report of a rare case and review of literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Radhakrishnan S; Rajan P

    2003-01-01

    Oikarinen et al in 1989 reported a syndrome associated with generalized gingival fibromatosis and growth hormone deficiency. This is a case report of a 15-year-old female patient who presented to the Government Dental College, Chennai with generalized gingival fibromatosis and growth hormone deficiency. Interestingly, the histopathology of the excised gingival overgrowth showed dense collagenous connective tissue in which were strewn calcified structures that resembled cementum. This syndrome...

  20. CONSUMER DEMAND FOR MANDATORY LABELING OF BEEF FROM CATTLE ADMINISTERED GROWTH HORMONES OR FED GENETICALLY MODIFIED CORN

    OpenAIRE

    Jayson L Lusk; John A. Fox

    2002-01-01

    This study estimates the value of policies that would mandate labeling of beef from cattle produced with growth hormones or fed genetically modified corn. At no cost, 85 percent of resondents desired mandatory labeling of beef produced with growth hormones and 64 percent of respondents preferred mandatory labeling of beef fed genetically modified corn. Estimates suggest that consumers would be willing to pay 17.0 percent and 10.6 percent higher prices for beef on average to obtain information...