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Sample records for veterinary drug substances

  1. Target analysis and retrospective screening of veterinary drugs, ergot alkaloids, plant toxins and other undesirable substances in feed using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, Nuria; Pastor, Agustín; Yusà, Vicent

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive strategy combining a quantitative method for 77 banned veterinary drugs, mycotoxins, ergot alkaloids and plant toxins, and a post-target screening for 425 substances including pesticides and environmental contaminants in feed were developed using a QuEChERS-based extraction and an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRMS). The quantitative method was validated after previous statistical optimisation of the main parameters governing ionisation, and presented recoveries ranging, in general, from 80 to 120%, with a precision in terms of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) lower than 20%. The full-scan accurate mass data were acquired with a resolving power of 50000 FWHM and a mass accuracy lower than 5ppm. The method LOQ was lower than 12.5µgkg(-1) for the majority of the veterinary drugs and plant toxins and 20µgkg(-1) for ergot alkaloids. For post-target screening a customised theoretical database including the exact mass, the polarity of acquisition and the expected adducts was built and used for post-run retrospective screening. The analytical strategy was applied to 32 feed samples collected from farms of the Valencia Region (Spain). Florfenicol, zearalenone and atropine were identified and quantified at concentrations around 10µgkg(-1). In the post-target screening of the real samples, Sulfadiazine, Thrimetoprin and Pirimiphosmethyl were tentatively identified. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 21 CFR 201.105 - Veterinary drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to the...

  3. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L

    2017-08-12

    For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Residues of veterinary drugs in milk in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefani Faro de Novaes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Veterinary drugs are used in dairy cattle management mainly for therapy and prophylaxis of diseases, which chemicals may leave residues in milk. Human exposure and the unintentional consumption of residues of drugs can lead to side effects and development of resistant bacteria, representing a considerable concern to consumer health. This paper presents the occurrence of residues of veterinary drugs in milk from 2009 to 2011 in Brazil, monitored by the Official Program for Analysis of Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods of Animal Origin. A total of 961 samples were collected in the retail and evaluated for the main β-lactams, tetracyclines, amphenicol, aminoglycosides, quinolones, sulfonamides and avermectins. Residues of veterinary drugs did not exceed maximum residue limit (MRL; although, there is a considerable use of critically/highly important antimicrobials and avermectins in dairy cows, especially quinolones and tetracyclines. Doxycycline (9% and abamectin (1.6% were detected, even though these substances are not intended to be used in milk producing animals for human consumption. Norfloxacin (15% was observed; although, there are no MRL established, consequently, no residue level should have been detected. No residues of streptomycin, chloramphenicol and β-lactams were confirmed. Milk in Brazil contains low levels of veterinary drugs so that toxicological risk regarding milk consumption could not be considered as a public health concern. However, due to the nature of the samples, which correspond to milk from several farms, it could occur a dilution effect. The absence of MRL established for norfloxacin prevents suitable interpretation of the findings and makes tough the control of these chemical residues in food. Detection of some antimicrobials and avermectins may be linked to extra-label use or noncompliance withdrawal periods suggesting that good veterinary practices are not being followed, since residues of unauthorized

  5. Distribution of veterinary drug residues among muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which muscle should be sampled for analysis. The goal of this research was to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type. In this study, penicillin G (Pen G) d...

  6. Antimicrobial drug use in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Paul S; Apley, Michael D; Besser, Thomas E; Burney, Derek P; Fedorka-Cray, Paula J; Papich, Mark G; Traub-Dargatz, Josie L; Weese, J Scott

    2005-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of antimicrobial resistance and the need for veterinarians to aid in efforts for maintaining the usefulness of antimicrobial drugs in animals and humans, the Board of Regents of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine charged a special committee with responsibility for drafting this position statement regarding antimicrobial drug use in veterinary medicine. The Committee believes that veterinarians are obligated to balance the well-being of animals under their care with the protection of other animals and public health. Therefore, if an animal's medical condition can be reasonably expected to improve as a result of treatment with antimicrobial drugs, and the animal is under a veterinarian's care with an appropriate veterinarian-client-patient relationship, veterinarians have an obligation to offer antimicrobial treatment as a therapeutic option. Veterinarians also have an obligation to actively promote disease prevention efforts, to treat as conservatively as possible, and to explain the potential consequences associated with antimicrobial treatment to animal owners and managers, including the possibility of promoting selection of resistant bacteria. However, the consequences of losing usefulness of an antimicrobial drug that is used as a last resort in humans or animals with resistant bacterial infections might be unacceptable from a public or population health perspective. Veterinarians could therefore face the difficult choice of treating animals with a drug that is less likely to be successful, possibly resulting in prolonged or exacerbated morbidity, to protect the good of society. The Committee recommends that voluntary actions be taken by the veterinary profession to promote conservative use of antimicrobial drugs to minimize the potential adverse effects on animal or human health. The veterinary profession must work to educate all veterinarians about issues related to conservative antimicrobial drug use and

  7. Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis TOUTAIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Given that: (1 the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2 the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR of animal origin; (3 alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed green antibiotics, having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes.We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a turnstile exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s. For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem.

  8. Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs.

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    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Ferran, Aude A; Bousquet-Melou, Alain; Pelligand, Ludovic; Lees, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Given that: (1) the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2) the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of animal origin; (3) alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed "green antibiotics," having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes. We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a "turnstile" exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic, and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s). For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem.

  9. 21 CFR 558.6 - Veterinary feed directive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary feed directive drugs. 558.6 Section 558.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions...

  10. Drug and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Prevention Related News Older Adults Who Drink Alcohol at Risk for Drug Interactions Monday, November 23, 2015 Join ... the age of 65 years, the amount of alcohol considered to increase health risks is either more than 7 standard drinks per ...

  11. Prudent Use of Veterinary Drugs: Impact on Safe Animal Products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like any other therapeutic compounds, veterinary drugs are used to alleviate diseases in animals as either therapeutic or prophylactic compounds for specific disease entities. They can also be used as production aids in food producing animals to increase market sale of these animals whereby the producers save on the ...

  12. Assessment of veterinary drug use and determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and January 2010 to assess veterinary drug usage by broiler chicken farmers and to determine antimicrobial residues in broiler meat in Urban district, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Fifty five smallholder farmers were interviewed on types of antimicrobials, reasons for use, ...

  13. Agricultural pesticides and veterinary substances in Uruguayan beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet, Jorge; Campá, Juan Pablo; Grajales, Mauricio; Lhéritier, Christophe; Gómez Pajuelo, Antonio; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas

    2017-06-01

    Over the last decade, Uruguay has expanded and intensified its rainfed crop production. This process has affected beekeeping in several ways: for example, by reducing the space available. This has increased the density of apiaries, the risk of varroosis and acaricide use. Additionally, the dominance of no-tillage crops has increased the frequencies of application and of loads of pesticides in regions where such crops share the land with beekeeping and honey production. Therefore, the exposure of bees to xenobiotics (agricultural pesticides and veterinary products) has increased in line with pollution of hives and their products. To document pollution from hive exposure to pesticides, we surveyed the presence of 30 xenobiotics normally used in Uruguay, in recycled beeswax (RB) and in honey cappings (HC) from the main Uruguayan beekeeping regions. There was contamination of all the analyzed samples (RB and HC) with the herbicide atrazine at a range of 1-2 ng g-1. At least three or four additional xenobiotics were detected: insecticides (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and thiacloprid); fungicides (azoxystrobin and tebuconazole); and veterinary products (coumaphos, ethion, and tau-fluvalinate). The frequency of detection of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and coumaphos in RB samples was higher than in those of HC. Moreover, the concentrations of azoxystrobin, coumaphos, and tebuconazole in RB samples were higher than in HC samples. Therefore, we suggest the use of HC to produce recycled printed beeswax films for use in hives to minimize pollution transfer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Health concerns and management of select veterinary drug residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baynes, Ronald E; Dedonder, Keith; Kissell, Lindsey; Mzyk, Danielle; Marmulak, Tara; Smith, Geof; Tell, Lisa; Gehring, Ronette; Davis, Jennifer; Riviere, Jim E

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to review the potential adverse health effects in humans if exposed to residues of selected veterinary drugs used in food-producing animals. Our other objectives are to briefly inform the reader of why many of these drugs are or were approved for use in livestock production and how drug residues can be mitigated for these drugs. The selected drugs include several antimicrobials, beta agonists, and phenylbutazone. The antimicrobials continue to be of regulatory concern not only because of their acute adverse effects but also because their use as growth promoters have been linked to antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, nitroimidazoles and arsenicals are no longer approved for use in food animals in most jurisdictions. In recent years, the risk assessment and risk management of beta agonists, have been the focus of national and international agencies and this manuscript attempts to review the pharmacology of these drugs and regulatory challenges. Several of the drugs selected for this review can cause noncancer effects (e.g., penicillins) and others are potential carcinogens (e.g., nitroimidazoles). This review also focuses on how regulatory and independent organizations manage the risk of these veterinary drugs based on data from human health risk assessments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Juvenile Drug Courts and Teen Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Jeffrey A., Ed.; Roman, John, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile justice officials across the United States are embracing a new method of dealing with adolescent substance abuse. Importing a popular innovation from adult courts, state and local governments have started hundreds of specialized drug courts to provide judicial supervision and coordinate substance abuse treatment for drug-involved…

  16. [Toxicological study of three veterinary drugs on Eisenia foetida].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Mengmeng; Xu, Yun; Chen, Haigang; Li, Zhaoli; Sun, Liwei; Xu, Dijin; Kong, Zhiming; Sugiura, Norio

    2005-06-01

    By the methods of acute toxicity test and single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay), this paper evaluated the toxicological effects of three veterinary drugs olaquindox, arsanilic acid and oxytetracycline on earthworm (Eisenia foetida) coelomocytes in vivo. The results of acute toxicity test showed that only the highest dose of olaquidox caused the death of some earthworms, and none of the test drugs had any effects on earthworm at their environmentally relevant concentrations. The comet assay indicated that arsanilic acid had no genotoxicity to earthworm, while olaquindox and oxytetracycline induced significant DNA damage in earthworm coelomocytes (P .01).

  17. Survey of Veterinary Drug Residues in Raw Milk in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Na; Zhen, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in raw milk from Hebei, the second-largest dairy production province in the People's Republic of China. A total of 192 raw milk samples were collected from 64 milk stations in seven districts. Twenty-eight veterinary drug residues were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry based on a China National Standard. Raw milk samples with multiple residues of veterinary drugs were not found in the present study. Residues of four veterinary drugs, penicillin G, sulfacetamide, trimethoprim, and lincomycin, were detected in 12 (6.25%) raw milk samples, with detection ratios of 1.04, 0.52, 3.13, and 1.56%, respectively. All veterinary drug residues detected were under the maximum residue levels as regulated by China, the European Union, the United States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In general, raw milk from Hebei province was considered relatively safe for human consumption because of the low prevalence of veterinary drug residues. However, stringent control measurements for veterinary drug residues in raw milk are required because some veterinary drugs were detected in milk from some areas of Hebei province.

  18. Stability during cooking of anthelmintic veterinary drug residues in beef.

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    Cooper, K M; Whelan, M; Danaher, M; Kennedy, D G

    2011-02-01

    Anthelmintic drugs are widely used for treatment of parasitic worms in livestock, but little is known about the stability of their residues in food under conventional cooking conditions. As part of the European Commission-funded research project ProSafeBeef, cattle were medicated with commercially available anthelmintic preparations, comprising 11 active ingredients (corresponding to 21 marker residues). Incurred meat and liver were cooked by roasting (40 min at 190°C) or shallow frying (muscle 8-12 min, liver 14-19 min) in a domestic kitchen. Raw and cooked tissues and expressed juices were analysed using a novel multi-residue dispersive solid-phase extraction method (QuEChERS) coupled with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. After correction for sample weight changes during cooking, no major losses were observed for residues of oxyclozanide, clorsulon, closantel, ivermectin, albendazole, mebendazole or fenbendazole. However, significant losses were observed for nitroxynil (78% in fried muscle, 96% in roast muscle), levamisole (11% in fried muscle, 42% in fried liver), rafoxanide (17% in fried muscle, 18% in roast muscle) and triclabendazole (23% in fried liver, 47% in roast muscle). Migration of residues from muscle into expressed cooking juices varied between drugs, constituting 0% to 17% (levamisole) of total residues remaining after cooking. With the exception of nitroxynil, residues of anthelmintic drugs were generally resistant to degradation during roasting and shallow frying. Conventional cooking cannot, therefore, be considered a safeguard against ingestion of residues of anthelmintic veterinary drugs in beef.

  19. Immunology-Based Techniques for the Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues in Foods

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    Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

    Veterinary drugs are used in farm animals, via the feed or the drinking water, to prevent the outbreak of diseases or even for the treatment of diseases. However, the growth of animals may be promoted through the use of hormones and antibiotics. Depending on the type of residue and the application and washing conditions, these substances or its metabolites may remain in meat and other foods of animal origin and may cause adverse effects on consumers’ health. This is the main reason why its use is strictly regulated or even banned (case of the European Union) in different countries. Antibiotics typically used for growth promotion include chloramphenicol, nitrofurans, and enrofloxacin but others like sulphonamides, macrolides etc. may also be used (Reig & Toldrá, 2007).

  20. Rapid Methods for detection of Veterinary Drug residues in Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of substances having hormonal or thyreostatic action as well as b-agonists is banned in many countries. However, sometimes forbidden drugs may be added to feeds for illegal administration to farm animals for promoting increased muscle development or increased water retention and thus obtain an economical benefit. The result is a fraudulent overweight of meat but, what is worse, residues of these substances may remain in meat and may pose a real threat to the consumer either through exposure to the residues, transfer of antibiotic resistance or allergy risk. This has exerted a great concern among the meat consumers. The control of the absence of these forbidden substances in animal foods and feeds is regulated in the European Union by Directive 96/23/EC on measures to monitor certain substances and residues in live animals and animal products. Analytical methodology, including criteria for identification and confirmation, for the monitoring of compliance was also given in Decisions 93/256/EEC and 93/257/EEC. More recently, Decision 2002/657/EC provided rules for the analytical methods to be used in testing of official samples. New substances with anabolic properties are being detected year by year increasing the list of forbidden compounds to be tested. Furthermore, the extended practice consisting in the use of “cocktails” (mixtures of low amounts of several substances that exert a synergistic effect to have a similar growth promotion, reduces the margin for an effective analytical detection. Thus, the evolution of the “black market” is making really difficult to have an effective analytical control of the residues of these substances in foods of animal origin. Control laboratories must face an increasing demand of analysis like the growing number of residues to be analysed in different types of samples, the strict guidelines for analytical methodologies according to the latest Directives, the increased costs of such new

  1. Veterinary drug residues in meat: Concerns and rapid methods for detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

    2008-01-01

    The use of substances having hormonal or thyreostatic action as well as β-agonists is banned in the European Union. However, sometimes forbidden drugs may be added to feeds for illegal administration to farm animals for promoting increased muscle development or increased water retention and thus obtain an economical benefit. The result is a fraudulent overweight of meat but, what is worse, residues of these substances may remain in meat and may pose a real threat to the consumer either through exposure to the residues, transfer of antibiotic resistance or allergy risk. This has exerted a great concern among European consumers. The control of the absence of these forbidden substances in animal foods and feeds is regulated in the European Union by Directive96/23/EC on measures to monitor certain substances and residues in live animals and animal products. Analytical methodology, including criteria for identification and confirmation, for the monitoring of compliance was also given in Decisions 93/256/EEC and 93/257/EEC. More recently, Decision 2002/657/EC provided rules for the analytical methods to be used in testing of official samples. A crucial step is the screening of veterinary drug residues in live animals, feeds and animal products in view of the remarkable number of samples and large variety of residues to be analysed. In recent years, different rapid methods having easy performance, high sensitivity and high throughput have been proposed and are being extensively used. These methods as well as other new methods are reviewed in this manuscript.

  2. 78 FR 72841 - List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used To Compound Drug Products in... Administration (FDA or Agency) is withdrawing the proposed rule to list bulk drug substances used in pharmacy... Pharmacopoeia chapter on pharmacy compounding; (II) if such a monograph does not exist, are drug substances that...

  3. Veterinary Drugs and Growth Promoters Residues in Meat and Processed Meats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

    Veterinary drugs, which comprise a large number of different types of substances, are generally intended for therapeutic (to control infectious diseases) and prophylactic (to prevent against infections) purposes in farm animals. Other substances with growth promoting effect may exert antimicrobial effect against the microbial flora in the gut to take maximum profit of nutrients in the feed or by affecting the animal’s metabolism. Most of these substances are orally active and can be administered either in the feed or in the drinking water. Other active hormones are applied in the form of small implants into the subcutaneous tissue of the ears. These are slow release (several weeks or months) devices and the ears are discarded at the slaughter. Growth promoters allow a better efficiency in the feed conversion rate. The net effect is an increased protein deposition, partly due to muscle proteases inhibition (Fiems, Buts, Boucque, Demeyer, & Cottyn, 1990), usually linked to fat utilization (Brockman & Laarveld, 1986). The result is a leaner meat (Lone, 1997) with some toughness derived from the production of connective tissue and collagen crosslinking (Miller, Judge, Diekman, Hudgens, & Aberle, 1989; Miller, Judge, & Schanbacher, 1990). Some recent fraudulent practices, consisting of the use of a kind of “cocktails” or mixtures of several substances like β-agonists and corticosteroids at very low amounts (Monsón et al., 2007), are difficult to detect with modern analytical instrumentation. They try to obtain a synergistic effect for a similar growth promotion with lower probability of detection by official control laboratories (Reig & Toldrá, 2007).

  4. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR 1308.11...

  5. Flexing the PECs: Predicting environmental concentrations of veterinary drugs in Canadian agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Belknap, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. Although veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for nontarget organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution, and potential effects. The Canadian predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECsoil) for new veterinary drug ingredients for use in intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessments. The calculation for the European Medicines Agency PECsoil can be adapted to account for regional animal husbandry and land use practices. Canadian agricultural practices for intensively reared cattle, pigs, and poultry differ substantially from those in the European Union. The development of PECsoil default values and livestock categories representative of typical Canadian animal production methods and nutrient management practices culminates several years of research and an extensive survey and analysis of the scientific literature, Canadian agricultural statistics, national and provincial management recommendations, veterinary product databases, and producers. A PECsoil can be used to rapidly identify new veterinary drugs intended for intensive livestock production that should undergo targeted ecotoxicity and fate testing. The Canadian PECsoil model is readily available, transparent, and requires minimal inputs to generate a screening level environmental assessment for veterinary drugs that can be refined if additional data are available. PECsoil values for a hypothetical veterinary drug dosage regimen are presented and discussed in an international context. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:331-341. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  6. Large-scale cross-species chemogenomic platform proposes a new drug discovery strategy of veterinary drug from herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chao; Yang, Yang; Chen, Xuetong; Wang, Chao; Li, Yan; Zheng, Chunli; Wang, Yonghua

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM) is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.

  7. Large-scale cross-species chemogenomic platform proposes a new drug discovery strategy of veterinary drug from herbal medicines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    Full Text Available Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.

  8. Sample-based reporting of official national control of veterinary drug residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Jensen, Louise Grønhøj Hørbye; Madsen, Helle L.

    Data collection is an essential prerequisite for assessing compliance of chemical residues in food and for risk assessment. The present system for collecting aggregated data of residues of veterinary medicinal products and other substances in animals and animal products has limitations for risk...

  9. Regulatory verification on safe use of cytotoxic drugs in veterinary clinics and animal hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, V; Seneviratne, M

    2016-11-01

    Veterinarians are increasingly being asked to provide chemotherapy for veterinary patients. However, chemotherapy agents have cytotoxic effects that can pose a health risk to workers from exposure. There are no published studies examining cytotoxic drug (CTD) contamination in veterinary practices in Australia. CTD use at 13 veterinary clinics and animal hospitals across New South Wales (NSW) was verified for compliance with Work, Health and Safety (WHS) legislation on the effectiveness of exposure control measures. Surface swab sampling was performed to detect the restricted carcinogen cyclophosphamide and seven other CTD. A total of 73 surface swab samples were collected from nine locations associated with CTD delivery, storage, treatment and waste disposal at four veterinary practices, with repeat sampling at two veterinary practices. Compliance with WHS legislation for systematic chemical management, including procedures for safe use of carcinogens, in veterinary practices was high: 4 of the 10 key clauses in WHS chemical management were complied with at all 13 verified workplaces. Surface contamination was detected in three locations, with levels of CTD contaminants ranging from 3.54 to 89 ng per sample. Results showed that, in general, there were safe systems in place to work with CTD in the veterinary practices that were verified in NSW. Areas for improvement were mainly in administrative measures related to hazardous chemical management. Particular attention should be given to raising awareness of the intrinsic hazards of CTD, through training and hazard information provision to staff. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Veterinary drug prescriptions: to what extent do pet owners comply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Separate questionnaires were designed for pet owners (clients) and veterinarians to ascertain the existence and extent of noncompliance in veterinary practice in lbadan and to elucidate the influence of such factors as logistics, education, economy, attitudes and veterinarian/client relationship on non-compliance. Analyses ...

  11. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung; Hur, Sun Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea.

  12. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea. PMID:27433102

  13. Reaction between drug substances and pharmaceutical excipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Cornett, Claus; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold

    2009-01-01

    spectroscopy. Heating a mixture of solid carvedilol and solid citric acid monohydrate for 96h at 50 degrees C resulted in the formation of about 3% of a symmetrical ester as well as of a number of other reaction products in smaller amounts. Formation of the symmetrical ester was also observed at room......The reactivity of citric acid towards drug substances in the solid state was examined using the beta-blocker carvedilol as a model compound. The reaction mixtures were analysed by LC-MS, the reaction products were isolated by preparative HPLC, and the structures were elucidated by microprobe NMR...... temperature. At 70 degrees C, the amounts of three isomeric esters formed reached 6-8%. The minor reaction products were citric acid amides, O-acetylcarvedilol, and esters of itaconic acid....

  14. Drug Use Patterns and Socio-Demographic Profiles of Substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse is a critical problem in Botswana, yet empirical evidence on substance users is limited. The current study sought to examine patterns of drug use and sociodemographic profiles of clients who sought treatment at a substance abuse treatment centre in Gaborone, Botswana. Findings showed clients' age ...

  15. Considerations on the aquaculture development and on the use of veterinary drugs: special issue for fluoroquinolones--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Silvia Pilco; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato; Reyes, Felix Guillermo Reyes

    2013-09-01

    Aquaculture has become an important source of fish available for human consumption. In order to achieve greater productivity, intensive fish cultivation systems are employed, which can cause greater susceptibility to diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites. Antimicrobial substances are compounds used in livestock production with the objectives of inhibiting the growth of microorganisms and treatment or prevention of diseases. It is well recognized that the issues of antimicrobial use in food animals are of global concern about its impact on food safety. This paper present an overview of the aquaculture production in the whole world, raising the particularities in Brazil, highlighting the importance of the use of veterinary drugs in this system of animal food production, and address the potential risks arising from their indiscriminate use and their impacts on aquaculture production as they affect human health and the environment. The manuscript also discusses the analytical methods commonly used in the determination of veterinary drug residues in fish, with special issue for fluroquinolones residues and with emphasis on employment of LC-MS/MS analytical technique. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Milk quality parameters associated with the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in bulk tank milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Cristina Almeida Picinin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Veterinary drug residues in bulk tank milk are important to all sectors of the dairy chain because they are one of the major factors which determine the safety of the final product. This study attempted to identify milk quality parameters that are associated with the occurrence of veterinary drug residues using multivariate principal component analysis (PCA. A total of 132 raw milk samples were collected from 45 dairy farms in the state of Minas Gerais - Brazil and analyzed for 42 analytes, including pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Out of the 132 milk samples, 40 samples tested positive for at least one analyte (above the detection limit. The milk parameters associated with the antimicrobial residues by confirmatory tests were lactose and nonfat concentrations, as revealed by PCA. This analysis showed that fat and total solid concentrations, as well as the somatic cell and total bacteria counts were associated with macrocyclic lactone residues in bulk tank milk. A PCA assessing pyrethroid residues in bulk tank milk revealed that the lactose and nonfat solid concentrations and titratable acidity were inversely associated with these residues. Thus, the data analysis indicated that the veterinary drug residues were associated with certain milk quality parameters that can be used to target farms at higher risk of veterinary drug residue contamination for testing programs in combination with incentives, education and training programs to improve mammary health, milk hygiene and safety.

  17. Database dedicated to information published during the Benelux conferences on hormone and veterinary drug residue analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impens, S.; Brabander, H.F. de; Bergwerff, A.A.; Ginkel, L.A. van; Schilt, R.; Stephany, R.W.; Wasch, K. de; Courtheyn, D.; Peteghem, C. van

    2002-01-01

    Every other year scientists working in the field of residue analysis participate the "International Symposium on Hormone and Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis" and "Euroresidue" conferences. In each symposium a lot of innovative information is presented. In order to obtain a retrieval system for this

  18. Residues of veterinary drugs in eggs and their distribution between yolk and white

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Petz, M.

    2000-01-01

    Veterinary drugs and feed additives (especially some coccidiostats) can be absorbed by the digestive tract of laying hens and transferred to the egg. Physicochemical characteristics of these compounds determine their pharmacokinetic behavior and distribution to and within the egg. Traditionally the

  19. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and their role in uptake and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Vokřál, Ivan; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2015-08-01

    Many various xenobiotics permanently enter plants and represent potential danger for their organism. For that reason, plants have evolved extremely sophisticated detoxification systems including a battery of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Some of them are similar to those in humans and animals, but there are several plant-specific ones. This review briefly introduces xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and summarizes present information about their action toward veterinary drugs. Veterinary drugs are used worldwide to treat diseases and protect animal health. However, veterinary drugs are also unwantedly introduced into environment mostly via animal excrements, they persist in the environment for a long time and may impact on the non-target organisms. Plants are able to uptake, transform the veterinary drugs to non- or less-toxic compounds and store them in the vacuoles and cell walls. This ability may protect not only plant themselves but also other organisms, predominantly invertebrates and wild herbivores. The aim of this review is to emphasize the importance of plants in detoxification of veterinary drugs in the environment. The results of studies, which dealt with transport and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in plants, are summarized and evaluated. In conclusion, the risks and consequences of veterinary drugs in the environment and the possibilities of phytoremediation technologies are considered and future perspectives are outlined.

  20. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are expressly...

  1. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person seeking...

  2. Drug resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance: a status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Ray M

    2004-10-01

    Reports of drug resistance have been made in every livestock host and to every anthelmintic class. In some regions of world, the extremely high prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) in nematodes of sheep and goats threatens the viability of small-ruminant industries. Resistance in nematodes of horses and cattle has not yet reached the levels seen in small ruminants, but evidence suggests that the problems of resistance, including MDR worms, are also increasing in these hosts. There is an urgent need to develop both novel non-chemical approaches for parasite control and molecular assays capable of detecting resistant worms.

  3. Application of PK/PD Modeling in Veterinary Field: Dose Optimization and Drug Resistance Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among veterinary drugs, antibiotics are frequently used. The true mean of antibiotic treatment is to administer dose of drug that will have enough high possibility of attaining the preferred curative effect, with adequately low chance of concentration associated toxicity. Rising of antibacterial resistance and lack of novel antibiotic is a global crisis; therefore there is an urgent need to overcome this problem. Inappropriate antibiotic selection, group treatment, and suboptimal dosing are mostly responsible for the mentioned problem. One approach to minimizing the antibacterial resistance is to optimize the dosage regimen. PK/PD model is important realm to be used for that purpose from several years. PK/PD model describes the relationship between drug potency, microorganism exposed to drug, and the effect observed. Proper use of the most modern PK/PD modeling approaches in veterinary medicine can optimize the dosage for patient, which in turn reduce toxicity and reduce the emergence of resistance. The aim of this review is to look at the existing state and application of PK/PD in veterinary medicine based on in vitro, in vivo, healthy, and disease model.

  4. Application of PK/PD Modeling in Veterinary Field: Dose Optimization and Drug Resistance Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Ijaz; Huang, Lingli; Hao, Haihong; Sanders, Pascal; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-01-01

    Among veterinary drugs, antibiotics are frequently used. The true mean of antibiotic treatment is to administer dose of drug that will have enough high possibility of attaining the preferred curative effect, with adequately low chance of concentration associated toxicity. Rising of antibacterial resistance and lack of novel antibiotic is a global crisis; therefore there is an urgent need to overcome this problem. Inappropriate antibiotic selection, group treatment, and suboptimal dosing are mostly responsible for the mentioned problem. One approach to minimizing the antibacterial resistance is to optimize the dosage regimen. PK/PD model is important realm to be used for that purpose from several years. PK/PD model describes the relationship between drug potency, microorganism exposed to drug, and the effect observed. Proper use of the most modern PK/PD modeling approaches in veterinary medicine can optimize the dosage for patient, which in turn reduce toxicity and reduce the emergence of resistance. The aim of this review is to look at the existing state and application of PK/PD in veterinary medicine based on in vitro, in vivo, healthy, and disease model.

  5. Stability during cooking of anthelmintic veterinary drug residues in beef

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Kevin Mark; Whelan, Michelle; Danaher, Martin; Kennedy, David Glenn

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Anthelmintic drugs are widely used for treatment of parasitic worms in livestock but little is known about the stability of their residues in food under conventional cooking conditions. As part of the European Commission-funded research project ProSafeBeef, cattle were medicated with commercially available anthelmintic preparations, comprising 11 active ingredients (corresponding to 21 marker residues). Incurred meat and liver were cooked by roasting (40 min at 190?C) or...

  6. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behaviour among drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    reduction ... transmitted infection care and treatment, and referrals to substance abuse treatment and social services. ... Baseline information was collected from 138 drug users recruited into the study through community-based.

  7. [The use of pharmacological criteria in the toxicological evaluation of veterinary drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, F X

    1990-09-01

    The toxicological evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs in foods of animal origin, which is done within the framework of the Netherlands Veterinary Drugs Act, is based on an EEC guide line in which, in addition to the clinical and analytical criteria, the requirements regarding the pharmacological and toxicological evaluation are laid down. In principle, this evaluation is based on classical toxicological criteria. As veterinary drugs have a specific pharmacological action, it is essential that these pharmacological effects should be in included in the toxicological evaluation in view of an adequate protection of public health. The selected starting point is that a pharmacological effect desired in a target animal is regarded as an undesirable effect in consumers. In this presentation, two examples are referred to, viz. the bèta agonist clenbuterol and the bèta-blocking agent carazolol; the approach is compared with a 'classical' toxicological evaluation. This shows that the acceptable daily intake in human individuals (ADI), based on pharmacological criteria is lower by a factor of approximately 50 than is the ADI on the basis of 'classical' toxicological criteria. This clearly illustrates the value of this approach in protecting the health of consumers.

  8. Pharmacokinetic aspects of the anti-epileptic drug substance vigabatrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Martha Kampp; Frølund, Sidsel; Holm, René

    2014-01-01

    are discussed in detail. Special focus is on the contribution of the proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) for intestinal vigabatrin absorption. Furthermore, the review gives an overview of the pharmacokinetic parameters of vigabatrin across different species and drug-food and drug-drug interactions......Drug transporters in various tissues, such as intestine, kidney, liver and brain, are recognized as important mediators of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drug substances. This review gives a current status on the transporter(s) mediating the absorption, distribution......, metabolism and excretion properties of the anti-epileptic drug substance vigabatrin. For orally administered drugs, like vigabatrin, the absorption from the intestine is a prerequisite for the bioavailability. Therefore, transporter(s) involved in the intestinal absorption of vigabatrin in vitro and in vivo...

  9. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behaviour among drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    Oct 2, 2017 ... Reducing substance use and risky sexual behaviour among drug users in. Durban, South Africa: Assessing the impact of community-level risk-reduction interventions. C.D.H. Parrya,b*. , T. Carneyc,d, P. Petersen Williamse,f. aPhD Psychology, is the Director of the Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug ...

  10. [Current approaches to analysis of narcotic drugs in biological substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalenko, A E; Kardonskiĭ, D A; Eganov, A A; Grishin, D A; Salomatin, E M

    2007-01-01

    A method of analysis of basic narcotic drugs in urine is described. It consists in isolation by solid phase extraction, derivation and identification by gas chromatography with mass-selective detector. The approaches applied in the above method can be used for analysis of narcotic drugs undetectable by preliminary investigations as well as for urine examination for pharmacological or other biologically active substances.

  11. Teenagers' Awareness of Peers' Substance and Drug Use in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omu, Florence E; Bader, Al-Wadaany; Helen, Delles; Slabeeb, Shukriya; Safar, Hanan; Omu, Alexander E

    Teenage substance use is a global challenge, and youths residing in Kuwait are not immune from it. Tobacco products are licit; however, alcohol and other mood-altering illicit substance are prohibited with severe penalties including imprisonment. Youths residing in Kuwait are being initiated into the use of mood-altering substances like tobacco at an early age, and it is postulated that, as they grow older, they may progress into using alcohol and other prohibited illicit drugs. The aim of this study was to determine licit and illicit substance use by teenagers residing in Kuwait. The study will also explore their awareness of substance use among their peers. A cross-sectional survey using a snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 190 teenagers aged 15-18 years residing in Kuwait. Data were collected using the 130-item questionnaire adapted from 1998 New Jersey Triennial Public High School Survey of Drug and Alcohol Use. Data collection was from September 2012 to June 2013. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 22 for Windows was used. Pearson's chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to test the hypotheses. Tobacco was the most commonly used substance by these teenagers; 8.4% were current smokers, and 50% had experimented. Age of initiation for 21% was before 14 years old. Hashish (marijuana) was the most commonly used illicit drug, with 3.7% current users and 5.3% claiming to have used it. More male than female teenagers in Grade 9 were using tobacco products (χ = 27.428, df = 5, p teenagers. Intensifying campaigns about the hazards of substance use and drug testing should start from the primary school level.

  12. Antineoplastic drugs in veterinary oncology: excretion in dogs, contamination of the environment and exposure assessment of people at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, T.

    2012-01-01

    Anticancer drugs themselves can cause adverse health effects when administered to human patients. In addition, it has become apparent that personnel in human medicine, occupationally exposed to these anticancer drugs, may also be at risk. The past decades, the use of chemotherapy in veterinary

  13. drug/substance use and sexual behaviour in Mankweng District

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Within the sexually-active cohort, those with multiple sexual partners were more likely to use drugs/substances or not to use condoms. Anal sex occurred in both males and females to a greater extent than could be attributed to chance. Keywords: prevalence, health-risk, partners, teenagers. Journal of Psychology in Africa ...

  14. Investigations Of Powder Surface Properties Of Drug Substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) was used to characterize the surface energetics of different batches of two drug substances (Salmetrol Xinafoate, SX and Fluticasone Propionate, FP) manufactured under identical conditions. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of IGC technique to reveal ...

  15. Target screening of 105 veterinary drug residues in milk using UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap multiplexing data independent acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Leung, Daniel; Chow, Willis; Chang, James; Wong, Jon W

    2018-02-05

    This paper presents a multi-class target screening method for the detection of 105 veterinary drug residues from 11 classes in milk using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC/ESI Q-Orbitrap). The method is based on a non-target approach of full mass scan and multiplexing data-independent acquisition (Full MS/mDIA). The veterinary drugs include endectocides, fluoroquinolones, ionophores, macrolides, nitroimidazole, NSAIDs, β-lactams, penicillins, phenicols, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines. Veterinary drug residues were extracted from milk using a salting-out and solid-phase extraction (SOSPE) procedure, which entailed the precipitation of milk proteins by an extraction buffer (oxalic acid and EDTA, pH 3) and acetonitrile, a salting-out acetonitrile/water phase separation using ammonium sulfate, and solid-phase extraction for clean-up using polymeric reversed-phase sorbent cartridges. The Q-Orbitrap Full MS/dd-MS2 (data-dependent acquisition) was used to acquire product-ion spectra of individual veterinary drugs to build a compound database and a mass spectral library, whereas its Full MS/mDIA was utilized to acquire sample data from milk for target screening of veterinary drugs fortified at 1.0 or 10.0 μg/kg. The in-spectrum mass correction or solvent background lock-mass correction was used to minimize mass error when building the compound database from experimental dd-MS2 accurate mass data. Retention time alignment and response threshold adjustment were used to eliminate or reduce false negatives and/or false positive rates. The validated method was capable of screening 58% and 96% of 105 veterinary drugs at 1.0 and 10.0 μg/kg, respectively, without manually evaluating every compound during data processing, which will reduce the workload in routine practice.

  16. Development, validation and different approaches for the measurement uncertainty of a multi-class veterinary drugs residues LC-MS method for feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valese, Andressa Camargo; Molognoni, Luciano; de Souza, Naielly Coelho; de Sá Ploêncio, Leandro Antunes; Costa, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Barreto, Fabiano; Daguer, Heitor

    2017-05-15

    A sensitive method for the simultaneous residues analysis of 62 veterinary drugs in feeds by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry has been developed and validated in accordance to Commission Decision 657/2002/EC. Additionally, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantitation (LOQ), matrix effects and measurement uncertainty were also assessed. Extraction was performed for all analytes and respective internal standards in a single step and chromatographic separation was achieved in only 12min. LOQ were set to 0.63-5.00μgkg-1 (amphenicols), 0.63-30.00μgkg-1 (avermectins), 0.63μgkg-1 (benzimidazoles), 0.25-200.00μgkg-1 (coccidiostats), 0.63-200.00μgkg-1 (lincosamides and macrolides), 0.25-5.00μgkg-1 (nitrofurans), 0.63-20.00μgkg-1 (fluoroquinolones and quinolones), 15.00μgkg-1 (quinoxaline), 0.63-7.50μgkg-1 (sulfonamides), 0.63-20.00μgkg-1 (tetracyclines), 0.25μgkg-1 (β-agonists), and 30.00μgkg-1 (β-lactams). The top-down approach was adequate for the calculation of measurement uncertainty for all analytes, except the banned substances, which should be rather assessed by the bottom-up approach. Routine analysis of different types of feeds was then carried out. An interesting profile of residues of veterinary drugs among samples was revealed, enlightening the need for stricter control in producing animals. Among the total of 27 feed samples, 20 analytes could be detected/quantified, ranging from trace levels to very high concentrations. A high throughput screening/confirmatory method for the residue analysis of several veterinary drugs in feeds was proposed as a helpful control tool. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. [Matrix effect and retention efficiency of hydrophilic-lipophilic balance cartridges in multi-residual determination of veterinary drugs in river water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shanshan; Yi, Qitong; Hong, Jiajun; Chen, Meng; Yuan, Dongxing

    2013-10-01

    Matrix effect is an important interfering factor in LC-MS quantitative analysis. In this paper, matrix effects and retention efficiencies of 33 veterinary drugs spiked in river water were studied on hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB) cartridges of 3 brands (Waters, Supelco, and CNW), using LC-MS/MS for detection and reverse osmosis (RO) water as the control under 500-fold concentration. In RO water, only the exogenous matrix effects were observed on three brands of HLB cartridges. Most quinolones and tetracyclines showed positive matrix effects. Estrogens showed negative matrix effects on two brands of HLB cartridges. Sulfonamides were not obviously affected by matrix effects. Chloramphenicols showed negative matrix effects on one brand of HLB cartridge. In river water, matrix effects were different from those of the RO water due to the combined exogenous and endogenous interfering substances. Sulfonamides showed slight matrix effects as those in RO water. Most quinolones and tetracyclines showed positive matrix effects. Chloramphenicols and estrogens showed negative matrix effects. Compared to the external standard method, matrix matched calibration method effectively overcame the matrix effects with better quantitative results. The recoveries of 33 target veterinary drugs spiked in river water at 50 ng/L and 200 ng/L levels were in the ranges of 40.3%-146.0% (Waters), 37.8%-104.2% (Supelco), and 52.9%-150.1% (CNW) with RSDs (n = 4) of 0.2%-14.6%. The results indicated that there was no significant difference in the retention efficiency between the 3 HLB cartridges with the matrix matched calibration method. This study provided supporting data for the HLB cartridge selection in multi-residual determination of the veterinary drugs in river water samples.

  18. Assessment of veterinary drug retail outlets in two rural areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Saharan Africa requires significant improvements in animal health with adequate access to veterinary services. Since the 1980s, veterinary services in developing countries including Nigeria has witnessed a decline in government involvement and ...

  19. Comparison of veterinary drug residue results in animal tissues by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole ... use of a commercial lipid removal product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods must be monitored to ensure food safety, verify proper veterinary practices, enforce legal limits in domestic and imported foods, and other purposes. A common goal in drug residue analysis in foods is to achieve acceptable monitoring results for as m...

  20. Assessment of veterinary drug retail outlets in two rural areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2017-07-07

    Jul 7, 2017 ... Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, University of Ilorin, Kwara state,. Nigeria ... Lafiagi rural areas of Kwara state, to asses the owners', sales persons' and business characteristics of veterinary retail outlets with the aid of ... patronise veterinary hospitals. Furthermore, there.

  1. Mobility of veterinary drugs in soil with application of manure compost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin-Wook

    2011-07-01

    Sulfonamides and tetracyclines are pharmaceuticals widely used to treat human and animal diseases. They are of considerable concern in Korea because of the potential risk of residues in aquatic and terrestrial environments. This study investigated the mobility of veterinary drugs in the soil column with the application of manure compost to assess the risk of groundwater contamination by leaching in the Korean agricultural environment. The degree of sulfonamides and tetracyclines mobility, measured by the concentration of leachates from silty loam soil for 9 days, was observed being on the first day of this study, in the order sulfathiazole, sulfamethazine > sulfamethoxazole > chlortetracycline > oxytetracycline, and the sulfonamides concentrations were about ten times higher than the tetracyclines concentrations with continuous leaching. The results indicate that sulfonamides pose a high risk of ground and surface water contamination and tetracyclines have the potential to persist in soils with bioactive epimers.

  2. Aquatic toxicity of four veterinary drugs commonly applied in fish farming and animal husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołodziejska, Marta; Maszkowska, Joanna; Białk-Bielińska, Anna; Steudte, Stephanie; Kumirska, Jolanta; Stepnowski, Piotr; Stolte, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Doramectin (DOR), metronidazole (MET), florfenicol (FLO), and oxytetracycline (OXT) are among the most widely used veterinary drugs in animal husbandry or in aquaculture. Contamination of the environment by these pharmaceuticals has given cause for concern in recent years. Even though their toxicity has been thoroughly analyzed, knowledge of their ecotoxicity is still limited. We investigated their aquatic toxicity using tests with marine bacteria (Vibrio fischeri), green algae (Scenedesmus vacuolatus), duckweed (Lemna minor) and crustaceans (Daphnia magna). All the ecotoxicological tests were supported by chemical analyses to confirm the exposure concentrations of the pharmaceuticals used in the toxicity experiments, since deviations from the nominal concentration can result in underestimation of biological effects. It was found that OXT and FLO have a stronger adverse effect on duckweed (EC50=3.26 and 2.96mgL(-1) respectively) and green algae (EC50=40.4 and 18.0mgL(-1)) than on bacteria (EC50=108 and 29.4mgL(-1)) and crustaceans (EC50=114 and 337mgL(-1)), whereas MET did not exhibit any adverse effect in the tested concentration range. For DOR a very low EC50 of 6.37×10(-5)mgL(-1) towards D. magna was determined, which is five orders of magnitude lower than values known for the toxic reference compound K2Cr2O7. Our data show the strong influence of certain veterinary drugs on aquatic organisms and contribute to a sound assessment of the environmental hazards posed by commonly used pharmaceuticals. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in animal products : annual report 2012 of the National Reference Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Sterk, S.S.

    2013-01-01

    This report if the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for residues of veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in products of animal origin according to Council Directive 96/23/EC describes the activities employed in 2012. The main tasks of the NRL are communication with Official Laboratories

  4. 75 FR 48928 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ....hhs.gov For further information about the public meeting, contact: Ken Lowery, ] International Issues... determination of veterinary drug residues in foods. The Committee is hosted by the United States. Issues To Be... all its programs and activities on the basis of race, color, national origin, gender, religion, age...

  5. Veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in animal products : annual report 2010 of the National Reference Laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Sterk, S.S.

    2011-01-01

    This report of the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for residues of veterinary drugs in products of animal origin according to 96/23/EC describes the activities employed in 2010. The main tasks of the NRL are the communication with Routine Field Laboratories (RFL), the preparation of quality

  6. Veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in animal products : annual report 2011 of the National Reference Laborator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Sterk, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    This report of the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for residues of veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in products of animal origin according to Council Directive 96/23/EC describes the activities employed in 2011. The main tasks of the NRL are the communication with Routine Field

  7. 77 FR 16806 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... accessible via the World Wide Web at the following address: http://www.codexalimentarius.org/ . Kevin... Science & Policy, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation, HFV-100, FDA, Center for Veterinary Medicine, 7520... World Health Organization (WHO). Through adoption of food standards, codes of practice, and other...

  8. [Simultaneous determination of residual veterinary drugs in livestock products and fish by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, Hiroko; Hatakeyama, Eriko

    2008-01-01

    A rapid multiresidue method was developed for determination of 98 veterinary drugs in livestock products and fish by LC/MS/MS. The drugs were extracted with methanol, and the extracted solution was diluted with water. The methanol concentration was adjusted to 50%, and finally the diluted solution was filtered through a microfiltration membrane (0.02 microm diameter pore size) prior to LC/MS/MS. Recoveries of 87 drugs from 4 foods (milk, egg, rainbow trout and cattle muscle) fortified at 0.2 microg/g were in the range of 50-150% with a coefficient of variation (%) of less than 20%. The values obtained by this method from livestock products containing antibiotics were similar to those obtained by the official methods. This proposed method is expected to be useful as a multiresidue analysis method for screening of veterinary drugs in livestock products and fish.

  9. 14 CFR 141.18 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 141.18 Section 141.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... General § 141.18 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances...

  10. 14 CFR 137.23 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 137.23 Section 137.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a certificate issued...

  11. 14 CFR 121.15 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 121.15 Section 121.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION....15 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If a...

  12. 14 CFR 133.14 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 133.14 Section 133.14 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a certificate...

  13. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(3). 2017. Gberindyer et al. 250. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2017. Vol 38 (3): 250-259. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Drugs Prescription Pattern in Dogs Diagnosed with Parvovirus Enteritis in Some Veterinary Clinics in Nigeria. Gberindyer, F. A.. 1.

  14. Biomarkers in Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G

    2017-02-08

    This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.

  15. Screening of veterinary drug residues in milk from individual farms in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrieska-Stojkovic Elizabeta

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 497 raw milk samples collected at individual farms and collection tanks for milk from eight regions from Macedonia were examined for chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, quinolones and tetracyclines from October 2008 until April 2011. Immunoassay methods were used for the determination of chloramphenicol, sulfonamides and quinolones, and high performance liquid chromatography with Diode Array detection was applied for screening of tetracyclines. The methods were validated according to the recommendations laid down by European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The obtained data confirmed that the methods were appropriate for detection of antibiotics determined, at the concentration level of interest. Measured range of concentrations (in μg/kg was 13.5-147.9 for sulfonamides, 0.6-22.0 for quinolones and 17.4-149.1 for tetracyclines, with calculated mean values (in μg/kg 24.7 for sulfonamides, 12.6 for qinolones and 41.9 for tetracyclines. None of the analyzed samples showed presence of chloramphenicol over the minimum required performance level value of the screening method. The calculated estimated daily intakes for the average daily consumption of 200 mL of milk for an adult in Macedonia, for the examined antimicrobials, obtained levels 2 to 100 times lower than the values of the acceptable daily intakes fixed by World Health Organization. This indicates that toxicological risk associated with the consumption of analyzed milk could not be considered as a public health issue with regards to these veterinary drugs.

  16. Interspecies allometric meta-analysis of the comparative pharmacokinetics of 85 drugs across veterinary and laboratory animal species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q; Gehring, R; Tell, L A; Li, M; Riviere, J E

    2015-06-01

    Allometric scaling is widely used for the determination of first dosage regimen and the interpolation or extrapolation of pharmacokinetic parameters across many animal species during drug development. In this article, 85 drugs used in veterinary medicine obtained from the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank database were selected for allometric scaling analysis. Outlier species were identified by statistical methods. The results showed that 77% and 88% of drugs displayed significant correlations between total systemic clearance (CL) and volume of distribution at steady status (Vss) vs. body weight (P allometric exponent b for CL and Vss displays approximate normal distribution, with means (0.87 and 0.99) and standard deviations (0.143 and 0.157) for CL and Vss, respectively. Twelve drugs were identified to have at least one outlier species for CL and ten drugs for Vss. The human CL and Vss were predicted for selected drugs by the obtained allometric equations. The predicted CL and Vss were within a threefold error compared to observed values, except the predicted CL values for antipyrine, warfarin and diazepam. The results can be used to estimate cross-species pharmacokinetic profiles for predicting drug dosages in veterinary species, and to identify those species for which interpolation or extrapolation of pharmacokinetics properties may be problematic. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Analysis of veterinary drugs and metabolites in milk using quadrupole time-of-flight liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Sherri B; Storey, Joseph M; Clark, Susan B; Miller, Keith E

    2011-07-27

    A quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method was developed to analyze veterinary drug residues in milk. Milk samples were extracted with acetonitrile. A molecular weight cutoff filter was the only cleanup step in the procedure. Initially, a set of target compounds (including representative sulfonamides, tetracyclines, β-lactams, and macrolides) was used for validation. Screening of residues was accomplished by collecting TOF (MS(1)) data and comparing the accurate mass and retention times of found compounds to a database containing information for veterinary drugs. The residues included in the study could be detected in samples fortified at the levels of concern with this procedure 97% of the time. Although the method was intended to be qualitative, an evaluation of the MS data indicated a linear response and acceptable recoveries for a majority of target compounds. In addition, MS/MS data were also generated for the [M + H](+) ions. Product ions for each compound were identified, and their mass accuracy was compared to theoretical values. Finally, incurred milk samples from cows dosed with veterinary drugs, including sulfamethazine, flunixin, cephapirin, or enrofloxacin, were analyzed with Q-TOF LC-MS. In addition to monitoring for the parent residues, several metabolites were detected in these samples by TOF. Proposed identification of these residues could be made by evaluating the MS and MS/MS data. For example, several plausible metabolites of enrofloxacin, some not previously observed in milk, are reported in this study.

  18. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielen, M.W.F. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: michel.nielen@wur.nl; Hooijerink, H. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Claassen, F.C. [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Engelen, M.C. van [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Beek, T.A. van [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2009-04-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS{sup n} spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future.

  19. Structural characterization of product ions of regulated veterinary drugs by electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (part 3) Anthelmintics, thyreostats, and flukicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Previously we have reported a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of regulated veterinary drugs. The methods used three selected transition ions but most of these ions lacked structural characterization. The work presented here ...

  20. Characterizing chronic and acute health risks of residues of veterinary drugs in food: latest methodological developments by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Cerniglia, Carl; Chicoine, Alan; Fattori, Vittorio; Lipp, Markus; Reuss, Rainer; Verger, Philippe; Tritscher, Angelika

    2017-11-01

    The risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food is a field that continues to evolve. The toxicological end-points to be considered are becoming more nuanced and in light of growing concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, detailed analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the residues of veterinary drugs in food is increasingly incorporated in the assessment. In recent years, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has refined its approaches to provide a more comprehensive and fit-for-purpose risk assessment. This publication describes in detail the consideration of acute and chronic effects, the estimation of acute and chronic dietary exposure, current approaches for including microbiological endpoints in the risk assessment, and JECFA's considerations for the potential effects of food processing on residues from veterinary drugs. JECFA now applies these approaches in the development of health-based guidance values (i.e. safe exposure levels) for residues of veterinary drugs. JECFA, thus, comprehensively addresses acute and chronic risks by using corresponding estimates for acute and chronic exposure and suitable correction for the limited bioavailability of bound residues by the Gallo-Torres model. On a case-by-case basis, JECFA also considers degradation products that occur from normal food processing of food containing veterinary drug residues. These approaches will continue to be refined to ensure the most scientifically sound basis for the establishment of health-based guidance values for veterinary drug residues.

  1. Residues of veterinary drugs in eggs and possible explanations for their distribution between egg white and yolk

    OpenAIRE

    Kan,Cornelis Adriaan

    2003-01-01

    Veterinary drugs are therapeutically used for laying hens but may also reach them unintentionally via the feed e.g. as a result of cross-contamination during premix manufacture, feed preparation in the feed mill or during feed transport. When these compounds reach the bloodstream, they will occur in the ovary with growing follicles and the oviduct, where the egg white is formed and secreted. The deposition of drugs in either yolk or white or both phases determines where one should look fo...

  2. Pediatric Exposures to Veterinary Pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Suzanne; Roberts, Kristin J; Stull, Jason; Spiller, Henry A; McKenzie, Lara B

    2017-03-01

    To describe the epidemiology of veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures to children based on calls to a regional poison control center. A retrospective analysis of pediatric (≤19 years of age) exposures to pharmaceutical products intended for animal use, managed by a regional poison control center from 1999 through 2013, was conducted. Case narratives were reviewed and coded for exposure-related circumstances and intended species. Descriptive statistics were generated. From 1999 through 2013, the Central Ohio Poison Center received 1431 calls that related to a veterinary pharmaceutical exposure for children ≤19 years of age. Most of the pediatric calls (87.6%) involved children ≤5 years of age. Exploratory behavior was the most common exposure-related circumstance (61.4%) and ingestion accounted for the exposure route in 93% of cases. Substances commonly associated with exposures included: veterinary drugs without human equivalent (17.3%), antimicrobial agents (14.8%), and antiparasitics (14.6%). Based on substance and quantity, the majority of exposures (96.9%) were not expected to result in long-term or lasting health effects and were managed at home (94.1%). A total of 80 cases (5.6%) were referred to a health care facility, and 2 cases resulted in a moderate health effect. Children ≤5 years of age are most at risk for veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures. Although most exposures do not result in a serious medical outcome, efforts to increase public awareness, appropriate product dispensing procedures, and attention to home storage practices may reduce the risk of veterinary pharmaceutical exposures to young children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Workshop report: the 2012 antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine: exploring the consequences of antimicrobial drug use: a 3-D approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Blondeau, J; Cerniglia, C E; Fink-Gremmels, J; Guenther, S; Hunter, R P; Li, X-Z; Papich, M; Silley, P; Soback, S; Toutain, P-L; Zhang, Q

    2014-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global challenge that impacts both human and veterinary health care. The resilience of microbes is reflected in their ability to adapt and survive in spite of our best efforts to constrain their infectious capabilities. As science advances, many of the mechanisms for microbial survival and resistance element transfer have been identified. During the 2012 meeting of Antimicrobial Agents in Veterinary Medicine (AAVM), experts provided insights on such issues as use vs. resistance, the available tools for supporting appropriate drug use, the importance of meeting the therapeutic needs within the domestic animal health care, and the requirements associated with food safety and food security. This report aims to provide a summary of the presentations and discussions occurring during the 2012 AAVM with the goal of stimulating future discussions and enhancing the opportunity to establish creative and sustainable solutions that will guarantee the availability of an effective therapeutic arsenal for veterinary species. © Published (2014). This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Analysis of carprofen dosage forms and drug substance by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, A J; Del Mauro, M D; Sokoloff, H K; Casey, D L

    1984-09-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the analysis of carprofen in solid dosage forms and as the bulk drug substance was developed. The simple, accurate, reproducible, and stability-indicating method was shown to be applicable to drug substance and dosage form stability studies, as well as the quality control of carprofen dosage forms.

  5. Pattern of Substance Abuse among Clients at a Drug Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Substance abuse is a worldwide problem and public health issue with attendant health, social, and economic consequences. However, the types of substances and pattern of abuse vary from place to place and with time. Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the pattern of substance use with the specific ...

  6. Determination of pesticides and veterinary drug residues in food by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiá, Ana [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Research Center on Desertification (CIDE, UV-CSIC-GV), Carretera Moncada-Náquera, Moncada (Spain); Suarez-Varela, Maria Morales; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin [Unit of Public Health, Hygiene and Environmental Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Center for Advanced Research in Public Health (CSISP-FISABIO), Valencia (Spain); Picó, Yolanda, E-mail: Yolanda.Pico@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Research Center on Desertification (CIDE, UV-CSIC-GV), Carretera Moncada-Náquera, Moncada (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-14

    Monitoring of pesticides and veterinary drug residues is required to enforce legislation and guarantee food safety. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the prevailing technique for assessing both types of residues because LC offers a versatile and universal separation mechanism suitable for non-gas chromatography (GC) amenable and the majority of GC-amenable compounds. This characteristic becomes more relevant when LC is coupled to MS because the high sensitivity and specificity of the detector allows to apply generic sample preparation procedures, which simultaneously extract a wide variety of residues with different physico-chemical properties. Determination of metabolites and degradation products, non-target suspected screening of an increasing number of residues, and even unknowns identification are also becoming inherent LC-MS advantages thanks to the latest advances. For routine analysis and, in particular, for official surveillance purposes in food control, analytical methods properly validated following strict guidelines are needed. After a brief introduction and an outline of the legislation applicable around the world, aspects such as improvement of specificity of high-throughput methods, resolution and mass accuracy of identification strategies and quantitative accuracy are critically reviewed in this article. In them, extraction, separation and determination are emphasized. The main objective is to offer an assessment of the state of the art and identify research needs and future trends in determining pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS. - Highlights: • An overview of status and future trends in this field. • Analytical method's compliance with guidelines to ensure reliability. • QuEChERS platform is a referent to extract both, pesticides and veterinary drugs in food. • The progress that liquid chromatography has shown in recent years is revised. • Determination of target, non-target and unknowns is

  7. Quantitative analysis of veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Shida, Shizuka; Sakai, Takatoshi; Nemoto, Satoru; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    A simple and reliable multiresidue method for quantitative determination of veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) was developed. Critical MS parameters such as capillary voltage, cone voltage, collision energy, desolvation gas temperature and extraction mass window were carefully optimised to obtain the best possible sensitivity. Analytical samples were prepared using extraction with acetonitrile and hexane in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulphate and acetic acid, followed by ODS cartridge clean-up. The developed method was validated for 82 veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk at spike levels of 0.01 and 0.1 mg kg(-)(1). With the exception of cefoperazone and phenoxymethylpenicillin, all these compounds exhibited sufficient signal intensity at 0.01 μg ml(-1) (equivalent to 0.01 mg kg(-)(1)), indicating the high sensitivity of the developed method. For most targets, the determined accuracies were within 70-120%, with repeatability and reproducibility being below 20% at both levels. Except for sulfathiazole in bovine muscle, no interfering peaks at target compound retention times were detected in the blank extract, indicating that the developed method is highly selective. The absence of sulfathiazole in bovine muscle was confirmed by simultaneous acquisition at low and high collision energies to afford exact masses of molecular adduct and fragment ions. Satisfactory linearity was observed for all compounds, with matrix effects being negligible for most targets in bovine muscle and milk at both spike levels. Overall, the results suggest that the developed LC-QTOF-MS method is suitable for routine regulatory-purpose analysis of veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk.

  8. [Development of the databases for ADI (acceptable daily intake) and relevant information on food additives, pesticides and veterinary drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Takiko; Sasaki, Shiho; Tanaka, Keiko; Toda, Miou; Uneyama, Chikako; Yamamoto, Miyako; Morikawa, Kaoru

    2006-01-01

    Databases for ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) and relevant information on food additives, pesticides and veterinary drugs were developed. The databases we developed are easily accessible on the web, and contain ADIs, latest evaluation year, classification and use, as well as synonym and CAS registry number. The databases are designed to be easily updated by researchers as ADI and relevant information are updated or added without delay. The database for food additives has already provided from the homepage of NIHS, and the access log of the web site was 1325/month in December 2005 and 2179/month in March 2006.

  9. Rhabdomyolysis Syndrome in Alcohol, Psychotropic Drugs, and Illicit Substance Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhabdomyolysis is one of the major complications of poisoning causedby alcohol, narcotics, and psychotropic substances acute toxicity, which might lead toacute renal failure and even death. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratoryfindings of rhabdomyolysis syndrome in poisoning patients who were admitted topoisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute toxicity by alcohol, narcotics,or psychotropic drugs who were admitted in poisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital ofHamadan were investigated during a 6-month period in 2012. Clinical and laboratorydata were collected by a standard questionnaire and analyzed by the SPSS softwareversion 16.Results: Eighty-two patients aged between 14 to 81 years were investigated. Twentytwocases developed rhabdomyolysis and narcotics related toxicity was the mostcommon cause. The most common clinical symptom in all patients was muscle pain(51cases, Laboratory studies showed some significant differences between serumcreatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum creatinine, andaminotransferases (AST,ALT levels in rhabdomyolysis cases as compared to theothers (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the incidence of rhabdomyolysissyndrome in acute intoxication with alcohol and narcotics is significant and withoutproper treatment might cause serious complications such as acute renal failure andeven death. Classic clinical signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are usually notpresent simultaneously, thus strong clinical suspicion and proper laboratory tests haveimportant role in early diagnosis and suitable treatment. Laboratory studies have animportant role in the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  10. Studies of human and veterinary drugs' fate in environmental solid samples--analytical problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilga, Joanna; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2008-08-01

    The improvement of medical care worldwide is one of the reasons for the increasing production of pharmaceutical products. Human medicines are affordable to a greater proportion of the world's population. But a significant amount of used pharmaceuticals can create problems--accessibility to high volume production pharmaceuticals contributes to an increased contamination in the environment and the possibility of adverse effects on humans and animals. Many of these substances and their metabolites end up in the soil, sediments, and sludge. Knowledge regarding the environmental occurrence of pharmaceutical products is increasing, but information in the peer-reviewed literature regarding the fate and effects of most pharmaceuticals is limited. One of the reasons for this lack of data is that, until now, there have been few analytical methods capable of detecting these compounds at the low levels, which might be expected in the environment. This review article covers recent developments in the analysis of pharmaceuticals in environmental solid matrices (including soil, sediments, and sludge). We will report applications of different solid sample extraction methods, and current advances in liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry for detection and identification of selected drugs in sludge, soils, manure, and sediments.

  11. Reconceptualizing Efficacy in Substance Use Prevention Research: Refusal Response Efficacy and Drug Resistance Self-Efficacy in Adolescent Substance Use

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Krieger, Janice L.; Hecht, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to utilize the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to expand the construct of efficacy in the adolescent substance use context. Using survey data collected from 2,129 seventh-grade students in 39 rural schools, we examined the construct of drug refusal efficacy and demonstrated relationships among response efficacy (RE), self-efficacy (SE), and adolescent drug use. Consistent with the hypotheses, confirmatory factor analyses of a 12-item scale yielded a three-f...

  12. 14 CFR 125.39 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 125.39 Section 125.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... AIRCRAFT Certification Rules and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.39 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana...

  13. 14 CFR 135.41 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 135.41 Section 135.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.41 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or...

  14. A Rational Analysis of Uniformity Risk for Agglomerated Drug Substance Using NIR Chemical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherholz, Megerle L; Wan, Boyong; McGeorge, Gary

    2017-02-01

    Early risk detection and quick diagnosis of manufacturing challenges are necessary to support the accelerated development pace of drug product in the current competitive environment. Analytical tools, such as near-infrared (NIR) chemical imaging (CI), can be employed for alerting drug substance uniformity risks in intermediates and the final product of solid dosage forms. In this particular study, the ability to characterize the behavior of agglomerated drug substance throughout process development was enabled by NIR CI to identify uniformity risks with small sample sizes and short turnaround time. Using NIR chemical imaging, the drug substance distribution and cluster size in all intermediates were visualized throughout the drug product process. NIR CI enabled rapid identification of the key unit operations that produced the greatest reduction in cluster size for enhanced distribution of the drug substance. The comil acted as a high shear mixing step to disperse soft lumps prior to roller compaction. Shear forces or pressure during roller compaction was sufficient to break down and disperse the agglomerates further. Ultimately, the process was robust against a range of drug substance input properties such that the uniformity of the final blend was consistently achieved and the agglomerated drug substance had no risks to the drug product process.

  15. Desorption electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry for the screening of veterinary drugs in cross-contaminated feedstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seró, Raquel; Núñez, Oscar; Bosch, Jaume; Grases, José M; Rodríguez, Pilar; Moyano, Encarnacion; Galceran, Martia Teresa

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a desorption electrospray ionization-high resolution mass spectrometry (DESI-HRMS) screening method was developed for fast identification of veterinary drugs in cross-contaminated feedstuffs. The reliable detection was performed working at high resolution (70,000 full width half maximum, FWHM) using an orbitrap mass analyzer. Among the optimized DESI parameters, the solvent (acetonitrile/water, 80:20, v/v) and the sample substrate (poly-tetrafluoroethylene, PTFE) were critical to obtain the best sensitivity. To analyze the solid feed samples, different approaches were tested and a simple solid-liquid extraction and the direct analysis of an aliquot (2 μL) of the extract after letting it dry on the PTFE printed spot provided the best results. The identification of the veterinary drugs (target and non-target) in the cross-contaminated feedstuffs based on the accurate mass measurement and the isotopic pattern fit was performed automatically using a custom-made database. The positive cross-contaminated feed samples were quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). The results obtained demonstrate that DESI-HRMS can be proposed as a fast and suitable screening method to identify positive cross-contaminated feedstuffs reducing the number of samples to be subsequently quantified by UHPLC-MS/MS, thus improving the productivity in quality control laboratories.

  16. Veterinary drug usage and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    In the production of food animals, large amounts of antimicrobial agents are used for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. There are large variations in the amounts of antimicrobial agents used to produce the same amount of meat among the different Europe...... monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption of antimicrobial agents are strongly desirable, as is research into the most appropriate ways to use antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine....

  17. Drugged Driving: Increased Traffic Risks Involving Licit and Illicit Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkinton, Melinda W.; Robertson, Angela; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Driving under the influence of drugs poses risks for traffic safety. Most research attention has been focused on the most prevalent drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescription drugs with high abuse potential. The objectives of this study were to determine the types of drugs used by convicted DUI offenders on the day of their…

  18. Reconceptualizing efficacy in substance use prevention research: refusal response efficacy and drug resistance self-efficacy in adolescent substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hye Jeong; Krieger, Janice L; Hecht, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to utilize the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to expand the construct of efficacy in the adolescent substance use context. Using survey data collected from 2,129 seventh-grade students in 39 rural schools, we examined the construct of drug refusal efficacy and demonstrated relationships among response efficacy (RE), self-efficacy (SE), and adolescent drug use. Consistent with the hypotheses, confirmatory factor analyses of a 12-item scale yielded a three-factor solution: refusal RE, alcohol-resistance self-efficacy (ASE), and marijuana-resistance self-efficacy (MSE). Refusal RE and ASE/MSE were negatively related to alcohol use and marijuana use, whereas MSE was positively associated with alcohol use. These data demonstrate that efficacy is a broader construct than typically considered in drug prevention. Prevention programs should reinforce both refusal RE and substance-specific resistance SE.

  19. 78 FR 69991 - Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 14 Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory... [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Veterinary Medicine Committee was...

  20. 75 FR 52605 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the...-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3), Food and Drug...

  1. Targeted Multiresidue Analysis of Veterinary Drugs in Milk-Based Powders Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, James B; Simon, Kelli A; Wong, Jon W

    2017-08-30

    An analytical method was developed and validated for the determination of 40 veterinary drugs in various milk-based powders. The method involves acetonitrile/water extraction, solid-phase filtration for lipid removal in fat-containing matrices, and analysis using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The limits of quantitation (LOQ) ranged from 0.02 to 82 ng/g. Acceptable recoveries (70-120%, RSD powder. Similar results were obtained for whole milk powder, milk protein concentrate, whey protein concentrate, and whey protein isolate. This new method will allow for better monitoring of a wide range of veterinary drugs in milk-based powders.

  2. Worries about others' substance use-Differences between alcohol, cigarettes and illegal drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moan, Inger Synnøve; Storvoll, Elisabet E; Lund, Ingunn Olea

    2017-10-01

    While it is well documented that many experience harm from others' substance use, little is known about the psychological strain associated with others' use. The aims were: (1) to describe the prevalence of worries about others' alcohol, cigarette and illegal drug use, (2) whose substance use people worry about, (3) the overlap in worries, and (4) to examine how worries about others' use of each substance vary according to demographics, own substance use and experience of harm from others' use. A population survey was conducted among 16-64year old Norwegians (N=1667). Respondents' reported on worries about others' alcohol, cigarette and illegal drug use, measures of experiences of harm from others' use of the three substances, and own substance use. Worries about others' drinking were most prevalent. Among those who worried, others' cigarette and illegal drug use caused more frequent worry. While worry about cigarette use was mostly associated with family members' use, worry about others' alcohol and illegal drug use more often concerned friends'/acquaintances' use. About half worried about others' use of at least one substance. Across all three substances, experience of harm from others' substance use was most strongly related to worries. Worries about others' substance use are common and reflect the prevalence of use of the substances in the population. In sum, the findings suggest that worry about others' alcohol and illegal drug use is primarily related to acute harm while worry about others' cigarette smoking is more related to chronic harm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behaviour among drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    reduction counselling, expanded access to HIV Testing Services, HIV/sexually transmitted infection care and treatment, and referrals to substance abuse treatment and social services. At follow-up, the baseline questionnaire was completed again ...

  4. Effectiveness of action in India to reduce exposure of Gyps vultures to the toxic veterinary drug diclofenac.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Cuthbert

    Full Text Available Contamination of their carrion food supply with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac has caused rapid population declines across the Indian subcontinent of three species of Gyps vultures endemic to South Asia. The governments of India, Pakistan and Nepal took action in 2006 to prevent the veterinary use of diclofenac on domesticated livestock, the route by which contamination occurs. We analyse data from three surveys of the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac residues in carcasses of domesticated ungulates in India, carried out before and after the implementation of a ban on veterinary use. There was little change in the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac between a survey before the ban and one conducted soon after its implementation, with the percentage of carcasses containing diclofenac in these surveys estimated at 10.8 and 10.7%, respectively. However, both the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac had fallen markedly 7-31 months after the implementation of the ban, with the true prevalence in this third survey estimated at 6.5%. Modelling of the impact of this reduction in diclofenac on the expected rate of decline of the oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis in India indicates that the decline rate has decreased to 40% of the rate before the ban, but is still likely to be rapid (about 18% year(-1. Hence, further efforts to remove diclofenac from vulture food are still needed if the future recovery or successful reintroduction of vultures is to be feasible.

  5. Multiresidue Screening of Veterinary Drugs in Meat, Milk, Egg, and Fish Using Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Ion Trap Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, JeongWoo; Park, Su-Jeong; Park, Hae-Chul; Hossain, Md Akil; Kim, Myeong-Ae; Son, Seong-Wan; Lim, Chae-Mi; Kim, Tae-Wan; Cho, Byung-Hoon

    2017-06-01

    New approaches to veterinary drug screening based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToF/MS) are rapid and have high selectivity and sensitivity. In this study, we developed a multiresidue method for screening over 100 veterinary drug residues using ion trap (IT)-ToF/MS. The screened compounds comprised major drug classes used in veterinary practice, representing the following: amphenicols, anthelmintics, benzimidazoles, β-lactams, coccidiostats, ionophores, macrolides, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and tranquilizers. The method was developed based on chromatographic retention time, specific accurate mass, isotope distribution, and fragment data. Each compound was validated at three levels, and the mass accuracy, accuracy, and repeatability were calculated. All parameters showed acceptable values and conformed to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC criteria. This screening method can simultaneously analyze over 100 veterinary drugs in meat, milk, eggs, and fish in a single analytical run.

  6. Impact of Freeze/Thaw Process on Drug Substance Storage of Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayfield, William J; Kandula, Sunitha; Khan, Heera; Tugcu, Nihal

    2017-08-01

    The storage of drug substance at subzero temperatures mitigates potential risks associated with liquid storage, such as degradation and shipping stress, making it the best solution for long-term storage. However, slower (generally uncontrolled) rates of freezing and thawing of drug substance in conventional large storage containers (>2L) can lead to greater cryoconcentration (exclusion of solute molecules) resulting in zones of higher protein and excipient concentrations and changes to the desired formulation pH and excipient concentration. These conditions can negatively impact product quality, thus changing the target product profile. Freeze/thaw studies can provide valuable knowledge on the molecule even when performed from an early formulation image. This study attempts to provide guidance and strategy for planning of drug substance freeze and thaw studies in early development using a scale-down model, evaluating the impact of the (1) freeze/thaw rate, (2) mode of freezing, (3) drug substance container, (4) drug substance concentration, and (5) formulation on the drug substance product quality. Data presented in this study showed no impact on drug substance product quality after undergoing the typical one freeze/thaw cycle process for the variables evaluated. These findings suggest that a qualified scale-down model is not required for early phases of process development and that existing small-scale models can be used for drug substance storage development studies. Based on our experience, a workflow is suggested with minimal experimental design to reduce the material requirement by >70% at early stages of product development to reduce constraints. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Drug spend and acquisitive offending by substance misusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Karen P; Jones, Andrew; Millar, Tim; Pierce, Matthias; Davies, Linda; Weston, Samantha; Donmall, Michael

    2013-06-01

    The need to generate income to fund drug misuse is assumed to be a driver of involvement in acquisitive crime. We examined the influence of drug misuse expenditure, and other factors, on acquisitive offending. Clients (N=1380) seeking drug treatment within 94 of 149 Drug Action Teams (DATs) across England completed a comprehensive survey, incorporating validated scales and self-report measures, such as levels of drug and alcohol use and offending. Forty per cent (N=554) had committed acquisitive crime in the previous month. Regression analysis showed that acquisitive offending was associated with the presence of problematic use of crack cocaine, poly-drug use, sharing injecting equipment, unsafe sex, overdose risk, higher drug spend, unemployment, reduced mental wellbeing, and younger age. Rates of acquisitive crime among drug users are high. Drug using offenders can be distinguished from drug using non-offenders by problematic crack cocaine use, younger age, income-related factors, and indicators of a chaotic life style and complex needs. Behavioural and demographic factors were associated more strongly with acquisitive crime than drug use expenditure, suggesting that the need to finance drug use is not necessarily the main factor driving acquisitive offending by drug users. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification of transformation products of pesticides and veterinary drugs in food and related matrices: use of retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, María Luz; Romero-González, Roberto; Vidal, José Luis Martínez; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2015-04-10

    Retrospective analysis has been applied in different samples, including honey, meat, feed and nutraceutical products from ginkgo biloba, soya, royal jelly and green tea, with the aim of searching transformation products of pesticides and veterinary drugs, which were not included in an initial analysis. Generic extraction and analytical procedures based on high resolution mass spectrometry (Exactive-Orbitrap analyser was used) have been applied. All obtained data have been reprocessed and some compounds as anhydroerythromycin in honey and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in feed have been detected, demonstrating the applicability and the utility of the procedure. Advantages and disadvantages of retrospective approach have been highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Botanical Drug Substance Crofelemer as a Model System for Comparative Characterization of Complex Mixture Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleindl, Peter A; Xiong, Jian; Hewarathna, Asha; Mozziconacci, Olivier; Nariya, Maulik K; Fisher, Adam C; Deeds, Eric J; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Schöneich, Christian; Volkin, David B; Forrest, M Laird

    2017-11-01

    Crofelemer is a botanical polymeric proanthocyanidin that inhibits chloride channel activity and is used clinically for treating HIV-associated secretory diarrhea. Crofelemer lots may exhibit significant physicochemical variation due to the natural source of the raw material. A variety of physical, chemical, and biological assays were used to identify potential critical quality attributes (CQAs) of crofelemer, which may be useful in characterizing differently sourced and processed drug products. Crofelemer drug substance was extracted from tablets of one commercial drug product lot, fractionated, and subjected to accelerated thermal degradation studies to produce derivative lots with variations in chemical and physical composition potentially representative of manufacturing and raw material variation. Liquid chromatography, UV absorbance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed substantial changes in the composition of derivative lots. A chloride channel inhibition cell-based bioassay suggested that substantial changes in crofelemer composition did not necessarily result in major changes to bioactivity. In 2 companion papers, machine learning and data mining approaches were applied to the analytical and biological data sets presented herein, along with chemical stability data sets derived from forced degradation studies, to develop an integrated mathematical model that can identify CQAs which are most relevant in distinguishing between different populations of crofelemer. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  10. 21 CFR 2.125 - Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs, devices, or cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., devices, or cosmetics. 2.125 Section 2.125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Specific Products Subject to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act § 2.125 Use of ozone-depleting substances in foods, drugs, devices, or cosmetics. (a) As used in this section, ozone-depleting substance...

  11. 75 FR 15387 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... relating to veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs. FDA's VFD regulation, which became effective on January... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration, 7500...

  12. Development of starch based mucoadhesive vaginal drug delivery systems for application in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gök, Mehmet Koray; Özgümüş, Saadet; Demir, Kamber; Cirit, Ümüt; Pabuccuoğlu, Serhat; Cevher, Erdal; Özsoy, Yıldız; Bacınoğlu, Süleyman

    2016-01-20

    The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate the mucoadhesive, biocompatible and biodegradable progesterone containing vaginal tablets based on modified starch copolymers for the estrus synchronization of ewes. Starch-graft-poly(acrylic acid) copolymers (S-g-PAA) were synthesized and characterized. The vaginal tablets were fabricated with S-g-PAA and their equilibrium swelling degree (Qe) and matrix erosion (ME%) were determined in lactate buffer solution. In vitro, mucoadhesive properties of the tablets were investigated by using ewe vaginal mucosa and in vivo residence time were also investigated. In vitro and in vivo progesterone release profiles from the tablets were compared with two commercial products. Tablet formulation containing wheat starch based grafted copolymer (WS-g-PAA)gc indicated promising results and might be convenient as an alternative product to the commercial products in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Influence of Household Substance Use on Children's Later Cigarette, Alcohol and Drug Use: A Three Factor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, I.; Willner, P.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the effect of family use of cigarettes, alcohol, and drugs on teenagers', aged 11-16 years old, later use of these substances. Adult drug use, whether of single substances or several, clearly influenced adolescents to use a variety of substances. Suggests a three-factor model comprising Modeling, Attitude, and Availability to explain the…

  14. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szandra Klátyik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU, and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively, and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively. Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects

  15. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  16. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  17. Effect of cell culture medium components on color of formulated monoclonal antibody drug substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Varma, Sharat; Yang, Yi; Mun, Melissa; Arevalo, Silvana; Gawlitzek, Martin; Swartz, Trevor; Lim, Amy; Li, Feng; Zhang, Boyan; Meier, Steve; Kiss, Robert

    2013-01-01

    As the industry moves toward subcutaneous delivery as a preferred route of drug administration, high drug substance concentrations are becoming the norm for monoclonal antibodies. At such high concentrations, the drug substance may display a more intense color than at the historically lower concentrations. The effect of process conditions and/or changes on color is more readily observed in the higher color, high concentration formulations. Since color is a product quality attribute that needs to be controlled, it is useful to study the impact of process conditions and/or modifications on color. This manuscript summarizes cell culture experiments and reports on findings regarding the effect of various media components that contribute to drug substance color for a specific monoclonal antibody. In this work, lower drug substance color was achieved via optimization of the cell culture medium. Specifically, lowering the concentrations of B-vitamins in the cell culture medium has the effect of reducing color intensity by as much as 25%. In addition, decreasing concentration of iron was also directly correlated color intensity decrease of as much as 37%. It was also shown that the color of the drug substance directly correlates with increased acidic variants, especially when increased iron levels cause increased color. Potential mechanisms that could lead to antibody coloration are briefly discussed. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  18. Prevalence and Types of Drugs and Substance Abuse as Expressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The motivation for this study was to find out the prevalence of drug use and abuse among youths in Calabar. The study also focused on the type of drugs that are mostly used and abused. Two research questions were posed one hypothesis formulated to guide the study. The subjects (2500 in all) were drawn from 15 post ...

  19. General methods of identification of narcotic substances in cadaveric urine and biochemical indices in blood at positive identification of drug substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychkov E.N.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present paper was to find effective biochemical markers of chronic narcotization. Materials and methods. The results of biochemical research of biological liquids in human organism and chromatographic methods of drug substances identification in cadaveric urine were analyzed. Research of 197 samples of different biologic liquids of 10 persons was carried out. Control was fulfilled on the basis of 135 samples of biological liquids took of 12 persons. Methods of identification of drug substances are presented, chromatographic and spectral characteristics of drug substances are described. Interrelations of biochemical indices at positive study of drug substances identification were conducted. The increased urea metabolic concentration in cadaveric blood of drug addicts was revealed in comparison with control specimens. Results. (Numeral results are given in Table 3. Correct correlation of biochemical markers was not established. Conclusion. The present results suppose continued study of informative reliable biochemical markers of chronic drug intoxication

  20. The veterinary drug ivermectin influences immune response in the yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Helen M. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)], E-mail: helen.west@nottingham.ac.uk; Tracy, Saoirse R. [Division of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, School of Biosciences, University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a key enzyme involved in the immune response of insects. We show that egg-to-adult exposure to residues of 0.001, but not 0.0005 mg kg{sup -1} ivermectin elevated PO activity in yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) developing in cattle dung. Fly fat content was unaffected by the treatments. Therefore, the response of PO was a direct effect of ivermectin and not an indirect one caused by an alteration in body 'condition'. This supports the non-intuitive conclusion that flies surviving exposure to faecal residues may have enhanced immune function. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the effects on PO activity of insecticidal residues in livestock dung. The non-target effects of such residues are of wide interest, given the global use of veterinary products. - Phenoloxidase activity in Scathophaga stercoraria is enhanced by ivermectin and that effect is transferred to the adult fly from the larval stage.

  1. Ion-exchange solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yanmei; Xuan, Yanfang; Song, Wei; Si, Wenshuai; Zhao, Zhihui; Rao, Qinxiong

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers is crucial for an assessment of potential risks to soil microbial communities and human health. We develop a robust and sensitive method to quantitatively determine 19 veterinary drugs (amantadine, sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones) in organic fertilizers. The method involved a simple solid-liquid extraction step using the combination of acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer as extraction solvent, followed by cleanup with a solid-phase extraction cartridge containing polymeric mixed-mode anion-exchange sorbents. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to separate and detect target analytes. We particularly focused on the optimization of sample clean-up step: different diluents and dilution factors were tested. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, sensitivity and specificity. The recoveries of all the drugs ranged from 70.9% to 112.7% at three concentration levels, with the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 15.7%. The limits of quantification were between 1.0 and 10.0μg/kg for all the drugs. Matrix effect was minimized by matrix-matched calibration curves. The analytical method was successfully applied for the survey of veterinary drugs contamination in 20 compost samples. The results indicated that fluoroquinolones had higher incidence rate and mean concentration levels ranging from 31.9 to 308.7μg/kg compared with other drugs. We expect the method will provide the basis for risk assessment of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. In Vitro Research Tools in the Field of Human Immediate Drug Hypersensitivity and Their Present Use in Small Animal Veterinary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, Lavergne S.

    2016-01-01

    Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) are immune-mediated idiosyncratic adverse drug events. Type I DHR are often referred to as “immediate” and involve B lymphocyte-secreted IgE that bind to the membrane of basophils and mast cells, inducing their degranulation. This review presents various in vitro tests that were developed in the field of human type I HS and implemented as clinical diagnostic tools in human cases of immediate DHR. The respective strengths and weaknesses of each test will be discussed in parallel of validation data such as specificity and sensitivity whenever available. Some of them have also been used as diagnostic tools in veterinary medicine, but not in cases of immediate DHR. Most of these diagnostic tools can be categorized into humoral and cellular tests. The former tests measure serum concentrations of factors, such as histamine, tryptase, and drug-specific IgE. The latter assays quantify markers of drug-induced basophil activation or drug-specific lymphocyte proliferation. Pharmacogenetic markers have also been investigated in immediate DHR, but not as extensively as in non-immediate ones. Throughout, practical aspects and limitations of the tests, as well as sensitivity and specificity parameters, will be presented. In addition, the experience of veterinary medicine with these diagnostic tools will be summarized. However, to date, none of them has ever been reported in a veterinary case of type I DHR. PMID:29056660

  3. 'Designer drugs': update on the management of novel psychoactive substance misuse in the acute care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher D; Robert, Stefanie

    2014-08-01

    The use of novel psychoactive substances ('legal highs' or 'designer drugs') is increasing worldwide. Patients misusing such substances have been reported to experience severe or prolonged side effects requiring admission to acute or critical care wards. These complications can be life threatening if misdiagnosed or mismanaged. As physicians have traditionally had less involvement with the management of such patients compared with their colleagues in emergency departments an update in the management of such patients is indicated. Here we present a summary of the management of those novel substances with the potential for serious complications based on a review of current literature. © 2014 Royal College of Physicians.

  4. The substance specificity of psychosocial correlates of alcohol, tobacco, coffee and drug use by Czech women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubicka, L; Csémy, L; Kozený, J; Nespor, K

    1993-06-01

    The paper reports results of an analysis based on face-to-face interviews with two samples of Prague women aged 20-49: (1) a probabilistic sample (n = 718) of the Prague female population; and (2) a sample of 152 inpatients treated for substance dependence/abuse. Of the inpatients, 79% were diagnosed as alcohol dependent only, 15% as both alcohol dependent and drug dependent/abusers, 6% as drug dependent only. With very few exceptions, those with drug problems among the inpatients abused analgesics, hypnotics, or anxiolytics. With data obtained from the general population sample, two-stage hierarchical logistic regression was run with each of the eleven differently defined substance uses as dependent variables. Four demographic variables were entered as predictors into the regression equations in the first stage. From the seven potential risk factors of substance use statistically significant predictors were entered stepwise in stage two. The major result of the study is the specificity of the pattern of predictors related to each of the eleven considered substance uses. It is also found that in the general population the use of a particular substance is generally uncorrelated with the use of other substances. Alcohol use (even heavy alcohol use) has no relation to smoking, to the use of analgesics, hypnotics, anxiolytics--and is connected with a specific pattern of predictors.

  5. Annual banned-substance review-analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Geyer, Hans

    2017-11-17

    A number of high profile revelations concerning anti-doping rule violations over the past 12 months has outlined the importance of tackling prevailing challenges and reducing the limitations of the current anti-doping system. At this time, the necessity to enhance, expand and improve analytical test methods in response to the substances outlined in the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) Prohibited List represents an increasingly crucial task for modern sports drug testing programs. The ability to improve analytical testing methods often relies on the expedient application of novel information regarding superior target analytes for sports drug testing assays, drug elimination profiles, alternative test matrices, together with recent advances in instrumental developments. This annual banned-substance review evaluates literature published between October 2016 and September 2017 offering an in-depth evaluation of developments in these arenas and their potential application to substances reported in WADA's 2017 Prohibited List. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. 78 FR 664 - Establishment of Drug Codes for 26 Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... homologue) \\2\\ and 3 synthetic cathinones (mephedrone, MDPV, and methylone).\\3\\ DEA also issued a Notice of... cathinones (mephedrone and MDPV). However, DEA has posted a copy of the Secretary of Health and Human... Evaluation and Scheduling Recommendation regarding mephedrone and MDPV. In addition to establishing drug...

  7. VETSTAT - the Danish system for surveillance of the veterinary use of drugs for production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Bager, Flemming; Jacobsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries funds a monitoring system based on drug usage information collected at the herd level: VETSTAT. VETSTAT is constructed as a relational database and data originates from three sources: pharmacies, veterinarians and feed mills. All administration...

  8. 21 CFR 530.5 - Veterinary records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary records...

  9. The supply chain of medicinal controlled substances: addressing the Achilles heel of drug diversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, John J

    2012-09-01

    The escalation of prescription drug abuse in the U.S. has attracted the attention of public health and safety officials as well as others puzzled by how such a tightly regulated enterprise could so easily be breached by those seeking controlled substances for nonmedical use. Prescribers and patients who use, misuse, or, in some cases, redistribute or divert these drugs have figured prominently in government strategies aimed at addressing this issue. This review departs from this paradigm and focuses on wholesale drug distributors, a highly efficient and largely behinds-the-scene link in the supply chain of controlled substances. By law, distributors are required to identify and report to the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) orders for controlled substances that are suspicious and may indicate drug diversion. Ten cases are examined in which distributors were each charged with failing to prevent the diversion of millions of doses of controlled substances. Special attention is given to a payment system employed by the industry that may encourage this unlawful commerce. Court records, agency and industry reports, and other published sources are used to document referenced cases and their disposition, and recommendations are offered for improving distributors' compliance with the law.

  10. Inkjet printing of drug substances and use of porous substrates-towards individualized dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Niklas; Määttänen, Anni; Ihalainen, Petri; Kronberg, Leif; Meierjohann, Axel; Viitala, Tapani; Peltonen, Jouko

    2011-08-01

    Medicines are most often oral solid dosage forms made into tablets or capsules, and there is little room for individualized doses. The drug substance and additives are processed through multiple production phases, including complex powder handling steps. In drug manufacturing, the control of the solid-state properties of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) is essential and it offers opportunities for enhancement of drug delivery systems. In this context, inkjet printing technologies have emerged over the last decades in pharmaceutical and biological applications and offer solutions for controlling material and product characteristics with high precision. Here we report the concept of conventional inkjet printing technology to produce printable pharmaceutical dosage forms on porous substrates. Data are shown to demonstrate inkjet printing of APIs into paper substrates, and how the model drug substances (paracetamol, theophylline, and caffeine) are penetrating the porous substrates used. The method enables controlling not only the deposition but also the crystallization of the drug substances. We anticipate that the inkjet printing approach has immense potential in making sophisticated drug delivery systems by use of porous substrates in the future. For example, it may offer new perspectives for solving problems around poorly soluble drugs and dosing low-dose medicines accurately. Furthermore, with the advent of genetic mapping of humans, controlled inkjet dosing can bring solutions to fabricate on-demand individualized medicines for patients. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Examining the measurement of novel drug perceptions: Salvia divinorum, gender, and peer substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Bryan Lee; Boman, John H; Stogner, John

    2013-01-01

    Researchers commonly use a person's perception of the drug use of friends to determine the impact that peers exert on one's own behavior. Recently, there has been concern over this measure's validity. Novel drugs, which are either newly discovered drugs or existing substances only recently used for recreational purposes, may be used so infrequently that people have too few observable opportunities to accurately develop perceptions of their peer's use. Employing survey data collected in 2009 from 2,154 individuals within friendship pairs in the Southeast United States, we explore how gender affects perceptions of the infrequently used, novel drug Salvia divinorum. The study's limitations are noted.

  12. Anticonvulsant drugs in the treatment of substance withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zullino, Daniele Fabio; Khazaal, Yasser; Hättenschwiler, Josef; Borgeat, François; Besson, Jacques

    2004-07-01

    Although detoxification cannot, in itself, be considered a treatment for addiction, it is one of the most pivotal phases. In order to facilitate entry into recovery and/or rehabilitation programs, a detoxification treatment has to be experienced as easy and safe by the patient. In consideration of the many inconveniences related to standard withdrawal treatments, there is an interest in developing alternative pharmacological strategies. The main rationales for using anticonvulsants in substance-abuse patients are their lack of addiction potential, evidence support a role of kindling mechanisms in withdrawal syndromes and their efficacy in comorbid psychiatric disorders. The available data currently support the utilization of carbamazepine as a treatment for detoxification from benzodiazepines, alcohol and opiates, and as a useful agent to reduce cocaine consumption. The use of valproate is well corroborated for alcohol detoxification and it seems to be a promising treatment for the reduction of cocaine use; however, it has been found to be ineffective against benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. Some preliminary data suggest that lamotrigine could be useful in opiate and cocaine dependence. Gabapentin shows potential as a treatment for cocaine dependence, and some case reports have stimulated interest in this agent for alcohol and benzodiazepine detoxification. Due to its particular pharmacological profile, topiramate is one of the most interesting newer anticonvulsants. It has been found to be efficacious in opiate and possibly benzodiazepine detoxification and also has theoretical potential as a preventive therapy.

  13. Change in delay discounting and substance reward value following a brief alcohol and drug use intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennhardt, Ashley A; Yurasek, Ali M; Murphy, James G

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined (1) the impact of a brief substance use intervention on delay discounting and indices of substance reward value (RV), and (2) whether baseline values and posttreatment change in these behavioral economic variables predict substance use outcomes. Participants were 97 heavy drinking college students (58.8% female, 41.2% male) who completed a brief motivational intervention (BMI) and then were randomized to one of two conditions: a supplemental behavioral economic intervention that attempted to increase engagement in substance-free activities associated with delayed rewards (SFAS) or an Education control (EDU). Demand intensity, and Omax, decreased and elasticity significantly increased after treatment, but there was no effect for condition. Both baseline values and change in RV, but not discounting, predicted substance use outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Students with high RV who used marijuana were more likely to reduce their use after the SFAS intervention. These results suggest that brief interventions may reduce substance reward value, and that changes in reward value are associated with subsequent drinking and drug use reductions. High RV marijuana users may benefit from intervention elements that enhance future time orientation and substance-free activity participation. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  14. Assessment of Substances Abuse in Burn Patients by Using Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Gaseminegad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.

  15. Simultaneous determination of multi-class veterinary drugs in chicken processed foods and muscle using solid-supported liquid extraction clean-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Souichi; Nagano, Chieko; Kanda, Maki; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Matsushima, Yoko; Nakajima, Takayuki; Tsuruoka, Yumi; Nagata, Marie; Koike, Hiroshi; Sekimura, Kotaro; Hashimoto, Tsuneo; Takano, Ichiro; Shindo, Tetsuya

    2017-07-01

    We developed a simultaneous determination method for 37 veterinary drugs in two chicken processed foods (deep-fried chicken and non-fried chicken cutlet) and muscle via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The veterinary drugs belong to 7 different classes, including 4 antifolics, 4 benzimidazoles, 5 macrolides, 7 polyethers, 2 quinolones, 7 sulfonamides, and 8 other classes. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate followed by acetonitrile with salt and buffers extraction. The two-step extraction enabled analyte extraction from highly lipid samples. The clean-up procedure, a solid-supported liquid extraction clean-up using a diatomaceous earth mini-cartridge, eliminated lipid co-extraction. The prepared sample matrix did not have an effect on the 36 analytes. The method was validated in accordance with the requirements of Japanese validation guidelines. Almost all targeted veterinary drugs successfully satisfied the guideline criteria in the three types of food matrices. The method exhibited recoveries of 70-105%, and the precision of repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility ranged from 1 to 11% and 1 to 15%, respectively. The limits of quantification were estimated to range from 0.2 to 1.0μg/kg. Applying this method to samples commercially available in Tokyo, residues were detected in 3 out of 26 deep-fried chickens, 5 out of 20 non-fried chicken cutlets, and 17 out of 39 chicken muscles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Personality psychopathology, drug use and psychological symptoms in adolescents with substance use disorders and community controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Magallón-Neri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Substance use is a risk behavior that tends to increase during adolescence, a time when part of the personality is still in development. Traditionally, personality psychopathology has been measured in terms of categories, although dimensional models have demonstrated better consistency. This study aimed to analyze differences in personality profiles between adolescents with substance use disorders (SUD n = 74 and matched community controls (MCC n = 74 using the Personality Psychopathology Five (PSY-5 dimensional model. Additionally, we compared age at first drug use, level of drug use and internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the groups. In this study, the PSY-5 model has proved to be useful for differentiating specific personality disturbances in adolescents with SUD and community adolescents. The Disconstraint scale was particularly useful for discriminating adolescents with substance use problems and the Delinquent Attitudes facet offered the best differentiation.

  17. 78 FR 79465 - International Drug Scheduling; Convention on Psychotropic Substances; Single Convention on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... on availability for medical use of 26 drug substances. These comments will be considered in preparing... alphabetically the brand names available in your country (there is no need for dosage forms, strengths, etc... intended to regulate its availability in the country? (Yes/No) If ``yes,'' please select which one...

  18. Exploring the Attractiveness of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) among Experienced Drug Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam, J.G.C.; Nabben, T.; Keiman, D.; Haanschoten, G.; Korf, D.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of New Psychoactive Substances (NPS) appear yearly on the European market (81 for the first time in 2013, adding to a total of over 350 NPS). Using semi-structured interviews with 25 Dutch experienced recreational drug users, the role of the Internet and friends in gathering and

  19. Drugs and violent death: comparative toxicology of homicide and non-substance toxicity suicide victims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darke, Shane; Duflou, Johan; Torok, Michelle

    2009-06-01

    To determine the comparative toxicology of death by homicide and suicide by means other than substance toxicity. Cross-sectional (autopsy reports). Sydney, Australia. A total of 1723 cases of violent death were identified, comprising 478 homicide (HOM) cases and 1245 non-substance toxicity suicide (SUI) cases. Substances were detected in 65.5% of cases, and multiple substances in 25.8%, with no group differences. Illicit drugs were detected in 23.9% of cases, and multiple illicit in 5.3%. HOM cases were significantly more likely to have an illicit drug [odds ratio (OR) 2.09] and multiple illicits (OR 2.94), detected, HOM cases being more likely to have cannabis (OR 2.39), opioids (OR 1.53) and psychostimulants (OR 1.59) present. HOM cases were, however, significantly less likely to have benzodiazepines (OR 0.53), antidepressants (OR 0.22) and antipsychotics (OR 0.23) present. Alcohol was present in 39.6% of cases (median blood alcohol concentration = 0.12), with no group difference in prevalence. The role drugs play in premature death extends far beyond overdose and disease, with illicit drugs associated strongly with homicide.

  20. 78 FR 9397 - International Drug Scheduling; Convention on Psychotropic Substances; World Health Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... Research, Controlled Substance Staff, Food and Drug Administration, Bldg. 51, rm. 5150, 10903 New Hampshire... from the WHO, whose assessments shall be determinative as to medical and scientific matters, and... meeting and recommended it for critical review at a future meeting. The WHO ECDD met in Hammamet, Tunisia...

  1. Drug Testing US Student-Athletes for Performance-Enhancing Substance Misuse: A Flawed Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The author argues that drug testing of U.S. high school students for performance-enhancing substance misuse is invasive, expensive, and the low number of positive test results do not justify the costs, especially in financially strapped school districts where this money would be better spent on injury prevention for athletes and the education of all students.

  2. Use of substance and non-prescription drugs by pregnant Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Only 2.9% admitted to using tobacco. Conclusion: Alcohol consumption in pregnancy appears to be higher in the older pregnant Nigerians. The implications of use in early pregnancy and during labour are highlighted. Key Words: Non-prescription drugs, Substance use, Pregnant Women, Nigeria (J College Med: 2003 8(1): ...

  3. Molecular Target Homology as a Basis for Species Extrapolation to Assess the Ecological Risk of Veterinary Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased identification of veterinary pharmaceutical contaminants in aquatic environments has raised concerns regarding potential adverse effects of these chemicals on non-target organisms. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for predictive species extrapolation ut...

  4. The role of the South American Agreement on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances in the fight against illicit drug trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagliotti, C N

    1983-01-01

    The States Parties to the South American Agreement on Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (ASEP), which entered into force on 26 March 1976, decided to co-ordinate measures to achieve close co-operation and the efficient exchange of information between States Parties to the Agreement in the fight against drug abuse and illicit drug traffic. To this end, ASEP organizes regional and international training courses, seminars and conferences on the subject of illicit drug trafficking; facilitates permanent exchange of information between the States Parties to the Agreement regarding drug law enforcement techniques and the methods resorted to by illicit traffickers; and maintains close technical co-operation with the International Criminal Police Organization (Interpol), the United Nations and other international agencies concerned with drug control. In addition, ASEP is involved in a number of activities that indirectly contribute to the suppression of illicit drug trafficking such as: the establishment of national drug control co-ordinating bodies; co-operation between States in the area of legislative measures conducive to drug control; and the operation of a computerized system designed to facilitate contacts between the various drug law enforcement agencies of the States Parties to ASEP.

  5. The legislative scheme of pre-trial destruction or lawful disposal of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, R K

    1992-01-01

    The present article provides a description of the practice of pre-trial destruction of seized narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances in India as provided for in the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973, and the Customs Act, 1962, and in the context of the United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances of 1988. It includes explanations of why, as well as how, the pre-trial destruction of such substances should be carried out.

  6. Metabolic syndrome in drug naïve patients with substance use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathla, Manish; Singh, Manpreet; Anjum, Shazia; Kulhara, Parmanand; Jangli, Satyarth

    Metabolic syndrome is a combination of insulin resistance, impaired glucose regulation, dyslipidemia, hypertension, microalbuminuria and obesity and this increases the risk for diabetes, myocardial infarction and thus increases the risk of mortality. Substance dependence is considered as a prominent risk factor for metabolic syndrome, but not much work has been done in this field. Thus this study is aimed to know the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in drug naïve substance users. A total of 50 consecutive indoor drug naive patients with substance dependence (as per ICD 10) were included. Metabolic syndrome was assessed as per WHO criteria for metabolic syndrome. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0 software and Chi square test was applied. Of the 50 subjects (46% used alcohol; 26% used opioid and 28% were multiple substance users), a total of 20% of the subjects met the WHO criteria for metabolic syndrome and all of them were only alcoholics. Commonest abnormalities were low HDL (48%), raised SBP/DBP (26%/22%) and TG's (18%). Age, weight, height, DBP and BMI were significant predictors of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a common entity seen in patients with substance abuse, especially in patients with alcohol use disorder, as seen in our study. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Perceptions about recovery needs and drug-avoidance recovery behaviors among youth in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Rachel; Anglin, M Douglas; Glik, Deborah C; Zavalza, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This study used mixed methods to explore youth attitudes about recovery-related needs and important drug-avoidance behaviors after treatment. Focus groups were conducted with 118 substance using youth in treatment (four residential and 10 outpatient settings) throughout Los Angeles County. The average age was 17.4 (SD = 2.9); 78.3% were male, 66.1% Latino; and most were in treatment for primary marijuana (40.9%) or methamphetamine (30.4%) abuse. Quantitatve results from the drug-avoidance activity survey identified the following factors youth rated as important to their recovery after treatment: lifestyle improvement activities (95.7%); changing personal drug behaviors (89.6%); drug environment/culture change activities (82.5%); with the least important being therapeutic activities (78.5%). Qualitative findings from focus groups that asked what youth think are important for recovery programs to address after treatment revealed the following four areas: (1) recovery promotion to developmentally appropriate activities (95%); (2) facilitating the use of coping skills to deal with stress (85%); (3) offering alternative recovery support options (not just abstinence only) (75%); and (4) continuing to provide substance use education (65%). Findings highlight essential aspects of recovery in terms of need and drug-avoidance behaviors considered important to youth in treatment. Such information will help to better address clinical and recovery support models aimed at relapse prevention to ensure that the perceived problems of substance-abusing youth are adequately met.

  8. Awareness survey of so-called Dappou drugs or Kiken drugs (New Psychoactive Substances) among University Students in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse-Nagase, Yasuko; Saito, Fukumi; Hirohara, Toshie; Miyakawa, Happei

    2015-10-09

    Spread of new psychoactive substances (NPS) is a worldwide problem. In Japan, NPSs with psychoactive ingredients are called as "dappou drugs" or "kiken drugs." Their potential effect on the Japanese society cannot be ignored. We conducted an awareness survey of So-called Dappou Drugs or Kiken Drugs among the students of Ibaraki University, a national university in Japan, in April 2014. 3976 students (2425 men, 1406 women and 145 unspecified) participated in this study. 2813 (70.7 %) respondents were aware of dappou drugs. Only 39.5 % of the respondents selected the option of "ingredients that cause delusions and/or hallucinations may be included" in dappou drugs. 23.4 % of the respondents selected "the number of (dappou drug) users requiring emergency hospitalization due to acute intoxication is increasing". Of the respondents, 19 (0.5 %) reported that they had been invited to use dappou drugs previously, and 40 (1.0 %) had witnessed and/or heard of somebody close to them using the drugs. Those who drank alcohol every day and those who smoked had a higher chance of witnessing and/or hearing of somebody close to them using dappou drugs than those who did not drink or smoke, respectively. Japanese university students do not have sufficient knowledge about dappou drugs or kiken drugs to protect themselves from potential drug misuse. It is both important and urgent to educate Japanese university students about the harmful effects of dappou drugs; in addition, it is important to provide such knowledge before the students are allowed to legally drink and smoke.

  9. Activities and influence of veterinary drug marketers on antimicrobial usage in livestock production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Ernest Ojo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage in animals contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains. Investigations were carried out on how the characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of antimicrobial marketers influenced antimicrobials usage in animal production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to gather information about the characteristics and activities of antimicrobial marketers. Overall, 70 (56.9 % of 123 marketers had post-secondary education while 76 (61.8 % were trained on the use of antimicrobials. Eighteen (14.6 % of the marketers were licensed veterinarians. Only 51 (41.5 % marketers displayed adequate knowledge about antimicrobials and antimicrobial usage. Sixty-seven (54.6 % marketers requested a prescription before selling antimicrobials while 113 (91.9 % marketer recommended antimicrobials for use in animals. Two-third of the marketers (66.7 % prescribed antimicrobials without physically examining sick animals but based their prescriptions on verbal reports of clinical signs by farmers and on their personal experience. Marketers with higher educational qualification displayed more adequate knowledge of antimicrobials and antimicrobial usage than those with basic education background only. More years of experience in antimicrobial marketing did not translate to better knowledge on antimicrobial usage. Only 45 (36.6 % respondents were aware of the existence of regulatory agencies monitoring the use of antimicrobials in animals. Farmers ignored the services of veterinarians in the diagnosis and control of animal diseases but resorted to drug marketers for help. Effective communication of existing legislations on antimicrobial usage, improved access to veterinary services and strict enforcement of regulatory policies are recommended for checking non-judicious use of antimicrobial agents in animal production. Sales of

  10. [The actual Russian legislation in sphere of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A Yu; Kosolapova, N V; Mikhaiylova, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    The drug abuse is a social occurrence. Hence, the social economic methods are the first of all means of combating this evil. At the same time, measures of especially juridical character possess significant value since they develop corresponding legal base for applying another measures. In the Russian Federation, during fifteen years the new policy of public regulation and normative legal base in the area of legal turn-over of drug agents, psychotropic substances and their precursors were developed factually from zero ground. However, the current national legislation is not deprived of some flaws and contradictions. Frequently a uniform practice of interpretation and application of legal rules regulating the controlled turn-over is lacking. On the one hand, this circumstance decreases effectiveness of action of such rules and on the other hand favors development of situations for outflow of pharmaceuticals from legal turn-over to illegal traffic. The becoming of the Russian legislation in the area of turn-over of drug agents, precursors and psychotropic substances relates to the period of late 1990s when the Federal Law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 was developed and passed by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The given law completely conforms to principles of legal regulation of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (provisions 76, 90, 104, 105) and federal laws ("On the government of the Russian Federation" of December 17 1997, "On the ombudsman in the Russian Federation" of February 26 1997). The main characteristic of legal rules included into given group of sources of law is that they contain regulations of general disposition as basic ones for inferior sources of law. The analysis of basic Federal law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 makes it possible to conclude that in in Russia the international legal

  11. A critical assessment of the performance criteria in confirmatory analysis for veterinary drug residue analysis using mass spectrometric detection in selected reaction monitoring mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendsen, Bjorn J A; Meijer, Thijs; Wegh, Robin; Mol, Hans G J; Smyth, Wesley G; Armstrong Hewitt, S; van Ginkel, Leen; Nielen, Michel W F

    2016-05-01

    Besides the identification point system to assure adequate set-up of instrumentation, European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC includes performance criteria regarding relative ion abundances in mass spectrometry and chromatographic retention time. In confirmatory analysis, the relative abundance of two product ions, acquired in selected reaction monitoring mode, the ion ratio should be within certain ranges for confirmation of the identity of a substance. The acceptable tolerance of the ion ratio varies with the relative abundance of the two product ions and for retention time, CD 2002/657/EC allows a tolerance of 5%. Because of rapid technical advances in analytical instruments and new approaches applied in the field of contaminant testing in food products (multi-compound and multi-class methods) a critical assessment of these criteria is justified. In this study a large number of representative, though challenging sample extracts were prepared, including muscle, urine, milk and liver, spiked with 100 registered and banned veterinary drugs at levels ranging from 0.5 to 100 µg/kg. These extracts were analysed using SRM mode using different chromatographic conditions and mass spectrometers from different vendors. In the initial study, robust data was collected using four different instrumental set-ups. Based on a unique and highly relevant data set, consisting of over 39 000 data points, the ion ratio and retention time criteria for applicability in confirmatory analysis were assessed. The outcomes were verified based on a collaborative trial including laboratories from all over the world. It was concluded that the ion ratio deviation is not related to the value of the ion ratio, but rather to the intensity of the lowest product ion. Therefore a fixed ion ratio deviation tolerance of 50% (relative) is proposed, which also is applicable for compounds present at sub-ppb levels or having poor ionisation efficiency. Furthermore, it was observed that retention time

  12. Effect of drug substance particle size on the characteristics of granulation manufactured in a high-shear mixer

    OpenAIRE

    Badawy, Sherif I. Farags; Lee, Tara J.; Menning, Mark M.

    2000-01-01

    DPC 963 is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor with low aqueous solubility. The effect of DPC 963 drug substance particle size on the characteristics of granules manufactured by high-shear wet granulation was evaluated. The wet granulation process was used to manufacture a DPC 963 formulation with high drug loading. The formulation was manufactured using drug substance lots with different particle size distributions. Granulation particle size distribution, porosity, and compressi...

  13. Efficiency of the Clinical Veterinary Diagnostic Practices and Drug Choices for Infectious Diseases in Livestock in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, S. U.; Islam, A.

    2017-01-01

    As in most low-income countries, adequate laboratory facilities are not available in Bangladesh to assist veterinarians in diagnosing animal diseases. We aimed to determine the efficiency of veterinary diagnoses for two common ruminant diseases in Bangladesh: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR......) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). We conducted the study from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals where veterinarians collected samples from sick livestock and recorded the presumptive diagnosis on the basis of clinical presentations. Samples were tested for PPR and FMD using...

  14. Use of drugs, tobacco, alcohol and illicit substances in a French student population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommet, Agnès; Ferrières, Nicolas; Jaoul, Vidiane; Cadieux, Laurence; Soulat, Jean-Marc; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2012-01-01

    To investigate perceived health status and prevalence of drug use, tobacco smoking, consumption of alcohol and illicit substances in a student population. Data were obtained from an anonymous questionnaire distributed to first-year students of the Toulouse University. Collected data concerned socio-demographic characteristics, perceived health status, and consumption of tobacco, alcohol, illicit substances and drugs. Fifty seven percent of the 3 561 responders declared to have taken at least one drug during the week preceding the questionnaire. Most commonly Anatomical, Therapeutic and Chemical (ATC) classes used were genito-urinary system and sex hormones (29.6%), nervous system (16.4%) and alimentary tract and metabolism (14.1%). Twenty three percent of students were smokers. Differences according to health perception were found for tobacco and cannabis consumption. Anxiety was significantly more prevalent among students reporting that they did not consume alcohol (pconsumptions (tobacco, alcohol and illicit substances) are related with perceived health status. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  15. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among U.S. Veterans: Comparing Associations with Intimate Partner Substance Abuse and Veteran Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433

  16. Prevalence of psychoactive substances, alcohol, illicit drugs, and medicines, in Spanish drivers: a roadside study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Talegón, Trinidad; Fierro, Inmaculada; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; Colás, Monica; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Javier Álvarez, F

    2012-11-30

    Following population, geographic, road type and time criteria, Spain has carried out random, roadside controls of 3302 representative sample of Spanish drivers, including saliva analysis for 24 psychoactive substances and alcohol breath tests. The 81.4% of the drivers were male, with an average age of 34.8±11.8 (mean±SD). The 17% of the drivers were found to be positive to any of the substances analysed. The 6.6% of the drivers found positive to alcohol (>0.05 mg/l in breath), 11% were found positive to any illicit drug, and 2% were positive to one of the medicines analysed. Some drivers were positive in more than one substance. The most common illicit drugs among Spanish drivers were cannabis (7.7%), or cocaine (3.5%), either alone or combined with other substances. The most prevalent medicines were the benzodiazepines (1.6%). As a tendency, higher figures for positive cases were observed among males than in females (being statistically significant the differences for alcohol, cannabis and cocaine). Alcohol and cocaine positive cases were more frequently found among drivers of urban roads. Alcohol positive cases (alone, >0.05 mg/l), were more likely found as age increase (OR=1.02), those driving in urban roads (OR=2.13), and driving at any period than weekdays, while alcohol+drugs cases were more likely found among males (OR=2.819), those driving on urban road (OR=2.17) and driving at night periods. Finding a medicines positive case was more likely as elder the driver was (OR=1.05). There have been differences in the prevalence of positive cases of alcohol, cannabis and cocaine, in relation to the period of the week: in three cases the highest prevalence seen in night time. This study shows the high prevalence of psychoactive substances and alcohol in Spanish drivers, mainly illicit drugs (cannabis). This question requires a response from the authorities and from society, with an integral and multi-disciplinary approach that can heighten the population

  17. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: Chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Nan; Su Pu [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China); Gao Zhixian [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)], E-mail: gaozhx@163.com; Zhu Maoxiang; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Fang Yanjun; Chao Fuhuan [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)

    2009-01-19

    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed. Conjugates of chloramphenicol and clenbuterol coupled with bovine serum albumin were synthesized and purified. Probes of suspension array were constituted by coupling the three conjugates on the fluorescent microspheres/beads and the microstructures of the beads' surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy which was a direct confirmation for the successful conjugates' coupling. The optimal addition of conjugates and the amounts of antibodies were optimized and selected, respectively. Standard curves were plotted and the coefficient of determination-R{sup 2} was greater than 0.989 which suggested good logistic correlation. The detection ranges for the three veterinary drugs are 40-6.25 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, 50-7.81 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1} and 1 x 10{sup 3-}7.29 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, respectively and the lowest detection limits (LDLs) of them are 40, 50 and 1000 ng L{sup -1}, respectively. The suspension array is specific and has no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. Meanwhile, unknown samples were detected by suspension array and ELISA in comparison with each other. The errors between found and real for the detection of the unknown samples were relatively small to both of the two methods, whereas, the detection ranges of suspension array are broader and sensitive than that of the traditional ELISA. The high-throughput suspension array is proved to be a novel method for multi-analysis of veterinary drugs with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost.

  18. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Su, Pu; Gao, Zhixian; Zhu, Maoxiang; Yang, Zhihua; Pan, Xiujie; Fang, Yanjun; Chao, Fuhuan

    2009-01-19

    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed. Conjugates of chloramphenicol and clenbuterol coupled with bovine serum albumin were synthesized and purified. Probes of suspension array were constituted by coupling the three conjugates on the fluorescent microspheres/beads and the microstructures of the beads' surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy which was a direct confirmation for the successful conjugates' coupling. The optimal addition of conjugates and the amounts of antibodies were optimized and selected, respectively. Standard curves were plotted and the coefficient of determination-R(2) was greater than 0.989 which suggested good logistic correlation. The detection ranges for the three veterinary drugs are 40-6.25x10(5) ng L(-1), 50-7.81x10(5) ng L(-1) and 1x10(3-)7.29x10(5) ng L(-1), respectively and the lowest detection limits (LDLs) of them are 40, 50 and 1000 ng L(-1), respectively. The suspension array is specific and has no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. Meanwhile, unknown samples were detected by suspension array and ELISA in comparison with each other. The errors between found and real for the detection of the unknown samples were relatively small to both of the two methods, whereas, the detection ranges of suspension array are broader and sensitive than that of the traditional ELISA. The high-throughput suspension array is proved to be a novel method for multi-analysis of veterinary drugs with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost.

  19. Carry-over of veterinary drugs from medicated to non-medicated feeds in commercial feed manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Egmond, van H.J.; Deckers, E.R.; Herbes, R.; Hooglught, J.; Olde Heuvel, E.; Jong, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Different compound feeds have to be manufactured in the same production line. As a consequence, traces of the first produced feed may remain in the production and get mixed with the next feed batches. This "carry-over" is unavoidable, and so non-medicated feed can be contaminated with veterinary

  20. The role of veterinary medicine regulatory agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M V

    2013-08-01

    An effective animal medicine regulatory programme includes a systematic, evidence-based means of documenting the safety and effectiveness of products before they are produced, marketed or used in a particular country or region. The programme must also include adequate monitoring and controls over the use of these substances. It is clearthat such programmes provide veterinarians, farmers and other animal medicine users with greater assurance that veterinary drugs and biologicals will be safe and effective in preventing and mitigating disease. It is important that these regulatory controls include programmes to ensure that human food obtained from treated animals is safe and that all potential toxicological and microbiological hazards that may be associated with the use of veterinary medicines have been adequately evaluated. There is a great need worldwide for veterinary medicines that provide needed therapies for vast numbers of animals and animal species and, in the case of food-producing animals, for medicinal products that enhance the productivity and efficiency of food production and ensure food safety when they are used in accordance with their approval specifications. The public health mission of regulatory agencies succeeds when they are able to put into the hands of the user an approved, safe and effective, well-manufactured and appropriately labelled medicine, and when there are adequate controls in place to assure proper compliance.

  1. HOMEOPATHY IN VETERINARY MEDICINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Šuran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Homeopathy is an alternative medicine practice, which has been used for the past 200 years but, until now, scientific methods have not proven its effectiveness. The use of highly diluted natural substances based on the principal that similar heals similar is contrary to the scientific theories of the conventional medicine. In veterinary medicine homeopathic remedies are most frequently used for chronic conditions of small animals, but also their application in organic farming is increasing. Minimal number of clinical studies about the use of homeopathy in veterinary medicine has been published in scientific literature. The results of effectiveness are contradictory, which can be explained by being a consequence of different research methodologies. However, there is a significant inverse proportionality between the quality of research and results that approve of the use of homeopathy. In evidence based veterinary medicine scientific approach is fundamental for objective diagnostics and treatment prescription, and homeopathy is an excellent teaching model for possible methodological failures in scientific research. Key words: homeopathy, alternative medicine, evidence based veterinary medicine

  2. Relationship between drug dreams, affect, and craving during treatment for substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Hélène; Zadra, Antonio; Good, Daniel; Leri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between occurrence of drug dreams (DDs) and daytime negative affect and drug craving during the course of a 5-week treatment program for substance dependence. Using the dream journal methodology, 86 participants reported occurrence of dreams, dream content, and ratings of affect and drug craving. The relationships between the experience of DD, dream content ("active" vs "passive"), and affect and craving were analyzed using mixed model methods. The experience of DD was associated with higher levels of negative affect (P < 0.001) and craving (P < 0.001). The occurrence of DD did not decrease significantly over the 5 weeks of the study. Cocaine/crack users reported a higher occurrence of DD (P < 0.05) than the other drug groups (opiates and alcohol), and DD involving "active" drug use was associated with larger (P < 0.05) changes in negative affect. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that DD can act as drug-conditioned stimuli to elevate negative affect and craving in abstaining individuals. Although correlational, such findings support the implementation of psychological and pharmacological interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of DD on individuals in recovery from drug addiction.

  3. Novel Psychoactive Substances-Recent Progress on Neuropharmacological Mechanisms of Action for Selected Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Zurina; Bosch, Oliver G; Singh, Darshan; Narayanan, Suresh; Kasinather, B Vicknasingam; Seifritz, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes; Quednow, Boris B; Müller, Christian P

    2017-01-01

    A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use. With these measures, however, a drug does not disappear, but frequently continues to be used, which eventually allows an even better estimate of the drug's properties. Thus, only in rare cases, there is a final verdict that is no more questioned. Instead, the view on a drug can change from tolerable to harmful but may also involve the new establishment of a desired medical application to a previously harmful drug. Here, we provide a summary review on a number of NPS for which the neuropharmacological evaluation has made important progress in recent years. They include mitragynine ("Kratom"), synthetic cannabinoids (e.g., "Spice"), dimethyltryptamine and novel serotonergic hallucinogens, the cathinones mephedrone and methylone, ketamine and novel dissociative drugs, γ-hydroxybutyrate, γ-butyrolactone, and 1,4-butanediol. This review shows not only emerging harm potentials but also some potential medical applications.

  4. PTSD symptom presentation among people with alcohol and drug use disorders: Comparisons by substance of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Wanklyn, Sonya; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Coffey, Scott F

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accounted for the presence of comorbidity across types of SUDs in understanding symptom patterns. Thus, in the current study, we use a treatment-seeking sample of people with elevated symptoms of PTSD and problem alcohol use to explore differential associations between past-year SUDs with active use and PTSD symptoms, while accounting for the presence of multiple SUDs. When comparing alcohol and drug use disorders, avoidance symptoms were elevated in those with alcohol use disorder, and hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in those who had a drug use disorder. In the subsample with alcohol use disorder, hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring cocaine use disorders and numbing symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic use disorder. These findings provide evidence for different symptom cluster patterns between PTSD and various types of SUDs and highlight the importance of examining the functional relationship between specific substances of abuse when understanding the interplay between PTSD and SUDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    There has been an immense amount of visibility of doping issues on the international stage over the past 12 months with the complexity of doping controls reiterated on various occasions. Hence, analytical test methods continuously being updated, expanded, and improved to provide specific, sensitive, and comprehensive test results in line with the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) 2016 Prohibited List represent one of several critical cornerstones of doping controls. This enterprise necessitates expediting the (combined) exploitation of newly generated information on novel and/or superior target analytes for sports drug testing assays, drug elimination profiles, alternative test matrices, and recent advances in instrumental developments. This paper is a continuation of the series of annual banned-substance reviews appraising the literature published between October 2015 and September 2016 concerning human sports drug testing in the context of WADA's 2016 Prohibited List. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Increased Incidence of Spinal Abscess and Substance Abuse after Implementation of State Mandated Prescription Drug Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vittal R; Springer, Joe E; Salles, Sara

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse in a tertiary care hospital after state legislation titled "House Bill 1" (HB1) mandated stricter regulation of prescription drugs of abuse in Kentucky in 2012. A retrospective case series study design was used to review the incidence of spinal abscess and drug abuse diagnoses admissions from 2010 to 2014. Variances in the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse were plotted across this time frame. The incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 1.56-fold in 2011 (n = 26) and 2012 (n = 25) relative to 2010 (n = 16). However, in 2013, the year following implementation of HB1 legislation, the incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 2.38-fold (n = 38) and then 4.19-fold (n = 67) in 2014. The incidence of intraspinal abscess in subjects with drug abuse diagnosis remained constant between 2010 (n = 3) and 2012 (n = 3). However, it increased twofold (n = 7) in 2013 and then ninefold (n = 27) in 2014. A correlation coefficient (rSAD ) of 0.775 revealed a strong association between the increase incidence of intraspinal abscess and diagnosis of drug abuse. The results of this retrospective study demonstrate an increased incidence of intraspinal abscess associated with drug abuse after passage of HB1 legislation regulating prescriptions of controlled medications in Kentucky. This increased incidence may be related to individuals relying on nonprescription drugs of abuse due to more highly regulated access to controlled prescription medications. However, additional factors unrelated to HB1 legislation must be taken into account. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Recommendations for Clinical Pathology Data Generation, Interpretation, and Reporting in Target Animal Safety Studies for Veterinary Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siska, William; Gupta, Aradhana; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Tripathi, Niraj; von Beust, Barbara

    Clinical pathology testing is routinely performed in target animal safety studies in order to identify potential toxicity associated with administration of an investigational veterinary pharmaceutical product. Regulatory and other testing guidelines that address such studies provide recommendations for clinical pathology testing but occasionally contain outdated analytes and do not take into account interspecies physiologic differences that affect the practical selection of appropriate clinical pathology tests. Additionally, strong emphasis is often placed on statistical analysis and use of reference intervals for interpretation of test article-related clinical pathology changes, with limited attention given to the critical scientific review of clinically, toxicologically, or biologically relevant changes. The purpose of this communication from the Regulatory Affairs Committee of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology is to provide current recommendations for clinical pathology testing and data interpretation in target animal safety studies and thereby enhance the value of clinical pathology testing in these studies.

  8. A generic static headspace gas chromatography method for determination of residual solvents in drug substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chang; Liu, Shaorong; Mueller, Bradford J; Yan, Zimeng

    2010-10-08

    In order to increase productivity of drug analysis in the pharmaceutical industry, an efficient and sensitive generic static headspace gas chromatography (HSGC) method was successfully developed and validated for the determination of 44 classes 2 and 3 solvents of International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guideline Q3C, as residual solvents in drug substance. In order to increase the method sensitivity and efficiency in sample equilibration, dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was selected as the sample diluent based on its high capacity of dissolving drug substance, stability and high boiling point. The HS sample equilibration temperature and equilibration time are assessed in ranges of 125-150°C and 8-15 min, respectively. The results indicate that the residual solvents in 200mg of drug substance can be equilibrated efficiently in HS sampler at 140°C for 10 min. The GC parameters, e.g. sample split ratio, carrier flow rate and oven temperature gradient are manipulated to enhance the method sensitivity and separation efficiency. The two-stage gradient GC run from 35 to 240°C, using an Agilent DB-624 capillary column (30 m long, 0.32 mm I.D., 1.8 μm film thickness), is suitable to determine 44 ICH classes 2 and 3 solvents in 30 min. The method validation results indicate that the method is accurate, precise, linear and sensitive for solvents assessed. The recoveries of most of these solvents from four drug substances are greater than 80% within the method determination ranges. However, this method is not suitable for the 10 remaining ICH classes 2 and 3 solvents, because they are too polar (e.g. formic acid and acidic acid), or have boiling points higher than 150°C, (e.g. anisol and cumene). In comparison with the previous published methods, this method has a much shorter sample equilibration time, a better separation for many solvents, a higher sensitivity and a broader concentration range. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniye Imamoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n=18. The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices.

  10. Wide-scope analysis of pesticide and veterinary drug residues in meat matrices by high resolution MS: detection and identification using Exactive-Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, María Luz; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Génin, Eric; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    A multiresidue and multiclass method for the simultaneous determination of more than 350 compounds including pesticides, biopesticides and veterinary drugs in different meat matrices (beef, pork and chicken) by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap MS has been developed. In the present study, the determination of fragments was accomplished as an essential tool for a reliable identification of compounds using high resolution MS. To obtain these fragments, different strategies have been carried out in order to ensure an appropriate fragment assignment and identification. The analytical method is suitable for qualitative analysis, and it was also evaluated for quantitative analysis. Generic extraction conditions were optimized, obtaining adequate recovery and precision values for most of the studied analytes (>290). The limits of detection ranged from 2 to 16 µg kg(-1). Limits of quantification were 10 µg kg(-1) with the exception of few compounds with a higher value (50 or 100 µg kg(-1)). Limits of identification were also established, and they ranged from 2 to 150 µg kg(-1). This method was applied to the analysis of 18 meat samples and some veterinary drugs as enrofloxacin and sulfadiazine were detected and further identified/quantified (with triple quadrupole) in two different samples at 33 µg kg(-1) and trace levels, respectively. No pesticides were detected in the analyzed samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Analysis of veterinary drug residues in frog legs and other aquacultured species using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Sherri B; Clark, Susan B; Storey, Joseph M; Carr, Justin R

    2012-05-09

    A liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-TOF) mass spectrometry method was developed to analyze veterinary drug residues in frog legs and other aquacultured species. Samples were extracted using a procedure based on a method developed for the analysis of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in fish. Briefly, the tissue was extracted with dilute acetic acid and acetonitrile with added sodium chloride. After centrifugation, the extracts were evaporated and reconstituted in mobile phase. A molecular weight cutoff filter was used to clean up the final extract. A set of target compounds, including trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, quinolones, and FQs, was used to validate the method. Screening of residues was accomplished by collecting TOF (MS¹) data and comparing the accurate mass and retention times of compounds to a database containing information for veterinary drugs. An evaluation of the MS data in fortified frog legs indicated that the target compounds could be consistently detected at the level of concern. The linearity and recoveries from matrix were evaluated for these analytes to estimate the amount of residue present. MS/MS data were also generated from precursor ions, and the mass accuracy of the product ions for each compound was compared to theoretical values. When the method was used to analyze imported frog legs, many of these residues were found in the samples, often in combination and at relatively high concentrations (>10 ng/g). The data from these samples were also evaluated for nontarget analytes such as residue metabolites and other chemotherapeutics.

  12. Comprehensive qualitative and quantitative determination of pesticides and veterinary drugs in honey using liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, María Luz; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Romero-González, Roberto; Martínez-Vidal, José Luis; Garrido-Frenich, Antonia

    2012-07-27

    A database has been created for the simultaneous analysis of more than 350 pesticides and veterinary drugs (including antibiotics) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Orbitrap-MS). This is a comprehensive exact mass database built using the Exactive-Orbitrap analyzer. The developed database includes exact masses of the target ions and retention time data, and allows the automatic search of the included compounds. Generic chromatographic and MS conditions have been applied. The presented database is suitable for qualitative analysis, and it was also evaluated for quantitative purposes in routine analysis, after the optimization and validation of a generic extraction method in honey samples. Adequate recovery and precision values for most of the studied analytes were obtained and the limits of detection (LOD) ranged from 1 to 50 μg kg(-1). For pesticides, LODs were always lower than the MRLs established by European Union in honey, except for a few compounds. This method was applied to the analysis of 26 real honey samples and some pesticides (azoxystrobin, coumaphos, dimethoate and thiacloprid) were detected in 4 samples. Azoxystrobin and coumaphos were determined in two different samples (organic honey) at 1.5 μg kg(-1) and 5.1 μg kg(-1). Veterinary drugs were not detected in the analyzed samples. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. [New drugs for small animals in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Ilka Ute

    2017-05-17

    In 2016, two active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for small animals: the mineralocorticoid Desoxycorticosterone (Zycortal®) and Sarolaner (Simparica®), an ectoparasiticide of the isoxazoline group. One substance has been authorized for an additional species; Fluralaner (Bravecto®), also an ectoparasiticide of the isoxazoline group, is now authorized for use in cats. Additionally, one veterinary drug with a new combination of active ingredients, one active substance in mono-preparation and two veterinary drugs with a new pharmaceutical form have been launched on the market for small animals.

  14. Drugs of Abuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances at Outdoor Music Festivals in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jacob; Smith, Alexis; Yale, Alexander; Chow, Christopher; Alaswad, Elsa; Cushing, Tracy; Monte, Andrew A

    2017-11-17

    Drugs of abuse (DOA) are widely used in the United States and are ubiquitous at outdoor music festivals. Attendees at music festivals are at high-risk for novel psychoactive substance (NPS) use, which is becoming more prevalent worldwide. No U.S. studies have employed an qualitative approach to investigate the etiologies of both traditional DOA and NPS use amongst music festival attendees. The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of festival attendees using NPS and DOA. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 171 attendees during the Sonic Bloom and Arise music festivals in Colorado in 2015 and 2016. Discrete variables were summarized with descriptive statistics. The anonymous, multi-domain interview documented the knowledge, attitudes beliefs, and practices underlying DOA use, which were analyzed with qualitative methods. We enrolled 171 participants that endorsed DOA use at the festivals. Most were experienced DOA users, who perceived minimal risks associated with DOA and NPS use. Nearly all unanimously reported normalization of DOA at music festivals. Participants popularly cited empathogenic, entactogenic, and entheogenic effects of DOA as their primary motivations for use. NPS use was endorsed by 39.8% (n = 68) of respondents, all of whom identified as being experienced DOA users. This population of novel psychoactive substance users is primarily composed of experienced drug users that endorsed use because of low cost, minimal perceived risk, accessibility, and normalization of drug use at music festivals.

  15. Policing, massive street drug testing and poly-substance use chaos in Georgia - a policy case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiashvili, David; Tabatadze, Mzia; Balanchivadze, Nino; Kirtadze, Irma

    2016-01-16

    Since early 2000, intensive policing, wide scale street drug testing, and actions aimed at limiting the availability of specific drugs have been implemented in Georgia. Supporters of this approach argue that fear of drug testing and resulting punishment compels drug users to stop using and prevents youth from initiating drug use. It has been also stated that reduction in the availability of specific drugs should be seen as an indication of the overall success of counter-drug efforts. The aim of the current review is to describe the drug-related law enforcement response in Georgia and its impact on illicit drug consumption and drug-related harm. We reviewed relevant literature that included peer-reviewed scientific articles, stand-alone research reports, annual drug situation reports, technical reports and program data. This was also supplemented by the review of relevant legislation and judicial practices for the twelve year period between 2002 and 2014. Every episode of reduced availability of any "traditional" injection drug was followed by the discovery/introduction of a new injection preparation. The pattern of drug consumption was normally driven by users' attempts to substitute their drug of choice through mixing together available alternative substances. Chaotic poly-substance use and extensive utilization of home-made injection drugs, prepared from toxic precursors, became common. Massive random street drug testing had little or no effect on the prevalence of problem drug use. Intensive harassment of drug users and exclusive focus on reducing the availability of specific drugs did not result in reduction of the prevalence of injecting drug use. Repressive response of Georgian anti-drug authorities relied heavily on consumer sanctions, which led to shifts in drug users' behavior. In most cases, these shifts were associated with the introduction and use of new toxic preparations and subsequent harm to the physical and mental health of drug consumers.

  16. Targeting the environmental assessment of veterinary drugs with the multi-species-soil system (MS{center_dot}3) agricultural soil microcosms: the ivermectin case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell-Martin, G.; Pro-Gonzalez, J.; Aragones-Grunert, P.; Babib-Vich, M. M.; Fernandez-Rorija, C.; Tarazona-Lafarga, J. V.

    2011-07-01

    The environmental risk assessment of the veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin is receiving significant attention. This paper assesses the capacity of the MS{center_dot}3 soil microcosm as a tool for targeting the environmental impact assessment of veterinary drugs, using ivermectin as model. Two screening MS{center_dot}3 were performed using different European soils; one with a soil collected in an agricultural station near to Madrid, Spain and a second with a soil collected in a farm area close to York, UK. Soils were fortified with ivermectin at the following ranges: 0.01-10 mg kg{sup -}1 and 0.1-100 mg kg{sup -}1 in the Madrid and York studies, respectively. The effects on earthworms, plants and soil microorganisms were assessed in the Madrid soil. Toxicity tests on aquatic organisms (algae, cladocerans and in vitro fish cell line RTLW1) were also conducted with the leachates. No effects were observed in earthworms and plants at any tested concentration; reduction in the respiration rate (< 5%) of soil microorganisms was detected. Earthworm/soil bioconcentration factors decreased with the increase in soil concentrations and were higher for the York soil. Effects on daphnids were observed in tested leachates; based on measured levels of ivermectin in the leachates an EC50 of about 0.5{mu}gL{sup -}1 can be estimated. Comparisons based on toxicity data and equilibrium partitioning confirmed that the main risk is expected to be related to the high sensitivity of cladocerans. The results confirm that MS{center_dot}3 systems are cost-effective tools for assessing the impact of veterinary pharmaceuticals when applied to agricultural land, as previously demonstrated for antimicrobials. (Author) 39 refs.

  17. Assessment of veterinary drugs in plants using pharmacokinetic approaches: The absorption, distribution and elimination of tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole in ephemeral vegetables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Ru Chen

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to demonstrate novel use of pharmacokinetic approaches to characterize drug behaviors/movements in the vegetables with implications to food safety. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and most importantly, the elimination of tetracycline (TC and sulfamethoxazole (SMX in edible plants Brassica rapa chinensis and Ipomoea aquatica grown hydroponically were demonstrated and studied using non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The results revealed drug-dependent and vegetable-dependent pharmacokinetic differences and indicated that ephemeral vegetables could have high capacity accumulating antibiotics (up to 160 μg g-1 for TC and 38 μg g-1 for SMX within hours. TC concentration in the root (Cmax could reach 11 times higher than that in the cultivation fluid and 3-28 times higher than the petioles/stems. Based on the volume of distribution (Vss, SMX was 3-6 times more extensively distributed than TC. Both antibiotics showed evident, albeit slow elimination phase with elimination half-lives ranging from 22 to 88 hours. For the first time drug elimination through the roots of a plant was demonstrated, and by viewing the root as a central compartment and continuous infusion without a loading dose as drug administration mode, it is possible to pharmacokinetically monitor the movement of antibiotics and their fate in the vegetables with more detailed information not previously available. Phyto-pharmacokinetic could be a new area worth developing new models for the assessment of veterinary drugs in edible plants.

  18. Simultaneous multi-residue determination of twenty one veterinary drugs in poultry litter by modeling three-way liquid chromatography with fluorescence and absorption detection data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglia, Carla M; Peltzer, Paola M; Seib, Silvia N; Lajmanovich, Rafael C; Culzoni, María J; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2017-05-15

    A method for the simultaneous investigation of twenty one veterinary active ingredients in poultry litter based on MCR-ALS modeling of three-way liquid chromatography with fluorescence and UV detection data is presented. The chromatographic procedure was optimized in terms of both the nature of the organic solvent and the pH of the mobile phase to maximize the resolution of the analytes. In order to improve the simultaneous extraction efficiency of the twenty one veterinary drugs, a simplex-centroid design with combinations of the three components of the extracting mixture, i.e. MeOH, ACN and sodium phosphate buffer 10mmolL(-1) pH =3.50, was carried out. The second-order advantage was exploited in the analysis of highly complex samples containing unmodeled components. The qualitative and quantitative results showed that the application of MCR-ALS was appropriate to resolve highly overlapped peaks in the presence of unknown matrix compounds. Limits of quantification, relative errors of prediction (REP) and average recoveries ranging from 0.02 to 0.61µgg(-1), 3.09-9.35% and 91.0-105.6%, respectively, were obtained. Eventually, the method was successfully applied to the determination of active ingredients in five poultry litter samples collected from different poultry livestock in Argentina. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) with substance abusers in outpatient and residential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voluse, Andrew C; Gioia, Christopher J; Sobell, Linda Carter; Dum, Mariam; Sobell, Mark B; Simco, Edward R

    2012-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT), an 11-item self-report questionnaire developed to screen individuals for drug problems, are evaluated. The measure, developed in Sweden and evaluated there with individuals with severe drug problems, has not been evaluated with less severe substance abusers or with clinical populations in the United States. Participants included 35 drug abusers in an outpatient substance abuse treatment program, 79 drug abusers in a residential substance abuse treatment program, and 39 alcohol abusers from both treatment settings who did not report a drug abuse problem. The DUDIT was found to be a psychometrically sound drug abuse screening measure with high convergent validity (r=.85) when compared with the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10), and to have a Cronbach's alpha of .94. In addition, a single component accounted for 64.91% of total variance, and the DUDIT had sensitivity and specificity scores of .90 and .85, respectively, when using the optimal cut-off score of 8. Additionally, the DUDIT showed good discriminant validity as it significantly differentiated drug from alcohol abusers. These findings support the DUDIT as a reliable and valid drug abuse screening instrument that measures a unidimensional construct. Further research is warranted with additional clinical populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Veterinary Parasitology

    OpenAIRE

    Rondon, F. C. M.; Bevilaqua, C.M.L.; Franke,C.R.; Barros, R. S.; Oliveira,F.R.; Alcântara, Adriano Costa de; Diniz, A. T.

    2008-01-01

    Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 24-31 Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important reemerging parasitic disease in the world. The domestic dog is the main reservoir in urban environments. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge on canine Leishmania infection in the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil, identifying the risk factors inherent in dog susceptibility to the infection. Two populations were analyzed, domestic dogs from clinics and the Veterinary ...

  1. Multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex infection outbreak in dogs and cats in a veterinary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzi, S; Blum, S E; Kahane, N; Adler, A; Hussein, O; Segev, G; Aroch, I

    2016-11-01

    Members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex cause severe outbreaks in humans, and are increasingly reported in animals. A retrospective study, describing a severe outbreak in dogs and cats caused by a multidrug resistant member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in a veterinary hospital, between July 2010 and November 2012. The study included 19 dogs and 4 cats. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex bacteria were isolated from urine (9 animals), respiratory tract (11), tissues (3) and blood (1). The most common infection-associated findings included fever, purulent discharge from endotracheal tubes, hypotension, and neutropaenia. Infections led to pneumonia, urinary tract infection, cellulitis and sepsis. Infection was transmitted in the intensive care unit, where 22 of 23 animals were initially hospitalised. The mortality rate was 70% (16 of 23 animals), and was higher in cases of respiratory infection compared to other infections. Aggressive environmental cleaning and disinfection, with staff education for personal hygiene and antisepsis, sharply decreased the infection incidence. Health care-associated outbreaks with multidrug resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in dogs and cats are potentially highly fatal and difficult to eradicate, warranting monitoring, antiseptic techniques and judicious antibiotic use. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  2. Patterns of substance use and correlates of lifetime and active injection drug use among women in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Loeliger, Kelsey B; Marcus, Ruthanne; Pillai, Veena; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    While drug use is associated with HIV risk in Southeast Asia, little is known about substance use behaviors among women, including drug injection. To describe patterns of substance use among women using alcohol and drugs in Malaysia and identify correlates of lifetime and active drug injection, a risk factor for HIV transmission. A survey of 103 women who used drugs in the last 12 months assessed drug use history and frequency, including drug injection and drug use during pregnancy, self-reported HIV-status, childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse, and access to and utilization of harm reduction services, including needle-syringe exchange programs (NSEP) and opioid agonist maintenance therapy (OAT). Principal component analyses (PCA) were conducted to assess drug use grouping. Amphetamine-type substances (ATS; 82.5%), alcohol (75.7%) and heroin (71.8%) were the most commonly used drugs across the lifetime. Drug injection was reported by 32.0% (n = 33) of participants with 21.4% (n = 22) having injected in the last 30 days. PCA identified two groups of drug users: opioids/benzodiazepines and club drugs. Lifetime drug injection was significantly associated with lower education, homelessness, prior criminal justice involvement, opioid use, polysubstance use, childhood physical and sexual abuse, and being HIV-infected, but not with prior OAT. Women who use drugs in Malaysia report high levels of polysubstance use and injection-related risk behaviors, including sharing of injection equipment and being injected by others. Low OAT utilization suggests the need for improved access to OAT services and other harm reduction measures that prioritize women.

  3. Qualitative Multiresidue Screening Method for 143 Veterinary Drugs and Pharmaceuticals in Milk and Fish Tissue Using Liquid Chromatography Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenaki, Marilena E; Bletsou, Anna A; Koulis, George A; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-05-13

    A wide-scope screening methodology has been developed for the identification of veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals in fish tissue and milk using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF MS). The method was validated using a qualitative approach at two concentration levels. The detection of the residues was accomplished by retention time, accurate mass, and the isotopic fit using an in-house database. Product-ion spectra were used for unequivocal identification of the compounds. Generic sample treatment was applied. The majority of the compounds were successfully detected and identified at concentration levels of 150 ng mL(-1) in milk and 200 μg kg(-1) in fish (>80% of the compounds in both matrices), whereas satisfactory results were also obtained at concentration levels of 15 ng mL(-1) in milk and 20 μg kg(-1) in fish (>60% of the compounds detected and identified).

  4. Multi-residue determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceutical residues in milk powder, butter, fish tissue and eggs using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasenaki, Marilena E; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-06-23

    A simple and sensitive multi-residue method for the determination of 115 veterinary drugs and pharmaceuticals, belonging in more than 20 different classes, in butter, milk powder, egg and fish tissue has been developed. The method involves a simple generic solid-liquid extraction step (solvent extraction, SE) with 0.1% formic acid in aqueous solution of EDTA 0.1% (w/v)-acetonitrile (ACN)-methanol (MeOH) (1:1:1, v/v) with additional ultrasonic-assisted extraction. Precipitation of lipids and proteins was promoted by subjecting the extracts at very low temperature (-23°C) for 12h. Further cleanup with hexane ensures fat removal from the matrix. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Two separate runs were performed for positive and negative ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Particular attention was devoted to extraction optimization: different sample-to-extracting volume ratios, different concentrations of formic acid in the extraction solvent and different ultrasonic extraction temperatures were tested in butter, egg and milk powder samples. The method was also applied in fish tissue samples. It was validated, on the basis of international guidelines, for all four matrices. Quantitative analysis was performed by means of standard addition calibration. For over 80% of the analytes, the recoveries were between 50% and 120% in all matrices studied, with RSD values in the range of 1-18%. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantification (LOQs) ranged from 0.008 μg kg(-1) (oxfendazole in butter) to 3.15 μg kg(-1) (hydrochlorthiazide in egg). The evaluated method provides reliable screening, quantification, and identification of 115 veterinary drug and pharmaceutical residues in foods of animal origin and has been successfully applied in real samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficiency of the Clinical Veterinary Diagnostic Practices and Drug Choices for Infectious Diseases in Livestock in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, N; Khan, S U; Islam, A; Osmani, M G; Rahman, M Z; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Zeidner, N S

    2017-08-01

    As in most low-income countries, adequate laboratory facilities are not available in Bangladesh to assist veterinarians in diagnosing animal diseases. We aimed to determine the efficiency of veterinary diagnoses for two common ruminant diseases in Bangladesh: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). We conducted the study from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals where veterinarians collected samples from sick livestock and recorded the presumptive diagnosis on the basis of clinical presentations. Samples were tested for PPR and FMD using real-time RT-PCR. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the presumptive diagnoses when compared to laboratory tests. We tested 539 goats for PPR and 340 cattle and goats for FMD. Our results indicate that the veterinarians' presumptive diagnoses were different from laboratory findings for both PPR (P clinical diagnoses was 54% (95% CI: 47-61%) while specificity was 81% (95% CI: 78-84%) compared to real-time RT-PCR tests. The kappa value obtained in our validation process for PPR (kappa: 0.25) and FMD (kappa 0.36) indicated a poor performance of the presumptive diagnoses. Most of the animals (93%) were treated with antibiotics. Our findings indicate that veterinarians can detect animals not infected with FMD or PPR but miss the true cases. The clinical competency of these veterinarians needs to be improved and access to laboratory diagnostic facilities could help veterinarians to improve the diagnostics and outcomes. The rational use of antibiotics by veterinarians in animals must be ensured. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Further evidence of self-medication: personality factors influencing drug choice in substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKernan, Lindsey Colman; Nash, Michael R; Gottdiener, William H; Anderson, Scott E; Lambert, Warren E; Carr, Erika R

    2015-06-01

    According to Khantzian's (2003) self-medication hypothesis (SMH), substance dependence is a compensatory means to modulate affects and self-soothe in response to distressing psychological states. Khantzian asserts: (1) Drugs become addicting because they have the power to alleviate, remove, or change human psychological suffering, and (2) There is a considerable degree of specificity in a person's choice of drugs because of unique psychological and physiological effects. The SMH has received criticism for its variable empirical support, particularly in terms of the drug-specificity aspect of Khantzian's hypothesis. We posit that previous empirical examinations of the SMH have been compromised by methodological limitations. Also, more recent findings supporting the SMH have yet to be replicated. Addressing previous limitations to the research, this project tested this theory in a treatment sample of treatment-seeking individuals with substance dependence (N = 304), using more heterogeneous, personality-driven measures that are theory-congruent. Using an algorithm based on medical records, individuals were reliably classified as being addicted to a depressant, stimulant, or opiate by two independent raters. Theory-based a priori predictions were that the three groups would exhibit differences in personality characteristics and emotional-regulation strategies. Specifically, our hypotheses entailed that when compared against each other: (1) Individuals with a central nervous system (CNS) depressant as drug of choice (DOC) will exhibit defenses of repression, over-controlling anger, and emotional inhibition to avoid acknowledging their depression; (2) Individuals with an opiate as DOC will exhibit higher levels of aggression, hostility, depression, and trauma, greater deficits in ego functioning, and externalizing/antisocial behavior connected to their use; and (3) Individuals with a stimulant as DOC will experience anhedonia, paranoia, have a propensity to mania, and

  7. Alcohol and drug abuse among U.S. veterans: comparing associations with intimate partner substance abuse and veteran psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Reardon, Annemarie F; Wolf, Erika J; Prince, Lauren B; Hein, Christina L

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the relative influences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  8. [The harmfulness of drugs and slimming substances--a toxicologist's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujawa, Anna; Szponar, Jarosław; Szponar, Elzbieta; Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Kostek, Halina

    2012-01-01

    Obesity in rapidly developing countries has recently become an epidemic. That is why the need to fight against this chronic disease is becoming more and more apparent. In order to lose weight it is necessary to achieve negative energy balance either by increasing physical activity or using a low calorie diet. When these methods are ineffective, pharmacotherapy is used. The criterion for the application of medical treatment is a BMI above 30 kg/m2 or above 27 along with the presence of other risk factors. Drugs for weight loss fall into three groups: appetite inhibitors, those increasing energy expenditure by enhancing thermogenesis and those inhibiting the absorption of food in the intestines. This paper presents an overview of these classes of drugs and dietary supplements with an emphasis on their adverse effects and the possibility of poisoning. Despite the fact that in Poland only one drug - orlistat has been registered for the treatment of obesity, the availability of other products is unlimited due to the Internet. This fact, and the tendency of patients to treat obesity by themselves using pharmacological substances, poses a major threat and a challenge to the toxicologist.

  9. Studying the factors in dependency to substances changing the mood and behavior and effective methods in drug addiction counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Addicts to alcohol and other substances changing the mood and behavior attempt to stop their addiction and avoid its relapse because they suffer mental and physical problems, they are under the pressure of family members, employer and other individuals who influence over their life as well as negative effects of drug addiction on their performance in family, work and social relations. Since drug addicts experience physical pain when they are not using drugs, they refer, at first, to physicians and then to psychiatrists. Although emerging and applying non-medical and non-pharmaceutical approaches models is not too old, arising various addictive drugs and increasing the number of drug addicts as well as individual/social destructive consequences of drug addiction have caused that psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers to represent various non-pharmaceutical theories, models, methods and guidelines based on the conditions of their clients and their clinical experiences. The present article attempts to identify the reasons of drug addiction tendency, consumption patterns, models, theories of addiction to substances changing the mood and behavior, various methods of drug treatment, effective methods in drug addiction counseling and non-medical and non-pharmaceutical methods to give up drug addiction by using recent research findings. On this basis, the most effective methods to help those who suffer from alcohol and other drugs abuse and dependency are studied.

  10. Hydrogen bond replacement--unearthing a novel molecular mechanism of surface solid dispersion for enhanced solubility of a drug for veterinary use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deshvir; Pathak, Kamla

    2013-01-30

    The project was aimed to enhance the solubility of ivermectin using surface solid dispersion (SSD), elucidate the mechanism of drug release and to develop its tablet that can draw rapid clinical effects on dogs for controlling Ascaris parasites. Superdisintegrants and adsorbents were used to formulate SSDs by co-evaporation method. Formulation 9th that constituted from drug:aerosil (1:10) was selected after solubility and in vitro dissolution evaluation, and characterized by DSC, XRPD, DRS and SEM analysis. In vitro evaluation and in vivo efficacy of its tablet on dogs (fecal egg and tick counting studies) were compared with marketed tablets. This formulation enhanced the solubility of ivermectin to 456.25±1.70% and released 93.55±0.47% in 60 min. DRS spectral analysis unearthed a novel molecular mechanism of hydrogen bond replacement that drifts the drug into the medium from the surface of the SSD particles. Reduced crystallinity was confirmed by XRPD and supported by SEM. During in vitro and in vivo studies, the formulated tablet showed superiority over marketed tablet with higher parasite inhibition (p<0.001). Thus SSD is a promising technique for enhancing IVM solubility at molecular level enabling its rapid oral delivery to control endo- as well as ectoparasites for veterinary purpose. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening for substance abuse risk in cancer patients using the Opioid Risk Tool and urine drug screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Joshua S; Owens, Justine E; Blackhall, Leslie J

    2014-07-01

    The use of opioids for management of cancer-related pain has increased significantly and has been associated with a substantial rise in rates of substance abuse and diversion. There is a paucity of data not only on the prevalence of substance abuse in cancer patients, but also for issues of drug use and diversion in family caregivers. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of risk factors for substance abuse and diversion, and abnormal urine drug screens in cancer patients receiving palliative care. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients with cancer who were seen in the University of Virginia Palliative Care Clinic during the month of September 2012. We evaluated Opioid Risk Tool variables and total scores, insurance status, and urine drug screen results. Of the 114 cancer patients seen in September 2012, the mean Opioid Risk Tool score was 3.79, with 43% of patients defined as medium to high risk. Age (16-45 years old, 23%) and a personal history of alcohol (23%) or illicit drugs (21%) were the most common risk factors identified. We obtained a urine drug screen on 40% of patients, noting abnormal findings in 45.65%. Opioids are an effective treatment for cancer-related pain, yet substantial risk for substance abuse exits in the cancer population. Screening tools, such as the Opioid Risk Tool, should be used as part of a complete patient assessment to balance risk with appropriate relief of suffering.

  12. Simultaneous identification of abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Hwa Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A literature search reveals no studies concerning simultaneous identification of commonly abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS. We developed and validated an LC–MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine from suspected drug abusers. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring using an electrospray ionization mode. Chromatograms were separated using an ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of acetonitrile. After liquid–liquid extraction, samples were passed through a 0.22-μm polyvinylidene difluoride filter before injection into the LC–MS/MS. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 31.3 ng/mL. The linearity ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. The precision results were below 15.4% (intraday and 18.7% (interday. The intraday accuracy ranged from 85.9% to 121.0%; interday accuracy ranged from 66.1% to 128.7%. The proposed method was applied to 769 urine samples. The most common three drugs identified were ketamine, amphetamine, and opiates. The drug positive rate for one or more drugs was 79.6%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the LC–MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine.

  13. Booze, drugs, and pop music: trends in substance portrayals in the billboard top 100-1968-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Peter; Roberts, Donald F; Bjork, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a content analysis of alcohol and drug portrayals in the top 100 Billboard songs from each of the years 1968, 1978, 1988, 1998, and 2008, thus allowing both a characterization of substance portrayals in music generally and an analysis of changes over time. Of the final sample of 496 songs, 10.3% contained a reference to alcohol and 5.7% contained a reference to drugs. A substantial increase was found over the decades, and in particular over the last two: in 1988, 12% of songs referred to either or both classes of substance, compared to 30% in 2008. Marijuana was by far the most frequently mentioned drug. Both alcohol and drugs were much more likely to be portrayed positively than negatively, especially in recent decades. The results are discussed in terms of relevant theories of media processing and impact.

  14. Role of substance use in HIV care cascade outcomes among people who inject drugs in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrisov, Bulat; Lunze, Karsten; Cheng, Debbie M; Blokhina, Elena; Gnatienko, Natalia; Quinn, Emily; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Bryant, Kendall J; Lioznov, Dmitry; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2017-12-04

    Engaging people who drink alcohol or inject drugs in HIV care can be challenging, particularly in Eastern Europe. Healthcare facilities in Russia are organized by specialty; therefore linking patients from addiction care to HIV hospitals has been difficult. The HIV care cascade outlines stages of HIV care (e.g., linkage to care, prescribed antiretroviral therapy [ART], and achieving HIV viral suppression). We hypothesized that unhealthy alcohol use, injection drug use, and opioid craving are associated with unfavorable HIV care cascade outcomes. We analyzed data from a cohort (n = 249) of HIV-positive Russians who have been in addiction hospital treatment in the past year and had a lifetime history of injection drug use (IDU). We evaluated the association between unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT score > 7 [both hazardous drinking and dependence]), past-month injection drug use (IDU), and opioid craving (visual analogue scale from 1 to 100) with HIV care cascade outcomes. The primary outcome was linkage to HIV care within 12 months. Other outcomes were prescription of ART (secondary) and achievement of undetectable HIV viral load (HVL < 500 copies/mL) within 12 months (exploratory); the latter was analyzed on a subset in which HVL was measured (n = 48). We assessed outcomes via medical record review (linkage, ART) and serum tests (HVL). To examine the primary outcome, we used multiple logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders. Among 249 study participants, unhealthy alcohol use (n = 148 [59%]) and past-month IDU (n = 130 [52%]) were common. The mean opioid craving score was 49 (SD: 38). We were unable to detect significant associations between the independent variables (i.e., unhealthy alcohol use, IDU and opioid craving) and any HIV care cascade outcomes in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. In this cohort of HIV-positive Russians with a history of IDU, individual substance use factors were not significantly associated with achieving

  15. Nanomedicine in veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei

    2015-08-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Drug carrier in cancer therapy: A simulation study based on magnetic carrier substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Tijjani; Dhahi, Th S.; Mohammed, Mohammed; Hashim, U.; Noriman, N. Z.; Dahham, Omar S.

    2017-09-01

    The principle of magnetic carrier is a medium for transferring information by sending the drug to the specific part to kill tumor cells. Generally, there are seven stages of cancer. Most of the patient with cancer can only be detected when reaches stage four. At that stage, the cancer is difficult to destroy or to cure. Comparing to the nearly stage, there are probability to destroy tumor cell completely by sending the drug through magnetic carrier directly to nerve. Another way to destroyed tumor completely is by using Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This project is about the simulation study based on magnetic carrier substances. The COMSOL multiphysic software is used in this project. The simulation model represents a permanent magnet, blood vessel, surrounding tissues and air in 2D. Based on result obtained, the graph shown during sending the magnetic flux is high. However, as its carry information the magnetic flux reducess from the above, the move from 0m until 0.009 m it become the lowers and start increase the flux from this until maximum at 0.018m. This is due the fact that carrier start to increase after because the low information is gradually reduce until 0.018m.

  17. Predictors of retention in a drug-free unit/substance abuse treatment in prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casares-López, María José; González-Menéndez, Ana; Festinger, David S; Fernández-García, Paula; Fernández-Hermida, José Ramón; Secades, Roberto; Matejkowski, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The high rate of dropout from treatment programs is a recurring problem in the field of drug dependence. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of retention in a prison-based drug-free unit (DFU). The relationships among subscales of the Addiction Severity Index (ASI) as well as motivation and personality profiles and length of stay in a DFU, of 57 prisoners admitted for the first time to the program were analyzed. The mean dropout rates were 52.9% at six months and 67.8% at one year. The mean length of stay was 195.05 days. Predictors of retention at six months included the ASI Family Composite Score, the motivation subscale Taking Steps, and Narcissistic personality trait score. Predictors of retention at one year included lower ASI Psychological Composite Score, higher scores on the motivation subscale Ambivalence, and higher number of charges pending at the time of admission to the program. Identification of these predictor variables may be useful for developing strategies to increase retention in the context of in-prison substance abuse treatment. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Veterinary clinical pathologists in the biopharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultze, A Eric; Bounous, Denise I; Bolliger, Anne Provencher

    2008-06-01

    There is an international shortage of veterinary clinical pathologists in the workplace. Current trainees in veterinary clinical pathology may choose to pursue careers in academe, diagnostic laboratories, government health services, biopharmaceutical companies, or private practice. Academic training programs attempt to provide trainees with an exposure to several career choices. However, due to the proprietary nature of much of the work in the biopharmaceutical industry, trainees may not be fully informed regarding the nature of work for veterinary clinical pathologists and the myriad opportunities that await employment in the biopharmaceutical industry. The goals of this report are to provide trainees in veterinary clinical pathology and other laboratory personnel with an overview of the work-life of veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry, and to raise the profile of this career choice for those seeking to enter the workforce. Biographical sketches, job descriptions, and motivation for 3 successful veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are provided. Current and past statistics for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are reviewed. An overview of the drug development process and involvement of veterinary clinical pathologists in the areas of discovery, lead optimization, and candidate evaluation are discussed. Additional duties for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry include development of biomarkers and new technologies, service as scientific resources, diagnostic support services, and laboratory management responsibilities. There are numerous opportunities available for trainees in veterinary clinical pathology to pursue employment in the biopharmaceutical industry and enjoy challenging and rewarding careers.

  19. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    OpenAIRE

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhoo...

  20. Mental Health Service and Drug Treatment Utilization: Adolescents with Substance Use/Mental Disorders and Dual Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Lo, Celia C.

    2010-01-01

    This research is a secondary data analysis of the impact of adolescents' mental/substance-use disorders and dual diagnosis on their utilization of drug treatment and mental health services. By analyzing the same teenagers who participated in the NIMH Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders (MECA) study, logistic…

  1. Approach to Classifying "Design" Drugs and New Potentially Dangerous Chemical Substances, with a Brief Review of the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullin, Azat R.; Galeeva, Elena Kh.; Achmetova, Elvina A.; Nikolaev, Ivan V.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of this study has become vivid in the light of the growing problem of prevalence and use of new synthetic drug types. Lately there has been a tendency of expanding the range of psychologically active substances (PAS) used by addicts with the purpose of their illegal taking. The aim of this research is an attempt of systematizing and…

  2. Substance abuse treatment utilization among adults living with HIV/AIDS and alcohol or drug problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orwat, John; Saitz, Richard; Tompkins, Christopher P; Cheng, Debbie M; Dentato, Michael P; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2011-10-01

    This is a prospective cohort study to identify factors associated with receipt of substance abuse treatment (SAT) among adults with alcohol problems and HIV/AIDS. Data from the HIV Longitudinal Interrelationships of Viruses and Ethanol study were analyzed. Generalized estimating equation logistic regression models were fit to identify factors associated with any service utilization. An alcohol dependence diagnosis had a negative association with SAT (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.36, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.19-0.67), as did identifying sexual orientation other than heterosexual (AOR = 0.46, CI = 0.29-0.72) and having social supports that use alcohol/drugs (AOR = 0.62, CI = 0.45-0.83). Positive associations with SAT include presence of hepatitis C antibody (AOR = 3.37, CI = 2.24-5.06), physical or sexual abuse (AOR = 2.12, CI = 1.22-3.69), social supports that help with sobriety (AOR = 1.92, CI = 1.28-2.87), homelessness (AOR = 2.40, CI = 1.60-3.62), drug dependence diagnosis (AOR = 2.64, CI = 1.88-3.70), and clinically important depressive symptoms (AOR = 1.52, CI = 1.08-2.15). While reassuring that factors indicating need for SAT among people with HIV and alcohol problems (e.g., drug dependence) are associated with receipt, nonneed factors (e.g., sexual orientation, age) that should not decrease likelihood of receipt of treatment were identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Expanding analytical options in sports drug testing: Mass spectrometric detection of prohibited substances in exhaled breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Krug, Oliver; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2017-08-15

    Continuously refining and advancing the strategies and methods employed in sports drug testing is critical for efficient doping controls. Besides improving and expanding the spectrum of target analytes, alternative test matrices have warranted in-depth evaluation as they commonly allow for minimal-/non-invasive and non-intrusive sample collection. In this study, the potential of exhaled breath (EB) as doping control specimen was assessed. EB collection devices employing a non-woven electret-based air filter unit were used to generate test specimens, simulating a potential future application in doping controls. A multi-analyte sports drug testing approach configured for a subset of 12 model compounds that represent specific classes of substances prohibited in sports (anabolic agents, hormone and metabolic modulators, stimulants, and beta-blockers) was established using unispray liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and applied to spiked and elimination study EB samples. The test method was characterized concerning specificity, assay imprecision, and limits of detection. The EB collection device allowed for retaining and extracting all selected model compounds from the EB aerosol. Following elution and concentration, LC/MS/MS analysis enabled detection limits between 5 and 100 pg/filter and imprecisions ranging from 3% to 20% for the 12 selected model compounds. By means of EB samples from patients and participants of administration studies, the elimination of relevant compounds and, thus, their traceability in EB for doping control purposes, was investigated. Besides stimulants such as methylhexaneamine and pseudoephedrine, also the anabolic-androgenic steroid dehydrochloromethyltestosterone, the metabolic modulator meldonium, and the beta-blocker bisoprolol was detected in exhaled breath. The EB aerosol has provided a promising proof-of-concept suggesting the expansion of this testing strategy as a complement to currently utilized sports drug

  4. Holistic pediatric veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Exploring how prison-based drug rehabilitation programming shapes racial disparities in substance use disorder recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrison, Erin M

    2017-08-05

    Prison-based therapeutic community (TC) programming is derived from the perspective that drug addiction is primarily symptomatic of cognitive dysfunction, poor emotional management, and underdeveloped self-reliance skills, and can be addressed in a collaborative space where a strong ideological commitment to moral reform and personal responsibility is required of its members. In this space, evidence of rehabilitation is largely centered on the client's relationship to language and the public adoption of a "broken self" narrative. Failure to master these linguistic performances can result in the denial of material and symbolic resources, thus participants learn how to use TC language to present themselves in ways that support existing institutionalized hierarchies, even if that surrender spells their self-denigration. This research examines the interview narratives of 300 former prisoners who participated in a minimum of 12 months of prison-based TC programming, and described how programming rhetoric impacted their substance abuse treatment experiences. While many of the respondents described distressing experiences as TC participants, White respondents were more likely to eventually embrace the "addict" label and speak of privileges and reintegrative support subsequently received. Black respondents were more likely to defy the treatment rhetoric, and either fail to complete the program or simulate a deficit-based self-narrative without investing in the content of those stories. The following explores the significance of language and identity construction in these carceral spaces, and how treatment providers as well as agency agendas are implicated in the reproduction of racial disparities in substance abuse recovery. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Assessment of veterinary services in central Ethiopia: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2003; Halderman, 2005). Animals provide highly nutritious foods, and provide. Ethiop. Vet. .... providing veterinary services in the. District include veterinary drugs shops and mobile clinics providing full time ... 4) The public veterinary service was chosen as first choice for effectiveness and costliness compared to private ...

  7. 75 FR 4576 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the... PROHEART 6 (NADA 141-189), the subsequent safety data collected under the Center for Veterinary Medicine's...

  8. 75 FR 36588 - Veterinary Feed Directive; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... need for improvements to the veterinary feed directive (VFD) regulation. The agency is taking this..., rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary...

  9. [Advances in the use of instrumental measurement of colour in the development, production and quality control of drugs, medicinal preparations and pharmaceutical auxiliary substances I ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subert, Jan; Cižmárik, Jozef

    2013-04-01

    Colour is one of the important indices of the quality of drugs, medicinal preparations and pharmaceutical auxiliary substances. The paper summarizes the development and use of instrumental measurement of colour in pharmacy in recent ten years focusing on the drugs of synthetic origin and pharmaceutical auxiliary substances including their control.

  10. Hirudotherapy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.

  11. Development of a simple multi-residue determination method of 80 veterinary drugs in Oplegnathus punctatus by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Gao, Xin; Tang, Zhixu; Luo, Xin; Wu, Miaomiao; Xu, Jiachao; Fu, Xiaoting

    2017-10-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive multi-residue analytical method was developed and validated for 80 veterinary drugs in Oplegnathus punctatus using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The analytes belong to 12 different families include benzimidazoles, β-lactams, lincosamides, macrolides, nitromidazoles, quinolones, sulfonamides and trimethoprim, tetracyclines, triphenylmethane dyes, amphenicols, nonsteroidal estrogens and steroid hormones. The sample preparation was optimized base on QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) procedure. A very simple and sufficient preparation procedure without salting-out and complex clean-up process was studied. It had been proved that water in the extract was helpful for extracting hydrophilic compounds and precipitating the lipids during the subsequent cleaning process. In addition, an appropriate percent of methanol was necessary to some analytes. Finally, a mixture of acetonitrile, methanol and water (3:1:1, v/v/v) which include 1% acetic acid and 10mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt 2-hydrate was selected as the extraction solvent, and the clean-up step consisted of a low temperature procedure and two times of high-speed centrifugation to deproteinize and remove lipids. The detection and quantification of all compounds were performed by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry in positive and negative ion mode. This methodology was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The recoveries ranged from 60.74%-109.85% with relative standard deviations (RSDs)<20%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.25-25ug/kg, for the analytes which the MRL or MRPL had been established in fish tissue, the LOQs were all lower than their own legal tolerances. The values of decision limit (CCα) and detection capability

  12. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Okorie-Kanu et al. 160. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): ... Nigeria; 3Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu state,. Nigeria. ...... (ASVCP), International Veterinary.

  13. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.. 2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Abeokuta, Ogun State,. Nigeria. *Corresponding Authors: .... medial and lateral canthi of each eye. Philtrum Height (PH). Measured ...

  14. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2000-07-02

    Jul 2, 2000 ... Nigerian Veterinary Journal 36(4). 2015. Owoyemi et al. 1341. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., December 2015 ... medicine, 3Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. .... in wound or burn healing, internal intake of.

  15. Substance abuse treatment utilization, HIV risk behaviors, and recruitment among suburban injection drug users in Long Island, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Carol-Ann; Weng, Charlene Xuelin; French, Tyler; Anderson, Bridget J; Nemeth, Chris; McNutt, Louise-Anne; Smith, Lou C

    2014-04-01

    Prevention and treatment of injection drug use remains a public health concern. We used data from the 2005 Centers for Disease Control and prevention National HIV Behavioral Surveillance system to assess substance abuse treatment utilization, risk behaviors, and recruitment processes in a respondent driven sample of suburban injectors. Twelve service utilization and injection risk variables were analyzed using latent class analysis. Three latent classes were identified: low use, low risk; low use, high risk; and high use, moderate/high risk. In multivariate analysis, annual income drug users with high risk behaviors and no recent drug treatment history via respondent driven sampling will require future research.

  16. Assessment of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Products Registered in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Topically administered dosage forms included solutions, sprays, ointments, creams, shampoos and powders, while those delivered via the intrauterine route included pessaries, solutions and suspensions. Keywords: dosage forms, administration route, veterinary pharmaceutical products, animal species, drug delivery.

  17. 75 FR 29352 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine; Availability AGENCY: Food... Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine.'' The purpose of this draft guidance is to assist sponsors or non-applicants with filling out form FDA 1932, ``Veterinary Adverse Drug...

  18. Mass spectrometry study of increased breakdown of an anticonvulsivant drug substance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buret, D.; Breton, D.; Clair, P.; Lafosse, M.

    2006-06-01

    The French Military Health Service (SSA) developed a new pharmaceutic speciality as a treatment against neurotoxic organophosphate poisoning (NSP), as a substitute for existing therapeutics. The Armed Forces Central Pharmacy (PCA) is in charge of the development of therapeutic formulation and stability studies. This product includes three drug substances: atropine, pralidoxime and avizafone, an amine prodrug of diazepam, soluble in water. The PCA performed a stability study of this formulation according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) recommendations: it was used to display interaction between the molecules and the plastic of the cartridge (the container turned yellow). Since no degradation product of atropine and pralidoxime was observed, a complementary evaluation of avizafone and its main known degradation products (diazepam, carbostyril and methylaminobenzochlorophenone [MACB]) was initiated. The results were used to determine the degradation products obtained under different conditions and the kind of mechanisms, which may occur as the formulation ages: adsorption or absorption by the bulk and/or increasing degradation products. The analytical methods developed here are a direct sample analysis by mass spectrometry (MS) using different ionization modes and liquid chromatography (LC) with UV detection to confirm the results obtain with MS.

  19. [Adverse side-effect on sexual function caused by psychotropic drugs and psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S; Kühn, K U; Sträter, B; Scherbaum, N; Weig, W

    2010-09-01

    Unhindered sexuality plays an important role in the quality of life and this also holds true for patients with psychiatric illnesses. Knowledge concerning the complex neuronal and endocrine control mechanisms of sexual function reveals areas of possible dysfunction caused by the interactions between the control system, psychiatric drugs and addictive psychoactive substances. The differentiation of the cause of the dysfunction between being caused by the underlying illness and caused by other factors is difficult in practice. Both classical tri-cyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin uptake inhibitors can frequently cause adverse effects in multiple dimensions of sexual function. This same is true for neuroleptics, whereby the differentiation between symptoms of schizophrenia and side-effects from the medication can make an evaluation difficult. The medication-based strategy used to treat opiate dependency by administration of methadone causes sexual dysfunction in many cases. The consideration of medication-induced sexual dysfunction has a great importance with regard to compliance. Possible solutions can be modification of the medication regime, additional medication, e.g. partial antagonists and PD5 inhibitors, as well as dysfunction-specific psychotherapy and psychoeducation.

  20. Medicalisation of the social perspective: Changing conceptualisations of drug problems in Finnish social care and substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenqvist Pia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - Starting from the notion of the Finnish “non-medical approach” in the handling of alcohol and drug problems, this article analyses expressions of the medicalisation of drug problems and drug users in Finnish social work and specialised substance abuse treatment. The article focuses on the first drug wave, in the 1960s, and the second, at the end of the 1990s. DESIGN - The data consists of all texts on illegal drugs found in the years 1968-1972 and 1997-2001 in two leading journals of social work, one from the social care and social service field, the other issued by the key provider of specialist substance abuse treatment. The texts were systematically analysed (author(s, problem descriptions, suggested solutions, and words used for the problem and the drug user. RESULTS - In both periods, we found in the journals a social perspective on drugs and drug problems. There is more emphasis on prevention and more optimism on the possibilities of prevention in the first than in the second period. During the first period the call for medicine or medical solutions are few and the medical voices rare. Medical expertise gets more space in both journals in the second period. The predominant understanding of the problem changes from drugs as part of a new youth culture, possibly an epidemic in the first period, to a dependence/ addiction in the second. The description of the user shifts from a young person to a (marginalised dependent or addict. The proposed solutions in the 1960s are (youth focused social policy and social change, while the 1990s solutions highlight refined treatment and more specific interventions. The society seems difficult to change, and so do the established institutions. CONCLUSIONS - The medicalisation of the Finnish perspective on drugs in the 1990s is expressed through a narrowing of perspective on illegal drugs as social problems. While present, the social perspective is impotent.

  1. Information technology in veterinary pharmacology instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochevar, Deborah T

    2003-01-01

    Veterinary clinical pharmacology encompasses all interactions between drugs and animals and applies basic and clinical knowledge to improve rational drug use and patient outcomes. Veterinary pharmacology instructors set educational goals and objectives that, when mastered by students, lead to improved animal health. The special needs of pharmacology instruction include establishing a functional interface between basic and clinical knowledge, managing a large quantity of information, and mastering quantitative skills essential to successful drug administration and analysis of drug action. In the present study, a survey was conducted to determine the extent to which veterinary pharmacology instructors utilize information technology (IT) in their teaching. Several IT categories were investigated, including Web-based instructional aids, stand-alone pharmacology software, interactive videoconferencing, databases, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and e-book applications. Currently IT plays a largely ancillary role in pharmacology instruction. IT use is being expanded primarily through the efforts of two veterinary professional pharmacology groups, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology (ACVCP) and the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT). The long-term outcome of improved IT use in pharmacology instruction should be to support the larger educational mission of active learning and problem solving. Creation of high-quality IT resources that promote this goal has the potential to improve veterinary pharmacology instruction within and across institutions.

  2. Investigation of the role of environmental contamination in the occurrence of residues of the veterinary drug phenylbutazone in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Paul; Fodey, Terence L; Smyth, Wesley G; Crooks, Steven R H

    2017-04-01

    Phenylbutazone is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug licensed for use in horses to treat musculoskeletal disorders. It is not permitted in the European Union for use in animals destined for the food chain. Official statistics provided by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) show that 0.18% of bovines tested in the European Union between 2008 and 2014 for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were non-compliant, with phenylbutazone representing over 28% of these. Anecdotal evidence suggests animals that have not been treated with the drug may have produced non-compliant samples, possibly through some form of contamination. In this study, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometric detection was applied to bovine plasma samples to determine if detectable residues (CCα = 0.28 ng ml-1) may occur in untreated animals as a result of environmental contamination through normal farming practice. The study demonstrates that waste from animals treated with phenylbutazone, and spread on an area of pasture, can contaminate untreated bovines grazing the pasture many weeks later. It was determined that this contamination, which can persist over a significant period, may be due to the ingestion of as little as 30 μg phenylbutazone by a 500 kg bullock.

  3. Matrix-effect free multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs in food samples of animal origin by nanoflow liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara-Durán, Jaime; Moreno-González, David; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; García-Reyes, Juan F

    2018-04-15

    In this work, a sensitive method based on nanoflow liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry has been developed for the multiresidue determination of veterinary drugs residues in honey, veal muscle, egg and milk. Salting-out supported liquid extraction was employed as sample treatment for milk, veal muscle and egg, while a modified QuEChERS procedure was used in honey. The enhancement of sensitivity provided by the nanoflow LC system also allowed the implementation of high dilution factors as high as 100:1. For all matrices tested, matrix effects were negligible starting from a dilution factor of 100, enabling, thus, the use of external standard calibration instead of matrix-matched calibration of each sample, and the subsequent increase of laboratory throughput. At spiked levels as low as 0.1 or 1 µg kg-1 before the 1:100 dilution, the obtained signals were still significantly higher than the instrumental limit of quantitation (S/N 10). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues in animal feed by high-resolution mass spectrometry: comparison between time-of-flight and Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, María Luz; Romero-González, Roberto; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    The use of medium-high-resolution mass spectrometers (M-HRMS) provides many advantages in multi-residue analysis. A comparison between two mass spectrometers, medium-resolution (MRMS) time-of-flight (TOF) and high-resolution (HRMS) Orbitrap, has been carried out for the analysis of toxic compounds in animal feed. More than 300 compounds belonging to several classes of veterinary drugs (VDs) and pesticides have been determined in different animal feed samples using a generic extraction method. The use of a clean-up procedure has been evaluated in both instruments, and several validation parameters have been established, such as the matrix effect, linearity, recovery and sensitivity. Finally, both instruments have been used during the analysis of 18 different feed samples (including chicken, hen, rabbit and horse). Some VDs (sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, robenidine and monensin sodium) and one pesticide (chlorpyrifos) have been identified. In general, better results were obtained using the Orbitrap, such as sensitivity (1-12.5 µg kg(-1)) and recovery values (60-125%). Moreover, this analyser had several software tools, which reduced the time for data processing and were easy to use, performing quick screening for more than 450 compounds in less than 5 min. However, some disadvantages such as the high cost and a decrease in the number of detected compounds at low concentrations must be taken into account.

  5. Simple and rapid method on High Performance Liquid Chromatography for simultaneous determination of benzylpenicillin potassium, streptomycin sulphate and related substances in Ascomicin – a veterinary use ointment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neagu Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, rapid, accurate and precise High – Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for determination of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate in Ascomicin ointment was developed and validated. The method can be used for the detection and quantification of known and unknown impurities and degradation products in this pharmaceutical product during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness and quantification limits according to ICH Guidelines. The estimation of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate was done by Waters HPLC 2695. The chromatographic conditions comprised a reverse-phased C18 column (5 µm particle size, 250 mm×4.6 mm i.d. with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of solution in water containing 0.025 M of sodium phosphate dibasic and 0.02 of sodium hexansulfonate adjusted to pH 6.0 with 22.5 g/lsolution of phosphoric acid and acetonitrile in gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 5.00 µg/ml to 5.00 mg/ml for streptomycin sulphate and 3.26 µg/ml to 3.26 mg/ml for benzylpenicillin potassium. Statistical analyses proved the method was precise, reproducible, selective, specific and accurate for analysis of benzylpenicillin potassium, streptomycin sulphate and related substances.

  6. The future of veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, G C

    2001-07-12

    Current evidence suggests research in veterinary parasitology is in decline despite its importance. This is particularly true in the UK where research funds have been diverted into BSE. Decline in interest in veterinary parasitology is at least in part due to the success of major pharmaceutical companies in producing a range of effective and safe anti-parasitic drugs. Research is needed because of the effects of parasites on animal welfare and the economic costs of parasites. However, there is little information on the actual costs of animal parasites. Another major reason for research is the development of drug resistance in protozoa, helminths and arthropods of veterinary importance. This is a serious problem particularly for sheep and goats in the southern hemisphere. A prioritised list of research requirements is suggested: (i) new drugs; (ii) resistance management; (iii) vaccines; (iv) breeding for resistance; (v) improved diagnostics; (vi) zoonoses; (vii) global warming and parasites. There is a major political challenge to raise the profile of veterinary parasitology and thus the funding essential for its advancement and the continued welfare and productivity of animals.

  7. Simultaneous identification of abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hei-Hwa; Lee, Jong-Feng; Lin, Shin-Yu; Chen, Bai-Hsiun

    2016-03-01

    A literature search reveals no studies concerning simultaneous identification of commonly abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We developed and validated an LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine from suspected drug abusers. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring using an electrospray ionization mode. Chromatograms were separated using an ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of acetonitrile. After liquid-liquid extraction, samples were passed through a 0.22-μm polyvinylidene difluoride filter before injection into the LC-MS/MS. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 31.3 ng/mL. The linearity ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. The precision results were below 15.4% (intraday) and 18.7% (interday). The intraday accuracy ranged from 85.9% to 121.0%; interday accuracy ranged from 66.1% to 128.7%. The proposed method was applied to 769 urine samples. The most common three drugs identified were ketamine, amphetamine, and opiates. The drug positive rate for one or more drugs was 79.6%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  8. Slow accumulation of psychotropic substances in the human brain. Relationship to therapeutic latency of neuroleptic and antidepressant drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornhuber, J; Retz, W; Riederer, P

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism of therapeutic latency of antidepressant and neuroleptic drugs is not clearly understood. Current hypotheses include slow adaptive processes after fast access to primary drug targets. Here, we present a hypothesis explaining therapeutic latency by slow accumulation of the drugs in acidic intracellular compartments. We have studied the pharmacokinetics of amantadine, a lysosomotropic model substance. It's fast therapeutic response is mediated by fast access to cell surface receptors. However, it slowly accumulates intracellularly in human brain tissue. Half-maximal and plateau concentrations are reached after 8 and at least 70 days of treatment, respectively. The concentration in brain tissue relative to CSF and serum is about 20:1. The high storage capacity of brain tissue is probably related to lysosomotropic properties of amantadine. This means that amantadine, as other lysosomotropic substances, is trapped by protonation in acidic intracellular compartments and may disturb biochemical processes that require an acidic milieu, such as the proton-driven transport of monoamines into synaptic vesicles. The mean daily oral dose of amantadine is low compared to the high storage capacity of brain and other tissues thus explaining the slow accumulation. Many psychotropic drugs including antidepressant and neuroleptic substances also have lysosomotropic properties. A slow accumulation in brain tissue is therefore likely for many antidepressant and neuroleptic drugs and has been directly demonstrated for fluoxetine. While lysosomotropism alone is not a sufficient explanation for antidepressant or neuroleptic properties of a certain drug, it contributes to high storage capacity and slow accumulation in brain tissue and results in disturbances of several biochemical processes. Slow accumulation in brain tissue might be related to the therapeutic latency of neuroleptic and antidepressant drugs.

  9. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  10. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  11. En Route towards European Clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve...... challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation......-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC)] and (iii) when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical...

  12. [Studies on the recovery of pharmaceutical drug substances from surfaces made of defined stainless-steel alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, S; Müller, U; Oelschläger, H

    2005-09-01

    Facilities for the manufacturing of pharmaceutical drug substances on the pilot-plant and the industrial scale as well as chemical reactors and vessels used for chemical work-up mainly consist of alloyed stainless steel. The influence of the alloy composition and the surface condition, i.e. of the roughness of the stainless-steel materials, on the adsorption of structurally diverse steroidal substances and, hence, on the quality of the products was studied. In general, stainless-steel alloys with smooth, not so rough surfaces are to be favored as reactor material. However, it was demonstrated in this study that, on account of the weak interaction between active substances and steel materials, mechanically polished materials of a medium roughness up to approx. 0.4 microm can be employed instead of the considerably more cost-intensive electrochemically polished stainless-steel surfaces. The type of surface finishing up to a defined roughness, then, has no influence on the quality of these pharmaceutical products. Substances that, because of their molecular structure, can function as "anions" in the presence of polar solvents, are adsorbed on very smooth surfaces prepared by electrochemical methods, forming an amorphous surface film. For substances with this structural characteristics, the lower-cost mechanically polished reactor materials of a medium roughness up to approx. 0.5 microm should be used exclusively.

  13. The Role of Family Affect in Juvenile Drug Court Offenders' Substance Use and HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Hadley, Wendy; Conrad, Selby M.; Brown, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Family-based interventions targeting parenting factors, such as parental monitoring and parent-child communication, have been successful in reducing adolescent offenders' substance use and delinquency. This pilot, exploratory study focuses on family and parenting factors that may be relevant in reducing juvenile offenders' substance use and sexual…

  14. Drug: D08165 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08165 Drug Medetomidine (INN); Domitor [veterinary] C13H16N2 200.1313 200.2795 D08165.gif Analgesic [veteri...nary]; Hypnotic, sedative [veterinary] alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist [HSA:150

  15. Drug: D08429 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08429 Drug Proligestone (INN); Covinan [veterinary] (TN); Delvosteron [veterinary]... (TN) C24H34O4 386.2457 386.5244 D08429.gif Progestin veterinary medicine progesterone receptor agonist [HSA

  16. Drug: D04883 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04883 Drug Medetomidine hydrochloride (USAN) C13H16N2. HCl 236.108 236.7405 D04883.gif Analgesic [veterinar...y]; Sedative [veterinary] veterinary medicine alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonist [H

  17. Marijuana use and achievement of abstinence from alcohol and other drugs among people with substance dependence: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojarrad, Mohammadali; Samet, Jeffrey H; Cheng, Debbie M; Winter, Michael R; Saitz, Richard

    2014-09-01

    Many with alcohol and other drug dependence have concurrent marijuana use, yet it is not clear how to address it during addiction treatment. This is partially due to the lack of clarity about whether marijuana use impacts one's ability to achieve abstinence from the target of addiction treatment. We examined the association between marijuana use and abstinence from other substances among individuals with substance dependence. A secondary analysis of the Addiction Health Evaluation And Disease management study, a randomized trial testing the effectiveness of chronic disease management. Individuals met criteria for drug or alcohol dependence and reported recent drug (i.e. opioid or stimulant) or heavy alcohol use. Recruitment occurred largely at an inpatient detoxification unit, and all participants were referred to primary medical care. The association between marijuana use and later abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use was assessed using longitudinal multivariable models. Of 563 study participants, 98% completed at least one follow-up assessment and 535 (95%) had at least one pair of consecutive assessments and were included. In adjusted analyses, marijuana use was associated with a 27% reduction in the odds of abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use (adjusted odds ratio 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56-0.97], P=0.03). Marijuana use among individuals with alcohol or other drug dependence is associated with a lower odds of achieving abstinence from drug and heavy alcohol use. These findings add evidence that suggests concomitant marijuana use among patients with addiction to other drugs merits attention from clinicians. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and validation of a stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for the determination of related substances of micafungin sodium in drug substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shengsheng; Meng, Xiang; Su, Xin; Luo, Yongwei; Sun, Zuyue

    2013-10-24

    An isocratic, sensitive and stability-indicating high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method for separation and determination of the related substances of micafungin sodium was developed. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Agilent Zorbax SB-C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm). Forced degradation study confirmed that the newly developed method was specific and selective to the degradation products. The performance of the method was validated according to the present ICH guidelines for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. Regression analysis showed correlation coefficient value greater than 0.999 for micafungin sodium and its six impurities. Limit of detection of impurities was in the range of 0.006%-0.013% indicating the high sensitivity of the newly developed method. Accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery obtained between 98.2% and 102.0% for all impurities. RSD obtained for the repeatability and intermediate precision experiments, was less than 1.0%. The method was successfully applied to quantify related substances of micafungin sodium in bulk drugs.

  19. Veterinary Technologists and Technicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for veterinary technologists and technicians. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of veterinary technologists and ...

  20. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, ... Parasitic diseases have a debilitating impact on human and animal health worldwide particularly in developing countries. Haemoparasitism have largely been ..... exerts a major health concern in domestic.

  1. Wide-scope analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues in animal feed by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Luiz, María M; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2013-08-01

    A fast and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous monitoring of >250 pesticides and veterinary drugs (VDs) in animal feed. A 'dilute-and-shoot' extraction with water and acetonitrile (1% formic acid) followed by a clean-up step with Florisil cartridges was applied. The extracts were analysed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid analyser quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry using both positive and negative electrospray ionisation. The detection of the residues was accomplished by retention time and accurate mass using an in-house database. The identification of the detected compounds was carried out by searching of fragment ions for each compound and isotopic pattern. The optimised method was validated and recoveries ranged from 60% to 120% at three concentrations (10, 50 and 100 μg kg(-1)) for 30%, 68% and 80% of compounds, respectively, included in the database (364) in chicken feed. Document SANCO 12495/2011 and Directive 2002/657/CE were used as guidelines for method validation. Intra-day and inter-day precisions, expressed as relative standard deviations, were lower than 20% for more than 90% of compounds. The limits of quantification ranged from 4 to 200 μg kg(-1) for most analytes, which are sufficient to verify compliance of products with legal tolerances. The applicability of the procedure was further tested on different types of feed (chicken, hen, rabbit and horse feed), evaluating recoveries and repeatability. Finally, the method was applied to the analysis of 18 feed samples, detecting some VDs (sulfadiazine, trimethoprim, robenidin and monensin Na) and only one pesticide (chlorpyrifos).

  2. Gender and race/ethnic differences in the persistence of alcohol, drug, and poly-substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Grella, Christine E; Washington, Donna L; Upchurch, Dawn M

    2017-05-01

    To examine gender and racial/ethnic differences in the effect of substance use disorder (SUD) type on SUD persistence. Data were provided by 1025 women and 1835 men from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender and race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic White, Black, Hispanic) moderate the effects of DSM-IV defined past-12 month SUD type (alcohol, drug, poly-substance) on SUD persistence at 3-year follow-up, controlling for covariates. Using gender-stratified weighted binary logistic regression, we examined predictors of SUD persistence, tested an SUD type by race/ethnicity interaction term, and calculated and conducted Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons of predicted probabilities. SUD persistence rates at 3-year follow-up differed for SUD type by gender by race/ethnicity sub-group, and ranged from 31% to 81%. SUD persistence rates were consistently higher among poly-substance users; patterns were mixed in relation to gender and race/ethnicity. Among women, alcohol disordered Hispanics were less likely to persist than Whites. Among men, drug disordered Hispanics were less likely to persist than Whites. Also, Black men with an alcohol or drug use disorder were less likely to persist than Whites, but Black men with a poly-substance use disorder were more likely to persist than Hispanics. The effect of SUD type on SUD persistence varies by race/ethnicity, and the nature of these relationships is different by gender. Such knowledge could inform tailoring of SUD screening and treatment programs, potentially increasing their impact. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. 78 FR 72838 - Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used To Compound Drug Products in Accordance With Section 503B...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Compound Drug Products in Accordance With Section 503B of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act... accordance with section 503B of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), concerning.... Individuals and organizations also will be able to petition FDA to make additional list amendments after the...

  4. 14 CFR 91.19 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or... operate a civil aircraft within the United States with knowledge that narcotic drugs, marihuana, and...

  5. Veterinary practice marketeer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Justin

    2015-01-24

    Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of enhancing the livestock ...

  7. Tanzania Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the Journal are the ...

  8. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria, 2Department of. Veterinary Anatomy ... laboratory technologists and academic staff of the departments of veterinary anatomy, pathology and public health. Design of the ... Early histology and histopathology based research was ...

  9. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(2). 2017. Mustapha et al. 129 ... 1 Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta,. Abeokuta, Ogun State; 2 ..... lamina 9; IB: Internal basilar nucleus; ICI: Intercalated nucleus; ICo9: Intercostal muscle motor neurons of lamina 9; ...

  10. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Thomas et al. 123 .... Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of. Agriculture Abeokuta and were ..... immunogenic Salmonella ghost confers protection against internal organ colonization and egg contamination. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology,. 162(1-2): 41–50. JOSHI ...

  11. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    1288. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., December 2015. Vol. 36 (4): 1288-1298. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Anatomical Studies of ... 1Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; 2 Department of .... back, the internal organs were measured in.

  12. Pregnancies exposed to methadone, methadone and other illicit substances, and poly-drugs without methadone: a comparison of fetal neurobehaviors and infant outcomes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansson, L M; Di Pietro, J A; Elko, A; Williams, E L; Milio, L; Velez, M

    2012-01-01

    .... Exposure groups include: Methadone+other illicit substances (MM+Poly) and two groups currently abstinent for poly drug exposures: Methadone only (MM/A) and Non-Methadone (NM/A). Forty-nine women (19 MM...

  13. Changing Latino Adolescents' Substance Use Norms and Behaviors: the Effects of Synchronized Youth and Parent Drug Use Prevention Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie L; Baldwin-White, Adrienne; Booth, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    While parent and youth substance use prevention interventions have shown beneficial effects on preadolescents, many programs have typically targeted US born European American and African American families while overlooking the unique factors that characterize recent immigrant Latino families. This article presents the results on youth substance use when adding a culturally grounded parenting component, Familias Preparando la Nueva Generación (FPNG), to the existing and already proven efficacious classroom-based drug abuse prevention intervention, keepin'it REAL (kiR). Data come from youth (N = 267) participating in the randomized control trial of the interventions who were surveyed at baseline (beginning at 7th grade) and 18 months later (end of 8th grade). Using multivariate linear regression path analyses, results indicate when FPNG and kiR are combined, youth had significantly lowered alcohol and cigarettes use at the end of 8th grade, mediated through anti-drug norms, when compared with youth who only participated in kiR without parental participation in FPNG. These findings indicate that adolescent normative beliefs and related behaviors can be changed through synchronized culturally grounded parent and youth interventions and together can play an important role in reducing adolescent substance use.

  14. Low-level Determination of 4-Hydrazino BenzoicAcid in Drug Substance by High Performance Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Harikrishna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available HPLC/MS single ion monitoring methods have been evaluated for the determination of trace levels of 4- hydrazino benzoic acid (4-HBA in drug substances. These 4-HBA have been highlighted as potential genotoxins. HPLC/MS was found to be more promising and limits of quantification was 0.52 ppm. For one drug substances excellent recoveries of 104.6% were obtained at the 0.5 ppm level.

  15. Substance abuse and pharmacy practice: what the community pharmacist needs to know about drug abuse and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasello Anthony C

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists, the most accessible of health care professionals, are well positioned to help prevent and treat substance use disorders and should prepare themselves to perform these functions. New research improves our knowledge about the pharmacological and behavioral risks of drug abuse, supports the clinical impression that drug dependence is associated with long-lasting neurochemical changes, and demonstrates effective pharmacological treatments for certain kinds of drug dependencies. The profession is evolving. Pharmacists are engaging in new practice behaviors such as helping patients manage their disease states. Collaborative practice agreements and new federal policies set the stage for pharmacists to assist in the clinical management of opioid and other drug dependencies. Pharmacists need to be well informed about issues related to addiction and prepared not only to screen, assess, and refer individual cases and to collaborate with physicians caring for chemically dependent patients, but also to be agents of change in their communities in the fight against drug abuse. At the end of this article the pharmacist will be better able to: 1. Explain the disease concept of chemical dependence 2. Gather the information necessary to conduct a screen for chemical dependence 3. Inform patients about the treatment options for chemical dependence 4. Locate resources needed to answer questions about the effects of common drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, "ecstasy", and cocaine 5. Develop a list of local resources for drug abuse treatment 6. Counsel parents who are concerned about drug use by their children 7. Counsel individuals who are concerned about drug use by a loved one. 8. Counsel individuals who are concerned about their own drug use

  16. The impact of drug use in social networks of patients with substance use and bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Leah J; Griffin, Margaret L; Kolodziej, Monika E; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Weiss, Roger D

    2011-01-01

    In this exploratory analysis, we assessed the effect of drug use among social-network members on recovery from drug dependence in patients with co-occurring bipolar disorder. Patients (n = 57) enrolled in a group therapy study completed assessments over 15 months. Patients with zero to one drug users in their social networks at intake had few days of drug use during treatment and follow-up, whereas those with ≥ 2 drug users had significantly more days of drug use. Multivariate analysis showed that patients who consistently named multiple drug users in their social networks had a marked increase in drug use over 15 months, while those who never or occasionally named multiple drug users had a small decline in drug use over time. Multiple drug users in social networks of treatment-seeking drug-dependent patients with co-occurring bipolar disorder may indicate poor drug use outcomes; efforts to reduce the association with drug users may be useful. This clinical trial has been registered in a public trials registry at clinicaltrials.gov (identifier is NCT00227838).  © American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.

  17. 75 FR 58411 - Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public...: ``Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) eSubmitter Workshop.'' The purpose of the public workshop is to..., Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-100), Food and Drug Administration, 7520 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD...

  18. 78 FR 14801 - Veterinary Oversight of Antimicrobial Use in Livestock: Impact on Stakeholders; Public Meetings...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Oversight of Antimicrobial Use in Livestock... areas that may lack access to adequate veterinary services. The meetings are jointly sponsored by FDA...: Patricia Arnwine, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-6), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl...

  19. 77 FR 22247 - Veterinary Feed Directive; Draft Text for Proposed Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 Veterinary Feed Directive; Draft Text for... draft text for a proposed regulation intended to improve the efficiency of FDA's Veterinary Feed... CONTACT: Sharon Benz, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-220), Food and Drug Administration, 7519...

  20. Retention of adolescents with substance dependence and coexisting mental health disorders in outpatient alcohol and drug group therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagey, Bronwyn; Deering, Daryle; Sellman, Doug

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate characteristics that might enhance retention among adolescents attending outpatient alcohol and drug group therapy within a youth mental health setting. An important goal was to provide information for nurses and other clinicians who work with adolescents with coexisting substance use and mental health disorders. A retrospective file audit reviewed the files of 64 adolescents who attended a weekly alcohol and drug group between 2002 and 2004. Five characteristics were shown to have a significant impact on enhancing participant group retention. These were Māori and Pacific Island ethnicity, past or current legal charges, youth drug court (YDC) involvement, having a diagnosis of cannabis dependence, and a diagnosis of conduct disorder. Logistic regression found that YDC involvement on its own significantly predicted treatment retention. In an area of limited research, the findings from this study expand the literature on enhancing treatment retention for a vulnerable and hard-to-engage adolescent group with complex treatment needs, and highlight the need for further investigation of the potential role of the YDC. From a practice perspective, the findings support group therapy interventions as a cost-effective treatment modality for assisting adolescents with coexisting substance use and mental health issues, including those with conduct disorder and YDC involvement. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing © 2010 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  1. Moderate Adolescent Drug Use and the Development of Substance Use Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a re-conceptualization of moderate adolescent drug use. It is argued that experimentation with alcohol and other drugs during the teenage years may play an important role in the development of regulatory competency in relation to drug consumption in adulthood. When such regulatory skills fail to emerge in young people, during…

  2. Animal models of substance abuse and addiction: implications for science, animal welfare, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-06-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models.

  3. Concept of interactions between consumable substances in Ayurveda with special reference to foods and drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Prasanta Kumar; Chaudhari, Supriyo; Chattopadhyay, Abichal

    2013-01-01

    Ayurvedic medicines are available in the market as over-the-counter products. Today people use prescription and nonprescription medicines along with Ayurvedic medicines for quick relief from ailments. In the ancient texts of Ayurveda, the concept of interactions with various examples of food interactions and food-drug interactions are mentioned. Recent studies and publications reported drug interactions of Ayurveda medicines and modern drugs. In the present review article, the concept of interactions mentioned in the Ayurvedic texts along with the examples of food interactions, food-drug interactions and the recent research work and publications indicating the interactions of the Ayurvedic drugs and drug interactions of Ayurvedic medicines and modern drugs are compiled. This will help the consumer of the prescription and nonprescription medicines with the Ayurvedic medicines to be cautious about the probable interactions.

  4. Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Co-morbidity as Predictors of Premature Mortality in Swedish Drug Abusers: A Prospective Longitudinal Study 1970-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyhlén, Anna; Fridell, Mats; Bäckström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had...... an increased risk of premature death to the age of 69. Drug related premature death was predicted by male gender, the use of opiates or barbiturates and depression and anxiety disorders at first admission. The predicted cumulative incidence of drug related death was significantly higher in opiate......Background Few longitudinal cohort studies have focused on the impact of substances abused and psychiatric disorders on premature mortality. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of increased risk of drug related death and non drug related death in substance abusers of opiates...

  5. Information on the quality of substance for the preparation of pharmaceutical drugs in terms of hospital pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovović Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanation the topic The pharmaceutical activity is the activity of public or social and special interest, because it is a direct function of health care. Topic positioning and discussion The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of ensuring the quality of pharmaceutical substances that supplies hospitals, which are used for production of galenic and magistral drugs. Conclusion Compliance with national legislation, as well as establishing compliance prescribed by the European legislation in the field of drug development is binding. Therefore, all manufacturers of drugs and/or active pharmaceutical ingredients must apply quality standards prescribed by the European Pharmacopoeia in order to develop, manufacture and sales of medicines. When it comes to the quality of pharmaceutical ingredients for the production of drugs in the pharmacy, pharmacies especially in residential institutions in our country is permanently done by harmonizing national legislation in order to improve conditions for the preparation and production of galenic drugs in terms of inpatient health institutions performed in a manner that is prescribed by international regulations. This requires the adaptation of institutions, including fundamental changes in competence as national professional and administrative and regulatory rules that apply to state- and private sectors.

  6. Multi-class, multi-residue analysis of trace veterinary drugs in milk by rapid screening and quantification using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yaqian; Li, Xiang; Liu, Xiaomao; Zhang, Jinjie; Cao, Yanzhong; Shi, Zhihong; Sun, Hanwen

    2015-12-01

    A simple and rapid multi-class multi-residue analytical method was developed for the screening and quantification of veterinary drugs in milk by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS). A total of 90 veterinary drugs investigated belonged to almost 20 classes including lincomycins, macrolides, sulfonamides, quinolones, tetracyclines, β-agonists, β-lactams, sedatives, β-receptor antagonists, sex hormones, glucocorticoids, nitroimidazoles, benzimidazoles, nitrofurans, and some others. A modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) procedure was developed for the sample preparation without the solid-phase extraction step. The linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method were fully validated. The response of the detector was linear for each target compound in a wide concentration range with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9973 to 0.9999 (among them R(2)>0.999 for 73 of 90 analytes). The range of the limit of quantification for these compounds in the milk ranged from 0.10 to 17.30μg/kg. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2.11 to 9.62% and 2.76 to 13.9%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 72.62 to 122.2% with the RSD (n=6) of 1.30 to 9.61% at 3 concentration levels. For the screening method, the data of the precursor and product ions of the target analytes were simultaneously acquired under the all ions MS/MS mode in a single run. An accurate mass database for the confirmation and identification of the target compounds was established. The applicability of the screening method was verified by applying to real milk samples. The proposed analytical method allows the identification and confirmation of the target veterinary drugs at trace levels employing quick analysis time. Certain veterinary drugs were detected in some cases. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by

  7. Veterinary Services Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...

  8. RP-HPLC Method Development and Validation for Determination of Eptifibatide Acetate in Bulk Drug Substance and Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavand Savadkouhi, Maryam; Vahidi, Hossein; Ayatollahi, Abdul Majid; Hooshfar, Shirin; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    A new, rapid, economical and isocratic reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of eptifibatide acetate, a small synthetic antiplatelet peptide, in bulk drug substance and pharmaceutical dosage forms. The developed method was validated as per of ICH guidelines. The chromatographic separation was achieved isocratically on C18 column (150 x 4.60 mm i.d., 5 µM particle size) at ambient temperature using acetonitrile (ACN), water and trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) as mobile phase at flow rate of 1 mL/min and UV detection at 275 nm. Eptifibatide acetate exhibited linearity over the concentration range of 0.15-2 mg/mL (r2=0.997) with limit of detection of 0.15 mg/mL The accuracy of the method was 96.4-103.8%. The intra-day and inter-day precision were between 0.052% and 0.598%, respectively. The present successfully validated method with excellent selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, precision and accuracy was applicable for the assay of eptifibatide acetate in bulk drug substance and pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  9. Associations between University Students' Reported Reasons for Abstinence from Illicit Substances and Type of Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E.; Pavlick, Michelle; Jones, Lance D.; Hoffmann, Erica; Murray, Shanna; Faigin, Carol Ann; Cabral, Kyle; Baylen, Chelsea

    2012-01-01

    We recruited 211 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 34 listed reasons for not taking drugs had influenced their abstinence from MDMA/ecstasy, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens. Participants rated reasons such as personal and family medical histories, religion, and physiological consequences of drug use as having little or no…

  10. Working memory capacity moderates the predictive effects of drug-related associations on substance use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grenard, J.L.; Ames, S.L.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Thush, C.; Sussman, S.Y.; Stacy, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    Some theories suggest that spontaneously activated, drug-related associations in memory may have a "freer reign" in predicting drug use among individuals with lower working memory capacity. This study evaluated this hypothesis among 145 at-risk youth attending continuation high schools (CHS). This

  11. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  12. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.

  13. [Simultaneous separation and detection of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate by RP-HPLC and structure confirmation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yue-Qiu; Wang, Yan; Shi, Min-Jian

    2013-08-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous separation and detection of 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B by RP-HPLC and drug quality standard was established. The structures of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate have been confirmed. Reference European Pharmacopoeia EP7.0 version, British Pharmacopoeia 2012 version, National Drug Standards of China (WS 1-XG-2002), domestic and international interrelated literature were referred to select the composition of mobile phase. The experimental parameters including salt concentration, pH, addition quantities of organic solvent, column temperature and flow rate were optimized. Finally, the assay was conducted on a Durashell-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with 0.01 mol x mL(-1) ammonium perchlorate (add ammonia to adjust the pH value to 8.2) -methanol (48 : 52) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.8 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The column temperature was 50 degrees C and the injection volume was 10 microL. The MS, NMR, UV and RP-HPLC were used to confirm the structures of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate. Under the optimized separation conditions, the calibration curves of 18 alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B showed good linearity within the concentration of 0.50-100 microg x mL(-1) (r = 0.999 9). The detection limits for 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B were 0.15, 0.10, 0.10, 0.15 microg x mL(-1) respectively. The method is sensitive, reproducible and the results are accurate and reliable. It can be used for chiral resolution of 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18Pbeta-glycyrrhizinic acid, and detection content of principal component and

  14. Chitosan from shrimp shells: A renewable sorbent applied to the clean-up step of the QuEChERS method in order to determine multi-residues of veterinary drugs in different types of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Jean Lucas de Oliveira; Schneider, Antunielle; Batista-Andrade, Jahir Antonio; Vieira, Augusto Alves; Caldas, Sergiane Souza; Primel, Ednei Gilberto

    2018-02-01

    Clean extracts are essential in LC-MS/MS, since the matrix effect can interfere in the analysis. Alternative materials which can be used as sorbents, such as chitosan in the clean-up step, are cheap and green options. In this study, chitosan from shrimp shell waste was evaluated as a sorbent in the QuEChERS method in order to determine multi-residues of veterinary drugs in different types of milk, i. e., fatty matrices. After optimization, the method showed correlation coefficients above 0.99, LOQs ranged between 1 and 50μgkg-1 and recoveries ranged between 62 and 125%, with RSD<20% for all veterinary drugs in all types of milk under study. The clean-up step which employed chitosan proved to be effective, since it reduced both the matrix effect (from values between -40 and -10% to values from -10 to +10%) and the extract turbidity (up to 95%). When the proposed method was applied to different milk samples, residues of albendazole (49μgkg-1), sulfamethazine (

  15. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture,. Umudike, P.M.B 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: Email: docoleji@yahoo.com; Tel. No:+234 8034509991. SUMMARY. This study investigated comparatively the genetic influence on the ...

  16. Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...

  17. Nigerian Veterinary Journal (1)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The importance of computers in all works of life need not to be overemphasized. However, in. Nigeria, the application of computers in veterinary medicine has not been fully utilized. Computer aided diagnosis is a process that has significantly improved the practice of veterinary medicine in other parts of the world. This paper ...

  18. Nigerian Veterinary Journal: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SCOPE The Editorial Board of the Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) welcomes contributions in the form of original research papers, review articles, clinical case reports, and short communications on all aspects of Veterinary Medicine, Surgery and Animal Production. Submissions are accepted on the understanding that ...

  19. Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 16 of 16 Items ...

  20. Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 15 of 15 Items ...

  1. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Meseko et al. 155. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): 155-159. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Detection of Haemagglutination inhibition antibody to Pandemic and. Classical Swine Influenza Virus in Commercial Piggery in ...

  2. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(1). 2016. Igado et al. 54. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 54-63. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cranio-facial and Ocular Morphometrics of the Male Greater Cane Rat. (Thryonomys swinderianus). Igado, O. O.. 1. *; Adebayo, A. O.. 2.

  3. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Ogunro et al. 187. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): 187-191. CASE REPORT. Management of Epitheliogenesis Imperfecta in a Piglet (Sus Scrofa domesticus) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ogunro, B. N.. 1. ; Otuh, P. I.. 1.

  4. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(2). 2017. Meseko et al. 124. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., June 2017. Vol 38 (2): 124-128. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain.

  5. Open Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...

  6. Open Veterinary Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, P. O. Box 13662, Tripoli, Libya Phone: +218 21 462 8422. Fax: +218 21 462 8421. Email: ibrahim.eldaghayes@vetmed.edu.ly ...

  7. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks from Nigeria. Ogo, N. I.. 1. ; Okubanjo, O. O.. 2. ; Inuwa, H. M.. 3 and Agbede, R. I. S.. 4. 1National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State. 2Department of Veterinary Parasitology and. Entomology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 3Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu ...

  8. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Vet. J., December 2015. Vol. 36 (4): 1272-1282. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Gross and Morphometric Anatomical Changes of the Thyroid Gland in the West African Dwarf ... Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. .... common carotid artery, internal jugular vein,.

  9. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 45-53. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. A Retrospective Evaluation of Intravenous Fluid Usage in Animal. Patients Treated at Veterinary Teaching Hospital Nsukka, 2005-2015 ... 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. ... they carried with them their own internal sea.

  10. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    SUMMARY. The prevalence and morphological pathology of renal failure in exotic breeds of dog in Lagos and Ogun States, within Southwestern Nigeria were determined from postmortem records of the. Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of. Agriculture, Abeokuta ...

  11. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    at the Maiduguri municipal abattoir and were used for this study. Thyroid glands collected were transported in ice packs to the Department of Veterinary Pathology laboratory, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria for gross examination and thereafter, fixed and sent to Department of Veterinary. Anatomy, University of Abuja, were it ...

  12. Substance use management: a harm reduction-principled approach to assisting the relief of drug-related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigg, D

    2001-01-01

    Disease (particularly HIV) has increased our motivation to reconsider how the current help system deals with drug-related problems. A more concrete focus on disease prevention as an additional goal has, for many, lead to a reevaluation of the goals of drug help work. Such a critical examination shows how much there is to improve within the system even in the absence of blood borne disease. Integrating the heart of harm reduction--respecting work on any positive change as a person defines it for his/herself--into treatment fashions a health sensitive alternative to the predominant practice of abstinence-only assistance for the relief of drug problems. This new approach is called substance use management (SUM), as it no longer requires abstinence but instead focuses on a range of options for improvements while still including abstinence among the possible self-selected outcomes. SUM is suggested as a framework for change within the treatment system that would maximize treatment's constructive impact, cost-effectiveness and maturation as a distinct discipline that can appropriately attract support and gain stature for making society healthier. This article describes a formalized system for applying some of the main principles of harm reduction within the treatment system. Viable options for a SUM treatment focus are suggested herein as well as a critical process, based on respect and collaboration, for use with these options.

  13. Intergenerational effects of parental substance-related convictions and adult drug treatment court participation on children’s school performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth J.; Sloan, Frank A.; Evans, Kelly E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children’s academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. Method State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005–12. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Results Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics, e.g., mother’s educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. Conclusion While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much—but not all—of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. PMID:26460705

  14. Chemical Stability of the Botanical Drug Substance Crofelemer: A Model System for Comparative Characterization of Complex Mixture Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewarathna, Asha; Mozziconacci, Olivier; Nariya, Maulik K; Kleindl, Peter A; Xiong, Jian; Fisher, Adam C; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Middaugh, C Russell; Forrest, M Laird; Volkin, David B; Deeds, Eric J; Schöneich, Christian

    2017-11-01

    As the second of a 3-part series of articles in this issue concerning the development of a mathematical model for comparative characterization of complex mixture drugs using crofelemer (CF) as a model compound, this work focuses on the evaluation of the chemical stability profile of CF. CF is a biopolymer containing a mixture of proanthocyanidin oligomers which are primarily composed of gallocatechin with a small contribution from catechin. CF extracted from drug product was subjected to molecular weight-based fractionation and thiolysis. Temperature stress and metal-catalyzed oxidation were selected for accelerated and forced degradation studies. Stressed CF samples were size fractionated, thiolyzed, and analyzed with a combination of negative-ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and reversed-phase-HPLC with UV absorption and fluorescence detection. We further analyzed the chemical stability data sets for various CF samples generated from reversed-phase-HPLC-UV and ESI-MS using data-mining and machine learning approaches. In particular, calculations based on mutual information of over 800,000 data points in the ESI-MS analytical data set revealed specific CF cleavage and degradation products that were differentially generated under specific storage/degradation conditions, which were not initially identified using traditional analysis of the ESI-MS results. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. All rights reserved.

  15. Nurse turnover in substance abuse treatment programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Hannah K; Abraham, Amanda J; Roman, Paul M; Studts, Jamie L

    2011-04-01

    Voluntary nurse turnover, which is costly and disrupts patient care, has not been studied as an organizational phenomenon within substance abuse treatment organizations. In this exploratory study, we examined the frequency and correlates of nurse turnover within treatment programs affiliated with the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. During face-to-face interviews conducted in 2005-2006, 215 program administrators reported the number of nurses currently employed. Leaders of programs with nursing staff then described the number of nurses who had voluntarily quit in the past year, the degree to which filling vacant nursing positions was difficult, and the average number of days to fill a vacant position. About two thirds of these programs had at least one nurse on staff. In programs with nurses, the average rate of voluntary turnover was 15.0%. Turnover was significantly lower in hospital-based programs and programs offering adolescent treatment but higher in facilities offering residential treatment. Most of the administrators indicated that filling vacant nurse positions was difficult and took more than 2 months to complete. These findings suggest that nurse turnover is a significant issue facing many substance abuse treatment facilities. Efforts to improve retention of the addiction treatment workforce should be expanded to include nursing professionals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Intoxication with therapeutic and illicit drug substances and hospital admission to a Dutch university hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Vermes (Andras); E.M. Roelofsen (Erik); G. Sabadi; B.W. van den Berg (Bart); M. de Quelerij (Marcel); A.G. Vulto (Arnold)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: This article describes the retrospective analysis of the patients who presented with a drug-related intoxication to the emergency department of the Erasmus Medical Centre in 2000. METHODS: Data were collected from the emergency department's electronic database and the medical

  17. Pharmaceutical development of selected novel anticancer agents : from drugs substance to dosage form

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brok, M.W.J. (Monique Wilhelmina Johanna) den

    2004-01-01

    Despite the substantial progress made over the last decades in the treatment of cancer, there still is a great need for novel therapies. Especially for patients with advanced disease, chemotherapy is the best option. Nature is the primary source of anticancer drugs with compounds isolated from

  18. Specific effects of ecstasy and other illicit drugs on cognition in poly-substance users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilt, T.; de Win, M.M.L.; Jager, G.; Koeter, M.W.; Ramsey, N.F.; Schmand, B.; van den Brink, W.

    2008-01-01

    Background. A large number of studies, reviews and meta-analyses have reported cognitive deficits in ecstasy users. However most ecstasy users are polydrug users, and therefore it cannot be excluded that these deficits are (partly) the result of drugs other than ecstasy. The current study, part of

  19. The Media and Controlled Substances; Anti-Drug Legislation. Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverdure, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Provides two lesson plans for classroom use. Focuses on media influence on the use of alcohol and tobacco and on regulatory laws and their effect on drug use. Identifies connections that can be made to textbooks and magazine articles, as well as suggestions for opening, developing, and concluding each lesson. (DK)

  20. 41 CFR 109-27.5008 - Control of drug substances and potable alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of drug... Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.50-Inventory Management Policies, Procedures...

  1. Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-05-01

    To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.

  2. 76 FR 46818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Veterinary Feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ... Collection; Comment Request; Veterinary Feed Directive AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... on reporting and recordkeeping requirements for distribution and use of Veterinary Feed Directive... technology. Veterinary Feed Directive--21 CFR Part 558 (OMB Control Number 0910- 0363)--Extension With the...

  3. Drug: D08150 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08150 Drug Lufenuron (INN); Program [veterinary] (TN) C17H8Cl2F8N2O3 509.9784 511....1502 D08150.gif Antiparasitic [veterinary]; Insecticide [veterinary] Same as: C18434 veterinary medicine CAS

  4. Personality Dimensions Influencing the Relapse of Substance Abuse in Drug Dependents under Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Asgari

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction: This study was aimed to determine the personality dimensions which can influence the relapse of opioid substance dependents that are under methadone maintenance treatment. Method: In this prospective study 210 addicts who were referred to methadone clinics in 1389 were selected through judgmental sampling. All participants completed the self made questionnaire and Temperament and Character Inventory and it was followed for 6 months. Data were analyzed by t test. Findings: Data analysis revealed that relapsed group has higher scores in novelty seeking and harm avoidance compared to non-relapsed group. Also, their scores in self directiveness and cooperativeness were lower than non-relapsed group. No significant differences were found in reward dependence and persistence. Conclusion: This personality profile due to dimensional personality model of Cloninger showed that patients who relapse are high in novelty seeking and harm avoidance and low in cooperativeness and self directiveness. has important information about nature of personality traits that effect relapse of addiction and has implications for treatment plan and relapse prevention.

  5. Chamazulene carboxylic acid and matricin: a natural profen and its natural prodrug, identified through similarity to synthetic drug substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mai; Goeters, Susanne; Watzer, Bernhard; Krause, Eva; Lohmann, Klaus; Bauer, Rudolf; Hempel, Bernd; Imming, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Chamazulene carboxylic acid (1) is a natural profen with anti-inflammatory activity and a degradation product of proazulenic sesquiterpene lactones, e.g., matricin. Both 1 and proazulenes occur in chamomile (Matricaria recutita), yarrow (Achillea millefolium), and a few other Asteraceae species. It was isolated in improved yields, characterized physicochemically, and found to be an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, but not of cyclooxygenase-1. It had anti-inflammatory activity in several animal models with local and systemic application. When human volunteers were given matricin orally, plasma levels of 1 were found to be in the micromolar range. Matricin was converted to 1 in artificial gastric fluid, but not in artificial intestinal fluid. Matricin and the yarrow proazulenes are proposed to be anti-inflammatory through conversion to 1. Intriguingly, the biological activity of the natural compound 1 was found because of its similarity to fully synthetic drug substances. This is the reverse process of the common lead function of natural compounds in drug discovery.

  6. The impact of Federal Alcohol and Drug Abuse block grants on state and local government substance abuse program expenditures: the role of federal oversight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamkhar, S; Sim, S C

    2001-12-01

    Are the federal Alcohol and Drug Abuse (ADA) block grant funds substituting for or supplementing state and local government spending on substance abuse? Using panel data on state and local government substance abuse programs, this study explores the fiscal effects of the ADA block grant money and the increased enforcement (after 1989) of federal restrictions on state spending of ADA block grants. The findings here reveal that for the current period, the federal ADA grant has no statistically significant effect on state and local government substance abuse spending both before and after 1989, and the increased enforcement of federal restrictions on the ADA grants after 1989 does not change this result. An additional finding is that lagged ADA grants have had a large effect on substance abuse spending both before and after 1989--a feature of the program not considered in previous studies.

  7. Socioeconomic Status and Substance Use Among Young Adults: A Comparison Across Constructs and Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Megan E.; Wightman, Patrick; Schoeni, Robert F.; Schulenberg, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Little consensus exists regarding the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and substance use. This study examined the associations of three indicators of family SES during childhood—income, wealth, and parental education—with smoking, alcohol use, and marijuana use during young adulthood. Method: Data were obtained from the national Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a survey of U.S. families that incorporates data from parents and their children. In 2005 and 2007, the Panel Study of Income Dynamics was supplemented with two waves of Transition into Adulthood data drawn from a national sample of young adults, 18–23 years old. Data from the young adults (N = 1,203; 66.1% White; 51.5% female) on their current use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana were used as outcome variables in logistic regressions. Socioeconomic background was calculated from parental reports of education, wealth, and income during the respondent's childhood (birth through age 17 years). Results: Smoking in young adulthood was associated with lower childhood family SES, although the association was explained by demographic and social role covariates. Alcohol use and marijuana use in young adulthood were associated with higher childhood family SES, even after controlling for covariates. Conclusions: Findings based on three indicators of family background SES—income, wealth, and parental education—converged in describing unique patterns for smoking and for alcohol and marijuana use among young adults, although functional relationships across SES measures varied. Young adults with the highest family background SES were most prone to alcohol and marijuana use. PMID:22846241

  8. [New drugs for horses and production animals in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, Ilka Ute

    2017-06-20

    In 2016, only one newly developed active pharmaceutical ingredient for horses and food-producing animals was released on the German market for veterinary drug products. The immunomodulator Pegbovigrastim is now available as an injection solution for cattle (Imrestor®). Four established veterinary active pharmaceutical ingredients are available for further species: the ectoparasitic Amitraz (Apitraz®) from the triazapentadiene group was additionally authorized for honeybees, the expectorant Bromhexine (Exflow® Vet) for chickens, turkeys and ducks and the macrolide antibiotic Gamithromycin (Zactran®) for pigs. The dopamine D2 receptor agonist Cabergolin (Velactis®) was released for dairy cattle. However, the authorization was suspended a few months after market introduction because of severe side effects. Additionally, one veterinary drug with a new combination of active ingredients as well as one active substance in mono-preparation have been launched on the market for horses and food producing animals.

  9. Telemedicine in veterinary practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mars

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary surgeons have a long tradition of consulting one another about problem cases and many have unwittingly practised telemedicine when discussing cases by telephone or by sending laboratory reports by telefax. Specific veterinary telemedicine applications have been in use since the early 1980s, but little research has been undertaken in this field. The Pubmed and CAB International databases were searched for the following Boolean logic-linked keywords; veterinary AND telemedicine, veterinary AND telecare, animal AND telemedicine, animal AND telecare and veterinary AND e-mail and an additional search was made of the worldwide web, using Google Scholar. This returned 25 papers which were reviewed. Of these only 2 report research. Sixteen papers had no references and 1 author was associated with 13 papers. Several themes emerge in the papers reviewed. These include remarks about the use of telemedicine, the benefits that can and are derived from the use of telemedicine, areas of practice in which telemedicine is being used, ethical and legal issues around the practice of telemedicine, image standards required for telemedicine, the equipment that is required for the practice of telemedicine, advice on ways in which digital images can be obtained and educational aspects of telemedicine. These are discussed. Veterinary practice has lagged behind its human counterpart in producing research on the validity and efficacy of telemedicine. This is an important field which requires further research.

  10. Peer Substance Use Associated with the Co-Occurrence of Borderline Personality Disorder Features and Drug Use Problems in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Scott; Taylor, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if the substance use patterns of one's close friends and romantic partners would be a significant contributor to the co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and drug use problems above and beyond impulsivity and negative emotionality. Participants: Participants were 2,202 undergraduates who attended…

  11. Intestinal absorption of the antiepileptic drug substance vigabatrin in Göttingen mini-pigs is unaffected by co-administration of amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Martha Kampp; Holm, René; Thale, Zia Irene

    2014-01-01

    The anti-epileptic drug substance vigabatrin is used against infantile spasms. In vitro evidence suggests that vigabatrin is transported via the proton coupled amino acid transporter (PAT1). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the intestinal absorption of vigabatrin in vivo wa...

  12. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Muñana, Karen

    2015-01-01

    with the initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug...... for the management of canine idiopathic epilepsy. Furthermore, for the management of structural epilepsy AEDs are inevitable in addition to treating the underlying cause, if possible....

  13. Cigarette Smoking During Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Secondary Outcomes from a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Campbell, Aimee N C; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Meichen; Winhusen, Theresa; Vandrey, Ryan G; Ruglass, Lesia M; Covey, Lirio S; Stitzer, Maxine L; Kyle, Tiffany L; Nunes, Edward V

    2015-06-01

    The majority of patients enrolled in treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) also use tobacco. Many will continue to use tobacco even during abstinence from other drugs and alcohol, often leading to smoking-related illnesses. Despite this, little research has been conducted to assess the influence of being a smoker on SUD treatment outcomes and changes in smoking during a treatment episode. In this secondary analysis, cigarette smoking was evaluated in participants completing outpatient SUD treatment as part of a multi-site study conducted by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Analyses included the assessment of changes in smoking and nicotine dependence via the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence during the 12-week study among all smokers (aim #1), specifically among those in the experimental treatment group (aim #2), and the moderating effect of being a smoker on treatment outcomes (aim #3). Participants generally did not reduce or quit smoking throughout the course of the study. Among a sub-set of participants with higher baseline nicotine dependence scores randomized to the control arm, scores at the end of treatment were lower compared to the experimental arm, though measures of smoking quantity did not appear to decrease. Further, being a smoker was associated with poorer treatment outcomes compared to non-smokers enrolled in the trial. This study provides evidence that patients enrolled in community-based SUD treatment continue to smoke, even when abstaining from drugs and alcohol. These results add to the growing literature encouraging the implementation of targeted, evidence-based interventions to promote abstinence from tobacco among SUD treatment patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine... Medical and Nonmedical Uses of Antibiotics, was formed by the Food and Drug Administration to study, and...

  15. HPLC Fingerprinting of Sennosides in Laxative Drugs with Isolation of Standard Substances from Some Senna Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Omur Demirezer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Senna leaves are one of the oldest medicinal herbs and they are used as laxative. Herbal teas which contain senna leaves are most commonly used to promote weight loss. The quality control of slimming teas which contain Senna leaves and also pharmaceutical preparations including Senna extract enriched by sennoside B was achieved by HPLC fingerprinting method. While the presence of sennoside A and B in laxative drugs was proved, it was seen to be devoid of sennosides in slimming teas. Kaempferol 3-O-β-D-gentiobioside (1, aloe-emodine 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2, rhein 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, torachrysone 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, isorhamnetine 3-O-β-D-gentiobioside (5 were also isolated from Senna leaves.

  16. [Role of substitution albumin therapy in drugs, hormones, electrolytes and miscellanous substances transport].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozier, Y

    1996-01-01

    Human serum albumin (HSA) is quantitatively the most important non specific transport protein. HSA binds a wide variety of both endogenous and exogenous ligands. Hypoalbuminaemia may lead to a decreased plasma binding capability of some compounds. Biological/pharmacological consequences depend on the ligand and the target tissue. Many experimental studies suggest that hypoalbuminaemia may influence the metabolism and toxicity of endogenous ligands (bilirubin, metallic ions, oxygen radicals) and the pharmacological effect of some drugs (among others: furosemide, phenytoin, warfarin). The relevance of such information for human surgical situations remains unclear. Clinical studies are scarce and inconclusive. There is a lack of pertinent data supporting the necessity of HSA infusions in order to maintain a minimal plasma concentration and a convenient plasma transport. However, experimental data indicate that major hypoalbuminaemia should be considered with caution.

  17. Database on veterinary clinical research in homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Jürgen; Albrecht, Henning

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present report is to provide an overview of the first database on clinical research in veterinary homeopathy. Detailed searches in the database 'Veterinary Clinical Research-Database in Homeopathy' (http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/clinresvet/index.php). The database contains about 200 entries of randomised clinical trials, non-randomised clinical trials, observational studies, drug provings, case reports and case series. Twenty-two clinical fields are covered and eight different groups of species are included. The database is free of charge and open to all interested veterinarians and researchers. The database enables researchers and veterinarians, sceptics and supporters to get a quick overview of the status of veterinary clinical research in homeopathy and alleviates the preparation of systematical reviews or may stimulate reproductions or even new studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Co-occurrence between mental distress and poly-drug use: a ten year prospective study of patients from substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdzovic Andreas, Jasmina; Lauritzen, Grethe; Nordfjaern, Trond

    2015-09-01

    Longitudinal research investigating psychiatric trajectories among patients with poly-drug use patterns remains relatively scant, even though this specific population is at elevated risk for multiple negative outcomes. The present study examined temporal associations between poly-drug use (i.e. heroin, cannabis, tranquilizers, and amphetamines) and mental distress over a 10-year period. A clinical cohort of 481 patients was recruited from substance use treatment facilities in Norway, and prospectively interviewed 1, 2, 7 and 10years after the initial data collection at treatment admission. At each assessment participants completed a questionnaire addressing their substance use and mental distress. Longitudinal growth models were used to examine whether, and if so, how, levels of drug use were associated with the level and rate of change in mental distress over time. Results from the longitudinal growth models showed a co-occurrence between active poly-drug use and mental distress, such that there was a dose-response effect where mental distress increased both in magnitude and over time with the number of drugs used. Reduction in mental distress during the 10-year study period was evident only in the no-drug use condition. Use of multiple drugs and mental distress appear strongly co-related over time. Pre-treatment assessment should carefully identify individuals manifesting poly-drug use and mental disorders. Treatment and follow-up services should be tailored to their specific needs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Global veterinary leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, G Gale; Brown, Corrie C

    2002-11-01

    The public needs no reminder that deadly infectious diseases such as FMD could emerge in any country at any moment, or that national food security could be compromised by Salmonella or Listeria infections. Protections against these risks include the knowledge that appropriate and equivalent veterinary education will enable detection and characterization of emerging disease agents, as well as an appropriate response, wherever they occur. Global veterinary leadership is needed to reduce the global threat of infectious diseases of major food animal and public health importance. We believe that the co-curriculum is an excellent way to prepare and train veterinarians and future leaders who understand and can deal with global issues. The key to the success of the program is the veterinarian's understanding that there is a cultural basis to the practice of veterinary medicine in any country. The result will be a cadre of veterinarians, faculty, and other professionals who are better able (language and culture) to understand the effects of change brought about by free trade and the importance of interdisciplinary and institutional relationships to deal effectively with national and regional issues of food safety and security. New global veterinary leadership programs will build on interests, experience, ideas, and ambitions. A college that wishes to take advantage of this diversity must offer opportunities that interest veterinarians throughout their careers and that preferably connect academic study with intensive experiential training in another country. At its best, the global veterinary leadership program would include a partnership between veterinarians and several international learning centers, a responsiveness to the identified international outreach needs of the profession, and attention to critical thinking and reflection. The global veterinary leadership program we have described is intended to be a set of ideas meant to promote collaboration, coalitions, and

  20. A simultaneous determination of related substances by high performance liquid chromatography in a drug product using quality by design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Trupti; Kadam, Nilesh; Raotole, Nilesh; Desai, Anita; Samanta, Gautam

    2016-02-05

    The combination of Abacavir, Lamivudine and Dolutegravir is an anti-retroviral formulation that displays high efficacy and superiority in comparison to other anti-retroviral combinations. Analysis of related substances in this combination drug product was very challenging due to the presence of nearly thirty peaks including the three active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), eleven known impurities and other pharmaceutical excipients. Objective of this study was to develop a single, selective, and robust high performance liquid chromatography method for the efficient separation of all peaks. Initially, one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) approach was adopted to develop the method. But, it could not resolve all the critical peaks in such complex matrix. This led to the advent of two different HPLC methods for the determination of related substances, one for Abacavir and Lamivudine and the other for Dolutegravir. But, since analysis of a single sample using two methods instead of one is time and resource consuming and thus expensive, an attempt was made to develop a single and robust method by adopting quality by design (QbD) principles. Design of Experiments (DoE) was applied as a tool to achieve the optimum conditions through Response surface methodology with three method variables, pH, temperature, and mobile phase composition. As the study progressed, it was discovered that establishment of the design space was not viable due to the completely distant pH requirements of the two responses, i.e. (i) retention time for Lamivudine carboxylic acid and (ii) resolution between Abacavir impurity B and unknown impurity. Eventually, neglecting one of these two responses each time, two distinguished design spaces have been established and verified. Edge of failures at both design spaces indicate high probability of failure. It therefore, becomes very important to identify the most robust zone or normal operating range (NOR) within the design space with low risk of failure and high

  1. New psychoactive substances as part of polydrug abuse within opioid maintenance treatment revealed by comprehensive high-resolution mass spectrometric urine drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikman, Pertti; Sundström, Mira; Pelander, Anna; Ojanperä, Ilkka

    2016-01-01

    At present, polydrug abuse comprises, besides traditional illicit drugs, new psychoactive substances (NPS) and non-prescribed psychotropic medicines (N-PPM). Polydrug abuse was comprehensively evaluated among opioid-dependent patients undergoing opioid maintenance treatment (OMT). Two hundred consecutively collected urine samples from 82 OMT patients (52 male) treated with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone medication were studied using a liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry screening method. The method enables simultaneous detection of hundreds of abused substances covering the traditional drugs of abuse and many NPS as well as N-PPM. Ninety-two (45.8%) samples were positive for the abused substances. Benzodiazepines (29.0%), amphetamines (19.5%), cannabinoids (17.0%), NPS (13.0%), N-PPM (9.0%), and opioids (9.0%) were detected in different combinations. The simultaneous occurrence of up to three groups of abused substances was common (40.0%), and in one sample, all six groups were found. The stimulant NPS alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone was found in 10.0% and the sedative N-PPM pregabalin in 4.0% of the samples. The patients were seldom aware of what particular NPS they had abused. A widespread occurrence of abused substances beyond the ordinary was revealed. Identifying these patients is essential as polydrug abuse is a safety risk to the patient and may cause attrition from OMT. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Expanding the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network to address the management of substance use disorders in general medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Betty Tai, Steven Sparenborg, Udi E Ghitza, David Liu Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Abstract: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010 and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (2008 expand substance use disorder (SUD care services in the USA into general medical settings. Care offered in these settings will engage substance-using patients in an integrated and patient-centered environment that addresses physical and mental health comorbidities and follows a chronic care model. This expansion of SUD services presents a great need for evidence-based practices useful in general medical settings, and reveals several research gaps to be addressed. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network of the National Institute on Drug Abuse can serve an important role in this endeavor. High-priority research gaps are highlighted in this commentary. A discussion follows on how the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network can transform to address changing patterns in SUD care to efficiently generate evidence to guide SUD treatment practice within the context of recent US health care legislation. Keywords: Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, substance use disorders, practice-based research network, electronic health records

  3. Exploring Relationships Between Delinquent Peer Groups, Participation in Delinquency, Substance Abuse, and Injecting Drug Use Among the Incarcerated: Findings From a National Sample of State and Federal Inmates in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marotta, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    The following study assesses the relationship between affiliating with delinquent peer groups, participation in delinquency, and several substance misuse and injecting drug use outcomes in a nationally representative sample of inmates in state and federal facilities in the United States. After controlling for potential confounders, affiliating with peers who engaged in deviant behaviors and participation in delinquency was associated with onset of alcohol and illicit drug use, substance dependence, alcohol dependence, types of substances used, and injecting drug use outcomes. Inmates who began engaging in delinquency at older ages reported initiating drug and alcohol use at older ages, and were less likely to meet the criteria for drug abuse or dependence, less likely to use substances daily or near daily, and less likely to report having ever injected or shared syringes. The implications of these findings for substance abuse, HIV, and crime prevention interventions are discussed.

  4. [The determination of the low and medium molecular weight substances in the blood serum as the additional diagnostic criterion in the cases of lethal poisoning with narcotic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obukhova, L M; Andriianova, N A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was the comparative analysis of the concentrations of the low and medium molecular weight substances in the blood serum in the cases of lethal poisoning with narcotic drugs, alcoholic intoxication, and endogenous intoxication associated with various diseases. The spectrogram profile of the low and medium molecular weight substances present in the blood serum obtained in the case of lethal poisoning with narcotic drugs exhibited a peak at 260-274 nm that was not found in an analogous profile in the case of alcoholic intoxication or a disease. It is concluded that the proposed analysis can be used as an additional diagnostic criterion for the documentation of poisoning with narcotic drugs and/or other potent agents.

  5. Errors in veterinary practice: preliminary lessons for building better veterinary teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, T; Guile, D; May, S A

    2015-11-14

    Case studies in two typical UK veterinary practices were undertaken to explore teamwork, including interprofessional working. Each study involved one week of whole team observation based on practice locations (reception, operating theatre), one week of shadowing six focus individuals (veterinary surgeons, veterinary nurses and administrators) and a final week consisting of semistructured interviews regarding teamwork. Errors emerged as a finding of the study. The definition of errors was inclusive, pertaining to inputs or omitted actions with potential adverse outcomes for patients, clients or the practice. The 40 identified instances could be grouped into clinical errors (dosing/drugs, surgical preparation, lack of follow-up), lost item errors, and most frequently, communication errors (records, procedures, missing face-to-face communication, mistakes within face-to-face communication). The qualitative nature of the study allowed the underlying cause of the errors to be explored. In addition to some individual mistakes, system faults were identified as a major cause of errors. Observed examples and interviews demonstrated several challenges to interprofessional teamworking which may cause errors, including: lack of time, part-time staff leading to frequent handovers, branch differences and individual veterinary surgeon work preferences. Lessons are drawn for building better veterinary teams and implications for Disciplinary Proceedings considered. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol: common for men in substance abuse treatment and associated with high-risk sexual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A; Cousins, Sarah J; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Mandler, Raul; Doyle, Suzanne R; Woody, George

    2010-01-01

    Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high-risk sexual behavior. Heterosexual men (n = 505) in substance abuse treatment completed a computer-administered interview assessing sexual risk behaviors. Most men (73.3%) endorsed sex under the influence in the prior 90 days, and 39.1% endorsed sex under the influence during their most recent sexual event. Sex under the influence at the most recent event was more likely to involve anal intercourse, sex with a casual partner, and less condom use. Patients might benefit from interventions targeting sexual behavior and substance use as mutual triggers. (Am J Addict 2010;00:1-9).

  7. Substance use - inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse - inhalants; Drug abuse - inhalants; Drug use - inhalants; Glue - inhalants ... Gases, such as butane (lighter fluid), computer cleaning spray, ... fast-drying glue, felt-tip marker, gasoline, nail polish remover, ...

  8. [Initiation and consumption of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults in an Anti-Drug Psychosocial Care Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carolina Carvalho; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Cruz, Nilma Lázara de Almeida; da Silva, Mariana Rocha

    2014-03-01

    The study seeks to characterize the initiation and consumption pattern of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults enrolled in an Alcohol and Drug Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS-AD). This study was conducted with records of attendance and the consumption pattern was classified in accordance with WHO: infrequent use (lifetime use, per year or up to five days per month); frequent use (6 to 19 times in the past 30 days); heavy use (≥ 20 times in the last 30 days). In the age group comparison, the test for proportion and association analysis was used and the prevalence and prevalence ratio was calculated with a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence interval. Of the total of adolescents and young adults treated between 2003 and 2008 (475), most were male, single, poorly educated, live with relations and have psychic symptoms. Statistical significance was found for age at initiation of use: adolescents compared to young adults started earlier (≤ 14 years): tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, crack and other SPA consumption. Among adolescents, significant results were found for the less frequent consumption of tobacco, more frequent use of alcohol, and heavy consumption of marijuana. These findings may contribute to the preventive and therapeutic CAPS-AD programs.

  9. A Multidisciplinary Investigation to Determine the Structure and Source of Dimeric Impurities in AMG 517 Drug Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Victoria Silva Elipe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In the initial scale-up batches of the experimental drug substance AMG 517, a pair of unexpected impurities was observed by HPLC. Analysis of data from initial LC-MS experiments indicated the presence of two dimer-like molecules. One impurity had an additional sulfur atom incorporated into its structure relative to the other impurity. Isolation of the impurities was performed, and further structural elucidation experiments were conducted with high-resolution LC-MS and 2D NMR. The dimeric structures were confirmed, with one of the impurities having an unexpected C-S-C linkage. Based on the synthetic route of AMG 517, it was unlikely that these impurities were generated during the last two steps of the process. Stress studies on the enriched impurities were carried out to further confirm the existence of the C-S-C linkage in the benzothiazole portion of AMG 517. Further investigation revealed that these two dimeric impurities originated from existing impurities in the AMG 517 starting material, N-acetyl benzothiazole. The characterization of these two dimeric impurities allowed for better quality control of new batches of the N-acetyl benzothiazole starting material. As a result, subsequent batches of AMG 517 contained no reportable levels of these two impurities

  10. Justification of Drug Product Dissolution Rate and Drug Substance Particle Size Specifications Based on Absorption PBPK Modeling for Lesinurad Immediate Release Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepin, Xavier J H; Flanagan, Talia R; Holt, David J; Eidelman, Anna; Treacy, Don; Rowlings, Colin E

    2016-09-06

    In silico absorption modeling has been performed, to assess the impact of in vitro dissolution on in vivo performance for ZURAMPIC (lesinurad) tablets. The dissolution profiles of lesinurad tablets generated using the quality control method were used as an input to a GastroPlus model to estimate in vivo dissolution in the various parts of the GI tract and predict human exposure. A model was set up, which accounts for differences of dosage form transit, dissolution, local pH in the GI tract, and fluid volumes available for dissolution. The predictive ability of the model was demonstrated by confirming that it can reproduce the Cmax observed for independent clinical trial. The model also indicated that drug product batches that pass the proposed dissolution specification of Q = 80% in 30 min are anticipated to be bioequivalent to the clinical reference batch. To further explore the dissolution space, additional simulations were performed using a theoretical dissolution profile below the proposed specification. The GastroPlus modeling indicates that such a batch will also be bioequivalent to standard clinical batches despite having a dissolution profile, which would fail the proposed dissolution specification of Q = 80% in 30 min. This demonstrates that the proposed dissolution specification sits comfortably within a region of dissolution performance where bioequivalence is anticipated and is not near an edge of failure for dissolution, providing additional confidence to the proposed specifications. Finally, simulations were performed using a virtual drug substance batch with a particle size distribution at the limit of the proposed specification for particle size. Based on these simulations, such a batch is also anticipated to be bioequivalent to clinical reference, demonstrating that the proposed specification limits for particle size distribution would give products bioequivalent to the pivotal clinical batches.

  11. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. Keywords: Complementary and alternative veterinary medicine, Integrative veterinary course, Integrative veterinary curriculum, Integrative veterinary medicine, ...

  13. Pregnancies exposed to methadone, methadone and other illicit substances, and poly-drugs without methadone: a comparison of fetal neurobehaviors and infant outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, L M; Di Pietro, J A; Elko, A; Williams, E L; Milio, L; Velez, M

    2012-05-01

    It is suspected that there is a continuum of impairment among prenatally drug-exposed infants, such that opioid and/or poly-drug exposure confers the highest risk for adverse neonatal outcomes than other classes of substances or single substance exposures. Suitable control groups are difficult to identify. This study compared fetal neurobehavioral development and infant outcomes in offspring of three groups of pregnant women in drug treatment. Exposure groups include: Methadone+other illicit substances (MM+Poly) and two groups currently abstinent for poly drug exposures: Methadone only (MM/A) and Non-Methadone (NM/A). Forty-nine women (19 MM+Poly, 18 MM/A, and 12 NM/A) underwent fetal monitoring at 36 weeks gestation at peak and trough levels of methadone (MM+Poly; MM/A) or at comparable morning and afternoon times (NM/A). Fetal heart rate (FHR), heart rate variability (FHRV) and motor activity (FM) data were collected. Infant measures included birth outcomes and Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome (NAS) assessment. As compared to the NM/A group, cardiac measures were decreased in methadone-exposed fetuses at peak levels. FHR was significantly more suppressed in the MM+Poly group. FM was significantly lower in the MM/A vs. the NM/A group at both peak and trough, indicative of more persistent exposure effects. The MM+Poly group delivered 1 week earlier and required NAS pharmacological treatment twice as often as the MM/A group. Results support the notion that poly-drug exposure may potentiate the effects of methadone on the fetus and infant and highlights the need for intensified treatment for methadone-maintained women who abuse other substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. 75 FR 20239 - Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ..., or other therapeutic or diagnostic substance or medical or surgical technique, or (2) The use of... reproductive management, or (4) The rendering of advice or recommendation by any means including telephonic and... veterinary specialists to assist in the control and eradication of animal disease outbreaks. Sec. 3431.9...

  15. Auricular acupuncture for substance use: a randomized controlled trial of effects on anxiety, sleep, drug use and use of addiction treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Rickard; Skårberg, Kurt; Brus, Ole; Kjellin, Lars

    2016-07-25

    A common alternative treatment for substance abuse is auricular acupuncture. The aim of the study was to evaluate the short and long-term effect of auricular acupuncture on anxiety, sleep, drug use and addiction treatment utilization in adults with substance abuse. Of the patients included, 280 adults with substance abuse and psychiatric comorbidity, 80 were randomly assigned to auricular acupuncture according to the NADA protocol, 80 to auricular acupuncture according to a local protocol (LP), and 120 to relaxation (controls). The primary outcomes anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI) and insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index; ISI) were measured at baseline and at follow-ups 5 weeks and 3 months after the baseline assessment. Secondary outcomes were drug use and addiction service utilization. Complete datasets regarding BAI/ISI were obtained from 37/34 subjects in the NADA group, 28/28 in the LP group and 36/35 controls. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Analysis of Variance, Kruskal Wallis, Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, Eta square (η(2)), and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests. Participants in NADA, LP and control group improved significantly on the ISI and BAI. There was no significant difference in change over time between the three groups in any of the primary (effect size: BAI, η(2) = 0.03, ISI, η(2) = 0.05) or secondary outcomes. Neither of the two acupuncture treatments resulted in differences in sleep, anxiety or drug use from the control group at 5 weeks or 3 months. No evidence was found that acupuncture as delivered in this study is more effective than relaxation for problems with anxiety, sleep or substance use or in reducing the need for further addiction treatment in patients with substance use problems and comorbid psychiatric disorders. The substantial attrition at follow-up is a main limitation of the study. Clinical Trials NCT02604706 (retrospectively registered).

  16. Drug: D08455 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available as: C18605 ... veterinary medicine Juvenile hormone mimic Larval growth inhibitor ... CAS: 95737-68-1 PubChem: ... D08455 Drug Pyriproxyfen; Cyclio [veterinary] (TN) ... C20H19NO3 D08455.gif ... Same

  17. Drug: D07613 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07613 Drug Carbaryl (BAN); Carbaril; Flea and tick powder [veterinary] (TN) ... C12H...11NO2 D07613.gif ... Same as: C07491 ... carbamate insecticide cholinesterase inhibitor veterinary medicine ...

  18. Drug: D08251 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08251 Drug Nandrolone laurate; Nandrolone dodecanoate; Laurabolin [veterinary] (T...14AB01 S01XA11 Chemical group: DG00142 ... Estren derivative veterinary medicine NR3C4 (AR) [HSA:367] [KO:K085

  19. Drug: D08251 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08251 Drug Nandrolone laurate; Nandrolone dodecanoate; Laurabolin [veterinary] (TN...) C30H48O3 456.3603 456.7003 D08251.gif Anabolic ATC code: A14AB01 anabolic steroids veterinary medicine and

  20. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    um chafe

    191-203. FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. USMANU DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY. P.M.B. 2346, SOKOTO. NIGERIA. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. ISSN 1595-093X. Nwanta et al. /Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (2008). 7(2): 42-45. Field trial of Malaysian thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine in.

  1. African Journals Online: Veterinary Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... ... of the Kenya Veterinary Association. It publishes original papers in English, within the whole field of animal science and veterinary medicine and those addressing legal and policy issues related to the veterinary profession. The journal accepts articles and reports in the areas of Anatomy and Histology, ...

  2. The ABCG2 Efflux Transporter in the Mammary Gland Mediates Veterinary Drug Secretion across the Blood-Milk Barrier into Milk of Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnke, Hanna; Ballent, Mariana; Baumann, Sven; Imperiale, Fernanda; von Bergen, Martin; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian L; Honscha, Walther; Halwachs, Sandra

    2016-05-01

    In human and mice ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 represents the main route for active drug transport into milk. However, there is no detailed information on the role of ABCG2 in drug secretion and accumulation in milk of dairy animals. We therefore examined ABCG2-mediated drug transport in the bovine mammary gland by parallel pharmacokinetic studies in lactating Jersey cows and in vitro flux studies using the anthelmintic drug monepantel (MNP) as representative bovine ABCG2 (bABCG2) drug substrate. Animals received MNP (Zolvix, Novartis Animal Health Inc.) once (2.5 mg/kg per os) and the concentrations of MNP and the active MNP metabolite MNPSO2 were assessed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Compared with the parent drug MNP, we detected higher MNPSO2 plasma concentrations (expressed as area under the concentration-versus-time curve). Moreover, we observed MNPSO2 excretion into milk of dairy cows with a high milk-to-plasma ratio of 6.75. In mechanistic flux assays, we determined a preferential time-dependent basolateral-to-apical (B > A) MNPSO2 transport across polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells-bABCG2 monolayers using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The B > A MNPSO2 transport was significantly inhibited by the ABCG2 inhibitor fumitremorgin C in bABCG2- but not in mock-transduced MDCKII cells. Additionally, the antibiotic drug enrofloxacin, the benzimidazole anthelmintic oxfendazole and the macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic moxidectin caused a reduction in the MNPSO2(B > A) net efflux. Altogether, this study indicated that therapeutically relevant drugs like the anthelmintic MNP represent substrates of the bovine mammary ABCG2 transporter and may thereby be actively concentrated in dairy milk. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  3. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    1Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria; 2Department of Animal Health .... and Tucker, 2004). Even for animals for which direct observation of intraocular structures is possible, ultrasonography may be helpful for tumor identification, ..... determination of the size of eye prosthesis in.

  4. ,3. Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Vol 34 pi res-sea. Epizootiologicul Survey of Bovine Brucellosis in. Nomadic Pastoral ... brucellosis in the pastoral herds of Niger State despite its high cattle population and no research has ..... Brucella abortus infection in Cattle in Chile. Archivos de Med.Veterin.. 27: 45-50. ROTH, F., ZINSSTAG ...

  5. Veterinary Replicon Vaccines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikke, Mia C.; Pijlman, Gorben P.

    2017-01-01

    Vaccination is essential in livestock farming and in companion animal ownership. Nucleic acid vaccines based on DNA or RNA provide an elegant alternative to those classical veterinary vaccines that have performed suboptimally. Recent advances in terms of rational design, safety, and efficacy have

  6. . Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leptospirosis. Case report. An 1 1 year old male Alsatian dog was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the. University of lbadan (VTH-Ul) with a hist01y of anorexia, weakness and exercise intolerance of5 days duration. On clinical examination, the rectal temperature was normal andlung auscultation revealed a ...

  7. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...

  8. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    according to International guiding principles for biochemical research involving animals. (C. I .O. M .S .1985). Source of Trypanosomes. Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federe strain) used for the study was obtained from donor rats maintained at the postgraduate laboratory of the Department of Veterinary. Microbiology and ...

  9. '*Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    '*Nigerian Veterinary Journal. ~. Vol35 (1)9~8· 955. ARTICLE. Prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila. Isolates in cultured and Feral Clarias gariepinus of the Kainji Lake Area, Nigeria,. OMEJE, V.O.' and CHUKWU, C.C.. Aquaculture Programme. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Researcl1. PMB 6006, New Bussa, ...

  10. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Although the safety profile of short term dexamethasone treatment has been established, there has been ... Although low-dose dexamethasone treatment has been used in veterinary and human clinics for many years and produced no severe ..... in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PcOS) (Keay et al., 2001).

  11. 50 Years: Veterinary Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narlesky, Lynn

    1998-01-01

    Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…

  12. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    prevalence of diseases and available veterinary services were noticed to be present in these communities. The draught animal survival ability rather ... labour in farming and transportation. (Chantalakhana and Bunyavejehewin, 1994) ..... spreading of these diseases such as. Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis to these animals.

  13. g Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ovemight in a cool box. Serum was extracted using a plastic micropipette and transferred into sample bottles and was frozen until tested. Detection of antibodies to N DV. Antigen. Newcastle disease virus LaSota strain obtained from the National Veterinary Research Institute. (NVRI), Vom, was used as antigen for HI-test.

  14. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Vet. J., March 2017. Vol 38 (1): 57-68. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. An Audit of Castration of Male Dogs in Enugu Metropolis, South. Eastern Nigeria. Raheem, K. A.. 1Department of Veterinary ..... The internal genital organs like the prostate gland, urethra, penis, bulbis ... As biotechnology and medicine continue to advance, other ...

  15. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Vet. J., June 2016. Vol. 37 (2): 82-87. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cystographic Evaluation Post Colocystoplasty in Two Nigerian. Indigenous Dogs. Muhammad S. T.*. 1 ., Awasum C. A.. 2 ... integrity/morphology of most internal body organs or system(s) of an individual, ..... Journal of Veterinary. Medicine and Animal Health, 7(1):.

  16. Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    En-Joy

    Lungworms of Small Ruminants Slaughtered in Restaurants of Ambo, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. 1. 1. 1. 2. GAROMSSA, T. , BERSISSA, K. , DINKA, A.* and ENDRIAS, Z. 1. 2. School of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University. Ambo University. *Corresponding author: dinka_ayana@yahoo.com. INTRODUCTION.

  17. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 24-31. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Occurrence of Klebsiella Species in Cultured African Catfish in Oyo. State, South-West Nigeria. Adeshina, I. 1. *; Abdrahman, S. A.. 2 and Yusuf, A. A.. 3. 1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, ...

  18. Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SUMMARY. An audit of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, lbadan between 2008 and 2011 was conducted to evaluate the level of compliance with standard practices. The study involved retrospective case note audit of surgical procedures performed during the period. A total number of 108.

  19. [New drugs for small animals in 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, I U

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, no active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for small animals. Furthermore, no additional substances were authorized for additional species. Only one drug with an interesting new pharmaceutical form, two products with a new strength and one drug, which is interesting because of other criteria, were added to the market for small animals. In addition, nine active pharmaceutical ingredients with approval for use in human medicine, which are of potential interest for veterinary medicine, entered the market in 2010. Those are the analgesic Tapentadol, the antiallergicum Bilastine, the antiarrhythmics Dronedarone and Vernakalant, the antihaemorrhagic Eltrombopag, the bronchodilator Roflumilast, the hormone Corifollitropin alfa, the laxative Prucalopride and the cytostatic Mifamurtide.

  20. Common questions in veterinary toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N

    2015-05-01

    Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  1. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behaviour among drug users in Durban, South Africa: Assessing the impact of community-level risk-reduction interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, C D H; Carney, T; Petersen Williams, P

    2017-12-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) use is increasingly recognised as having a direct and indirect effect on the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, there is evidence to suggest that drug- and sex-related HIV risk-reduction interventions targeted at drug users within drug treatment centres or via community outreach efforts can lead to positive health outcomes. This study aimed to test whether a community-level intervention aimed at AOD users has an impact on risky AOD use and sexual risk behaviour. In 2007, in collaboration with a local non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Durban, an initiative was begun to implement a number of harm reduction strategies for injection and non-injection drug users. The NGO recruited peer outreach workers who received intensive initial training, which was followed by six-monthly monitoring and evaluation of their performance. Participants had to be 16 years of age or older, and self-reported alcohol and/or drug users. Peer outreach workers completed a face-to-face baseline questionnaire with participants which recorded risk behaviours and a risk-reduction plan was developed with participants which consisted of reducing injection (if applicable) and non-injection drug use and sex-related risks. Other components of the intervention included distribution of condoms, risk-reduction counselling, expanded access to HIV Testing Services, HIV/sexually transmitted infection care and treatment, and referrals to substance abuse treatment and social services. At follow-up, the baseline questionnaire was completed again and participants were also asked the frequency of reducing identified risk behaviours. Baseline information was collected from 138 drug users recruited into the study through community-based outreach, and who were subsequently followed up between 2010 and 2012. No injection drug users were reached. The data presented here are for first contact (baseline) and the final follow-up contact with the participants

  2. Veterinary pharmacovigilance in India: A need of hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rishi; Kalaiselvan, Vivekanandan; Verma, Ravendra; Kaur, Ismeet; Kumar, Pranay; Singh, G N

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary pharmacovigilance (PV) is important for the Medicine which are used for treating disease in animals. It becomes more important when these animals are further used for producing food. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have a direct impact on animals and indirect impact on human beings, for example, through milk products, other animal producing food products. Currently, PV program of India is playing a vital role in assessing the safety of medicines in Indian Population. The safety of medicine in animals can be assessed by veterinary PV. The research institutes involved in animal research and veterinary hospitals can be considered as ADR monitoring centers to assess the safety of medicines on animals.

  3. The Direct and Indirect Effects of Parental Bonds, Parental Drug Use, and Self-Control on Adolescent Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope,Trina L.; Whiteford, Scott W.

    2005-01-01

    Research indicates that parenting has important effects on adolescent substance use. However, the indirect effect of parenting on adolescent substance use via self-control is less understood. Gottfredson and Hirschi's General Theory of Crime has been extensively tested by researchers in the field of criminology, but the theory rarely has been used…

  4. Substance use -- prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Biphetamine, and Dexedrine. Street names include bennies, black beauties, crosses, hearts, LA turnaround, speed, truck drivers, uppers. ... verify that A.D.A.M. follows rigorous standards of quality and accountability. A.D.A.M. ...

  5. Prevalence of substance use and correlates of multiple substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of substance use and correlates of multiple substance use among school-going adolescents in Botswana. ... substance use were common in Botswana and as such require immediate programme intervention. Keywords: Smoking, drinking, drug prevalence, multiple substance use, adolescents, Botswana ...

  6. Residential and outpatient treatment completion for substance use disorders in the U.S.: Moderation analysis by demographics and drug of choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Gerald J; Mennis, Jeremy; DuCette, Joseph P

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the impact of residential versus outpatient treatment setting on treatment completion, and how this impact might vary by demographic characteristics and drug of choice, using a national sample of publicly funded substance abuse programs in the United States. This is a retrospective analysis using data extracted from the 2011 Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS-D). A total of 318,924 cases were analyzed using logistic regression, fixed-effects logistic regression, and moderated fixed-effects logistic regression. Residential programs reported a 65% completion rate compared to 52% for outpatient settings. After controlling for other confounding factors, clients in residential treatment were nearly three times as likely as clients in outpatient treatment to complete treatment. The effect of residential treatment on treatment completion was not significantly moderated by gender, but it was for age, drug of choice, and race/ethnicity. Residential compared to outpatient treatment increased the likelihood of completion to a greater degree for older clients, Whites, and opioid abusers, as compared to younger clients, non-Whites, and alcohol and other substance users, respectively. We speculate that for opioid abusers, as compared to abusers of other drugs, residential treatment settings provide greater protection from environmental and social triggers that may lead to relapse and non-completion of treatment. Greater use of residential treatment should be explored for opioid users in particular. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparing Efficacy of Four Preventive Methods on Attitude of Drug Substance Abuse and Self–Esteem in Students Supported by Emdad Committee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz allah agha babaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of four drug substance abuse preventive methods: cognitive–behavioral social traioning, life skills training, poster presentation and short message system on attitude change and enhancement self-esteem in students supported by Emdad Committee. Method:This was a quasi experimental study. 150 students were selected and randomly assigned to the four experimental and control groups. The groups were completed attitude of drug substance abuse and self-esteem inventories. Experimental groups received: group 1 received 10 sessions of group cognitive-behavioral social training 120 minutes each, group 2, 10 sessions of life skills training, 120 minutes each, group 3 for 10 weeks into presented of 40 posters and group 4 short message service for 10 weeks. Findings: The results revealed that preventive techniques were effected on attitude and self–esteem. Also results of post-hoc (LSD test revealed that preventive techniques with difference effectiveness were effected on change attitude of substance abuse. Also cognitive–behavioral social training and life skills training techniques were effected on self esteem. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that all the four techniques were effective in the generation negative attitude into drug abuse, otherwise only cognitive–behavioral social training and life skills training enhancement on self esteem.

  8. [The forecast of illicit drug use in adolescents with addictive behavior: personality traits and the level of genetic risk of substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, A N; Brodyansky, V M; Schurina, A V; Romashkin, R A; Kibitov, A O

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the psychological mechanism underlying the genetic risk of substance addiction at the first stage of drug use by adolescents. Genetic risk was evaluated by genotyping of 5 polymorphisms of the dopaminergic system genes (dopamine receptor D2 and D4 genes and tyrosine hydroxylase gene). Psychological testing was performed using the Russian version of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Seventy-five adolescents, aged 14-17 years, (girls 32%), who misused alcohol, including 22 adolescents using drugs, were examined. The level of genetic risk was directly correlated with the probability of drug use by boys, for girls the correlation was not confirmed. The increase of the level of genetic risk for boys was correlated with the increase on the scale «Self-directedness» of TCI-125 that may reflect a probable tendency to replacement of negative information, feeling of illusory wellbeing. The findings clarify the direction of measures for the prevention of drug use.

  9. Depression CBT treatment gains among HIV-infected persons with a history of injection drug use varies as a function of baseline substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Allison K; O'Cleirigh, Conall M; Stein, Michael; Safren, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Depression and substance use, the most common comorbidities with HIV, are both associated with poor treatment outcomes and accelerated HIV disease progression. Though previous research has demonstrated short-term and follow-up success for cognitive behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) on depression outcomes among patients with HIV in care and among patients with HIV in active substance abuse treatment for injection drug use (IDU), there is little information regarding possible moderating effects of active use versus abstinence on depression treatment gains. The present study aimed to examine recent substance use at treatment initiation as a moderator of the acute and maintenance effects of CBT-AD on depression. We used data from a two-arm, randomized controlled trial (N = 89) comparing CBT-AD to enhanced treatment as usual in individuals in treatment for IDU. To test whether depression at time of presentation affected outcomes, repeated-measures ANOVAs were conducted for two time frames: (1) acute phase (baseline to post-treatment) (acute) and (2) maintenance phase (baseline to 12-month follow-up). To further examine maintenance of gains, we additionally looked at post-treatment to 12-month follow-up. Depression scores derived from the clinical global impression for severity and the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) served as the primary outcome variables. Acute (baseline post treatment) moderation effects were found for those patients endorsing active drug use at baseline in the CBT-AD condition, who demonstrated the greatest reductions in MADRS scores at post-treatment (F[1,76] = 6.78, p = .01) and follow-up (F[1,61] = 5.46, p = .023). Baseline substance use did not moderate differences from post-treatment to 12-month follow-up as depression treatment gains that occurred acutely from baseline to post-treatment were maintained across both patients engaged in substance use and abstainers. We conclude that CBT

  10. New directions for veterinary technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.

  11. Substance use patterns associated with recent exposure to fentanyl among people who inject drugs in Vancouver, Canada: A cross-sectional urine toxicology screening study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Kanna; Milloy, M-J; Lysyshyn, Mark; DeBeck, Kora; Nosova, Ekaterina; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas

    2017-12-05

    Vancouver, Canada is experiencing an opioid overdose crisis where fentanyl, a potent, synthetic opioid contaminating the illicit drug supply, has been detected in the majority of fatal overdose cases. Despite its growing presence throughout North America, few studies have characterized exposure to fentanyl among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). We sought to identify the prevalence and correlates of fentanyl exposure among PWUD in Vancouver. Data were derived from cohort studies of PWUD in Vancouver. In June-October 2016, we administered multi-panel urine drug screens (UDS) to detect recent exposure to fentanyl and eight other substances. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify substance use patterns associated with recent fentanyl exposure among participants who injected drugs in the past six months (PWID). Among 669 PWUD including 250 (37.4%) females and 452 (67.6%) PWID, 97 (14.5%) tested positive for fentanyl. All these individuals also tested positive for other substances, most commonly for morphine/heroin (89.9%), amphetamine/methamphetamine (75.3%) and cocaine (74.2%). A fentanyl detection rate was significantly higher among PWID (19.7%) compared to non-injection drug users (3.9%) (p<0.001). In multivariable analyses, younger age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.96) and testing positive for morphine/heroin (AOR: 6.73), buprenorphine (AOR: 4.25), amphetamine/methamphetamine (AOR: 3.26), cocaine (AOR: 2.92) and cannabis (AOR: 0.52) remained independently associated with fentanyl exposure (all p<0.05). With one in five PWID being exposed to fentanyl, there is an urgent need to design and scale up interventions to reduce overdose risk, including a range of opioid agonist therapies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. © 2015 The Authors Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Laser In Veterinary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Carlton; Jaggar, David H.

    1982-12-01

    Lasers have been used for some time now on animals for experimental purposes prior to their use in human medical and surgical fields. However the use of lasers in veterinary medicine and surgery per se is a recent development. We describe the application of high and low intensity laser technology in a general overview of the current uses, some limitations to its use and future needs for future inquiry and development.

  14. Veterinary critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corley, Kevin T T; Mathews, Karol; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Bain, Fairfield T; Hughes, Dez

    2003-04-01

    Veterinary species experience similar perturbations of their health to those of human patients. When the long-term prognosis is good and providing suffering can be minimized, animals stand to benefit greatly from recent advances in the field of emergency and critical care. Outcomes in many conditions in small and large animals have improved markedly in the last 15 years, as management has improved, making the financial and emotional investment in critical care worthwhile for many owners.

  15. A group intervention to reduce intimate partner violence among female drug users. Results from a randomized controlled pilot trial in a community substance-abuse center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirado-Muñoz, Judit; Gilchrist, Gail; Lligoña, Eva; Gilbert, Louisa; Torrens, Marta

    2015-09-15

    A greater proportion of drug dependent women are victims of intimate partner violence (IPV) than women in the general population; however, few interventions have been developed to reduce IPV among drug dependent women. An adapted version of the Women's Wellness Treatment, to address IPV and depressive symptoms, was piloted in a randomized controlled trial conducted in outpatient treatment program in Barcelona, Spain among 14 women receiving outpatient treatment for a drug use disorder who screened positive for IPV in the previous month. Participants were randomly assigned to receive the 10 session cognitive behavioral therapy (IPaViT-CBT) group intervention or treatment as usual. The frequency of IPV, depressive symptoms, substance use, quality of life and health status were assessed at baseline and 1, 3 and 12 months post intervention. Intention to treat analysis was performed. Moderate effects for the intervention were found in reducing psychological maltreatment, increasing assertiveness of IPV and reducing aggressiveness in the partner relationship, and in reducing the frequency of drinking up to 3 months post intervention. The intervention did not significantly reduce the likelihood of any IPV, depressive symptoms, quality of life or self-reported health status, up to 12-months post intervention. This pilot trial suggests some initial support for the 10-session CBT group intervention among IPV victims who received treatment for drug use. Study findings indicate that it is feasible to deliver the intervention in a community substance abuse center. An adequately powered trial is required to replicate these results.

  16. Explaining human recreational use of 'pesticides': The neurotoxin regulation model of substance use vs. the hijack model and implications for age and sex differences in drug consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H Hagen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most globally popular drugs are plant neurotoxins or their close chemical analogs. These compounds evolved to deter, not reward or reinforce, consumption. Moreover, they reliably activate virtually all toxin defense mechanisms, and are thus correctly identified by human neurophysiology as toxins. Acute drug toxicity must therefore play a more central role in drug use theory. We accordingly challenge the popular idea that the rewarding and reinforcing properties of drugs "hijack" the brain, and propose instead that the brain evolved to carefully regulate neurotoxin consumption to minimize fitness costs and maximize fitness benefits. This perspective provides a compelling explanation for the dramatic changes in substance use that occur during the transition from childhood to adulthood, and for pervasive sex differences in substance use: because nicotine and many other plant neurotoxins are teratogenic, children, and to a lesser extent women of childbearing age, evolved to avoid ingesting them. However, during the course of human evolution many adolescents and adults reaped net benefits from regulated intake of plant neurotoxins.

  17. Cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) blockers as medicines: beyond obesity and cardiometabolic disorders to substance abuse/drug addiction with CB1R neutral antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janero, David R

    2012-03-01

    Addiction to chemical substances with abuse potential presents medical needs largely unsolved by extant therapeutic strategies. Signal transmission through the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) in the central nervous system (CNS) modulates neurotransmitters/neuronal pathways contributing to the rewarding properties and hedonic effects of certain nondrug stimuli (e.g., food) and many prototypical addictive drugs, promoting excessive intake and its pathological consequences. Typical CB1R antagonists/inverse agonists reduce the rewarding effects and normalize behavioral phenotypes associated with food and abused drugs, but carry an unacceptable adverse-event profile that may reflect, at least partly, their intrinsic ability to alter basal homeostatic CB1R signaling in the CNS and elicit a negative efficacy response. Alternatively, peripherally biased CB1R inverse agonists with limited CNS permeability and putative CB1R neutral antagonists expressing modest (if any) inverse-agonist efficacy are garnering attention for treating obesity and related cardiometabolic complications with a potentially enhanced benefit-to-risk profile. This mini-review calls attention to the proposition that CB1R neutral antagonists offer attractive opportunities for pharmacotherapeutic exploitation in the substance abuse/drug addiction space, whereas the restricted CNS accessibility of peripherally biased CB1R inverse agonists circumscribes their therapeutic utility for this indication. The unique preclinical pharmacology, efficacy profiles, and reduced adverse-event risk of CB1R neutral antagonists make them worthy of translational study for their potential therapeutic application beyond obesity/cardiometabolic disease to include substance-abuse/drug-addiction disorders.

  18. Use of endogenous event-related potentials (ERP) in the evaluation of psychotropic substances: towards an ERP profile of drug effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münte, T F; Heinze, H J; Künkel, H

    1986-01-01

    Although endogenous event-related potentials (ERPs) have been successfully used in psychology, they have largely been neglected in the study of psychotropic substances. In the present paper an overview is given of the diversified concepts of ERP research and useful adaptations of these approaches to psychopharmacological questions are shown. In particular, the influence of drugs on the various stages of information processing and the description of individual differences in drug reactions seem suitable for the use of endogenous ERPs. Other possible uses of ERPs in psychopharmacological research are briefly discussed and the problems of the technique are pointed out. It is concluded that future research should aim at the recording of 'ERP profiles' of a drug, monitoring pharmacological effects on the different levels of cognitive functions by a set of selected paradigms.

  19. Increasing Ethnic Minority Participation in Substance Abuse Clinical Trials: Lessons Learned in the National Institute on Drug Abuse’s Clinical Trials Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlew, Kathleen; Larios, Sandra; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Holmes, Beverly; Venner, Kamilla; Chavez, Roberta

    2012-01-01

    Underrepresentation in clinical trials limits the extent to which ethnic minorities benefit from advances in substance abuse treatment. The objective of this article is to share the knowledge gained within the Clinical Trials Network (CTN) of the National Institute on Drug Abuse and other research on recruiting and retaining ethnic minorities into substance abuse clinical trials. The article includes a discussion of two broad areas for improving inclusion— community involvement and cultural adaptation. CTN case studies are included to illustrate three promising strategies for improving ethnic minority inclusion: respondent-driven sampling, community-based participatory research, and the cultural adaptation of the recruitment and retention procedures. The article concludes with two sections describing a number of methodological concerns in the current research base and our proposed research agenda for improving ethnic minority inclusion that builds on the CTN experience. PMID:21988575

  20. Radiation protection for veterinary practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Scottish Centre)

    1993-01-01

    This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.).

  1. How is veterinary parasitology taught in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ming; Suo, Xun; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2006-12-01

    Many parasites of domestic animals in China are of major socioeconomic and medical importance. Hence, veterinary parasitology is one of the core subjects for undergraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary science. Here, we review the teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities, including a description of the veterinary science curricula and measures to improve the quality of veterinary parasitology teaching in China.

  2. The Flint Animal Cancer Center (FACC) Canine Tumour Cell Line Panel: a resource for veterinary drug discovery, comparative oncology and translational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, J S; Dailey, D D; Gustafson, D L; Thamm, D H; Duval, D L

    2017-06-01

    Mammalian cell tissue culture has been a critical tool leading to our current understanding of cancer including many aspects of cellular transformation, growth and response to therapies. The current use of large panels of cell lines with associated phenotypic and genotypic information now allows for informatics approaches and in silico screens to rapidly test hypotheses based on simple as well as complex relationships. Current cell line panels with large amounts of associated drug sensitivity and genomics data are comprised of human cancer cell lines (i.e. NCI60 and GDSC). There is increased recognition of the contribution of canine cancer to comparative cancer research as a spontaneous large animal model with application in basic and translational studies. We have assembled a panel of canine cancer cell lines to facilitate studies in canine cancer and report here phenotypic and genotypic data associated with these cells. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  4. Drug: D07767 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07767 Drug Cyromazine (USP/INN); Neporex (TN) C6H10N6 166.0967 166.1838 D07767.gif Insecticide [veterinary...]; Antiparasitic [veterinary] Same as: C14147 veterinary medicine CAS: 66215-27-8 Pu

  5. Drug: D02547 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02547 Drug Pamaquine; Plasmoquine [veterinary] (TN) C19H29N3O 315.2311 315.4531 D0...2547.gif Antimalarial [veterinary] veterinary medicine map07025 Quinolines CAS: 491-92-9 PubChem: 17396718 L

  6. Veterinary Oncology Immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Special Issue: Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S., Ed.; Washington, Craig S., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents ten articles about substance abuse: its effects, consequences, and strategies for intervention. Describes specific group therapy techniques and presents both a court service designed for assisting juveniles with drug/alcohol offenses, and a school-based substance abuse prevention program. Looks at strategies for counseling special…

  8. Achieving continuous manufacturing: technologies and approaches for synthesis, workup, and isolation of drug substance. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Ian R; Braatz, Richard D; Hodnett, Benjamin K; Jensen, Klavs F; Johnson, Martin D; Sharratt, Paul; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Florence, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    This whitepaper highlights current challenges and opportunities associated with continuous synthesis, workup, and crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (drug substances). We describe the technologies and requirements at each stage and emphasize the different considerations for developing continuous processes compared with batch. In addition to the specific sequence of operations required to deliver the necessary chemical and physical transformations for continuous drug substance manufacture, consideration is also given to how adoption of continuous technologies may impact different manufacturing stages in development from discovery, process development, through scale-up and into full scale production. The impact of continuous manufacture on drug substance quality and the associated challenges for control and for process safety are also emphasized. In addition to the technology and operational considerations necessary for the adoption of continuous manufacturing (CM), this whitepaper also addresses the cultural, as well as skills and training, challenges that will need to be met by support from organizations in order to accommodate the new work flows. Specific action items for industry leaders are: Develop flow chemistry toolboxes, exploiting the advantages of flow processing and including highly selective chemistries that allow use of simple and effective continuous workup technologies. Availability of modular or plug and play type equipment especially for workup to assist in straightforward deployment in the laboratory. As with learning from other industries, standardization is highly desirable and will require cooperation across industry and academia to develop and implement. Implement and exploit process analytical technologies (PAT) for real-time dynamic control of continuous processes. Develop modeling and simulation techniques to support continuous process development and control. Progress is required in multiphase systems such as

  9. [Computational study on drug design and prediction of bioactivity for regulation of non-controlled psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Masaaki

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrated design and synthesis of rescue ligands for agonists of the mutant vitamin D receptor (Arg274Leu), and performed QSAR study of non-controlled psychotropic substances and docking study of non-approved or unauthorized pharmaceuticals, inhibitors of human phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) using computer simulation.

  10. A Substance Use Survey with Old Order Amish Early Adolescents: Perceptions of Peer Alcohol and Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, James A.; Weber, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Students in a junior high school serving a large Old Order Amish settlement completed a survey of attitudes, opinions, and intentions regarding substance use. A total of 1,031 students participated across a four-year span, approximately equally divided between Amish and non-Amish youths. Amish youths maintain attitudes that suggest perceived…

  11. A cloud on the horizon-a survey into the use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and new psychoactive substance (NPS) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, M; Dargan, P; Wood, D

    2018-01-01

    There is limited published scientific data on vaping recreational drugs other than cannabis. A recent review suggested that 15% of people vaping cannabis have also vaped a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) and identified over 300 Internet reports of e-liquid manufacture of recreational drugs and/or new psychoactive substances (NPS). To determine the prevalence of use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and NPS delivery in the UK. A voluntary online survey using a convenience sample of UK adult participants (aged 16 years old and over) identified by a market research company. Data was collected regarding demographics, smoking history, electronic vaping device history and recreational drug/NPS use and route of administration. There were 2501 respondents. The mean (±SD) age was 46.2 ± 16.8 years old. The commonest lifetime recreational drug used was Cannabis (818, 32.7%). The majority of respondents had smoked (1545, 61.8%) with 731 (29.2%) being current smokers. The most commonly used SCRA product was 'Spice Gold' (173, 6.9%) and SCRA compound was ADB-CHMICA (48, 1.9%). 861 (34.4%) had used an electronic vaping device; 340 (13.6%) having used them for recreational drug administration; 236 (9.4%) reporting current use. The commonest lifetime recreational drug to be vaped was cannabis (155, 65.7%), with electronic cigarettes (230, 48.2%) being the commonest reported route of SCRA compound administration. 9.4% of respondents currently use electronic vaping devices for recreational drug administration with 6.2% reporting lifetime cannabis vaping use. Further larger scale studies are required to help inform the appropriate treatment and primary prevention strategies.

  12. Drug testing athletes to prevent substance abuse: background and pilot study results of the SATURN (Student Athlete Testing Using Random Notification) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Linn; Elliot, Diane L; MacKinnon, David P; Moe, Esther; Kuehl, Kerry S; Nohre, Liva; Lockwood, Chondra M

    2003-01-01

    To assess the deterrent effect of mandatory, random drug testing among high school (HS) athletes in a controlled setting. Two high schools, one with mandatory drug testing (DT) consent before sports participation, and a control school (C), without DT, were assessed during the 1999-2000 school year. Athletes (A) and nonathletes (NA) in each school completed confidential (A) or anonymous (NA) questionnaires developed for this study, respectively, at the beginning and end of the school year. Positive alcohol or drug tests required parent notification and mandatory counseling without team or school suspension. Thirty percent of the DT athletes were tested. Data were analyzed using the end of the school year measure, adjusted for the initial questionnaire results. Demographics of the athlete sample revealed that mean age was 15.5 years with 81.5% white, 9.6% Hispanic, 4.5% Asian, 2.6% American Indian/Native Alaskan, 1.3% African-American, and 1.3% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander. A (n = 276) and NA (n = 507) were assessed at the beginning (baseline) and at the end of the school year (A, n = 159; NA, n = 338). The past 30-day index of illicit drugs (4-fold difference) and athletic enhancing substances (3-fold difference) were lower (p athletes at follow-up without difference in alcohol use. However, most drug use risk factors, including norms of use, belief in lower risk of drugs, and poorer attitudes toward the school, increased among DT athletes (p drug use index was present among nonathletes at the DT school, at the end of the school year, it did not achieve statistical significance (p athletes. However, worsening of risk factors and small sample size suggests caution to this drug prevention approach. A larger long-term study to confirm these findings is necessary. Copyright Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2003

  13. Surgical Lasers In Veterinary Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, H. C.

    1987-03-01

    Veterinary medicine is a latecomer in benefiting from the advent of surgical lasers. It is ironic that although most of the basic work in lasers is carried out in animal species with which we are most conversant, veterinary medicine as a profession has not been very extensively involved.

  14. Veterinary dentistry: a clinician's viewpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Colin

    2013-06-01

    This is a clinician's view of the current state of veterinary dentistry at the level of the general practitioner across the different species. An indication of the work done and the hazards commonly encountered are covered. To increase awareness within the dental profession of the current state of veterinary dentistry.

  15. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...

  16. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    um chafe

    1Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology. 2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine. Ahmadu Bello .... and cresol as its active ingredients. The most common disinfectant reported to be used in the various hatcheries investigated was Morigad® which has phenol as its active ingredient.

  17. Open Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.

  18. Perspectives on academic veterinary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S

    2001-09-15

    It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.

  19. 76 FR 3488 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... Animal Drugs; Oxytetracycline and Flunixin AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final rule... veterinary prescription use of a combination drug injectable solution containing oxytetracycline and flunixin... that provides for veterinary prescription use of HEXASOL (oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine...

  20. Mental health and the veterinary profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Ellie

    2017-10-07

    Ellie Patterson, Vetlife marketing officer, summarises the services offered by Vetlife - an independent, confidential and free charity for everyone in the veterinary community. British Veterinary Association.

  1. En Route towards European Clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A.; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T.; Lees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve

  2. Radiological protection in veterinary practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Engineering and Technology); Kusama, Tomoko

    1990-06-01

    To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author).

  3. [New drugs for small animals in 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerich, I U

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, six active pharmaceutical ingredients were released on the German market for small animals. Those are the ektoparasiticide of the isoxazoline group afoxolaner (NexGard®) and fluralaner (Bravecto®) and the neonicotinoid dinotefuran (Vectra 3D, Vectra Felis), the antidiabetic protamine zinc insulin of human origin (ProZinc®), the antifungal agent ketoconazole (Fugazid®) as well as the cytostatic drug oclacitinib (Apoquel®). Two substances were authorized for an additional species. The antiparasiticide eprinomectin and the antibiotic clindamycin were also authorized for use in cats. In addition, two active pharmaceutical ingredients, which were approved 2014 for use in human medicine and are of potential interest to veterinary medicine, are discussed. These are the antihypertensive drug riociguat and the urological substance mirabegron.

  4. Development and qualification of a high sensitivity, high throughput Q-PCR assay for quantitation of residual host cell DNA in purification process intermediate and drug substance samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Wu, Meng; Menesale, Emily; Lu, Tongjun; Magliola, Aeona; Bergelson, Svetlana

    2014-11-01

    Methods of high sensitivity, accuracy and throughput are needed for quantitation of low level residual host cell DNA in purification process intermediates and drug substances of therapeutic proteins. In this study, we designed primer/probe sets targeting repetitive Alu repeats or Alu-equivalent sequences in the human, Chinese hamster and murine genomes. When used in quantitative polymerase chain reactions (Q-PCRs), these primer/probe sets showed high species specificity and gave significantly higher sensitivity compared to those targeting the low copy number GAPDH gene. This allowed for detection of residual host cell DNA of much lower concentrations and, for some samples, eliminated the need for DNA extraction. By combining the high sensitivity Alu Q-PCR with high throughput automated DNA extraction using an automated MagMAX magnetic particle processor, we successfully developed and qualified a highly accurate, specific, sensitive and efficient method for the quantitation of residual host cell DNA in process intermediates and drug substances of multiple therapeutic proteins purified from cells of multiple species. Compared to the previous method using manual DNA extraction and primer/probe sets targeting the GAPDH gene, this new method increased our DNA extraction throughput by over sevenfold, and lowered the lower limit of quantitation by up to eightfold. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential impurities in drug substances: Compound-specific toxicology limits for 20 synthetic reagents and by-products, and a class-specific toxicology limit for alkyl bromides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bercu, J P; Galloway, S M; Parris, P; Teasdale, A; Masuda-Herrera, M; Dobo, K; Heard, P; Kenyon, M; Nicolette, J; Vock, E; Ku, W; Harvey, J; White, A; Glowienke, S; Martin, E A; Custer, L; Jolly, R A; Thybaud, V

    2018-02-09

    This paper provides compound-specific toxicology limits for 20 widely used synthetic reagents and common by-products that are potential impurities in drug substances. In addition, a 15 μg/day class-specific limit was developed for monofunctional alkyl bromides, aligning this with the class-specific limit previously defined for monofunctional alkyl chlorides. Both the compound- and class-specific toxicology limits assume a lifetime chronic exposure for the general population (including sensitive subpopulations) by all routes of exposure for pharmaceuticals. Inhalation-specific toxicology limits were also derived for acrolein, formaldehyde, and methyl bromide because of their localized toxicity via that route. Mode of action was an important consideration for a compound-specific toxicology limit. Acceptable intake (AI) calculations for certain mutagenic carcinogens assumed a linear dose-response for tumor induction, and permissible daily exposure (PDE) determination assumed a non-linear dose-response. Several compounds evaluated have been previously incorrectly assumed to be mutagenic, or to be mutagenic carcinogens, but the evidence reported here for such compounds indicates a lack of mutagenicity, and a non-mutagenic mode of action for tumor induction. For non-mutagens with insufficient data to develop a toxicology limit, the ICH Q3A qualification thresholds are recommended. The compound- and class-specific toxicology limits described here may be adjusted for an individual drug substance based on treatment duration, dosing schedule, severity of the disease and therapeutic indication. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Toxicokinetics of novel psychoactive substances: characterization of N-acetyltransferase (NAT) isoenzymes involved in the phase II metabolism of 2C designer drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Robert, Anja; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-06-05

    The 2,5-dimethoxyphenethylamine-derived designer drugs (so-called "2Cs") recently became of great importance on the illicit drug market as stimulating hallucinogens. They are distributed and consumed as "novel psychoactive substances" (NPS) without any safety testing at the forefront. As previous studies have shown, the 2Cs are mainly metabolized by O-demethylation, N-acetylation, or deamination. Therefore, the aim of this study was to elucidate the role of the recombinant human N-acetyltransferase (NAT) isoforms 1 and 2 in the phase II metabolism of 2Cs. For these studies, cDNA-expressed recombinant human NATs were used and formation of metabolites after incubation was measured using GC-MS. NAT2 could be shown to be the only isoform catalyzing the reaction in vitro, hence it should be the only relevant enzyme for in vivo acetylation. In general, all metabolite formation reactions followed classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics and the affinity to human NAT2 was increasing with the volume of the 4-substituent. In consequence, a slow acetylator phenotype or inhibition of NAT2 could lead to decreased N-acetylation and might lead to an increased risk of side effects caused by these novel psychoactive substances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of HepaRG cells for the assessment of indirect drug-induced hepatotoxicity using INH as a model substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Anika; Pelz, Thomas; Rennert, Knut; Mosig, Alexander; Decker, Michael; Lupp, Amelie

    2017-10-01

    HepaRG cells are widely used as an in vitro model to assess drug-induced hepatotoxicity. However, only few studies exist so far regarding their suitability to detect the effects of drugs requiring a preceding activation via the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. A prototypic substance is the anti-tuberculosis agent INH, which is metabolized into N-acetylhydrazine, which then triggers hepatotoxicity. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test if this effect can also be detected in HepaRG cells and if it can be counteracted by the known hepatoprotectant silibinin. For this purpose, differentiated HepaRG cells were treated with increasing concentrations of INH (0.1-100 mM) or 10 mM INH plus escalating concentrations of silibinin (1-100 µM). After 48 h of treatment, cell morphology and parameters indicating cell vitality, oxidative stress, and liver cell function were assessed. High concentrations of INH led to severe histopathological changes, reduced cell vitality and glutathione content, increased LDH and ASAT release into the medium, enhanced lipid peroxidation, and elevated cleaved caspase-3 expression. Additionally, glycogen depletion and reduced biotransformation capacity were seen at high INH concentrations, whereas at low concentrations an induction of biotransformation enzymes was noticed. Silibinin caused clear-cut protective effects, but with few parameters INH toxicity was even aggravated, most probably due to increased metabolization of INH into its toxic metabolite. In conclusion, HepaRG cells are excellently suited to evaluate the effects of substances requiring prior toxification via the CYP system, such as INH. They additionally enable the identification of complex substance interactions.

  8. Antiviral chemotherapy in veterinary medicine: current applications and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Pozzo, F; Thiry, E

    2014-12-01

    The current situation in the use of antiviral drugs in veterinary medicine is characterised by a novel and optimistic approach.Viruses of veterinary importance are still used as animal models in the developmentof human therapeutics, but there is growing interest in many of these viruses in the identification of antiviral molecules for use in both livestock and companion animals. The use of antiviral drugs in livestock animals is envisaged for the treatment or control of disease on a large scale (mass treatment), whereas in companion animals an individual approach is favoured. An overview of the most recent examples of research in the use of antivirals in veterinary medicine is presented, with particular emphasis on their in vivo applications.

  9. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of general analytical factors in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E

    2010-09-01

    Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Evaluation of residual toxic substances in the stomach using upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for management of patients with oral drug overdose on admission: a prospective, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyauchi, Masato; Hayashida, Makiko; Yokota, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The guidelines on the indications for gastric lavage were published in 1997, and a less-aggressive initial approach has been used for poisoned patients. Clinical studies have shown that the outcomes of retrieval of residual toxic substances in the stomach are variable and that no beneficial effect is obtained. However, the presence of residual toxic substances in the stomach before gastric lavage has not been estimated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the residual stomach contents on admission of patients with oral drug overdoses using upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. A 2-year prospective study of 167 patients with oral drug overdoses was performed. Endoscopy was performed on admission to observe the gastric body, fornix, and pyloric antrum. Patients were classified into 3 groups according to the digestive phase (tablet/food phase, soluble/fluid phase, and reticular/empty phase). The groups were compared with respect to time elapsed since ingestion, and numbers and variety of orally overdosed drugs. The numbers of patients in each phase were as follows: tablet/food phase, 73; soluble/fluid phase, 50; and reticular/empty phase, 44. The tablet/food and soluble/fluid phase groups contained the greatest numbers of patients who presented within 1 to 2 hours since ingestion. In the tablet/food group, only 12 of 73 patients (16%) presented within 1 hour since ingestion, and 3 patients presented >12 hours since ingestion. In the soluble/fluid phase group, only 9 of 50 patients (18%) presented within 1 hour since ingestion, and 2 patients presented >12 hours since ingestion. The reticular/empty phase group contained the greatest number of patients presenting within 2 to 4 hours since ingestion, and 3 patients presented within 1 hour since ingestion. The residual stomach contents before lavage were variable in all of the groups. The residual gastric content before the performance of gastric lavage is variable in overdosed patients on admission. This may

  11. Physico-chemical characterization of liposomes and drug substance-liposome interactions in pharmaceutics using capillary electrophoresis and electrokinetic chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzen, Ulrik; Østergaard, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    of liposomes. The use of liposome electrokinetic chromatography and capillary electrophoresis for determination of liposome/water partitioning and characterization of drug-liposome interactions is reviewed. A number of studies indicate that capillary electrophoresis may have a role in the characterization......Liposomes are self-assembled phospholipid vesicles and have numerous research and therapeutic applications. In the pharmaceutical and biomedical sciences liposomes find use as models of biological membranes, partitioning medium and as drug carriers. The present review addresses the use of capillary...... of liposome drug delivery systems, e.g., for the investigation of encapsulation efficiency and drug leakage. The well-known characteristics of capillary electrophoresis, i.e., low sample volume requirement, high separation efficiency in aqueous media without a stationary phase, minimal sample preparation...

  12. Dental Education in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Eubanks

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.

  13. Punitive policing and associated substance use risks among HIV-positive people in Russia who inject drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunze, Karsten; Raj, Anita; Cheng, Debbie M.; Quinn, Emily K.; Bridden, Carly; Blokhina, Elena; Walley, Alexander Y.; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Drug law enforcement is part of the HIV risk environment among people who inject drugs (PWID). Punitive policing practices such as extrajudicial arrests for needle possession and police planting of drugs have been described anecdotally in Russia, but these experiences and their associations with risky drug behaviours have not been quantified. This study aims to quantify the burden of extrajudicial police arrests among a cohort of HIV-positive PWID in Russia and to explore its links to drug-related health outcomes. Methods In a cross-sectional study of 582 HIV-positive people with lifetime injection drug use (IDU) in St. Petersburg, Russia, we estimated the prevalence of self-reported extrajudicial police arrests. We used multiple logistic regression to evaluate associations between arrests and the following outcomes: overdose, recent IDU and receptive needle sharing. Findings This cohort's mean age was 29.8 years, 60.8% were male; 75.3% reported non-fatal drug overdose, 50.3% recent IDU and 47.3% receptive needle sharing. Extrajudicial arrests were reported by more than half (60.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 56.5–64.5) and were associated with higher odds of non-fatal drug overdose (AOR 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02–2.25) but not with recent IDU (AOR 1.17, arrests were associated with receptive needle sharing (AOR 1.84, 95% CI: 1.09–3.09). Conclusions Extrajudicial police arrests were common among this cohort of Russian HIV-positive PWID and associated with non-fatal overdose and, among those with recent IDU, receptive needle sharing. As a part of the HIV risk environment of PWIDs, these practices might contribute to HIV transmission and overdose mortality. Further research is needed to relate these findings to the operational environment of law enforcement and to better understand how police interventions among PWIDs can improve the HIV risk environment. PMID:25014321

  14. MDA, MDMA, and other "mescaline-like" substances in the US military's search for a truth drug (1940s to 1960s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passie, Torsten; Benzenhöfer, Udo

    2018-01-01

    This article describes the context in which 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and other mescaline-like compounds were explored as hallucinogens for military and intelligence purposes from the 1940s to the 1960s. Germans first tested mescaline as a "truth drug" in a military context. In the 1940s, the United States military started testing hallucinogenic substances as truth drugs for interrogation and behavior manipulation. After tests carried out using mescaline and other drugs in 1950, some derivatives of mescaline were synthesized by the Army for the exploration of possible "speech-inducing" effects. After insufficient animal testing, the substances were given to patients at the New York State Psychiatric Institute (NYSPI). 3,4-Methylenedioxy-N-ethylamphetamine (MDE), a compound almost identical to MDMA, was among the compounds delivered for testing at the NYSPI. During tests with other derivatives (3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine (DMA), 3,4-methylenedioxyphenethylamine (MDPEA), MDA) in 1952-53, an unwitting patient died in these tests, which was kept secret from the public. Research was interrupted and toxicological animal testing procedures were initiated. The secret animal studies run in 1953/1954 revealed that some of the "mescaline derivatives" tested (e.g. MDA, MDE, DMA, 3,4,5-trimethoxyamphetamine (TMA), MDMA) were considered for further testing in humans. In 1955, the military changed focus to lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), but some interest in mescaline-like compounds remained for their ability to change mood and habit without interfering with cognition and sensory perception. Based on the known documents, it remains unclear (but probable) whether any of the mescaline derivatives tested were being used operationally. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. The technique of controlled delivery as a weapon in dealing with illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutting, P D

    1983-01-01

    The technique of controlled delivery is used when a consignment of illicit drugs is detected and allowed to go forward under the control and surveillance of law enforcement officers in order to secure evidence against the organizers of such illicit drug traffic. This technique has been proved effective in some countries in identifying and bringing to justice principals, organizers and financiers of the illicit drug traffic. The controlled delivery technique is compatible with the requirements of the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, 1961, but its application depends on the particular legal and administrative provisions in the countries concerned. The technique merits wider use, and it does not involve any element of entrapment. It has been used most effectively when illicit drugs are discovered in unaccompanied freight consignments or in the post. Controlled deliveries involving a courier present special difficulties and should be treated with caution. In a controlled delivery, security of information is of paramount importance as is the appropriate knowledge and co-operation of the law enforcement authorities. Such co-operation is essential between the country in which the initial detection of drugs has occurred, transit countries and the country of final destination. A number of important detections have been made as a result of speedy international co-operation of this type between law enforcement authorities.

  16. [Veterinary dentistry: an update 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Foreest, Andries

    2008-12-01

    Rooted in human dentistry, veterinary dentistry has developed steadily in the Netherlands since the 1980s and is now recognized as an essential discipline of veterinary medicine. The availability of specialized tools and techniques has led to improved treatment outcomes and results, with the choice of treatment being largely determined by the functionality of the dentition and the costs involved. Domestic animals and horses with dental problems should be referred to dental veterinarians. The Working Group Veterinary Dentistry in the Netherlands is an association for skilled veterinarians with professional dental equipment at their disposal.

  17. The effects of veterinary antibiotics on soil microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Heike

    2005-01-01

    The possible environmental “side effects” of pharmaceuticals to the environment have not yet been investigated extensively. Among the veterinary drugs, the antibiotics are an important group, due to their extensive use and their potential to also affect environmental bacteria. The main entry path

  18. Adverse reaction to veterinary multivitamins and vitamin B complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been reported that dogs in South-western Nigeria react adversely to injectable veterinary multivitamins and human vitamin B complex preparations. Experimentation and interview survey were concurrently conducted to identify the type of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) that the indications produced. For the survey ...

  19. Current Issues and the Veterinary Medical Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Andre J.

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…

  20. Teaching veterinary internal medicine in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiakui; Guo, Dingzong; Zhou, Donghai; Wu, Xiaoxiong

    2011-01-01

    Veterinary internal medicine (VIM) is a core subject and important clinical discipline for undergraduate students of veterinary science. The present paper reviews current information about the teaching of VIM, presents a description of the veterinary science curriculum, suggests methods to improve the quality of VIM teaching in China, and describes difficulties, problems, and trends in veterinary education in China.

  1. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  2. 76 FR 80878 - Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA), and sponsored by the Food Supply Veterinary... by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in the spring of 2009, the average educational... grateful to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the American Veterinary...

  3. 76 FR 5131 - Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA), and sponsored by the Food Supply Veterinary... by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in the spring of 2009, the average educational... grateful to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the American Veterinary...

  4. COMPARISON OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF SOLID-PHASE EXTRACTION OF DRUGS AND NARCOTIC SUBSTANCES FROM BLOOD FOR MIXEDͳPHASE CARTRIDGES OF SOME BRANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kataev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-phase extraction (SPE is one of the modern methods for isolating toxicologically signifi cant substances from biological materials, which include narcotic and medicinal substances, as well as their metabolites. Currently, the market has a large number of proposals for SPE cartridges from various manufacturers. The choice of a suitable cartridge for SPE both in terms of qualitative characteristics and price parameters is a topical issue in the course of chemical-toxicological and forensic chemical analysis.The aim of the research is to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of medicinal and narcotic substances’s extraction from blood for widespread mixed-phase cartridges of some brands, which are intended for solid-phase extraction.Materials and methods. The research comparing the effectiveness of extraction was carried out with the use of mixed-phase cartridges for SPE of the following manufacturers: Bond Elut Certify (Varian, Chromabond Drug (Macherey-Nagel, Strata Screen-C (Phenomenex EVIDEX SampliQ (Aqilent, HyperSep Vеrify-CX (Thermo, Starlab C8/SCX (Starlab Scientifi c Co., Ltd with the using of gas chromatograph Agilent 7820 equipped with mass selective detector Agilent 5975 (Agilent, USA.Results and discussion. This article presents the data on the comparison of the effectiveness of the extraction of mixed-phase cartridges for SPE from 5 manufacturers (Bond Elut Certify (Varian, Chromabond Drug (Macherey-Nagel, Strata Screen-C (Phenomenex EVIDEX SampliQ (Aqilent и HyperSep Vеrify-CX (Thermo for the purposes of screening drugs and narcoticsubstances from blood. The cartridges Starlab C8/SCX of the investigated batch had some signs of poor-quality sorbent in the production.Conclusion. Recommendations for using 5 types of cartridges for the procedure of screening narcotic and medicinal substances in blood during the routine practice of forensic chemical departments and chemical-toxicological laboratories are given. Considering the

  5. Challenges and opportunities in polymer technology applied to veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, J M; Cid, A G; Ramírez-Rigo, M V; Quinteros, D; Simonazzi, A; Sánchez Bruni, S; Palma, S

    2014-04-01

    An important frontier in the administration of therapeutic drugs to veterinary species is the use of different polymers as drug delivery platforms. The usefulness of polymers as platforms for the administration of pharmaceutical and agricultural agents has been clearly recognized in the recent decades. The chemical versatility of polymers and the wide range of developed controlled-release strategies enhance the possibilities for the formulation of active molecules. In particular, the veterinary area offers opportunities for the development of novel controlled-release drug delivery technologies adapted to livestock or companion animal health needs. In some cases, it also allows to improve profitability in meat production or to meet the safety criteria related to drug residues. A number of factors affect the selection of polymers and subsequent properties of the controlled-release drug delivery system. However, their selection also dictates the release kinetics of the drug from the delivery system. Such choices are therefore crucial as they affect the success and potential of the delivery system for achieving the therapeutic goals of the veterinarian. It is the intention of this review to give an overview of the most relevant polymers, which are used or have been tested as drug delivery release rate modifiers in the veterinary field. The article highlights some recent developments focusing on their advantages and applications and analyzes the future direction of the scientific and technological advancements in this area. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Reflections on the future of veterinary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, Keith W

    2009-01-01

    . Dr. Prasse honored those attending the 2009 AAVMC Symposium by giving the Recognition Lecture. As always, his address was inspirational, and the substance of it is included here. -Sheila W. Allen, Dean, University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine.

  7. Occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servaes, K.; Vanermen, G.; Seuntjens, P.

    2009-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Pharmaceuticals are classified as so-called ‘emerging pollutants'. ‘Emerging pollutants' are not necessarily new chemical compounds. Often these compounds are already present in the environment for a long time. But, their occurrence and especially their impact on the environment has only recently become clear. Consequently, data on their occurrence are rather scarce. In this study, we focus on the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water in Flanders. We have only considered active substances administered to cattle, pigs and poultry. Based on the literature and information concerning the use in Belgium, a selection of 25 veterinary pharmaceuticals has been made. This selection consists of the most important antibiotics and antiparasitic substances applied in veterinary medicine in Belgium. We develop an analytical methodology based on UPLC-MS/MS for the detection of these veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water. Therefore, the mass characteristics as well as the optimum LC conditions will be determined. To obtain limits of detection as low as possible, the samples are concentrated prior to analysis using solid phase extraction (SPE). Different SPE cartridges will be tested during the method development. At first, this SPE sample pre-treatment is performed off-line. In a next step, online SPE is optimized for this purpose. The analytical procedure will be subject to an in-house validation study, thereby determining recovery, repeatability (% RSD), limits of detection and limits of quantification. Finally, the developed methodology will be applied for monitoring the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water and groundwater in Flanders. These water samples will be taken in areas characterized by intensive cattle breeding. Moreover, the samples will be collected during springtime. In this season, farmers apply manure, stored during winter

  8. Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...

  9. Workforce needs in veterinary medicine

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources; Board on Higher Education and Workforce; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Policy and Global Affairs; National Research Council

    2013-01-01

    In a study of the issues related to the veterinary medical workforce, including demographics, workforce supply, trends affecting job availability, and capacity of the educational system to fill future...

  10. Towards a humane veterinary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinsen, Siri; Jukes, Nick

    2005-01-01

    There is a vast array of learning tools and approaches to veterinary education, many tried and true, many innovative and with potential. Such new methods have come about partly from an increasing demand from both students and teachers to avoid methods of teaching and training that harm animals. The aim is to create the best quality education, ideally supported by validation of the efficacy of particular educational tools and approaches, while ensuring that animals are not used harmfully and that respect for animal life is engendered within the student. In this paper, we review tools and approaches that can be used in the teaching of veterinary students, tools and approaches that ensure the dignity and humane treatment of animals that all teachers and students must observe as the very ethos of the veterinary profession that they serve. Veterinary education has not always met, and still often does not meet, this essential criterion.

  11. Stem cells in veterinary medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Fortier, Lisa A; Travis, Alexander J

    2011-01-01

    The stem cell field in veterinary medicine continues to evolve rapidly both experimentally and clinically. Stem cells are most commonly used in clinical veterinary medicine in therapeutic applications for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries in horses and dogs. New technologies of assisted reproduction are being developed to apply the properties of spermatogonial stem cells to preserve endangered animal species. The same methods can be used to generate transgenic animals for production o...

  12. Welcome to Veterinary Medicine: Research and Reports

    OpenAIRE

    Musser JMB

    2011-01-01

    Musser Jeffrey MBDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, TX, USAThis year marks the 250th anniversary of the Royal Veterinary School in Lyon, France, the world's first veterinary college. Since its inception, many changes have occurred in veterinary medicine such as views on education and didactic learning, demographics of our profession, and standards of practice in animal husbandry, medicine, surgery, anesthesia, and vacci...

  13. One world of veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, L J

    2009-08-01

    The veterinary profession finds itself in the midst of a new world order. Today veterinarians are part of a world that is exquisitely interconnected culturally, economically, socially, and professionally. As a consequence, societal needs and expectations of the profession are more demanding, critical and far-reaching. Veterinarians must play important roles in five intersecting domains of work: public health, bio-medical research, global food safety and security, ecosystem health and the more traditional role of caring for animals. To be successful in this broad and complex range of services and activities, veterinarians must possess an expanded knowledge base, acquire new skills, and develop a new mindset that will ensure their success and excellence in all these domains. The veterinary profession is becoming more fragmented and specialised, and it needs to be brought back together by a single sphere of knowledge or discipline that can serve as an intellectual foundation. The concept of One World of Veterinary Medicine can do just that. With this mindset veterinarians will become better connected to the world around and gain new public recognition and esteem. To achieve this, a special commitment by academic veterinary medicine is, of course, essential. Veterinary schools must lead an educational transformation that reaffirms the social contract of veterinarians and works to align diverse sectors, build a global community, find a common purpose and expand the 21st Century veterinary portfolio of services, activities, and new possibilities.

  14. Governance, veterinary legislation and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitclerc, M

    2012-08-01

    This review of governance distinguishes between ends and means and, by highlighting the complexity and differing definitions of the concept, defines its scope and focuses discussion on its characteristics in order to establish an interrelationship between veterinary legislation and governance. Good governance must be backed by legislation, and good legislation must incorporate the principles and instruments of good governance. This article lists some of the main characteristics of governance and then reviews them in parallel with the methodology used to draft veterinary legislation, emphasising the importance of goal-setting and stakeholder participation. This article describes the criteria developed by the Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for assessing the quality of veterinary legislation. It then makes a comparison between the quality assurance process and the good governance process in order to demonstrate that the introduction and proper use of the tools for developing veterinary legislation offered by the OIE VLSP leads to a virtuous circle linking legislation with good governance. Ultimately, the most important point remains the implementation of legislation. Consequently, the author points out that satisfactory implementation relies not only on legislation that is technically and legally appropriate, acceptable, applicable, sustainable, correctly drafted, well thought through and designed for the long term, but also on the physical and legal capacity of official Veterinary Services to perform their administrative and enforcement duties, and on there being the means available for all those involved to discharge their responsibilities.

  15. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting General population of 11-15-year-old adolescents

  16. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use : A randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, Monique; Kleinjan, Marloes; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad; Monshouwer, Karin; Lammers, Jeroen; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design: Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting: General population of 11-15-year-old

  17. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Overbeek, G.; Vermulst, A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design: Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting: General population of 11-15-year-old

  18. A "parliamentary inquiry" into alcohol and drugs: a survey of psychoactive substance use and gambling among members of the Dutch parliament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, V M; Garretsen, H F; van de Goor, L A

    1997-05-01

    In the fall of 1994 a survey was conducted on the use of alcohol and drugs and on gambling among members of the Dutch parliament. The survey indicated that almost two-thirds of the representatives sampled supported legalization of marijuana. A smaller majority (57%) was in favor of reducing the number of coffee shops selling marijuana. At least a quarter of the members of parliament had used marijuana themselves at one time or other. Alcohol consumption could be said to be "excessive" or "very excessive" for nearly 10% of the members of parliament. In general, the nature and extent of the parliamentarians' substance use was comparable to that in the Dutch general population.

  19. The history of veterinary cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, James W

    2013-03-01

    Throughout civilization, animals have played a pivotal role in the advancement of science and medicine. From as early as 400 BC when Hippocrates recognized that diseases had natural causes, the steadfast advances made by biologists, scientists, physicians and scholars were fueled by timely and important facts and information- much of it gained through animal observations that contributed importantly to understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology. There have been many breakthroughs and historic developments. For example, William Harvey in the 16th and 17th centuries clarified the importance of the circulatory system, aided by observations in dogs and pigs, which helped to clarify and confirm his concepts. The nineteenth century witnessed advances in physical examination techniques including auscultation and percussion. These helped create the basis for enhanced proficiency in clinical cardiology. An explosion of technologic advances that followed in the 20th century have made possible sophisticated, accurate, and non-invasive diagnostics. This permitted rapid patient assessment, effective monitoring, the development of new cardiotonic drugs, clinical trials to assess efficacy, and multi-therapy strategies. The latter 20th century has marshaled a dizzying array of advances in medical genetics and molecular science, expanding the frontiers of etiologies and disease mechanisms in man, with important implications for animal health. Veterinary medicine has evolved during the last half century, from a trade designed to serve agrarian cultures, to a diverse profession supporting an array of career opportunities ranging from private, specialty practice, to highly organized, specialized medicine and subspecialty academic training programs in cardiology and allied disciplines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. "Now drugs in Libya are much cheaper than food": A qualitative study on substance use among young Libyans in post-revolution Tripoli, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elamouri, Fauzi Muftah; Musumari, Patou Masika; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Farjallah, Anwer; Elfandi, Sufian; Alsharif, Osama Fathi; Benothman, Hussein; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2017-12-19

    Libya is facing a rapidly growing epidemic of illicit drug use and HIV. This situation is fueled by a complex array of factors, mainly the consequences of the political and military turmoil of the Arab Spring. Although it is extensively documented in other settings that young people are one of the most vulnerable groups to both HIV and illicit drug use, no study has explored this issue among young people in Libya. The current study addresses this research gap. This study is a qualitative study using in-depth interviews guided by a semi-structured questionnaire. We used a maximum variation, purposive sampling strategy to recruit male and female participants, aged 14-18 years, from schools, prisons, and community-based informal re-education and rehabilitation centers in Tripoli, Libya. In total, 31 participants were recruited: 6 females and 25 males. Sixteen participants were prisoners and residents of community-based informal re-education and rehabilitation centers, and 15 were recruited in schools. Risk factors for drug use included peer influence, the increased availability and affordability of drugs, disruption of social life and healthy recreational activities, and the distress and casualties of the war. Protective factors were religious beliefs and practices, good parent-child connectedness, and high self-esteem and future aspiration. Risk factors for HIV were insufficient knowledge related to HIV transmission and unsafe injection practices, such as sharing needles and syringes. We found individual, interpersonal, family, and structural-level factors that interplayed to shape the vulnerability of young people to drug use and HIV infection in Tripoli, Libya. Structural factors, including the increased availability and affordability of drugs, provided the frame within which other factors, such as peer influence, insufficient knowledge of substance use, and HIV, operated to increase the vulnerability of young people to drugs and HIV, while religious beliefs and

  1. A comparison of antimicrobial usage in human and veterinary medicine in France from 1999 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Gérard; Cavalié, Philippe; Pellanne, Isabelle; Chevance, Anne; Laval, Arlette; Millemann, Yves; Colin, Pierre; Chauvin, Claire

    2008-09-01

    The antimicrobials allowed and amounts sold in veterinary and human medicine in France were compared to see if the same antimicrobial drugs are used in veterinary and human medicine, and to the same extent. Registers of all approved antimicrobial commercial products, kept by the French Agency for Veterinary Medicinal Products (AFSSA ANMV) for animals and the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) for humans, were compared to determine whether the same antimicrobials were approved in 2007 for use in both human and animal populations. Sales data were collected from pharmaceutical companies between 1999 and 2005 by the AFSSA ANMV and AFSSAPS. Usage of the different antimicrobial anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classes in human and veterinary medicines was recorded. Data were expressed in tonnes of active ingredients and were then related to the animal and human biomasses to compare usages expressed in mg/kg. All antimicrobial ATC classes were used in both human and veterinary medicine. Tetracyclines accounted for the most sales in veterinary medicine. beta-Lactams predominated in human medicine. A decrease in the amounts consumed by both human and animal populations was observed during the study. In 2005, 760 tonnes were used in human medicine and 1320 tonnes in veterinary medicine, corresponding to 199 and 84 mg/kg of live weight in human and animal populations, respectively. The same antimicrobial drugs were used in human and veterinary medicines but the quantitative patterns of use were different. Expression of antimicrobial usage is a key point to address when comparing usage trends.

  2. The potential of circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNA) in veterinary diagnostics-Identifying biomarker signatures by multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie, Spornraft; Benedikt, Kirchner; Pfaffl, Michael W; Irmgard, Riedmaier

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide growth and performance-enhancing substances are used in cattle husbandry to increase productivity. In certain countries however e.g., in the EU, these practices are forbidden to prevent the consumers from potential health risks of substance residues in food. To maximize economic profit, 'black sheep' among farmers might circumvent the detection methods used in routine controls, which highlights the need for an innovative and reliable detection method. Transcriptomics is a promising new approach in the discovery of veterinary medicine biomarkers and also a missing puzzle piece, as up to date, metabolomics and proteomics are paramount. Due to increased stability and easy sampling, circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNAs) in bovine plasma were small RNA-sequenced and their potential to serve as biomarker candidates was evaluated using multivariate data analysis tools. After running the data evaluation pipeline, the proportion of miRNAs (microRNAs) and piRNAs (PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs) on the total sequenced reads was calculated. Additionally, top 10 signatures were compared which revealed that the readcount data sets were highly affected by the most abundant miRNA and piRNA profiles. To evaluate the discriminative power of multivariate data analyses to identify animals after veterinary drug application on the basis of smexRNAs, OPLS-DA was performed. In summary, the quality of miRNA models using all mapped reads for both treatment groups (animals treated with steroid hormones or the β-agonist clenbuterol) is predominant to those generated with combined data sets or piRNAs alone. Using multivariate projection methodologies like OPLS-DA have proven the best potential to generate discriminative miRNA models, supported by small RNA-Seq data. Based on the presented comparative OPLS-DA, miRNAs are the favorable smexRNA biomarker candidates in the research field of veterinary drug abuse.

  3. [Investigation of community support measures for patients with comorbid substance use disorder and psychotic disorder: nationwide survey of drug addiction rehabilitation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Koike, Junko; Kouda, Minoru; Inamoto, Atsuko; Morota, Nobuaki

    2014-12-01

    In psychiatric care practice, patients are often seen who have difficulty with their social lives due to protracted psychiatric symptoms despite years without drug abuse. The difficulty of dealing with such cases and the lack of preparedness of the legal system leave circumstantial care as the only option. Western.countries have recently begun using the name 'concurrent disorder' as a diagnosis for patients deemed unable to recover solely through such treatment for drug addiction, signifying the presence of both a substance use disorder (SUD) and a mental health disorder. Various assessment and intervention methods are being investigated, and many studies have been reported. Based on the hypothesis that Drug Addiction Rehabilitation Center (DARC) are partly involved in supporting those with psychotic concurrent disorders (PSCD) in Japan, we conducted a survey to clarify the actual support for PSCD patients at DARC and the challenges they face. Surveys were administered to DARC-related institutions all over Japan (44 governing organizations and 66 institutions). Complete responses from 86 full-time employees and 445 DARC users were analyzed. DARC users were divided into two groups: psychiatric concurrent disorders (PSCD group, n = 178) and those without such symptoms (SUD group, n = 267), with the PSCD group accounting for 40% of the DARC users surveyed. Compared to the SUD group, the PSCD group was significantly less satisfied with their lifestyle and interpersonal relations at the DARC and a significantly higher proportion of the PSCD group requested assistance in communicating with others. When employees were presented with a hypothetical PSCD case and asked what was needed to deal with it, some responses were, "an institution that can treat both drug addiction and other mental health disorders," "a psychiatric care institution that provides 24-hour care," and "sufficient manpower and training." In the future, a treatment system must be established based on

  4. 21 CFR 1308.22 - Excluded substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded substances. 1308.22 Section 1308.22 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES... may, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 301), be lawfully sold over the counter...

  5. Human health hazards of veterinary medications: information for emergency departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lust, Elaine Blythe; Barthold, Claudia; Malesker, Mark A; Wichman, Tammy O

    2011-02-01

    There are over 5000 approved prescription and over-the-counter medications, as well as vaccines, with labeled indications for veterinary patients. Of these, there are several products that have significant human health hazards upon accidental or intentional exposure or ingestion in humans: carfentanil, clenbuterol (Ventipulmin), ketamine, tilmicosin (Micotil), testosterone/estradiol (Component E-H and Synovex H), dinoprost (Lutalyse/Prostamate), and cloprostenol (Estromate/EstroPlan). The hazards range from mild to life-threatening in terms of severity, and include bronchospasm, central nervous system stimulation, induction of miscarriage, and sudden death. To report medication descriptions, human toxicity information, and medical management for the emergent care of patients who may have had exposure to veterinary medications when they present to an emergency department (ED). The intended use of this article is to inform and support ED personnel, drug information centers, and poison control centers on veterinary medication hazards. There is a need for increased awareness of the potential hazards of veterinary medications within human medicine circles. Timely reporting of veterinary medication hazards and their medical management may help to prepare the human medical community to deal with such exposures or abuses when time is of the essence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Review of hazards to female reproductive health in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A

    2017-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting

  7. Veterinary education as leader: which alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldau, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article suggests that veterinary medicine has a leadership role to play in our society on ethical matters involving non-human animals. The article contrasts two trends within veterinary medicine; the first trend is a continuation of the avowedly utilitarian attitude toward non-humans that has its roots in Western veterinary medicine's eighteenth-century origins, and the second is the implicit view in veterinary practice that animals matter in and of themselves. Using the idea of alternatives in research and teaching, the article suggests that, in the years to come, veterinary medicine's answers to the relationships of these two trends will shape not only the soul of veterinary medicine, veterinary education, and the veterinary profession but, just as importantly, the larger society and culture themselves. This text is based on the keynote address delivered at the AAVMC Education Symposium in Washington, DC, on March 9, 2006, under the title "Ethical Issues Impacting Animal Use in Veterinary Medical Teaching."

  8. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  9. 78 FR 23595 - Importer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-19

    ... substance listed in schedule II. The facility intends to import the above listed controlled substance for..., 2013. Joseph T. Rannazzisi, Deputy Assistant Administrator, Office of Diversion Control, Drug...

  10. A first-principles model for prediction of product dose uniformity based on drug substance particle size distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilden, Jon; Schrad, Mark; Kuehne-Willmore, Jennifer; Sloan, Jessica

    2012-07-01

    The unit dose uniformity (UDU) of low-dose drug products can be affected by active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particle size. UDU relative standard deviation increases as the fraction of large API particles increases and/or as the unit dose decreases. Control of API particle size has traditionally been based on the empirical relationship of d(90) and/or d(50) statistics to drug product uniformity. Several articles have been written that have identified a theoretical relationship between these particle size statistics, dose, and the probability of meeting US Pharmacopeial UDU testing criteria (Huang CY, Ku S. 2010. Int J Pharm 383:70-80; Rohrs B, Amidon G, Meury R, Secreast P, King H, Skoug C. 2006. J Pharm Sci 95(5):1049-1059; Huang CY, Ku S. 2010. J Pharm Sci 99:4351-4362; Yalkowsky SH, Bolton S. 1990. Pharm Res 7(9):962-966). However, these theoretical relationships assume a fixed shape for the API particle size distribution (PSD, i.e., lognormal) and do not account for changes in the distribution shape. A more rigorous method for predicting the effect of a given PSD on UDU is to evaluate the contribution of individual particle size bins on UDU variability. The latter approach is taken in this work, and the derivation reveals that the individual contribution of particles size bins can be expressed completely in terms of a single-particle-size statistic, D[6,3]. D[6,3] is therefore a valid predictor of UDU, regardless of the shape of the PSD (e.g., multimodal) and can form the basis of a particle size control strategy for low-dose drug products. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Mortality Rates Among Substance Use Disorder Participants in Clinical Trials: Pooled Analysis of Twenty-Two Clinical Trials Within the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad, Robert; Hu, Lian; Oden, Neal; Wakim, Paul; Rosa, Carmen; VanVeldhuisen, Paul

    2016-11-01

    Most substance use disorders (SUD) treatment clinical trials are too short and small to reliably estimate the incidence of rare events like death. The aim of this study is to estimate the overall mortality rates among a SUD treatment-seeking population by pooling participants from multiple clinical trials conducted through the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)-sponsored National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Drug and or alcohol users (N=9866) who sought treatment and participated in one of the twenty-two CTN trials. Data were collected through randomized clinical trials in national community treatment programs for SUD. Pooled analysis was performed to assess age- and gender-standardized mortality rate(s) (SM rate(s)), and mortality ratio(s) (SM ratio(s)) of CTN trial participants compared to the U.S. general population. The age- and gender-SM rate among CTN trials participants was 1403 (95% CI: 862-2074) per 100,000 person years (PY) compared to 542 (95% CI: 541-543) per 100,000 PY among the U.S. general population in 2005. By gender, age-adjusted SM ratio for female CTN trial participants was over five times (SM ratio=5.35, 95% CI: 3.31-8.19)), and for male CTN trial participants, it was over three times (SM ratio=3.39, 95% CI: 2.25-4.90) higher than their gender comparable peers in the U.S. general population. Age and gender-standardized mortality rates and ratios among NIDA CTN SUD treatment-seeking clinical trial participants are higher than the age and gender comparable U.S. general population. The overall mortality rates of CTN trial participants are similar to in-treatment mortality reported in large U.S. and non-U.S. cohorts of opioid users. Future analysis with additional CTN trial participants and risk times will improve the stability of estimates, especially within subgroups based on primary substance of abuse. These SUD mortality rates can be used to facilitate safety monitoring within SUD clinical trials. Copyright © 2016

  12. Validation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test in a Swedish sample of suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems: results from the Mental Disorder, Substance Abuse and Crime study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbeej, Natalie; Berman, Anne H; Gumpert, Clara H; Palmstierna, Tom; Kristiansson, Marianne; Alm, Charlotte

    2010-12-01

    Substance abuse is common among offenders. One method widely used for the detection of substance abuse is screening. This study explored the concurrent validity of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) screening tools in relation to (a) substance abuse and dependency diagnoses and (b) three problem severity domains of the sixth version of the Addiction Severity Index in a sample of 181 suspected offenders with signs of mental health problems. The screening tools showed moderate to high accuracy for identification of dependency diagnoses. The AUDIT was associated with alcohol problem severity, whereas the DUDIT was associated with drug and legal problem severity. Administering the screening tools in the current population yields valid results. However, the suggested cutoff scores should be applied with caution due to the discrepancy between present and previous findings. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Hair analysis for drug abuse. XIV. Identification of substances causing acute poisoning using hair root. I. Methamphetamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Y; Kikura, R; Yasuhara, M; Mukai, T

    1997-01-17

    A hair root was evaluated as a specimen for proving acute methamphetamine (MA) poisonings using an animal model and fatal cases of MA intoxicaton. First of all, male pigmented hairy rats (n = 5) were administered with acute poisonous doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg) of MA and the hair roots were plucked out with a hair nipper 5 min and 0.5, 1, 2, 6 and 24 h after i.p. injection. The hair root samples were, directly or after washing with detergent, extracted with methanol/5 N HCl (20:1) under vortex mixing at room temperature for 14 h. After evaporation, the residue was derivatized with pentafluoropropionic anhydride and analyzed with GC/MS. From all samples including a 5-min sample, MA was detected at high concentrations (approximately 150 ng/mg) with a small amount of amphetamine (AP). Many animals died within 120 min of administration, but the concentrations in the hair roots increased up to 120 min and then slowly decreased until 24 h. Although MA was definitely detected anytime in the hair roots, almost no MA was found in 24-h plasma. In comparison of the drug levels in hair roots between the washed group and the unwashed group, the levels of the washed group were as a whole 4-5-fold higher than those of the unwashed group. These differences show that most of the drug incorporated into hair root is still not immobilized in the early stage. The ratios of the MA remainder in the washed samples increased with the elapse of time in all cases. However, the slope of the curves definitely dropped after the death of rats, probably due to the stopping of the hair growth and the incorporation of drug into the hair shaft. The ratios of AP/MA after death became a plateau probably due to the stoppage of the activity of metabolism after death, while those before death had increased over time. We analyzed the specimens of hair root of four men who died mainly due to acute poisonings with MA. Consequently, MA in the hair roots was detected at high concentrations, 30.5-134.6 ng

  14. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    practice in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of drugs prescription in dogs diagnosed with CPE in some small animal clinics in Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS ... presumptive and/or laboratory diagnoses. Data obtained from individual .... be appropriate and prudent. There is currently no ...

  15. Sociodemographic and Substance Use Disorder Determinants of HIV Sexual Risk Behavior in Men and Women in Outpatient Drug Treatment in the NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jeremy D; Tross, Susan; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N C; Nunes, Edward V

    2017-06-07

    Sexual risk behavior is now the primary vector of HIV transmission among substance users in the United States with gender as a crucial moderator of risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in factors (age, race/ethnicity, education) that predict main-partner unprotected sexual occasions (USO) using the unique platform of two parallel NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network gender-specific safer sex intervention trials. Baseline assessments of male (N = 430) and female (N = 377) participants included demographic characteristics; past 3-month sexual activity; and a diagnostic assessment for alcohol, cocaine/stimulant, and opioid use disorders. Using mixed effects generalized linear modeling of the main outcome USO, two-way interactions of gender with age, race/ethnicity, and education were evaluated and adjusted by alcohol, cocaine/stimulant, or opioid use disorder. When adjusted for alcohol use disorder, the interaction of education and gender was significant. For men, a high school or greater education was significantly associated with more USO compared to men with less than high school. For women, greater than high school education was significantly associated with less USO compared to women with a high school education. None of the other interactions were significant when adjusted for cocaine/stimulant or opioid use disorder. Conclusions/Importance: This study demonstrates gender differences in the relationship of education, alcohol use disorder, and main-partner USO in individuals in substance abuse treatment. This underscores the importance of considering demographic and substance use factors in HIV sexual risk behavior and in crafting prevention messages for this population.

  16. Physical ergonomics in veterinary dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForge, Donald H

    2002-12-01

    Ergonomics is the application of a body of knowledge addressing the interactions between man and the total working environment, such as atmosphere, heat, light and sound, as well as all tools and equipment of the workplace. Work related musculoskeletal injuries, caused by poor posture, have been discussed in human dentistry for several years. Veterinary dentistry, as a relatively new specialty within veterinary medicine, should address the ergonomics of poor posture without further delay to prevent work-related injuries. The generalist, as well as the specialist and their technicians, are subject to various neck and back disorders if proper ergonomic recommendations are not followed. This review article highlights basic ergonomic design principles for illumination and posture in veterinary dentistry.

  17. Definition of Substance and Non-substance Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Xiaomei; Ding, Jianrui; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Substance addiction (or drug addiction) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a recurring desire to continue taking the drug despite harmful consequences. Non-substance addiction (or behavioral addiction) covers pathological gambling, food addiction, internet addiction, and mobile phone addiction. Their definition is similar to drug addiction but they differ from each other in specific domains. This review aims to provide a brief overview of past and current definitions of substance and non-substance addiction, and also touches on the topic of diagnosing drug addiction and non-drug addiction, ultimately aiming to further the understanding of the key concepts needed for a foundation to study the biological and psychological underpinnings of addiction disorders.

  18. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines for an integrative veterinary medicine curriculum within veterinary colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, M A; Shmalberg, J; Adair, H S; Allweiler, S; Bryan, J N; Cantwell, S; Carr, E; Chrisman, C; Egger, C M; Greene, S; Haussler, K K; Hershey, B; Holyoak, G R; Johnson, M; Jeune, S Le; Looney, A; McConnico, R S; Medina, C; Morton, A J; Munsterman, A; Nie, G J; Park, N; Parsons-Doherty, M; Perdrizet, J A; Peyton, J L; Raditic, D; Ramirez, H P; Saik, J; Robertson, S; Sleeper, M; Dyke, J Van; Wakshlag, J

    2016-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative.

  19. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines for an integrative veterinary medicine curriculum within veterinary colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270

  20. Renal scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B

    2014-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Laser use in veterinary dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Jan

    2002-05-01

    Lasers have been used in human dentistry since the 1960's. Lasers can provide a veterinary dentist access to difficult to reach areas with a relatively bloodless surgical field. Due to vaporization of nerve endings, human patients undergoing laser dental treatment reveal less pain compared to scalpel driven procedures. Dental applications for the commonly used lasers are discussed, as are special safety precautions. Many dental procedures enhanced by a carbon dioxide laser are covered. Future applications for the laser in veterinary dentistry are also discussed.

  2. Veterinary applications of infrared thermography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekant, Steven I; Lyons, Mark A; Pacheco, Juan M; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis L

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal body temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in body surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to a myriad of diseases of various etiologies across a wide range of host species in veterinary medicine. It is used to monitor the physiologic status of individual animals, such as measuring feed efficiency or diagnosing pregnancy. Infrared thermography has applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and has been used to detect soring in horses and monitor stress responses. This review addresses the variety of uses for IRT in veterinary medicine, including disease detection, physiologic monitoring, welfare assessment, and potential future applications.

  3. Veterinary medicines and competition animals: the question of medication versus doping control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2010-01-01

    In racing and other equine sports, it is possible to increase artificially both the physical capability and the presence of a competitive instinct, using drugs, such as anabolic steroids and agents stimulating the central nervous system. The word doping describes this illegitimate use of drugs and the primary motivation of an equine anti-doping policy is to prevent the use of these substances. However, an anti-doping policy must not impede the use of legitimate veterinary medications and most regulatory bodies in the world now distinguish the control of illicit substances (doping control) from the control of therapeutic substances (medication control). For doping drugs, the objective is to detect any trace of drug exposure (parent drug or metabolites) using the most powerful analytical methods (generally chromatographic/mass spectrometric techniques). This so-called "zero tolerance rule" is not suitable for medication control, because the high level of sensitivity of current screening methods allows the detection of totally irrelevant plasma or urine concentrations of legitimate drugs for long periods after their administration. Therefore, a new approach for these legitimate compounds, based upon pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) principles, has been developed. It involves estimating the order of magnitude of the irrelevant plasma concentration (IPC) and of the irrelevant urine concentration (IUC) in order to limit the impact of the high sensitivity of analytical techniques used for medication control. The European Horserace Scientific Liaison Committee (EHSLC), which is the European scientific committee in charge of harmonising sample testing and policies for racehorses in Europe, is responsible for estimating the IPCs and IUCs in the framework of a Risk Analysis. A Risk Analysis approach for doping/medication control involves three sequential steps, namely risk assessment, risk management, and risk communication. For medication control, the main task of

  4. Health risk from veterinary antimicrobial use in China's food animal production and its reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-12-01

    The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determination of platinum surface contamination in veterinary and human oncology centres using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, T.; Brouwers, E. E M; de Vos, J. P.; de Vries, N.; Schellens, J. H M; Beijnen, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the surface contamination with platinum-containing antineoplastic drugs in veterinary and human oncology centres. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure platinum levels in surface samples. In veterinary and human oncology

  6. THE APIPHYTOTHERAPY WITH PROACTIVATOR IN THE VETERINARY DERMATOLOGY AND SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SICEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this clinical study consisted in evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the propolis extract used in different disorders at company animals, thus being improved the palette of the apitherapeutical products used in veterinary purposes. The experiments were carried out on company animals (two experimental groups during the 2007-2008 period, in the frame of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty – Bucharest and the University - Spiru Haret, at the veterinary departments: Parasitology, Dermatology and Surgery. The raw propolis was collected from the bee colonies belonging to the Institute of the Beekeeping Research & Development– Bucharest and the apiphytotherapeutical product based on propolis was obtained in the Apitherapy sector of the same Institute. In a first stage were obtained the antiparasite, dermatological and surgical veterinary product PROACTIVATOR based on propolis alcoholic extract and Aloe vera gel. The experiments consisted in administration of the obtained preparation in different disorders on the experimental groups as: dermatological (plagues, chemical and physical burns, parasitological (extern parasites: scabies supra infected or not and in veterinary surgery (as a protective layer applied on the sutured plague. In dermatologic disorders the effects of the PROACTIVATOR product were established by way of clinical periodical examinations until the total recover were done. In external parasites and connected disorders it was established the repellent or killing effect of the preparation on the infestation with parasites and the degree of control in the correlated infections. In skin tissue surgery it was established the cicatrising effect in sutured plagues and the anaesthesic local effect. The established of the studied preparation efficiency was similar as those used in classical treatments with synthesis products. The advantage of the utilization of PROACTIVATOR eliminates the toxic and cumulative effects

  7. Evaluation of the Most Frequently Prescribed Extemporaneously Compounded Veterinary Medications at a Large Independent Community Pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karara, Adel H; Hines, Ryan; Demir, Zehra; Nnorom, Bethran; Horsey, Robert; Twigg, Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Extemporaneous drug formulation is essential to provide optimal pharmaceutical care to veterinary patients. The need for this is exacerbated by the fact that commercially produced veterinary-specific products, without a human indication, require specialty veterinary manufacturing facilities and a new animal drug application process to gain marketing approval. This study examined the prescription patterns of extemporaneously compounded veterinary preparations in the compounding department at a large independent community pharmacy. Data was obtained from a total of 1348 prescriptions requiring extemporaneous compounding over the course of a two-year period (2014-2015). A database was constructed and each compounded prescription was allocated to a therapeutic category based on the American Hospital Formulary Service Drug Information. Data analysis showed that the most commonly prescribed preparations belonged to the central nervous system (39%), anti-infective agents (21%), and hormones (12%) therapeutic categories. Overall, suspensions were the most dispensed (47%), extemporaneously compounded dosage forms followed by solutions (28%), and capsules (10%). The majority (88%) of compounded preparations were administered by the oral route. The top three drugs that are compounded for veterinary medicine were (1) potassium bromide oral solution for canine epilepsy, (2) methimazole solution used to treat hyperthyroidism in cats, and (3) metronidazole suspension, an antibiotic for the treatment of diarrhea and other infections in dogs and cats. Remarkably, our findings are in good agreement with previously published survey data on the top drugs that are compounded for veterinary medicine. In the era of personalized medicine, veterinary extemporaneous compounding for specialized needs will continue to play an important role providing optimum therapy for veterinary patients. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  8. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iragüen, D; Urcelay, S; San Martín, B

    2011-04-01

    Iragüen, D., Urcelay, S., San Martín, B. Pharmacovigilance in veterinary medicine in Chile: a pilot study. J. vet. Pharmacol. Therap.34, 108-115. In Chile, there is no present government policy to survey and analyse adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in the field of veterinary medicine. The intent of this study is to assess, for the first time, ADR frequency in treated animals. To this purpose, a 6-month period pilot study based on WHO recommendations was conducted to monitor ADRs in cats and dogs for frequently used drugs and common labelled signs. Of a total of 149 detected ADRs, 29 (6 in cats and 23 in dogs) were notified by means of ADR report forms, while the rest was identified after reviewing patient clinical records, thus evidencing strong under-reporting problems. More than 70% of ADRs were related to antimicrobials, vaccines and tranquilizers. In dogs, there was a significant effect on ADRs' presentation when acepromazine, amoxicillin, carprofen, ivermectin, sextuple vaccine (polyvalent vaccine that confers immunity against canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus, Leptospira canicola, L. icterohemmoragiae, canine adenovirus type 2 and canine parainfluenza virus) and phytomenadione (subcutaneous injection) were administered. In the case of cats, a significant influence on ADRs was detected when acepromazine, amoxicillin or vitamin K was administered. Present results suggest the need for a pharmacovigilance programme in veterinary medicine for timely ADR-presenting drug detection and drug safety improvement. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Fosfomycin: Uses and potentialities in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fosfomycin (FOS is a natural bactericidal broad-spectrum antibiotic which acts on proliferating bacteria by inhibiting cell wall and early murein/peptidoglycan synthesis. Bactericidal activity is evident against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and can also act synergistically with other antibiotics. Bacterial resistance to FOS may be natural or acquired. Other properties of this drug include inhibition of bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells, exopolysaccharide biofilm penetration, immunomodulatory effect, phagocytosis promotion and protection against the nephrotoxicity caused by other drugs. FOS has chemical characteristics not typically observed in organic phosphoric compounds and its molecular weight is almost the lowest of all the antimicrobials. It tends to form salts easily due to its acidic nature (disodium salt, for intravenous (IV, intramuscular (IM and subcutaneous (SC administration; calcium and trometamol salt: for oral (PO administration. FOS has a very low protein binding (<0.5% which, along with its low molecular weight and water solubility, contributes to its good diffusion into fluids (cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous and vitreous humor, interstitial fluid and tissues (placenta, bone, muscle, liver, kidney and skin/fat. In all species, important differences in the bioavailability have been found after administration in relation to the various derivatives of FOS salts. Pharmacokinetic profiles have been described in humans, chickens, rabbits, cows, dogs, horses and weaning piglets. The low toxicity and potential efficacy of FOS are the main factors that contribute to its use in humans and animals. Thus, it has been used to treat a broad variety of bacterial infections in humans, such as localized peritonitis, brain abscesses, severe soft tissue infections, cystitis and other conditions. In veterinary medicine, FOS is used to treat infectious diseases of broiler chickens and pigs. In broilers, it is administered for the

  10. The Literature of Veterinary Medicine. CE 60.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerker, Ann E.; Malamud, Judie

    This course guide outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on the literature of veterinary medicine. Topics covered include: (1) an introduction to veterinary medicine as a discipline, including comparison with other medical sciences, veterinary medicine education, licensure, animal models, veterinary…

  11. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted.

  12. Establishing veterinary education in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Bruce Vivash

    2013-01-12

    The American Veterinary Medical Association is marking its 150th anniversary in 2013, celebrating '150 years of education, science and service'. As Bruce Vivash Jones explains, veterinary surgeons from the UK played a key role in establishing a system of veterinary education in North America.

  13. "It's how we deal": Perceptions of LGB peers' use of alcohol and other drugs to cope and sexual minority adults' own coping motivated substance use following the Pulse nightclub shooting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Sarah C; LaBrie, Joseph W; Costine, Lauren D; Witkovic, Yong D

    2017-02-01

    Sexual minority stress experiences (e.g. prejudice, victimization, etc.) and peer substance use norms (e.g. peers' frequency of use and quantity consumed) are important correlates of alcohol and drug use in sexual minority populations. The current study incorporates both of these by examining LGB individuals' perceptions of peers' use of alcohol and other drugs to cope with a sexual minority stressor, and whether perceptions of peer coping norms relate to one's own coping-motivated substance use in response to the stressor. Three-hundred and seven sexual minority males and females who identified as gay, lesbian, or bisexual completed an online survey approximately 1month following the Pulse Nightclub Shooting, the deadliest incident of violence against LGBT people in U.S. history, and a stressor experienced within LGB communities throughout the U.S. Results revealed that LGB peers were widely perceived as likely to have coped with alcohol (68%) and drugs (41%) following the Pulse Shooting; however only small proportions of participants themselves reported coping with alcohol (26%) and drugs (7%). Further, multivariate models revealed that even after controlling for other factors including the stress impact of the Pulse shooting, the odds of using alcohol to cope with this event were 15 times greater among participants who held the perception that LGB peers likely used alcohol to cope relative to those who did not share this perception. Similarly, the odds of using drugs to cope with this event were 9 times greater among participants who perceived LGB peers likely to use drugs to cope with Pulse compared to those who did not. Importantly, these findings suggest that personalized normative feedback designed to correct perceptions of peers' coping motivated substance use may have utility as a motivational component in larger interventions seeking to reduce LGBs' substance use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    um chafe

    2. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello Unviersity, Zaria, Nigeria. 2College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Mando, Kaduna, Nigeria. Correspondence Author: Abstract. Village chickens in Kaduna State, Nigeria were vaccinated once with a Malaysian heat-resistant Newcastle disease ...

  15. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  16. Improving titer while maintaining quality of final formulated drug substance via optimization of CHO cell culture conditions in low-iron chemically defined media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianlin; Rehmann, Matthew S; Xu, Xuankuo; Huang, Chao; Tian, Jun; Qian, Nan-Xin; Li, Zheng Jian

    2018-02-01

    During biopharmaceutical process development, it is important to improve titer to reduce drug manufacturing costs and to deliver comparable quality attributes of therapeutic proteins, which helps to ensure patient safety and efficacy. We previously reported that relative high-iron concentrations in media increased titer, but caused unacceptable coloration of a fusion protein during early-phase process development. Ultimately, the fusion protein with acceptable color was manufactured using low-iron media, but the titer decreased significantly in the low-iron process. Here, long-term passaging in low-iron media is shown to significantly improve titer while maintaining acceptable coloration during late-phase process development. However, the long-term passaging also caused a change in the protein charge variant profile by significantly increasing basic variants. Thus, we systematically studied the effect of media components, seed culture conditions, and downstream processing on productivity and quality attributes. We found that removing β-glycerol phosphate (BGP) from basal media reduced basic variants without affecting titer. Our goals for late-phase process development, improving titer and matching quality attributes to the early-phase process, were thus achieved by prolonging seed culture age and removing BGP. This process was also successfully scaled up in 500-L bioreactors. In addition, we demonstrated that higher concentrations of reactive oxygen species were present in the high-iron Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures compared to that in the low-iron cultures, suggesting a possible mechanism for the drug substance coloration caused by high-iron media. Finally, hypotheses for the mechanisms of titer improvement by both high-iron and long-term culture are discussed.

  17. Tracking and incentivizing substance abusers in longitudinal research: results of a survey of National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded investigators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabee, David; Hawken, Angela; Griffith, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Increased recognition that addictive behaviors tend to be chronic and relapsing has led to a growing emphasis on longitudinal substance abuse research. The purpose of this study was to identify effective follow-up strategies used by National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded investigators who have conducted at least 1 study involving follow-up data collection from human subjects. A web-based survey was administered to a representative sample of National Institute on Drug Abuse-funded researchers (N = 153) with a history of conducting longitudinal research. Reported study response rates were generally high, although 27% of the studies fell below the 80% benchmark. Face-to-face and telephone-based interviews commanded the largest subject payments-2 to 3 times higher than compensation rates for collection of biologic samples. With regard to the presumed impact of low follow-up rates on the generalizability of study findings, one-third of investigators who compared baseline characteristics of those who did and did not participate in the follow-up found meaningful differences. Support was found for the hypothesis that follow-up rates and total compensation would be positively related, with the mean compensation amounts between studies achieving effect in the predicted direction. The majority of respondents reported difficulty in tracking and locating subjects, and study respondents often proved to be quite different from nonrespondents. Incentives improved follow-up rates to a point, although the relationship was not linear. Efforts to improve follow-up rates may be better spent on addressing tracking and locating logistics rather than on strategies to compel participation once the subject has been located.

  18. Veterinary clinical nutrition: success stories: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mike

    2016-08-01

    In this overview of success stories in veterinary clinical nutrition topics in cats and dogs reviewed include the dietary management of chronic kidney disease, dissolution of urinary tract uroliths by dietary modification, the recognition that taurine and L-carnitine deficiencies can cause dilated cardiomyopathy; that clinical signs associated with feline hyperthyroidism (caused by a benign adenoma) can be controlled by a low-iodine diet alone; that dietary management of canine osteoarthritis can also reduce non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug doses; and that disease-free intervals and survival times can be statistically longer in dogs with Stage III lymphoma managed with diet. As we discover more about nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, and as we expand our basic understanding of idiopathic diseases we are bound to identify more nutritionally related causes, and be able to develop novel dietary strategies to manage disease processes, including the formulation of diets designed to alter gene expression to obtain beneficial clinical outcomes.

  19. Perceptions of parental substance use disorders in cross-system collaboration among child welfare, alcohol and other drugs, and dependency court organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S; Traube, Dorian E; Young, Nancy K

    2014-05-01

    Cross-system collaboration among child welfare (CW), alcohol and other drugs (AOD), and court organizations shows promise in addressing the many needs of CW-involved families experiencing parental substance use disorders (SUDs). Research has suggested that differing perceptions of parents with SUDs among staff in these organizations may hinder the collaborative process. Using a sequential explanatory mixed-method approach, this study explored staff perceptions of parental SUDs among CW, AOD, and court organizations. Logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared to CW respondents, AOD respondents were: (a) less likely to believe that parents could provide effective parenting; (b) more likely to believe that abstinence should be a criterion for reunification; (c) more likely to agree that parents should receive jail time as a consequence for noncompliance with court orders; and (d) more likely to believe that parents could succeed in treatment. Thematic analyses of these focal areas identified two core themes (focus on the primary client and mandated time frames for permanency), as well as multiple subthemes, that provided a nuanced understanding of differing perceptions on these matters. Suggestions for the development of anticipatory cross-system training and practices and implications for policy evaluation are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Substance Use and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...

  1. The history of veterinary medicine in Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert P. Schneider

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Until the middle of the 19th century, very few references exist regarding the occurrence of animal diseases in Namibia. With the introduction of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP in 1859, this picture changed completely and livestock owners implemented various forms of disease control in an effort to contain the spread of this disease and minimise its devastating effects. After the establishment of the colonial administration in 1884, the first animal disease legislation was introduced in 1887 and the first veterinarian, Dr Wilhelm Rickmann, arrived in 1894. CBPP and the outbreak of rinderpest in 1897 necessitated a greatly expanded veterinary infrastructure and the first veterinary laboratory was erected at Gammams near Windhoek in 1897. To prevent the spread of rinderpest, a veterinary cordon line was established, which was the very beginning of the Veterinary Cordon Fence as it is known today. After the First World War, a small but dedicated corps of veterinarians again built up an efficient animal health service in the following decades, with veterinary private practice developing from the mid–1950s. The veterinary profession organised itself in 1947 in the form of a veterinary association and, in 1984, legislation was passed to regulate the veterinary profession by the establishment of the Veterinary Council of Namibia. The outbreak of foot and mouth disease in 1961 was instrumental in the creation of an effective veterinary service, meeting international veterinary standards of quality and performance which are still maintained today.

  2. The history of veterinary medicine in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Herbert P

    2012-05-16

    Until the middle of the 19th century, very few references exist regarding the occurrence of animal diseases in Namibia. With the introduction of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in 1859, this picture changed completely and livestock owners implemented various forms of disease control in an effort to contain the spread of this disease and minimise its devastating effects. After the establishment of the colonial administration in 1884, the first animal disease legislation was introduced in 1887 and the first veterinarian, Dr Wilhelm Rickmann, arrived in 1894. CBPP and the outbreak of rinderpest in 1897 necessitated a greatly expanded veterinary infrastructure and the first veterinary laboratory was erected at Gammams near Windhoek in 1897. To prevent the spread of rinderpest, a veterinary cordon line was established, which was the very beginning of the Veterinary Cordon Fence as it is known today. After the First World War, a small but dedicated corps of veterinarians again built up an efficient animal health service in the following decades, with veterinary private practice developing from the mid-1950s. The veterinary profession organised itself in 1947 in the form of a veterinary association and, in 1984, legislation was passed to regulate the veterinary profession by the establishment of the Veterinary Council of Namibia. The outbreak of foot and mouth disease in 1961 was instrumental in the creation of an effective veterinary service, meeting international veterinary standards of quality and performance which are still maintained today.

  3. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Culture in Elder Abuse Mental capacity, consent, and undue influence The relationship between elder abuse and substance abuse ... older person's financial resources and to wield significant ... financially or, in the case of illegal drug use, less likely to report. ...

  4. Pharmaceuticals and Controlled Substances and Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmaceuticals and controlled substances found during residential demolition, such as prescription medications or illegal drugs, may require special treatment for disposal or recycling before demolition.

  5. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    substances, such as chlorpromazine , reserpine, meprobamate, and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-9-amino- acridine. From the results which have been arrived at up... synthesis - 32 - of structural and functional elements, such as proteins, lipids, or trans- mitter substances. Table 28/6 Influence of the Replacement

  6. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Elisabeth A; Bartley, Paul M; Maley, Stephen; Katzer, Frank; Buxton, David

    2009-03-01

    Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

  7. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2012-01-01

    in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination......The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... anxiety questionnaires (Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory and Cox and Kenardy's performance anxiety questionnaire) were used. Anxiety levels were measured before the non-surgical course (111 students from 2009) and before live-animal surgery during the surgical course (153 students from 2009...

  8. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Innes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

  9. Emotions in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    2012-01-01

    A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...... of emotions; 63% of students experienced negative emotions, while 58% experienced positive ones. In addition, 61% of students reported feeling excited or tense. Students' statements reveal that anxiety is perceived as counterproductive to learning, while excitement seems to enhance students' focus...

  10. Pain management in veterinary patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Vedpathak

    Full Text Available The veterinary practitioner has an ethical obligation to help alleviate animal pain. Although most veterinarians accept the fact that animals feel pain, still, postoperative pain relief is not a routine practice in all veterinary hospitals and clinics today. Nociception is a physiological process which involves transduction, transmission, modulation and perception of the noxious stimuli. Chemical mediators are important components of the nociceptive reflex and offer a target of pharmacologic modulation. Assessment of pain in animals is the most important step in the successful management of pain. Choosing appropriate method of pain control would depend upon the type of procedure followed, severity of pain and economic considerations for each individual circumstance. Our understanding of the pain in its manifestation, mechanisms, assessment and alleviation in animals is still although improving, limited. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 360-363

  11. Dental Education in Veterinary Medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Diana L. Eubanks

    2011-01-01

    Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changin...

  12. Teaching and assessing veterinary professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossop, Liz H; Cobb, Kate

    2013-01-01

    The teaching and assessment of professional behaviors and attitudes are important components of veterinary curricula. This article aims to outline some important considerations and concepts which will be useful for veterinary educators reviewing or developing this topic. A definition or framework of veterinary professionalism must be decided upon before educators can develop relevant learning outcomes. The interface between ethics and professionalism should be considered, and both clinicians and ethicists should deliver professionalism teaching. The influence of the hidden curriculum on student development as professionals should also be discussed during curriculum planning because it has the potential to undermine a formal curriculum of professionalism. There are several learning theories that have relevance to the teaching and learning of professionalism; situated learning theory, social cognitive theory, adult learning theory, reflective practice and experiential learning, and social constructivism must all be considered as a curriculum is designed. Delivery methods to teach professionalism are diverse, but the teaching of reflective skills and the use of early clinical experience to deliver valid learning opportunities are essential. Curricula should be longitudinal and integrated with other aspects of teaching and learning. Professionalism should also be assessed, and a wide range of methods have the potential to do so, including multisource feedback and portfolios. Validity, reliability, and feasibility are all important considerations. The above outlined approach to the teaching and assessment of professionalism will help ensure that institutions produce graduates who are ready for the workplace.

  13. Liver scintigraphy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Federica

    2014-01-01

    The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 78 FR 40175 - Exempt Chemical Preparations Under the Controlled Substances Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-03

    ...-1179-M, Chloral hydrate... Amber ampule: 1 mL...... 1/28/2013 Agilent Technologies Veterinary Drugs Checkout Mix. Amber ampule: 1 mL...... 8/3/2012 Agilent Technologies Veterinary Drugs Comprehensive Amber.../mL in Glass vial: 1 mL........ 11/30/2012 Acetonitrile. LGC Limited Buprenorphine 0.1 mg/mL in Glass...

  15. 77 FR 2324 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Registration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-17

    ... controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to... drug code 7360 (Marihuana), the company plans to bulk manufacture cannabidiol as a synthetic...

  16. Overview of suspected adverse reactions to veterinary medicinal products reported in South Africa (March 2002 – February 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naidoo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre is responsible for the monitoring of veterinary adverse drug reactions in South Africa. An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the centre during the period March 2002 to February 2003 is given. In total, 40 reports were received. This had declined from the previous year. Most reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most of the products implicated were Stock Remedies. The animal owner predominantly administered these products. Only 1 report was received from a veterinary pharmaceutical company. Increasing numbers of reports are being received from veterinarians.

  17. Drug: D10032 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10032 Drug Tylvalosin (USAN/INN) C53H87NO19 1041.5872 1042.2532 D10032.gif Veterinary...hibitor 23S rRNA of 50S ribosomal subunit inhibitor [KO:K01980] Macrolides Tylvalosin; Veterinary

  18. Drug: D08391 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08391 Drug Pirlimycin (INN); Pirsue [veterinary] (TN) ... C17H31ClN2O5S D08391.gif ... ... ... Antibacterial ... DG01578 ... Lincosamide antibiotic Chemical group: DG01577 ... Lincosamide Target: 50S ribosomal subunit (veterinary

  19. Drug: D03867 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03867 Drug Dirlotapide (USAN/INN); Slentrol [veterinary] (TN) ... C40H33F3N4O3 D0386...7.gif ... Not for use in humans. veterinary medicine - Treatment of obesity in companion animals (dogs) M

  20. Drug: D02601 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02601 Drug Phenothiazine (INN); Thiodiphenylamin; Nemazine [veterinary] (TN) ... C12...H9NS D02601.gif ... veterinary medicine ... CAS: 92-84-2 PubChem: 17396771 ChEMBL: CHEMBL828 LigandBox: D02601 NIKKAJI: J3.932B ...