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Sample records for veterinary drug substances

  1. Substance use - prescription drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance use disorder - prescription drugs; Substance abuse - prescription drugs; Drug abuse - prescription drugs; Drug use - prescription drugs; Narcotics - substance use; Opioid - substance use; Sedative - substance ...

  2. 21 CFR 201.105 - Veterinary drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to the...

  3. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. PMID:28801498

  4. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L

    2017-08-12

    For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis TOUTAIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Given that: (1 the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2 the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR of animal origin; (3 alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed green antibiotics, having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes.We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a turnstile exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s. For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem.

  6. Residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Two major trends are observed in the analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents. First is the selection of sample material for monitoring the use of registered veterinary drugs. Traditionally meat, kidney and liver were analyzed but, due to the food scandals in which meat was very

  7. 21 CFR 558.6 - Veterinary feed directive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary feed directive drugs. 558.6 Section 558.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions...

  8. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Part 2 of this narrative review outlines the theoretical and practical bases for assessing the efficacy and effectiveness of conventional medicines and homeopathic products. Known and postulated mechanisms of action are critically reviewed. The evidence for clinical efficacy of products in both categories, in the form of practitioner experience, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of clinical trial results, is discussed. The review also addresses problems and pitfalls in assessing data, and the ethical and negative aspects of pharmacology and homeopathy in veterinary medicine. PMID:28821700

  9. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  10. Application of Stable Isotope in Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Liu Zhanfeng; Du Xiaoning

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has happened a series of significant food safety events worldwide, which lower down consumers' confidence in food safety, and they are taking increasing care about the sources of their foods. The safety problem of animal-origin foods has become a global topic for discussion. Therefore, it is a pressing task to establish a precise, sensitive and reliable method for analyzing veterinary drug residue. An introduction of the present status regarding veterinary drug residue analysis was made in the paper, and it briefly summarized the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) which could be reached in veterinary drug residue analysis by isotopic internal standard method domestically and abroad. The paper also made a review of the progress in applied research of stable isotope labeled compound in veterinary drug residue analysis of, such as, antibiotic medicines, furans and sulfonamides. The paper elucidated the great importance of the application of stable isotopes in the sane development of China's food safety system. (authors)

  11. Assessment of veterinary drug use and determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and January 2010 to assess veterinary drug usage by broiler chicken farmers and to determine antimicrobial residues in broiler meat in Urban district, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Fifty five smallholder farmers were interviewed on types of antimicrobials, reasons for use, ...

  12. Prudent Use of Veterinary Drugs: Impact on Safe Animal Products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like any other therapeutic compounds, veterinary drugs are used to alleviate diseases in animals as either therapeutic or prophylactic compounds for specific disease entities. They can also be used as production aids in food producing animals to increase market sale of these animals whereby the producers save on the ...

  13. [Drugs in veterinary medicine. The role of the veterinary drug industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, J C

    1984-02-01

    Veterinary medicines constitute an unescapable element in the scheme of animal health and welfare. Nowadays, they are used more and more to improve health and productivity in farm animals. When a veterinary medicine is prescribed it must not only be effective but must also be safe for both animals and humans. Due to ever changing regulations and constant improvements in residue detection techniques it is necessary to conduct new investigations with existing products. It therefore costs a great deal of time and money to introduce, and maintain, a product in the market. In future, therefore, fewer medicines with more limited indications will be introduced and these will be to combat important production disorders in the more significant species only. In view of the above, research and production will be restricted to large, international, concerns. Due to our well structured agricultural industry and the existence of well organized and equipped veterinary research institutions, and practitioners, Holland is able to play an important role in the development of veterinary medicines. Close co-operation between all involved parties coupled with an efficient registration procedure is not ony of benefit to the veterinary pharmaceutical industry but also for international recognition of our national animal husbandry industry, ancillary industries and veterinary and other consultants. In this scheme of things the accent is not upon qualifications but upon the skills of veterinarians - wherever placed - who are involved in the administration of veterinary medicines.

  14. Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    After a brief introduction into the field of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents, the most important EU regulations and directives for the inspection of food-producing animals and animal products regarding the residue control of these substances are presented and discussed. Main attention

  15. Low energy nanoemulsification to design veterinary controlled drug delivery devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry F Vandamme

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thierry F Vandamme, Nicolas Anton, University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Pharmacy, Illkirch Cedex, France; UMR CNRS 7199, Laboratoire de Conception et Application de Molécules Bioactives, équipe de Pharmacie Biogalénique, Illkirch Cedex, France,  This work is selected as Controlled Release Society Outstanding Veterinary Paper Award 2010Abstract: The unique properties of nanomaterials related to structural stability and quantum-scale reactive properties open up a world of possibilities that could be exploited to design and to target drug delivery or create truly microscale biological sensors for veterinary applications. We developed cost-saving and solvent-free nanoemulsions. Formulated with a low-energy method, these nanoemulsions can find application in the delivery of controlled amounts of drugs into the beverage of breeding animals (such as poultry, cattle, pigs or be used for the controlled release of injectable poorly water-soluble drugs.Keywords: nanoemulsion, nanomedicine, low-energy emulsification, veterinary, ketoprofen, sulfamethazine

  16. Agricultural pesticides and veterinary substances in Uruguayan beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriet, Jorge; Campá, Juan Pablo; Grajales, Mauricio; Lhéritier, Christophe; Gómez Pajuelo, Antonio; Mendoza-Spina, Yamandú; Carrasco-Letelier, Leonidas

    2017-06-01

    Over the last decade, Uruguay has expanded and intensified its rainfed crop production. This process has affected beekeeping in several ways: for example, by reducing the space available. This has increased the density of apiaries, the risk of varroosis and acaricide use. Additionally, the dominance of no-tillage crops has increased the frequencies of application and of loads of pesticides in regions where such crops share the land with beekeeping and honey production. Therefore, the exposure of bees to xenobiotics (agricultural pesticides and veterinary products) has increased in line with pollution of hives and their products. To document pollution from hive exposure to pesticides, we surveyed the presence of 30 xenobiotics normally used in Uruguay, in recycled beeswax (RB) and in honey cappings (HC) from the main Uruguayan beekeeping regions. There was contamination of all the analyzed samples (RB and HC) with the herbicide atrazine at a range of 1-2 ng g -1 . At least three or four additional xenobiotics were detected: insecticides (chlorpyrifos-ethyl and thiacloprid); fungicides (azoxystrobin and tebuconazole); and veterinary products (coumaphos, ethion, and tau-fluvalinate). The frequency of detection of chlorpyrifos-ethyl and coumaphos in RB samples was higher than in those of HC. Moreover, the concentrations of azoxystrobin, coumaphos, and tebuconazole in RB samples were higher than in HC samples. Therefore, we suggest the use of HC to produce recycled printed beeswax films for use in hives to minimize pollution transfer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Survey of Veterinary Drug Residues in Raw Milk in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Na; Zhen, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in raw milk from Hebei, the second-largest dairy production province in the People's Republic of China. A total of 192 raw milk samples were collected from 64 milk stations in seven districts. Twenty-eight veterinary drug residues were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry based on a China National Standard. Raw milk samples with multiple residues of veterinary drugs were not found in the present study. Residues of four veterinary drugs, penicillin G, sulfacetamide, trimethoprim, and lincomycin, were detected in 12 (6.25%) raw milk samples, with detection ratios of 1.04, 0.52, 3.13, and 1.56%, respectively. All veterinary drug residues detected were under the maximum residue levels as regulated by China, the European Union, the United States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In general, raw milk from Hebei province was considered relatively safe for human consumption because of the low prevalence of veterinary drug residues. However, stringent control measurements for veterinary drug residues in raw milk are required because some veterinary drugs were detected in milk from some areas of Hebei province.

  18. Comprehensive screening and quantification of veterinary drugs in milk using UPLC-ToF-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Rutgers, P.; Oosterink, J.E.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Peters, R.J.B.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC¿ToF-MS) has been used for screening and quantification of more than 100 veterinary drugs in milk. The veterinary drugs represent different classes including benzimidazoles, macrolides, penicillins,

  19. The monitoring of radioactive substances in biological food chains by the veterinary service in Czechoslovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawel, O [Central State Veterinary Institute, Prague, Czechoslovakia (Czech Republic)

    1986-07-01

    Czechoslovakia has established an environmental monitoring system to protect the hygienic conditions of the environment from the radiation hazard. The control authorities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food take part in this system in order to collect information on the contamination with radioactive substances of soil, plants, game, food animals, foodstuffs and raw materials, i.e. information on all links of the food chain which extends from animals to man. A radioactive substances detection programme has been launched by the appropriate authorities in agriculture, animal husbandry and veterinary service. The programme includes a two-stage laboratory analysis of radioactive substances. The majority of laboratories covering the programme are already in operation.

  20. The monitoring of radioactive substances in biological food chains by the veterinary service in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawel, O.

    1986-01-01

    Czechoslovakia has established an environmental monitoring system to protect the hygienic conditions of the environment from the radiation hazard. The control authorities of the Ministry of Agriculture and Food take part in this system in order to collect information on the contamination with radioactive substances of soil, plants, game, food animals, foodstuffs and raw materials, i.e. information on all links of the food chain which extends from animals to man. A radioactive substances detection programme has been launched by the appropriate authorities in agriculture, animal husbandry and veterinary service. The programme includes a two-stage laboratory analysis of radioactive substances. The majority of laboratories covering the programme are already in operation

  1. Immunology-Based Techniques for the Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

    Veterinary drugs are used in farm animals, via the feed or the drinking water, to prevent the outbreak of diseases or even for the treatment of diseases. However, the growth of animals may be promoted through the use of hormones and antibiotics. Depending on the type of residue and the application and washing conditions, these substances or its metabolites may remain in meat and other foods of animal origin and may cause adverse effects on consumers’ health. This is the main reason why its use is strictly regulated or even banned (case of the European Union) in different countries. Antibiotics typically used for growth promotion include chloramphenicol, nitrofurans, and enrofloxacin but others like sulphonamides, macrolides etc. may also be used (Reig & Toldrá, 2007).

  2. Dog and cat exposures to hazardous substances reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-06-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009-2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Oral exposures were reported in 95.5 % of calls, dermal exposures in 3.7 % of calls, inhalation exposures in 0.6 % of calls, and parenteral exposures in 0.2 % of calls. Therapeutic drugs were the most frequently reported substances, accounting for 35.4 % of calls, followed by household chemicals (15.5 %); foods (14.8 %); pesticides (13.9 %); plants (12 %), industrial chemicals and fertilizers (3.6 %); cosmetics and personal care products (2.8 %); and animal, insect, and microorganism toxins (2.1 %). Although requests for information or assistance are not a measure of poisoning incidence, it can provide insight regarding relative exposure rates, help to identify changing exposure trends and emerging exposures, and reflect the public concern regarding actual or apparent harmful exposures in pets.

  3. [Acting out and psychoactive substances: alcohol, drugs, illicit substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillet, C; Polard, E; Mauduit, N; Allain, H

    2001-01-01

    In humans, some psychotropic agents (alcohol, drugs, illicit substances) have been suggested to play a role in the occurrence of major behavioural disorders, mainly due to the suppression of psychomotor inhibition. Behavioural disinhibition is a physiological mechanism which allows humans to behave appropriately according to a given environmental situation. The behavioural disinhibition induced by either therapeutic dosage or misuse involves the loss of restraint over certain types of social behaviour and may increase the risk of auto or hetero-aggression and acting out. The increased use of psychotropic agents in recent years and the occurrence of unwanted effects are worrying and must be detected and evaluated. The objective of the present study was to establish a causal relationship between psychoactive substance use and occurrence of major behavioural disorders, such as paradoxical rage reactions and suicidal behaviour, based on a literature analysis. It consisted of reviewing reports of drug-induced violent reactions in healthy volunteers and demonstrating, where possible, a cause-effect relationship. Patients with schizophrenia and psychopathic personalities were not included in our study since psychiatric comorbidity could influence behavioural responses. Psychotropic agents included drugs, licit and illicit substances already associated with violence in the past. Many reports used the "Go/No Go test" to evaluate the disinhibiting effect of psychotropic substances; this allows the "cognitive mapping" of drugs. The results suggest that only alcohol, antidepressants, benzodiazepines and cocaïne are related to aggressive behaviour. The best known precipitant of behavioural disinhibition is alcohol, which induces aggressive behaviour. However, there are large differences between individuals, and attentional mechanisms are now recognised as being important in mediating the effects of alcohol. Suicidal tendency as an adverse antidepressant reaction is rare

  4. Flexing the PECs: Predicting environmental concentrations of veterinary drugs in Canadian agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Belknap, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. Although veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for nontarget organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution, and potential effects. The Canadian predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECsoil) for new veterinary drug ingredients for use in intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessments. The calculation for the European Medicines Agency PECsoil can be adapted to account for regional animal husbandry and land use practices. Canadian agricultural practices for intensively reared cattle, pigs, and poultry differ substantially from those in the European Union. The development of PECsoil default values and livestock categories representative of typical Canadian animal production methods and nutrient management practices culminates several years of research and an extensive survey and analysis of the scientific literature, Canadian agricultural statistics, national and provincial management recommendations, veterinary product databases, and producers. A PECsoil can be used to rapidly identify new veterinary drugs intended for intensive livestock production that should undergo targeted ecotoxicity and fate testing. The Canadian PECsoil model is readily available, transparent, and requires minimal inputs to generate a screening level environmental assessment for veterinary drugs that can be refined if additional data are available. PECsoil values for a hypothetical veterinary drug dosage regimen are presented and discussed in an international context. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:331-341. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  5. Large-scale cross-species chemogenomic platform proposes a new drug discovery strategy of veterinary drug from herbal medicines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    Full Text Available Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.

  6. Simultaneous HPLC method for determination of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline in veterinary drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangkaew Lakkanatinaporn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple HPLC method has been developed for the separation and determination of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline in veterinary preparations. Both drugs were separated well on a Kromasil C18 column (5 µm, 150 × 4.6 mm using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.5% triethylamine in 1% acetic acid, pH 3 (18:82, v/v as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.5 ml/ min. The presence of both substances was monitored by UV absorption detection at 271 nm. The retention times of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline were 3.2 and 16.0 min, respectively. The performance of the developed method was tested. Linear responses of both drugs were achieved between 48-145% of labeled amount over the concentration ranges of 35-101 µg/ml and 102-306 µg/ ml for sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline with correlation coefficients (R2 of 0.9980 and 0.9998, respectively. Accuracy expressed in term of recoveries were 101.4± 1.21% (n=6 for sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and 99.7±0.92% (n=6 for sodium sulfaquinoxaline. Precision of the method in terms of the relative standard deviation is not more than 2% in all cases. These figures of merit indicated the validity of the developed method.

  7. Veterinary drugs in the environment and their toxicity to plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártíková, H.; Podlipná, Radka; Skálová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 144, FEB (2016), s. 2290-2301 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05325S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Veterinary antibiotics * Growth promoters * Phytotoxicity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016

  8. Veterinary drug prescriptions: to what extent do pet owners comply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Separate questionnaires were designed for pet owners (clients) and veterinarians to ascertain the existence and extent of noncompliance in veterinary practice in lbadan and to elucidate the influence of such factors as logistics, education, economy, attitudes and veterinarian/client relationship on non-compliance. Analyses ...

  9. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  10. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung; Hur, Sun Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea.

  11. Quantum Dots Applied to Methodology on Detection of Pesticide and Veterinary Drug Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia-Wei; Zou, Xue-Mei; Song, Shang-Hong; Chen, Guan-Hua

    2018-02-14

    The pesticide and veterinary drug residues brought by large-scale agricultural production have become one of the issues in the fields of food safety and environmental ecological security. It is necessary to develop the rapid, sensitive, qualitative and quantitative methodology for the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues. As one of the achievements of nanoscience, quantum dots (QDs) have been widely used in the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues. In these methodology studies, the used QD-signal styles include fluorescence, chemiluminescence, electrochemical luminescence, photoelectrochemistry, etc. QDs can also be assembled into sensors with different materials, such as QD-enzyme, QD-antibody, QD-aptamer, and QD-molecularly imprinted polymer sensors, etc. Plenty of study achievements in the field of detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues have been obtained from the different combinations among these signals and sensors. They are summarized in this paper to provide a reference for the QD application in the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues.

  12. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  13. Gang youth, substance use, and drug normalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic substance use.1 Evidence from North America and Europe indicates that gang youth, in comparison to their non-gang peers, are more likely to report alcohol and illicit drug use (Bendixen, Endresen, & Olweus, 2006; Gatti, Tremblay, Vitaro, & McDuff, 2005; Gordon, et al., 2004; Hall, Thornberry, & Lizotte, 2006; Sharp, Aldridge, & Medina, 2006). Qualitative studies focusing specifically on gang members have also noted high frequencies of lifetime rates ...

  14. 49 CFR 392.4 - Drugs and other substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and other substances. 392.4 Section 392.4... VEHICLES General § 392.4 Drugs and other substances. (a) No driver shall be on duty and possess, be under the influence of, or use, any of the following drugs or other substances: (1) Any 21 CFR 1308.11...

  15. Dog and Cat Exposures to Hazardous Substances Reported to the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory: 2009–2012

    OpenAIRE

    Mahdi, Ali; Van der Merwe, Deon

    2013-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats in the USA are commonly exposed to potentially hazardous substances found in domestic environments. Requests for assistance and advice received by the Kansas State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory regarding exposures in dogs and cats to substances perceived by their caretakers to be potentially harmful included 1,616 phone calls, over a 3-year period covering 2009–2012. Enquiries occurred more often during summer. Dogs were involved in 84.7 % of calls and cats in 15.3 %. Ora...

  16. Database dedicated to information published during the Benelux conferences on hormone and veterinary drug residue analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impens, S.; Brabander, H.F. de; Bergwerff, A.A.; Ginkel, L.A. van; Schilt, R.; Stephany, R.W.; Wasch, K. de; Courtheyn, D.; Peteghem, C. van

    2002-01-01

    Every other year scientists working in the field of residue analysis participate the "International Symposium on Hormone and Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis" and "Euroresidue" conferences. In each symposium a lot of innovative information is presented. In order to obtain a retrieval system for this

  17. Development of irradiation technique on degradation residue of pesticide veterinary drugs and mycotoxins in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiang; Huang Min; Chen Hao; Wu Ling; Gao Peng; Wang Yan; Lei Qing

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation technology is a new processing technology, It was widely used in food, medicines and medical supplies, chemical and other industries. In this paper, illustrated their applications in the degradation of pesticides, veterinary drugs and mycotoxins aspects residual pollution in food. Analysis of residual contaminants in food irradiation control study limitations and look forward to the prospect of food irradiation technology. (authors)

  18. Residues of veterinary drugs in eggs and their distribution between yolk and white

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Petz, M.

    2000-01-01

    Veterinary drugs and feed additives (especially some coccidiostats) can be absorbed by the digestive tract of laying hens and transferred to the egg. Physicochemical characteristics of these compounds determine their pharmacokinetic behavior and distribution to and within the egg. Traditionally the

  19. Reaction between drug substances and pharmaceutical excipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jesper; Cornett, Claus; Jaroszewski, Jerzy Witold

    2009-01-01

    The reactivity of citric acid towards drug substances in the solid state was examined using the beta-blocker carvedilol as a model compound. The reaction mixtures were analysed by LC-MS, the reaction products were isolated by preparative HPLC, and the structures were elucidated by microprobe NMR...... spectroscopy. Heating a mixture of solid carvedilol and solid citric acid monohydrate for 96h at 50 degrees C resulted in the formation of about 3% of a symmetrical ester as well as of a number of other reaction products in smaller amounts. Formation of the symmetrical ester was also observed at room...... temperature. At 70 degrees C, the amounts of three isomeric esters formed reached 6-8%. The minor reaction products were citric acid amides, O-acetylcarvedilol, and esters of itaconic acid....

  20. 78 FR 72841 - List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug Substances That...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    .... FDA-2013-N-1525] List of Bulk Drug Substances That May Be Used in Pharmacy Compounding; Bulk Drug... proposed rule to list bulk drug substances used in pharmacy compounding and preparing to develop a list of... Formulary monograph, if a monograph exists, and the United States Pharmacopoeia chapter on pharmacy...

  1. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and their role in uptake and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Vokřál, Ivan; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2015-08-01

    Many various xenobiotics permanently enter plants and represent potential danger for their organism. For that reason, plants have evolved extremely sophisticated detoxification systems including a battery of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Some of them are similar to those in humans and animals, but there are several plant-specific ones. This review briefly introduces xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and summarizes present information about their action toward veterinary drugs. Veterinary drugs are used worldwide to treat diseases and protect animal health. However, veterinary drugs are also unwantedly introduced into environment mostly via animal excrements, they persist in the environment for a long time and may impact on the non-target organisms. Plants are able to uptake, transform the veterinary drugs to non- or less-toxic compounds and store them in the vacuoles and cell walls. This ability may protect not only plant themselves but also other organisms, predominantly invertebrates and wild herbivores. The aim of this review is to emphasize the importance of plants in detoxification of veterinary drugs in the environment. The results of studies, which dealt with transport and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in plants, are summarized and evaluated. In conclusion, the risks and consequences of veterinary drugs in the environment and the possibilities of phytoremediation technologies are considered and future perspectives are outlined.

  2. Biologically active substances of edible insects and their use in agriculture, veterinary and human medicine a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiri Mlcek

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of edible insect use in Western countries is now increasingly debated issue. Insects in Asian, African, American and South Central American cultures are mainly nutritional components. In Europe and other developed countries, however, insect is used in different ways, and this issue is viewed from a different angle. Insects are mainly used as feed for animals, in the organic waste recycling systems, in human and veterinary medicine, material production (such as silk etc. This review summarizes up-to-date knowledge about using edible insects in human, veterinary medicine and agriculture, especially from the viewpoint of the biological and chemical content of active substances and the possibilities of further use in these areas.

  3. Uses of plants, animal and mineral substances in Mediterranean ethno-veterinary practices for the care of small ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piluzza, G; Virdis, S; Serralutzu, F; Bullitta, S

    2015-06-20

    The cultural heritage of Sardinian shepherds is rapidly vanishing and survives in the memory of elderly people. The objective of our study was not only to report the usage of plants and their preparation for administration but also the use of other remedies of different origin arising from traditional ethno-veterinary knowledge, as Sardinian shepherds were used to employ plants, animals, minerals and combinations of several substances to prepare remedies for prophylaxis or therapy on their animals. The work was carried out in rural areas of the island of Sardinia (Italy) by interviewing shepherds and filling questionnaires in order to record ethno-veterinary practices traditionally used for animal health care. Ethno-veterinary remedies traditionally utilised for treatments of small ruminants against ecto-and endo-parasites, gastrointestinal diseases, viral and bacterial diseases, wounds, sprains and bruises were identified. Non herbal remedies outnumbered the herbal ones, as usually plant species were mainly used for the care of cattle and equines. A total of 150 ethno-veterinary uses were documented for the treatment of 33 animal conditions, a detailed account of the formulations and their administration to sheep and goats was provided. Herbal remedies involved the use of twenty two spontaneous species and seven cultivated species. This study identifies remedies used in ethno-veterinary practices for small ruminants care in Sardinia, the second major Mediterranean island which has agro-pastoral activities dating back to Neolithic. Moreover, the danger of losing oral traditions, and the increasing attention towards traditional remedies as potential sources of natural products for improving animal health and welfare, support the interest of our survey. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Drug Use Patterns and Socio-Demographic Profiles of Substance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Substance abuse is a critical problem in Botswana, yet empirical evidence on substance users is limited. The current study sought to examine patterns of drug use and sociodemographic profiles of clients who sought treatment at a substance abuse treatment centre in Gaborone, Botswana. Findings showed clients' age ...

  5. Application of PK/PD Modeling in Veterinary Field: Dose Optimization and Drug Resistance Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among veterinary drugs, antibiotics are frequently used. The true mean of antibiotic treatment is to administer dose of drug that will have enough high possibility of attaining the preferred curative effect, with adequately low chance of concentration associated toxicity. Rising of antibacterial resistance and lack of novel antibiotic is a global crisis; therefore there is an urgent need to overcome this problem. Inappropriate antibiotic selection, group treatment, and suboptimal dosing are mostly responsible for the mentioned problem. One approach to minimizing the antibacterial resistance is to optimize the dosage regimen. PK/PD model is important realm to be used for that purpose from several years. PK/PD model describes the relationship between drug potency, microorganism exposed to drug, and the effect observed. Proper use of the most modern PK/PD modeling approaches in veterinary medicine can optimize the dosage for patient, which in turn reduce toxicity and reduce the emergence of resistance. The aim of this review is to look at the existing state and application of PK/PD in veterinary medicine based on in vitro, in vivo, healthy, and disease model.

  6. Surveillance of veterinary drug residues in pork meat in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rakotoharinome

    2015-06-01

    Table I presents the results of the percentage of positive samples in the various regions of Madagascar. On average 37.2% sam­ples were contaminated by antimicrobial residues. A significant increase from 32 to 39% was observed between 2010 and 2011, respectively. No significant differences were found between samples according to sex, breed or age class in individual ani­mals. No differences between pig farm origins were found either (Figure 1. However, Amoron’i Mania Region, and particularly suburban Ambositra, was the most contaminated area in 2010 (67%; n = 9 and Melaky region (Western Madagascar in 2011. Pork meat samples originating from the same production area were less contaminated by drug residues when the animals were slaughtered in urban abattoirs compared to provincial abat­toirs. In this first step toward a national surveillance system, we confirm that drug residues in animal products are a serious public health concern for Madagascar.

  7. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person seeking...

  8. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are expressly...

  9. Screening of veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS/MS. Background and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatour, Thierry; Racault, Lucie; Bessaire, Thomas; Desmarchelier, Aurélien

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory agencies and government authorities have established maximum residue limits (MRL) in various food matrices of animal origin for supporting governments and food operators in the monitoring of veterinary drug residues in the food chain, and ultimately in the consumer's plate. Today, about 200 veterinary drug residues from several families, mainly with antibiotic, antiparasitic or antiinflammatory activities, are regulated in a variety of food matrices such as milk, meat or egg. This article provides a review of the regulatory framework in milk and muscle including data from Codex Alimentarius, Europe, the U.S.A., Canada and China for about 220 veterinary drugs. The article also provides a comprehensive overview of the challenge for food control, and emphasizes the pivotal role of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), either in tandem with quadrupoles (LC-MS/MS) or high resolution MS (LC-HRMS), for ensuring an adequate consumer protection combined with an affordable cost. The capability of a streamlined LC-MS/MS platform for screening 152 veterinary drug residues in a broad range of raw materials and finished products is highlighted in a production line perspective. The rationale for a suite of four methods intended to achieve appropriate performance in terms of scope and sensitivity is presented. Overall, the platform encompasses one stream for the determination of 105 compounds in a run (based on acidic QuEChERS-like), plus two streams for 23 β-lactams (alkaline QuEChERS-like) and 10 tetracyclines (low-temperature partitioning), respectively, and a dedicated stream for 14 aminoglycosides (molecularly-imprinted polymer).

  10. Veterinary vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoret, P P

    1999-11-01

    Veterinary vaccinology is a very interesting and rapidly developing field. In fact veterinary vaccines are not only used for the prevention of infectious diseases in the animal health sector, but also help to solve problems of public health, to reduce detrimental environmental impact of the use of some veterinary drugs and prevent the emergence of resistance of micro-organisms or parasites. After a short introduction, this paper will deal with the use of vaccines for animal health and welfare, including new developments in the veterinary field such as marker vaccines and vectored vaccines, the special case of equine influenza-inactivated vaccines and the use of veterinary vaccines in public health. The conclusions will analyse the reasons as to why develop veterinary vaccines and the obstacles to their development.

  11. Biodegradable polyesters for veterinary drug delivery systems: Characterization, in vitro degradation and release behavior of Oligolactides and Polytartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Schliecker, Gesine

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the degradation and release behavior of aliphatic polyesters with special respect to the influence of oligomers on the degradation rate and the potential use of these biomaterials for the development of veterinary drug delivery systems. In Chapter 1 the animal health care market is introduced with regard to opportunities and challenges of veterinary drug delivery systems. . In the second part of this chapter...

  12. Prevalence and Types of Drugs and Substance Abuse as Expressed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was also revealed that the above drugs and substances were the most used and abused. While snuffs and marijuana were the least abused substances. Based on the findings some counselling implications were highlighted and recommendations made.. The Nigerian Journal of Guidance Counselling Vol. 10 (1) 2005: pp ...

  13. Why Do Adolescents Use Substances (Drugs/Alcohol)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozicki, Zigmond A.

    1986-01-01

    Examines reasons that adolescents use alcohol and drugs, including role confusion, developmental factors, parental influence, and peer pressure. Reports that adolescents also abuse substances to feel excitement, cope with personality conflicts, and express their individuality through rebellion. (ABB)

  14. Chemotherapy drug handling in first opinion small animal veterinary practices in the United Kingdom: results of a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edery, E G

    2017-05-27

    To investigate how first opinion small animal veterinary surgeons in the UK handled chemotherapeutic agents, a questionnaire was distributed at the 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association congress and by internet. Chemotherapy was regularly offered by 70.4 per cent of the respondents. Gold standards defined according to available guidelines for safe handling of antineoplastic drugs were poorly followed by general practitioners with only 2 per cent of respondents complying with all of them. Dedicated facilities for preparation and administration of cytotoxic drugs were variably available among participants. The level of training of staff indirectly involved in handling chemotherapy was appropriate in less than 50 per cent of practices. No association was found between demographic characteristics of the sampled population and the decision to perform chemotherapy. The results of this study raise concerns about the safety of the veterinary staff in first opinion practices involved in handling chemotherapy. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Suspected adverse reactions to veterinary drugs reported in South Africa (January 1998 - February 2001 : special report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gehring

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance Centre received 59 reports of suspected adverse drug reactions during the period January 1998 - February 2001. The number of reports received increased after the establishment of a formal procedure for recording and responding to reports. The number of reports received per species was: dogs 19, cats 15, cattle 7, sheep/ goats 6, chickens 4, pigs 3, horses 2 and giraffe 1. Many different types of adverse reactions were reported, including lack of efficacy, hypersensitivity, inappropriate use of products by non-veterinarians, known adverse effects and adverse effects encountered with extra-label use of products.

  16. Pharmacokinetic aspects of the anti-epileptic drug substance vigabatrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Martha Kampp; Frølund, Sidsel; Holm, René

    2014-01-01

    are discussed in detail. Special focus is on the contribution of the proton-coupled amino acid transporter 1 (PAT1) for intestinal vigabatrin absorption. Furthermore, the review gives an overview of the pharmacokinetic parameters of vigabatrin across different species and drug-food and drug-drug interactions......Drug transporters in various tissues, such as intestine, kidney, liver and brain, are recognized as important mediators of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drug substances. This review gives a current status on the transporter(s) mediating the absorption, distribution......, metabolism and excretion properties of the anti-epileptic drug substance vigabatrin. For orally administered drugs, like vigabatrin, the absorption from the intestine is a prerequisite for the bioavailability. Therefore, transporter(s) involved in the intestinal absorption of vigabatrin in vitro and in vivo...

  17. Antineoplastic drugs in veterinary oncology: excretion in dogs, contamination of the environment and exposure assessment of people at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, T.

    2012-01-01

    Anticancer drugs themselves can cause adverse health effects when administered to human patients. In addition, it has become apparent that personnel in human medicine, occupationally exposed to these anticancer drugs, may also be at risk. The past decades, the use of chemotherapy in veterinary

  18. BIOPHARMACEUTICS CLASSIFICATION SYSTEM: A STRATEGIC TOOL FOR CLASSIFYING DRUG SUBSTANCES

    OpenAIRE

    Rohilla Seema; Rohilla Ankur; Marwaha RK; Nanda Arun

    2011-01-01

    The biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) is a scientific approach for classifying drug substances based on their dose/solubility ratio and intestinal permeability. The BCS has been developed to allow prediction of in vivo pharmacokinetic performance of drug products from measurements of permeability and solubility. Moreover, the drugs can be categorized into four classes of BCS on the basis of permeability and solubility namely; high permeability high solubility, high permeability lo...

  19. Teenagers' Awareness of Peers' Substance and Drug Use in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omu, Florence E; Bader, Al-Wadaany; Helen, Delles; Slabeeb, Shukriya; Safar, Hanan; Omu, Alexander E

    Teenage substance use is a global challenge, and youths residing in Kuwait are not immune from it. Tobacco products are licit; however, alcohol and other mood-altering illicit substance are prohibited with severe penalties including imprisonment. Youths residing in Kuwait are being initiated into the use of mood-altering substances like tobacco at an early age, and it is postulated that, as they grow older, they may progress into using alcohol and other prohibited illicit drugs. The aim of this study was to determine licit and illicit substance use by teenagers residing in Kuwait. The study will also explore their awareness of substance use among their peers. A cross-sectional survey using a snowball sampling technique was used to recruit 190 teenagers aged 15-18 years residing in Kuwait. Data were collected using the 130-item questionnaire adapted from 1998 New Jersey Triennial Public High School Survey of Drug and Alcohol Use. Data collection was from September 2012 to June 2013. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 22 for Windows was used. Pearson's chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to test the hypotheses. Tobacco was the most commonly used substance by these teenagers; 8.4% were current smokers, and 50% had experimented. Age of initiation for 21% was before 14 years old. Hashish (marijuana) was the most commonly used illicit drug, with 3.7% current users and 5.3% claiming to have used it. More male than female teenagers in Grade 9 were using tobacco products (χ = 27.428, df = 5, p abuse of mood/mind-altering licit and illicit substances appear to be increasing among older teenagers. Intensifying campaigns about the hazards of substance use and drug testing should start from the primary school level.

  20. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chun Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and eggs from food-producing animals, governments and relevant agencies established laws and regulations for the use of veterinary drugs. It is, therefore, necessary to monitor the content of residual drugs in livestock products at regular intervals to assess whether the regulations have resulted in the effective management of food product safety, and to prevent and manage sudden problems related to this issue. A 2011–2015 livestock product post-marketing monitoring program launched by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA inspected 1487 livestock products. Over the past 5 years, there were 34 samples identified that did not conform to the regulations; these samples included residue drugs such as β-agonists, chloramphenicols, β-lactam antibiotics, sulfa drugs, enrofloxacin, and lincomycin. Inspections of commercial livestock products with the consistent cooperation of agricultural authorities did not detect the drugs that were banned by the government, whereas the detection of other drugs decreased annually with an increase in the post-market monitoring sample size. In the future, the TFDA will continue to monitor the status of residual veterinary drugs in commercial livestock products, adjust the sampling of food products annually according to monitoring results, and closely cooperate with agricultural authorities on source management. Keywords: Agricultural authorities, Livestock products, Post-market monitoring, Veterinary drug residues

  1. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin-Chun Lee; Chi-Min Chen; Jen-Ting Wei; Hsiu-Yi Chiu

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and egg...

  2. Pharmaceutical cocrystals: the coming wave of new drug substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Harry G

    2013-02-01

    Solid crystalline phases containing two cocrystallized components offer a new development pathway whereby one can potentially improve the physical characteristics (i.e., equilibrium solubility, dissolution rate, solid-state stability, etc.) of a drug substance that exhibits a profile that is less than desirable. In this commentary, the topic of pharmaceutical cocrystals will be briefly explored, and a short exposition of the solubility and dissolution rate advantages that have been realized in various systems will be provided. The Guidance for Industry document recently proposed by United States Food and Drug Administration will be outlined, and its requirements explained. Finally, the subset of pharmaceutical cocrystals that consist of a drug substance and a salt of that substance (termed a salt cocrystal) will be examined to illustrate this additional class of pharmaceutical cocrystals that may offer significant scientific and regulatory advantages. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Comparison of veterinary drug residue results in animal tissues by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole ... use of a commercial lipid removal product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods must be monitored to ensure food safety, verify proper veterinary practices, enforce legal limits in domestic and imported foods, and other purposes. A common goal in drug residue analysis in foods is to achieve acceptable monitoring results for as m...

  4. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Claassen, F.C.; Engelen, M.C.; Beek, van T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS

  5. Ectoparasites of medical and veterinary importance: drug resistance and the need for alternative control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Carol M

    2015-03-01

    Despite multiple attempts at eradication, many ectoparasites of humans and domestic livestock remain a persistent problem in the modern world. For many years, a range of pesticide drugs including organophosphates, organochlorides and synthetic pyrethroids provided effective control of these parasites; but intensive use of these drugs has led to the evolution of resistance in many target species. This paper aims to review the effectiveness of current control methods and discuss potential alternatives for the long term sustainable control of ectoparasites. Important medical ectoparasites such as scabies mites, head lice and bed bugs present a significant public health problem, and so adequate control methods are essential. Ectoparasites of domestic livestock and farmed fish (for example sheep scab mites, poultry mites and sea lice) are also of concern given the increasing strain on the world's food supply. These parasites have become resistant to several classes of pesticide, making control very difficult. Recently, an increasing amount of research has focussed on alternative control methods such as insect growth regulators, biological control using essential oils or fungi, as well as vaccine development against some ectoparasites of medical and veterinary importance. Drug resistance is prevalent in all of the ectoparasites discussed in this review. A wide variety of alternative control methods have been identified, however further research is necessary in order for these to be used to successfully control ectoparasitic diseases in the future. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. Investigations Of Powder Surface Properties Of Drug Substances ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, Inverse Gas Chromatography (IGC) was used to characterize the surface energetics of different batches of two drug substances (Salmetrol Xinafoate, SX and Fluticasone Propionate, FP) manufactured under identical conditions. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of IGC technique to reveal ...

  7. Gang Youth, Substance Use Patterns, and Drug Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Gang membership is an indicator of chronic illicit substance use and such patterns of use may have a normalized character. Using epidemiological and qualitative data collected between 2006 and 2007, this manuscript examines the drug normalization thesis among a small sample (n=60) of gang youth aged 16-25 years from Los Angeles. Overall, while…

  8. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Chun; Chen, Chi-Min; Wei, Jen-Ting; Chiu, Hsiu-Yi

    2018-04-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and eggs from food-producing animals, governments and relevant agencies established laws and regulations for the use of veterinary drugs. It is, therefore, necessary to monitor the content of residual drugs in livestock products at regular intervals to assess whether the regulations have resulted in the effective management of food product safety, and to prevent and manage sudden problems related to this issue. A 2011-2015 livestock product post-marketing monitoring program launched by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) inspected 1487 livestock products. Over the past 5 years, there were 34 samples identified that did not conform to the regulations; these samples included residue drugs such as β-agonists, chloramphenicols, β-lactam antibiotics, sulfa drugs, enrofloxacin, and lincomycin. Inspections of commercial livestock products with the consistent cooperation of agricultural authorities did not detect the drugs that were banned by the government, whereas the detection of other drugs decreased annually with an increase in the post-market monitoring sample size. In the future, the TFDA will continue to monitor the status of residual veterinary drugs in commercial livestock products, adjust the sampling of food products annually according to monitoring results, and closely cooperate with agricultural authorities on source management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. [Substance-abuse related emergencies--illegal drugs, part I].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinn, Michael; Holzbach, Rüdiger; Pajonk, Frank-Gerald Bernhard

    2008-11-01

    For the first time since the year 2000 the number of death due to substance abuse of illegal drugs has increased in Germany in 2007 (+8 % compared to 2006). Emergency situations due to drug abuse are frequent, particular in big cities. They may be, however, difficult to diagnose and/or treat for an emergency physician on scene because of a lack of diagnostic tools, the local and personal surroundings, and the unknown number and nature of drugs. Many drug intoxications must be considered suicidal. On the other hand, drug intoxications may mask (other) life-threatening conditions. Emergency situations due to withdrawal offer the possibility to motivate patients to take advantage of specialist-guided abstinence programs.

  10. Screening Drug, Alcohol and Substance Abuse the Psychometric Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Mohamad Hashim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinalysis was used in previous studies among higher institution students (n=16252 in Malaysia to answer the question of whether university students are involved in drug abuse. However, the use of urinalysis had faced some problems. The problems were related to human rights issues and the cost to perform the urinalysis was expensive and quite impossible to be implemented to a large population of university students. To overcome this problem, this study was conducted to examine the effectiveness of psychometric measures in screening drug, alcohol and substance abuse. The Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory A2 (SASSI-A2 was used for this purpose. SASSI-A2 is a brief screening tool designed to identify individuals who have a high probability of having a substance use disorder, including both substance abuse and substance dependence. SASSI-A2 comprises of 72 items that are rated on a two point scale with response; true and false. SASSI-A2 was translated into Malay language and it was refined through a back-translation technique and focus group approach. Psychometric testing was undertaken on a sample of 750 university students from five public universities in Malaysia. All participants were aged between 19 and 20 years. Internal consistency coefficients were calculated for the total scale and its subscales. Chronbach's alpha obtained for SASSI-A2 was 0.72. This relatively high level of Chronbach's alpha showed relatively high level of reliability. The results demonstrated that the whole SASSI-A2 meets the fundamental measurement properties and can discriminate groups of higher institution students from high to low on the substance dependency variable. The accuracy of the test has been found to be unaffected by gender, ethnicity, age and years of education. Although more rigorous validation studies are needed, it is recommended that SASSI-A2 be considered for usage to higher institution students populations when a brief, objective, and

  11. Effect of irradiation of drugs and aiding substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, R.; Boegl, W.

    1982-01-01

    In this bibliographic study (Part I - VI), the results of more than 300 radiation tested pharmaceuticals are discussed and evaluated. The substances were treated with ionizing radiation in their pure form (solid substance or liquid), as aqueous or alcohol solution, as emulsion or in compound form, almost exclusively with gamma radiation from cobaldt-60 sources. The radiation doses applied amounted from some krd to about 100 Mrd. The results of the original papers analyzed in this Part VI are not summarized separately since the final Part VII of the study on the effects of irradiation of drugs and drug additives will contain a survey for all essential data discussed in Parts I to VI. (orig./MG) [de

  12. Psychiatric aspects of designer drugs and new psychoactive substances consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antsyborov A.V.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available according to the authors, appeared not long ago new psychoactive substances (designer drugs, including synthetic cannabinoids, derivatives of cathinone, phenethylamines, new stimulants, synthetic opioids, tryptamine derivatives, phencyclidine, piperazine, agonists of GABA (A/B receptors have become a serious problem for both consumers and doctors. Consumers of these substances are attracted primarily by the intensity of psychoactive effects, as well as «legal purity», which is declared by shadow producers. This indicates that there are some significant difficulties of laboratory typing of new surfactants. Designer drugs when ingested, can affect a range of neurotransmitter pathways/receptors: dopamine, cannabinoid (CB1, GABA(A/B, 5-HT2A, glutamate, and k-opioid receptors (KOR, the imbalance of which leads to the development of polymorphic psychotic disorders.

  13. Toward a generic approach for : Stress testing of drug substances and drug products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klick, Silke; Muijselaar, Pim G.; Waterval, Joop; Eichinger, Thomas; Korn, Christian; Gerding, Thijs K.; Debets, Alexander J.; Sänger-Van De Griend, Cari; Van Den Beld, Cas; Somsen, Govert W.; De Jong, Gerhardus J.

    The Impurity Profiling Group has developed a generic approach for conducting stress testing on drug substances and drug products. The proposed strategy is evaluated and verified with historical data and new experiments. Results demonstrate that the proposed approach is reasonable and generates

  14. 14 CFR 121.15 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 121.15 Section 121.15 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION....15 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If a...

  15. 14 CFR 137.23 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 137.23 Section 137.23 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a certificate issued...

  16. 14 CFR 133.14 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 133.14 Section 133.14 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. If the holder of a certificate...

  17. 14 CFR 141.18 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 141.18 Section 141.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... General § 141.18 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marijuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances...

  18. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Claassen, F.C.; Engelen, M.C. van; Beek, T.A. van

    2009-01-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS n spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future

  19. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielen, M.W.F. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: michel.nielen@wur.nl; Hooijerink, H. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Claassen, F.C. [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Engelen, M.C. van [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Beek, T.A. van [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2009-04-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS{sup n} spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future.

  20. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Eighty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including MRLs for generic fish species, acute reference doses (ARfDs) for veterinary drugs, an approach for dietary exposure assessment of compounds used for multiple purposes (i.e veterinary drugs and pesticides), dietary exposure assessment for less-than-lifetime exposure, and the assessment of short-term (90-day and 12-month) studies in dogs. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two insecticides (diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron), an antiparasitic agent (ivermectin), an ectoparasiticide (sisapronil) and a β2-adrenoceptor agonist (zilpaterol hydrochloride). In addition, the Committee considered issues raised in concern forms from the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods on lasalocid sodium, an antiparasitic agent. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), ARfDs and proposed MRLs.

  1. Structural characterization of product ions of regulated veterinary drugs by electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (part 3) Anthelmintics, thyreostats, and flukicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Previously we have reported a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of regulated veterinary drugs. The methods used three selected transition ions but most of these ions lacked structural characterization. The work presented here ...

  2. Characterizing chronic and acute health risks of residues of veterinary drugs in food: latest methodological developments by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Cerniglia, Carl; Chicoine, Alan; Fattori, Vittorio; Lipp, Markus; Reuss, Rainer; Verger, Philippe; Tritscher, Angelika

    2017-11-01

    The risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food is a field that continues to evolve. The toxicological end-points to be considered are becoming more nuanced and in light of growing concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, detailed analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the residues of veterinary drugs in food is increasingly incorporated in the assessment. In recent years, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has refined its approaches to provide a more comprehensive and fit-for-purpose risk assessment. This publication describes in detail the consideration of acute and chronic effects, the estimation of acute and chronic dietary exposure, current approaches for including microbiological endpoints in the risk assessment, and JECFA's considerations for the potential effects of food processing on residues from veterinary drugs. JECFA now applies these approaches in the development of health-based guidance values (i.e. safe exposure levels) for residues of veterinary drugs. JECFA, thus, comprehensively addresses acute and chronic risks by using corresponding estimates for acute and chronic exposure and suitable correction for the limited bioavailability of bound residues by the Gallo-Torres model. On a case-by-case basis, JECFA also considers degradation products that occur from normal food processing of food containing veterinary drug residues. These approaches will continue to be refined to ensure the most scientifically sound basis for the establishment of health-based guidance values for veterinary drug residues.

  3. Survey study: The antibacterial drugs used for treatment of the animals in the teaching veterinary hospital in Kirkuk province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Mousa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey is to collect data relating to antibacterial drugs used to treat different animals in the veterinary teaching hospital in the province of Kirkuk, which is taking place for the first time at the province level for the purpose of knowing the types of drugs most commonly used and the outcome whether these drugs used are optimal. Data were collected from the veterinary teaching hospital in Kirkuk province for 6 consecutive months and for the period between 1/7/2016 and until 1/1/2017 period included both the summer and autumn and winter seasons. The results show that the most commonly used drugs were Oxytetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Doxycycline-Colistin compound by 26, 57 and 36% in cattle, sheep-goats and Poultry, respectively. While the least commonly used drugs were Tylosin, Gentamicin and Gentamicin-Tylosin compound by 10, 5 and 4% in cattle, sheep-goats and poultry, respectively. Based on the results obtained from this survey, we recommend the use of Penicillin-Streptomycin compound because it has a synergistic effect against most of the resistant bacteria and not to increase usage of Oxytetracycline because of its side effects and lack of effectiveness in recent times due to the abundance of resistant germs. Also, using antibacterial drugs, we would like to note the need for optimal scientific use of these drugs and to give attention to the period in which it takes the medicine to withdraw from the animal body before milking animals or slaughtering it, so that the bacterial resistance does not develop against these drugs in the future.

  4. Workshop report: the 2012 antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine: exploring the consequences of antimicrobial drug use: a 3-D approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Blondeau, J; Cerniglia, C E; Fink-Gremmels, J; Guenther, S; Hunter, R P; Li, X-Z; Papich, M; Silley, P; Soback, S; Toutain, P-L; Zhang, Q

    2014-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global challenge that impacts both human and veterinary health care. The resilience of microbes is reflected in their ability to adapt and survive in spite of our best efforts to constrain their infectious capabilities. As science advances, many of the mechanisms for microbial survival and resistance element transfer have been identified. During the 2012 meeting of Antimicrobial Agents in Veterinary Medicine (AAVM), experts provided insights on such issues as use vs. resistance, the available tools for supporting appropriate drug use, the importance of meeting the therapeutic needs within the domestic animal health care, and the requirements associated with food safety and food security. This report aims to provide a summary of the presentations and discussions occurring during the 2012 AAVM with the goal of stimulating future discussions and enhancing the opportunity to establish creative and sustainable solutions that will guarantee the availability of an effective therapeutic arsenal for veterinary species. © Published (2014). This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  5. Determination of pesticides and veterinary drug residues in food by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiá, Ana [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Research Center on Desertification (CIDE, UV-CSIC-GV), Carretera Moncada-Náquera, Moncada (Spain); Suarez-Varela, Maria Morales; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin [Unit of Public Health, Hygiene and Environmental Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Center for Advanced Research in Public Health (CSISP-FISABIO), Valencia (Spain); Picó, Yolanda, E-mail: Yolanda.Pico@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Research Center on Desertification (CIDE, UV-CSIC-GV), Carretera Moncada-Náquera, Moncada (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-14

    Monitoring of pesticides and veterinary drug residues is required to enforce legislation and guarantee food safety. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the prevailing technique for assessing both types of residues because LC offers a versatile and universal separation mechanism suitable for non-gas chromatography (GC) amenable and the majority of GC-amenable compounds. This characteristic becomes more relevant when LC is coupled to MS because the high sensitivity and specificity of the detector allows to apply generic sample preparation procedures, which simultaneously extract a wide variety of residues with different physico-chemical properties. Determination of metabolites and degradation products, non-target suspected screening of an increasing number of residues, and even unknowns identification are also becoming inherent LC-MS advantages thanks to the latest advances. For routine analysis and, in particular, for official surveillance purposes in food control, analytical methods properly validated following strict guidelines are needed. After a brief introduction and an outline of the legislation applicable around the world, aspects such as improvement of specificity of high-throughput methods, resolution and mass accuracy of identification strategies and quantitative accuracy are critically reviewed in this article. In them, extraction, separation and determination are emphasized. The main objective is to offer an assessment of the state of the art and identify research needs and future trends in determining pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS. - Highlights: • An overview of status and future trends in this field. • Analytical method's compliance with guidelines to ensure reliability. • QuEChERS platform is a referent to extract both, pesticides and veterinary drugs in food. • The progress that liquid chromatography has shown in recent years is revised. • Determination of target, non-target and unknowns is

  6. Quantitative analysis of veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Shida, Shizuka; Sakai, Takatoshi; Nemoto, Satoru; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    A simple and reliable multiresidue method for quantitative determination of veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) was developed. Critical MS parameters such as capillary voltage, cone voltage, collision energy, desolvation gas temperature and extraction mass window were carefully optimised to obtain the best possible sensitivity. Analytical samples were prepared using extraction with acetonitrile and hexane in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulphate and acetic acid, followed by ODS cartridge clean-up. The developed method was validated for 82 veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk at spike levels of 0.01 and 0.1 mg kg - 1 . With the exception of cefoperazone and phenoxymethylpenicillin, all these compounds exhibited sufficient signal intensity at 0.01 μg ml -1 (equivalent to 0.01 mg kg - 1 ), indicating the high sensitivity of the developed method. For most targets, the determined accuracies were within 70-120%, with repeatability and reproducibility being below 20% at both levels. Except for sulfathiazole in bovine muscle, no interfering peaks at target compound retention times were detected in the blank extract, indicating that the developed method is highly selective. The absence of sulfathiazole in bovine muscle was confirmed by simultaneous acquisition at low and high collision energies to afford exact masses of molecular adduct and fragment ions. Satisfactory linearity was observed for all compounds, with matrix effects being negligible for most targets in bovine muscle and milk at both spike levels. Overall, the results suggest that the developed LC-QTOF-MS method is suitable for routine regulatory-purpose analysis of veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk.

  7. Determination of pesticides and veterinary drug residues in food by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiá, Ana; Suarez-Varela, Maria Morales; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of pesticides and veterinary drug residues is required to enforce legislation and guarantee food safety. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the prevailing technique for assessing both types of residues because LC offers a versatile and universal separation mechanism suitable for non-gas chromatography (GC) amenable and the majority of GC-amenable compounds. This characteristic becomes more relevant when LC is coupled to MS because the high sensitivity and specificity of the detector allows to apply generic sample preparation procedures, which simultaneously extract a wide variety of residues with different physico-chemical properties. Determination of metabolites and degradation products, non-target suspected screening of an increasing number of residues, and even unknowns identification are also becoming inherent LC-MS advantages thanks to the latest advances. For routine analysis and, in particular, for official surveillance purposes in food control, analytical methods properly validated following strict guidelines are needed. After a brief introduction and an outline of the legislation applicable around the world, aspects such as improvement of specificity of high-throughput methods, resolution and mass accuracy of identification strategies and quantitative accuracy are critically reviewed in this article. In them, extraction, separation and determination are emphasized. The main objective is to offer an assessment of the state of the art and identify research needs and future trends in determining pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS. - Highlights: • An overview of status and future trends in this field. • Analytical method's compliance with guidelines to ensure reliability. • QuEChERS platform is a referent to extract both, pesticides and veterinary drugs in food. • The progress that liquid chromatography has shown in recent years is revised. • Determination of target, non-target and unknowns is covered.

  8. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Seventy-eighth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues of food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including extrapolation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) to minor species, MRLs for veterinary drug residues in honey, MRLs relating to fish and fish species, dietary exposure assessment methodologies, the decision-tree approach to the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs and guidance for JECFA experts. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicology and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two anthelminthic agents (derquantel, monepantel), three antiparasitic agents (emanectin benzoate, ivermectin, lasalocid sodium), one antibacterial, antifungal and anthelminthic agent (gentian violet), a production aid (recombinant bovine somatotropins) and an adrenoceptor agonist and growth promoter (zilpaterol hydorchloride). Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs)) and proposed MRLs.

  9. [Scientific basis in the setting of residue limits for veterinary drugs in food of animal origin taking into account the presence of their metabolites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, K

    1993-01-01

    Maximum residue level (MRL) for veterinary drugs in food of animal origin has been proposed by FAO/WHO, as a new evaluation procedure taking into account the presence of metabolites for the regulation of veterinary drug residues. The MRL is the maximum concentration of residue resulting from the use of a veterinary drug that is recommended to be legally permitted as acceptable in a food. It is established from the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) obtained from the data of toxicological studies, the residue concentration of the drug when used according to good practice in the use of veterinary drugs, and the lowest level consistent with the practical analytical methods available for routine residue analysis. Among the veterinary drugs, some chemicals contain a large amount of bound residues that are neither extractable from tissues by the analytical method identical with that used in parent chemicals. Especially, the bioavailable residues which are probably absorbed when the food is ingested are of great toxicological concern. In this case, the FAO/WHO recommends that the MRL can be established after the calculation of daily intake of residues of toxicological concern by the addition of both the extractable and bioavailable bound residues.

  10. Reported prevalence and quantitative LC-MS methods for the analysis of veterinary drug residues in honey: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Ryan; Haynes, Carion; Cook, Jo Marie

    2014-04-01

    Insect pollination increases the value and productivity of three-quarters of crop species grown for food. Declining beehive health in commercial apiaries has resulted in numerous reports from government laboratories worldwide of contamination with antimicrobial chemicals in honey. This review includes pertinent discussion of legislation and events leading to increased government oversight in the commercial honey market. A detailed summary of the variety and prevalence of veterinary drug residues being found in honey as well as a selection of robust quantitative and confirmatory LC-MS methods with an emphasis on those adopted by government testing laboratories are presented.

  11. Veterinary drug usage and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    In the production of food animals, large amounts of antimicrobial agents are used for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. There are large variations in the amounts of antimicrobial agents used to produce the same amount of meat among the different Europe...... monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption of antimicrobial agents are strongly desirable, as is research into the most appropriate ways to use antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine....

  12. High-throughput untargeted screening of veterinary drug residues and metabolites in tilapia using high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Chang, James; Wang, Perry G; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Feng

    2017-03-08

    An analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of one hundred and thirty-seven veterinary drug residues and metabolites from sixteen different classes in tilapia utilizing an improved fully non-targeted way of data acquisition with fragmentation. The automated on-line extraction procedure was achieved in a simple disposable pipet extraction. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The methodology was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in European SANCO/12571/2013 Guideline 2013 and Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The extraction recoveries ranged from 81% to 111%. The limits of decision ranged from 0.01 to 2.73 μg kg -1 and the detection capabilities ranged from 0.01 to 4.73 μg kg -1 . The one hundred and thirty-seven compounds behave dynamic 0.1-500 μg kg -1 , with correlation coefficient >0.99. The fully non-targeted data acquisition way improves both sensitivity and selectivity for the fragments, which is beneficial for screening performance and identification capability. This validated method has been successfully applied on screening of veterinary drug residues and metabolites in muscle of tilapia, an important and intensively produced fish in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. 41 CFR 109-27.5008 - Control of drug substances and potable alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Guidelines § 109-27.5008 Control of drug substances and potable alcohol. Effective procedures and... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of drug substances and potable alcohol. 109-27.5008 Section 109-27.5008 Public Contracts and Property Management...

  14. 31 CFR 598.309 - Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; listed chemical. 598.309 Section 598.309 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... SANCTIONS REGULATIONS General Definitions § 598.309 Narcotic drug; controlled substance; listed chemical. The terms narcotic drug, controlled substance, and listed chemical have the meanings given those terms...

  15. The risk of contamination of food with toxic substances present in animal feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Meijer, G.A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Toxic substances such as dioxins, mycotoxins, heavy metals, pesticides, veterinary drugs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are almost ubiquitous in the environment. Thus, they are also present in ingredients for animal feed. Adequate risk management depends on knowledge of absorption, metabolism,

  16. Effectiveness of Action in India to Reduce Exposure of Gyps Vultures to the Toxic Veterinary Drug Diclofenac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Richard; Taggart, Mark A.; Prakash, Vibhu; Saini, Mohini; Swarup, Devendra; Upreti, Suchitra; Mateo, Rafael; Chakraborty, Soumya Sunder; Deori, Parag; Green, Rhys E.

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of their carrion food supply with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac has caused rapid population declines across the Indian subcontinent of three species of Gyps vultures endemic to South Asia. The governments of India, Pakistan and Nepal took action in 2006 to prevent the veterinary use of diclofenac on domesticated livestock, the route by which contamination occurs. We analyse data from three surveys of the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac residues in carcasses of domesticated ungulates in India, carried out before and after the implementation of a ban on veterinary use. There was little change in the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac between a survey before the ban and one conducted soon after its implementation, with the percentage of carcasses containing diclofenac in these surveys estimated at 10.8 and 10.7%, respectively. However, both the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac had fallen markedly 7–31 months after the implementation of the ban, with the true prevalence in this third survey estimated at 6.5%. Modelling of the impact of this reduction in diclofenac on the expected rate of decline of the oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis) in India indicates that the decline rate has decreased to 40% of the rate before the ban, but is still likely to be rapid (about 18% year−1). Hence, further efforts to remove diclofenac from vulture food are still needed if the future recovery or successful reintroduction of vultures is to be feasible. PMID:21589920

  17. Development of an improved high resolution mass spectrometry based multi-residue method for veterinary drugs in various food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A; Butcher, P; Maden, K; Walker, S; Widmer, M

    2011-08-26

    Multi-residue methods for veterinary drugs or pesticides in food are increasingly often based on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Previous available time of flight (TOF) technologies, showing resolutions up to 15,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM), were not sufficiently selective for monitoring low residue concentrations in difficult matrices (e.g. hormones in tissue or antibiotics in honey). The approach proposed in this paper is based on a single stage Orbitrap mass spectrometer operated at 50,000 FWHM. Extracts (liver and kidney) which were produced according to a validated multi-residue method (time of flight detection based) could not be analyzed by Orbitrap because of extensive signal suppression. This required the improvement of established extraction and clean-up procedures. The introduced, more extensive deproteinzation steps and dedicated instrumental settings successfully eliminated these detrimental suppression effects. The reported method, covering more than 100 different veterinary dugs, was validated according to the EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EEC. Validated matrices include muscle, kidney, liver, fish and honey. Significantly better performance parameters (e.g. linearity, reproducibility and detection limits) were obtained when comparing the new method with the older, TOF based method. These improvements are attributed to the higher resolution (50,000 versus 12,000 FWHM) and the superior mass stability of the of the Orbitrap over the previously utilized TOF instrument. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Rhabdomyolysis Syndrome in Alcohol, Psychotropic Drugs, and Illicit Substance Poisonings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Taheri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhabdomyolysis is one of the major complications of poisoning causedby alcohol, narcotics, and psychotropic substances acute toxicity, which might lead toacute renal failure and even death. This study aimed to evaluate clinical and laboratoryfindings of rhabdomyolysis syndrome in poisoning patients who were admitted topoisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital of Hamadan, Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with acute toxicity by alcohol, narcotics,or psychotropic drugs who were admitted in poisoning ward of Farshchian Hospital ofHamadan were investigated during a 6-month period in 2012. Clinical and laboratorydata were collected by a standard questionnaire and analyzed by the SPSS softwareversion 16.Results: Eighty-two patients aged between 14 to 81 years were investigated. Twentytwocases developed rhabdomyolysis and narcotics related toxicity was the mostcommon cause. The most common clinical symptom in all patients was muscle pain(51cases, Laboratory studies showed some significant differences between serumcreatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, serum creatinine, andaminotransferases (AST,ALT levels in rhabdomyolysis cases as compared to theothers (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that the incidence of rhabdomyolysissyndrome in acute intoxication with alcohol and narcotics is significant and withoutproper treatment might cause serious complications such as acute renal failure andeven death. Classic clinical signs and symptoms of rhabdomyolysis are usually notpresent simultaneously, thus strong clinical suspicion and proper laboratory tests haveimportant role in early diagnosis and suitable treatment. Laboratory studies have animportant role in the diagnosis of this syndrome.

  19. 14 CFR 125.39 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 125.39 Section 125.39 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... AIRCRAFT Certification Rules and Miscellaneous Requirements § 125.39 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana...

  20. 14 CFR 135.41 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances. 135.41 Section 135.41 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT General § 135.41 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or...

  1. The veterinary drug ivermectin influences immune response in the yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Helen M.; Tracy, Saoirse R.

    2009-01-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a key enzyme involved in the immune response of insects. We show that egg-to-adult exposure to residues of 0.001, but not 0.0005 mg kg -1 ivermectin elevated PO activity in yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) developing in cattle dung. Fly fat content was unaffected by the treatments. Therefore, the response of PO was a direct effect of ivermectin and not an indirect one caused by an alteration in body 'condition'. This supports the non-intuitive conclusion that flies surviving exposure to faecal residues may have enhanced immune function. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the effects on PO activity of insecticidal residues in livestock dung. The non-target effects of such residues are of wide interest, given the global use of veterinary products. - Phenoloxidase activity in Scathophaga stercoraria is enhanced by ivermectin and that effect is transferred to the adult fly from the larval stage

  2. Multiclass method for the quantification of 92 veterinary antimicrobial drugs in livestock excreta, wastewater, and surface water by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinfang; Cui, Yonghui; Tao, Yanfei; Huang, Lingli; Peng, Dapeng; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Liu, Zhenli; Chen, Dongmei; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-11-01

    A simple multiresidue method was developed for detecting and quantifying 92 veterinary antimicrobial drugs from eight classes (β-lactams, quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, lincomycins, macrolides, chloramphenicols, and pleuromutilin) in livestock excreta and water by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The feces samples were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (80:20, v/v) and edetate disodium, followed by a cleanup using solid-phase extraction with an amino cartridge. Water samples were purified with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid-phase extraction column. Urine samples were extracted with acetonitrile and edetate disodium. Detection of veterinary antimicrobial drugs was achieved by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using both positive and negative electrospray ionization mode. The recovery values of veterinary antimicrobial drugs in feces, urine, and water samples were 75-99, 85-110, and 85-101% and associated relative standard deviations were less than 15, 10, and 8%, respectively. The limits of quantification in feces, urine, and water samples were 0.5-1, 0.5-1, and 0.01-0.05 μg/L, respectively. This method was applied to determine real samples obtained from local farms and provides reliable quantification and identification results of 92 veterinary antimicrobial drugs in livestock excreta and water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Drugged Driving: Increased Traffic Risks Involving Licit and Illicit Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkinton, Melinda W.; Robertson, Angela; McCluskey, D. Lee

    2013-01-01

    Driving under the influence of drugs poses risks for traffic safety. Most research attention has been focused on the most prevalent drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescription drugs with high abuse potential. The objectives of this study were to determine the types of drugs used by convicted DUI offenders on the day of their…

  4. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  5. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szandra Klátyik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU, and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively, and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively. Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects

  6. Ion-exchange solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yanmei; Xuan, Yanfang; Song, Wei; Si, Wenshuai; Zhao, Zhihui; Rao, Qinxiong

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers is crucial for an assessment of potential risks to soil microbial communities and human health. We develop a robust and sensitive method to quantitatively determine 19 veterinary drugs (amantadine, sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones) in organic fertilizers. The method involved a simple solid-liquid extraction step using the combination of acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer as extraction solvent, followed by cleanup with a solid-phase extraction cartridge containing polymeric mixed-mode anion-exchange sorbents. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to separate and detect target analytes. We particularly focused on the optimization of sample clean-up step: different diluents and dilution factors were tested. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, sensitivity and specificity. The recoveries of all the drugs ranged from 70.9% to 112.7% at three concentration levels, with the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 15.7%. The limits of quantification were between 1.0 and 10.0μg/kg for all the drugs. Matrix effect was minimized by matrix-matched calibration curves. The analytical method was successfully applied for the survey of veterinary drugs contamination in 20 compost samples. The results indicated that fluoroquinolones had higher incidence rate and mean concentration levels ranging from 31.9 to 308.7μg/kg compared with other drugs. We expect the method will provide the basis for risk assessment of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. VETSTAT - the Danish system for surveillance of the veterinary use of drugs for production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Bager, Flemming; Jacobsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries funds a monitoring system based on drug usage information collected at the herd level: VETSTAT. VETSTAT is constructed as a relational database and data originates from three sources: pharmacies, veterinarians and feed mills. All administration...... of drugs for use in animal production is reported on a monthly basis. Pharmacies provided 95% of the total weight antimicrobial compounds used in Denmark in 2001. More than 80% of the antimicrobial compounds reported by pharmacies were sold on prescription to end-users (owners) and included information...

  8. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behaviour among drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no decreases in drug use practices such as use of cannabis, heroin, cocaine and Ecstasy after the intervention with drug users; however, there was a significant reduction in alcohol use following the intervention. While there was a substantial increase in the proportion of participants using drugs daily as ...

  9. 21 CFR 530.5 - Veterinary records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary records...

  10. Effect of Drug Active Substance Particles on Wet Granulation Process.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bělohlav, Z.; Břenková, L.; Hanika, Jiří; Durdil, P.; Rapek, P.; Tomášek, V.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 85, A7 (2007) , s. 974-980 ISSN 0263-8762 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : wet granulation * control * active substance Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.837, year: 2007

  11. Pattern of Substance Abuse among Clients at a Drug Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    They were also further assessed with the Treatnet Addiction Severity Index (ASI), MMPI-2™ and had urine toxicology carried out to determine the type of substances used as well as other laboratory investigations. The diagnosis was made from information gathered from interview and clinical investigations throughout the ...

  12. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Gigi

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to ...

  13. Effect of cell culture medium components on color of formulated monoclonal antibody drug substance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Varma, Sharat; Yang, Yi; Mun, Melissa; Arevalo, Silvana; Gawlitzek, Martin; Swartz, Trevor; Lim, Amy; Li, Feng; Zhang, Boyan; Meier, Steve; Kiss, Robert

    2013-01-01

    As the industry moves toward subcutaneous delivery as a preferred route of drug administration, high drug substance concentrations are becoming the norm for monoclonal antibodies. At such high concentrations, the drug substance may display a more intense color than at the historically lower concentrations. The effect of process conditions and/or changes on color is more readily observed in the higher color, high concentration formulations. Since color is a product quality attribute that needs to be controlled, it is useful to study the impact of process conditions and/or modifications on color. This manuscript summarizes cell culture experiments and reports on findings regarding the effect of various media components that contribute to drug substance color for a specific monoclonal antibody. In this work, lower drug substance color was achieved via optimization of the cell culture medium. Specifically, lowering the concentrations of B-vitamins in the cell culture medium has the effect of reducing color intensity by as much as 25%. In addition, decreasing concentration of iron was also directly correlated color intensity decrease of as much as 37%. It was also shown that the color of the drug substance directly correlates with increased acidic variants, especially when increased iron levels cause increased color. Potential mechanisms that could lead to antibody coloration are briefly discussed. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  14. Delay discounting, self-control, and substance use among adult drug court participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Craig G A; Fearnley, Helen; Panagiotopoulos, Barbara; Kemp, Richard I

    2015-08-01

    The current study examined the relationship between two measures of impulsiveness and the odds of substance use among a sample of participants on an Australian drug court (n=80). Participants completed a computer-based delay discounting task, a paper-based delay discounting task, and a questionnaire-based measure of self-control. The delay discounting tasks measured individual differences in the value attributed to distal outcomes, which is one aspect of impulsive behavior that has been found to be over-represented among illicit drug users. The relationship between the measures of impulsiveness and the odds of substance use was assessed by fitting longitudinal panel regression models with adjustment for informative treatment dropout. Consistent with previous research, drug court participants were found to have higher discount rates (i.e. were more impulsive) than a noncriminal population of university students (n=101). Drug court participants also discounted delayed gains more than delayed losses. Delay discounting was not significantly associated with the odds of substance use on the drug court program. There was a positive relationship between the survey-based measure of impulsivity and the mean substance use frequency. The authors conclude that impulsivity is correlated with substance use among drug court participants but not when measuring impulsivity using a delay discounting paradigm.

  15. Multi-class multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs in meat using enhanced matrix removal lipid cleanup and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Limian; Lucas, Derick; Long, David; Richter, Bruce; Stevens, Joan

    2018-05-11

    This study presents the development and validation of a quantitation method for the analysis of multi-class, multi-residue veterinary drugs using lipid removal cleanup cartridges, enhanced matrix removal lipid (EMR-Lipid), for different meat matrices by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection. Meat samples were extracted using a two-step solid-liquid extraction followed by pass-through sample cleanup. The method was optimized based on the buffer and solvent composition, solvent additive additions, and EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The developed method was then validated in five meat matrices, porcine muscle, bovine muscle, bovine liver, bovine kidney and chicken liver to evaluate the method performance characteristics, such as absolute recoveries and precision at three spiking levels, calibration curve linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ) and matrix effect. The results showed that >90% of veterinary drug analytes achieved satisfactory recovery results of 60-120%. Over 97% analytes achieved excellent reproducibility results (relative standard deviation (RSD) meat matrices. The matrix co-extractive removal efficiency by weight provided by EMR-lipid cartridge cleanup was 42-58% in samples. The post column infusion study showed that the matrix ion suppression was reduced for samples with the EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The reduced matrix ion suppression effect was also confirmed with 30%) for all tested veterinary drugs in all of meat matrices. The results showed that the two-step solid-liquid extraction provides efficient extraction for the entire spectrum of veterinary drugs, including the difficult classes such as tetracyclines, beta-lactams etc. EMR-Lipid cartridges after extraction provided efficient sample cleanup with easy streamlined protocol and minimal impacts on analytes recovery, improving method reliability and consistency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. [Non-drug psycho-active substance use and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ammouri, A; Sabir, M; Ahid, S; Toufiq, J; El Omari, F

    2015-09-01

    The consumption of psycho-active substances (PAS) by pregnant women is in a growing increase around the world. It is a major problem of public health in some countries due to serious and negative consequences for children and society as well as for pregnant women. This problem has also increased among women in Morocco. However, it is still neglected and underrated in the absence of any official statistical data. This is the first study leading to a better profiling of pregnant women who may consume psycho-active substances during their pregnancy; it would permit better medical and psychosocial care of both women and children. To determine the prevalence and the factors associated with the psycho-active substances used by pregnant women and describe their socio-demographic characteristics. A trans-sectional study was carried out from September to October 2010, including pregnant women consulting at the obstetrical service of the provincial hospital Moulay Abdellah in the city of Salé. The study included women who were pregnant or had recently given birth, and not having any serious mental disorders that could have upset their cognitive abilities. The data was collected through a straight questionnaire of 25 items specifying the socio-demographic characteristics, data about pregnancy and habits of using psycho-active substances. One hundred and fifty pregnant women were included in the study. The majority of them (83.2%) were aged 20 to 40 years old, 94.6% were married, 96% were unemployed and depended on their spouses for their financial resources and 80% had normal domestic relationships (from average to good quality). Among the women, 31.3% of them reported traumatic events in the past. The prevalence of psycho-active substance consumption by the pregnant women of our sample was 11.3%. The used substances were tobacco (9.3%) and cannabis (4%). These women were more likely to have a low level of education (47.1 vs 16.5). They were victims of abuse or neglect in

  17. Wide-Scope Screening Method for Multiclass Veterinary Drug Residues in Fish, Shrimp, and Eel Using Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Sherri B; Storey, Joseph M; Lohne, Jack J; Andersen, Wendy C; Burger, Robert; Johnson, Aaron S; Madson, Mark R

    2017-08-30

    A screening method for veterinary drug residues in fish, shrimp, and eel using LC with a high-resolution MS instrument has been developed and validated. The method was optimized for over 70 test compounds representing a variety of veterinary drug classes. Tissues were extracted by vortex mixing with acetonitrile acidified with 2% acetic acid and 0.2% p-toluenesulfonic acid. A centrifuged portion of the extract was passed through a novel solid phase extraction cartridge designed to remove interfering matrix components from tissue extracts. The eluent was then evaporated and reconstituted for analysis. Data were collected with a quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer using both nontargeted and targeted acquisition methods. Residues were detected on the basis of the exact mass of the precursor and a product ion along with isotope pattern and retention time matching. Semiquantitative data analysis compared MS 1 signal to a one-point extracted matrix standard at a target testing level. The test compounds were detected and identified in salmon, tilapia, catfish, shrimp, and eel extracts fortified at the target testing levels. Fish dosed with selected analytes and aquaculture samples previously found to contain residues were also analyzed. The screening method can be expanded to monitor for an additional >260 veterinary drugs on the basis of exact mass measurements and retention times.

  18. Non-natural manners of death among users of illicit drugs: Substance findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaveris, Gerd Jorunn M; Teige, Brita; Rogde, Sidsel

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to explore differences and similarities between the various non-natural manners of death (accident, suicide, homicide) regarding toxicological findings in illicit drug users. Medicolegal autopsy reports from the Institute of Forensic Medicine University of Oslo concerning deaths from 2000 to 2009 were investigated. Those aged 20-59 whose manner of death was non-natural and who tested positive for any narcotic drug (morphine/heroin, amphetamines, ecstasy, cannabis, LSD, PCP, and high levels of GHB in addition to methadone and buprenorphine) were selected. All substance findings were registered and categorized (narcotics, ethanol, and medicinal products). Of the 1603 autopsies that met the selection criteria, 1204 were accidental intoxications, 122 accidents other than intoxication, 114 suicides by intoxication, 119 non-intoxication suicides, and 44 victims of homicide. Poly drug use was found in all manners of death. The drug profile as well as the mean number of substances (illicit drugs and medicinal products) varied from 2.9 to 4.6 substances per case, depending on the manner of death. Intoxication suicides had the highest number of substances and a total drug profile similar to accidental intoxications. Non-intoxication suicides had a total drug profile similar to homicide and accidents other than intoxication. The number of substances found per case increased during the decade, mainly due to increased findings of methadone, cannabis, amphetamines, and benzodiazepines. Methadone findings increased much more than buprenorphine. Methadone was found 20 times more often than buprenorphine in accidental intoxication cases. In summary, poly drug findings are common in adults who suffer a non-natural death while using illicit drugs. The different manners of death have some specific characteristics and significant differences regarding drug profile. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between substance use, drug selling, and lethal violence in 25 juvenile murderers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaughlin, C R; Daniel, J; Joost, T F

    2000-03-01

    The goal of the present study was to determine the relationship between substance use, drug selling, and lethal violence in adolescent male homicide offenders and their victims. The study employed a retrospective review of criminal justice databases and medical examiner records for murders committed by 25 adolescent males incarcerated in the Commonwealth of Virginia juvenile correctional centers from February 1992 to July 1996. The perpetrator sample was 84% African American and 16% white. The average age at the time of the offense was 15.0 years (range = 13.0 to 17.7 years). The victims were 84% male, 60% African American and 32% white. The median victim age was 28.0 years (mean = 34.8, range = 17 months to 75 years). The results indicated that 52% of the murders were committed by juveniles with identified involvement in drug selling, and 28% of the murders were drug-related. Toxicology results indicated recent drug or alcohol use in 27% of the victims; while 74% of the perpetrators reported substance use, 35% indicating daily use. Using discriminant analysis, it was possible to accurately classify 86% of the drug-related murders with the variables of recent victim drug use and perpetrator substance use history. The results indicated that adolescent males involved in the sale and distribution of illegal drugs comprised a significant percentage of those incarcerated for murder. Recent victim drug use and perpetrator substance use may be important variables in identifying drug-related juvenile homicides. These results underscore the link between substance use, drug selling, and lethal violence.

  20. Structural characterization of product ions by electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to support regulatory analysis of veterinary drug residues in foods Part 2: Benzimidazoles nitromidaz.....

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Analysis for identification and quantification of regulated veterinary drug residues in foods are usually achieved by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The instrument method requires the selection of characteristic ions, but structure elucidation is seldom perform...

  1. Categorization of psychoactive substances into "hard drugs" and "soft drugs": a critical review of terminology used in current scientific literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Peter; Kosticova, Michaela; Pecenak, Jan; Turcek, Michal

    2017-11-01

    Precise terminology and definitions are important components of scientific language. Although the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" are used widely by professionals, neither the International Classification of Diseases nor the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual classify psychoactive substances into the categories "hard" and "soft." To analyze the occurrence of the terms "hard drugs" and "soft drugs" in recent scientific literature and to establish the degree of consensus in labeling psychoactive substances as "hard" or "soft." A critical review of scientific papers listed in PubMed and Scopus between 2011 and 2015. Three hundred thirty-four articles were initially identified as potentially relevant for review, 132 of which were included in the final analysis. One hundred twenty-four articles used the term "hard drugs" and 84.7% provided examples of substances considered "hard." Forty-four articles used the term "soft drugs" and 90.9% provided examples of substances considered "soft." Citations of relevant articles supporting categorization as "hard" or "soft" were not given in 90% of the articles. The authors often provided no or only very sparse information on their reasons for considering specific drugs as "hard" or "soft." Although it initially appeared that there is substantial agreement as to which psychoactive substances should be regarded as "hard" and "soft," closer inspection shows that the dividing line is blurred without clear criteria for categorization. At this time, it remains uncertain whether these terms should persist in the scientific literature. We therefore recommend these terms should be avoided or, if used, be clearly and precisely defined.

  2. Molecular Target Homology as a Basis for Species Extrapolation to Assess the Ecological Risk of Veterinary Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased identification of veterinary pharmaceutical contaminants in aquatic environments has raised concerns regarding potential adverse effects of these chemicals on non-target organisms. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for predictive species extrapolation ut...

  3. Innovations: Alcohol & drug abuse: Narcotics on the net: the availability of Web sites selling controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Robert F

    2006-01-01

    The Internet is not only a vital medium for communication, entertainment, and commerce, but it is also an outlet for illicit drug sales. Although the U.S. Controlled Substances Act regulates access to certain drugs by requiring prescriptions, unique characteristics of the Internet create significant challenges for the enforcement of U.S. drug policies. In the late 1990s "no prescription Web sites" (NPWs) began to emerge, which allow persons to purchase drugs, such as opiates, without a prescription. Given the likely role of NPWs in increasing prescription drug abuse, health care professionals must develop and disseminate strategies for helping patients who are affected by these Web sites.

  4. Activities and influence of veterinary drug marketers on antimicrobial usage in livestock production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Ernest Ojo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage in animals contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains. Investigations were carried out on how the characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of antimicrobial marketers influenced antimicrobials usage in animal production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to gather information about the characteristics and activities of antimicrobial marketers. Overall, 70 (56.9 % of 123 marketers had post-secondary education while 76 (61.8 % were trained on the use of antimicrobials. Eighteen (14.6 % of the marketers were licensed veterinarians. Only 51 (41.5 % marketers displayed adequate knowledge about antimicrobials and antimicrobial usage. Sixty-seven (54.6 % marketers requested a prescription before selling antimicrobials while 113 (91.9 % marketer recommended antimicrobials for use in animals. Two-third of the marketers (66.7 % prescribed antimicrobials without physically examining sick animals but based their prescriptions on verbal reports of clinical signs by farmers and on their personal experience. Marketers with higher educational qualification displayed more adequate knowledge of antimicrobials and antimicrobial usage than those with basic education background only. More years of experience in antimicrobial marketing did not translate to better knowledge on antimicrobial usage. Only 45 (36.6 % respondents were aware of the existence of regulatory agencies monitoring the use of antimicrobials in animals. Farmers ignored the services of veterinarians in the diagnosis and control of animal diseases but resorted to drug marketers for help. Effective communication of existing legislations on antimicrobial usage, improved access to veterinary services and strict enforcement of regulatory policies are recommended for checking non-judicious use of antimicrobial agents in animal production. Sales of

  5. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behaviour among drug ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-10-02

    Oct 2, 2017 ... journalCode=rsah20. SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... use and risky sexual behaviour among drug users in Durban, South Africa: Assessing the impact ..... borative experiences between different role players can facilitate ..... between participants meaning that for some there was more of.

  6. MARKETING STUDIES OF VETERINARY PHARMACY ORGANIZATIONS ASSORTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Deltsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is an active growth of veterinary pharmacy organizations and consumed medicinal drugs for veterinary use. Content-analysis showed that there was an insufficient number of studies devoted to the activity of veterinary pharmacies. The purpose of our work was the analysis of correspondence of range fullness of veterinary pharmacies to the contemporary state of pharmaceutical market of drugs for veterinary use. Veterinary clinics and pharmacies of Moscow and Moscow oblast were the object of our study. We have applied sociological methods (questionnaire, interview, marketing and statistic analysis methods. We have established that liquid dosage forms (53% occupy the biggest part of drugs in the State Registry of Veterinary Drugs. Solutions occupy 68% of this amount. Antimicrobial drugs for systematic use (40% are the most numerous drugs from pharmacotheraperutic group represented in the State Registry. Assortment of veterinary drugs is targeted mainly on a farm livestock (more than 50%. 58% of the market share is domestic drugs. Principal commodity groups which are released by veterinary pharmacies are feed-stuff (31% and drugs (30%. Pharmacy organizations does not have sufficient number of drugs in their assortment (fullness coefficient 7.9% which speaks about nonconformity of the assortment fullness.

  7. Modernizing methodology for the WHO assessment of substances for the international drug control conventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danenberg, E; Sorge, L A; Wieniawski, W; Elliott, S; Amato, L; Scholten, W K

    2013-08-01

    The WHO Executive Board revised the guidance that governs the procedures for the WHO review of psychoactive substances for international drug control in 2010. To meet the standards defined in these guidelines, the current evaluation methodology at WHO must be an evidence-based assessment. We describe the history of substance evaluation from 1912 to the present and the development of the evaluation methods over time including a description of the current assessment system, using reports from WHO and its predecessor, the League of Nations. Furthermore, we describe the current review system. We found that some substances under international control were never reviewed; other substances were reviewed decades ago. We argue that assessments do not have unlimited validity, and therefore, substances need to be re-assessed periodically, as already recommended by the Expert Committee on Drug Dependence in 1982. We propose that the evaluation time be shortened; that the influence of the route of administration and/or dosage form of the preparation is considered in the evaluation; and we recommend studying national and regional assessment systems and adopting their best practices. With this article, we make a case for the inclusion of systematic review and other methods of comprehensive analysis of substance evaluation to arrive at a process of equal rigour and quality as already applied by WHO for the development of treatment guidelines. Copyright © 2013 World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. [Designer drugs and caffeine - characteristics of psychoactive substances and their impact on the organism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierzejska, Regina

    2014-01-01

    For many teenagers the time of growing up is a period of trying prohibited substances. Nowadays apart from alcohol and tobacco new designed, psychoactive substances known as "smart drugs" or "legal highs" are available. Intensive development of their market is taking place in the last few years which is difficult to overcome by regulations only. Toxicological tests used now are not able to detect the presence of many such substances in the body. Designer drugs cause the interest of young people even from small towns and many times taking them give effects requiring medical help. Caffeine is also a psychoactive substance but depending on the dose it can have positive or detrimental effect. Recently there are more and more products with caffeine, especially drinks and dietary supplements, what can cause the increase of consumption of caffeine. Children are particularly exposed to the adverse effect of high consumption of caffeine because of their small body weight and development of the central nervous system. This article presents actual data about the market of designer drugs, frequency of using them, consumption of caffeine by children and teenagers and about the impact of these substances on the organism.

  9. Assessment of Substances Abuse in Burn Patients by Using Drug Abuse Screening Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Gaseminegad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been an increase in the frequency of substance abuse among hospitalized burn injury patients. However, few studies have investigated substance abuse among burn patients. This study was aimed to identify the incidence of substance abuse in burn injury patients using the "Drug Abuse Screening Test" (DAST-20. We determined the validity of DAST-20 in spring 2010. Subsequently, this descriptive study was performed on 203 burn injury patients who fit the study's inclusion criteria. We chose a score of 6 as the cutoff and thus achieved a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 85% for the DAST-20. During the study, we gathered demographic data, burn features and DAST-20 results for all patients. Patients with scores of 6 or more were considered to be substances abusers. A statistical analysis was conducted using SPSS v16 software. According to the DAST-20 results, 33% of the patients were in the user group. The mean score of DAST-20 was significantly higher among users than it was among nonusers (P<0.05. The level of substance abuse was severe in 77% of users. No significant differences were found among the substances, with the exception of alcohol. Substance abuse is an important risk factor for burn patients. In addition, this study showed that DAST-20 is a valid screening measure for studies on burn patients.

  10. 78 FR 79465 - International Drug Scheduling; Convention on Psychotropic Substances; Single Convention on...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... harmful physical, mental, and social consequences for the user or to others. Harmful use of drugs by an...... --Please provide any information on the extent/magnitude of public health or social harm from the use of... medical illnesses caused by this substance in your country? (Yes/ No) If ``yes,'' please provide details...

  11. Criminal Violence and Drug Use: An Exploratory Study among Substance Abusers in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workowski, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between criminal violence and type of substance abuse among 184 current and former residents of an inpatient non-hospital drug and alcohol treatment facility. The criminal justice system functioned as the source of referral into the program for 89% of the subjects studied while only 11% came to treatment…

  12. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-5 - Drugs, biologicals, and reagents other than controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Drugs, biologicals, and reagents other than controlled substances. 101-42.1102-5 Section 101-42.1102-5 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS...

  13. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: Chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Nan; Su Pu [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China); Gao Zhixian [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)], E-mail: gaozhx@163.com; Zhu Maoxiang; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Fang Yanjun; Chao Fuhuan [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)

    2009-01-19

    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed. Conjugates of chloramphenicol and clenbuterol coupled with bovine serum albumin were synthesized and purified. Probes of suspension array were constituted by coupling the three conjugates on the fluorescent microspheres/beads and the microstructures of the beads' surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy which was a direct confirmation for the successful conjugates' coupling. The optimal addition of conjugates and the amounts of antibodies were optimized and selected, respectively. Standard curves were plotted and the coefficient of determination-R{sup 2} was greater than 0.989 which suggested good logistic correlation. The detection ranges for the three veterinary drugs are 40-6.25 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, 50-7.81 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1} and 1 x 10{sup 3-}7.29 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, respectively and the lowest detection limits (LDLs) of them are 40, 50 and 1000 ng L{sup -1}, respectively. The suspension array is specific and has no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. Meanwhile, unknown samples were detected by suspension array and ELISA in comparison with each other. The errors between found and real for the detection of the unknown samples were relatively small to both of the two methods, whereas, the detection ranges of suspension array are broader and sensitive than that of the traditional ELISA. The high-throughput suspension array is proved to be a novel method for multi-analysis of veterinary drugs with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost.

  14. Carry-over of veterinary drugs from medicated to non-medicated feeds in commercial feed manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Egmond, van H.J.; Deckers, E.R.; Herbes, R.; Hooglught, J.; Olde Heuvel, E.; Jong, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Different compound feeds have to be manufactured in the same production line. As a consequence, traces of the first produced feed may remain in the production and get mixed with the next feed batches. This "carry-over" is unavoidable, and so non-medicated feed can be contaminated with veterinary

  15. Investigation of drug products received for analysis in the Swedish STRIDA project on new psychoactive substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckberg, Matilda; Jönsson, Karl-Henrik; Beck, Olof; Helander, Anders

    2018-02-01

    The web-based open sale of unregulated new psychoactive substances (NPS) has shown a steady increase in recent years. Analysis of drug products sold as NPS is useful to confirm the true chemical contents, for comparison with the substances detected in corresponding body fluids, but also to study drug trends. This work describes the examination of 251 drug products that were randomly submitted for analysis in 173 cases of suspected NPS-related intoxications in the Swedish STRIDA project in 2010-2015. Of the products, 39% were powders/crystals, 32% tablets/capsules, 16% herbal materials, 8% liquids, 1% blotters, and 4% others. The analysis involved tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In 88 products (35%), classic psychoactive substances, prescription pharmaceuticals, dietary supplements, or doping agents were found; however, in none of these cases had an NPS-related intoxication been indicated from product markings or patient self-reports. Another 12 products tested negative for psychoactive substances. The remaining 151 products contained 86 different NPS (30% contained ≥2 substances). In 104 drug products, a specific NPS ingredient was indicated based on labelling (69%) or patient self-report; in 92 cases this was also analytically confirmed to be correct. Overall, the NPS products submitted for analysis in the STRIDA project showed a high degree of consistency between suspected and actual content (88%). The results of related urine and/or blood analysis further demonstrated that the patients commonly (89%) tested positive for the indicated NPS, but also revealed that polysubstance intoxication was common (83%), indicating use of additional drug products. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Perceptions about recovery needs and drug-avoidance recovery behaviors among youth in substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Rachel; Anglin, M Douglas; Glik, Deborah C; Zavalza, Christina

    2013-01-01

    This study used mixed methods to explore youth attitudes about recovery-related needs and important drug-avoidance behaviors after treatment. Focus groups were conducted with 118 substance using youth in treatment (four residential and 10 outpatient settings) throughout Los Angeles County. The average age was 17.4 (SD = 2.9); 78.3% were male, 66.1% Latino; and most were in treatment for primary marijuana (40.9%) or methamphetamine (30.4%) abuse. Quantitatve results from the drug-avoidance activity survey identified the following factors youth rated as important to their recovery after treatment: lifestyle improvement activities (95.7%); changing personal drug behaviors (89.6%); drug environment/culture change activities (82.5%); with the least important being therapeutic activities (78.5%). Qualitative findings from focus groups that asked what youth think are important for recovery programs to address after treatment revealed the following four areas: (1) recovery promotion to developmentally appropriate activities (95%); (2) facilitating the use of coping skills to deal with stress (85%); (3) offering alternative recovery support options (not just abstinence only) (75%); and (4) continuing to provide substance use education (65%). Findings highlight essential aspects of recovery in terms of need and drug-avoidance behaviors considered important to youth in treatment. Such information will help to better address clinical and recovery support models aimed at relapse prevention to ensure that the perceived problems of substance-abusing youth are adequately met.

  17. Drug and Substance Abuse among Youth: A rehabilitation centre in Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badariah Mohd Saad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drug and substance abuse create a social disorder that would destruct the society. This study examines factors leading to drug abuse among youth in a rehab center located in Kuala Lumpur. Out of 61 respondents surveyed, 71% was Malay, 13% was Chinese, and 10% was Indian and majority of them 80% were male. The study found that there were no significant differences in the mean of social environment, income, law enforcement and peer influence scores among the three ethnic groups. The multiple regression analysis revealed that peer influence was a significant factor leading to drug abuse among the youth.

  18. Prevalence of psychoactive substances, alcohol and illicit drugs, in Spanish drivers: A roadside study in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Salvany, Antonia; Herrero, M Jesús; Fernandez, Beatriz; Perez, Julio; Del Real, Pilar; González-Luque, Juan Carlos; de la Torre, Rafael

    2017-09-01

    A survey was conducted during 2015 to monitor psychoactive substance use in a sample of drivers in Spanish roads and cities. Traffic police officers recruited drivers at sites carefully chosen to achieve representativeness of the driver population. A brief questionnaire included the date, time, and personal and driving patterns data. Alcohol use was ascertained through ethanol breath test at the roadside and considered positive if concentrations >0.05mg alcohol/L were detected. Four drug classes were assessed on-site through an oral fluid screening test that, if positive, was confirmed through a second oral fluid sample at a reference laboratory. Laboratory confirmation analyses screened for 26 psychoactive substances. To evaluate the association between drug findings and age, sex, road type (urban/interurban), and period of the week (weekdays, weeknights, weekend days, weekend nights), logistic regression analyses were done (overall, and separately for alcohol, cannabis and cocaine). A total of 2744 drivers, mean age of 37.5 years, 77.8% men, were included. Overall, 11.6% of the drivers had at least one positive finding to the substances assessed. Substances more frequently testing positive were cannabis (7.5%), cocaine (4.7%) and alcohol (2.6%). More than one substance was detected in 4% of the subjects. The proportion of positive results decreased with age, and was more likely among men and on urban roads. The pattern for alcohol use was similar but did not change with age and increased among drivers recruited at night. Cannabis was more likely to be detected at younger ages and cocaine was associated with night driving. Alcohol use before driving has decreased over the last decade; however, the consumption of other illegal drugs seems to have increased. The pattern of illegal psychoactive substance observed is similar to that declared in surveys of the general population of adults. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. [The actual Russian legislation in sphere of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramov, A Yu; Kosolapova, N V; Mikhaiylova, Yu V

    2014-01-01

    The drug abuse is a social occurrence. Hence, the social economic methods are the first of all means of combating this evil. At the same time, measures of especially juridical character possess significant value since they develop corresponding legal base for applying another measures. In the Russian Federation, during fifteen years the new policy of public regulation and normative legal base in the area of legal turn-over of drug agents, psychotropic substances and their precursors were developed factually from zero ground. However, the current national legislation is not deprived of some flaws and contradictions. Frequently a uniform practice of interpretation and application of legal rules regulating the controlled turn-over is lacking. On the one hand, this circumstance decreases effectiveness of action of such rules and on the other hand favors development of situations for outflow of pharmaceuticals from legal turn-over to illegal traffic. The becoming of the Russian legislation in the area of turn-over of drug agents, precursors and psychotropic substances relates to the period of late 1990s when the Federal Law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 was developed and passed by the State Duma of the Russian Federation. The given law completely conforms to principles of legal regulation of turn-over of drug agents and psychotropic substances determined by the Constitution of the Russian Federation (provisions 76, 90, 104, 105) and federal laws ("On the government of the Russian Federation" of December 17 1997, "On the ombudsman in the Russian Federation" of February 26 1997). The main characteristic of legal rules included into given group of sources of law is that they contain regulations of general disposition as basic ones for inferior sources of law. The analysis of basic Federal law No 3 FZ "On drug agents and psychotropic substances" of January 8 1998 makes it possible to conclude that in in Russia the international legal

  20. Drug, nicotine, and alcohol use among exercisers: Does substance addiction co-occur with exercise addiction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szabo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scholastic works suggest that those at risk for exercise addiction are also often addicted to illicit drugs, nicotine, and/or alcohol, but empirical evidence is lacking. Aims: The aim of the present work was to examine the co-occurrence of illicit drug, nicotine, and alcohol use frequency (prevalence of users and severity (level of problem in users among exercisers classified at three levels of risk for exercise addiction: (i asymptomatic, (ii symptomatic, and (iii at-risk. Methods: A sample of 538 regular exercisers were surveyed via the Qualtrics research platform. They completed the (i Drug Use Disorder Identification Test, (ii Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, (iii Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test, and (iv Exercise Addition Inventory. Results: A large proportion (n=59; 10.97% of the sample was found to be at risk for exercise addiction. The proportion of drug and alcohol users among these participants did not differ from the rest of the sample. However, the incidence of nicotine consumption was lowest among them. The severity of problematic substance use did not differ across the groups. Conclusions: These findings suggest that substance addiction and the risk for exercise addiction are unrelated. In fact, those at risk for exercise addiction exhibited the healthiest profile related to the prevalence of smoking. Keywords: Alcohol drinking, Cigarette smoking, Exercise dependence, Illicit substance use, Physical activity, Sport

  1. Quality Control Guidelines for Disk Diffusion and Broth Microdilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests with Seven Drugs for Veterinary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, Brant A.; Erwin, Meredith E.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2000-01-01

    This multicenter study proposes antimicrobial susceptibility (MIC and disk diffusion methods) quality control (QC) parameters for seven compounds utilized in veterinary health. Alexomycin, apramycin, tiamulin, tilmicosin, and tylosin were tested by broth microdilution against various National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS)-recommended QC organisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). In addition, disk diffusion zone diameter QC limits were determined for apramycin, enrofloxacin, and premafloxacin by using E. coli ATCC 25922, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The results from five or six participating laboratories produced ≥99.0% of MICs and ≥95.0% of the zone diameters within suggested guidelines. The NCCLS Subcommittee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing has recently approved these ranges for publication in the next M31 document. PMID:10618141

  2. Recommendations for Clinical Pathology Data Generation, Interpretation, and Reporting in Target Animal Safety Studies for Veterinary Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siska, William; Gupta, Aradhana; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Tripathi, Niraj; von Beust, Barbara

    Clinical pathology testing is routinely performed in target animal safety studies in order to identify potential toxicity associated with administration of an investigational veterinary pharmaceutical product. Regulatory and other testing guidelines that address such studies provide recommendations for clinical pathology testing but occasionally contain outdated analytes and do not take into account interspecies physiologic differences that affect the practical selection of appropriate clinical pathology tests. Additionally, strong emphasis is often placed on statistical analysis and use of reference intervals for interpretation of test article-related clinical pathology changes, with limited attention given to the critical scientific review of clinically, toxicologically, or biologically relevant changes. The purpose of this communication from the Regulatory Affairs Committee of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology is to provide current recommendations for clinical pathology testing and data interpretation in target animal safety studies and thereby enhance the value of clinical pathology testing in these studies.

  3. High-throughput screening of pesticide and veterinary drug residues in baby food by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Ling, Yun; Huang, Junrong; Chang, James

    2014-06-20

    A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 333 pesticide and veterinary drug residues in baby food. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a generic extraction method. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The method was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANCO/12571/2013. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 79.8-110.7%, with coefficient of variation 0.99. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.01-5.35μgkg(-1). The limits of quantification for the analytes are in the range 0.01-9.27μgkg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of pesticide and veterinary drugs in ninety-three commercial baby food samples, and tilmicosin, fenbendazole, tylosin tartrate and thiabendazole were detected in some samples tested in this study. The present study is very useful for fast screening of different food contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High-throughput screening and confirmation of 22 banned veterinary drugs in feedstuffs using LC-MS/MS and high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xufeng; Liu, Yanghong; Su, Yijuan; Yang, Jianwen; Bian, Kui; Wang, Zongnan; He, Li-Min

    2014-01-15

    A new analytical strategy based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with accurate mass high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HR-Orbitrap MS) was performed for high-throughput screening, confirmation, and quantification of 22 banned or unauthorized veterinary drugs in feedstuffs according to Bulletin 235 of the Ministry of Agriculture, China. Feed samples were extracted with acidified acetonitrile, followed by cleanup using solid-phase extraction cartridge. The extracts were first screened by LC-MS/MS in a single selected reaction monitoring mode. The suspected positive samples were subjected to a specific pretreatment for confirmation and quantification of analyte of interest with LC-MS/MS and HR-Orbitrap MS. Mean recoveries for all target analytes (except for carbofuran and chlordimeform, which were about 35 and 45%, respectively) ranged from 52.2 to 90.4%, and the relative standard deviations were screening of real samples obtained from local feed markets and confirmation of the suspected target analytes. It provides a high-throughput, sensitive, and reliable screening, identification, and quantification of banned veterinary drugs in routine monitoring programs of feedstuffs.

  5. Wide-scope analysis of pesticide and veterinary drug residues in meat matrices by high resolution MS: detection and identification using Exactive-Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, María Luz; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Génin, Eric; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    A multiresidue and multiclass method for the simultaneous determination of more than 350 compounds including pesticides, biopesticides and veterinary drugs in different meat matrices (beef, pork and chicken) by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap MS has been developed. In the present study, the determination of fragments was accomplished as an essential tool for a reliable identification of compounds using high resolution MS. To obtain these fragments, different strategies have been carried out in order to ensure an appropriate fragment assignment and identification. The analytical method is suitable for qualitative analysis, and it was also evaluated for quantitative analysis. Generic extraction conditions were optimized, obtaining adequate recovery and precision values for most of the studied analytes (>290). The limits of detection ranged from 2 to 16 µg kg(-1). Limits of quantification were 10 µg kg(-1) with the exception of few compounds with a higher value (50 or 100 µg kg(-1)). Limits of identification were also established, and they ranged from 2 to 150 µg kg(-1). This method was applied to the analysis of 18 meat samples and some veterinary drugs as enrofloxacin and sulfadiazine were detected and further identified/quantified (with triple quadrupole) in two different samples at 33 µg kg(-1) and trace levels, respectively. No pesticides were detected in the analyzed samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniye Imamoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n=18. The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices.

  7. Current approaches for the discovery of drugs that deter substance and drug abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasgar, Adam; Simeonov, Anton

    2014-11-01

    Much has been presented and debated on the topic of drug abuse and its multidimensional nature, including the role of society and its customs and laws, economical factors, and the magnitude and nature of the burden. Given the complex nature of the receptors and pathways implicated in regulation of the cognitive and behavioral processes associated with addiction, a large number of molecular targets have been interrogated during recent years to discover starting points for development of small-molecule interventions. This review describes recent developments in the field of early drug discovery for drug abuse interventions with an emphasis on the advances published during the 2012 - 2014 period. Technologically, the processes/platforms utilized in drug abuse drug discovery are nearly identical to those used in the other disease areas. A key complicating factor in drug abuse research is the enormous biological complexity surrounding the brain processes involved and the associated difficulty in finding 'good' targets and achieving exquisite selectivity of treatment agents. While tremendous progress has been made during recent years to use the power of high-throughput technologies to discover proof-of-principle molecules for many new targets, next-generation models will be especially important in this field. Examples include: seeking advantageous drug-drug combinations, the use of automated whole-animal behavioral screening systems, advancing our understanding of the role of epigenetics in drug addiction and the employment of organoid-level 3D test platforms (also referred to as tissue-chip or organs-on-chip).

  8. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among U.S. Veterans: Comparing Associations with Intimate Partner Substance Abuse and Veteran Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433

  9. Targeting the environmental assessment of veterinary drugs with the multi-species-soil system (MS{center_dot}3) agricultural soil microcosms: the ivermectin case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell-Martin, G.; Pro-Gonzalez, J.; Aragones-Grunert, P.; Babib-Vich, M. M.; Fernandez-Rorija, C.; Tarazona-Lafarga, J. V.

    2011-07-01

    The environmental risk assessment of the veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin is receiving significant attention. This paper assesses the capacity of the MS{center_dot}3 soil microcosm as a tool for targeting the environmental impact assessment of veterinary drugs, using ivermectin as model. Two screening MS{center_dot}3 were performed using different European soils; one with a soil collected in an agricultural station near to Madrid, Spain and a second with a soil collected in a farm area close to York, UK. Soils were fortified with ivermectin at the following ranges: 0.01-10 mg kg{sup -}1 and 0.1-100 mg kg{sup -}1 in the Madrid and York studies, respectively. The effects on earthworms, plants and soil microorganisms were assessed in the Madrid soil. Toxicity tests on aquatic organisms (algae, cladocerans and in vitro fish cell line RTLW1) were also conducted with the leachates. No effects were observed in earthworms and plants at any tested concentration; reduction in the respiration rate (< 5%) of soil microorganisms was detected. Earthworm/soil bioconcentration factors decreased with the increase in soil concentrations and were higher for the York soil. Effects on daphnids were observed in tested leachates; based on measured levels of ivermectin in the leachates an EC50 of about 0.5{mu}gL{sup -}1 can be estimated. Comparisons based on toxicity data and equilibrium partitioning confirmed that the main risk is expected to be related to the high sensitivity of cladocerans. The results confirm that MS{center_dot}3 systems are cost-effective tools for assessing the impact of veterinary pharmaceuticals when applied to agricultural land, as previously demonstrated for antimicrobials. (Author) 39 refs.

  10. Assessment of veterinary drugs in plants using pharmacokinetic approaches: The absorption, distribution and elimination of tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole in ephemeral vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ru; Rairat, Tirawat; Loh, Shih-Hurng; Wu, Yu-Chieh; Vickroy, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    The present study was carried out to demonstrate novel use of pharmacokinetic approaches to characterize drug behaviors/movements in the vegetables with implications to food safety. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and most importantly, the elimination of tetracycline (TC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in edible plants Brassica rapa chinensis and Ipomoea aquatica grown hydroponically were demonstrated and studied using non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The results revealed drug-dependent and vegetable-dependent pharmacokinetic differences and indicated that ephemeral vegetables could have high capacity accumulating antibiotics (up to 160 μg g-1 for TC and 38 μg g-1 for SMX) within hours. TC concentration in the root (Cmax) could reach 11 times higher than that in the cultivation fluid and 3–28 times higher than the petioles/stems. Based on the volume of distribution (Vss), SMX was 3–6 times more extensively distributed than TC. Both antibiotics showed evident, albeit slow elimination phase with elimination half-lives ranging from 22 to 88 hours. For the first time drug elimination through the roots of a plant was demonstrated, and by viewing the root as a central compartment and continuous infusion without a loading dose as drug administration mode, it is possible to pharmacokinetically monitor the movement of antibiotics and their fate in the vegetables with more detailed information not previously available. Phyto-pharmacokinetic could be a new area worth developing new models for the assessment of veterinary drugs in edible plants. PMID:28797073

  11. Veterinary radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshin, V.A.; Belov, A.D.; Budarkov, V.A.; Prochazka, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The monograph summarizes the authors' experience and data from Soviet and foreign scientific literature. It consists of the following chapters: radioactive sources; utilization of ionizing radiation and radioactive isotopes; biological effects of ionizing radiation; radiation sickness in animals; combined post-irradiation syndromes; prophylaxis of radiation injury; therapy of irradiated animals; and veterinary radiation hygiene control of the environment, fodder, animals and animal products. (P.A.)

  12. Substituting cannabis for prescription drugs, alcohol and other substances among medical cannabis patients: The impact of contextual factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Philippe; Walsh, Zach; Crosby, Kim; Callaway, Robert; Belle-Isle, Lynne; Kay, Robert; Capler, Rielle; Holtzman, Susan

    2016-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed increased attention to how cannabis use impacts the use of other psychoactive substances. The present study examines the use of cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, illicit substances and prescription drugs among 473 adults who use cannabis for therapeutic purposes. The Cannabis Access for Medical Purposes Survey is a 414-question cross-sectional survey that was available to Canadian medical cannabis patients online and by hard copy in 2011 and 2012 to gather information on patient demographics, medical conditions and symptoms, patterns of medical cannabis use, cannabis substitution and barriers to access to medical cannabis. Substituting cannabis for one or more of alcohol, illicit drugs or prescription drugs was reported by 87% (n = 410) of respondents, with 80.3% reporting substitution for prescription drugs, 51.7% for alcohol, and 32.6% for illicit substances. Respondents who reported substituting cannabis for prescription drugs were more likely to report difficulty affording sufficient quantities of cannabis, and patients under 40 years of age were more likely to substitute cannabis for all three classes of substance than older patients. The finding that cannabis was substituted for all three classes of substances suggests that the medical use of cannabis may play a harm reduction role in the context of use of these substances, and may have implications for abstinence-based substance use treatment approaches. Further research should seek to differentiate between biomedical substitution for prescription pharmaceuticals and psychoactive drug substitution, and to elucidate the mechanisms behind both. [Lucas P, Walsh Z, Crosby K, Callaway R, Belle-Isle L, Kay B, Capler R, Holtzman S. Substituting cannabis for prescription drugs, alcohol, and other substances among medical cannabis patients: The impact of contextual factors. Drug Alcohol Rev 2016;35:326-333]. © 2015 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Hair Testing for Drugs of Abuse and New Psychoactive Substances in a High-Risk Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomone, Alberto; Palamar, Joseph J; Gerace, Enrico; Di Corcia, Daniele; Vincenti, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Hundreds of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have emerged in the drug market over the last decade. Few drug surveys in the USA, however, ask about use of NPS, so prevalence and correlates of use are largely unknown. A large portion of NPS use is unintentional or unknown as NPS are common adulterants in drugs like ecstasy/Molly, and most NPS are rapidly eliminated from the body, limiting efficacy of urine, blood and saliva testing. We utilized a novel method of examining prevalence of NPS use in a high-risk population utilizing hair-testing. Hair samples from high-risk nightclub and dance music attendees were tested for 82 drugs and metabolites (including NPS) using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Eighty samples collected from different parts of the body were analyzed, 57 of which detected positive for at least one substance-either a traditional or new drug. Among these, 26 samples tested positive for at least one NPS-the most common being butylone (25 samples). Other new drugs detected include methylone, methoxetamine, 5/6-APB, α-PVP and 4-FA. Hair analysis proved a powerful tool to gain objective biological drug-prevalence information, free from possible biases of unintentional or unknown intake and untruthful reporting of use. Such testing can be used actively or retrospectively to validate survey responses and inform research on consumption patterns, including intentional and unknown use, polydrug-use, occasional NPS intake and frequent or heavy use. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Associations Between Family History of Substance Use, Childhood Trauma, and Age of First Drug Use in Persons With Methamphetamine Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svingen, Leah; Dykstra, Rita E; Simpson, Jamie L; Jaffe, Anna E; Bevins, Rick A; Carlo, Gustavo; DiLillo, David; Grant, Kathleen M

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the association among family history of substance use problems, childhood maltreatment, and age of first drug use in a sample of men and women seeking treatment for methamphetamine dependence. Various forms of childhood maltreatment were considered as mediators of the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. Participants (N = 99, 40% women, mean age 33) who were under treatment for methamphetamine dependence completed a baseline interview that obtained demographic information, past substance use by participants, history of drug/alcohol problems in their family of origin, and age at first use of any drug (excluding alcohol and tobacco). The Early Trauma Inventory Self-Report-Short Form was used to assess child maltreatment experiences before the age of 18. Family history of substance use problems and childhood physical (but not emotional or sexual) trauma significantly predicted age of first drug use. Further, childhood physical trauma mediated the association between family history of substance use problems and age of first drug use. These findings suggest that the experience of childhood physical abuse may be an important mechanism through which family history of substance use is associated with an earlier age of first drug use.

  15. Multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex infection outbreak in dogs and cats in a veterinary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzi, S; Blum, S E; Kahane, N; Adler, A; Hussein, O; Segev, G; Aroch, I

    2016-11-01

    Members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex cause severe outbreaks in humans, and are increasingly reported in animals. A retrospective study, describing a severe outbreak in dogs and cats caused by a multidrug resistant member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in a veterinary hospital, between July 2010 and November 2012. The study included 19 dogs and 4 cats. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex bacteria were isolated from urine (9 animals), respiratory tract (11), tissues (3) and blood (1). The most common infection-associated findings included fever, purulent discharge from endotracheal tubes, hypotension, and neutropaenia. Infections led to pneumonia, urinary tract infection, cellulitis and sepsis. Infection was transmitted in the intensive care unit, where 22 of 23 animals were initially hospitalised. The mortality rate was 70% (16 of 23 animals), and was higher in cases of respiratory infection compared to other infections. Aggressive environmental cleaning and disinfection, with staff education for personal hygiene and antisepsis, sharply decreased the infection incidence. Health care-associated outbreaks with multidrug resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in dogs and cats are potentially highly fatal and difficult to eradicate, warranting monitoring, antiseptic techniques and judicious antibiotic use. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  16. 75 FR 4576 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ...] Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory... Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl...

  17. FACTORS CONTRIBUTING TO SUBSTANCE (DRUG ABUSE AMONGMALE ADOLESCENTS IN SOUTH AFRICAN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Mohasoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This small-scale study sought to determine the factors that contribute to use ofdrugs by male adolescents in South African public secondary schools. The studywas conducted in four secondary schools in Zeerust, North West, a province ofSouth Africa. Purposive sampling was employed to select from the secondaryschools 12 male adolescents who were prone to substance abuse problems. Aqualitative research approach was followed underpinned by the interpretiveresearch paradigm. More specifically, a multiple case research design was used.The study was successful in identifying the most commonly used drugs such asalcohol, nicotine, cannabis, and heroin. These drugs are readily available in thesurrounding communities and are affordable to the learners. Socialand economicfactors are the main factors contributing to the use of drugs among maleadolescents. The way in which children are brought up, who they associate withand whether they have access to money to buy the drugs largely contribute to druguse. Thisstudy concludes by proposing mitigation strategies that can be employedto deal with substance abuse scourge before it escalates further. Furthermore, thestudy identifies a need for involvement of various stakeholders to find a solutionto the substanceabuse problem.

  18. Relationship between drug dreams, affect, and craving during treatment for substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Hélène; Zadra, Antonio; Good, Daniel; Leri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between occurrence of drug dreams (DDs) and daytime negative affect and drug craving during the course of a 5-week treatment program for substance dependence. Using the dream journal methodology, 86 participants reported occurrence of dreams, dream content, and ratings of affect and drug craving. The relationships between the experience of DD, dream content ("active" vs "passive"), and affect and craving were analyzed using mixed model methods. The experience of DD was associated with higher levels of negative affect (P < 0.001) and craving (P < 0.001). The occurrence of DD did not decrease significantly over the 5 weeks of the study. Cocaine/crack users reported a higher occurrence of DD (P < 0.05) than the other drug groups (opiates and alcohol), and DD involving "active" drug use was associated with larger (P < 0.05) changes in negative affect. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that DD can act as drug-conditioned stimuli to elevate negative affect and craving in abstaining individuals. Although correlational, such findings support the implementation of psychological and pharmacological interventions aimed at minimizing the impact of DD on individuals in recovery from drug addiction.

  19. Novel Psychoactive Substances-Recent Progress on Neuropharmacological Mechanisms of Action for Selected Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Zurina; Bosch, Oliver G; Singh, Darshan; Narayanan, Suresh; Kasinather, B Vicknasingam; Seifritz, Erich; Kornhuber, Johannes; Quednow, Boris B; Müller, Christian P

    2017-01-01

    A feature of human culture is that we can learn to consume chemical compounds, derived from natural plants or synthetic fabrication, for their psychoactive effects. These drugs change the mental state and/or the behavioral performance of an individual and can be instrumentalized for various purposes. After the emergence of a novel psychoactive substance (NPS) and a period of experimental consumption, personal and medical benefits and harm potential of the NPS can be estimated on evidence base. This may lead to a legal classification of the NPS, which may range from limited medical use, controlled availability up to a complete ban of the drug form publically accepted use. With these measures, however, a drug does not disappear, but frequently continues to be used, which eventually allows an even better estimate of the drug's properties. Thus, only in rare cases, there is a final verdict that is no more questioned. Instead, the view on a drug can change from tolerable to harmful but may also involve the new establishment of a desired medical application to a previously harmful drug. Here, we provide a summary review on a number of NPS for which the neuropharmacological evaluation has made important progress in recent years. They include mitragynine ("Kratom"), synthetic cannabinoids (e.g., "Spice"), dimethyltryptamine and novel serotonergic hallucinogens, the cathinones mephedrone and methylone, ketamine and novel dissociative drugs, γ-hydroxybutyrate, γ-butyrolactone, and 1,4-butanediol. This review shows not only emerging harm potentials but also some potential medical applications.

  20. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  1. Underestimated impact of novel psychoactive substances: laboratory confirmation of recreational drug toxicity in Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallersnes, Odd Martin; Persett, Per Sverre; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Karinen, Ritva; Heyerdahl, Fridtjof; Hovda, Knut Erik

    2017-08-01

    Recreational drug toxicity is frequent. Availability of new psychoactive substances is steadily increasing. However, data with verified analyses from clinical settings are limited. To evaluate the impact of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) on recreational drug toxicity in Oslo, Norway, we analysed samples from a selection of patients. All the patients presenting with recreational drug toxicity at the Oslo Accident and Emergency Outpatient Clinic (OAEOC) and at the Oslo University Hospital (OUH) were registered from April through September 2014. Oral fluid samples were collected at the OAEOC. Blood samples were collected at the OUH. The samples were screened using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS). Nine hundred and sixty-four cases were included, 841 (87.2%) at the OAEOC and 123 (12.8%) at the OUH. A total of 55 oral fluid samples (OAEOC) and 103 blood samples (OUH) could be analysed. NPS were not clinically suspected in any of the screened cases. At the outpatient clinic, the most commonly found substances were clonazepam in 42/55 (76.4%) cases, amfetamines in 40/55 (72.7%) and heroin in 39/55 (70.9%). In seven (12.7%) cases NPS were detected: 4-methylamfetamine in three cases, dimethyltryptamine in two, methylone in one, and N,N-dimethyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamfetamine in one. Among the hospital patients, the most commonly found substances were clonazepam in 51/103 (49.5%) cases, amfetamines in 48/103 (46.6%), heroin in 31/103 (30.1%), and diazepam in 30/103 (29.1%). In five (4.9%) cases NPS were detected: JWH-210 in two cases, AM-2201 in two, and 5-EAPB in one. NPS were clinically not suspected, though found in eight percent of cases. Still, the vast majority of patients treated for recreational drug toxicity in Oslo have taken classical drugs. Management of these patients should be based on their clinical condition. However, it is highly important to be alert to atypical presentations possibly resulting from

  2. 25C-NBOMe--new potent hallucinogenic substance identified on the drug market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuba, Dariusz; Sekuła, Karolina; Buczek, Agnieszka

    2013-04-10

    This publication reports analytical properties of a new hallucinogenic substance identified in blotter papers seized from the drug market, namely 25C-NBOMe [2-(4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenyl)-N-(2-methoxybenzyl)ethanamine]. The identification was based on results of comprehensive study including several analytical methods, i.e., GC-EI-MS (without derivatization and after derivatization with TFAA), LC-ESI-QTOF-MS, FTIR and NMR. The GC-MS spectrum of 25C-NBOMe was similar to those obtained for other representatives of the 25-NBOMe series, with dominant ions observed at m/z=150, 121 and 91. Fragment ions analogic to those in 2C-C (4-chloro-2,5-dimethoxy-β-phenylethanamine) were also observed, but their intensities were low. Derivatization allowed the determination of molecular mass of the investigated substance. The exact molecular mass and chemical formula were confirmed by LC-QTOF-MS experiments and fragmentation pattern under electrospray ionization was determined. The MS/MS experiments confirmed that the investigated substance was N-(2-methoxy)benzyl derivative of 2C-C. The substance was also characterized by FTIR spectroscopy to corroborate its identity. Final elucidation of the structure was performed by NMR spectroscopy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Examining substance use among rural Appalachian and urban non-Appalachian individuals participating in drug court.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Lisa M; Perkins, Elizabeth B; Neal, Connie

    2014-02-01

    The study purpose was to examine differences in substance use among individuals in drug court (N = 583) in rural Appalachian (n = 301) and urban non-Appalachian areas (n = 282). A series of logistic regression analyses suggested individuals in the rural Appalachian area were significantly more likely to report lifetime use of cocaine, illicit opiates, and illicit benzodiazepines, but they were less likely to report methamphetamine use when compared with individuals in the urban non-Appalachian area. Regarding past 30-day use, a series of logistic regression analyses suggested individuals in the rural Appalachian area were significantly more likely to use marijuana, illicit opiates, and illicit benzodiazepines, but they were less likely to report crack cocaine use when compared with individuals in the urban non-Appalachian area. Identifying differences which exist in substance use is the first step in generating evidence-based structural changes in treatment drug court programs. Future research should focus on better understanding context in terms of demographic, geographic, and economic conditions, which may be of critical influence on substance use and treatment planning.

  4. PTSD symptom presentation among people with alcohol and drug use disorders: Comparisons by substance of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Emily R; Wanklyn, Sonya; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Coffey, Scott F

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accounted for the presence of comorbidity across types of SUDs in understanding symptom patterns. Thus, in the current study, we use a treatment-seeking sample of people with elevated symptoms of PTSD and problem alcohol use to explore differential associations between past-year SUDs with active use and PTSD symptoms, while accounting for the presence of multiple SUDs. When comparing alcohol and drug use disorders, avoidance symptoms were elevated in those with alcohol use disorder, and hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in those who had a drug use disorder. In the subsample with alcohol use disorder, hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring cocaine use disorders and numbing symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic use disorder. These findings provide evidence for different symptom cluster patterns between PTSD and various types of SUDs and highlight the importance of examining the functional relationship between specific substances of abuse when understanding the interplay between PTSD and SUDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Determinants of nonmedical use, abuse or dependence on prescription drugs, and use of substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Vishal; Raisch, Dennis W; Moffett, Maurice L; Khan, Nasreen

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have found a negative association between health insurance and nonmedical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD), and abuse or dependence on prescription drugs (ADPD); and mixed associations between health insurance and use of substance abuse treatment (SAT). However, effect of health insurance in the specific subgroups of population is largely unknown. To estimate the relationship between health insurance and (1) NMUPD, (2) ADPD, and (3) use of SAT services among 12-64 years old, noninstitutionalized individuals and to see if these relationships are different in different subgroups of population. This study used cross-sectional survey data from 2007 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were conducted. In 2007, self-reported prevalence of NMUPD was approximately 10% (N=15,509,703). In multivariate analysis, NMUPD was negatively associated with health insurance, age, race other than non-Hispanic White, education, marital status, and income ($40,000-$74,999). Past year use of tobacco and alcohol were positively associated with NMUPD. Among those with private health insurance, Hispanics and individuals with family income less than $20,000 and $40,000-$74,999 were more likely prone to NMUPD than others. High school graduates with public health insurance were less likely prone to NMUPD. Approximately, 13% of nonmedical users reported ADPD (N=2,011,229). Health insurance and age were negatively associated with ADPD. However, people who were unmarried, reported fair/poor health, and used tobacco were more likely to report ADPD. Lastly, the use of substance abuse treatment programs was approximately 73% and 76% between NMUPD and ADPD population, respectively. Health insurance was not associated with use of substance abuse treatment. Individuals with high school education were 2.6 times more likely to use substance abuse treatment than the college graduates. Additionally, no significant interaction effects

  6. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    There has been an immense amount of visibility of doping issues on the international stage over the past 12 months with the complexity of doping controls reiterated on various occasions. Hence, analytical test methods continuously being updated, expanded, and improved to provide specific, sensitive, and comprehensive test results in line with the World Anti-Doping Agency's (WADA) 2016 Prohibited List represent one of several critical cornerstones of doping controls. This enterprise necessitates expediting the (combined) exploitation of newly generated information on novel and/or superior target analytes for sports drug testing assays, drug elimination profiles, alternative test matrices, and recent advances in instrumental developments. This paper is a continuation of the series of annual banned-substance reviews appraising the literature published between October 2015 and September 2016 concerning human sports drug testing in the context of WADA's 2016 Prohibited List. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Assessment of veterinary services in central Ethiopia: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    services, and black-market drug dealers were found to be challengers associated .... veterinary service, private veterinarians, traditional healers and NGOs mainly ... timeliness, effectiveness and affordability of the veterinary service providers.

  8. An update discussion on the current assessment of the safety of veterinary antimicrobial drug residues in food with regard to their impact on the human intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Carl E; Pineiro, Silvia A; Kotarski, Susan F

    2016-05-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract ecosystem consists of complex and diverse microbial communities that have now been collectively termed the intestinal microbiome. Recent scientific breakthroughs and research endeavours have increased our understanding of the important role the intestinal microbiome plays in human health and disease. The use of antimicrobial new animal drugs in food-producing animals may result in the presence of low levels of drug residues in edible foodstuffs. There is concern that antimicrobial new animal drugs in or on animal-derived food products at residue-level concentrations could disrupt the colonization barrier and/or modify the antimicrobial resistance profile of human intestinal bacteria. Therapeutic doses of antimicrobial drugs have been shown to promote shifts in the intestinal microbiome, and these disruptions promote the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. To assess the effects of antimicrobial new animal drug residues in food on human intestinal bacteria, many national regulatory agencies and international committees follow a harmonized process, VICH GL36(R), which was issued by a trilateral organization of the European Union, the USA, and Japan called the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH). The guidance describes a general approach currently used by national regulatory agencies and international committees to assess the effects of antimicrobial new animal drug residues in animal-derived food on human intestinal bacteria. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this current approach as part of the antimicrobial new animal drug approval process in participating countries, give insights on the microbiological endpoints used in this safety evaluation, and discuss the availability of new information. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Increased Incidence of Spinal Abscess and Substance Abuse after Implementation of State Mandated Prescription Drug Legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagar, Vittal R; Springer, Joe E; Salles, Sara

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse in a tertiary care hospital after state legislation titled "House Bill 1" (HB1) mandated stricter regulation of prescription drugs of abuse in Kentucky in 2012. A retrospective case series study design was used to review the incidence of spinal abscess and drug abuse diagnoses admissions from 2010 to 2014. Variances in the incidence of spinal abscess and substance abuse were plotted across this time frame. The incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 1.56-fold in 2011 (n = 26) and 2012 (n = 25) relative to 2010 (n = 16). However, in 2013, the year following implementation of HB1 legislation, the incidence of intraspinal abscess increased 2.38-fold (n = 38) and then 4.19-fold (n = 67) in 2014. The incidence of intraspinal abscess in subjects with drug abuse diagnosis remained constant between 2010 (n = 3) and 2012 (n = 3). However, it increased twofold (n = 7) in 2013 and then ninefold (n = 27) in 2014. A correlation coefficient (rSAD ) of 0.775 revealed a strong association between the increase incidence of intraspinal abscess and diagnosis of drug abuse. The results of this retrospective study demonstrate an increased incidence of intraspinal abscess associated with drug abuse after passage of HB1 legislation regulating prescriptions of controlled medications in Kentucky. This increased incidence may be related to individuals relying on nonprescription drugs of abuse due to more highly regulated access to controlled prescription medications. However, additional factors unrelated to HB1 legislation must be taken into account. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Resident cats in small animal veterinary hospitals carry multi-drug resistant enterococci and are likely involved in cross-contamination of the hospital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha eGhosh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the U.S., small animal veterinary hospitals (SAVHs commonly keep resident cats living permanently as pets within their facilities. Previously, multi-drug resistant (MDR enterococci were found as a contaminant of multiple surfaces within such veterinary hospitals, and nosocomial infections are a concern. The objectives of this study were to determine whether resident cats carry MDR enterococci and if they potentially play a role in the contamination of the hospital environment. Enterococcal strains (n=180 were isolated from the feces of six healthy resident cats from different SAVHs. The concentration of enterococci ranged from 1.1 x 105 to 6.0 x 108 CFU g-1 of feces, and the population comprised E. hirae (38.3±18.6%, E. faecium (35.0±14.3%, E. faecalis (23.9±11.0%, and E. avium (2.8±2.2%. Testing of phenotypic resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents revealed multi-drug resistance (≥3 antimicrobials in 48.9% of all enterococcal isolates with most frequent resistance to tetracycline (72.8%, erythromycin (47.8%, and rifampicin (35.6%. Vancomycin resistant E. faecalis (3.9% with vanB not horizontally transferable in in vitro conjugation assays were detected from one cat. Genotyping (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated a host-specific clonal population of MDR E. faecalis and E. faecium. Importantly, several feline isolates were genotypically identical or closely related to isolates from surfaces of cage door, thermometer, and stethoscope of the corresponding SAVHs. These data demonstrate that healthy resident cats at SAVHs carry MDR enterococci and likely contribute to contamination of the SAVH environment. Proper disposal and handling of fecal material and restricted movement of resident cats within the ward is recommended.

  11. Efficiency of the Clinical Veterinary Diagnostic Practices and Drug Choices for Infectious Diseases in Livestock in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, S. U.; Islam, A.

    2017-01-01

    ) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). We conducted the study from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals where veterinarians collected samples from sick livestock and recorded the presumptive diagnosis on the basis of clinical presentations. Samples were tested for PPR and FMD using...... competency of these veterinarians needs to be improved and access to laboratory diagnostic facilities could help veterinarians to improve the diagnostics and outcomes. The rational use of antibiotics by veterinarians in animals must be ensured....... validation process for PPR (kappa: 0.25) and FMD (kappa 0.36) indicated a poor performance of the presumptive diagnoses. Most of the animals (93%) were treated with antibiotics. Our findings indicate that veterinarians can detect animals not infected with FMD or PPR but miss the true cases. The clinical...

  12. Drugs of Abuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances at Outdoor Music Festivals in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jacob; Smith, Alexis; Yale, Alexander; Chow, Christopher; Alaswad, Elsa; Cushing, Tracy; Monte, Andrew A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Drugs of abuse (DOA) are widely used in the United States and are ubiquitous at outdoor music festivals. Attendees at music festivals are at high-risk for novel psychoactive substance (NPS) use, which is becoming more prevalent worldwide. No U.S. studies have employed an qualitative approach to investigate the etiologies of both traditional DOA and NPS use amongst music festival attendees. Objectives The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of festival attendees using NPS and DOA. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews of 171 attendees during the Sonic Bloom and Arise music festivals in Colorado in 2015 and 2016. Discrete variables were summarized with descriptive statistics. The anonymous, multi-domain interview documented the knowledge, attitudes beliefs, and practices underlying DOA use, which were analyzed with qualitative methods. Results We enrolled 171 participants that endorsed DOA use at the festivals. Most were experienced DOA users, who perceived minimal risks associated with DOA and NPS use. Nearly all unanimously reported normalization of DOA at music festivals. Participants popularly cited empathogenic, entactogenic, and entheogenic effects of DOA as their primary motivations for use. NPS use was endorsed by 39.8% (n = 68) of respondents, all of whom identified as being experienced DOA users. Conclusions This population of novel psychoactive substance users is primarily composed of experienced drug users that endorsed use because of low cost, minimal perceived risk, accessibility, and normalization of drug use at music festivals. PMID:29148866

  13. Annual banned-substance review: analytical approaches in human sports drug testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thevis, Mario; Kuuranne, Tiia; Walpurgis, Katja; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of improving anti-doping efforts is predicated on several different pillars, including, amongst others, optimized analytical methods. These commonly result from exploiting most recent developments in analytical instrumentation as well as research data on elite athletes' physiology in general, and pharmacology, metabolism, elimination, and downstream effects of prohibited substances and methods of doping, in particular. The need for frequent and adequate adaptations of sports drug testing procedures has been incessant, largely due to the uninterrupted emergence of new chemical entities but also due to the apparent use of established or even obsolete drugs for reasons other than therapeutic means, such as assumed beneficial effects on endurance, strength, and regeneration capacities. Continuing the series of annual banned-substance reviews, literature concerning human sports drug testing published between October 2014 and September 2015 is summarized and reviewed in reference to the content of the 2015 Prohibited List as issued by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), with particular emphasis on analytical approaches and their contribution to enhanced doping controls. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Drugs of Abuse and Novel Psychoactive Substances at Outdoor Music Festivals in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jacob; Smith, Alexis; Yale, Alexander; Chow, Christopher; Alaswad, Elsa; Cushing, Tracy; Monte, Andrew A

    2018-06-07

    Drugs of abuse (DOA) are widely used in the United States and are ubiquitous at outdoor music festivals. Attendees at music festivals are at high-risk for novel psychoactive substance (NPS) use, which is becoming more prevalent worldwide. No U.S. studies have employed an qualitative approach to investigate the etiologies of both traditional DOA and NPS use amongst music festival attendees. The objective of this study was to improve understanding of the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and practices of festival attendees using NPS and DOA. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 171 attendees during the Sonic Bloom and Arise music festivals in Colorado in 2015 and 2016. Discrete variables were summarized with descriptive statistics. The anonymous, multi-domain interview documented the knowledge, attitudes beliefs, and practices underlying DOA use, which were analyzed with qualitative methods. We enrolled 171 participants that endorsed DOA use at the festivals. Most were experienced DOA users, who perceived minimal risks associated with DOA and NPS use. Nearly all unanimously reported normalization of DOA at music festivals. Participants popularly cited empathogenic, entactogenic, and entheogenic effects of DOA as their primary motivations for use. NPS use was endorsed by 39.8% (n = 68) of respondents, all of whom identified as being experienced DOA users. This population of novel psychoactive substance users is primarily composed of experienced drug users that endorsed use because of low cost, minimal perceived risk, accessibility, and normalization of drug use at music festivals.

  15. Analysis of banned veterinary drugs and herbicide residues in shellfish by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Geng-Ruei; Chen, Hui-Shan; Lin, Feng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Seafood safety is a crucial public health concern for consumers. In this study, we applied a validated method to analyze the residue of banned veterinary drugs in shellfish, namely chloramphenicol, malachite green, leucomalachite green, and nitrofuran metabolites; additionally, the QuEChERS method was employed to detect 76 herbicides by LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS. In total, 42 shellfish samples, which included hard clams, freshwater clams, and oysters, were collected from aquafarms and production areas in Taiwan during 2012. Our results revealed 3.8 ng/g of chloramphenicol in one hard clam, 19.9–32.1 ng/g of ametryn in two hard clams, 16.1–60.1 ng/g of pendimethalin in four hard clams, and 17.0 ng/g of mefenacet in one oyster, indicating that 19.1% of the samples contained residues from banned veterinary drugs and pesticides. These data can be used to monitor the residue of veterinary drugs and pesticides in aquatic organisms and as a reference for food safety. - Highlights: • A certified method was employed for analyzing residues of banned veterinary drugs and herbicides in shellfish samples. • The trace levels of chloramphenicol, ametryn, pendimethalin were detected in hard clam samples. • For ensuring food safety, continual monitoring of aquatic products is necessary.

  16. The impact of legislation on drug substances used off-label in paediatric wards--a nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslund-Krog, Sissel; Mathiasen, René; Christensen, Hanne Rolighed; Holst, Helle

    2014-04-01

    This nationwide study is aimed at describing to what extent the European Paediatric Regulation has met therapeutic needs in children. Data for each drug substance in defined daily doses (DDD) were extracted from the national Danish data base. We evaluated if drug substances were used off-label and whether they had a paediatric investigation plan (PIP). This study did not include drug prescriptions for individual paediatric patients; thus, it was not possible to make use of all off-label categories previously used. Additionally, paediatric standard assortments (SA) were compared to the European survey on paediatric medicinal products. Thirteen percent of the 100 most used drug substances were determined as being used off-label, four of which had a PIP and one had a full waiver. Only one of the three drug substances used off-label most often, accounting for 85 % of such use, had a PIP. Neonates were included in one-third of PIPs and adolescents in 15. Nineteen out of 21 PIPs had a waiver and 14 PIPs were deferred. In line with the European survey, carbapenems, corticosteroids and proton pump inhibitors were frequent found in SAs. PIPs only cover a small proportion of the drugs found to be used off-label in this study. Despite waivers granted, drug substances were used nonetheless. Unmet regulatory needs are still considerable in some therapeutic areas in neonates as well as in children.

  17. Policing, massive street drug testing and poly-substance use chaos in Georgia - a policy case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otiashvili, David; Tabatadze, Mzia; Balanchivadze, Nino; Kirtadze, Irma

    2016-01-16

    Since early 2000, intensive policing, wide scale street drug testing, and actions aimed at limiting the availability of specific drugs have been implemented in Georgia. Supporters of this approach argue that fear of drug testing and resulting punishment compels drug users to stop using and prevents youth from initiating drug use. It has been also stated that reduction in the availability of specific drugs should be seen as an indication of the overall success of counter-drug efforts. The aim of the current review is to describe the drug-related law enforcement response in Georgia and its impact on illicit drug consumption and drug-related harm. We reviewed relevant literature that included peer-reviewed scientific articles, stand-alone research reports, annual drug situation reports, technical reports and program data. This was also supplemented by the review of relevant legislation and judicial practices for the twelve year period between 2002 and 2014. Every episode of reduced availability of any "traditional" injection drug was followed by the discovery/introduction of a new injection preparation. The pattern of drug consumption was normally driven by users' attempts to substitute their drug of choice through mixing together available alternative substances. Chaotic poly-substance use and extensive utilization of home-made injection drugs, prepared from toxic precursors, became common. Massive random street drug testing had little or no effect on the prevalence of problem drug use. Intensive harassment of drug users and exclusive focus on reducing the availability of specific drugs did not result in reduction of the prevalence of injecting drug use. Repressive response of Georgian anti-drug authorities relied heavily on consumer sanctions, which led to shifts in drug users' behavior. In most cases, these shifts were associated with the introduction and use of new toxic preparations and subsequent harm to the physical and mental health of drug consumers.

  18. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    ¹Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ABU Zaria, Nigeria, ²Department of. Veterinary Physiology ... dogs, AGRs have a highly sensitive sense of smell. The rats ..... Gonadal Axis and thyroid Activity in. Male rats.

  19. Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods and Strategies to Strengthen National Residue Control Programmes for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    Awareness of food safety is rising among consumers, and many importing countries implement food control regulations to guarantee the quality and safety of imported foods for their consumers. Many developing countries have also taken steps to put in place control systems that encourage responsible use of veterinary medicines to combat possible drug resistance, control drug residues and ensure compliance with international and national standards. However, these countries still require the necessary know-how and skills to protect local consumers and to access international markets. One significant constraint is the capacity of laboratory services to generate surveillance data using reliable and cost effective analytical methods validated to national and international standards. The IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on the Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen National Residue Control Programmes for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues was initiated in 2009 to conduct work on robust nuclear and related technologies suitable for the screening and confirmatory analysis of residues of veterinary medicines, including antimicrobials and anthelmintics commonly used in animal production, with public health and trade significance. The CRP also explored mechanisms to enhance networking among research institutions involved in research on pharmacologically active veterinary drug residues in food (primarily) and environmental samples. The project was implemented by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture between 2009 and 2014 and involved eleven research contracts and one technical contract, five research agreements and one institution. The CRP was a continuation of the CRP on the Development of Strategies for the Effective Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Livestock and Livestock Products in Developing Countries and the key findings are also summarized in this publication.

  20. A Study of Substance Use Among Male Drug Addicts in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmat Fazeli

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The present investingation was designed to explore the extent to which the elements of the Health Belief Model (HBMpredict substance use among male drug addicts in Iran. A self – report research instrument (questionnairewas developed and administered to obtain data. One hundred and twenty four subjects voluntarily participated in the survey . The contributers had already attended places like Health Organization and other detoxicating centers in order to stop their risky behaviour . There were four distinct predictive components (perceived susceptibilty, perceived severity, perceived benefits and perceived barriersin the HBM. These components were internally consistent and together examined the risky behaviour, substance use. This study revealed that the model is reliable, valid, robust and feasible for examining substance use behavioure. The theoretical components of the HBM appeared to have different predictive ability perceived benefits showed the strongest power . This is consistent with a great number of research findings in this area. In contrary , predictive ability of predictive power of preceived sevirity . declined – all research hypothses were approved except predictive power of percieved sevirity. Rationale for this decline refres to the repetition of relapse after detoxication .In fact, " believing in serverity for the consequences of a risky behaviour pales through repetition of the behavioure ".

  1. Nanomedicine in veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei

    2015-08-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Characterization and quantitation of aprepitant drug substance polymorphs by attenuated total reflectance fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmy, Roy; Zhou, George X; Chen, Yadan W; Crocker, Louis; Wang, Tao; Wenslow, Robert M; Vailaya, Anant

    2003-02-01

    In this study, we report the use of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR) for the identification and quantitation of two polymorphs of Aprepitant, a substance P antagonist for chemotherapy-induced emesis. Mixtures of the polymorph pair were prepared by weight and ATR-FT-IR spectra of the powdered samples were obtained over the wavelength range of 700-1500 cm(-1). Significant spectral differences between the two polymorphs at 1140 cm(-1) show that ATR-FT-IR can provide definitive identification of the polymorphs. To investigate the feasibility of ATR-FT-IR for quantitation of polymorphic forms of Aprepitant, a calibration plot was constructed with known mixtures of the two polymorphs by plotting the peak ratio of the second derivative of absorbance spectra against the weight percent of form II in the polymorphic mixture. Using this novel approach, 3 wt % of one crystal form could be detected in mixtures of the two polymorphs. The accuracy of ATR-FT-IR in determining polymorph purity of the drug substance was tested by comparing the results with those obtained by X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD). Indeed, polymorphic purity results obtained by ATR-FT-IR were found to be in good agreement with the predictions made by XRPD and compared favorably with actual values in the known mixtures. The present study clearly demonstrates the potential of ATR-FT-IR as a quick, easy, and inexpensive alternative to XRPD for the determination of polymorphic identity and purity of solid drug substances. The technique is ideally suited for polymorph analysis, because it is precise, accurate, and requires minimal sample preparation.

  3. Cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeiro, Brian S

    2013-01-01

    Cyclosporine is an immunomodulatory medication that is efficacious and approved for atopic dermatitis in dogs and allergic dermatitis in cats; it has also been used to successfully manage a variety of immune-mediated dermatoses in dogs and cats. This article reviews the use of cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology including its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, side effects, and relevant clinical updates. Dermatologic indications including atopic/allergic dermatitis, perianal fistulas, sebaceous adenitis, and other immune-mediated skin diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Holistic pediatric veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Studying the factors in dependency to substances changing the mood and behavior and effective methods in drug addiction counseling

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Addicts to alcohol and other substances changing the mood and behavior attempt to stop their addiction and avoid its relapse because they suffer mental and physical problems, they are under the pressure of family members, employer and other individuals who influence over their life as well as negative effects of drug addiction on their performance in family, work and social relations. Since drug addicts experience physical pain when they are not using drugs, they refer, at first, to physician...

  6. Patterns of substance use and correlates of lifetime and active injection drug use among women in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Loeliger, Kelsey B; Marcus, Ruthanne; Pillai, Veena; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    While drug use is associated with HIV risk in Southeast Asia, little is known about substance use behaviors among women, including drug injection. To describe patterns of substance use among women using alcohol and drugs in Malaysia and identify correlates of lifetime and active drug injection, a risk factor for HIV transmission. A survey of 103 women who used drugs in the last 12 months assessed drug use history and frequency, including drug injection and drug use during pregnancy, self-reported HIV-status, childhood and adulthood physical and sexual abuse, and access to and utilization of harm reduction services, including needle-syringe exchange programs (NSEP) and opioid agonist maintenance therapy (OAT). Principal component analyses (PCA) were conducted to assess drug use grouping. Amphetamine-type substances (ATS; 82.5%), alcohol (75.7%) and heroin (71.8%) were the most commonly used drugs across the lifetime. Drug injection was reported by 32.0% (n = 33) of participants with 21.4% (n = 22) having injected in the last 30 days. PCA identified two groups of drug users: opioids/benzodiazepines and club drugs. Lifetime drug injection was significantly associated with lower education, homelessness, prior criminal justice involvement, opioid use, polysubstance use, childhood physical and sexual abuse, and being HIV-infected, but not with prior OAT. Women who use drugs in Malaysia report high levels of polysubstance use and injection-related risk behaviors, including sharing of injection equipment and being injected by others. Low OAT utilization suggests the need for improved access to OAT services and other harm reduction measures that prioritize women.

  7. Longitudinal Modeling of the Association Between Transmissible Risk, Affect During Drug Use and Development of Substance Use Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent; Reynolds, Maureen; Horner, Michelle; Zhai, ZuWei; Gathuru, Irene; Vanyukov, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examined the hypothesis that subjective experience during consumption of preferred drugs mediates the association of transmissible risk for substance use disorder (SUD) measured in childhood and adolescence, and SUD diagnosis in adulthood. Transmissible risk denotes the psychological characteristics having intergenerational continuity between parents and their biological children. The transmissible liability index (TLI) was administered to four hundred eighty-three 10 to 12-year-old boys (baseline). Follow-up evaluations were conducted when the boys attained 12-14, 16, 19, and 22 years of age, using age-specific versions of the TLI. Frequency of consumption of the participants' three most preferred drugs, affect on an ordinary day, affect while under influence of the preferred substances, and presence/absence of current SUD were assessed at 22 years of age. Consumption frequency of preferred drugs among boys mediates the association of transmissible risk during childhood, and adolescence and SUD diagnosis in adulthood. Severity of negative affect on a drug-free day predicts frequency of consumption of preferred drugs, which, in turn, predicts severity of negative affect during the drug use event. Neither affect on a drug-free day nor affect during the drug use event mediates the association of transmissible risk and SUD. Affect on drug-free days, and while under influence of preferred substances, covary with consumption frequency; however, affect is not related to transmissible SUD risk or SUD outcome.

  8. 75 FR 36588 - Veterinary Feed Directive; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... 558 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0155] Veterinary Feed Directive; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food... veterinary feed directive (VFD) regulation. The agency is taking this action in response to requests for an... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration, 7500...

  9. 75 FR 52605 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ...] Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory..., Rockville, MD 20852, 301-468-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3...

  10. Portugal's 2001 Drugs Liberalisation Policy: A UK Service Provider's Perspective on the Psychoactive Substances Act (2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banbury, Samantha; Lusher, Joanne; Guedelha, Francisco

    2018-01-01

    The Misuse of Drugs Act (1971) and the Psychoactive Substances Act (2016) both reinforce the criminalisation of drug use in the UK. The Psychoactive Substances Act (2016) has been developed to control and monitor the use of legal highs, particularly in institutions. This study aimed to establish drug service providers' viewpoints on how effective…

  11. Prescription painkillers and controlled substances: an appraisal of drug information provided by six US pharmacies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gill PS

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Preetinder S GillCollege of Technology, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, MI, USABackground: Health literacy impacts health outcomes. Health literacy is a measure of a person's competence to find, access, contextualize, and understand the information needed to make health decisions. Low levels of health literacy have been associated with poor health status. Health literacy can be enhanced by improving the readability of health literature. Misuse and abuse of prescription medicines and controlled substances is rising. It could be argued that improving the readability of the drug-information documents associated with these medicines could serve to alleviate this situation in a small, albeit incremental, manner. This paper provides a readability assessment of 71 such documents.Methods: The readability of drug-information documents associated with 12 commonly misused and abused painkiller medicines and controlled substances published by the top six US pharmacies was assessed. The Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease, and Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG indices were used to assess the readability of these drug-information documents. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare the readability of the documents.Results: The average Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level index score was found to be 11.16. The average Flesch Reading Ease index score was found to be 45.94. The average SMOG index score was found to be 13.60. Pharmacies C and E had the best average readability scores, whereas pharmacies A and B had the worst average readability scores.Conclusion: Access, contents, and formatting of the documents were qualitatively analyzed to make recommendations to improve readability. Pharmacies C and E were used as benchmarks to identify the seven best practices. Good drug-information documents should have: (1 clear purpose, (2 limited scope, (3 summary/brief review, (4 well-placed graphics, (5 informative illustrations, (6 clean

  12. Abuse of Prescription Drugs in the Context of Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS): A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schifano, Fabrizio; Chiappini, Stefania; Corkery, John M; Guirguis, Amira

    2018-04-22

    Recently, a range of prescription and over-the-counter drugs have been reportedly used as Novel Psychoactive Substances (NPS), due to their potential for abuse resulting from their high dosage/idiosyncratic methods of self-administration. This paper provides a systematic review of the topic, focusing on a range of medications which have emerged as being used recreationally, either on their own or in combination with NPS. Among gabapentinoids, pregabalin may present with higher addictive liability levels than gabapentin, with pregabalin being mostly identified in the context of opioid, polydrug intake. For antidepressants, their dopaminergic, stimulant-like, bupropion activities may explain their recreational value and diversion from the therapeutic intended use. In some vulnerable clients, a high dosage of venlafaxine (‘baby ecstasy’) is ingested for recreational purposes, whilst the occurrence of a clinically-relevant withdrawal syndrome may be a significant issue for all venlafaxine-treated patients. Considering second generation antipsychotics, olanzapine appears to be ingested at very large dosages as an ‘ideal trip terminator’, whilst the immediate-release quetiapine formulation may possess proper abuse liability levels. Within the image- and performance- enhancing drugs (IPEDs) group, the beta-2 agonist clenbuterol (‘size zero pill’) is reported to be self-administered for aggressive slimming purposes. Finally, high/very high dosage ingestion of the antidiarrhoeal loperamide has shown recent increasing levels of popularity due to its central recreational, anti-withdrawal, opiatergic effects. The emerging abuse of prescription drugs within the context of a rapidly modifying drug scenario represents a challenge for psychiatry, public health and drug-control policies.

  13. Alcohol and drug abuse among U.S. veterans: comparing associations with intimate partner substance abuse and veteran psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Reardon, Annemarie F; Wolf, Erika J; Prince, Lauren B; Hein, Christina L

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the relative influences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  14. Veterinary medicines in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, A B A; Fogg, L A; Blackwell, P A; Kay, P; Pemberton, E J; Croxford, A

    2004-01-01

    (6000 L kg(-1)). The variation in partitioning for many of the compounds in different soils was significant (up to a factor of 30), but these differences could be not be explained by normalization to the organic carbon content of the soils. Thus, to arrive at a realistic assessment of the availability of veterinary medicines for transport through the soil and uptake into soil organisms, the K(oc) (which is used in many of the exposure models) may not be an appropriate measure. Transport of particle-associated substances from soil to surface waters has also been demonstrated. Veterinary medicines can persist in soils for days to years, and half-lives are influenced by a range of factors including temperature, pH, and the presence of manure. The persistence of major groups of veterinary medicines in soil, manure, slurry, and water varies across and within classes. Ecotoxicity data were available for a wide range of veterinary medicines. The acute and chronic effects of avermectins and sheep dip chemicals on aquatic organisms are well documented, and these substances are known to be toxic to many organisms at low concentrations (ng L(-1) to microg L(-1)). Concerns have also been raised about the possibility of indirect effects of these substances on predatory species (e.g., birds and bats). Data for other groups indicate that toxicity values are generally in the mg L(-1) range. For the antibiotics, toxicity is greater for certain species of algae and marine bacteria. Generally, toxicity values for antibacterial agents were significantly higher than reported environmental concentrations. However, because of a lack of appropriate toxicity data, it is difficult to assess the environmental significance of these observations with regard to subtle long-term effects.

  15. 77 FR 16806 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... related to the 20th Session of the CCRVDF will be accessible via the World Wide Web at the following... CCRVDF CONTACT: Kevin Greenlees, Senior Advisor for Science & Policy, Office of New Animal Drug... Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Through adoption of...

  16. 75 FR 48928 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... Session of the CCRVDF will be accessible via the World Wide Web at the following address: http://www... contact: Dr. Kevin Greenlees, Senior Advisor for Science & Policy, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation... Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Through adoption of...

  17. Mood Fluctuation and Psychobiological Instability: The Same Core Functions Are Disrupted by Novel Psychoactive Substances and Established Recreational Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C. Parrott

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Many novel psychoactive substances (NPS have entered the recreational drug scene in recent years, yet the problems they cause are similar to those found with established drugs. This article will debate the psychobiological effects of these newer and more traditional substances. It will show how they disrupt the same core psychobiological functions, so damaging well-being in similar ways. Every psychoactive drug causes mood states to fluctuate. Users feel better on-drug, then feel worse off-drug. The strength of these mood fluctuations is closely related to their addiction potential. Cyclical changes can occur with many other core psychobiological functions, such as information processing and psychomotor speed. Hence the list of drug-related impairments can include: homeostatic imbalance, HPA axis disruption, increased stress, altered sleep patterns, neurohormonal changes, modified brain rhythms, neurocognitive impairments, and greater psychiatric vulnerability. Similar patterns of deficit are found with older drugs such as cocaine, nicotine and cannabis, and newer substances such as 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, mephedrone and spice. All psychoactive drugs damage human well-being through similar basic neuropsychobiological mechanisms.

  18. Studying the factors in dependency to substances changing the mood and behavior and effective methods in drug addiction counseling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Addicts to alcohol and other substances changing the mood and behavior attempt to stop their addiction and avoid its relapse because they suffer mental and physical problems, they are under the pressure of family members, employer and other individuals who influence over their life as well as negative effects of drug addiction on their performance in family, work and social relations. Since drug addicts experience physical pain when they are not using drugs, they refer, at first, to physicians and then to psychiatrists. Although emerging and applying non-medical and non-pharmaceutical approaches models is not too old, arising various addictive drugs and increasing the number of drug addicts as well as individual/social destructive consequences of drug addiction have caused that psychiatrists, psychologists and social workers to represent various non-pharmaceutical theories, models, methods and guidelines based on the conditions of their clients and their clinical experiences. The present article attempts to identify the reasons of drug addiction tendency, consumption patterns, models, theories of addiction to substances changing the mood and behavior, various methods of drug treatment, effective methods in drug addiction counseling and non-medical and non-pharmaceutical methods to give up drug addiction by using recent research findings. On this basis, the most effective methods to help those who suffer from alcohol and other drugs abuse and dependency are studied.

  19. Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs and Pharmacist Orientation Toward Dispensing Controlled Substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendrich, Michael; Bryan, Janelle K; Hooyer, Katinka

    2018-01-03

    We sought to understand how pharmacists viewed and used a newly implemented prescription drug monitoring program (PDMP). We also sought to understand pharmacist orientation toward dispensing of controlled substances and the people who obtain them. We conducted three mini focus groups. The focus group findings were used to inform the design of a structured survey. We emailed a survey to 160 pharmacists who were employed in one statewide community chain store; we obtained 48 survey responses. Focus groups findings suggested that, in relation to the dispensing of scheduled prescription medication, pharmacists were either "healthcare" oriented, "law-enforcement" oriented, or an orientation that combined these two perspectives. Surveys suggested that pharmacists found PDMPs easy to use and that they used them frequently - often to contact physicians directly. Surveys suggested that pharmacists were typically either "healthcare" oriented or "mixed" (combined perspectives). Pharmacist orientation was associated with the frequency with which they counseled patients about medication risk and the frequency with which they used the PDMP as the basis for contacting prescribers. Ongoing tracking of pharmacists' use of PDMPs is important both at the implementation stage and as PDMPs develop over time. The orientation construct developed here is useful in understanding pharmacist behavior and attitudes towards patients potentially at risk for misuse of controlled substance medications. Further research on this construct could shed light on barriers and incentives for pharmacist PDMP participation and use and provide guidance for pharmacist training, ultimately enhancing patient care.

  20. Application of thermally stimulated current measurement to the polymorphic characterization of drug substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Y.; Hirayama, T.; Terada, K.

    2005-01-01

    The thermal stimulated current measurement was used as an innovative analytical equipment to evaluate the polymorphic properties of terfenadine and Compound A, being developed by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Limited. At first, terfenadine, which is known to have polymorphs, was used as a model sample for thermally stimulated current (TSC) analyses. The TSC curves of amorphous and two polymorphs were distinctly different from each other. Therefore, it was considered that TSC measurement could be a useful technique to evaluate the crystalline properties of drug substances. The polymorphs of compound A were difficult to distinguish the characteristics of polymorphs from conventional powder X-ray diffractometry and also differential scanning calorimetry. Forms A and B of compound A were clearly differentiated by the thermal stimulated current properties that were adequate to characterize each form. Thus, it was shown that TSC was extremely useful and powerful tool for identification of complicated polymorphs, which were not distinguished by conventional methods

  1. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and their role in uptake and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in the environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártíková, H.; Skálová, L.; Stuchlíková, L.; Vokřál, I.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2015), s. 374-387 ISSN 0360-2532 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05325S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22593S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Pollutants * phytoremediation * drug phytotoxicity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.526, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/03602532.2015.1076437

  2. Screening for substance abuse risk in cancer patients using the Opioid Risk Tool and urine drug screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Joshua S; Owens, Justine E; Blackhall, Leslie J

    2014-07-01

    The use of opioids for management of cancer-related pain has increased significantly and has been associated with a substantial rise in rates of substance abuse and diversion. There is a paucity of data not only on the prevalence of substance abuse in cancer patients, but also for issues of drug use and diversion in family caregivers. This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of risk factors for substance abuse and diversion, and abnormal urine drug screens in cancer patients receiving palliative care. A retrospective chart review was performed for patients with cancer who were seen in the University of Virginia Palliative Care Clinic during the month of September 2012. We evaluated Opioid Risk Tool variables and total scores, insurance status, and urine drug screen results. Of the 114 cancer patients seen in September 2012, the mean Opioid Risk Tool score was 3.79, with 43% of patients defined as medium to high risk. Age (16-45 years old, 23%) and a personal history of alcohol (23%) or illicit drugs (21%) were the most common risk factors identified. We obtained a urine drug screen on 40% of patients, noting abnormal findings in 45.65%. Opioids are an effective treatment for cancer-related pain, yet substantial risk for substance abuse exits in the cancer population. Screening tools, such as the Opioid Risk Tool, should be used as part of a complete patient assessment to balance risk with appropriate relief of suffering.

  3. Simultaneous identification of abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hei-Hwa Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A literature search reveals no studies concerning simultaneous identification of commonly abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS. We developed and validated an LC–MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine from suspected drug abusers. The instrument was operated in multiple-reaction monitoring using an electrospray ionization mode. Chromatograms were separated using an ACE5 C18 column on a gradient of acetonitrile. After liquid–liquid extraction, samples were passed through a 0.22-μm polyvinylidene difluoride filter before injection into the LC–MS/MS. The limits of quantitation ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 31.3 ng/mL. The linearity ranged from 0.5 ng/mL to 200 ng/mL. The precision results were below 15.4% (intraday and 18.7% (interday. The intraday accuracy ranged from 85.9% to 121.0%; interday accuracy ranged from 66.1% to 128.7%. The proposed method was applied to 769 urine samples. The most common three drugs identified were ketamine, amphetamine, and opiates. The drug positive rate for one or more drugs was 79.6%. Our results demonstrate the suitability of the LC–MS/MS method for simultaneous identification of multiple abused drugs, benzodiazepines, and new psychoactive substances in urine.

  4. Booze, drugs, and pop music: trends in substance portrayals in the billboard top 100-1968-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Peter; Roberts, Donald F; Bjork, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a content analysis of alcohol and drug portrayals in the top 100 Billboard songs from each of the years 1968, 1978, 1988, 1998, and 2008, thus allowing both a characterization of substance portrayals in music generally and an analysis of changes over time. Of the final sample of 496 songs, 10.3% contained a reference to alcohol and 5.7% contained a reference to drugs. A substantial increase was found over the decades, and in particular over the last two: in 1988, 12% of songs referred to either or both classes of substance, compared to 30% in 2008. Marijuana was by far the most frequently mentioned drug. Both alcohol and drugs were much more likely to be portrayed positively than negatively, especially in recent decades. The results are discussed in terms of relevant theories of media processing and impact.

  5. Role of substance use in HIV care cascade outcomes among people who inject drugs in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrisov, Bulat; Lunze, Karsten; Cheng, Debbie M; Blokhina, Elena; Gnatienko, Natalia; Quinn, Emily; Bridden, Carly; Walley, Alexander Y; Bryant, Kendall J; Lioznov, Dmitry; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Samet, Jeffrey H

    2017-12-04

    Engaging people who drink alcohol or inject drugs in HIV care can be challenging, particularly in Eastern Europe. Healthcare facilities in Russia are organized by specialty; therefore linking patients from addiction care to HIV hospitals has been difficult. The HIV care cascade outlines stages of HIV care (e.g., linkage to care, prescribed antiretroviral therapy [ART], and achieving HIV viral suppression). We hypothesized that unhealthy alcohol use, injection drug use, and opioid craving are associated with unfavorable HIV care cascade outcomes. We analyzed data from a cohort (n = 249) of HIV-positive Russians who have been in addiction hospital treatment in the past year and had a lifetime history of injection drug use (IDU). We evaluated the association between unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT score > 7 [both hazardous drinking and dependence]), past-month injection drug use (IDU), and opioid craving (visual analogue scale from 1 to 100) with HIV care cascade outcomes. The primary outcome was linkage to HIV care within 12 months. Other outcomes were prescription of ART (secondary) and achievement of undetectable HIV viral load (HVL < 500 copies/mL) within 12 months (exploratory); the latter was analyzed on a subset in which HVL was measured (n = 48). We assessed outcomes via medical record review (linkage, ART) and serum tests (HVL). To examine the primary outcome, we used multiple logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders. Among 249 study participants, unhealthy alcohol use (n = 148 [59%]) and past-month IDU (n = 130 [52%]) were common. The mean opioid craving score was 49 (SD: 38). We were unable to detect significant associations between the independent variables (i.e., unhealthy alcohol use, IDU and opioid craving) and any HIV care cascade outcomes in unadjusted and adjusted analyses. In this cohort of HIV-positive Russians with a history of IDU, individual substance use factors were not significantly associated with achieving

  6. Drug policy and global regulatory capitalism: the case of new psychoactive substances (NPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, Toby

    2014-09-01

    The recent emergence of vibrant markets in 'new psychoactive substances' or 'legal highs' has posed significant new challenges for drug policy. These partly concern what to do about them but the speed and complexity of change has also raised difficulties for how policy responses should be developed. Existing drug policy systems appear too slow and cumbersome to keep up with the pace of change, remaining locked in large part within 'old' ways of thinking that centre almost exclusively around the deployment (or not) of the criminal law and its related enforcement apparatus. In this paper, it is argued that we need to rethink the problem through the lens of regulation, in order to learn lessons from other sectors where more agile responses to changing markets and business innovation have often proved possible. By examining examples drawn from these other areas, an alternative policy-making framework can be developed, involving a more flexible mix of state regulation, civil society action and private law mechanisms. This new approach is founded on a recognition of the networked and polycentric character of effective market governance in an era of global regulatory capitalism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Novel psychoactive substance and other drug use by young adults in Western australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, Leigh S; Gately, Natalie; Bridle, Russell I

    2015-01-01

    There is a lack of information regarding the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) in Western Australia. The aim of this study was to pilot-test an online survey to obtain data on the prevalence of NPS and other drug use by young Western Australians aged between 18 and 35 years. The Young Adult Drug and Alcohol Survey (YADAS) was a questionnaire deployed online for a period of six months. Participants were recruited via a combined targeted sampling and snowball methodology. There were 472 valid responses. Overall lifetime use of NPS was relatively high (17.6%), while use in the last year was lower (6.6%). These proportions were comparable to that of cocaine use. The most popular NPS were the synthetic cannabinoids. The proportions of respondents drinking alcohol at risky levels, mixing alcohol with energy drinks, and using pharmaceuticals such as ADHD medications for non-medical reasons were high. The YADAS is the first survey to ascertain the prevalence of use of numerous types of NPS in a large sample of young Western Australian adults. The utilization of an online survey methodology yielded valid results as compared to more intensive surveys, and enables researchers greater flexibility in being able to capture current trends.

  8. Mental Health Service and Drug Treatment Utilization: Adolescents with Substance Use/Mental Disorders and Dual Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tyrone C.; Lo, Celia C.

    2010-01-01

    This research is a secondary data analysis of the impact of adolescents' mental/substance-use disorders and dual diagnosis on their utilization of drug treatment and mental health services. By analyzing the same teenagers who participated in the NIMH Methods for the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Mental Disorders (MECA) study, logistic…

  9. Approach to Classifying "Design" Drugs and New Potentially Dangerous Chemical Substances, with a Brief Review of the Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadullin, Azat R.; Galeeva, Elena Kh.; Achmetova, Elvina A.; Nikolaev, Ivan V.

    2016-01-01

    The urgency of this study has become vivid in the light of the growing problem of prevalence and use of new synthetic drug types. Lately there has been a tendency of expanding the range of psychologically active substances (PAS) used by addicts with the purpose of their illegal taking. The aim of this research is an attempt of systematizing and…

  10. Exploring how prison-based drug rehabilitation programming shapes racial disparities in substance use disorder recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerrison, Erin M

    2018-02-01

    Prison-based therapeutic community (TC) programming is derived from the perspective that drug addiction is primarily symptomatic of cognitive dysfunction, poor emotional management, and underdeveloped self-reliance skills, and can be addressed in a collaborative space where a strong ideological commitment to moral reform and personal responsibility is required of its members. In this space, evidence of rehabilitation is largely centered on the client's relationship to language and the public adoption of a "broken self" narrative. Failure to master these linguistic performances can result in the denial of material and symbolic resources, thus participants learn how to use TC language to present themselves in ways that support existing institutionalized hierarchies, even if that surrender spells their self-denigration. This research examines the interview narratives of 300 former prisoners who participated in a minimum of 12 months of prison-based TC programming, and described how programming rhetoric impacted their substance abuse treatment experiences. While many of the respondents described distressing experiences as TC participants, White respondents were more likely to eventually embrace the "addict" label and speak of privileges and reintegrative support subsequently received. Black respondents were more likely to defy the treatment rhetoric, and either fail to complete the program or simulate a deficit-based self-narrative without investing in the content of those stories. The following explores the significance of language and identity construction in these carceral spaces, and how treatment providers as well as agency agendas are implicated in the reproduction of racial disparities in substance abuse recovery. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Pattern of Illegal Drug Use in Women Referred to Substance Abuse Control Clinic in Fasa, Iran (2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad mehdi Naghizadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objective: Women’s role as a consumer or as a person who is facing with risks is so important in studies of substance abuse. However, major studies on this field aimed at studying on male population. Therefore, the aim of this study described the pattern of using illegal drugs among women belong to substance abuse control clinic of  Fasa city (south of Iran.Materials & Methods: This cross sectional study as a census was done on all authorized substance abuse treatment centers in Fasa in summer 2011. Information about demographic data, types of drugs, method of using, duration of addiction and onset age was extracted from the files of self-referred women. Results: There were 88 women in Fasa substance abuse treatment centers who were 2.8% of all registered patients. The Mean age of drug onset was 30.8±11.8 years. 62 persons (70.5% used opium and 55 persons (62.5% used Opium sap which were indicated thatthese two drugs were the two common ones among addicted women. With the average of 9.4±7.1 years, Opium had the longest duration of use. There is only one woman who had used injection during the last month. Two of the women had sexual relationship out of the family in the last month in which one of them had the unsafe contact as well.Conclusion: Presently, the pattern of drug abuse among women in Fasa is traditional and is based on the opium derivatives. However, according to the increasing rate and changes in drugs type, monitoring the behavior of drug abuser can have an effective role on the improvement of health in a community.

  12. Simple and rapid method on High Performance Liquid Chromatography for simultaneous determination of benzylpenicillin potassium, streptomycin sulphate and related substances in Ascomicin – a veterinary use ointment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neagu Maria

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new simple, rapid, accurate and precise High – Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC method for determination of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate in Ascomicin ointment was developed and validated. The method can be used for the detection and quantification of known and unknown impurities and degradation products in this pharmaceutical product during routine analysis and also for stability studies in view of its capability to separate degradation products. The method was validated for accuracy, precision, specificity, robustness and quantification limits according to ICH Guidelines. The estimation of benzylpenicillin potassium and streptomycin sulphate was done by Waters HPLC 2695. The chromatographic conditions comprised a reverse-phased C18 column (5 µm particle size, 250 mm×4.6 mm i.d. with a mobile phase consisting of a mixture of solution in water containing 0.025 M of sodium phosphate dibasic and 0.02 of sodium hexansulfonate adjusted to pH 6.0 with 22.5 g/lsolution of phosphoric acid and acetonitrile in gradient elution. The flow rate was 0.8 ml/min. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range of 5.00 µg/ml to 5.00 mg/ml for streptomycin sulphate and 3.26 µg/ml to 3.26 mg/ml for benzylpenicillin potassium. Statistical analyses proved the method was precise, reproducible, selective, specific and accurate for analysis of benzylpenicillin potassium, streptomycin sulphate and related substances.

  13. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin ... One of these mutations led to an amino acid exchange at position 544 ... organs such as comb, wattle, brain, heart, .... congestion in various tissues and edema of.

  14. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    and Aji, T. G.. 1. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. ... limited nervous, muscle and skeletal systems development ... samples. Colloid area/volume and perimeter: This ..... BANKS, W. J., (1993): Applied Veterinary.

  15. Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. ... dogs diagnosed with parvovirus enteritis in some veterinary clinics in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Rabies vaccination status among occupationally exposed humans in Nigeria ...

  16. American Veterinary Medical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free client handout to share with them. Compounding Veterinary Compounding FDA has withdrawn its draft guidance for ... new guidance, the AVMA is working to ensure veterinary access and animal health are protected. NEWS & ALERTS ...

  17. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 3Veterinary. Teaching ... salivation, cornea opacity, haematuria and convulsion were observed in 20, 8, 2, 4, 1 and 3 of the patients ... intravenous fluid administration either for.

  18. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzeminski, M.; Lass, P.; Teodorczyk, J.; Krajka, J.

    2004-01-01

    The veterinary use of radionuclide techniques dates back to the mid-sixties, but its more extensive use dates back to the past two decades. Veterinary nuclear medicine is focused mainly on four major issues: bone scintigraphy - with the majority of applications in horses, veterinary endocrinology - dealing mainly with the problems of hyperthyreosis in cats and hyperthyreosis in dogs, portosystemic shunts in small animals and veterinary oncology, however, most radionuclide techniques applied to humans can be applied to most animals. (author)

  19. 76 FR 67746 - Revised Guidance for Industry on Impurities: Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...] Revised Guidance for Industry on Impurities: Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products... Veterinary Medicinal Products, Active Substances and Excipients (Revision)'' VICH GL18(R). This revised guidance has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of...

  20. 75 FR 50771 - Draft Revised Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...] (formerly Docket No. 1999D-4071) Draft Revised Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in New Veterinary...) entitled ``Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products, Active Substances and Excipients... 2001 final guidance), has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on...

  1. Beyond Drug Use: A Systematic Consideration of Other Outcomes in Evaluations of Treatments for Substance Use Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiffany, Stephen T.; Friedman, Lawrence; Greenfield, Shelly F.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Jackson, Ron

    2011-01-01

    Across the addictions field, the primary outcome in treatment research has been reduction in drug consumption. A comprehensive view of the impact of substance use disorders on human functioning suggests that effective treatments should address the many consequences and features of addiction beyond drug use, a recommendation forwarded by multiple expert panels and review articles. Despite recurring proposals, and a compelling general rationale for moving beyond drug use as the sole standard for evaluating addiction treatment, the field has yet to adopt any core set of “other” measures that are routinely incorporated into treatment research. Among the many reasons for the limited impact of previous proposals has been the absence of a clear set of guidelines for selecting candidate outcomes. This paper is the result of the deliberations of a panel of substance abuse treatment and research experts convened by the National Institute on Drug Abuse to discuss appropriate outcome measures for clinical trials of substance abuse treatments. This paper provides an overview of previous recommendations and outlines specific guidelines for consideration of candidate outcomes. A list of outcomes meeting those guidelines is described and illustrated in detail with two outcomes: craving and quality of life. The paper concludes with specific recommendations for moving beyond the outcome listing offered in this paper to promote the programmatic incorporation of these outcomes into treatment research. PMID:21981638

  2. Characteristics of men with substance use disorder consequent to illicit drug use: comparison of a random sample and volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Maureen D; Tarter, Ralph E; Kirisci, Levent

    2004-09-06

    Men qualifying for substance use disorder (SUD) consequent to consumption of an illicit drug were compared according to recruitment method. It was hypothesized that volunteers would be more self-disclosing and exhibit more severe disturbances compared to randomly recruited subjects. Personal, demographic, family, social, substance use, psychiatric, and SUD characteristics of volunteers (N = 146) were compared to randomly recruited (N = 102) subjects. Volunteers had lower socioceconomic status, were more likely to be African American, and had lower IQ than randomly recruited subjects. Volunteers also evidenced greater social and family maladjustment and more frequently had received treatment for substance abuse. In addition, lower social desirability response bias was observed in the volunteers. SUD was not more severe in the volunteers; however, they reported a higher lifetime rate of opiate, diet, depressant, and analgesic drug use. Volunteers and randomly recruited subjects qualifying for SUD consequent to illicit drug use are similar in SUD severity but differ in terms of severity of psychosocial disturbance and history of drug involvement. The factors discriminating volunteers and randomly recruited subjects are well known to impact on outcome, hence they need to be considered in research design, especially when selecting a sampling strategy in treatment research.

  3. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  4. The drug situation in Europe: an overview of data available on illicit drugs and new psychoactive substances from European monitoring in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounteney, Jane; Griffiths, Paul; Sedefov, Roumen; Noor, Andre; Vicente, Julián; Simon, Roland

    2016-01-01

    A central task for the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is to produce an annual report of the latest data available on drug demand and drug supply in Europe. This paper is intended to facilitate a better understanding of, and easier access to, the main quantitative European level data sets available in 2015. The European reporting system formally covers all 28 European Union (EU) Member States, Norway and Turkey and incorporates multiple indicators alongside an early warning system (EWS) on uncontrolled new psychoactive substances (NPS). While epidemiological information is based largely on registries, surveys and other routine data reported annually, the EWS collects case-based data on an ongoing basis. The 2015 reporting exercise is centred primarily on a set of standardized reporting tools. The most recent data provided by European countries are presented, including data on drug use, drug-related morbidity and mortality, treatment demand, drug markets and new psychoactive substances, with data tables provided and methodological information. A number of key results are highlighted for illustrative purposes. Drug prevalence estimates from national surveys since 2012 (last year prevalence of use among the 15-34 age band) range from 0.4% in Turkey to 22.1% in France for cannabis, from 0.2% in Greece and Romania to 4.2% in the United Kingdom for cocaine, from 0.1% in Italy and Turkey to 3% in the Czech Republic and the United Kingdom for ecstasy, and from 0.1% or less in Romania, Italy and Portugal to 2.5% in Estonia for amphetamine. Declining trends in new HIV detections among people who inject drugs are illustrated, in addition to presentation of a breakdown of NPS reported to the EU early warning system, which have risen exponentially from fewer than 20 a year between 2005 and 2008, to 101 reported in 2014. Structured information is now available on patterns and trends in drug consumption in Europe, which permits triangulation of

  5. Associations of substance use patterns with attempted suicide among persons who inject drugs: can distinct use patterns play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artenie, Andreea Adelina; Bruneau, Julie; Zang, Geng; Lespérance, François; Renaud, Johanne; Tremblay, Joël; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2015-02-01

    While the elevated risk of suicide attempt among persons who inject drugs (PWID) is well documented, whether use of different substances is associated with varying degrees of risk remains unclear. We sought to examine the associations between substance use patterns and attempted suicide in a prospective cohort of PWID in Montreal, Canada. Between 2004 and 2011, participants completed an interviewer-administered questionnaire eliciting information on socio-demographics, substance use patterns, related behaviors, and mental health markers. Generalized estimating equations were used to model the relationship between self-reported use of six common substances (cocaine, amphetamine, opioids, sedative-hypnotics, cannabis and alcohol), associated patterns of use (chronic, occasional and none), and a recent (past six-month) suicide attempt. At baseline, of 1240 participants (median age: 39.1, 83.7% male), 71 (5.7%) reported a recent suicide attempt. Among 5621 observations collected during follow-up, 221 attempts were reported by 143 (11.5%) participants. In multivariate analyses adjusting for socio-demographics and psychosocial stressors, among primary drugs of abuse, chronic [adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 1.97] and occasional (AOR: 1.92) cocaine use, and chronic amphetamine use (AOR: 1.96) were independently associated with attempted suicide. Among co-used substances, chronic sedative-hypnotic use was independently associated with an attempt (AOR: 2.29). No statistically significant association was found for the remaining substances. Among PWID at high risk of attempted suicide, stimulant users appear to constitute a particularly vulnerable sub-group. While the mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be elucidated, findings suggest that stimulant-using PWID should constitute a prime focus of suicide prevention efforts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physiological correlates of neurobehavioral disinhibition that relate to drug use and risky sexual behavior in adolescents with prenatal substance exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradt, Elisabeth; Lagasse, Linda L; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R; Whitaker, Toni M; Hammond, Jane A; Lester, Barry M

    2014-01-01

    Physiological correlates of behavioral and emotional problems, substance use onset and initiation of risky sexual behavior have not been studied in adolescents with prenatal drug exposure. We studied the concordance between baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at age 3 and baseline cortisol levels at age 11. We hypothesized that children who showed concordance between RSA and cortisol would have lower neurobehavioral disinhibition scores which would in turn predict age of substance use onset and first sexual intercourse. The sample included 860 children aged 16 years participating in the Maternal Lifestyle Study, a multisite longitudinal study of children with prenatal exposure to cocaine and other substances. Structural equation modeling was used to test pathways between prenatal substance exposure, early adversity, baseline RSA, baseline cortisol, neurobehavioral disinhibition, drug use, and sexual behavior outcomes. Concordance was studied by examining separate male and female models in which there were statistically significant interactions between baseline RSA and cortisol. Prenatal substance exposure was operationalized as the number of substances to which the child was exposed. An adversity score was computed based on caregiver postnatal substance use, depression and psychological distress, number of caregiver changes, socioeconomic and poverty status, quality of the home environment, and child history of protective service involvement, abuse and neglect. RSA and cortisol were measured during a baseline period prior to the beginning of a task. Neurobehavioral disinhibition, based on composite scores of behavioral dysregulation and executive dysfunction, substance use and sexual behavior were derived from questionnaires and cognitive tests administered to the child. Findings were sex specific. In females, those with discordance between RSA and cortisol (high RSA and low cortisol or low RSA and high cortisol) had the most executive dysfunction which, in

  7. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Muñana, Karen

    2015-01-01

    with the initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug...... treatment protocols, 1) is based on current published evidence-based literature, 2) considers the current legal framework of the cascade regulation for the prescription of veterinary drugs in Europe, and 3) reflects the authors' experience. With this paper it is aimed to provide a consensus...

  8. The role of sexual expectancies of substance use as a mediator between adult attachment and drug use among gay and bisexual men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Tyrel J.; Millar, Brett M.; Tuck, Andrew N.; Wells, Brooke E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Research exploring substance use in gay and bisexual men has increasingly paid attention to interpersonal dynamics and relational concerns associated with the use of substances. The current study explored the role of adult attachment style on drug use as well as the potential mediating role of sexual expectancies of substance use among gay and bisexual men. Methods Online survey data were gathered from 122 gay and bisexual men across the U.S., with a mean age of 33 years of age. All participants were HIV-negative and identified their relationship status as single. Survey measures included attachment style, sexual expectancies of substance use, and recent drug use. Results While neither anxious or avoidant attachment were directly associated with the odds of recent drug use, they were positively associated with sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .27, p attachment and drug use through sexual expectancies of substance use (β = .11, p attachment. Conclusions This study highlights the importance of interpersonal expectancies as motivators for drug use among gay and bisexual men. Sexual expectancies of substance use were associated with drug use and anxious adult attachment was associated indirectly with drug use through these sexual expectancies. PMID:26051159

  9. 76 FR 46818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Veterinary Feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Veterinary Feed Directive... distribution and use of Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) drugs and animal feeds containing VFD drugs. DATES... of information technology. Veterinary Feed Directive--21 CFR Part 558 (OMB Control Number 0910- 0363...

  10. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data. (a) An ad hoc committee, Committee on the Veterinary...

  11. The Role of Family Affect in Juvenile Drug Court Offenders' Substance Use and HIV Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolou-Shams, Marina; Hadley, Wendy; Conrad, Selby M.; Brown, Larry K.

    2012-01-01

    Family-based interventions targeting parenting factors, such as parental monitoring and parent-child communication, have been successful in reducing adolescent offenders' substance use and delinquency. This pilot, exploratory study focuses on family and parenting factors that may be relevant in reducing juvenile offenders' substance use and sexual…

  12. When drugs in the same controlled substance schedule differ in real-world abuse, should they be differentiated in labeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Nabarun; Henningfield, Jack E; Ertischek, Michelle D; Schnoll, Sidney H

    2011-12-01

    The prescription drugs regulated in the most restrictive controlled substance schedule for those with an approved therapeutic use vary widely in their real world risk of abuse and harm. Opioid analgesics have the highest rates of abuse, overdose death, drug abuse treatment needs and societal costs in comparison to other Schedule II drugs. Stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) account for substantially lower rates of abuse, harm, and public health impact. The scheduling of drugs is determined by the World Health Organization, the United States Food and Drug Administration, and other regulatory agencies, through a quasi-public process that relies heavily on pre-marketing studies that are conducted in highly controlled clinical settings. We propose that it is increasingly in the interest of science-based regulation and public health to recognize and communicate differences among drugs based on their real-world abuse and public health harm using surveillance data. Appropriate differentiation through labeling of drugs that will likely remain in the same schedule could provide powerful incentives for drug development and research, would aid prescriber/patient decision making by informing them of real differences across drugs within a schedule, and may also contribute to public health efforts to reduce drug abuse. There are risks of course, that include inadvertent perceptions that drugs labeled to be lower in risk are not taken as seriously as others in the same category. Challenges such as these, however, can be overcome and should not serve as barriers to objective communications regarding a drug's actual risks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. 14 CFR 91.19 - Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or stimulant drugs or substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and... OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES General § 91.19 Carriage of narcotic drugs, marihuana, and depressant or... operate a civil aircraft within the United States with knowledge that narcotic drugs, marihuana, and...

  14. Veterinary Services Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...

  15. Investigation of Physicochemical Drug Properties to Prepare Fine Globular Granules Composed of Only Drug Substance in Fluidized Bed Rotor Granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mise, Ryohei; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Osugi, Yukiko; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2015-01-01

    The effect of some drug properties (wettability and particle size distribution) on granule properties (mean particle size, particle size distribution, sphericity, and granule strength) were investigated in a high (>97%) drug-loading formulation using fluidized bed rotor granulation. Three drugs: acetaminophen (APAP); ibuprofen (IBU); and ethenzamide (ETZ) were used as model drugs based on their differences in wettability and particle size distribution. Granules with mean particle sizes of 100-200 µm and a narrow particle size distribution (PSD) could be prepared regardless of the drug used. IBU and ETZ granules showed a higher sphericity than APAP granules, while APAP and ETZ granules exhibited higher granule strength than IBU. The relationship between drug and granule properties suggested that the wettability and the PSD of the drugs were critical parameters affecting sphericity and granule strength, respectively. Furthermore, the dissolution profiles of granules prepared with poorly water-soluble drugs (IBU and ETZ) showed a rapid release (80% release in 20 min) because of the improved wettability with granulation. The present study demonstrated for the first time that fluidized bed rotor granulation can prepare high drug-loaded (>97%) globular granules with a mean particle size of less than 200 µm and the relationship between physicochemical drug properties and the properties of the granules obtained could be readily determined, indicating the potential for further application of this methodology to various drugs.

  16. Gender and race/ethnic differences in the persistence of alcohol, drug, and poly-substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Grella, Christine E; Washington, Donna L; Upchurch, Dawn M

    2017-05-01

    To examine gender and racial/ethnic differences in the effect of substance use disorder (SUD) type on SUD persistence. Data were provided by 1025 women and 1835 men from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) to examine whether gender and race/ethnicity (Non-Hispanic White, Black, Hispanic) moderate the effects of DSM-IV defined past-12 month SUD type (alcohol, drug, poly-substance) on SUD persistence at 3-year follow-up, controlling for covariates. Using gender-stratified weighted binary logistic regression, we examined predictors of SUD persistence, tested an SUD type by race/ethnicity interaction term, and calculated and conducted Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons of predicted probabilities. SUD persistence rates at 3-year follow-up differed for SUD type by gender by race/ethnicity sub-group, and ranged from 31% to 81%. SUD persistence rates were consistently higher among poly-substance users; patterns were mixed in relation to gender and race/ethnicity. Among women, alcohol disordered Hispanics were less likely to persist than Whites. Among men, drug disordered Hispanics were less likely to persist than Whites. Also, Black men with an alcohol or drug use disorder were less likely to persist than Whites, but Black men with a poly-substance use disorder were more likely to persist than Hispanics. The effect of SUD type on SUD persistence varies by race/ethnicity, and the nature of these relationships is different by gender. Such knowledge could inform tailoring of SUD screening and treatment programs, potentially increasing their impact. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Changing Latino Adolescents' Substance Use Norms and Behaviors: the Effects of Synchronized Youth and Parent Drug Use Prevention Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F; Ayers, Stephanie L; Baldwin-White, Adrienne; Booth, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    While parent and youth substance use prevention interventions have shown beneficial effects on preadolescents, many programs have typically targeted US born European American and African American families while overlooking the unique factors that characterize recent immigrant Latino families. This article presents the results on youth substance use when adding a culturally grounded parenting component, Familias Preparando la Nueva Generación (FPNG), to the existing and already proven efficacious classroom-based drug abuse prevention intervention, keepin'it REAL (kiR). Data come from youth (N = 267) participating in the randomized control trial of the interventions who were surveyed at baseline (beginning at 7th grade) and 18 months later (end of 8th grade). Using multivariate linear regression path analyses, results indicate when FPNG and kiR are combined, youth had significantly lowered alcohol and cigarettes use at the end of 8th grade, mediated through anti-drug norms, when compared with youth who only participated in kiR without parental participation in FPNG. These findings indicate that adolescent normative beliefs and related behaviors can be changed through synchronized culturally grounded parent and youth interventions and together can play an important role in reducing adolescent substance use.

  18. Substance abuse and pharmacy practice: what the community pharmacist needs to know about drug abuse and dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasello Anthony C

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pharmacists, the most accessible of health care professionals, are well positioned to help prevent and treat substance use disorders and should prepare themselves to perform these functions. New research improves our knowledge about the pharmacological and behavioral risks of drug abuse, supports the clinical impression that drug dependence is associated with long-lasting neurochemical changes, and demonstrates effective pharmacological treatments for certain kinds of drug dependencies. The profession is evolving. Pharmacists are engaging in new practice behaviors such as helping patients manage their disease states. Collaborative practice agreements and new federal policies set the stage for pharmacists to assist in the clinical management of opioid and other drug dependencies. Pharmacists need to be well informed about issues related to addiction and prepared not only to screen, assess, and refer individual cases and to collaborate with physicians caring for chemically dependent patients, but also to be agents of change in their communities in the fight against drug abuse. At the end of this article the pharmacist will be better able to: 1. Explain the disease concept of chemical dependence 2. Gather the information necessary to conduct a screen for chemical dependence 3. Inform patients about the treatment options for chemical dependence 4. Locate resources needed to answer questions about the effects of common drugs of abuse (alcohol, marijuana, narcotics, "ecstasy", and cocaine 5. Develop a list of local resources for drug abuse treatment 6. Counsel parents who are concerned about drug use by their children 7. Counsel individuals who are concerned about drug use by a loved one. 8. Counsel individuals who are concerned about their own drug use

  19. 78 FR 63221 - Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... entitled ``Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary...

  20. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  1. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.

  2. Bioactive substances

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.

    Chemistry related to certain bioactive molecules, from Indian Ocean Region, developed into drugs or which served as models for the synthesis of more effective bioactive substances or in use in fundamental studies of physiological and biochemical...

  3. Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...

  4. Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 16 of 16 Items ...

  5. Open Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...

  6. .* Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Central Diagnostic, National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, 'Department of Veterinary Medicine. Ahmadu Bello ..... environment as reported by (Olabode et al., 2009; Okwor and Eze, 2011;Jwander et al., 2013b). Farmers who had the same complaints of. Marek's disease from the same source of.

  7. The high prevalence of substance use disorders among recent MDMA users compared with other drug users: implications for intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Parrott, Andy C.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Mannelli, Paolo; Blazer, Dan G.

    2009-01-01

    Aim In light of the resurgence in MDMA use and its association with polysubstance use, we investigated the 12-month prevalence of substance use disorders (SUDs) among adult MDMA users to determine whether they are at risk of other drug-related problems that would call for targeted interventions. Methods Data were drawn from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Past-year adult drug users were grouped into three mutually exclusive categories: 1) recent MDMA users, who had used the drug within the past year; 2) former MDMA users, who had a history of using this drug but had not done so within the past year; and 3) other drug users, who had never used MDMA. Logistic regression procedures were used to estimate the association between respondents’ SUDs and MDMA use while adjusting for their socioeconomic status, mental health, age of first use, and history of polydrug use. Results Approximately 14% of adults reported drug use in the past year, and 24% of those past-year drug users reported a history of MDMA use. Recent MDMA users exhibited the highest prevalence of disorders related to alcohol (41%), marijuana (30%), cocaine (10%), pain reliever/opioid (8%), and tranquilizer (3%) use. Adjusted logistic regression analyses revealed that, relative to other drug users, those who had recently used MDMA were twice as likely to meet criteria for marijuana and pain reliever/opioid use disorders. They were also about twice as likely as former MDMA users to meet criteria for marijuana, cocaine, and tranquilizer use disorders. Conclusions Seven out of ten recent MDMA users report experiencing an SUD in the past year. Adults who have recently used MDMA should be screened for possible SUDs to ensure early detection and treatment. PMID:19361931

  8. Frequency of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS and type of the narcotic substance in neonates born from drug addicted mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and objective: NAS is a combination of signs and symptoms that due to physical and mental dependency, develops in neonates born from drug addicted mothers. The onset of NAS varies in accordance with the type, amount, frequency and duration of substance used. Because of diverse and unclear pattern of substance abuse in Iranian addicted pregnant mothers in comparison with western countries, this multi-center study has been designed to evaluate NAS in neonates born from drug addicted mothers. Material and method: A cross sectional study was carried out on newborns of narcotic addicted mothers during the first six months of 2008. The newborn’s status and clinical signs were checked by physical examination and scored by the Finnegan scoring system. Results: In this study 100 neonates born from narcotic addicted mothers were examined; the most used narcotic was crack (36%. 60% of neonates showed signs of NAS. The most prevalent signs of NAS were increased muscle tonicity (60%/7, irritability (59%/6 and increased moro reflex (51%/8. Neonates born from crack abusers, in comparison with other drugs, were significantly at risk of NAS (100% vs.87%, p

  9. Animal models of substance abuse and addiction: implications for science, animal welfare, and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Wendy J; Nicholson, Katherine L; Dance, Mario E; Morgan, Richard W; Foley, Patricia L

    2010-06-01

    Substance abuse and addiction are well recognized public health concerns, with 2 NIH institutes (the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) specifically targeting this societal problem. As such, this is an important area of research for which animal experiments play a critical role. This overview presents the importance of substance abuse and addiction in society; reviews the development and refinement of animal models that address crucial areas of biology, pathophysiology, clinical treatments, and drug screening for abuse liability; and discusses some of the unique veterinary, husbandry, and IACUC challenges associated with these models.

  10. Substance use - cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Substance abuse - cocaine; Drug abuse - cocaine; Drug use - cocaine ... thinking clearly Mood and emotional problems, such as aggressive or violent behavior Restlessness and tremors Sleep problems ...

  11. Substance use - phencyclidine (PCP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PCP; Substance abuse - phencyclidine; Drug abuse - phencyclidine; Drug use - phencyclidine ... a result, you may act strangely or become aggressive and violent. PCP's other harmful effects include: It ...

  12. Talking about friends, drugs, and change: meanings of friendship in substance abusers' change talk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarpavaara, Harri

    2014-05-01

    This article explores the meanings of substance-abusing clients attach to friendships during motivational treatment sessions in Probation Service. Sessions (98) were videotaped in 12 probation service offices in Finland in 2007 to 2009. By using semiotic framework, this qualitative study examines client's change talk utterance about friendships as a symbolic sign. The findings indicate that the friendships play an important role in the substance-abusing clients' motivation to change and in their treatment outcome. The study suggests that the personal meanings of clients' utterances in motivational treatment sessions could be seen as potential predictors of their future behavior.

  13. Substance Abuse and Psychiatric Co-morbidity as Predictors of Premature Mortality in Swedish Drug Abusers: A Prospective Longitudinal Study 1970-2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyhlén, Anna; Fridell, Mats; Bäckström, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Few longitudinal cohort studies have focused on the impact of substances abused and psychiatric disorders on premature mortality. The aim of the present study was to identify predictors of increased risk of drug related death and non drug related death in substance abusers of opiates...... with a decreased risk. Neurosis, mainly depression and/or anxiety disorders, predicted drug related premature death while chronic psychosis and personality disorders did not. Chronic alcohol addiction was associated with increased risk of non drug related death. Conclusions The cohort of drug abusers had...... and barbiturate abusers over the observed period of 37 years, while stimulant abuse did not have any impact. Alcohol contributed to non drug related death. Keywords: drug related death; risk factor; gender; competing risks Cox regression; cohort study; Predictors...

  14. 78 FR 9397 - International Drug Scheduling; Convention on Psychotropic Substances; World Health Organization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-08

    ... the Controlled Substances Act (the CSA). DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments by... information, see also section IV of this document). ADDRESSES: Submit electronic comments to http://www.... The excerpts are currently available in English only, pending receipt of the official French...

  15. Substance Abuse Treatment, Anticipated Maternal Roles, and Reentry Success of Drug-Involved Women Prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Cynthia A.; Martin, Steven S.; Surratt, Hilary L.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports analyses of recidivism and relapse experiences of substance-abusing women inmates as they reenter the community. Outcomes are compared for women who completed a work-release therapeutic community program, women who entered but did not complete the program, and those who did not receive work-release therapeutic community…

  16. Information on the quality of substance for the preparation of pharmaceutical drugs in terms of hospital pharmacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovović Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Explanation the topic The pharmaceutical activity is the activity of public or social and special interest, because it is a direct function of health care. Topic positioning and discussion The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of ensuring the quality of pharmaceutical substances that supplies hospitals, which are used for production of galenic and magistral drugs. Conclusion Compliance with national legislation, as well as establishing compliance prescribed by the European legislation in the field of drug development is binding. Therefore, all manufacturers of drugs and/or active pharmaceutical ingredients must apply quality standards prescribed by the European Pharmacopoeia in order to develop, manufacture and sales of medicines. When it comes to the quality of pharmaceutical ingredients for the production of drugs in the pharmacy, pharmacies especially in residential institutions in our country is permanently done by harmonizing national legislation in order to improve conditions for the preparation and production of galenic drugs in terms of inpatient health institutions performed in a manner that is prescribed by international regulations. This requires the adaptation of institutions, including fundamental changes in competence as national professional and administrative and regulatory rules that apply to state- and private sectors.

  17. A Profile of Substance Abuse, Gender, Crime, and Drug Policy in the United States and Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The climate of domestic drug policy in the United States as it pertains to both women and men at the beginning of the 21st century is the criminalization mode of regulation--a mode that is based on the model of addiction as a crime and one that is used to prohibit the use of illegal drugs. In Canada, drug policy is based mainly on the harm…

  18. Code of practice for radiation protection in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, J.; Fenton, D.; McGarry, A.; McAllister, H.; Skelly, C

    2002-11-01

    This Code of Practice updates the Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in Veterinary Radiology prepared by the Nuclear Energy Board in June 1989. The Code is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons to ensure that they, their employees and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of X-ray equipment and radioactive substances in the practice of veterinary medicine. It reflects the regulations as specified in the Radiological Protection Act, 1991, (Ionising Radiation) Order, 2000 (S.I. No. 125 of 2000)

  19. 75 FR 58411 - Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ...] Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food... Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Center for Veterinary Medicine... be emailed to all registrants. Contact Person: Charles Andres, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV...

  20. 77 FR 22247 - Veterinary Feed Directive; Draft Text for Proposed Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    .... FDA-2010-N-0155] Veterinary Feed Directive; Draft Text for Proposed Regulation AGENCY: Food and Drug... the efficiency of FDA's Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) program. The Agency is making this draft text..., rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sharon Benz, Center for Veterinary...

  1. Associations between University Students' Reported Reasons for Abstinence from Illicit Substances and Type of Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Harold; Bonar, Erin E.; Pavlick, Michelle; Jones, Lance D.; Hoffmann, Erica; Murray, Shanna; Faigin, Carol Ann; Cabral, Kyle; Baylen, Chelsea

    2012-01-01

    We recruited 211 undergraduates to rate the degree to which each of 34 listed reasons for not taking drugs had influenced their abstinence from MDMA/ecstasy, cocaine, marijuana, and hallucinogens. Participants rated reasons such as personal and family medical histories, religion, and physiological consequences of drug use as having little or no…

  2. Methylxanthines and drug dependence: a focus on interactions with substances of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Micaela; Simola, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the psychostimulant actions of methylxanthines, with a focus on the consequences of their excessive use. Consumption of methylxanthines is pervasive and their use is often associated with that of substances known to produce dependence and to have abuse potential. Therefore, the consequences of this combined use are taken into consideration in order to evaluate whether, and to what extent, methylxanthines could influence dependence on or abuse of other centrally active substances, leading to either amplification or attenuation of their effects. Since the methylxanthine that mostly influences mental processes and readily induces psychostimulation is caffeine, this review mainly focuses on caffeine as a prototype of methylxanthine-produced dependence, examining, at the same time, the risks related to caffeine use.

  3. Herb-drug interactions among commonly used psychoactive substances by healthcare students

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, André; Caetano, Liliana Aranha

    2014-01-01

    The concurrent use of herbs and/or nutritional supplements with psychoactive effect and prescription medications is common among college students. College students are a particularly vulnerable population, for they are under less social/familiar surveillance and seek greater independence, as well as under greater intellectual effort, stress, anxiety and depression, which predispose them to a higher consumption of psychoactive substances. Herbs, vitamins, and other dietary supplements may infl...

  4. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Corresponding author: Email: yahidauad@gmail.com; Tel No:+2348037811882 ... and veterinary medicine as potent anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and .... steroid skeleton, similar to hydrocortisone. ... for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth.

  5. Tanzania Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Journal are the Research Workers, Veterinary Clinicians, Animal Scientists, Field Officers ... Prevalence and risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infestations in ... Mastitis pathogens prevalent in dairy cattle at Magadu farm, Morogoro- ...

  6. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Also, the advantage of ... antibodies. The major disadvantage of the polyclonal ... advantage of a monoclonal antibody over .... department in the veterinary school was obtained from the ..... methodology for both routine diagnostic and research ...

  7. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Control Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Abuja; 9National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B 01 Vom,. Nigeria. *Corresponding ... because the poultry industry contributes ..... holidays have been identified as source of transmission ...

  8. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Teaching veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, A

    1994-08-01

    The history of parasitology and the teaching of veterinary parasitology in South Africa are reviewed briefly. Courses in veterinary parasitology are presented at the faculties of veterinary science at the University of Pretoria and the Medical University of South Africa as well as at the Pretoria Technicon. At the University of Pretoria, the three disciplines of veterinary parasitology, entomology, helminthology and protozoology, are covered in 330 core lectures; from 13 to 40% of the contact time is devoted to practical classes. Teaching veterinary parasitology is both labour intensive and costly, viz. R1700 (US$570) per student per annum. Such costs are justified by the R148.8 million (US$49.6 million) spent every year in South Africa on anthelmintics, ectoparasiticides and vaccines to control parasites. Veterinary parasitology is a dynamic subject and the curriculum must be revised regularly to incorporate new information. Because the parasite faunas are so diverse no single textbook can satisfy the requirements of the various institutions worldwide which teach the subject, with the result that extensive use is made of notes. In Australia and in Europe, ticks and tick-borne diseases are less important than they are in Africa; consequently insufficient space is devoted to them in textbooks to satisfy the requirements of the subject in African countries. Parasite control under extensive and intensive conditions is dealt with adequately at the University of Pretoria, but increasing emphasis will be given to small-scale farming systems, particularly if alternative food animals are to be kept.

  10. Electrokinetic migration across artificial liquid membranes Tuning the membrane chemistry to different types of drug substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut Einar; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2006-08-18

    Twenty different basic drugs were electrokinetically extracted across a thin artificial organic liquid membrane with a 300 V d.c. electrical potential difference as the driving force. From a 300 microl aqueous sample (acidified corresponding to 10mM HCl), the drugs were extracted for 5 min through a 200 microm artificial liquid membrane of a water immiscible organic solvent immobilized in the pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber, and into a 30 microl aqueous acceptor solution of 10mM HCl inside the lumen of the hollow fiber. Hydrophobic basic drugs (logP>1.7) were effectively isolated utilizing 2-nitrophenyl octyl ether (NPOE) as the artificial liquid membrane, with recoveries up to 83%. For more hydrophilic basic drugs (logPpermeation of the interface.

  11. [Simultaneous separation and detection of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate by RP-HPLC and structure confirmation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan-Yan; Liu, Li-Yan; Han, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Yue-Qiu; Wang, Yan; Shi, Min-Jian

    2013-08-01

    A simple, fast and sensitive analytical method for the simultaneous separation and detection of 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B by RP-HPLC and drug quality standard was established. The structures of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate have been confirmed. Reference European Pharmacopoeia EP7.0 version, British Pharmacopoeia 2012 version, National Drug Standards of China (WS 1-XG-2002), domestic and international interrelated literature were referred to select the composition of mobile phase. The experimental parameters including salt concentration, pH, addition quantities of organic solvent, column temperature and flow rate were optimized. Finally, the assay was conducted on a Durashell-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with 0.01 mol x mL(-1) ammonium perchlorate (add ammonia to adjust the pH value to 8.2) -methanol (48 : 52) as mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.8 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The column temperature was 50 degrees C and the injection volume was 10 microL. The MS, NMR, UV and RP-HPLC were used to confirm the structures of principal component isomer and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate. Under the optimized separation conditions, the calibration curves of 18 alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B showed good linearity within the concentration of 0.50-100 microg x mL(-1) (r = 0.999 9). The detection limits for 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substance A and related substance B were 0.15, 0.10, 0.10, 0.15 microg x mL(-1) respectively. The method is sensitive, reproducible and the results are accurate and reliable. It can be used for chiral resolution of 18alpha-glycyrrhizinic acid, 18Pbeta-glycyrrhizinic acid, and detection content of principal component and

  12. Database on veterinary clinical research in homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Jürgen; Albrecht, Henning

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present report is to provide an overview of the first database on clinical research in veterinary homeopathy. Detailed searches in the database 'Veterinary Clinical Research-Database in Homeopathy' (http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/clinresvet/index.php). The database contains about 200 entries of randomised clinical trials, non-randomised clinical trials, observational studies, drug provings, case reports and case series. Twenty-two clinical fields are covered and eight different groups of species are included. The database is free of charge and open to all interested veterinarians and researchers. The database enables researchers and veterinarians, sceptics and supporters to get a quick overview of the status of veterinary clinical research in homeopathy and alleviates the preparation of systematical reviews or may stimulate reproductions or even new studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. REDRESS AND CRIMINAL DEVIANCE IN USE OF DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan MARINESCU

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, the approach to assistance to drug users had an incoherent evolution that ranged from a medical approach to drug-intensive psychiatric drug use since the 1990s, focusing on detox services and only exceptionally on methadone substitution, to a system integrated assistance. Accordingly,"until 1999, the addicted persons had many relapses/relapses due to the lack of all therapeutic treatments (eg socio-vocational center and therapeutic communities and the fact that, following diagnosis, consumers were not entitled to assistance free medical service"1 . In 2000, the first strategic response from the Ministry of Health emerged to meet the needs of assistance in this field, namely the National Health Program of the Ministry of Health (Program 8, which led to the development of pilot sections for treatment within some psychiatric hospitals, and a first methadone maintenance center. Thus, in addition to the medical perspective, the development of the principles of harm reduction is envisaged. The lack of a complete therapy unit leads to a large number of relapses, and the recovery of patients is often impossible. Starting with 2004, the system of integrated medical, psychological and social assistance of drug users was established. By GD no. 1093/2004, the 47 Drug Counseling and Prevention Evaluation Centers (6 in Bucharest and one in each county became territorial structures of ANA (National Antidrug Agency2 and, since 2005, according to the standards of the National System of Medical, Psychological and Social Assistance to Consumers drugs3 , coordination of consumer assistance and general management of each case across different services.

  14. Characteristics of substance abuse treatment programs providing services for HIV/AIDS, hepatitis C virus infection, and sexually transmitted infections: the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lawrence S; Kritz, Steven Allan; Goldsmith, R Jeffrey; Bini, Edmund J; Rotrosen, John; Baker, Sherryl; Robinson, Jim; McAuliffe, Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Illicit drug users sustain the epidemics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), hepatitis C (HCV), and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Substance abuse treatment programs present a major intervention point in stemming these epidemics. As a part of the "Infections and Substance Abuse" study, established by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, sponsored by National Institute on Drug Abuse, three surveys were developed; for treatment program administrators, for clinicians, and for state and District of Columbia health and substance abuse department administrators, capturing service availability, government mandates, funding, and other key elements related to the three infection groups. Treatment programs varied in corporate structure, source of revenue, patient census, and medical and non-medical staffing; medical services, counseling services, and staff education targeted HIV/AIDS more often than HCV or STIs. The results from this study have the potential to generate hypotheses for further health services research to inform public policy.

  15. Sex differences in drug-related stress-system changes: implications for treatment in substance-abusing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Helen C; Sinha, Rajita

    2009-01-01

    Extensive research indicates that chronic substance abuse disrupts stress and reward systems of the brain. Gender variation within these stress-system alterations, including the impact of sex hormones on these changes, may influence sex-specific differences in both the development of, and recovery from, dependency. As such, gender variations in stress-system function may also provide a viable explanation for why women are markedly more vulnerable than men to the negative consequences of drug use. This article therefore initially reviews studies that have examined gender differences in emotional and biophysiological changes to the stress and reward system following the acute administration of drugs, including cocaine, alcohol, and nicotine. The article then reviews studies that have examined gender differences in response to various types of stress in both healthy and drug-abusing populations. Studies examining the impact of sex hormones on these gender-related responses are also reported. The implications of these sex-specific variations in stress and reward system function are discussed in terms of both comorbid psychopathology and treatment outcome.

  16. Intergenerational effects of parental substance-related convictions and adult drug treatment court participation on children's school performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Elizabeth J; Sloan, Frank A; Eldred, Lindsey M; Evans, Kelly E

    2015-09-01

    This study examined the intergenerational effects of parental conviction of a substance-related charge on children's academic performance and, conditional on a conviction, whether completion of an adult drug treatment court (DTC) program was associated with improved school performance. State administrative data from North Carolina courts, birth records, and school records were linked for 2005-2012. Math and reading end-of-grade test scores and absenteeism were examined for 5 groups of children, those with parents who: were not convicted on any criminal charge, were convicted on a substance-related charge and not referred by a court to a DTC, were referred to a DTC but did not enroll, enrolled in a DTC but did not complete, and completed a DTC program. Accounting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, the school performance of children whose parents were convicted of a substance-related offense was worse than that of children whose parents were not convicted on any charge. These differences were statistically significant but substantially reduced after controlling for socioeconomic characteristics; for example, mother's educational attainment. We found no evidence that parent participation in an adult DTC program led to improved school performance of their children. While the children of convicted parents fared worse on average, much--but not all--of this difference was attributed to socioeconomic factors, with the result that parental conviction remained a risk factor for poorer school performance. Even though adult DTCs have been shown to have other benefits, we could detect no intergenerational benefit in improved school performance of their children. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Third ordinance amending the ordinance on the approval of drugs treated with ionising radiation or drugs containing radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Amendments: 1) Section 2, sub-section (2), no. 1 - Cr-51, Fe-59, Ga-67, In-111, J-123, J-125, J-13, Co-57, Co-58, P-32, Se-75, Th-201, Xe-127, Xe-133; 2) Section 3, sub-section (2), no. 2 - Mo-99, Hg-195m, Rb-81, Su-113, Tc-99m, Au-195m, Kr-81m, In-113m; 3) Section 3a: The prohibitory provisions of section 7, sub-section (1) of the Medical Preparation Act do not apply to radioactive medical preparations which are drugs within the purview of section 2, sub-section (2), no. 4, item (a) of said act. (HP) [de

  18. Schools as Good Parent: Symbolism versus Substance in Drug and Alcohol Testing of School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Chris

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the decision to implement a drug and alcohol testing program, analyzing how such programs fit within the traditional functions of criminal and administrative law, pinpoints some messages conveyed by testing programs, and discusses factual premises that should underlay such programs. Reviews recent U.S. Supreme Court rulings and gauges…

  19. The Media and Controlled Substances; Anti-Drug Legislation. Lesson Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverdure, Sharon

    1991-01-01

    Provides two lesson plans for classroom use. Focuses on media influence on the use of alcohol and tobacco and on regulatory laws and their effect on drug use. Identifies connections that can be made to textbooks and magazine articles, as well as suggestions for opening, developing, and concluding each lesson. (DK)

  20. Intestinal absorption of the antiepileptic drug substance vigabatrin is altered by infant formula in vitro and in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2014-01-01

    Vigabatrin is an antiepileptic drug substance mainly used in pediatric treatment of infantile spasms. The main source of nutrition for infants is breast milk and/or infant formula. Our hypothesis was that infant formula may affect the intestinal absorption of vigabatrin. The aim was therefore...... to investigate the potential effect of coadministration of infant formula with vigabatrin on the oral absorption in vitro and in vivo. The effect of vigabatrin given with an infant formula on the oral uptake and transepithelial transport was investigated in vitro in Caco-2 cells. In vivo effects of infant...... formula and selected amino acids on the pharmacokinetic profile of vigabatrin was investigated after oral coadministration to male Sprague–Dawley rats using acetaminophen as a marker for gastric emptying. The presence of infant formula significantly reduced the uptake rate and permeability of vigabatrin...

  1. Errors in veterinary practice: preliminary lessons for building better veterinary teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, T; Guile, D; May, S A

    2015-11-14

    Case studies in two typical UK veterinary practices were undertaken to explore teamwork, including interprofessional working. Each study involved one week of whole team observation based on practice locations (reception, operating theatre), one week of shadowing six focus individuals (veterinary surgeons, veterinary nurses and administrators) and a final week consisting of semistructured interviews regarding teamwork. Errors emerged as a finding of the study. The definition of errors was inclusive, pertaining to inputs or omitted actions with potential adverse outcomes for patients, clients or the practice. The 40 identified instances could be grouped into clinical errors (dosing/drugs, surgical preparation, lack of follow-up), lost item errors, and most frequently, communication errors (records, procedures, missing face-to-face communication, mistakes within face-to-face communication). The qualitative nature of the study allowed the underlying cause of the errors to be explored. In addition to some individual mistakes, system faults were identified as a major cause of errors. Observed examples and interviews demonstrated several challenges to interprofessional teamworking which may cause errors, including: lack of time, part-time staff leading to frequent handovers, branch differences and individual veterinary surgeon work preferences. Lessons are drawn for building better veterinary teams and implications for Disciplinary Proceedings considered. British Veterinary Association.

  2. Prevalence of Hospitalized Live Births Affected by Alcohol and Drugs and Parturient Women Diagnosed with Substance Abuse at Liveborn Delivery: United States, 1999–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. Methods This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. Results From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. Conclusions The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births. PMID:22688539

  3. Prevalence of hospitalized live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women diagnosed with substance abuse at liveborn delivery: United States, 1999-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, I-Jen; Yi, Hsiao-ye

    2013-05-01

    To describe prevalence trends in hospitalized live births affected by placental transmission of alcohol and drugs, as well as prevalence trends among parturient women hospitalized for liveborn delivery and diagnosed with substance abuse problems in the United States from 1999 to 2008. Comparison of the two sets of trends helps determine whether the observed changes in neonatal problems over time were caused by shifts in maternal substance abuse problems. This study independently identified hospitalized live births and maternal live born deliveries from discharge records in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, one of the largest hospital administrative databases. Substance-related diagnosis codes on the records were used to identify live births affected by alcohol and drugs and parturient women with substance abuse problems. The analysis calculated prevalence differences and percentage changes over the 10 years, with Loess curves fitted to 10-year prevalence estimates to depict trend patterns. Linear and quadratic trends in prevalence were simultaneously tested using logistic regression analyses. The study also examined data on costs, primary expected payer, and length of hospital stays. From 1999 to 2008, prevalence increased for narcotic- and hallucinogen-affected live births and neonatal drug withdrawal syndrome but decreased for alcohol- and cocaine-affected live births. Maternal substance abuse at delivery showed similar trends, but prevalence of alcohol abuse remained relatively stable. Substance-affected live births required longer hospital stays and higher medical expenses, mostly billable to Medicaid. The findings highlight the urgent need for behavioral intervention and early treatment for substance-abusing pregnant women to reduce the number of substance-affected live births.

  4. Substance Use, Offending, and Participation in Alcohol and Drug Treatment Programmes: A Comparison of Prisoners with and without Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivray, Jane A.; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J.; Newton, Danielle C.; Richardson, Ben A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many offenders with intellectual disabilities have substance use issues. Offending behaviour may be associated with substance use. Materials and Methods: Prisoners with and without intellectual disabilities were compared in terms of their substance use prior to imprisonment, the influence of substance use on offending, and their…

  5. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  6. Radiology in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrusovsky, J.; Benes, J.

    1985-01-01

    A textbook is presented for pregraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary medicine, offering an extensive review of all aspects of radiology as applied in veterinary sciences. Based on findings published in the literature and the authors' own research, the textbook familiarizes the reader with the problems of nuclear physics, biological effects of ionizing radiation on animals, the principles of biological cycles of radionuclides in the atmosphere, the fundamentals of radiochemistry, dosimetry, radiometry and nuclear medicine. Radiation protection of animals, raw materials, feeds, foodstuff and water, and the questions of the aplications of ionizing radiation and of radionuclides in veterinary medicine are discussed in great detail. The publication is complemented with numerous photographs, figures and graphs. (L.O.)

  7. Violence, victimization, criminal justice involvement, and substance use among drug-involved men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, Seana; Logan, T K

    2014-01-01

    This research identified three subgroups of drug-involved men based on severity of self-reported violence perpetration against intimate or nonintimate partners among a sample of 148 men selected from a subsample of participants in the Kentucky National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) AIDS Cooperative Agreement. Men in the No Violence group accounted for approximately 19% of the total respondents, men in the Moderate Violence Severity and Extreme Violence Severity groups comprises 56% and 25% of the sample, respectively. Men in the Extreme Violence Severity group experienced significantly more psychological victimization as children and more frequent physical childhood abuse than did their peers. Men in the Extreme Violence Severity group reported having earlier involvement in the criminal justice system and lawbreaking behavior; they also reported higher frequency of marijuana and crack use. Implications for treatment and future research are presented.

  8. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Comar, C.L.; Wentworth, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)

  9. Controlled Substance Reconciliation Accuracy Improvement Using Near Real-Time Drug Transaction Capture from Automated Dispensing Cabinets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Dexter, Franklin; Gratch, David M; Perino, Michael; Magrann, Jerry

    2016-06-01

    Accurate accounting of controlled drug transactions by inpatient hospital pharmacies is a requirement in the United States under the Controlled Substances Act. At many hospitals, manual distribution of controlled substances from pharmacies is being replaced by automated dispensing cabinets (ADCs) at the point of care. Despite the promise of improved accountability, a high prevalence (15%) of controlled substance discrepancies between ADC records and anesthesia information management systems (AIMS) has been published, with a similar incidence (15.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 15.3% to 16.2%) noted at our institution. Most reconciliation errors are clerical. In this study, we describe a method to capture drug transactions in near real-time from our ADCs, compare them with documentation in our AIMS, and evaluate subsequent improvement in reconciliation accuracy. ADC-controlled substance transactions are transmitted to a hospital interface server, parsed, reformatted, and sent to a software script written in Perl. The script extracts the data and writes them to a SQL Server database. Concurrently, controlled drug totals for each patient having care are documented in the AIMS and compared with the balance of the ADC transactions (i.e., vending, transferring, wasting, and returning drug). Every minute, a reconciliation report is available to anesthesia providers over the hospital Intranet from AIMS workstations. The report lists all patients, the current provider, the balance of ADC transactions, the totals from the AIMS, the difference, and whether the case is still ongoing or had concluded. Accuracy and latency of the ADC transaction capture process were assessed via simulation and by comparison with pharmacy database records, maintained by the vendor on a central server located remotely from the hospital network. For assessment of reconciliation accuracy over time, data were collected from our AIMS from January 2012 to June 2013 (Baseline), July 2013 to April 2014

  10. Quantitative determination of solid-state forms of a pharmaceutical development compound in drug substance and tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yong; Tao, Wenle; Morrison, Henry; Chiu, Rick; Jona, Janan; Fang, Jan; Cauchon, Nina

    2008-10-01

    Common analytical techniques including Raman, NIR, and XRD were evaluated for quantitative determination of three solid-state forms (amorphous, Form B and Form C) of a development compound. Raman spectroscopy was selected as the primary analytical technique with sufficient sensitivity to monitor and quantify the neat drug substance alone and in the drug product. A reliable multivariate curve resolution (MCR) method based on the second derivative Raman measurements of the three pure physical forms was developed and validated with 3.5% root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) for Form B, which was selected as the preferred form for further development. A partial least squares (PLS) algorithm was also used for the multivariate calibration of both the NIR and Raman measurements. The long-term stability of Form B as a neat active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and in a tablet formulation was quantitatively monitored under various stress conditions of temperature and moisture. Moisture, temperature, excipients and compression were found to have significant effects on the phase transition behavior of Form B.

  11. Infrared thermography in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, R.; Zivcak, J.; Sevcik, A.; Danko, J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine has been practiced since at least the 1960's, but it is only now, in approximately the last 5 years, that it has been viewed with a reasonably open mind in the veterinary community at large. One of the reasons is progress in sensors technology, which contributed for an outstanding improvement of the thermal imager parameters. Paper deals with veterinary thermography and with description of applications at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice. (authors)

  12. Tanzania Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the ...

  13. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain. Meseko, C. A.. 1. ; Shittu, I. 1. ; Bwala, D. G.. 2. ; Joannis, T. M.. 1 and Nwosuh, C. I.. 2. 1Regional Laboratory For Animal Influenza and Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Veterinary ...

  14. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...

  15. Veterinary Molecular Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weesendorp, E.; Bossers, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this

  16. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Sonographic Measurements of Ocular Biometry of Indigenous Nigerian. Dogs in Zaria ..... between L2 and R) anesthetic risks and additional costs were ... prevalent worldwide problem (Toni et al.,. 2013). Paunknis and ... correlation with refractive error is larger for axial length than .... Veterinary Medical Association. 207:12.

  17. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, ... momohasabeh@gmail.com; Tel No:+2348038352906. ... in-contact humans from pig farms and abattoir. ... Momoh et al. 141 and may enhance the distribution of resistance genes into ... treating clinical infections in both man and.

  18. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    xyphoid cartilage to the pelvic area and aquasonic gel applied. The uterus was ... is used in both veterinary and human medicine ... Idris et al. 135 the pelvic region was gently made wet, with ... showing multiple fetuses (blue arrow). Plate IV: ... The beginning of bone formation which appears as hyperechoic structures ...

  19. Peer Substance Use Associated with the Co-Occurrence of Borderline Personality Disorder Features and Drug Use Problems in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Scott; Taylor, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if the substance use patterns of one's close friends and romantic partners would be a significant contributor to the co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and drug use problems above and beyond impulsivity and negative emotionality. Participants: Participants were 2,202 undergraduates who attended…

  20. Cigarette Smoking During Substance Use Disorder Treatment: Secondary Outcomes from a National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Erin A; Campbell, Aimee N C; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Meichen; Winhusen, Theresa; Vandrey, Ryan G; Ruglass, Lesia M; Covey, Lirio S; Stitzer, Maxine L; Kyle, Tiffany L; Nunes, Edward V

    2015-06-01

    The majority of patients enrolled in treatment for substance use disorders (SUDs) also use tobacco. Many will continue to use tobacco even during abstinence from other drugs and alcohol, often leading to smoking-related illnesses. Despite this, little research has been conducted to assess the influence of being a smoker on SUD treatment outcomes and changes in smoking during a treatment episode. In this secondary analysis, cigarette smoking was evaluated in participants completing outpatient SUD treatment as part of a multi-site study conducted by the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Analyses included the assessment of changes in smoking and nicotine dependence via the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence during the 12-week study among all smokers (aim #1), specifically among those in the experimental treatment group (aim #2), and the moderating effect of being a smoker on treatment outcomes (aim #3). Participants generally did not reduce or quit smoking throughout the course of the study. Among a sub-set of participants with higher baseline nicotine dependence scores randomized to the control arm, scores at the end of treatment were lower compared to the experimental arm, though measures of smoking quantity did not appear to decrease. Further, being a smoker was associated with poorer treatment outcomes compared to non-smokers enrolled in the trial. This study provides evidence that patients enrolled in community-based SUD treatment continue to smoke, even when abstaining from drugs and alcohol. These results add to the growing literature encouraging the implementation of targeted, evidence-based interventions to promote abstinence from tobacco among SUD treatment patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Parental substance abuse and function of the motivation and behavioral inhibition systems in drug-naïve youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Iliyan; Liu, Xun; Shulz, Kurt; Fan, Jin; London, Edythe; Friston, Karl; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2012-02-28

    It is hypothesized that the development of substance abuse (SA) may be due to imbalance in functions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems in the brain. This speaks to the search for biological risk factors for SA in drug-naïve children who also exhibit motivational and inhibitory control deficits; however, this type of research is currently lacking. The objective of this study was to establish a neurobiological basis for addiction vulnerability using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in drug-naïve youth with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We hypothesized that children with ADHD alone would show higher activity in regions of the motivation-reward and behavioral inhibition systems than children with ADHD and a parental history of SA. Toward this goal we scanned 20 drug-naïve children with ADHD ages 8-13 while performing an event-related reward task. High (N=10) and low (N=10) risk subjects were identified, based on parental history of SA. The effects of anticipation, conflict, and reward were assessed with appropriate linear contrasts, and between-group differences were assessed using statistical parametric mapping. The two groups did not differ on behavioral measures of the task. The fMRI results show heightened activation in the brain motivational-reward system and reduced activation of the inhibitory control system in high-risk compared to low-risk children. These results suggest that a functional mismatch between these two systems may represent one possible biological underpinning of SA risk, which is conferred by a parental history of addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. HPLC Fingerprinting of Sennosides in Laxative Drugs with Isolation of Standard Substances from Some Senna Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Omur Demirezer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Senna leaves are one of the oldest medicinal herbs and they are used as laxative. Herbal teas which contain senna leaves are most commonly used to promote weight loss. The quality control of slimming teas which contain Senna leaves and also pharmaceutical preparations including Senna extract enriched by sennoside B was achieved by HPLC fingerprinting method. While the presence of sennoside A and B in laxative drugs was proved, it was seen to be devoid of sennosides in slimming teas. Kaempferol 3-O-β-D-gentiobioside (1, aloe-emodine 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2, rhein 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, torachrysone 8-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4, isorhamnetine 3-O-β-D-gentiobioside (5 were also isolated from Senna leaves.

  3. Reducing Sex under the Influence of Drugs or Alcohol for Patients in Substance Abuse Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Crits-Christoph, Paul; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Song, Yong S.; Coyer, Susan; Pelta, Sara

    2009-01-01

    Aims In a previous report, the effectiveness of the Real Men Are Safe (REMAS) intervention in reducing the number of unprotected sexual occasions among male drug abuse treatment patients was demonstrated. A secondary aim of REMAS was to reduce the frequency with which men engage in sex under the influence (SUI) of drugs or alcohol. Design Men in methadone maintenance (n=173) or outpatient psychosocial treatment (n=104) completed assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-months post intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to attend either REMAS (five sessions containing information, motivational exercises and skills training, including one session specifically targeting reducing SUI), or HIV education (HIV-Ed; one session containing HIV prevention information). SUI during the most recent sexual event served as the primary outcome in a repeated measures logistic regression model. Findings Men assigned to the REMAS condition reporting SUI at the most recent sexual event decreased from 36.8% at baseline to 25.7% at 3 months compared to a increase from 36.9% to 38.3% in the HIV-Ed condition (tintervention=−2.16, p=.032). No difference between the treatment groups was evident at 6-month follow-up. At each assessment time point, sex with a casual partner versus a regular partner, and being in methadone maintenance versus psychosocial outpatient treatment, were associated with engaging in SUI. Conclusions Overall a motivational and skills training HIV prevention intervention designed for men was associated with greater reduction in SUI than standard HIV education at the 3-month follow-up. PMID:20078464

  4. Screening of protein biomarkers for sports doping and veterinary control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, S.K.J.; Ginkel, van L.A.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    There are similarities between sports doping and veterinary control. Prohibited substances (e.g., anabolic agents and peptide hormones) are similar, and immunoassays and chromatography-mass spectrometry are applied as analytical methods in both worlds. In recent years, detection strategies based on

  5. Veterinary pharmacovigilance in India: A need of hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rishi; Kalaiselvan, Vivekanandan; Verma, Ravendra; Kaur, Ismeet; Kumar, Pranay; Singh, G N

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary pharmacovigilance (PV) is important for the Medicine which are used for treating disease in animals. It becomes more important when these animals are further used for producing food. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have a direct impact on animals and indirect impact on human beings, for example, through milk products, other animal producing food products. Currently, PV program of India is playing a vital role in assessing the safety of medicines in Indian Population. The safety of medicine in animals can be assessed by veterinary PV. The research institutes involved in animal research and veterinary hospitals can be considered as ADR monitoring centers to assess the safety of medicines on animals.

  6. Peer substance use associated with the co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder features and drug use problems in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarello, Scott; Taylor, Jeanette

    2011-01-01

    To determine if the substance use patterns of one's close friends and romantic partners would be a significant contributor to the co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and drug use problems above and beyond impulsivity and negative emotionality. Participants were 2,202 undergraduates who attended a large southeastern university between 2003 and 2006. All subjects completed measures assessing the presence of BPD symptoms, drug use problems, general personality traits, and the proportion of their friends and partners who had used illicit drugs within the past 12 months. The illicit drug use patterns of one's friends and romantic partners was a significant contributor to the co-occurrence of BPD features and drug use problems even when controlling for levels of impulsivity and negative emotionality. These findings suggest possible additional avenues for treatment focusing on helping students with BPD and drug use problems modify their social group.

  7. Drug: D08455 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available as: C18605 ... veterinary medicine Juvenile hormone mimic Larval growth inhibitor ... CAS: 95737-68-1 PubChem: ... D08455 Drug Pyriproxyfen; Cyclio [veterinary] (TN) ... C20H19NO3 D08455.gif ... Same

  8. Drug: D07613 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07613 Drug Carbaryl (BAN); Carbaril; Flea and tick powder [veterinary] (TN) ... C12H...11NO2 D07613.gif ... Same as: C07491 ... carbamate insecticide cholinesterase inhibitor veterinary medicine ...

  9. Drug: D08251 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08251 Drug Nandrolone laurate; Nandrolone dodecanoate; Laurabolin [veterinary] (T...14AB01 S01XA11 Chemical group: DG00142 ... Estren derivative veterinary medicine NR3C4 (AR) [HSA:367] [KO:K085

  10. A simultaneous determination of related substances by high performance liquid chromatography in a drug product using quality by design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tol, Trupti; Kadam, Nilesh; Raotole, Nilesh; Desai, Anita; Samanta, Gautam

    2016-02-05

    The combination of Abacavir, Lamivudine and Dolutegravir is an anti-retroviral formulation that displays high efficacy and superiority in comparison to other anti-retroviral combinations. Analysis of related substances in this combination drug product was very challenging due to the presence of nearly thirty peaks including the three active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), eleven known impurities and other pharmaceutical excipients. Objective of this study was to develop a single, selective, and robust high performance liquid chromatography method for the efficient separation of all peaks. Initially, one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) approach was adopted to develop the method. But, it could not resolve all the critical peaks in such complex matrix. This led to the advent of two different HPLC methods for the determination of related substances, one for Abacavir and Lamivudine and the other for Dolutegravir. But, since analysis of a single sample using two methods instead of one is time and resource consuming and thus expensive, an attempt was made to develop a single and robust method by adopting quality by design (QbD) principles. Design of Experiments (DoE) was applied as a tool to achieve the optimum conditions through Response surface methodology with three method variables, pH, temperature, and mobile phase composition. As the study progressed, it was discovered that establishment of the design space was not viable due to the completely distant pH requirements of the two responses, i.e. (i) retention time for Lamivudine carboxylic acid and (ii) resolution between Abacavir impurity B and unknown impurity. Eventually, neglecting one of these two responses each time, two distinguished design spaces have been established and verified. Edge of failures at both design spaces indicate high probability of failure. It therefore, becomes very important to identify the most robust zone or normal operating range (NOR) within the design space with low risk of failure and high

  11. New directions for veterinary technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.

  12. Expanding the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network to address the management of substance use disorders in general medical settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai B

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Betty Tai, Steven Sparenborg, Udi E Ghitza, David Liu Center for the Clinical Trials Network, National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland, USA Abstract: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (2010 and the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (2008 expand substance use disorder (SUD care services in the USA into general medical settings. Care offered in these settings will engage substance-using patients in an integrated and patient-centered environment that addresses physical and mental health comorbidities and follows a chronic care model. This expansion of SUD services presents a great need for evidence-based practices useful in general medical settings, and reveals several research gaps to be addressed. The National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network of the National Institute on Drug Abuse can serve an important role in this endeavor. High-priority research gaps are highlighted in this commentary. A discussion follows on how the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network can transform to address changing patterns in SUD care to efficiently generate evidence to guide SUD treatment practice within the context of recent US health care legislation. Keywords: Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network, substance use disorders, practice-based research network, electronic health records

  13. Report on the third research co-ordination meeting of the coordinated research project: 'The development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' (D3.20.22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The third RCM for the CRP on the development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries was held in Natal, Brazil, from 11-15 April 2005. The meeting was attended by ten Research Contract Holders, a second representative of the research group of the host country, two Research Agreement Holders, two Technical Contract Holders and the Scientific Secretary. The work in the second phase of this CRP has built upon the progress reported from the first phase, resulting in good quality immunoassay reagents, confirmatory methods and a number of validated methods. It is recommended that all contracts (with one exception), including technical contracts, be renewed to facilitate the completion of the work plans agreed at the meeting. A protocol for the validation of immunoassays will be provided by a Research Agreement Holder. The protocol has already been successfully applied for validation of an RIA method in Brazil. It is recommended that this protocol be adopted by all participants in the project to harmonize the validation of immunoassay methods developed. Work on the development of the 125 I-radioimmunoassay for chloramphenicol has not been satisfactory. It is recommended that this work is transferred to the research group in Brazil. The meeting agreed that the FAO/IAEA Joint Division's INFOCRIS database and associated e-learning modules are a very useful resource for developing country scientists. It is recommended to proceed with the expansion of the database as planned. In addition, it was suggested that a database and bibliography of original literature on, for example, pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies on veterinary drugs and hormonal growth promoters should be included. Much of this data was published many years ago and is very difficult to access, but is of importance in the design and development of methods. Some of the results generated by CRP participants should be

  14. 75 FR 29352 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... industry 188 entitled ``Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for...

  15. Sex Under the Influence of Drugs or Alcohol: Common for Men in Substance Abuse Treatment and Associated with High Risk Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calsyn, Donald A.; Cousins, Sarah J.; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Mandler, Raul; Doyle, Suzanne R.; Woody, George

    2010-01-01

    Sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol is associated with high risk sexual behavior. Heterosexual men (n=505) in substance abuse treatment completed a computer administered interview assessing sexual risk behaviors. Most men (73.3%) endorsed sex under the influence in the prior 90 days, and 39.1% endorsed sex under the influence during their most recent sexual event. Sex under the influence at the most recent event was more likely to involve anal intercourse, sex with a casual partner, and less condom use. Patients might benefit from interventions targeting sexual behavior and substance use as mutual triggers. PMID:20163383

  16. Veterinary homeopathy: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Vockeroth, W G

    1999-01-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies, including homeopathy, have a definite place in veterinary medicine today. The public is demanding access to a full range of conventional and complementary therapies, and the best scenario is to have all therapies available, for there is a place and a need for all of them in the right situation. In my own practice, I use both alternative and conventional therapies, as well as referring patients to specialists, for services such as ultrasound and surgery...

  17. Trace Level Determination of Mesityl Oxide and Diacetone Alcohol in Atazanavir Sulfate Drug Substance by a Gas Chromatography Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raju, K V S N; Pavan Kumar, K S R; Siva Krishna, N; Madhava Reddy, P; Sreenivas, N; Kumar Sharma, Hemant; Himabindu, G; Annapurna, N

    2016-01-01

    A capillary gas chromatography method with a short run time, using a flame ionization detector, has been developed for the quantitative determination of trace level analysis of mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol in the atazanavir sulfate drug substance. The chromatographic method was achieved on a fused silica capillary column coated with 5% diphenyl and 95% dimethyl polysiloxane stationary phase (Rtx-5, 30 m x 0.53 mm x 5.0 µm). The run time was 20 min employing programmed temperature with a split mode (1:5) and was validated for specificity, sensitivity, precision, linearity, and accuracy. The detection and quantitation limits obtained for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol were 5 µg/g and 10 µg/g, respectively, for both of the analytes. The method was found to be linear in the range between 10 µg/g and 150 µg/g with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.999, and the average recoveries obtained in atazanavir sulfate were between 102.0% and 103.7%, respectively, for mesityl oxide and diacetone alcohol. The developed method was found to be robust and rugged. The detailed experimental results are discussed in this research paper.

  18. [Initiation and consumption of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults in an Anti-Drug Psychosocial Care Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carolina Carvalho; Costa, Maria Conceição Oliveira; de Carvalho, Rosely Cabral; Amaral, Magali Teresópolis Reis; Cruz, Nilma Lázara de Almeida; da Silva, Mariana Rocha

    2014-03-01

    The study seeks to characterize the initiation and consumption pattern of psychoactive substances among adolescents and young adults enrolled in an Alcohol and Drug Psychosocial Care Center (CAPS-AD). This study was conducted with records of attendance and the consumption pattern was classified in accordance with WHO: infrequent use (lifetime use, per year or up to five days per month); frequent use (6 to 19 times in the past 30 days); heavy use (≥ 20 times in the last 30 days). In the age group comparison, the test for proportion and association analysis was used and the prevalence and prevalence ratio was calculated with a significance level of 5% and 95% confidence interval. Of the total of adolescents and young adults treated between 2003 and 2008 (475), most were male, single, poorly educated, live with relations and have psychic symptoms. Statistical significance was found for age at initiation of use: adolescents compared to young adults started earlier (≤ 14 years): tobacco, marijuana, cocaine, crack and other SPA consumption. Among adolescents, significant results were found for the less frequent consumption of tobacco, more frequent use of alcohol, and heavy consumption of marijuana. These findings may contribute to the preventive and therapeutic CAPS-AD programs.

  19. Prioritisation of veterinary medicines in the UK environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, Alistair B A; Fogg, Lindsay A; Kay, Paul; Blackwel, Paul A; Pemberton, Emma J; Croxford, Andy

    2003-05-15

    A wide range of veterinary medicines is used to treat animals in the UK. Whilst the environmental impact of selected substances (particulary the sheep dip chemicals, anthelmintics and fish farm chemicals) has been well studied, limited information is available in the public domain on the other groups of substances (e.g. antifungals, coccidiostats, antiprotozoals, hormones and growth promoters). There is therefore a need to identify other substances that may impact the environment in order to design national monitoring programmes, target experimental work and develop pollution prevention methodologies. In this study, a simple two-stage prioritisation scheme was developed and applied to veterinary medicines in use in the UK. In the first stage, those substances that have high potential to enter the environment in significant amounts were identified on the basis of amounts used in the UK, treatment type and metabolism. In stage 2, the hazard of the identified substances to terrestrial and aquatic organisms was assessed. Using the approach, a total of 56 substances or groups were assigned to a 'high priority' category. For eleven of these substances, sufficient data were available to characterise their risk, these were: oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, tetracycline, sulphadiazine, amoxicillin, diazinon, tylosin, dihydrostreptomycin, apramycin, cypermethrin and sarafloxicin. For the remaining 45 substances, full datasets were not available and it is recommended that in the first instance, attempts are made to fill these data gaps.

  20. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): Guideline for the evaluation of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa in livestock and companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, T; Olson, M E; O'Handley, R M; Schetters, T; Bowman, D; Vercruysse, J

    2014-08-29

    The current guideline was written to aid in the design, implementation and interpretation of studies for the assessment of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoan parasites, with Giardia spp. as the leading example. The information provided in this guideline deals with aspects of how to conduct controlled studies using experimental infection models (dose determination and dose confirmation) and efficacy studies in commercial facilities (field effectiveness studies). Furthermore, the selection of suitable animals, housing, infection procedure, choice of diagnostic technique and data analysis are discussed. This guideline is intended to assist investigators in conducting specific studies, to provide specific information for registration authorities involved in the decision-making process, to assist in the approval and registration of new drugs and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of uniform procedures. The primary parameter for drug efficacy is the reduction in either parasite excretion or parasite counts and a minimum efficacy of 90% is required against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa. A supporting efficacy parameter is a significant difference in the proportion of infected animals between treated and non-treated groups. Persistent efficacy is considered as an additional claim to therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Proceedings of a course on veterinary nursing, Massey University 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, G.V.

    1991-01-01

    This conference proceedings consists of 15 papers by 15 authors, which deal with veterinary nursing around the world, skills required for dealing with clients and selling drugs, safe handling of animals, samples and drugs, radiation safety, monitoring anaesthesia and post-operative monitoring, canine diabetes mellitus, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization and collection of blood and urine samples from dogs, cats and birds

  2. Effects of acute exercise on drug craving, self-esteem, mood and affect in adults with poly-substance dependence: Feasibility and preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Maren Mikkelsen; Johannesen, Sunniva Launes; Martinsen, Egil W; Hallgren, Mats

    2018-06-04

    Novel treatments for substance use disorders are needed. Acute bouts of exercise can improve mood states in non-clinical populations, but effects in those with poly-substance dependence are understudied. We examined the feasibility and short-term effects of three types of exercise on drug cravings, self-esteem, mood and positive/negative affect in nine poly-drug-dependent inpatients. Using a cross-over design, changes in the four study outcomes were assessed immediately before exercise and on four separate occasions post-exercise (immediately after, then at 1, 2 and 4 h post-exercise) enabling patterns of change over time (analysis of covariance) to be observed. Participants were willing and able to engage in different non-laboratory based exercises. Football was associated with non-significant short-term reductions in drug cravings. A similar trend was seen for circuit-training, but not walking. Football and circuit-training were associated with brief improvements in mood and positive/negative affect. No adverse events were reported. Football, circuit training and walking are feasible therapeutic activities for inpatients with poly-substance dependence. Controlled trials are needed to determine the long-term effects of these activities. © 2018 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  3. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  4. Application of a hybrid ordered mesoporous silica as sorbent for solid-phase multi-residue extraction of veterinary drugs in meat by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Natalia; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    A quick, sensitive and selective analytical reversed-phase multi-residue method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ion-trap mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-IT-MS/MS) operating in both positive and negative ion mode was developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 veterinary drug residues (β-blockers, β-agonists and Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)) in meat samples. The sample treatment involved a liquid-solid extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. SBA-15 type mesoporous silica was synthetized and modified with octadecylsilane, and the resulting hybrid material (denoted as SBA-15-C18) was applied and evaluated as SPE sorbent in the purification of samples. The materials were comprehensively characterized, and they showed a high surface area, high pore volume and a homogeneous distribution of the pores. Chromatographic conditions and extraction procedure were optimized, and the method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method detection limits (MDLs) and the method quantification limits (MQLs) were determined for all the analytes in meat samples and found to range between 0.01-18.75μg/kg and 0.02-62.50μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries for 15 of the target analytes ranged from 71 to 98%. In addition, for comparative purpose SBA-15-C18 was evaluated towards commercial C18 amorphous silica. Results revealed that SBA-15-C18 was clearly more successful in the multi-residue extraction of the 23 mentioned analytes with higher recovery values. The method was successfully tested to analyze prepacked preparations of mince bovine meat. Traces of propranolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac were detected in some samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation protection for veterinary practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A.

    1993-01-01

    This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.)

  6. Examination of the inventory of drug use consequences with individuals with serious and persistent mental illness and co-occurring substance use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Melanie E; Nidecker, Melissa; Strong Kinnaman, Joanna E; Li, Lan; Bellack, Alan S

    2009-01-01

    The Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC) ( [1] ) is a 50-item measure that evaluates lifetime and recent consequences of substance use. This study examined the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Inventory of Drug Use Consequences (InDUC-M) in individuals with serious and persistent mental illness (SPMI) and co-occurring substance use disorders (SUDs). We examined self-reported consequences in the sample, evaluated internal consistency, identified items for a brief form of the InDUC-M, and explored relationships with indicators of substance use severity. InDUC-M Lifetime and Recent subscales showed good internal consistency and were related to other measures of substance use and problems. A brief version of the InDUC-M Recent (SIP-M) showed excellent internal consistency and was highly correlated with both Lifetime and Recent subscales. The InDUC-M and the SIP-M performed well in individuals with SPMI and SUDs. Overall, these findings are a useful first step in determining the utility of the InDUC-M in people with SPMI and SUDs.

  7. About veterinary education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M

    2003-01-01

    The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.

  8. Reducing substance use and risky sexual behaviour among drug users in Durban, South Africa: Assessing the impact of community-level risk-reduction interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, C D H; Carney, T; Petersen Williams, P

    2017-12-01

    Alcohol and other drug (AOD) use is increasingly recognised as having a direct and indirect effect on the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, there is evidence to suggest that drug- and sex-related HIV risk-reduction interventions targeted at drug users within drug treatment centres or via community outreach efforts can lead to positive health outcomes. This study aimed to test whether a community-level intervention aimed at AOD users has an impact on risky AOD use and sexual risk behaviour. In 2007, in collaboration with a local non-governmental organisation (NGO) in Durban, an initiative was begun to implement a number of harm reduction strategies for injection and non-injection drug users. The NGO recruited peer outreach workers who received intensive initial training, which was followed by six-monthly monitoring and evaluation of their performance. Participants had to be 16 years of age or older, and self-reported alcohol and/or drug users. Peer outreach workers completed a face-to-face baseline questionnaire with participants which recorded risk behaviours and a risk-reduction plan was developed with participants which consisted of reducing injection (if applicable) and non-injection drug use and sex-related risks. Other components of the intervention included distribution of condoms, risk-reduction counselling, expanded access to HIV Testing Services, HIV/sexually transmitted infection care and treatment, and referrals to substance abuse treatment and social services. At follow-up, the baseline questionnaire was completed again and participants were also asked the frequency of reducing identified risk behaviours. Baseline information was collected from 138 drug users recruited into the study through community-based outreach, and who were subsequently followed up between 2010 and 2012. No injection drug users were reached. The data presented here are for first contact (baseline) and the final follow-up contact with the participants

  9. Drug and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drinks per week) or drink in binges. When accounting for older adults' other medical problems, a survey classified 53 ... Map • Privacy Policy • Terms of Use • Disclaimer This site complies with ...

  10. Veterinary Oncology Immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [The forecast of illicit drug use in adolescents with addictive behavior: personality traits and the level of genetic risk of substance dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakovlev, A N; Brodyansky, V M; Schurina, A V; Romashkin, R A; Kibitov, A O

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the psychological mechanism underlying the genetic risk of substance addiction at the first stage of drug use by adolescents. Genetic risk was evaluated by genotyping of 5 polymorphisms of the dopaminergic system genes (dopamine receptor D2 and D4 genes and tyrosine hydroxylase gene). Psychological testing was performed using the Russian version of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-125). Seventy-five adolescents, aged 14-17 years, (girls 32%), who misused alcohol, including 22 adolescents using drugs, were examined. The level of genetic risk was directly correlated with the probability of drug use by boys, for girls the correlation was not confirmed. The increase of the level of genetic risk for boys was correlated with the increase on the scale «Self-directedness» of TCI-125 that may reflect a probable tendency to replacement of negative information, feeling of illusory wellbeing. The findings clarify the direction of measures for the prevention of drug use.

  12. Comparing Efficacy of Four Preventive Methods on Attitude of Drug Substance Abuse and Self–Esteem in Students Supported by Emdad Committee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    aziz allah agha babaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy of four drug substance abuse preventive methods: cognitive–behavioral social traioning, life skills training, poster presentation and short message system on attitude change and enhancement self-esteem in students supported by Emdad Committee. Method:This was a quasi experimental study. 150 students were selected and randomly assigned to the four experimental and control groups. The groups were completed attitude of drug substance abuse and self-esteem inventories. Experimental groups received: group 1 received 10 sessions of group cognitive-behavioral social training 120 minutes each, group 2, 10 sessions of life skills training, 120 minutes each, group 3 for 10 weeks into presented of 40 posters and group 4 short message service for 10 weeks. Findings: The results revealed that preventive techniques were effected on attitude and self–esteem. Also results of post-hoc (LSD test revealed that preventive techniques with difference effectiveness were effected on change attitude of substance abuse. Also cognitive–behavioral social training and life skills training techniques were effected on self esteem. Conclusion: The results of the study revealed that all the four techniques were effective in the generation negative attitude into drug abuse, otherwise only cognitive–behavioral social training and life skills training enhancement on self esteem.

  13. Alcohol and substance use portrayals in Nigerian video tapes: an analysis of 479 films and implications for public drug education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, Olatunji F; Olorunshola, Derin A

    There is an observed increasing trend of substance use among the adolescents and young adults. One of the important aetiologies is "modeling" especially from popular artists portraying their use to the viewing public over the electronic media. Indigenous films on video tapes acted in English or "Yoruba" (a popular Nigerian language) were randomly selected from various retail outlets in Lagos for viewing. The settings were the Ikorodu and Ipaja suburbs of Lagos. The viewing audience in each center was made up of a researcher and two adolescent secondary school students. They were to make notes on each film with scenes of substance use, type, and nature of use. A total of 479 video tapes were studied over a 6 month period, of which 268 (55.9%) contained scenes portraying the use of one or more substances. Two hundred forty-seven (51.6%, N = 479) depicted the use of only one type of substance and the rest, 21 (4.3%, N = 479), portrayed the use of multiple substances. The commonest substance portrayed to be used was alcohol, 197 (41.1%, N = 479), followed by tobacco, 81 (16.9%, N = 479). Cannabis was shown to be used in only 3 (0.6%, N = 479); Cocaine and Heroin in 8 (1.6%, N = 479) of the films. There was no statistically significant difference on substance use portrayal between the home movies acted in English and Yoruba (chi2 = 32.8; df = 7 at p > or = 0.05). A significant number of films on video tapes in Nigeria portrayed substance use which could act as triggers or reinforcement for substance use among the viewing audience, especially adolescents and young adults. The need to censor video tapes on substance use portrayal was advocated.

  14. Veterinary medical education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international

  15. Depression CBT treatment gains among HIV-infected persons with a history of injection drug use varies as a function of baseline substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, Allison K; O'Cleirigh, Conall M; Stein, Michael; Safren, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Depression and substance use, the most common comorbidities with HIV, are both associated with poor treatment outcomes and accelerated HIV disease progression. Though previous research has demonstrated short-term and follow-up success for cognitive behavioral therapy for adherence and depression (CBT-AD) on depression outcomes among patients with HIV in care and among patients with HIV in active substance abuse treatment for injection drug use (IDU), there is little information regarding possible moderating effects of active use versus abstinence on depression treatment gains. The present study aimed to examine recent substance use at treatment initiation as a moderator of the acute and maintenance effects of CBT-AD on depression. We used data from a two-arm, randomized controlled trial (N = 89) comparing CBT-AD to enhanced treatment as usual in individuals in treatment for IDU. To test whether depression at time of presentation affected outcomes, repeated-measures ANOVAs were conducted for two time frames: (1) acute phase (baseline to post-treatment) (acute) and (2) maintenance phase (baseline to 12-month follow-up). To further examine maintenance of gains, we additionally looked at post-treatment to 12-month follow-up. Depression scores derived from the clinical global impression for severity and the Montgomery-Asberg depression rating scale (MADRS) served as the primary outcome variables. Acute (baseline post treatment) moderation effects were found for those patients endorsing active drug use at baseline in the CBT-AD condition, who demonstrated the greatest reductions in MADRS scores at post-treatment (F[1,76] = 6.78, p = .01) and follow-up (F[1,61] = 5.46, p = .023). Baseline substance use did not moderate differences from post-treatment to 12-month follow-up as depression treatment gains that occurred acutely from baseline to post-treatment were maintained across both patients engaged in substance use and abstainers. We conclude that CBT

  16. Piloting interprofessional education interventions with veterinary and veterinary nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Tierney; Lumbis, Rachel; Orpet, Hilary; Welsh, Perdi; Gregory, Sue; Baillie, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) has received little attention in veterinary education even though members of the veterinary and nursing professions work closely together. The present study investigates veterinary and veterinary nursing students' and practitioners' experiences with interprofessional issues and the potential benefits of IPE. Based on stakeholder consultations, two teaching interventions were modified or developed for use with veterinary and veterinary nursing students: Talking Walls, which aimed to increase individuals' understanding of each other's roles, and an Emergency-Case Role-Play Scenario, which aimed to improve teamwork. These interventions were piloted with volunteer veterinary and veterinary nursing students who were recruited through convenience sampling. A questionnaire (the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [RIPLS]) was modified for use in veterinary education and used to investigate changes in attitudes toward IPE over time (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and four to five months afterward). The results showed an immediate and significant positive change in attitude after the intervention, highlighting the students' willingness to learn collaboratively, their ability to recognize the benefits of IPE, a decreased sense of professional isolation, and reduced hierarchical views. Although nearly half of the students felt concerned about learning with students from another profession before the intervention, the majority (97%) enjoyed learning together. However, the positive change in attitude was not evident four to five months after the intervention, though attitudes remained above pre-intervention levels. The results of the pilot study were encouraging and emphasize the relevance and importance of veterinary IPE as well as the need for further investigation to explore methods of sustaining a change in attitude over time.

  17. Computer applications in veterinary medicine | Hassan | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... become essential tools in almost every field of research and applied technology. ... Computers in veterinary medicine have been used for veterinary education; ... agro-veterinary project design, monitoring and implementation; preparation of ...

  18. Second research coordination meeting of the coordinated research project 'Development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' (D3.20.22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The second RCM under this CRP was held in Pretoria, South Africa, 3 - 7 November 2003. Eleven of the twelve research contract holders, three research agreement holders and one technical contract holder attended the RCM. The three research agreement holders gave presentations on relevant aspects of veterinary drug residues analysis. The increasingly important role of bioassay techniques such as reporter gene assays for the direct screening of the effects of hormonal and other residues in animal cells and the future role of such assays to complement existing instrumental techniques was highlighted. The technical contract holder and research contract holders reviewed the results of the research and method development performed under the first phase of the CRP. Considerable progress has been made in many aspects of the overall work plan. Several commercial immunoassay methods have been critically evaluated. The main problems identified with these kits were the instability of reagents, notably the enzyme conjugates, resulting in poor performance, and the need for better sample preparation protocols applicable to a wider range of matrices. Work plans have been agreed with several laboratories to attempt to address these problems. Good progress has been made in several laboratories working on the development of in-house ELISA methods for chloramphenicol residues. The laboratories involved have produced and characterized antisera in various species and these will be used with reagents produced by technical contract holders to elaborate assay protocols. Further investigation into aspects such as reagent stability, antibody maturation and assay development using various assay formats is planned. A full set of reagents and protocols for their optimisation in a 125 I radioimmunoassay (RIA) for chloramphenicol have been developed by the technical contract holders and transferred to a research contract holder for further method development. However, this researcher was unable to

  19. Radiation protection in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, C.P.

    1989-06-01

    This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)

  20. Perspectives on academic veterinary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S

    2001-09-15

    It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.

  1. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...

  2. Radiological protection in veterinary practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi; Kusama, Tomoko.

    1990-01-01

    To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author)

  3. Evaluation of bi-functionalized mesoporous silicas as reversed phase/cation-exchange mixed-mode sorbents for multi-residue solid phase extraction of veterinary drug residues in meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Natalia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Sierra, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    A SBA-15 type mesoporous silica was synthesized and bi-functionalized with octadecylsilane (C18) or octylsilane (C8), and sulfonic acid (SO 3 - ) groups in order to obtain materials with reversed-phase/strong cation-exchange mixed-mode retention mechanism. The resulting hybrid materials (SBA-15-C18-SO 3 - and SBA-15-C8-SO 3 - ) were comprehensively characterized. They showed high surface area, high pore volume and controlled porous size. Elemental analysis of the materials revealed differences in the amount of C18 and C8. SBA-15-C18-SO 3 - contained 0.19mmol/g of C18, while SBA-15-C8-SO 3 - presented 0.54mmol/g of C8. The SO 3 - groups anchored to the silica surface of the pore walls were 0.20 and 0.09mmol/g, respectively. The bi-functionalized materials were evaluated as SPE sorbents for the multi-residue extraction of 26 veterinary drug residues in meat samples using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-MS/MS). Different sorbent amounts (100 and 200mg) and organic solvents were tested to optimize the extraction procedure. Both silicas showed big extraction potential and were successful in the extraction of the target analytes. The mixed-mode retention mechanism was confirmed by comparing both silicas with SBA-15 mesoporous silica mono-functionalized with C18 and C8. Best results were achieved with 200mg of SBA-15-C18-SO 3 - obtaining recoveries higher than 70% for the majority of analytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Explaining human recreational use of 'pesticides': The neurotoxin regulation model of substance use vs. the hijack model and implications for age and sex differences in drug consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward H Hagen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Most globally popular drugs are plant neurotoxins or their close chemical analogs. These compounds evolved to deter, not reward or reinforce, consumption. Moreover, they reliably activate virtually all toxin defense mechanisms, and are thus correctly identified by human neurophysiology as toxins. Acute drug toxicity must therefore play a more central role in drug use theory. We accordingly challenge the popular idea that the rewarding and reinforcing properties of drugs "hijack" the brain, and propose instead that the brain evolved to carefully regulate neurotoxin consumption to minimize fitness costs and maximize fitness benefits. This perspective provides a compelling explanation for the dramatic changes in substance use that occur during the transition from childhood to adulthood, and for pervasive sex differences in substance use: because nicotine and many other plant neurotoxins are teratogenic, children, and to a lesser extent women of childbearing age, evolved to avoid ingesting them. However, during the course of human evolution many adolescents and adults reaped net benefits from regulated intake of plant neurotoxins.

  5. The challenge of complex drug use: Associated use of codeine-containing medicines and new psychoactive substances in a European cross-sectional online population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimergård, Andreas; Foley, Michelle; Davey, Zoe; Wadsworth, Elle; Drummond, Colin; Deluca, Paolo

    2017-05-01

    Misuse of codeine-containing medicines in combination with new psychoactive substances (NPS) is inadequately described. This study characterises codeine consumption amongst NPS users and non-NPS users to provide warning of health issues. Online survey conducted between July 2015 and March 2016. Out of 340 respondents, residing in a country in Europe and using codeine recently, 63.8% were female. Mean age: 34.9 years (SD = 12.4). Substance use included NPS (18.5%) and illicit controlled drugs (55.9%). Factors relating to codeine use found to significantly predict NPS use were consuming codeine extracted from combination tablets (OR = 16.79, 95% CI [8.67, 32.51]), obtaining codeine from friends, family, and acquaintances (OR = 3.98, 95% CI [1.82, 8.7]), use of illicit controlled drugs (OR = 34.99, 95% CI [8.39, 145.94]) and use of codeine to experience euphoria (OR = 6.41, 95% CI [3.42, 12.04]). Amongst NPS users, codeine is less likely to be used daily but more likely to be used for recreational purposes. Smaller populations engaging in high-risk use exist who take multiple drugs in high doses. Combinations of misused codeine and NPS highlight the need for policy to respond to a more complex drug situation. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Associations of criminal justice and substance use treatment involvement with HIV/HCV testing and the HIV treatment cascade among people who use drugs in Oakland, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambdin, Barrot H; Kral, Alex H; Comfort, Megan; Lopez, Andrea M; Lorvick, Jennifer

    2017-06-14

    People who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs are at-risk for criminal justice involvement as well as HIV and HCV infection. Compared to criminal justice involvement, substance use treatment (SUT) can be cost-effective in reducing drug use and its associated health and social costs. We conducted a cross-sectional study of people who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs to examine the association between incarceration, community supervision and substance use treatment with HIV/HCV testing, components of the HIV treatment cascade, social and physical vulnerability and risk behavior. Targeted sampling methods were used to recruit people who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs (N = 2072) in Oakland, California from 2011 to 2013. Poisson regression models were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios between study exposures and outcomes. The overall HIV prevalence was 3.3% (95% CI 2.6-4.1). People previously experiencing incarceration were 21% (p People previously experiencing community supervision were 17% (p = 0.001) and 15% (p = 0.009), respectively, more likely to report HIV and HCV testing; and were not more likely to report receiving HIV care or initiating ART. People with a history of SUT were 15% (p People previously experiencing incarceration or community supervision were also more likely to report homelessness, trouble meeting basic needs and risk behavior. People with a history of substance use treatment reported higher levels of HCV and HIV testing and greater access to HIV care and treatment among HIV-positive individuals. People with a history of incarceration or community supervision reported higher levels of HCV and HIV testing, but not greater access to HIV care or treatment among HIV-positive individuals., Substance use treatment programs that are integrated with other services for HIV and HCV will be critical to simultaneously address the underlying reasons drug-involved people engage in drug

  7. En Route towards European Clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A.; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T.; Lees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve

  8. Cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) blockers as medicines: beyond obesity and cardiometabolic disorders to substance abuse/drug addiction with CB1R neutral antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janero, David R

    2012-03-01

    Addiction to chemical substances with abuse potential presents medical needs largely unsolved by extant therapeutic strategies. Signal transmission through the cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) in the central nervous system (CNS) modulates neurotransmitters/neuronal pathways contributing to the rewarding properties and hedonic effects of certain nondrug stimuli (e.g., food) and many prototypical addictive drugs, promoting excessive intake and its pathological consequences. Typical CB1R antagonists/inverse agonists reduce the rewarding effects and normalize behavioral phenotypes associated with food and abused drugs, but carry an unacceptable adverse-event profile that may reflect, at least partly, their intrinsic ability to alter basal homeostatic CB1R signaling in the CNS and elicit a negative efficacy response. Alternatively, peripherally biased CB1R inverse agonists with limited CNS permeability and putative CB1R neutral antagonists expressing modest (if any) inverse-agonist efficacy are garnering attention for treating obesity and related cardiometabolic complications with a potentially enhanced benefit-to-risk profile. This mini-review calls attention to the proposition that CB1R neutral antagonists offer attractive opportunities for pharmacotherapeutic exploitation in the substance abuse/drug addiction space, whereas the restricted CNS accessibility of peripherally biased CB1R inverse agonists circumscribes their therapeutic utility for this indication. The unique preclinical pharmacology, efficacy profiles, and reduced adverse-event risk of CB1R neutral antagonists make them worthy of translational study for their potential therapeutic application beyond obesity/cardiometabolic disease to include substance-abuse/drug-addiction disorders.

  9. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of general analytical factors in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E

    2010-09-01

    Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Dental Education in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Eubanks

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.

  11. Comparison of the Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS) to the AUDIT-C and ASSIST for detecting unhealthy alcohol and drug use in a population of hospitalized smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Benjamin H; Sherman, Scott E; Link, Alissa R; Wang, Binhuan; McNeely, Jennifer

    2017-08-01

    Hospitalized patients have high rates of unhealthy substance use, which has important impacts on health both during and after hospitalization, but is infrequently identified in the absence of screening. The Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS) was developed as a brief, self-administered instrument to identify use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and non-medical use of prescription drugs, and was previously validated in primary care patients. This study assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the SUBS in comparison to longer screening instruments to identify unhealthy and high-risk alcohol and drug use in hospitalized current smokers. Participants were 439 patients, aged 18 and older, who were admitted to either two urban safety-net hospitals in New York City and enrolled in a smoking cessation trial. We measured the performance of the SUBS for identifying illicit drug and non-medical use of prescription drugs in comparison to a modified Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) and its performance for identifying excessive alcohol use in comparison to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C). At the standard cutoff (response other than 'never' indicates a positive screen), the SUBS had a sensitivity of 98% (95% CI 95-100%) and specificity of 61% (95% CI 55-67%) for unhealthy alcohol use, a sensitivity of 85% (95% CI 80-90%) and specificity of 75% (95% CI 78-87%) for illicit drug use, and a sensitivity of 73% (95% CI 61-83%) and specificity of 83% (95% CI 78-87%) for prescription drug non-medical use. For identifying high-risk use, a higher cutoff (response of '3 or more days' of use indicates a positive screen), the SUBS retained high sensitivity (77-90%), and specificity was 62-88%. The SUBS can be considered as an alternative to longer screening instruments, which may fit more easily into busy inpatient settings. Further study is needed to evaluate its validity using gold standard measures in hospitalized

  12. Computer automation in veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, H

    1996-05-01

    Computers have been used to automate complex and repetitive tasks in veterinary hospitals since the 1960s. Early systems were expensive, but their use was justified because they performed jobs which would have been impossible or which would have required greater resources in terms of time and personnel had they been performed by other methods. Systems found in most veterinary hospitals today are less costly, magnitudes more capable, and often underused. Modern multitasking operating systems and graphical interfaces bring many opportunities for automation. Commercial and custom programs developed and used in a typical multidoctor mixed species veterinary practice are described.

  13. Current Issues and the Veterinary Medical Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Andre J.

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…

  14. The effects of veterinary antibiotics on soil microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Heike

    2005-01-01

    The possible environmental “side effects” of pharmaceuticals to the environment have not yet been investigated extensively. Among the veterinary drugs, the antibiotics are an important group, due to their extensive use and their potential to also affect environmental bacteria. The main entry path

  15. Adverse reaction to veterinary multivitamins and vitamin B complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been reported that dogs in South-western Nigeria react adversely to injectable veterinary multivitamins and human vitamin B complex preparations. Experimentation and interview survey were concurrently conducted to identify the type of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) that the indications produced. For the survey ...

  16. Needlestick injuries in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J Scott; Jack, Douglas C

    2008-08-01

    Needlestick injuries are an inherent risk of handling needles during the course of veterinary practice. While significant effort has been expended to reduce needlestick injuries in human medicine, a relatively lax approach seems to be prevalent in veterinary medicine. It appears that needlestick injuries are very common among veterinary personnel and that serious adverse effects, while uncommon, do occur. Clients may also receive injuries in clinics during the course of animal restraint, and at home following prescription of injectable medications or fluids. Because of occupational health, personal health, and liability concerns, veterinary practices should review the measures they are taking to reduce the likelihood of needlestick injuries and develop written needlestick injury avoidance protocols.

  17. Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...

  18. Achieving continuous manufacturing: technologies and approaches for synthesis, workup, and isolation of drug substance. May 20-21, 2014 Continuous Manufacturing Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxendale, Ian R; Braatz, Richard D; Hodnett, Benjamin K; Jensen, Klavs F; Johnson, Martin D; Sharratt, Paul; Sherlock, Jon-Paul; Florence, Alastair J

    2015-03-01

    This whitepaper highlights current challenges and opportunities associated with continuous synthesis, workup, and crystallization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (drug substances). We describe the technologies and requirements at each stage and emphasize the different considerations for developing continuous processes compared with batch. In addition to the specific sequence of operations required to deliver the necessary chemical and physical transformations for continuous drug substance manufacture, consideration is also given to how adoption of continuous technologies may impact different manufacturing stages in development from discovery, process development, through scale-up and into full scale production. The impact of continuous manufacture on drug substance quality and the associated challenges for control and for process safety are also emphasized. In addition to the technology and operational considerations necessary for the adoption of continuous manufacturing (CM), this whitepaper also addresses the cultural, as well as skills and training, challenges that will need to be met by support from organizations in order to accommodate the new work flows. Specific action items for industry leaders are: Develop flow chemistry toolboxes, exploiting the advantages of flow processing and including highly selective chemistries that allow use of simple and effective continuous workup technologies. Availability of modular or plug and play type equipment especially for workup to assist in straightforward deployment in the laboratory. As with learning from other industries, standardization is highly desirable and will require cooperation across industry and academia to develop and implement. Implement and exploit process analytical technologies (PAT) for real-time dynamic control of continuous processes. Develop modeling and simulation techniques to support continuous process development and control. Progress is required in multiphase systems such as

  19. 21 CFR 172.510 - Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. 172.510 Section 172.510 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION....510 Natural flavoring substances and natural substances used in conjunction with flavors. Natural...

  20. A cloud on the horizon-a survey into the use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and new psychoactive substance (NPS) administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundell, M; Dargan, P; Wood, D

    2018-01-01

    There is limited published scientific data on vaping recreational drugs other than cannabis. A recent review suggested that 15% of people vaping cannabis have also vaped a synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonist (SCRA) and identified over 300 Internet reports of e-liquid manufacture of recreational drugs and/or new psychoactive substances (NPS). To determine the prevalence of use of electronic vaping devices for recreational drug and NPS delivery in the UK. A voluntary online survey using a convenience sample of UK adult participants (aged 16 years old and over) identified by a market research company. Data was collected regarding demographics, smoking history, electronic vaping device history and recreational drug/NPS use and route of administration. There were 2501 respondents. The mean (±SD) age was 46.2 ± 16.8 years old. The commonest lifetime recreational drug used was Cannabis (818, 32.7%). The majority of respondents had smoked (1545, 61.8%) with 731 (29.2%) being current smokers. The most commonly used SCRA product was 'Spice Gold' (173, 6.9%) and SCRA compound was ADB-CHMICA (48, 1.9%). 861 (34.4%) had used an electronic vaping device; 340 (13.6%) having used them for recreational drug administration; 236 (9.4%) reporting current use. The commonest lifetime recreational drug to be vaped was cannabis (155, 65.7%), with electronic cigarettes (230, 48.2%) being the commonest reported route of SCRA compound administration. 9.4% of respondents currently use electronic vaping devices for recreational drug administration with 6.2% reporting lifetime cannabis vaping use. Further larger scale studies are required to help inform the appropriate treatment and primary prevention strategies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  2. New alternatives in veterinary anthelminthic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo T. Cristina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Present paper proposes the presentation of antiparasitic boluses, veterinary use specific conditionings with importance in gastro intestinal helminth population control, as a modern alternative to the classic antihelmintic therapy. The active substances are released consecutive to: diffusion, osmotic procesess, to progressive erosion, or through electronic programmed devices. Anthelmintic boluses are classified upon the releasing system in: a anthelmintic sustained release systems: for albendazole (Proftril bolus, morantel tartrate (Paratect flex and bolus ivermectines (Enzec and Alzet, Ivomec SR Bolus, levamisole (Chronominthic bolus, oxfendazol (Synanthic multidose bolus fenbendazole (Panacur Bolus.b anthelmintic programmed periodic release systems: Intra Ruminal Pulse Release Electronic Device (I.R.P.R.E.D and Repidose (Autoworm, Oxfendazole Pulsed Release Bolus.

  3. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... be afforded leave from employment for counseling or treatment, or to employment as a locomotive... employee may, if otherwise eligible, voluntarily self-refer for substance abuse counseling or treatment... certificate during evaluation and any required primary treatment as described in paragraph (d) of this section...

  4. Reflections on the future of veterinary medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasse, Keith W

    2009-01-01

    . Dr. Prasse honored those attending the 2009 AAVMC Symposium by giving the Recognition Lecture. As always, his address was inspirational, and the substance of it is included here. -Sheila W. Allen, Dean, University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine.

  5. Occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment in Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Servaes, K.; Vanermen, G.; Seuntjens, P.

    2009-04-01

    There is a growing interest in the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. Pharmaceuticals are classified as so-called ‘emerging pollutants'. ‘Emerging pollutants' are not necessarily new chemical compounds. Often these compounds are already present in the environment for a long time. But, their occurrence and especially their impact on the environment has only recently become clear. Consequently, data on their occurrence are rather scarce. In this study, we focus on the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water in Flanders. We have only considered active substances administered to cattle, pigs and poultry. Based on the literature and information concerning the use in Belgium, a selection of 25 veterinary pharmaceuticals has been made. This selection consists of the most important antibiotics and antiparasitic substances applied in veterinary medicine in Belgium. We develop an analytical methodology based on UPLC-MS/MS for the detection of these veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water. Therefore, the mass characteristics as well as the optimum LC conditions will be determined. To obtain limits of detection as low as possible, the samples are concentrated prior to analysis using solid phase extraction (SPE). Different SPE cartridges will be tested during the method development. At first, this SPE sample pre-treatment is performed off-line. In a next step, online SPE is optimized for this purpose. The analytical procedure will be subject to an in-house validation study, thereby determining recovery, repeatability (% RSD), limits of detection and limits of quantification. Finally, the developed methodology will be applied for monitoring the occurrence of veterinary pharmaceuticals in surface water and groundwater in Flanders. These water samples will be taken in areas characterized by intensive cattle breeding. Moreover, the samples will be collected during springtime. In this season, farmers apply manure, stored during winter

  6. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting of the co-ordinated research project: 'The development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' (D3.20.22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'the development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' was held in the Vienna International Centre from 2 to 6 September 2002. Twelve Research Contracts (RCs) and 3 Research Agreements (RAs) have been awarded under this CRP and all awardees, the Project Officer and a guest speaker from the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AAHFS) participated in the RCM. The objective of the RCM was to plan the first phase of the CRP, initiation of the development and validation of methods. Specific objectives were to: Agree upon a small number of veterinary drugs upon which to focus the research; Agree upon analytical methodologies to be employed; formulate individual work plans for each research contract holder within the framework of the overall work plan. Each RC holder presented an overview of residues monitoring from the perspective of their respective countries. Emphasis was placed on problems encountered and future requirements. The participants visited the Austrian National Reference Laboratory for veterinary drug residues at Moedling and discussed the activities there with Mr. Kuhn and laboratory staff. An overall framework for phase of the CRP, focusing upon the compounds and analytical techniques of major importance to the majority of participants, was formulated. Each RC holder discussed and revised their individual work plan with the RA holders and the PO. The overall framework was then reviewed and a summary of the individual work plans presented. Conclusions and recommendations were drafted

  7. Influence of radiation on the content of biologically active substances in herbal raw materials. Pharmacological activity of herbal drugs after microbiological decontamination by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Several thousand tons of medical herbs are produced annually by pharmaceutical industry in Poland. This product should be of highest quality and microbial purity. Recently chemical methods of decontamination are recognized as less safe, thus irradiation technique was chosen to replace them in use. In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology research work on microbiological decontamination of herbal raw materials and herbal drugs by irradiation has been carried out since 1996. It was shown that using ionizing radiation (a dose 10 kGy) can obtain satisfactory results of microbiological decontamination of these products. The content of biologically substances such a essential oils, flavonoids, glycosides, anthocyans, antra-compounds, poliphenoloacids, triterpene saponins, oleanosides and plants mucus did not change significantly after irradiation. Pharmacological activity of herbal drugs has been found satisfactory after microbiological decontamination by irradiation. (author)

  8. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  9. Assessment of an Innovative Voluntary Substance Abuse Treatment Program Designed to Replace Compulsory Drug Detention Centers in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farrah; Krishnan, Archana; Ghani, Mansur A; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Fu, Jeannia J; Lim, Sin How; Dhaliwal, Sangeeth Kaur; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2018-01-28

    As part of an ongoing initiative by the Malaysian government to implement alternative approaches to involuntary detention of people who use drugs, the National Anti-Drug Agency has created new voluntary drug treatment programs known as Cure and Care (C&C) Centers that provide free access to addiction treatment services, including methadone maintenance therapy, integrated with social and health services.   We evaluated early treatment outcomes and client satisfaction among patients accessing C&C treatment and ancillary services at Malaysia's second C&C Center located in Kota Bharu, Kelantan. In June-July 2012, a cross-sectional convenience survey of 96 C&C inpatients and outpatients who entered treatment >30 days previously was conducted to assess drug use, criminal justice experience, medical co-morbidities, motivation for seeking treatment, and attitudes towards the C&C. Drug use was compared for the 30-day-period before C&C entry and the 30-day-period before the interview. Self-reported drug use levels decreased significantly among both inpatient and outpatient clients after enrolling in C&C treatment. Higher levels of past drug use, lower levels of social support, and more severe mental health issues were reported by participants who were previously imprisoned. Self-reported satisfaction with C&C treatment services was high. Conclusions/Importance: Preliminary evidence of reduced drug use and high levels of client satisfaction among C&C clients provide support for Malaysia's ongoing transition from compulsory drug detention centers (CDDCs) to these voluntary drug treatment centers. If C&C centers are successful, Malaysia plans to gradually transition away from CDDCs entirely.

  10. [Simultaneous determination of principal components and related substances of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanyan; Liu, Liyan; Han, Yuanyuan; Li, Yueqiu; Wang, Yan; Shi, Minjian

    2013-09-01

    An analytical method for the simultaneous determination of 18alpha-glycyrrhizic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substances A and B and drug quality standard by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was established. The assay was carried out on a Durashell-C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) with 10 mmol/L ammonium perchlorate (the pH value was adjusted to 8.20 with ammonia)-methanol (48:52, v/v) as mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.80 mL/min, and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The column temperature was 50 degrees C and the injection volume was 10 microL. Under the separation conditions, the calibration curves of the analytes showed good linearities within the mass concentrations of 0.50 -100 mg/L (r > 0.999 9). The detection limits for 18alpha-glycyrrhizic acid, 18beta-glycyrrhizinic acid, related substances A and B were 0.15, 0.10, 0.10, 0.15 mg/L, respectively. The average recoveries were between 97.32% and 99.33% (n = 3) with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) between 0.05% and 1.06%. The method is sensitive, reproducible, and the results are accurate and reliable. The method can be used for the determination of principal components and related substances of ammonium glycyrrhizinate for the quality control of raw material drug of ammonium glycyrrhizinate.

  11. A comparison of antimicrobial usage in human and veterinary medicine in France from 1999 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Gérard; Cavalié, Philippe; Pellanne, Isabelle; Chevance, Anne; Laval, Arlette; Millemann, Yves; Colin, Pierre; Chauvin, Claire

    2008-09-01

    The antimicrobials allowed and amounts sold in veterinary and human medicine in France were compared to see if the same antimicrobial drugs are used in veterinary and human medicine, and to the same extent. Registers of all approved antimicrobial commercial products, kept by the French Agency for Veterinary Medicinal Products (AFSSA ANMV) for animals and the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) for humans, were compared to determine whether the same antimicrobials were approved in 2007 for use in both human and animal populations. Sales data were collected from pharmaceutical companies between 1999 and 2005 by the AFSSA ANMV and AFSSAPS. Usage of the different antimicrobial anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classes in human and veterinary medicines was recorded. Data were expressed in tonnes of active ingredients and were then related to the animal and human biomasses to compare usages expressed in mg/kg. All antimicrobial ATC classes were used in both human and veterinary medicine. Tetracyclines accounted for the most sales in veterinary medicine. beta-Lactams predominated in human medicine. A decrease in the amounts consumed by both human and animal populations was observed during the study. In 2005, 760 tonnes were used in human medicine and 1320 tonnes in veterinary medicine, corresponding to 199 and 84 mg/kg of live weight in human and animal populations, respectively. The same antimicrobial drugs were used in human and veterinary medicines but the quantitative patterns of use were different. Expression of antimicrobial usage is a key point to address when comparing usage trends.

  12. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2017-02-01

    The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories. The advent of mass spectrometry has significantly reduced the time required for ID of key pathogens such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. However, the turnaround time for validated AST methods has remained unchanged for many years. Beyond scientific and technological constraints, AST methods are not harmonized and clinical breakpoints for some antimicrobial drugs are either missing or inadequate. Small laboratories, including in-clinic laboratories, are usually not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues. Setting general standards for veterinary clinical microbiology, promoting antimicrobial stewardship, and the development of new, validated and rapid diagnostic methods, especially for AST, are among the missions of ESGVM. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  13. Review of hazards to female reproductive health in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A

    2017-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting

  14. The potential of circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNA) in veterinary diagnostics-Identifying biomarker signatures by multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie, Spornraft; Benedikt, Kirchner; Pfaffl, Michael W; Irmgard, Riedmaier

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide growth and performance-enhancing substances are used in cattle husbandry to increase productivity. In certain countries however e.g., in the EU, these practices are forbidden to prevent the consumers from potential health risks of substance residues in food. To maximize economic profit, 'black sheep' among farmers might circumvent the detection methods used in routine controls, which highlights the need for an innovative and reliable detection method. Transcriptomics is a promising new approach in the discovery of veterinary medicine biomarkers and also a missing puzzle piece, as up to date, metabolomics and proteomics are paramount. Due to increased stability and easy sampling, circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNAs) in bovine plasma were small RNA-sequenced and their potential to serve as biomarker candidates was evaluated using multivariate data analysis tools. After running the data evaluation pipeline, the proportion of miRNAs (microRNAs) and piRNAs (PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs) on the total sequenced reads was calculated. Additionally, top 10 signatures were compared which revealed that the readcount data sets were highly affected by the most abundant miRNA and piRNA profiles. To evaluate the discriminative power of multivariate data analyses to identify animals after veterinary drug application on the basis of smexRNAs, OPLS-DA was performed. In summary, the quality of miRNA models using all mapped reads for both treatment groups (animals treated with steroid hormones or the β-agonist clenbuterol) is predominant to those generated with combined data sets or piRNAs alone. Using multivariate projection methodologies like OPLS-DA have proven the best potential to generate discriminative miRNA models, supported by small RNA-Seq data. Based on the presented comparative OPLS-DA, miRNAs are the favorable smexRNA biomarker candidates in the research field of veterinary drug abuse.

  15. Alcohol & drug abuse: Revisiting employee assistance programs and substance use problems in the workplace: key issues and a research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, Elizabeth S Levy; Volpe-Vartanian, Joanna; Horgan, Constance M; McCann, Bernard

    2007-10-01

    This column describes employee assistance program (EAPs) and identifies key issues for contemporary EAPs. These programs began as occupational alcohol programs and have evolved into more comprehensive resources. To better understand contemporary EAPs, the authors suggest a research agenda that includes descriptive studies to provide an up-to-date picture of services; investigations of how contemporary EAPs address substance use problems, including management consultation for early identification; further study of EAPs' effects on outcomes, such as productivity and work group outcomes; examination of the relationship between EAPs and other workplace resources; further examination of influences on EAP utilization; and development and testing of EAP performance measures.

  16. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...

  17. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines for an integrative veterinary medicine curriculum within veterinary colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270

  18. Emotions in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    2012-01-01

    A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...

  19. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Overbeek, G.; Vermulst, A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design: Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting: General population of 11-15-year-old

  20. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use : A randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, Monique; Kleinjan, Marloes; Overbeek, Geertjan; Vermulst, Ad; Monshouwer, Karin; Lammers, Jeroen; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design: Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting: General population of 11-15-year-old

  1. Effectiveness of the 'Healthy School and Drugs' prevention programme on adolescents' substance use: a randomized clustered trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malmberg, M.; Kleinjan, M.; Overbeek, G.J.; Vermulst, A.A.; Monshouwer, K.; Lammers, J.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy School and Drugs programme on alcohol, tobacco and marijuana use among Dutch early adolescents. Design Randomized clustered trial with two intervention conditions (i.e. e-learning and integral). Setting General population of 11-15-year-old adolescents

  2. The relationship of manic episodes and drug abuse to sexual risk behavior in patients with co-occurring bipolar and substance use disorders: a 15-month prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Sanchez, Amy K; Griffin, Margaret L; McDonald, Leah J; Weiss, Roger D

    2011-11-01

    Risky sexual behavior is common among individuals with bipolar and substance use disorders. This 15-month prospective study examined the effects of between-subject differences and within-subject changes in mood symptoms and drug use on sexual risk behavior among 61 patients with both disorders. Participants completed five post-treatment follow-up assessments at 3-month intervals. Using a multivariate mixed-effects model analysis, more average weeks of mania (between-subject difference) was associated with greater sexual risk, but change in weeks of mania (within-subject change) was not; depression was unrelated to sexual risk. In addition, within-subject increases in days of cocaine use predicted increases in sexual risk. Results underscore the importance of substance abuse treatment and suggest that bipolar patients with active and/or recurrent mania are in need of targeted HIV prevention services. Further research is needed to test whether individual differences in impulsivity may explain the association between mania and sexual risk.

  3. The effects of eliminating supplemental security income drug addiction and alcoholism eligibility on the mental health of low-income substance abusers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Sean R; Speiglman, Richard; Norris, Jean C

    2010-09-01

    On January 1, 1997, as the result of federal legislation, many low-income substance abusers lost income and healthcare benefits provided by the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program. This study examined the effects of eliminating drug addiction and alcoholism (DAA) as qualifying impairments for SSI benefits on the mental health and mental health treatment utilization of former beneficiaries 3.5 years following the policy change. Study participants in four Northern California counties were categorized into three comparison groups based on their primary income source over the lifetime of the study. Findings indicated that overall the reported mental health status of former SSI DAA beneficiaries improved following the policy change; however, study participants who relied primarily on some other type of public assistance post-termination reported an increase in mental health treatment utilization.

  4. Health risk from veterinary antimicrobial use in China's food animal production and its reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-12-01

    The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Drug and chemical residues in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussman, H C

    1975-02-01

    Given the large number of chemical substances that may find their way into the food supply, a system is needed to monitor their presence. The U. S. Department of Agriculture's Meat and Poultry Inspection Program routinely tests for chemical residues in animals coming to slaughter. Pesticides, heavy metals, growth promotants (hormones and hormonelike agents), and antibiotics are included. Samples are taken statistically so that inferences as to national incidence of residues can be drawn. When a problem is identified, a more selective sampling is designed to help follow up on the initial regulatory action. In testing for pesticides, only DDT and dieldrin are found with any frequency and their levels are decreasing; violative residues of any chlorinated hydrocarbon are generally a result of an industrial accident rather than agricultural usage. Analyses for heavy metals have revealed detectable levels of mercury, lead, and others, but none at levels that are considered a health hazard. Of the hormone or hormonelike substances, only diethylstilbestrol has been a residue problem and its future is uncertain. The most extensive monitoring for veterinary drugs is on the antimicrobials, including sulfonamides, streptomycin, and the tetracycline group of antibiotics that constitute the bulk of the violations; their simultaneous use prophylactically and therapeutically has contributed to the problem in certain cases. A strong, well-designed user education program on proper application of pesticides, chemicals, and veterinary drugs appears to be one method of reducing the incidence of unwanted residues.

  6. A Clinical Pharmacology Course for Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Lynn Mulcahy

    1983-01-01

    A one-semester, two-credit course is described that was developed cooperatively by the colleges of pharmacy and veterinary medicine at Washington State University to help resolve an acute shortage of clinical pharmacologists in veterinary medicine and veterinary medical education. Course procedures, content, and evaluation are outlined (MSE)

  7. 7 CFR 371.4 - Veterinary Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary Services. 371.4 Section 371.4 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.4 Veterinary Services. (a) General statement. Veterinary Services (VS) protects and safeguards the Nation's livestock and...

  8. Characterizing substance use and mental health profiles of cigar, blunt, and non-blunt marijuana users from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Amy; Johnson, Amanda; Ehlke, Sarah; Villanti, Andrea C

    2016-03-01

    Smoking marijuana in a cigar (blunt use) is gaining popularity in the U.S. Research suggests that blunt users differ from exclusive cigar or marijuana users on a variety of demographic and substance use factors. Misreporting of blunts and cigars is also common, particularly among young people, and may lead to inaccurate prevalence estimates. To determine subtype differences, this study investigated the prevalence and demographic, mental health, and substance use correlates of four mutually-exclusive groups of blunt, cigar, and marijuana past 30-day users (cigar-only, blunt-only, non-blunt marijuana, or dual cigar-blunt). Data were analyzed from the 2013 National Survey of Drug Use and Health. In weighted multinomial logistic regression models, respondents who were younger, Black, and who had used tobacco, alcohol, or other drugs in the past 30-days had the highest odds of reporting blunt-only or dual cigar-blunt use. Those reporting blunt-only and dual cigar-blunt use also endorsed a greater number of marijuana and alcohol use disorder symptoms compared to those reporting cigar-only and non-blunt marijuana use. Lower marijuana risk perceptions were associated with increased odds of marijuana use with or without blunts. Major depressive episode was uniquely associated with non-blunt marijuana use. With respect to misclassifiers, respondents who reported past 30-day blunt use but not past 30-day marijuana use were younger, Black, female, and had lower education and income. Those who report blunt-only and dual cigar-blunt use showed the most severe risk profiles. Communicating health consequences and risks of blunt use should be directed toward specific subgroups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. THE APIPHYTOTHERAPY WITH PROACTIVATOR IN THE VETERINARY DERMATOLOGY AND SURGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SICEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this clinical study consisted in evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the propolis extract used in different disorders at company animals, thus being improved the palette of the apitherapeutical products used in veterinary purposes. The experiments were carried out on company animals (two experimental groups during the 2007-2008 period, in the frame of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty – Bucharest and the University - Spiru Haret, at the veterinary departments: Parasitology, Dermatology and Surgery. The raw propolis was collected from the bee colonies belonging to the Institute of the Beekeeping Research & Development– Bucharest and the apiphytotherapeutical product based on propolis was obtained in the Apitherapy sector of the same Institute. In a first stage were obtained the antiparasite, dermatological and surgical veterinary product PROACTIVATOR based on propolis alcoholic extract and Aloe vera gel. The experiments consisted in administration of the obtained preparation in different disorders on the experimental groups as: dermatological (plagues, chemical and physical burns, parasitological (extern parasites: scabies supra infected or not and in veterinary surgery (as a protective layer applied on the sutured plague. In dermatologic disorders the effects of the PROACTIVATOR product were established by way of clinical periodical examinations until the total recover were done. In external parasites and connected disorders it was established the repellent or killing effect of the preparation on the infestation with parasites and the degree of control in the correlated infections. In skin tissue surgery it was established the cicatrising effect in sutured plagues and the anaesthesic local effect. The established of the studied preparation efficiency was similar as those used in classical treatments with synthesis products. The advantage of the utilization of PROACTIVATOR eliminates the toxic and cumulative effects

  10. Fosfomycin: Uses and potentialities in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fosfomycin (FOS is a natural bactericidal broad-spectrum antibiotic which acts on proliferating bacteria by inhibiting cell wall and early murein/peptidoglycan synthesis. Bactericidal activity is evident against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and can also act synergistically with other antibiotics. Bacterial resistance to FOS may be natural or acquired. Other properties of this drug include inhibition of bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells, exopolysaccharide biofilm penetration, immunomodulatory effect, phagocytosis promotion and protection against the nephrotoxicity caused by other drugs. FOS has chemical characteristics not typically observed in organic phosphoric compounds and its molecular weight is almost the lowest of all the antimicrobials. It tends to form salts easily due to its acidic nature (disodium salt, for intravenous (IV, intramuscular (IM and subcutaneous (SC administration; calcium and trometamol salt: for oral (PO administration. FOS has a very low protein binding (<0.5% which, along with its low molecular weight and water solubility, contributes to its good diffusion into fluids (cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous and vitreous humor, interstitial fluid and tissues (placenta, bone, muscle, liver, kidney and skin/fat. In all species, important differences in the bioavailability have been found after administration in relation to the various derivatives of FOS salts. Pharmacokinetic profiles have been described in humans, chickens, rabbits, cows, dogs, horses and weaning piglets. The low toxicity and potential efficacy of FOS are the main factors that contribute to its use in humans and animals. Thus, it has been used to treat a broad variety of bacterial infections in humans, such as localized peritonitis, brain abscesses, severe soft tissue infections, cystitis and other conditions. In veterinary medicine, FOS is used to treat infectious diseases of broiler chickens and pigs. In broilers, it is administered for the

  11. Understanding veterinary leadership in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Caroline Elizabeth; Butler, Allan J; Murray, Yaqub Paul

    2018-04-21

    The Vet Futures Report has identified 'exceptional leadership' as a key ambition for the long-term sustainability of the industry. This research investigates what it is like to be a veterinary surgeon in an in-practice leadership position, applying the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Through the researchers' interpretation of the seven participants' stories of their leadership experiences, the study advances understanding of the work environment, underlying motivations and the perceived responsibilities of veterinary leaders. Findings suggest, for many, a struggle in transition to leader positions, improving with time. The increase in pace of work is relayed by participants, with an ongoing, and unchallenged, work-life imbalance. The vets involved are highly motivated, driven by enjoyment of their jobs, a desire for self-determination and a need to make a difference. Relationships form the core of the perceived responsibilities, and yet are identified as the greatest day-to-day challenge of leadership. This study offers a valuable insight for veterinary surgeons, suggesting the industry could benefit from pausing and reflecting on behaviours. With a greater understanding of the complexity of leadership and followership, progress can be made to enact positive changes for the future. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  13. African Journals Online: Veterinary Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... African Journals Online: Veterinary Science ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ... Life Sciences, Chemistry, Mathematics & Physics, Earth Sciences ... The Nigerian Journal of Animal Science (NJAS) is an official ...

  14. Radiation protection in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection

  15. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked Peer Reviewed. Publication Frequency.

  16. [Investigation of community support measures for patients with comorbid substance use disorder and psychotic disorder: nationwide survey of drug addiction rehabilitation centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Koike, Junko; Kouda, Minoru; Inamoto, Atsuko; Morota, Nobuaki

    2014-12-01

    In psychiatric care practice, patients are often seen who have difficulty with their social lives due to protracted psychiatric symptoms despite years without drug abuse. The difficulty of dealing with such cases and the lack of preparedness of the legal system leave circumstantial care as the only option. Western.countries have recently begun using the name 'concurrent disorder' as a diagnosis for patients deemed unable to recover solely through such treatment for drug addiction, signifying the presence of both a substance use disorder (SUD) and a mental health disorder. Various assessment and intervention methods are being investigated, and many studies have been reported. Based on the hypothesis that Drug Addiction Rehabilitation Center (DARC) are partly involved in supporting those with psychotic concurrent disorders (PSCD) in Japan, we conducted a survey to clarify the actual support for PSCD patients at DARC and the challenges they face. Surveys were administered to DARC-related institutions all over Japan (44 governing organizations and 66 institutions). Complete responses from 86 full-time employees and 445 DARC users were analyzed. DARC users were divided into two groups: psychiatric concurrent disorders (PSCD group, n = 178) and those without such symptoms (SUD group, n = 267), with the PSCD group accounting for 40% of the DARC users surveyed. Compared to the SUD group, the PSCD group was significantly less satisfied with their lifestyle and interpersonal relations at the DARC and a significantly higher proportion of the PSCD group requested assistance in communicating with others. When employees were presented with a hypothetical PSCD case and asked what was needed to deal with it, some responses were, "an institution that can treat both drug addiction and other mental health disorders," "a psychiatric care institution that provides 24-hour care," and "sufficient manpower and training." In the future, a treatment system must be established based on

  17. Veterinary clinical nutrition: success stories: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mike

    2016-08-01

    In this overview of success stories in veterinary clinical nutrition topics in cats and dogs reviewed include the dietary management of chronic kidney disease, dissolution of urinary tract uroliths by dietary modification, the recognition that taurine and L-carnitine deficiencies can cause dilated cardiomyopathy; that clinical signs associated with feline hyperthyroidism (caused by a benign adenoma) can be controlled by a low-iodine diet alone; that dietary management of canine osteoarthritis can also reduce non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug doses; and that disease-free intervals and survival times can be statistically longer in dogs with Stage III lymphoma managed with diet. As we discover more about nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, and as we expand our basic understanding of idiopathic diseases we are bound to identify more nutritionally related causes, and be able to develop novel dietary strategies to manage disease processes, including the formulation of diets designed to alter gene expression to obtain beneficial clinical outcomes.

  18. Women and substance use: a qualitative study on sexual and reproductive health of women who use drugs in Delhi, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vartika; Sarna, Avina; Tun, Waimar; Saraswati, Lopamudra Ray; Thior, Ibou; Madan, Ira; Luchters, Stanley

    2017-11-19

    To explore contextual factors that increase vulnerabilities to negative sexual and reproductive health (SRH) outcomes and possible differences in SRH-related behaviours and the needs of women who use drugs (WUD) through non-injecting and injecting routes. Qualitative study design using semi-structured in-depth interviews. Twenty women who injected drugs in the past 3 months and 28 women who reported using drugs through non-injecting routes in the past 1 month. Interviews were conducted at community-based, drop-in centres in Delhi, India. Study findings illustrate that WUD were sexually active and had multiple sex partners including clients of sex work. Transient relationships were reported and many participants engaged in unsafe sex. Factors which affected safe sex behaviours included: gender power imbalance, limited agency for decision-making, lack of accurate information for correct self-risk assessment, and being under the influence of drugs. Despite high awareness, low and inconsistent contraceptive use was reported. Some participants were coerced to conceive while a few others reported their inability to conceive. Violence was a key determinant for SRH outcomes. Perception of certain adverse health outcomes (such as infertility) to be 'common and expected among WUD' influenced access to healthcare. Further, healthcare providers' stigmatising attitudes and lack of women-centric services deterred women from uptake of healthcare services. Findings highlight that SRH-related behaviours and needs of this group are a complex interplay of multiple determinants which need to be addressed at all levels: individual, family, community and institutional. It is imperative to roll out a 'one-stop-shop' for a comprehensive package of health services. Expansion of existing drop-in-centres could be considered for setting-up community-based women-centric services with appropriate linkage to drug dependence treatment and reproductive health services. © Article author(s) (or

  19. A step towards the environmental prioritisation of veterinary medicines from animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahr, J.; Bondt, N.; Koeijer, de Tanja; Wipfler, E.L.; Berendsen, Bjorn; Hoeksma, Paul; Overbeek, van Leo; Mevius, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal manure from intensive livestock farming is spread on arable fields and grassland on a large scale in the Netherlands. This manure can contain residues of veterinary medicines that have been given to livestock. Some of these substances are increasingly found in groundwater and surface water.

  20. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preclinical Research Preclinical Research Drugs undergo laboratory and animal testing to answer basic questions about safety. More Information ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  1. Veterinary Homeopathy: The Implications of Its History for Unorthodox Veterinary Concepts and Veterinary Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Dwight B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)

  2. Stroke And Substance Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    A Chitsaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: stroke in recreational substance users can be an indirect complication, like endocarditis and cardio embolism in parenteral drug users. With some drug like cocaine, stroke appear to be the result of a direct effect. In young subjects without other risk factors provide persuasive evidence for causality . OPIATES: Heroine is the most abused opiate drug, which is administered by injection, by snorting or by smoking. Stroke affects heroin users by diverse mechanisms,. Injec...

  3. Wide-range screening of psychoactive substances by FIA-HRMS: identification strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechaga, Élida; Moyano, Encarnación; Galceran, Maria Teresa

    2015-06-01

    Recreational drugs (illicit drugs, human and veterinary medicines, legal highs, etc.) often contain lacing agents and adulterants which are not related to the main active ingredient. Serious side effects and even the death of the consumer have been related to the consumption of mixtures of psychoactive substances and/or adulterants, so it is important to know the actual composition of recreational drugs. In this work, a method based on flow injection analysis (FIA) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) is proposed for the fast identification of psychoactive substances in recreational drugs and legal highs. The FIA and HRMS working conditions were optimized in order to detect a wide range of psychoactive compounds. As most of the psychoactive substances are acid-base compounds, methanol-0.1 % aqueous formic acid (1:1 v/v) as a carrier solvent and electrospray in both positive ion mode and negative ion mode were used. Two data acquisition modes, full scan at high mass resolution (HRMS) and data-dependent tandem mass spectrometry (ddMS/HRMS) with a quadrupole-Orbitrap mass analyzer were used, resulting in sufficient selectivity for identification of the components of the samples. A custom-made database containing over 450 substances, including psychoactive compounds and common adulterants, was built to perform a high-throughput target and suspect screening. Moreover, online accurate mass databases and mass fragmenter software were used to identify unknowns. Some examples, selected among the analyzed samples of recreational drugs and legal highs using the FIA-HRMS(ddMS/HRMS) method developed, are discussed to illustrate the screening strategy used in this study. The results showed that many of the analyzed samples were adulterated, and in some cases the sample composition did not match that of the supposed marketed substance.

  4. Factors that influencing veterinary drug’s metabolisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Romeo T.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

  5. Sociodemographic and Substance Use Disorder Determinants of HIV Sexual Risk Behavior in Men and Women in Outpatient Drug Treatment in the NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Jeremy D; Tross, Susan; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N C; Nunes, Edward V

    2017-06-07

    Sexual risk behavior is now the primary vector of HIV transmission among substance users in the United States with gender as a crucial moderator of risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in factors (age, race/ethnicity, education) that predict main-partner unprotected sexual occasions (USO) using the unique platform of two parallel NIDA National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network gender-specific safer sex intervention trials. Baseline assessments of male (N = 430) and female (N = 377) participants included demographic characteristics; past 3-month sexual activity; and a diagnostic assessment for alcohol, cocaine/stimulant, and opioid use disorders. Using mixed effects generalized linear modeling of the main outcome USO, two-way interactions of gender with age, race/ethnicity, and education were evaluated and adjusted by alcohol, cocaine/stimulant, or opioid use disorder. When adjusted for alcohol use disorder, the interaction of education and gender was significant. For men, a high school or greater education was significantly associated with more USO compared to men with less than high school. For women, greater than high school education was significantly associated with less USO compared to women with a high school education. None of the other interactions were significant when adjusted for cocaine/stimulant or opioid use disorder. Conclusions/Importance: This study demonstrates gender differences in the relationship of education, alcohol use disorder, and main-partner USO in individuals in substance abuse treatment. This underscores the importance of considering demographic and substance use factors in HIV sexual risk behavior and in crafting prevention messages for this population.

  6. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  7. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Innes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

  8. Definition of Substance and Non-substance Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhiling; Wang, Huijun; d'Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Wang, Xiaomei; Ding, Jianrui; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Substance addiction (or drug addiction) is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by a recurring desire to continue taking the drug despite harmful consequences. Non-substance addiction (or behavioral addiction) covers pathological gambling, food addiction, internet addiction, and mobile phone addiction. Their definition is similar to drug addiction but they differ from each other in specific domains. This review aims to provide a brief overview of past and current definitions of substance and non-substance addiction, and also touches on the topic of diagnosing drug addiction and non-drug addiction, ultimately aiming to further the understanding of the key concepts needed for a foundation to study the biological and psychological underpinnings of addiction disorders.

  9. Overview of suspected adverse reactions to veterinary medicinal products reported in South Africa (March 2002 – February 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naidoo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre is responsible for the monitoring of veterinary adverse drug reactions in South Africa. An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the centre during the period March 2002 to February 2003 is given. In total, 40 reports were received. This had declined from the previous year. Most reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most of the products implicated were Stock Remedies. The animal owner predominantly administered these products. Only 1 report was received from a veterinary pharmaceutical company. Increasing numbers of reports are being received from veterinarians.

  10. Veterinary School Applicants: Financial Literacy and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.

  11. A randomized controlled trial of a brief intervention for illicit drugs linked to the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) in clients recruited from primary health-care settings in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humeniuk, Rachel; Ali, Robert; Babor, Thomas; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia O; de Lacerda, Roseli Boerngen; Ling, Walter; McRee, Bonnie; Newcombe, David; Pal, Hemraj; Poznyak, Vladimir; Simon, Sara; Vendetti, Janice

    2012-05-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a brief intervention (BI) for illicit drugs (cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants and opioids) linked to the World Health Organization (WHO) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). The ASSIST screens for problem or risky use of 10 psychoactive substances, producing a score for each substance that falls into either a low-, moderate- or high-risk category. Prospective, randomized controlled trial in which participants were either assigned to a 3-month waiting-list control condition or received brief motivational counselling lasting an average of 13.8 minutes for the drug receiving the highest ASSIST score. Primary health-care settings in four countries: Australia, Brazil, India and the United States. A total of 731 males and females scoring within the moderate-risk range of the ASSIST for cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine-type stimulants or opioids. ASSIST-specific substance involvement scores for cannabis, stimulants or opioids and ASSIST total illicit substance involvement score at baseline and 3 months post-randomization. Omnibus analyses indicated that those receiving the BI had significantly reduced scores for all measures, compared with control participants. Country-specific analyses showed that, with the exception of the site in the United States, BI participants had significantly lower ASSIST total illicit substance involvement scores at follow-up compared with the control participants. The sites in India and Brazil demonstrated a very strong brief intervention effect for cannabis scores (P Brazil (P illicit substance use and related risks is effective, at least in the short term, and the effect generalizes across countries. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  12. Improving titer while maintaining quality of final formulated drug substance via optimization of CHO cell culture conditions in low-iron chemically defined media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianlin; Rehmann, Matthew S; Xu, Xuankuo; Huang, Chao; Tian, Jun; Qian, Nan-Xin; Li, Zheng Jian

    2018-04-01

    During biopharmaceutical process development, it is important to improve titer to reduce drug manufacturing costs and to deliver comparable quality attributes of therapeutic proteins, which helps to ensure patient safety and efficacy. We previously reported that relative high-iron concentrations in media increased titer, but caused unacceptable coloration of a fusion protein during early-phase process development. Ultimately, the fusion protein with acceptable color was manufactured using low-iron media, but the titer decreased significantly in the low-iron process. Here, long-term passaging in low-iron media is shown to significantly improve titer while maintaining acceptable coloration during late-phase process development. However, the long-term passaging also caused a change in the protein charge variant profile by significantly increasing basic variants. Thus, we systematically studied the effect of media components, seed culture conditions, and downstream processing on productivity and quality attributes. We found that removing β-glycerol phosphate (BGP) from basal media reduced basic variants without affecting titer. Our goals for late-phase process development, improving titer and matching quality attributes to the early-phase process, were thus achieved by prolonging seed culture age and removing BGP. This process was also successfully scaled up in 500-L bioreactors. In addition, we demonstrated that higher concentrations of reactive oxygen species were present in the high-iron Chinese hamster ovary cell cultures compared to that in the low-iron cultures, suggesting a possible mechanism for the drug substance coloration caused by high-iron media. Finally, hypotheses for the mechanisms of titer improvement by both high-iron and long-term culture are discussed.

  13. Veterinary Business Management Association presents program to aid future growth and stability of veterinary profession

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Spiraling veterinary student debt and the lack of a sustainable and profitable business model for many private practices in the modern business environment threaten the future growth and stability of the veterinary profession.

  14. Drug: D02601 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02601 Drug Phenothiazine (INN); Thiodiphenylamin; Nemazine [veterinary] (TN) ... C12...H9NS D02601.gif ... veterinary medicine ... CAS: 92-84-2 PubChem: 17396771 ChEMBL: CHEMBL828 LigandBox: D02601 NIKKAJI: J3.932B ...

  15. Drug: D03867 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03867 Drug Dirlotapide (USAN/INN); Slentrol [veterinary] (TN) ... C40H33F3N4O3 D0386...7.gif ... Not for use in humans. veterinary medicine - Treatment of obesity in companion animals (dogs) M

  16. Drug: D04140 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04140 Drug Fenbendazole (USP/INN); Panacur [veterinary] (TN) ... C15H13N3O2S D04140....gif ... ATC code: P02CA06 ... Benzimidazole derivative veterinary medicine ... CAS: 43210-67-9 PubChem: 47206087 ChEBI: 77092 ChEMBL: CHEMBL37161 LigandBox: D04140 NIKKAJI: J15.833J ...

  17. Drug: D07730 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07730 Drug Cloprostenol (INN); Dalmazin [veterinary] (TN) ... C22H29ClO6 D07730.gif ... ... Prostaglandin derivative veterinary medicine ... CAS: 40665-92-7 PubChem: 51092026 LigandBox: D07730 NIKKAJI: J299.284A ...

  18. Drug: D08150 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08150 Drug Lufenuron (INN); Program [veterinary] (TN) ... C17H8Cl2F8N2O3 D08150.gif ... ... Same as: C18434 ... Benzoyl phenylurea derivative veterinary medicine ... CAS: 103055-07-8 PubChem: 96024840 ChEBI: 39384 ChEMBL: CHEMBL1364906 LigandBox: D08150 NIKKAJI: J481.190I ...

  19. Drug: D08391 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08391 Drug Pirlimycin (INN); Pirsue [veterinary] (TN) ... C17H31ClN2O5S D08391.gif ... ... ... Antibacterial ... DG01578 ... Lincosamide antibiotic Chemical group: DG01577 ... Lincosamide Target: 50S ribosomal subunit (veterinary

  20. Drug: D10034 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10034 Drug Tylvalosin tartrate (USAN); Aiviosin [veterinary] (TN) ... C53H87NO19. (C... 50S ribosomal subunit (veterinary) ... CAS: 63428-13-7 PubChem: 135626754 LigandBox: D10034 ... ... and porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis Target:

  1. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  2. Use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and mechanisms of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, S; Chaslus-Dancla, E

    2001-01-01

    This review deals with the application of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine and food animal production and the possible consequences arising from the widespread and multipurpose use of antimicrobials. The various mechanisms that bacteria have developed to escape the inhibitory effects of the antimicrobials most frequently used in the veterinary field are reported in detail. Resistance of bacteria to tetracyclines, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics, beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol/florfenicol is described with regard to enzymatic inactivation, decreased intracellular drug accumulation and modification/protection/replacement of the target sites. In addition, basic information is given about mobile genetic elements which carry the respective resistance genes, such as plasmids, transposons, and gene cassettes/integrons, and their ways of spreading via conjugation, mobilisation, transduction, and transformation.

  3. 78 FR 23742 - Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute... information collection for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). This notice initiates a 30...

  4. Introduction to veterinary clinical oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  5. Ethical dilemmas in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Carol A; McDonald, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Veterinarians frequently encounter situations that are morally charged and potentially difficult to manage. Situation involving euthanasia, end-of-life care, economics, and inadequate provision of care create practical and moral dilemmas. Ethical tension may be attributable to differences in beliefs regarding the moral value of animals, client and veterinary responsibilities, and deciding what is best for an animal. Veterinarians can employ communication skills used in medical situations to explore the reasons underpinning ethical dilemmas and to search for solutions with clients, staff, and colleagues.

  6. 77 FR 15961 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Phenylpropanolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Laboratories, Inc. The NADA provides for the veterinary prescription use of phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride... Veterinary Medicine (HFV-116), Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855, 240-276... Ely Rd., Pensacola, FL 32514, filed NADA 141-324 that provides for the veterinary prescription use of...

  7. Substance abuse in anaesthetists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Guasch, Roser; Roigé, Jaume; Padrós, Jaume

    2012-04-01

    Anaesthesiologists have a significantly higher frequency of substance abuse by a factor of nearly 3 when compared with other physicians. This is still a current problem that must be reviewed. Many hypotheses have been formulated to explain why anaesthesiologists appear to be more susceptible to substance abuse than other medical professionals (genetic differences in sensitivity to opioids, stress, the association between chemical dependence and other psychopathology or the second-hand exposure hypothesis). Environmental exposure and sensitization may be an important risk factor in physician addiction. There is a long debate about returning to work for an anaesthetist who has been depending on opioid drugs, and recent debates are discussed. Institutional efforts have been made in many countries and physician health programmes have been developed. As drug abuse among anaesthesiologists has continued, new studies have been conducted to know the theories about susceptibility. Written substance abuse policies and controls must be taken in place and in all countries.

  8. Veterinary Preventive Medicine Curriculum Development at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, William T.

    1976-01-01

    The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)

  9. Substance Use and Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Alcohol Tobacco Learn More Substance Use and Mental Health Drugs and Alcohol Did you know that addiction ... Plus – also en Español Treatment Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration (SAMHSA): SAMHSA’s National Helpline: 1-800-662- ...

  10. A new era in veterinary immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of

  11. The ninth international veterinary immunology symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...

  12. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Making a difference through veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-11

    More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Veterinary Safety's Conflicts in the EAEU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalymbek, Bakytzhan; Shulanbekova, Gulmira K.; Madiyarova, Ainur S.; Mirambaeva, Gulnaz Zh.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the problem of veterinary safety of the countries under the Eurasian Economic Union. Animal health's measures are provided in order to prevent the entry and spread of infectious animal diseases, including common to humans and animals, as well as goods not conforming to the common veterinary and sanitary requirements.…

  15. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine mammals...

  16. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, ...

  17. A Retrospective Chart Review of Treatment Seeking Middle Aged Individuals at a Tertiary Care Substance Use Disorder Treatment Centre in North Part of India over Five Successive Years: Findings from Drug Abuse Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatan Pal Singh Balhara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents and young adults continue to remain the main focus of attention with regards to substance use related problems. There has been a limited focus on illicit substance use among middle aged and elderly population. The current study explored the changing trends of substance use among treatment seeking middle aged individuals (aged 40–60 years at a tertiary level drug dependence treatment centre. The questionnaire used to gather information for the study is a 19-item structured questionnaire. It includes information on various sociodemographic variables, “current,” and “ever” use of substance. Information is also collected on variables related to high risk injecting drug use and HIV status of the individuals. There has been consistent increase in the population of treatment seekers over five years. Over the five-year period, the absolute percentage increase in treatment seeking population is approximately 21%. Polysubstance use was found to increase significantly over five-study years (PTrend = 0.007.

  18. [Adolescent substance use and family problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malbergier, André; Cardoso, Luciana Roberta Donola; Amaral, Ricardo Abrantes do

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the association between substance use (alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs) and family problems among 965 adolescents from 50 public schools in two cities in São Paulo State, Brazil, in 2007. The Drug Use Screening Inventory (DUSI) was used for data collection. Use of alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs was associated with a negative assessment of the family relationship, lack of monitoring/support, and psychoactive substance use by family members (p illicit drugs had more family problems than those who did not consume any substance (p illicit drugs (p illicit drug use.

  19. The use of intravenous lipid emulsion as an antidote in veterinary toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alberto L; Lee, Justine A; Rahilly, Louisa; Hovda, Lynn; Brutlag, Ahna G; Engebretsen, Kristin

    2011-08-01

    To review the use of IV lipid emulsion (ILE) for the treatment of toxicities related to fat-soluble agents; evaluate current human and veterinary literature; and to provide proposed guidelines for the use of this emerging therapy in veterinary medicine and toxicology. Human and veterinary medical literature. Human data are composed mostly of case reports describing the response to treatment with ILE as variant from mild improvement to complete resolution of clinical signs, which is suspected to be due to the variability of lipid solubility of the drugs. The use of ILE therapy has been advocated as an antidote in cases of local anesthetic and other lipophilic drug toxicoses, particularly in the face of cardiopulmonary arrest and unsuccessful cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation. The use of ILE therapy in veterinary medicine has recently been advocated by animal poison control centers for toxicoses associated with fat-soluble agents, but there are only few clinical reports documenting successful use of this therapy. Evidence for the use of ILE in both human and veterinary medicine is composed primarily from experimental animal data. The use of ILE appears to be a safe therapy for the poisoned animal patient, but is warranted only with certain toxicoses. Adverse events associated with ILE in veterinary medicine are rare and anecdotal. Standard resuscitation protocols should be exhausted before considering this therapy and the potential side effects should be evaluated before administration of ILE as a potential antidote in cases of lipophilic drug toxicoses. Further research is waranted. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2011.

  20. Potentiation by substance P of contractions of the isolated vas deferens of the mouse elicited by electric field stimulation and by drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, M.; James, T.A.; Starr, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    Isolated vasa deferentia from the mouse were opened longitudinally and suspended in Krebs solution at 37 0 C in an organ bath. Contractions of the muscle were elicited by electric field stimulation, noradrenaline (10 -6 M) and acetylcholine (10 -6 M). Continued transmural stimulation evoked a biphasic response comprising a rapid twitch followed by about 10 s later by a smaller, sustained rise in muscle tone. The amplitudes of nerve-mediated and drug-induced responses were considerably potentiated by substances P (SP) in the dose range 10 -12 to 10 -7 M. Higher concentrations of SP were directly spasmogenic. The sensitizing property of SP was dose-dependent and was usually well maintained, but always disappeared quickly on washing the preparation. In some experiments SP facilitated the twitch, but not the subsequent phase of the electrically-induced contraction or the response to externally applied noradrenaline. Phentolamine (10 -6 M) failed to block this effect of SP, but itself potentiated the nerve-mediated twitch, and completely abolished the sustained secondary contraction. Desmethylimipramine (10 -6 M) enhanced the delayed contraction but not the immediate contraction. The uptake of tritiated noradrenaline (3 x 10 -7 M) by vasa was inhibited by desmethylimipramine (10 -6 M) and increased by nialamide (3 x 10 -5 M), but was not modified by SP (10 -6 M). Nerve-mediated release of accumulated radioactivity was accelerated by phentolamine, but not by SP or desmethylimipramine. These findings suggest that SP sensitizes the muscle cells to depolarizing stimuli but that it has no facilitatory effect on sympathetic neural elements. (author)

  1. Substance use disorders and self- and other-directed violence among adults: Results from the National Survey on Drug Use And Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harford, Thomas C; Yi, Hsiao-Ye; Chen, Chiung M; Grant, Bridget F

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have identified a violence typology of self- and other-directed violence. This study examines the extent to which substance use disorders (SUDs) as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), independent of serious psychological distress, major depressive episodes, assault arrest, and criminal justice involvement, are associated with these violence categories. Data were obtained from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) pooled across survey years 2008-2015, with a combined sample of 314,881 adult respondents. According to self-report data on suicide attempt (self-directed) and attacking someone with the intent for serious injury (other-directed), violence was categorized in four categories: none, self-directed only, other-directed only, and combined self-/other-directed. Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted odds ratios associated with the risk factors for different forms of violence. Nicotine dependence and the number of DSM-IV SUDs criteria (except the criterion of legal problems) for alcohol, marijuana, and pain reliever use disorders are significantly associated with the self-/other-directed violence categories. Cross-sectional data do not allow assessment of directionality of important factors. The identification of the combined self- and other-directed violence among adults in the general population extends studies in the adolescent population, and significant correlation between self- and other-directed violence provides additional support for clinical studies that established this association. Findings expand the associated risk factors identified in previous studies for the adult population. Prevention and treatment programs need to address both forms of violence and suicidality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Simple and Sensitive RP-UPLC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of N-Hydroxybenzotriazole, Cinchonidine and 1,3-Dicyclohexyl Urea Contents in Fosinopril Sodium Drug Substance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Narendra Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatography (RP-UPLC method has been developed, optimized and validated for the simultaneous determination of N-Hydroxybenzotriazole (HOBt, Cinchonidine and 1,3-Dicyclohexyl urea (DCU contents at low levels in fosinopril sodium drug substance. Efficient chromatographic separation was achieved on Acquity UPLC HSS C18 column, 100 mm long with 2.1 mm i.d., 1.8 µm particle diameter, thermo stated at 30°C. Gradient elution involving binary mixture of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate (0.01M, pH:3.0±0.05 with ortho-phosphoric acid and acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.10 mL min-1 has been used. The analytes were monitored by photodiode array (PDA detector set at 205 nm. The drug substance was subjected to stress conditions of hydrolysis, oxidation, photolysis, thermal and humidity degradation. The method was validated for specificity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, accuracy and solution stability. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ for HOBt, Cinchonidine and DCU were in the range of 0.85-3.52 ppm and 2.57-10.67 ppm, respectively. The average recoveries for HOBt, Cinchonidine and DCU are in the range of 98.1% to 102.6%. The method can be used for the routine quality control analysis of fosinopril sodium drug substance.

  3. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors for urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P

    2012-03-01

    In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  4. Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... testing, substance abuse testing, toxicology screen, tox screen, sports doping tests What is it used for? Drug screening is used to find out whether or not a person has taken a certain drug or drugs. It ... Sports organizations. Professional and collegiate athletes usually need to ...

  5. 76 FR 62449 - Manufacturer of Controlled Substances; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... basic classes of controlled substances: Drug Schedule Marihuana (7360) I Tetrahydrocannabinols (7370) I The company plans to cultivate marihuana for the National Institute on Drug Abuse for research...

  6. En Route towards European Clinical Breakpoints for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Position Paper Explaining the VetCAST Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A.; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T.; Lees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation. The principal challenges anticipated by VetCAST are those associated with the differing modalities of AMD administration, including mass medication, specific long-acting product formulations or local administration. Specific challenges comprise mastitis treatment in dairy cattle, the range of species and within species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i) an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) – the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii) a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC)] and (iii) when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. VetCAST will ensure freely available dissemination of information, concerning standards, guidelines, ECOFF, PK/PD breakpoints, CBPs and other relevant information for AST

  7. En Route towards European Clinical Breakpoints for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Position Paper Explaining the VetCAST Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutain, Pierre-Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T; Lees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation. The principal challenges anticipated by VetCAST are those associated with the differing modalities of AMD administration, including mass medication, specific long-acting product formulations or local administration. Specific challenges comprise mastitis treatment in dairy cattle, the range of species and within species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i) an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) - the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii) a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index ( f AUC/MIC or f T > MIC)] and (iii) when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. VetCAST will ensure freely available dissemination of information, concerning standards, guidelines, ECOFF, PK/PD breakpoints, CBPs and other relevant information for AST

  8. En Route towards European Clinical Breakpoints for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing: A Position Paper Explaining the VetCAST Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Toutain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation. The principal challenges anticipated by VetCAST are those associated with the differing modalities of AMD administration, including mass medication, specific long-acting product formulations or local administration. Specific challenges comprise mastitis treatment in dairy cattle, the range of species and within species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF – the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC] and (iii when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. VetCAST will ensure freely available dissemination of information, concerning standards, guidelines, ECOFF, PK/PD breakpoints, CBPs and other relevant information

  9. Teaching Veterinary Anesthesia: A Survey-Based Evaluation of Two High-Fidelity Models and Live-Animal Experience for Undergraduate Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, Gabrielle C; Collins, Teresa; Hosgood, Giselle

    In veterinary medical education, reduction, replacement, and refinement (the three Rs) must be considered. Three clinical skills in anesthesia were identified as challenging to students: endotracheal intubation, intravenous catheterization, and drug dose calculations. The aims of this project were to evaluate students' perception of their level of confidence in performing these three clinical skills in veterinary anesthesia, to document the extent of students' previous experience in performing these three tasks, and to describe students' emotional states during this training. Veterinary students completed a series of four surveys over the period of their pre-clinical training to evaluate the usefulness of high-fidelity models for skill acquisition in endotracheal intubation and intravenous catheterization. In addition, practice and ongoing assessment in drug dose calculations were performed. The curriculum during this period of training progressed from lectures and non-animal training, to anesthesia of pigs undergoing surgery from which they did not recover, and finally to anesthesia of dogs and cats in a neutering clinic. The level of confidence for each of the three clinical skills increased over the study period. For each skill, the number of students with no confidence decreased to zero and the proportion of students with higher levels of confidence increased. The high-fidelity models for endotracheal intubation and intravenous catheterization used to complement the live-animal teaching were considered a useful adjunct to the teaching of clinical skills in veterinary anesthesia. With practice, students became more confident performing drug dose calculations.

  10. Domestic violence shelter partnerships and veterinary student attitudes at North American veterinary schools and colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K

    2013-01-01

    Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.

  11. The European system of veterinary specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary specialist diplomas were available in many European countries during the second half of the 20th century. However, such an early recognition of the importance of veterinary specialization actually delayed the concept of the European veterinary specialist in Europe, compared with the United States, where the first specialist colleges were established in the 1960s, because it was felt that the national system was functioning properly and there was therefore no need for a new structure in the European countries. The European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS) was established in 1996, and currently there are 23 specialist colleges with more than 2,600 veterinarians officially listed in the EBVS register as European specialists. The Advisory Committee on Veterinary Training (ACVT) approved the establishment of EBVS but never implemented a supervising body (with ACVT representation). Such a body, the European Coordinating Committee on Veterinary Training, was later implemented by the profession itself, although it still lacked a political component. Each college depends on the EBVS, which has the function to define standards and criteria for monitoring the quality of college diplomates. To become a European Diplomate, veterinarians must have gone through an intensive period of training supervised by a diplomate, after which candidates must pass an examination. Although the term European veterinary specialist still does not have any legal recognition, national specialist qualifications are being phased out in many countries because of the inherent higher quality of EBVS specialist qualifications.

  12. The need for veterinary nursing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funmilayo A. Okanlawon, RN, PhD, FWACN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nursing care has been identified as an integral part of human medicine but is not well recognised in veterinary medicine as practised in Nigeria. In caring for human beings, a nurse is expected to have the fundamental understanding of disease aetiology, manifestations, diagnosis, manage-ment, rehabilitation, prevention and control. This is equally applicable to the care of animals. The role of veterinary nursing in veterinary medicine is significant considering the multitude of issues involved in the care of animals. The keeping of domestic animals is becoming popular and consequently the spread of infectious diseases from animals to human beings is on the increase. It is vital for human beings and animals to coexist in a healthy environment. The authors examine the importance of nursing care in veterinary medicine, the current situation in Nigeria, the role of veterinary nurses, the inter-professional approach to veterinary medicine, preparedness for the emergence of infectious diseases and career opportunities for veterinary nurses. This premise falls within the context of the ‘One Health’ concept.

  13. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009

  14. Workplace safety and health for the veterinary health care team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, John D; MacMahon, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary clinic employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to provide a safe and healthy workplace. Clinic members are responsible for consistently using safe practices and procedures set up by their employer. Development and implementation of a customized comprehensive workplace safety and health program is emphasized, including an infection control plan. Occupational safety and health regulations are reviewed. The hazards of sharps, animal bites and scratches, and drugs are discussed. Strategies to prevent or minimize adverse health effects and resources for training and education are provided. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Teenagers and drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teenagers and drugs; Symptoms of drug use in teenagers; Drug abuse - teenagers; Substance abuse - teenagers ... for a specialist who has experience working with teenagers. Do not hesitate, get help right away. The ...

  16. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  17. Inspections in veterinary medicine 2005; Veterinaerinspektioner 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Helene

    2006-11-15

    In Sweden 300 veterinary clinics have a license for x-ray diagnostics. Six of them also have a license for nuclear medicine. During 2005 eight clinics were inspected and the results show that the radiation protection in veterinary medicine can be improved. No clinic fulfilled the regulations of categorization of workplaces and workers (SSI FS 1998:3). Half of the clinics had no Swedish manual to the x-ray equipment and just as many had not performed the annual function check. Obviously, there is a need for more information to staff in veterinary medicine.

  18. Veterinary medicine books recommended for academic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley-Low, Jill

    2004-10-01

    This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).

  19. Energy drink use frequency among an international sample of people who use drugs: Associations with other substance use and well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Peacock, Amy; Bruno, Raimondo; Ferris, Jason; Winstock, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Objective The study aims were to identify: i.) energy drink (ED), caffeine tablet, and caffeine intranasal spray use amongst a sample who report drug use, and ii.) the association between ED use frequency and demographic profile, drug use, hazardous drinking, and wellbeing. Method Participants (n = 74,864) who reported drug use completed the online 2014 Global Drug Survey. They provided data on demographics, ED use, and alcohol and drug use, completed the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification ...

  20. 78 FR 14803 - Ag-Mark, Inc., et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... the legal status of the drug products. Therefore, the Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine, is... Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855, 240-453... Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Bldg. 31, 24 Olney Ave., Cherry Hill, NJ 08034. The Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine...

  1. Genomics and systems biology - How relevant are the developments to veterinary pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkamp, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    This review discusses some of the recent developments in genomics and its current and future relevance for veterinary pharmacology and toxicology. With the rapid progress made in this field several new approaches in pharmacological and toxicological research have developed and drug discovery and

  2. Teaching veterinary professionalism in the Face(book) of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jason B; Weijs, Cynthia A; Muise, Amy; Christofides, Emily; Desmarais, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Facebook has been identified as the preferred social networking site among postsecondary students. Repeated findings in the social networking literature have suggested that postsecondary students practice high personal self-disclosure on Facebook and tend not to use privacy settings that would limit public access. This study identified and reviewed Facebook profiles for 805 veterinarians-in-training enrolled at four veterinary colleges across Canada. Of these, 265 (32.9%) were categorized as having low exposure, 286 (35.5%) were categorized as having medium exposure, and 254 (31.6%) were categorized as having high exposure of information. Content analysis on a sub-sample (n=80) of the high-exposure profiles revealed publicly available unprofessional content, including indications of substance use and abuse, obscene comments, and breaches of client confidentiality. Regression analysis revealed that an increasing number of years to graduation and having a publicly visible wall were both positively associated with having a high-exposure profile. Given the rapid uptake of social media in recent years, veterinary educators should be aware of and begin to educate students on the associated risks and repercussions of blurring one's private life and one's emerging professional identity through personal online disclosures.

  3. Psychotoxic Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    1964-11-16

    halluci- nations , disturbances of body perception, depersonalization symptoms, and a "psychotic" status. Also with the derivatives, the individual...the substance had also local anesthetic properties. After clinical testing, ibogaine was then used as stimulans for neurasthenics and convalescents1 1 3...con- siderably disturbed by this group of substances. The optic halluci- nations consist to a small extent in scenic proceedings of actions, more

  4. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...

  5. Sleep hygiene among veterinary medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D; Hunt, Suzanne A; Borst, Luke B; Gerard, Mathew

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand veterinary medical students' sleep hygiene and identify the extent to which sleep hygiene behaviors may result in consequences (either positive or negative) for students. A total of 187 doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) program students at a large College of Veterinary Medicine in the United States. The Epworth Sleep Scale and Daytime Sleepiness Scale were administered to 393 students enrolled in the DVM program. About 55.1% of students reported sleep per night, 28.9% reported having trouble sleeping, and 50.3% reported feeling sleepy all day. With respect to sleep quality, 5.3% described it as excellent, 52.4% as good, 34.2% as fair, and 8.0% as poor. A significant percentage of veterinary medical students exhibit poor sleep hygiene habits that may be detrimental to both their health and academic endeavors.

  6. Good veterinary governance: definition, measurement and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msellati, L; Commault, J; Dehove, A

    2012-08-01

    Good veterinary governance assumes the provision of veterinary services that are sustainably financed, universally available, and provided efficiently without waste or duplication, in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. Good veterinary governance is a necessary condition for sustainable economic development insomuch as it promotes the effective delivery of services and improves the overall performance of animal health systems. This article defines governance in Veterinary Services and proposes a framework for its measurement. It also discusses the role of Veterinary Services and analyses the governance dimensions of the performance-assessment tools developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). These tools (OIE PVS Tool and PVS Gap Analysis) track the performance of Veterinary Services across countries (a harmonised tool) and over time (the PVS Pathway). The article shows the usefulness of the OIE PVS Tool for measuring governance, but also points to two shortcomings, namely (i) the lack of clear outcome indicators, which is an impediment to a comprehensive assessment of the performance of Veterinary Services, and (ii) the lack of specific measures for assessing the extent of corruption within Veterinary Services and the extent to which demand for better governance is being strengthened within the animal health system. A discussion follows on the drivers of corruption and instruments for perception-based assessments of country governance and corruption. Similarly, the article introduces the concept of social accountability, which is an approach to enhancing government transparency and accountability, and shows how supply-side and demand-side mechanisms complement each other in improving the governance of service delivery. It further elaborates on two instruments--citizen report card surveys and grievance redress mechanisms--because of their wider relevance and their possible applications in many settings, including Veterinary

  7. Clinical decision making in veterinary practice

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the factors which influence veterinary surgeons’ clinical decision making during routine consultations. Methods The research takes a qualitative approach using video-cued interviews, in which one of the veterinary surgeon’s own consultations is used as the basis of a semi-structured interview exploring decision making in real cases. The research focuses primarily on small animal consultations in first opinion practice, how...

  8. National post-market surveillance assessment of veterinary medicines in Korea during the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, JeongWoo; Park, Hae-Chul; Jang, Yang Ho; Hossain, Md Akil; Jeong, Kyunghun; Jeong, Mi Young; Yun, Seon-Jong; Park, Sung-Won; Kim, Dae Gyun; Lee, Kwang-Jick

    2017-05-22

    Veterinary medicines have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of diseases, growth promotion, and to promote feeding efficacy in livestock. As the veterinary medicine industry has steadily grown, it is crucial to set up a baseline for the quality of medicine as well as the insufficiency or excessiveness of the active ingredients in drug products to ensure the compliance, safety and efficacy of these medicines. Thus, the 10 years data of post-marketing quality control study was summarized to determine the rate and extent of non-compliance of these medicines and to establish baseline data for future quality control measures of veterinary medicine. In this study, 1650 drugs for veterinary use were collected per year from each city and province in Korea and analysed for the quantity of active ingredients according to the "national post-market surveillance (NPMS) system" over the past decade. The NPMS assessment was performed using liquid and gas chromatography, titration, UV/Vis spectrophotometry, and bioassays. A total of 358 cases were deemed noncompliant, with the average noncompliance rate for all medicine types being 2.0%. The average noncompliance rates for antibiotics, biologics and other chemical drugs except antibiotics (OCD) were 1.1%, 1.2%, and 3.0%, respectively. The first leading cause for noncompliant products was insufficient quantity of major ingredients (283 cases), and the second leading cause was the existence of excess amount of active ingredients (60 cases). Tylosin, spiramycin, ampicillin, tetracyclines and penicillins were most frequently found to be noncompliant among antibiotics. Among the OCD, the noncompliance was found commonly in vitamin A. The overall trend presented gradually decreasing violation rates, suggesting that the quality of veterinary medicines has improved. Consistent application of the NPMS assessment and the establishment of the Korea Veterinary Good Manufacturing Practice (KVGMP) will help to maintain the good

  9. Assessment of inhibitory substances in the seed coat of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Laboratory experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Imo State University, Nigeria to assess the inhibitory substances in the seed coat of 15 cowpea cultivars for resistance against Callosobruchus maculatus. Fifty (50) seeds of the cowpea cultivars were collected from the International ...

  10. Research data services in veterinary medicine libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Erin E

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated veterinary medicine librarians' experience with and perceptions of research data services. Many academic libraries have begun to offer research data services in response to researchers' increased need for data management support. To date, such services have typically been generic, rather than discipline-specific, to appeal to a wide variety of researchers. An online survey was deployed to identify trends regarding research data services in veterinary medicine libraries. Participants were identified from a list of contacts from the MLA Veterinary Medical Libraries Section. Although many respondents indicated that they have a professional interest in research data services, the majority of veterinary medicine librarians only rarely or occasionally provide data management support as part of their regular job responsibilities. There was little consensus as to whether research data services should be core to a library's mission despite their perceived importance to the advancement of veterinary research. Furthermore, most respondents stated that research data services are just as or somewhat less important than the other services that they provide and feel only slightly or somewhat prepared to offer such services. Lacking a standard definition of "research data" and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.

  11. Factors Associated with Veterinary Clinical Faculty Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, Martin

    Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded, and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.

  12. Cultural awareness in veterinary practice: student perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida

    2011-01-01

    Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.

  13. Veterinary antimicrobial-usage statistics based on standardized measures of dosage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Jacobsen, Erik; Bager, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    In human medicine, the defined daily dose is used as a technical measure of drug usage, which is independent of the variations in the potency of the active compound and the formulation of the pharmaceutical product-therefore providing a measure of the relative importance of different drugs....... A national system of animal defined daily doses (ADD) for each age-group and species has been defined in VetStat (the Danish national system monitoring veterinary therapeutic drug use). The usage is further standardized according to the number of animals in the target population, acquired from production...... data on the national level or on herd size by species and age in the Danish central husbandry register (CHR). Statistics based on standardized measures of VetStat data can be used for comparison of drug usage between different herds, veterinary practices, or geographic regions (allowing subdivision...

  14. Drugs + HIV, Learn the Link

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Drugs of Abuse Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Fentanyl Hallucinogens ... Substance Use and SUDs in LGBT Populations Treatment Trends & Statistics Women and Drugs Publications Search Publications Orderable ...

  15. Sales of veterinary antibacterial agents in nine European countries during 2005-09: trends and patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, Kari; Greko, Christina; Kvaale, Mari K; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Mackay, David; Muller, Arno; Moulin, Gerard

    2012-12-01

    To identify trends and patterns of sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents in nine European countries during 2005-09 in order to document the situation. Existing sales data, in tonnes of active ingredients, of veterinary antimicrobial agents by class were collected from nine European countries in a standardized manner for the years 2005-09 (one country for 2006-09). A population correction unit (PCU) is introduced as a proxy for the animal population potentially treated with antimicrobial agents. The sales data are expressed as mg of active substance/PCU. Data coverage was reported to be 98%-100% for the nine countries. Overall, sales of veterinary antimicrobials agents, in mg/PCU, declined during the reporting period in the nine countries. Substantial differences in the sales patterns and in the magnitude of sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents, expressed as mg/PCU, between the nine countries are observed. The major classes sold were penicillins, sulphonamides and tetracyclines. The sales accounted for by the various veterinary antimicrobial agents have changed substantially for most countries. An increase in the sales of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones were observed for the majority of the countries. Through re-analysis of existing data by application of a harmonized approach, an overall picture of the trends in the sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents in the nine countries was obtained. Notable differences in trends in sales between the countries were observed. Further studies, preferably including data by animal species, are needed to understand the factors that explain these observations.

  16. SPECIAL ISSUE VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS 8TH INTERNATIONAL VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the Special Issue of Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. that summarizes the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto, Brazil. The 8 th IVIS highlighted the importance of veterinary immunology for animal health, vaccinology, reproducti...

  17. Pretreatment drug use characteristics and experiences among patients in a voluntary substance abuse treatment center in Malaysia: A mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Archana; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Ghani, Mansur A; Khan, Farrah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Drug use in Malaysia remains a significant public health and social problem despite implementation of harsh punitive drug policies such as forcibly placing suspected drug users into compulsory drug detention centers (CDDCs). Following criticism over human right violations in CDDCs, Malaysia has begun to transition towards voluntary drug treatment centers known as Cure & Care (C&C) centers. To best serve the needs of regional C&C centers, data on drug use are essential among patients accessing treatment. Using a mixed-methods approach, the authors examined pretreatment drug use characteristics and experiences with addiction treatment among C&C patients in Kelantan-a religiously conservative state in northeast Malaysia with high prevalence of drug use but where limited data are available on drug use patterns. A mixed-methods study utilizing surveys (n = 96) and semistructured interviews (n = 20) was conducted among a convenience sample of inpatients and outpatients at the Pengkalan Chepa C&C Center in Kelantan. Survey results showed that 89.6% of participants met screening criteria for moderate to severe addiction severity. Nearly 90% reported lifetime illicit amphetamine (syabu, meth, ice, and pil kuda) use, followed by alcohol (60.4%) and opioids (52.1%). Qualitative results pointed to the powerful influence of peer networks in drug initiation and relapse, and the positive effect of the C&C center on drug rehabilitation. The drug use profile of the Kelantan C&C center enrollees shows extensive pretreatment amphetamine use, polysubstance use, and injection drug use, including high-risk behaviors such as sharing needles, syringes, and containers. Evidence points to the need for integration of social support-oriented practices and behavioral interventions into the rehabilitation of drug users in this region.

  18. Ethnography in the Danish Veterinary Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Kirketerp Nielsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this project is research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based learning concept to be used in the veterinary education. Herd visits and animal contact are essential for the development of veterinary competences and skills during education. Yet veterinary students have little occasion to reach/attain a proper level of confidence in their own skills/abilities, as they have limited “training-facilities” (Kneebone & Baillie, 2008. One possible solution mightbe to provide a safe, virtual environment (game-based where students could practise interdisciplinary clinical skills in an easily-accessible, interactive setting. A playable demo using Classical Swine Fever in a pig herd as an example has been produced for this purpose. In order totailor the game concept to the specific veterinary learning environment and to ensure compliance with both learning objectives and the actual learning processes/procedures of the veterinary students, the project contains both a developmental aspect (game development and an exploration of the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context. The initial phase of the project was a preliminary exploration of the actual learning context, providing an important starting point for the upcoming phase in which I will concentrate on research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based virtual environment in this course context. In the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context of a veterinary course in Herd Health Management (Pig module,ethnographic studies have been conducted by using multiple data collection methods; participant observation, spontaneous dialogues and interviews (Borgnakke, 1996; Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007. All courserelated activities in the different learning spaces (commercial pig herds, auditoriums, post-mortem examinations, independent group work were followed.This paper will

  19. 75 FR 38699 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Propofol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Fort Dodge Animal Health, Division of Wyeth. The NADA provides for veterinary prescription use of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Melanie R. Berson, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-110), Food and Drug Administration... 42d St., New York, NY 10017 filed NADA 141-303 that provides for veterinary prescription use of...

  20. 75 FR 59610 - Implantation and Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Firocoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ...) filed by Merial Ltd. The NADA provides for the veterinary prescription use of firocoxib injectable... Veterinary Medicine (HFV-110), Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855, 240-276...., Bldg. 500, Duluth, GA 30096-4640 filed NADA 141-313 that provides for veterinary prescription use of...

  1. Characterization of veterinary hospital-associated isolates of Enterococcus species in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeon Soo; Kwon, Ka Hee; Shin, Sook; Kim, Jae Hong; Park, Yong Ho; Yoon, Jang Won

    2014-03-28

    Possible cross-transmission of hospital-associated enterococci between human patients, medical staff, and hospital environments has been extensively studied. However, limited information is available for veterinary hospital-associated Enterococcus isolates. This study investigated the possibility of cross-transmission of antibiotic-resistant enterococci between dog patients, their owners, veterinary staff, and hospital environments. Swab samples (n =46 5) were obtained from five veterinary hospitals in Seoul, Korea, during 2011. Forty-three Enterococcus strains were isolated, representing seven enterococcal species. E. faecalis and E. faecium were the most dominant species (16 isolates each, 37.2%). Although slight differences in the antibiotic resistance profiles were observed between the phenotypic and the genotypic data, our antibiogram analysis demonstrated high prevalence of the multiple drug-resistant (MDR) isolates of E. faecalis (10/16 isolates, 62.5%) and E. faecium (12/16 isolates, 75.0%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic comparison of the MDR isolates revealed three different clonal sets of E. faecalis and a single set of E. faecium, which were isolated from different sample groups or dog patients at the same or two separate veterinary hospitals. These results imply a strong possibility of cross-transmission of the antibiotic-resistant enterococcal species between animal patients, owners, veterinary staff, and hospital environments.

  2. Overview of suspected adverse reactions to veterinary medicinal products reported in South Africa (March 2004 - February 2006 : report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naidoo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre is responsible for the monitoring of veterinary adverse drug reactions in South Africa. An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the centre during the period March 2004 to February 2006 is presented. A total of 21 reports was received in the 2-year period, continuing the decline in the number of reports to a lower figure than in any previous year. This is surprising considering the legal obligation of the veterinary professionals to report all adverse drug reactions. Once again the majority of reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most of the products implicated were stock remedies. Veterinarians predominantly administered these products.

  3. The Effects of American Sign Language on General Self-Efficacy and Anxiety among Mothers in a Residential Rehabilitation Facility for Drug Addiction and Substance Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissel, Bonnie J.

    2010-01-01

    Globally, approximately 208 million people aged 15 and older used illicit drugs at least once in the last 12 months; 2 billion consumed alcohol and tobacco consumption affected 25% (World Drug Report, 2008). In the United States, 20.1 million (8.0%) people aged 12 and older were illicit drug users, 129 million (51.6%) abused alcohol and 70.9…

  4. Lessons of history in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald F

    2013-01-01

    The future of veterinary medicine is best understood in the context of history. What began as a profession rooted in urban centers in proximity to horses, physicians, and medical schools, was transformed into a land grant-based agricultural profession with the arrival of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century. Most of the United States' current veterinary colleges are still located in towns or small cities in the middle section of the country, outside the largest metropolitan areas where most veterinarians practice companion-animal medicine. Throughout veterinarian history, substantial numbers of US students have been educated in foreign colleges and this continues today, creating an even greater geographic imbalance between the veterinary educational process and US population centers and major medical schools. Three themes deserve special attention as we celebrate the profession's 150th anniversary. We must first move beyond the land-grant culture and develop a more geographically balanced approach to establishing new veterinary colleges that are also in closer association with schools of medicine and public health. We must also facilitate more opportunities for women leadership in organized veterinary medicine, in practice ownership, in academia, and in the corporate structures that educate, hire, and interface with veterinarians. Finally, we need to expand our understanding of One Health to include the concept of zooeyia (the role of animals in promoting human health), as well as continue to emphasize veterinarians' special roles in the control and management of zoonotic diseases and in advancing comparative medicine in the age of the genome.

  5. Career identity in the veterinary profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Jones, S; Abbey, G

    2015-04-25

    This research investigates vet and vet nurse career identity through the qualitative methodology of narrative enquiry. It derives learning and understanding from these empirical data to assist the veterinary profession to adjust to the changing industry landscape. Through a case series of 20 vets and vet nurses' career stories, this paper seeks understanding about career identity and its impact on individuals and organisations in the light of industry consolidation. Findings suggest that career is central to identity for many veterinary professionals who tend to have a strong sense of self; this is particularly evident around self as learner and technically competent, teacher and educator, ethical and moral and dedicated and resilient. Consequently, mismatches between 'who I am' and 'what I do' tend not to lead to identity customisation (to fit self into role or organisation) but to the search for alternative, more identity-compatible employment. This study offers a valuable insight for employers, veterinary professionals and universities. It suggests that businesses can gain competitive advantage and employees achieve validation and enrichment by working towards organisational and individual identity congruence and that teaching veterinary professionals with contemporary business in mind may develop graduates with a more sustainable identity. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Variations in the sales and sales patterns of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 25 European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grave, Kari; Torren-Edo, Jordi; Muller, Arno; Greko, Christina; Moulin, Gerard; Mackay, David

    2014-08-01

    To describe sales and sales patterns of veterinary antimicrobial agents in 25 European Union (EU)/European Economic Area (EEA) countries for 2011. Data on the sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents from 25 EU member states and EEA countries for 2011 were collected at package level (name, formulation, strength, pack size, number of packages sold) according to a standardized protocol and template and presented in a harmonized manner. These data were calculated to express amounts sold, in metric tonnes, of active ingredient of each package. A population correction unit (PCU) was applied as a proxy for the animal biomass potentially treated with antimicrobial agents. The indicator used to express sales was milligrams of active substance per PCU. Substantial variations in the sales patterns and in the magnitude of sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents, expressed as mg/PCU, between the countries were observed. The proportion of sales, in mg/PCU, of products applicable for treatment of groups or herds of animals (premixes, oral powders and oral solution) varied considerably between the countries. Some countries reported much lower sales of veterinary antimicrobial agents than others, when expressed as mg/PCU. Sales patterns varied between countries, particularly with respect to pharmaceutical forms. Further studies are needed to understand the factors that explain the observed differences. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Shared Substance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerlufsen, Tony; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Eagan, James

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data- oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and S...

  8. Veterinary Students' Recollection Methods for Surgical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebaek, Rikke; Tanggaard, Lene; Berendt, Mette

    2016-01-01

    When veterinary students face their first live animal surgeries, their level of anxiety is generally high and this can affect their ability to recall the procedure they are about to undertake. Multimodal teaching methods have previously been shown to enhance learning and facilitate recall; however......, student preferences for recollection methods when translating theory into practice have not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate veterinary students' experience with recollection of a surgical procedure they were about to perform after using multiple methods for preparation. From...... a group of 171 veterinary students enrolled in a basic surgery course, 26 students were randomly selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. Results showed that 58% of the students used a visual, dynamic method of recollection, mentally visualizing the video they had watched as part...

  9. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in veterinary diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Ruiz, L.; Jimenez-Flores, Y.; Rivera-Montalvo, T.; Arias-Cisneros, L.; Méndez-Aguilar, R.E.; Uribe-Izquierdo, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Environmental and Personnel Dosimetry made in a radiology area of a veterinary hospital. Dosimetry was realized using thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Environmental Dosimetry results show that areas closer to the X-ray equipment are safe. Personnel Dosimetry shows important measurements of daily workday in some persons near to the limit established by ICRP. TL results of radiation measurement suggest TLDs are good candidates as a dosimeter to radiation dosimetry in veterinary radiology. - Highlights: ► Personnel dosimetry in laboratory veterinary diagnostic was determined. ► Student workplaces are safe against radiation. ► Efficiency value of apron lead was determined. ► X-ray beams distribution into veterinarian laboratory was measured.

  10. [The organisation and future development of Veterinary Services in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, E

    2003-08-01

    Latin America undoubtedly has comparative advantages in the fields of animal production, animal health and the production of food of animal origin. However, countries in Latin America must build on these strengths if the continent is to become more competitive and be able to deal with the complexities of world markets. To do this, Veterinary Services must define their objectives and establish quality standards on which to base their work. For this to occur, the State must create well-defined regulations, establish systems of audit and find ways of working which allow for a high degree of coordination and collaboration between the public and private sectors. This should be done within a framework of a quality assurance system, which allows for responsible accreditation and independent audit and evaluation. The author discusses the approaches of the different countries in the region to animal health, zoonosis, food safety, veterinary drugs control, animal welfare and export-import control. All programmes relating to these issues must be based on technical information gained through epidemiological surveillance, the network of diagnostic laboratories, quarantine systems, risk analysis, identification and traceability of animals and animal products, registration and control of veterinary drugs, and food safety research. In some countries these systems are already being developed. Maintaining good international relations and cooperating with neighbouring countries is always a challenge for official Veterinary Services and international organisations such as the OIE (World organisation for animal health) have a key role to play in facilitating these relationships.

  11. Balancing knowledge and basic principles in veterinary parasitology - Competencies for future Danish veterinary graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only...... clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical...

  12. Competency-based veterinary education - An integrative approach to learning and assessment in the clinical workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    When graduating from veterinary school, veterinary professionals must be ready to enter the complex veterinary profession. Therefore, one of the major responsibilities of any veterinary school is to develop training programmes that support students’ competency development on the trajectory from

  13. Veterinary and human medicine: learning from each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Laura

    2016-03-26

    A well-attended session at this year's joint SPVS/VPMA congress considered what lessons the medical and veterinary professions might learn from one another. Laura Honey reports. British Veterinary Association.

  14. Thirtieth Annual Congress on Veterinary Acupuncture: IVAS Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kaphle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 155 participants from 25 countries attended the 30th Annual IVAS Congress, September 8–11, 2004 in Oostende, Belgium. The focus was on veterinary acupuncture (AP and immunology, and the event was sponsored by the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society (IVAS. IVAS is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting excellence in the practice of veterinary AP as an integral part of the total veterinary health care delivery system. The Society endeavors to establish uniformly high standards of veterinary AP through its educational programs and accreditation examination. IVAS seeks to integrate veterinary AP and the practice of Western veterinary science, while also noting that the science of veterinary AP does not overlook allied health systems, such as homeopathy, herbology, nutrition, chiropractic, kinesiology, etc. (www.ivas.org.

  15. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  16. Evaluating the economic and noneconomic impacts of the veterinary medical profession in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J W; Dartt, B A

    2000-01-01

    This study reaffirms the diversity and breadth of the veterinary profession. As it turns out, some of the furthest-reaching impacts of the veterinary medical profession were largely non-quantifiable. The veterinary medical profession had a substantial direct economic impact in Michigan during 1995. The total economic contribution of the veterinary medical profession to Michigan during 1995 that was attributable to expenditures on salaries, supplies, services, and their multiplier effect was approximately $500 million. In addition, the profession was associated with nearly 8,500 jobs (combined professional and lay positions). The veterinary medical profession was also considered to have an impact on the prosperity of the live-stock, equine, and pet food industries in Michigan, even though the economic contribution in these areas could not be directly quantified. Economic well-being of the individual businesses in these industries is directly related to the health and productivity of the associated animals, and improvements in output or productivity that accompany improved animal health likely carry substantial economic benefits in these sectors. In addition, progressive animal health management provides a crucial method of managing risk in the animal industries. Similarly, although the economic contribution could not be quantified, the veterinary medical profession enhances the safety and quality of human food through research, regulation, and quality assurance programs in livestock production, minimizing the risk of drug residues and microbial contamination. During 1995, approximately 5.3 million Michigan residents benefitted from the physical, psychological, and emotional well-being that accompanies companion animal ownership. By preserving the health and longevity of companion animals, veterinarians sustain and enhance these aspects of the human-animal bond. As Michigan enters a new century, it is likely that the state's veterinary medical profession will

  17. Substance use in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Suzanne; Ordean, Alice; Kahan, Meldon

    2011-04-01

    health care and assistance with appropriate addiction care leads to reduced health care costs and decreased maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. 1. All pregnant women and women of childbearing age should be screened periodically for alcohol, tobacco, and prescription and illicit drug use. (III-A) 2. When testing for substance use is clinically indicated, urine drug screening is the preferred method. (II-2A) Informed consent should be obtained from the woman before maternal drug toxicology testing is ordered. (III-B) 3. Policies and legal requirements with respect to drug testing of newborns may vary by jurisdiction, and caregivers should be familiar with the regulations in their region. (III-A) 4. Health care providers should employ a flexible approach to the care of women who have substance use problems, and they should encourage the use of all available community resources. (II-2B) 5. Women should be counselled about the risks of periconception, antepartum, and postpartum drug use. (III-B) 6. Smoking cessation counselling should be considered as a first-line intervention for pregnant smokers. (I-A) Nicotine replacement therapy and/or pharmacotherapy can be considered if counselling is not successful. (I-A) 7. Methadone maintenance treatment should be standard of care for opioid-dependent women during pregnancy. (II-IA) Other slow-release opioid preparations may be considered if methadone is not available. (II-2B) 8. Opioid detoxification should be reserved for selected women because of the high risk of relapse to opioids. (II-2B) 9. Opiate-dependent women should be informed that neonates exposed to heroin, prescription opioids, methadone, or buprenorphine during pregnancy are monitored closely for symptoms and signs of neonatal withdrawal (neonatal abstinence syndrome). (II-2B) Hospitals providing obstetric care should develop a protocol for assessment and management of neonates exposed to opiates during pregnancy. (III-B) 10. Antenatal planning for

  18. Injection of new psychoactive substance snow blow associated with recently acquired HIV infections among homeless people who inject drugs in Dublin, Ireland, 2015.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Giese, Coralie

    2015-10-08

    In February 2015, an outbreak of recently acquired HIV infections among people who inject drugs (PWID) was identified in Dublin, following similar outbreaks in Greece and Romania in 2011. We compared drug and risk behaviours among 15 HIV cases and 39 controls. Injecting a synthetic cathinone, snow blow, was associated with recent HIV infection (AOR: 49; p = 0.003). Prevention and control efforts are underway among PWID in Dublin, but may also be needed elsewhere in Europe.

  19. Veterinary Antibiotics in Young Dutch Groundwater under Intensive Livestock Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vliet, M. V.; Kivits, T.; Broers, H. P.; Beeltje, H.; Griffioen, J.

    2016-12-01

    Dutch groundwater is heavily affected by nutrient loads from agricultural origin. The use of antibiotics is also widespread in Dutch farming practice, 200.000 kg active substance over 1.839.000 ha of agricultural land. National measures were established to reduce the applications. Spreading of manure over farmlands is assumed to be the main pathway for the leaching of antibiotics to groundwater, but actual numbers are lacking. We studied the occurrence of veterinary antibiotics in groundwater in two areas with intensive livestock farming, sampling existing multi-level wells that were previously age dated using tritium-helium. Wells were selected based on the following criteria: the uppermost screen is situated just below the average groundwater level, which is not deeper than 3 meters, the well is in an agricultural field where rainwater infiltrates avoiding areas adjacent to ditches or streams, the groundwater quality is known for several years and the age of the extracted water is known to be young (antibiotics used in in intensive livestock farming were analyzed belonging to the following groups: tetracyclines, sulfonamides, diaminopyrimidines, β-lactams, macrolides, lincosamides, quinolones and in addition nitrofurans and chloramphenicol. The samples were analyzed for antibiotics by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry preceded by solid phase extraction (Oasis HLB cartridge). Five out of 22 antibiotics were detected: sulfamethazine, sulfadiazine, sulfamethoxazole, lincomycin, chloramphenicol in concentration ranges of 0.2 to 18 ng/l. Sulfamethazine was most frequently found, and shows a continuous concentration-depth profile in 3 out of 4 multi-level wells. Sulfonamides were found in groundwater up to 20 m. depth and in water aged between 1 and 25 years old. The study shows that sulfonamides are omnipresent in groundwater up to 25 years old, which corresponds with the known history of the use of antibiotics in veterinary practice.

  20. Veterinary Technician Program Director Leadership Style and Program Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda-Francis, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Program directors of American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) accredited veterinary technician programs may have little or no training in leadership. The need for program directors of AVMA-accredited veterinary technician programs to understand how leadership traits may have an impact on student success is often overlooked. The purpose of…