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Sample records for veterinary drug residue

  1. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  2. Application of Stable Isotope in Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wei; Liu Zhanfeng; Du Xiaoning

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has happened a series of significant food safety events worldwide, which lower down consumers' confidence in food safety, and they are taking increasing care about the sources of their foods. The safety problem of animal-origin foods has become a global topic for discussion. Therefore, it is a pressing task to establish a precise, sensitive and reliable method for analyzing veterinary drug residue. An introduction of the present status regarding veterinary drug residue analysis was made in the paper, and it briefly summarized the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) which could be reached in veterinary drug residue analysis by isotopic internal standard method domestically and abroad. The paper also made a review of the progress in applied research of stable isotope labeled compound in veterinary drug residue analysis of, such as, antibiotic medicines, furans and sulfonamides. The paper elucidated the great importance of the application of stable isotopes in the sane development of China's food safety system. (authors)

  3. Residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2007-01-01

    Two major trends are observed in the analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents. First is the selection of sample material for monitoring the use of registered veterinary drugs. Traditionally meat, kidney and liver were analyzed but, due to the food scandals in which meat was very

  4. Survey of Veterinary Drug Residues in Raw Milk in Hebei Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Rong-Wei; Yu, Zhong-Na; Zhen, Tian-Yuan; Wang, Jun

    2017-10-17

    The objective of this study was to investigate the occurrence of veterinary drug residues in raw milk from Hebei, the second-largest dairy production province in the People's Republic of China. A total of 192 raw milk samples were collected from 64 milk stations in seven districts. Twenty-eight veterinary drug residues were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry based on a China National Standard. Raw milk samples with multiple residues of veterinary drugs were not found in the present study. Residues of four veterinary drugs, penicillin G, sulfacetamide, trimethoprim, and lincomycin, were detected in 12 (6.25%) raw milk samples, with detection ratios of 1.04, 0.52, 3.13, and 1.56%, respectively. All veterinary drug residues detected were under the maximum residue levels as regulated by China, the European Union, the United States, and the Codex Alimentarius Commission. In general, raw milk from Hebei province was considered relatively safe for human consumption because of the low prevalence of veterinary drug residues. However, stringent control measurements for veterinary drug residues in raw milk are required because some veterinary drugs were detected in milk from some areas of Hebei province.

  5. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis (Spanish Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  6. Manual of Standard Operating Procedures for Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis (French Edition)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    Laboratories are crucial to national veterinary drug residue monitoring programmes. However, one of the main challenges laboratories encounter is obtaining access to relevant methods of analysis. Thus, in addition to training, providing technical advice and transferring technology, the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture has resolved to develop clear and practical manuals to support Member State laboratories. The Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen Residue Control Programs for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues has developed a number of analytical methods as standard operating procedures (SOPs), which are now compiled here. This publication contains SOPs on chromatographic and spectrometric techniques, as well as radioimmunoassay and associated screening techniques, for various anthelmintic and antimicrobial veterinary drug residue analysis. Some analytical method validation protocols are also included. The publication is primarily aimed at food and environmental safety laboratories involved in testing veterinary drug residues, including under organized national residue monitoring programmes. It is expected to enhance laboratory capacity building and competence through the use of radiometric and complementary tools and techniques. The publication is also relevant for applied research on residues of veterinary drugs in food and environmental samples

  7. Surveillance of veterinary drug residues in pork meat in Madagascar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Rakotoharinome

    2015-06-01

    Table I presents the results of the percentage of positive samples in the various regions of Madagascar. On average 37.2% sam­ples were contaminated by antimicrobial residues. A significant increase from 32 to 39% was observed between 2010 and 2011, respectively. No significant differences were found between samples according to sex, breed or age class in individual ani­mals. No differences between pig farm origins were found either (Figure 1. However, Amoron’i Mania Region, and particularly suburban Ambositra, was the most contaminated area in 2010 (67%; n = 9 and Melaky region (Western Madagascar in 2011. Pork meat samples originating from the same production area were less contaminated by drug residues when the animals were slaughtered in urban abattoirs compared to provincial abat­toirs. In this first step toward a national surveillance system, we confirm that drug residues in animal products are a serious public health concern for Madagascar.

  8. Quantum Dots Applied to Methodology on Detection of Pesticide and Veterinary Drug Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jia-Wei; Zou, Xue-Mei; Song, Shang-Hong; Chen, Guan-Hua

    2018-02-14

    The pesticide and veterinary drug residues brought by large-scale agricultural production have become one of the issues in the fields of food safety and environmental ecological security. It is necessary to develop the rapid, sensitive, qualitative and quantitative methodology for the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues. As one of the achievements of nanoscience, quantum dots (QDs) have been widely used in the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues. In these methodology studies, the used QD-signal styles include fluorescence, chemiluminescence, electrochemical luminescence, photoelectrochemistry, etc. QDs can also be assembled into sensors with different materials, such as QD-enzyme, QD-antibody, QD-aptamer, and QD-molecularly imprinted polymer sensors, etc. Plenty of study achievements in the field of detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues have been obtained from the different combinations among these signals and sensors. They are summarized in this paper to provide a reference for the QD application in the detection of pesticide and veterinary drug residues.

  9. Database dedicated to information published during the Benelux conferences on hormone and veterinary drug residue analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Impens, S.; Brabander, H.F. de; Bergwerff, A.A.; Ginkel, L.A. van; Schilt, R.; Stephany, R.W.; Wasch, K. de; Courtheyn, D.; Peteghem, C. van

    2002-01-01

    Every other year scientists working in the field of residue analysis participate the "International Symposium on Hormone and Veterinary Drug Residue Analysis" and "Euroresidue" conferences. In each symposium a lot of innovative information is presented. In order to obtain a retrieval system for this

  10. Development of irradiation technique on degradation residue of pesticide veterinary drugs and mycotoxins in food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jiang; Huang Min; Chen Hao; Wu Ling; Gao Peng; Wang Yan; Lei Qing

    2011-01-01

    Irradiation technology is a new processing technology, It was widely used in food, medicines and medical supplies, chemical and other industries. In this paper, illustrated their applications in the degradation of pesticides, veterinary drugs and mycotoxins aspects residual pollution in food. Analysis of residual contaminants in food irradiation control study limitations and look forward to the prospect of food irradiation technology. (authors)

  11. Development of Analytical Method and Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Korean Animal Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae-Sang; Park, Su-Jeong; Choi, Jung-Yun; Kim, Jin-Sook; Kang, Myung-Hee; Choi, Bo-Kyung; Hur, Sun Jin

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the residual amount of veterinary drugs such as meloxicam, flunixin, and tulathromycin in animal products (beef, pork, horsemeat, and milk). Veterinary drugs have been widely used in the rearing of livestock to prevent and treat diseases. A total of 152 samples were purchased from markets located in major Korean cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Daejeon, Gwangju, Ulsan and Jeju), including Jeju. Veterinary drugs were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the Korean Food Standards Code. The resulting data, which are located within 70-120% of recovery range and less than 20% of relative standard deviations, are in compliance with the criteria of CODEX. A total of five veterinary drugs were detected in 152 samples, giving a detection rate of approximately 3.3%; and no food source violated the guideline values. Our result indicated that most of the veterinary drug residues in animal products were below the maximum residue limits specified in Korea.

  12. Screening of veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS/MS. Background and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delatour, Thierry; Racault, Lucie; Bessaire, Thomas; Desmarchelier, Aurélien

    2018-04-01

    Regulatory agencies and government authorities have established maximum residue limits (MRL) in various food matrices of animal origin for supporting governments and food operators in the monitoring of veterinary drug residues in the food chain, and ultimately in the consumer's plate. Today, about 200 veterinary drug residues from several families, mainly with antibiotic, antiparasitic or antiinflammatory activities, are regulated in a variety of food matrices such as milk, meat or egg. This article provides a review of the regulatory framework in milk and muscle including data from Codex Alimentarius, Europe, the U.S.A., Canada and China for about 220 veterinary drugs. The article also provides a comprehensive overview of the challenge for food control, and emphasizes the pivotal role of liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), either in tandem with quadrupoles (LC-MS/MS) or high resolution MS (LC-HRMS), for ensuring an adequate consumer protection combined with an affordable cost. The capability of a streamlined LC-MS/MS platform for screening 152 veterinary drug residues in a broad range of raw materials and finished products is highlighted in a production line perspective. The rationale for a suite of four methods intended to achieve appropriate performance in terms of scope and sensitivity is presented. Overall, the platform encompasses one stream for the determination of 105 compounds in a run (based on acidic QuEChERS-like), plus two streams for 23 β-lactams (alkaline QuEChERS-like) and 10 tetracyclines (low-temperature partitioning), respectively, and a dedicated stream for 14 aminoglycosides (molecularly-imprinted polymer).

  13. Immunology-Based Techniques for the Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues in Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reig, Milagro; Toldrá, Fidel

    Veterinary drugs are used in farm animals, via the feed or the drinking water, to prevent the outbreak of diseases or even for the treatment of diseases. However, the growth of animals may be promoted through the use of hormones and antibiotics. Depending on the type of residue and the application and washing conditions, these substances or its metabolites may remain in meat and other foods of animal origin and may cause adverse effects on consumers’ health. This is the main reason why its use is strictly regulated or even banned (case of the European Union) in different countries. Antibiotics typically used for growth promotion include chloramphenicol, nitrofurans, and enrofloxacin but others like sulphonamides, macrolides etc. may also be used (Reig & Toldrá, 2007).

  14. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Chun Lee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and eggs from food-producing animals, governments and relevant agencies established laws and regulations for the use of veterinary drugs. It is, therefore, necessary to monitor the content of residual drugs in livestock products at regular intervals to assess whether the regulations have resulted in the effective management of food product safety, and to prevent and manage sudden problems related to this issue. A 2011–2015 livestock product post-marketing monitoring program launched by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA inspected 1487 livestock products. Over the past 5 years, there were 34 samples identified that did not conform to the regulations; these samples included residue drugs such as β-agonists, chloramphenicols, β-lactam antibiotics, sulfa drugs, enrofloxacin, and lincomycin. Inspections of commercial livestock products with the consistent cooperation of agricultural authorities did not detect the drugs that were banned by the government, whereas the detection of other drugs decreased annually with an increase in the post-market monitoring sample size. In the future, the TFDA will continue to monitor the status of residual veterinary drugs in commercial livestock products, adjust the sampling of food products annually according to monitoring results, and closely cooperate with agricultural authorities on source management. Keywords: Agricultural authorities, Livestock products, Post-market monitoring, Veterinary drug residues

  15. Comparison of veterinary drug residue results in animal tissues by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole ... use of a commercial lipid removal product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary drug residues in animal-derived foods must be monitored to ensure food safety, verify proper veterinary practices, enforce legal limits in domestic and imported foods, and other purposes. A common goal in drug residue analysis in foods is to achieve acceptable monitoring results for as m...

  16. Analytical strategies for residue analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents in food-producing animals - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    2005-01-01

    After a brief introduction into the field of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents, the most important EU regulations and directives for the inspection of food-producing animals and animal products regarding the residue control of these substances are presented and discussed. Main attention

  17. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hsin-Chun Lee; Chi-Min Chen; Jen-Ting Wei; Hsiu-Yi Chiu

    2018-01-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and egg...

  18. Analysis of veterinary drug residue monitoring results for commercial livestock products in Taiwan between 2011 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Chun; Chen, Chi-Min; Wei, Jen-Ting; Chiu, Hsiu-Yi

    2018-04-01

    Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and eggs from food-producing animals, governments and relevant agencies established laws and regulations for the use of veterinary drugs. It is, therefore, necessary to monitor the content of residual drugs in livestock products at regular intervals to assess whether the regulations have resulted in the effective management of food product safety, and to prevent and manage sudden problems related to this issue. A 2011-2015 livestock product post-marketing monitoring program launched by the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration (TFDA) inspected 1487 livestock products. Over the past 5 years, there were 34 samples identified that did not conform to the regulations; these samples included residue drugs such as β-agonists, chloramphenicols, β-lactam antibiotics, sulfa drugs, enrofloxacin, and lincomycin. Inspections of commercial livestock products with the consistent cooperation of agricultural authorities did not detect the drugs that were banned by the government, whereas the detection of other drugs decreased annually with an increase in the post-market monitoring sample size. In the future, the TFDA will continue to monitor the status of residual veterinary drugs in commercial livestock products, adjust the sampling of food products annually according to monitoring results, and closely cooperate with agricultural authorities on source management. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Residues of veterinary drugs in eggs and their distribution between yolk and white

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, C.A.; Petz, M.

    2000-01-01

    Veterinary drugs and feed additives (especially some coccidiostats) can be absorbed by the digestive tract of laying hens and transferred to the egg. Physicochemical characteristics of these compounds determine their pharmacokinetic behavior and distribution to and within the egg. Traditionally the

  20. Characterizing chronic and acute health risks of residues of veterinary drugs in food: latest methodological developments by the joint FAO/WHO expert committee on food additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boobis, Alan; Cerniglia, Carl; Chicoine, Alan; Fattori, Vittorio; Lipp, Markus; Reuss, Rainer; Verger, Philippe; Tritscher, Angelika

    2017-11-01

    The risk assessment of residues of veterinary drugs in food is a field that continues to evolve. The toxicological end-points to be considered are becoming more nuanced and in light of growing concern about the development of antimicrobial resistance, detailed analysis of the antimicrobial activity of the residues of veterinary drugs in food is increasingly incorporated in the assessment. In recent years, the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) has refined its approaches to provide a more comprehensive and fit-for-purpose risk assessment. This publication describes in detail the consideration of acute and chronic effects, the estimation of acute and chronic dietary exposure, current approaches for including microbiological endpoints in the risk assessment, and JECFA's considerations for the potential effects of food processing on residues from veterinary drugs. JECFA now applies these approaches in the development of health-based guidance values (i.e. safe exposure levels) for residues of veterinary drugs. JECFA, thus, comprehensively addresses acute and chronic risks by using corresponding estimates for acute and chronic exposure and suitable correction for the limited bioavailability of bound residues by the Gallo-Torres model. On a case-by-case basis, JECFA also considers degradation products that occur from normal food processing of food containing veterinary drug residues. These approaches will continue to be refined to ensure the most scientifically sound basis for the establishment of health-based guidance values for veterinary drug residues.

  1. [Scientific basis in the setting of residue limits for veterinary drugs in food of animal origin taking into account the presence of their metabolites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, K

    1993-01-01

    Maximum residue level (MRL) for veterinary drugs in food of animal origin has been proposed by FAO/WHO, as a new evaluation procedure taking into account the presence of metabolites for the regulation of veterinary drug residues. The MRL is the maximum concentration of residue resulting from the use of a veterinary drug that is recommended to be legally permitted as acceptable in a food. It is established from the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) obtained from the data of toxicological studies, the residue concentration of the drug when used according to good practice in the use of veterinary drugs, and the lowest level consistent with the practical analytical methods available for routine residue analysis. Among the veterinary drugs, some chemicals contain a large amount of bound residues that are neither extractable from tissues by the analytical method identical with that used in parent chemicals. Especially, the bioavailable residues which are probably absorbed when the food is ingested are of great toxicological concern. In this case, the FAO/WHO recommends that the MRL can be established after the calculation of daily intake of residues of toxicological concern by the addition of both the extractable and bioavailable bound residues.

  2. Determination of pesticides and veterinary drug residues in food by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiá, Ana [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Research Center on Desertification (CIDE, UV-CSIC-GV), Carretera Moncada-Náquera, Moncada (Spain); Suarez-Varela, Maria Morales; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin [Unit of Public Health, Hygiene and Environmental Health, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Center for Advanced Research in Public Health (CSISP-FISABIO), Valencia (Spain); Picó, Yolanda, E-mail: Yolanda.Pico@uv.es [Food and Environmental Safety Research Group, Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, Food Science, Toxicology and Legal Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Research Center on Desertification (CIDE, UV-CSIC-GV), Carretera Moncada-Náquera, Moncada (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2016-09-14

    Monitoring of pesticides and veterinary drug residues is required to enforce legislation and guarantee food safety. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the prevailing technique for assessing both types of residues because LC offers a versatile and universal separation mechanism suitable for non-gas chromatography (GC) amenable and the majority of GC-amenable compounds. This characteristic becomes more relevant when LC is coupled to MS because the high sensitivity and specificity of the detector allows to apply generic sample preparation procedures, which simultaneously extract a wide variety of residues with different physico-chemical properties. Determination of metabolites and degradation products, non-target suspected screening of an increasing number of residues, and even unknowns identification are also becoming inherent LC-MS advantages thanks to the latest advances. For routine analysis and, in particular, for official surveillance purposes in food control, analytical methods properly validated following strict guidelines are needed. After a brief introduction and an outline of the legislation applicable around the world, aspects such as improvement of specificity of high-throughput methods, resolution and mass accuracy of identification strategies and quantitative accuracy are critically reviewed in this article. In them, extraction, separation and determination are emphasized. The main objective is to offer an assessment of the state of the art and identify research needs and future trends in determining pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS. - Highlights: • An overview of status and future trends in this field. • Analytical method's compliance with guidelines to ensure reliability. • QuEChERS platform is a referent to extract both, pesticides and veterinary drugs in food. • The progress that liquid chromatography has shown in recent years is revised. • Determination of target, non-target and unknowns is

  3. Determination of pesticides and veterinary drug residues in food by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiá, Ana; Suarez-Varela, Maria Morales; Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin; Picó, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring of pesticides and veterinary drug residues is required to enforce legislation and guarantee food safety. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is the prevailing technique for assessing both types of residues because LC offers a versatile and universal separation mechanism suitable for non-gas chromatography (GC) amenable and the majority of GC-amenable compounds. This characteristic becomes more relevant when LC is coupled to MS because the high sensitivity and specificity of the detector allows to apply generic sample preparation procedures, which simultaneously extract a wide variety of residues with different physico-chemical properties. Determination of metabolites and degradation products, non-target suspected screening of an increasing number of residues, and even unknowns identification are also becoming inherent LC-MS advantages thanks to the latest advances. For routine analysis and, in particular, for official surveillance purposes in food control, analytical methods properly validated following strict guidelines are needed. After a brief introduction and an outline of the legislation applicable around the world, aspects such as improvement of specificity of high-throughput methods, resolution and mass accuracy of identification strategies and quantitative accuracy are critically reviewed in this article. In them, extraction, separation and determination are emphasized. The main objective is to offer an assessment of the state of the art and identify research needs and future trends in determining pesticide and veterinary drug residues in food by LC-MS. - Highlights: • An overview of status and future trends in this field. • Analytical method's compliance with guidelines to ensure reliability. • QuEChERS platform is a referent to extract both, pesticides and veterinary drugs in food. • The progress that liquid chromatography has shown in recent years is revised. • Determination of target, non-target and unknowns is covered.

  4. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Eighty-first report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues in food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including MRLs for generic fish species, acute reference doses (ARfDs) for veterinary drugs, an approach for dietary exposure assessment of compounds used for multiple purposes (i.e veterinary drugs and pesticides), dietary exposure assessment for less-than-lifetime exposure, and the assessment of short-term (90-day and 12-month) studies in dogs. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicological and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two insecticides (diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron), an antiparasitic agent (ivermectin), an ectoparasiticide (sisapronil) and a β2-adrenoceptor agonist (zilpaterol hydrochloride). In addition, the Committee considered issues raised in concern forms from the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods on lasalocid sodium, an antiparasitic agent. Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs), ARfDs and proposed MRLs.

  5. Evaluation of certain veterinary drug residues in food. Seventy-eighth report of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of residues of certain veterinary drugs in food and to recommend maximum levels for such residues of food. The first part of the report considers general principles regarding the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs within the terms of reference of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), including extrapolation of maximum residue limits (MRLs) to minor species, MRLs for veterinary drug residues in honey, MRLs relating to fish and fish species, dietary exposure assessment methodologies, the decision-tree approach to the evaluation of residues of veterinary drugs and guidance for JECFA experts. Summaries follow of the Committee's evaluations of toxicology and residue data on a variety of veterinary drugs: two anthelminthic agents (derquantel, monepantel), three antiparasitic agents (emanectin benzoate, ivermectin, lasalocid sodium), one antibacterial, antifungal and anthelminthic agent (gentian violet), a production aid (recombinant bovine somatotropins) and an adrenoceptor agonist and growth promoter (zilpaterol hydorchloride). Annexed to the report is a summary of the Committee's recommendations on these drugs, including acceptable daily intakes (ADIs)) and proposed MRLs.

  6. Reported prevalence and quantitative LC-MS methods for the analysis of veterinary drug residues in honey: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Ryan; Haynes, Carion; Cook, Jo Marie

    2014-04-01

    Insect pollination increases the value and productivity of three-quarters of crop species grown for food. Declining beehive health in commercial apiaries has resulted in numerous reports from government laboratories worldwide of contamination with antimicrobial chemicals in honey. This review includes pertinent discussion of legislation and events leading to increased government oversight in the commercial honey market. A detailed summary of the variety and prevalence of veterinary drug residues being found in honey as well as a selection of robust quantitative and confirmatory LC-MS methods with an emphasis on those adopted by government testing laboratories are presented.

  7. Development of an improved high resolution mass spectrometry based multi-residue method for veterinary drugs in various food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, A; Butcher, P; Maden, K; Walker, S; Widmer, M

    2011-08-26

    Multi-residue methods for veterinary drugs or pesticides in food are increasingly often based on ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Previous available time of flight (TOF) technologies, showing resolutions up to 15,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM), were not sufficiently selective for monitoring low residue concentrations in difficult matrices (e.g. hormones in tissue or antibiotics in honey). The approach proposed in this paper is based on a single stage Orbitrap mass spectrometer operated at 50,000 FWHM. Extracts (liver and kidney) which were produced according to a validated multi-residue method (time of flight detection based) could not be analyzed by Orbitrap because of extensive signal suppression. This required the improvement of established extraction and clean-up procedures. The introduced, more extensive deproteinzation steps and dedicated instrumental settings successfully eliminated these detrimental suppression effects. The reported method, covering more than 100 different veterinary dugs, was validated according to the EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EEC. Validated matrices include muscle, kidney, liver, fish and honey. Significantly better performance parameters (e.g. linearity, reproducibility and detection limits) were obtained when comparing the new method with the older, TOF based method. These improvements are attributed to the higher resolution (50,000 versus 12,000 FWHM) and the superior mass stability of the of the Orbitrap over the previously utilized TOF instrument. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. High-throughput untargeted screening of veterinary drug residues and metabolites in tilapia using high resolution orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Chang, James; Wang, Perry G; Chen, Ying; Zhang, Feng

    2017-03-08

    An analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of one hundred and thirty-seven veterinary drug residues and metabolites from sixteen different classes in tilapia utilizing an improved fully non-targeted way of data acquisition with fragmentation. The automated on-line extraction procedure was achieved in a simple disposable pipet extraction. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The methodology was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in European SANCO/12571/2013 Guideline 2013 and Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The extraction recoveries ranged from 81% to 111%. The limits of decision ranged from 0.01 to 2.73 μg kg -1 and the detection capabilities ranged from 0.01 to 4.73 μg kg -1 . The one hundred and thirty-seven compounds behave dynamic 0.1-500 μg kg -1 , with correlation coefficient >0.99. The fully non-targeted data acquisition way improves both sensitivity and selectivity for the fragments, which is beneficial for screening performance and identification capability. This validated method has been successfully applied on screening of veterinary drug residues and metabolites in muscle of tilapia, an important and intensively produced fish in aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Wide-Scope Screening Method for Multiclass Veterinary Drug Residues in Fish, Shrimp, and Eel Using Liquid Chromatography-Quadrupole High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, Sherri B; Storey, Joseph M; Lohne, Jack J; Andersen, Wendy C; Burger, Robert; Johnson, Aaron S; Madson, Mark R

    2017-08-30

    A screening method for veterinary drug residues in fish, shrimp, and eel using LC with a high-resolution MS instrument has been developed and validated. The method was optimized for over 70 test compounds representing a variety of veterinary drug classes. Tissues were extracted by vortex mixing with acetonitrile acidified with 2% acetic acid and 0.2% p-toluenesulfonic acid. A centrifuged portion of the extract was passed through a novel solid phase extraction cartridge designed to remove interfering matrix components from tissue extracts. The eluent was then evaporated and reconstituted for analysis. Data were collected with a quadrupole-Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometer using both nontargeted and targeted acquisition methods. Residues were detected on the basis of the exact mass of the precursor and a product ion along with isotope pattern and retention time matching. Semiquantitative data analysis compared MS 1 signal to a one-point extracted matrix standard at a target testing level. The test compounds were detected and identified in salmon, tilapia, catfish, shrimp, and eel extracts fortified at the target testing levels. Fish dosed with selected analytes and aquaculture samples previously found to contain residues were also analyzed. The screening method can be expanded to monitor for an additional >260 veterinary drugs on the basis of exact mass measurements and retention times.

  10. Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods and Strategies to Strengthen National Residue Control Programmes for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues. Final Report of a Coordinated Research Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-08-01

    Awareness of food safety is rising among consumers, and many importing countries implement food control regulations to guarantee the quality and safety of imported foods for their consumers. Many developing countries have also taken steps to put in place control systems that encourage responsible use of veterinary medicines to combat possible drug resistance, control drug residues and ensure compliance with international and national standards. However, these countries still require the necessary know-how and skills to protect local consumers and to access international markets. One significant constraint is the capacity of laboratory services to generate surveillance data using reliable and cost effective analytical methods validated to national and international standards. The IAEA coordinated research project (CRP) on the Development of Radiometric and Allied Analytical Methods to Strengthen National Residue Control Programmes for Antibiotic and Anthelmintic Veterinary Drug Residues was initiated in 2009 to conduct work on robust nuclear and related technologies suitable for the screening and confirmatory analysis of residues of veterinary medicines, including antimicrobials and anthelmintics commonly used in animal production, with public health and trade significance. The CRP also explored mechanisms to enhance networking among research institutions involved in research on pharmacologically active veterinary drug residues in food (primarily) and environmental samples. The project was implemented by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture between 2009 and 2014 and involved eleven research contracts and one technical contract, five research agreements and one institution. The CRP was a continuation of the CRP on the Development of Strategies for the Effective Monitoring of Veterinary Drug Residues in Livestock and Livestock Products in Developing Countries and the key findings are also summarized in this publication.

  11. Structural characterization of product ions by electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry to support regulatory analysis of veterinary drug residues in foods Part 2: Benzimidazoles nitromidaz.....

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Analysis for identification and quantification of regulated veterinary drug residues in foods are usually achieved by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The instrument method requires the selection of characteristic ions, but structure elucidation is seldom perform...

  12. Multi-class multi-residue analysis of veterinary drugs in meat using enhanced matrix removal lipid cleanup and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Limian; Lucas, Derick; Long, David; Richter, Bruce; Stevens, Joan

    2018-05-11

    This study presents the development and validation of a quantitation method for the analysis of multi-class, multi-residue veterinary drugs using lipid removal cleanup cartridges, enhanced matrix removal lipid (EMR-Lipid), for different meat matrices by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection. Meat samples were extracted using a two-step solid-liquid extraction followed by pass-through sample cleanup. The method was optimized based on the buffer and solvent composition, solvent additive additions, and EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The developed method was then validated in five meat matrices, porcine muscle, bovine muscle, bovine liver, bovine kidney and chicken liver to evaluate the method performance characteristics, such as absolute recoveries and precision at three spiking levels, calibration curve linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ) and matrix effect. The results showed that >90% of veterinary drug analytes achieved satisfactory recovery results of 60-120%. Over 97% analytes achieved excellent reproducibility results (relative standard deviation (RSD) meat matrices. The matrix co-extractive removal efficiency by weight provided by EMR-lipid cartridge cleanup was 42-58% in samples. The post column infusion study showed that the matrix ion suppression was reduced for samples with the EMR-Lipid cartridge cleanup. The reduced matrix ion suppression effect was also confirmed with 30%) for all tested veterinary drugs in all of meat matrices. The results showed that the two-step solid-liquid extraction provides efficient extraction for the entire spectrum of veterinary drugs, including the difficult classes such as tetracyclines, beta-lactams etc. EMR-Lipid cartridges after extraction provided efficient sample cleanup with easy streamlined protocol and minimal impacts on analytes recovery, improving method reliability and consistency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniye Imamoglu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n=18. The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices.

  14. An update discussion on the current assessment of the safety of veterinary antimicrobial drug residues in food with regard to their impact on the human intestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerniglia, Carl E; Pineiro, Silvia A; Kotarski, Susan F

    2016-05-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract ecosystem consists of complex and diverse microbial communities that have now been collectively termed the intestinal microbiome. Recent scientific breakthroughs and research endeavours have increased our understanding of the important role the intestinal microbiome plays in human health and disease. The use of antimicrobial new animal drugs in food-producing animals may result in the presence of low levels of drug residues in edible foodstuffs. There is concern that antimicrobial new animal drugs in or on animal-derived food products at residue-level concentrations could disrupt the colonization barrier and/or modify the antimicrobial resistance profile of human intestinal bacteria. Therapeutic doses of antimicrobial drugs have been shown to promote shifts in the intestinal microbiome, and these disruptions promote the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. To assess the effects of antimicrobial new animal drug residues in food on human intestinal bacteria, many national regulatory agencies and international committees follow a harmonized process, VICH GL36(R), which was issued by a trilateral organization of the European Union, the USA, and Japan called the International Cooperation on Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH). The guidance describes a general approach currently used by national regulatory agencies and international committees to assess the effects of antimicrobial new animal drug residues in animal-derived food on human intestinal bacteria. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of this current approach as part of the antimicrobial new animal drug approval process in participating countries, give insights on the microbiological endpoints used in this safety evaluation, and discuss the availability of new information. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. High-throughput screening of pesticide and veterinary drug residues in baby food by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chu, Xiaogang; Ling, Yun; Huang, Junrong; Chang, James

    2014-06-20

    A new analytical method was developed and validated for simultaneous analysis of 333 pesticide and veterinary drug residues in baby food. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize a generic extraction method. Ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization quadrupole Orbitrap high-resolution mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI Q-Orbitrap) was used for the separation and detection of all the analytes. The method was validated by taking into consideration the guidelines specified in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANCO/12571/2013. The extraction recoveries were in a range of 79.8-110.7%, with coefficient of variation 0.99. The limits of detection for the analytes are in the range 0.01-5.35μgkg(-1). The limits of quantification for the analytes are in the range 0.01-9.27μgkg(-1). This method has been successfully applied on screening of pesticide and veterinary drugs in ninety-three commercial baby food samples, and tilmicosin, fenbendazole, tylosin tartrate and thiabendazole were detected in some samples tested in this study. The present study is very useful for fast screening of different food contaminants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. 21 CFR 201.105 - Veterinary drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to the...

  17. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klátyik, Szandra; Bohus, Péter; Darvas, Béla; Székács, András

    2017-01-01

    Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU), and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD) and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually) initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively), and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively). Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants) and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects between the

  18. Authorization and Toxicity of Veterinary Drugs and Plant Protection Products: Residues of the Active Ingredients in Food and Feed and Toxicity Problems Related to Adjuvants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szandra Klátyik

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemical substances applied in animal husbandry or veterinary medicine and in crop protection represent substantial environmental loads, and their residues occur in food and feed products. Product approval is governed differently in these two sectors in the European Union (EU, and the occurrence of veterinary drug (VD and pesticide residues indicated by contamination notification cases in the Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed of the EU also show characteristic differences. While the initial high numbers of VD residues reported in 2002 were successfully suppressed to less than 100 cases annually by 2006 and on, the number of notification cases for pesticide residues showed a gradual increase from a low (approximately 50 cases annually initial level until 2005 to more than 250 cases annually after 2009, with a halt occurring only in 2016. Main notifiers of VD residues include Germany, Belgium, the UK, and Italy (63, 59, 42, and 31 notifications announced, respectively, and main consigning countries of non-compliances are Vietnam, India, China, and Brazil (88, 50, 34, and 23 notifications, respectively. Thus, countries of South and Southeast Asia are considered a vulnerable point with regard to VD residues entering the EU market. Unintended side effects of VDs and plant protection products may be caused not only by the active ingredients but also by various additives in these preparations. Adjuvants (e.g., surfactants and other co-formulants used in therapeutic agents and feed additives, as well as in pesticide formulations have long been considered as inactive ingredients in the aspects of the required main biological effect of the pharmaceutical or pesticide, and in turn, legal regulations of the approval and marketing of these additives specified significantly less stringent risk assessment requirements, than those specified for the active ingredients. However, numerous studies have shown additive, synergistic, or antagonistic side effects

  19. Analysis of banned veterinary drugs and herbicide residues in shellfish by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) and gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Geng-Ruei; Chen, Hui-Shan; Lin, Feng-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Seafood safety is a crucial public health concern for consumers. In this study, we applied a validated method to analyze the residue of banned veterinary drugs in shellfish, namely chloramphenicol, malachite green, leucomalachite green, and nitrofuran metabolites; additionally, the QuEChERS method was employed to detect 76 herbicides by LC/MS/MS and GC/MS/MS. In total, 42 shellfish samples, which included hard clams, freshwater clams, and oysters, were collected from aquafarms and production areas in Taiwan during 2012. Our results revealed 3.8 ng/g of chloramphenicol in one hard clam, 19.9–32.1 ng/g of ametryn in two hard clams, 16.1–60.1 ng/g of pendimethalin in four hard clams, and 17.0 ng/g of mefenacet in one oyster, indicating that 19.1% of the samples contained residues from banned veterinary drugs and pesticides. These data can be used to monitor the residue of veterinary drugs and pesticides in aquatic organisms and as a reference for food safety. - Highlights: • A certified method was employed for analyzing residues of banned veterinary drugs and herbicides in shellfish samples. • The trace levels of chloramphenicol, ametryn, pendimethalin were detected in hard clam samples. • For ensuring food safety, continual monitoring of aquatic products is necessary.

  20. 77 FR 16806 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-22

    ... related to the 20th Session of the CCRVDF will be accessible via the World Wide Web at the following... CCRVDF CONTACT: Kevin Greenlees, Senior Advisor for Science & Policy, Office of New Animal Drug... Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Through adoption of...

  1. 75 FR 48928 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-12

    ... Session of the CCRVDF will be accessible via the World Wide Web at the following address: http://www... contact: Dr. Kevin Greenlees, Senior Advisor for Science & Policy, Office of New Animal Drug Evaluation... Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Through adoption of...

  2. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. PMID:28801498

  3. Assessment of veterinary drug use and determination of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2009 and January 2010 to assess veterinary drug usage by broiler chicken farmers and to determine antimicrobial residues in broiler meat in Urban district, Zanzibar, Tanzania. Fifty five smallholder farmers were interviewed on types of antimicrobials, reasons for use, ...

  4. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L

    2017-08-12

    For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.

  5. Wide-scope analysis of pesticide and veterinary drug residues in meat matrices by high resolution MS: detection and identification using Exactive-Orbitrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Pérez, María Luz; Romero-González, Roberto; Plaza-Bolaños, Patricia; Génin, Eric; Martínez Vidal, José Luis; Garrido Frenich, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    A multiresidue and multiclass method for the simultaneous determination of more than 350 compounds including pesticides, biopesticides and veterinary drugs in different meat matrices (beef, pork and chicken) by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Orbitrap MS has been developed. In the present study, the determination of fragments was accomplished as an essential tool for a reliable identification of compounds using high resolution MS. To obtain these fragments, different strategies have been carried out in order to ensure an appropriate fragment assignment and identification. The analytical method is suitable for qualitative analysis, and it was also evaluated for quantitative analysis. Generic extraction conditions were optimized, obtaining adequate recovery and precision values for most of the studied analytes (>290). The limits of detection ranged from 2 to 16 µg kg(-1). Limits of quantification were 10 µg kg(-1) with the exception of few compounds with a higher value (50 or 100 µg kg(-1)). Limits of identification were also established, and they ranged from 2 to 150 µg kg(-1). This method was applied to the analysis of 18 meat samples and some veterinary drugs as enrofloxacin and sulfadiazine were detected and further identified/quantified (with triple quadrupole) in two different samples at 33 µg kg(-1) and trace levels, respectively. No pesticides were detected in the analyzed samples. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of bi-functionalized mesoporous silicas as reversed phase/cation-exchange mixed-mode sorbents for multi-residue solid phase extraction of veterinary drug residues in meat samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Natalia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Sierra, Isabel

    2017-04-01

    A SBA-15 type mesoporous silica was synthesized and bi-functionalized with octadecylsilane (C18) or octylsilane (C8), and sulfonic acid (SO 3 - ) groups in order to obtain materials with reversed-phase/strong cation-exchange mixed-mode retention mechanism. The resulting hybrid materials (SBA-15-C18-SO 3 - and SBA-15-C8-SO 3 - ) were comprehensively characterized. They showed high surface area, high pore volume and controlled porous size. Elemental analysis of the materials revealed differences in the amount of C18 and C8. SBA-15-C18-SO 3 - contained 0.19mmol/g of C18, while SBA-15-C8-SO 3 - presented 0.54mmol/g of C8. The SO 3 - groups anchored to the silica surface of the pore walls were 0.20 and 0.09mmol/g, respectively. The bi-functionalized materials were evaluated as SPE sorbents for the multi-residue extraction of 26 veterinary drug residues in meat samples using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-MS/MS). Different sorbent amounts (100 and 200mg) and organic solvents were tested to optimize the extraction procedure. Both silicas showed big extraction potential and were successful in the extraction of the target analytes. The mixed-mode retention mechanism was confirmed by comparing both silicas with SBA-15 mesoporous silica mono-functionalized with C18 and C8. Best results were achieved with 200mg of SBA-15-C18-SO 3 - obtaining recoveries higher than 70% for the majority of analytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Drugs in veterinary medicine. The role of the veterinary drug industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baars, J C

    1984-02-01

    Veterinary medicines constitute an unescapable element in the scheme of animal health and welfare. Nowadays, they are used more and more to improve health and productivity in farm animals. When a veterinary medicine is prescribed it must not only be effective but must also be safe for both animals and humans. Due to ever changing regulations and constant improvements in residue detection techniques it is necessary to conduct new investigations with existing products. It therefore costs a great deal of time and money to introduce, and maintain, a product in the market. In future, therefore, fewer medicines with more limited indications will be introduced and these will be to combat important production disorders in the more significant species only. In view of the above, research and production will be restricted to large, international, concerns. Due to our well structured agricultural industry and the existence of well organized and equipped veterinary research institutions, and practitioners, Holland is able to play an important role in the development of veterinary medicines. Close co-operation between all involved parties coupled with an efficient registration procedure is not ony of benefit to the veterinary pharmaceutical industry but also for international recognition of our national animal husbandry industry, ancillary industries and veterinary and other consultants. In this scheme of things the accent is not upon qualifications but upon the skills of veterinarians - wherever placed - who are involved in the administration of veterinary medicines.

  8. Veterinary Medicine Needs New Green Antimicrobial Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis TOUTAIN

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Given that: (1 the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2 the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR of animal origin; (3 alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed green antibiotics, having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes.We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a turnstile exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s. For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem.

  9. Application of a hybrid ordered mesoporous silica as sorbent for solid-phase multi-residue extraction of veterinary drugs in meat by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado, Natalia; Morante-Zarcero, Sonia; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián; Sierra, Isabel

    2016-08-12

    A quick, sensitive and selective analytical reversed-phase multi-residue method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to an ion-trap mass spectrometry detector (UHPLC-IT-MS/MS) operating in both positive and negative ion mode was developed for the simultaneous determination of 23 veterinary drug residues (β-blockers, β-agonists and Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)) in meat samples. The sample treatment involved a liquid-solid extraction followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) procedure. SBA-15 type mesoporous silica was synthetized and modified with octadecylsilane, and the resulting hybrid material (denoted as SBA-15-C18) was applied and evaluated as SPE sorbent in the purification of samples. The materials were comprehensively characterized, and they showed a high surface area, high pore volume and a homogeneous distribution of the pores. Chromatographic conditions and extraction procedure were optimized, and the method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method detection limits (MDLs) and the method quantification limits (MQLs) were determined for all the analytes in meat samples and found to range between 0.01-18.75μg/kg and 0.02-62.50μg/kg, respectively. Recoveries for 15 of the target analytes ranged from 71 to 98%. In addition, for comparative purpose SBA-15-C18 was evaluated towards commercial C18 amorphous silica. Results revealed that SBA-15-C18 was clearly more successful in the multi-residue extraction of the 23 mentioned analytes with higher recovery values. The method was successfully tested to analyze prepacked preparations of mince bovine meat. Traces of propranolol, ketoprofen and diclofenac were detected in some samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 75 FR 50771 - Draft Revised Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-17

    ...] (formerly Docket No. 1999D-4071) Draft Revised Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in New Veterinary...) entitled ``Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products, Active Substances and Excipients... 2001 final guidance), has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on...

  11. 21 CFR 558.6 - Veterinary feed directive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary feed directive drugs. 558.6 Section 558.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS General Provisions...

  12. Comparison of veterinary drugs and veterinary homeopathy: part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Part 2 of this narrative review outlines the theoretical and practical bases for assessing the efficacy and effectiveness of conventional medicines and homeopathic products. Known and postulated mechanisms of action are critically reviewed. The evidence for clinical efficacy of products in both categories, in the form of practitioner experience, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of clinical trial results, is discussed. The review also addresses problems and pitfalls in assessing data, and the ethical and negative aspects of pharmacology and homeopathy in veterinary medicine. PMID:28821700

  13. Second research coordination meeting of the coordinated research project 'Development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' (D3.20.22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The second RCM under this CRP was held in Pretoria, South Africa, 3 - 7 November 2003. Eleven of the twelve research contract holders, three research agreement holders and one technical contract holder attended the RCM. The three research agreement holders gave presentations on relevant aspects of veterinary drug residues analysis. The increasingly important role of bioassay techniques such as reporter gene assays for the direct screening of the effects of hormonal and other residues in animal cells and the future role of such assays to complement existing instrumental techniques was highlighted. The technical contract holder and research contract holders reviewed the results of the research and method development performed under the first phase of the CRP. Considerable progress has been made in many aspects of the overall work plan. Several commercial immunoassay methods have been critically evaluated. The main problems identified with these kits were the instability of reagents, notably the enzyme conjugates, resulting in poor performance, and the need for better sample preparation protocols applicable to a wider range of matrices. Work plans have been agreed with several laboratories to attempt to address these problems. Good progress has been made in several laboratories working on the development of in-house ELISA methods for chloramphenicol residues. The laboratories involved have produced and characterized antisera in various species and these will be used with reagents produced by technical contract holders to elaborate assay protocols. Further investigation into aspects such as reagent stability, antibody maturation and assay development using various assay formats is planned. A full set of reagents and protocols for their optimisation in a 125 I radioimmunoassay (RIA) for chloramphenicol have been developed by the technical contract holders and transferred to a research contract holder for further method development. However, this researcher was unable to

  14. Drug and chemical residues in domestic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussman, H C

    1975-02-01

    Given the large number of chemical substances that may find their way into the food supply, a system is needed to monitor their presence. The U. S. Department of Agriculture's Meat and Poultry Inspection Program routinely tests for chemical residues in animals coming to slaughter. Pesticides, heavy metals, growth promotants (hormones and hormonelike agents), and antibiotics are included. Samples are taken statistically so that inferences as to national incidence of residues can be drawn. When a problem is identified, a more selective sampling is designed to help follow up on the initial regulatory action. In testing for pesticides, only DDT and dieldrin are found with any frequency and their levels are decreasing; violative residues of any chlorinated hydrocarbon are generally a result of an industrial accident rather than agricultural usage. Analyses for heavy metals have revealed detectable levels of mercury, lead, and others, but none at levels that are considered a health hazard. Of the hormone or hormonelike substances, only diethylstilbestrol has been a residue problem and its future is uncertain. The most extensive monitoring for veterinary drugs is on the antimicrobials, including sulfonamides, streptomycin, and the tetracycline group of antibiotics that constitute the bulk of the violations; their simultaneous use prophylactically and therapeutically has contributed to the problem in certain cases. A strong, well-designed user education program on proper application of pesticides, chemicals, and veterinary drugs appears to be one method of reducing the incidence of unwanted residues.

  15. Multi-residue analysis of pesticides, plant hormones, veterinary drugs and mycotoxins using HILIC chromatography - MS/MS in various food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danezis, G P; Anagnostopoulos, C J; Liapis, K; Koupparis, M A

    2016-10-26

    One of the recent trends in Analytical Chemistry is the development of economic, quick and easy hyphenated methods to be used in a field that includes analytes of different classes and physicochemical properties. In this work a multi-residue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 28 xenobiotics (polar and hydrophilic) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography technique (HILIC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology. The scope of the method includes plant growth regulators (chlormequat, daminozide, diquat, maleic hydrazide, mepiquat, paraquat), pesticides (cyromazine, the metabolite of the fungicide propineb PTU (propylenethiourea), amitrole), various multiclass antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides quinolones, kasugamycin and mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A). Isolation of the analytes from the matrix was achieved with a fast and effective technique. The validation of the multi-residue method was performed at the levels: 10 μg/kg and 100 μg/kg in the following representative substrates: fruits-vegetables (apples, apricots, lettuce and onions), cereals and pulses (flour and chickpeas), animal products (milk and meat) and cereal based baby foods. The method was validated taking into consideration EU guidelines and showed acceptable linearity (r ≥ 0.99), accuracy with recoveries between 70 and 120% and precision with RSD ≤ 20% for the majority of the analytes studied. For the analytes that presented accuracy and precision values outside the acceptable limits the method still is able to serve as a semi-quantitative method. The matrix effect, the limits of detection and quantification were also estimated and compared with the current EU MRLs (Maximum Residue Levels) and FAO/WHO MLs (Maximum Levels) or CXLs (Codex Maximum Residue Limits). The combined and expanded uncertainty of the method for each analyte per substrate, was also estimated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B

  16. Report on the third research co-ordination meeting of the coordinated research project: 'The development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' (D3.20.22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    The third RCM for the CRP on the development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries was held in Natal, Brazil, from 11-15 April 2005. The meeting was attended by ten Research Contract Holders, a second representative of the research group of the host country, two Research Agreement Holders, two Technical Contract Holders and the Scientific Secretary. The work in the second phase of this CRP has built upon the progress reported from the first phase, resulting in good quality immunoassay reagents, confirmatory methods and a number of validated methods. It is recommended that all contracts (with one exception), including technical contracts, be renewed to facilitate the completion of the work plans agreed at the meeting. A protocol for the validation of immunoassays will be provided by a Research Agreement Holder. The protocol has already been successfully applied for validation of an RIA method in Brazil. It is recommended that this protocol be adopted by all participants in the project to harmonize the validation of immunoassay methods developed. Work on the development of the 125 I-radioimmunoassay for chloramphenicol has not been satisfactory. It is recommended that this work is transferred to the research group in Brazil. The meeting agreed that the FAO/IAEA Joint Division's INFOCRIS database and associated e-learning modules are a very useful resource for developing country scientists. It is recommended to proceed with the expansion of the database as planned. In addition, it was suggested that a database and bibliography of original literature on, for example, pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies on veterinary drugs and hormonal growth promoters should be included. Much of this data was published many years ago and is very difficult to access, but is of importance in the design and development of methods. Some of the results generated by CRP participants should be

  17. 76 FR 67746 - Revised Guidance for Industry on Impurities: Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ...] Revised Guidance for Industry on Impurities: Residual Solvents in New Veterinary Medicinal Products... Veterinary Medicinal Products, Active Substances and Excipients (Revision)'' VICH GL18(R). This revised guidance has been developed for veterinary use by the International Cooperation on Harmonisation of...

  18. Report on the first research co-ordination meeting of the co-ordinated research project: 'The development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' (D3.20.22)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The first Research Co-ordination Meeting (RCM) of the Co-ordinated Research Project (CRP) on 'the development of strategies for the effective monitoring of veterinary drug residues in livestock and livestock products in developing countries' was held in the Vienna International Centre from 2 to 6 September 2002. Twelve Research Contracts (RCs) and 3 Research Agreements (RAs) have been awarded under this CRP and all awardees, the Project Officer and a guest speaker from the Austrian Agency for Health and Food Safety (AAHFS) participated in the RCM. The objective of the RCM was to plan the first phase of the CRP, initiation of the development and validation of methods. Specific objectives were to: Agree upon a small number of veterinary drugs upon which to focus the research; Agree upon analytical methodologies to be employed; formulate individual work plans for each research contract holder within the framework of the overall work plan. Each RC holder presented an overview of residues monitoring from the perspective of their respective countries. Emphasis was placed on problems encountered and future requirements. The participants visited the Austrian National Reference Laboratory for veterinary drug residues at Moedling and discussed the activities there with Mr. Kuhn and laboratory staff. An overall framework for phase of the CRP, focusing upon the compounds and analytical techniques of major importance to the majority of participants, was formulated. Each RC holder discussed and revised their individual work plan with the RA holders and the PO. The overall framework was then reviewed and a summary of the individual work plans presented. Conclusions and recommendations were drafted

  19. Prudent Use of Veterinary Drugs: Impact on Safe Animal Products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Like any other therapeutic compounds, veterinary drugs are used to alleviate diseases in animals as either therapeutic or prophylactic compounds for specific disease entities. They can also be used as production aids in food producing animals to increase market sale of these animals whereby the producers save on the ...

  20. Low energy nanoemulsification to design veterinary controlled drug delivery devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry F Vandamme

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Thierry F Vandamme, Nicolas Anton, University of Strasbourg, Faculty of Pharmacy, Illkirch Cedex, France; UMR CNRS 7199, Laboratoire de Conception et Application de Molécules Bioactives, équipe de Pharmacie Biogalénique, Illkirch Cedex, France,  This work is selected as Controlled Release Society Outstanding Veterinary Paper Award 2010Abstract: The unique properties of nanomaterials related to structural stability and quantum-scale reactive properties open up a world of possibilities that could be exploited to design and to target drug delivery or create truly microscale biological sensors for veterinary applications. We developed cost-saving and solvent-free nanoemulsions. Formulated with a low-energy method, these nanoemulsions can find application in the delivery of controlled amounts of drugs into the beverage of breeding animals (such as poultry, cattle, pigs or be used for the controlled release of injectable poorly water-soluble drugs.Keywords: nanoemulsion, nanomedicine, low-energy emulsification, veterinary, ketoprofen, sulfamethazine

  1. The effect of processing on veterinary residues in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moats, W A

    1999-01-01

    Heat stability of antibiotics in foods to cooking has been determined by a variety of methods. These include heating in such liquid media as milk, water, buffers and meat extracts, and in solids such as buffered meat homogenates and various sausages. Inactivation of incurred residues in tissues and eggs was also studied. Time and temperature of heating were more easily controlled in liquid media, but results in actual meat products are more indicative of actual cooking processes. Ordinary cooking procedures for meat, even to "well-done", cannot be relied on to inactivate even the more heat sensitive compounds such as penicillins and tetracyclines. More severe heating as for canning or prolonged cooking with moist heat can inactivate the more heat sensitive compounds. The relevance to food safety is uncertain since the nature of the degradation products is unknown in most cases.

  2. Comprehensive screening and quantification of veterinary drugs in milk using UPLC-ToF-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Rutgers, P.; Oosterink, J.E.; Lasaroms, J.J.P.; Peters, R.J.B.; Rhijn, van J.A.; Nielen, M.W.F.

    2008-01-01

    Ultra-performance liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC¿ToF-MS) has been used for screening and quantification of more than 100 veterinary drugs in milk. The veterinary drugs represent different classes including benzimidazoles, macrolides, penicillins,

  3. Validação de métodos cromatográficos para a determinação de resíduos de medicamentos veterinários em alimentos Validation of chromatographic methods for the determination of residues of veterinary drugs in foods

    OpenAIRE

    Jonas Augusto Rizzato Paschoal; Susanne Rath; Flavia Pereira da Silva Airoldi; Felix G. R. Reyes

    2008-01-01

    Different agencies that supply validation guidelines worldwide establish almost the same parameters to be evaluated in the validation process of bioanalytical methods. However, they recommend different procedures, as well as establish different acceptance criteria. The present review delineates and discusses the stages involved in the validation procedures of bioanalytical methods designed for determining veterinary residues in food, explaining the main differences in the guidelines establish...

  4. Flexing the PECs: Predicting environmental concentrations of veterinary drugs in Canadian agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullik, Sigrun A; Belknap, Andrew M

    2017-03-01

    Veterinary drugs administered to food animals primarily enter ecosystems through the application of livestock waste to agricultural land. Although veterinary drugs are essential for protecting animal health, their entry into the environment may pose a risk for nontarget organisms. A means to predict environmental concentrations of new veterinary drug ingredients in soil is required to assess their environmental fate, distribution, and potential effects. The Canadian predicted environmental concentrations in soil (PECsoil) for new veterinary drug ingredients for use in intensively reared animals is based on the approach currently used by the European Medicines Agency for VICH Phase I environmental assessments. The calculation for the European Medicines Agency PECsoil can be adapted to account for regional animal husbandry and land use practices. Canadian agricultural practices for intensively reared cattle, pigs, and poultry differ substantially from those in the European Union. The development of PECsoil default values and livestock categories representative of typical Canadian animal production methods and nutrient management practices culminates several years of research and an extensive survey and analysis of the scientific literature, Canadian agricultural statistics, national and provincial management recommendations, veterinary product databases, and producers. A PECsoil can be used to rapidly identify new veterinary drugs intended for intensive livestock production that should undergo targeted ecotoxicity and fate testing. The Canadian PECsoil model is readily available, transparent, and requires minimal inputs to generate a screening level environmental assessment for veterinary drugs that can be refined if additional data are available. PECsoil values for a hypothetical veterinary drug dosage regimen are presented and discussed in an international context. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:331-341. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada

  5. Determination of veterinary antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin by liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Enrique La Rosa Zambrano

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available TITLE: Determination of veterinary antibiotic residues in foods of animal origin by liquid chromatography Introduction: The presence of certain infectious agents makes necessary the use of antibiotics to ensure the welfare of animals destined for human consumption; however, the withdrawal time must be considered and respected since there is the possibility of finding residues above the permitted levels, which could constitute a risk to public health. Objective: Present a collection of information based on how is performed the detection and quantification of antibiotic residues in various products of animal origin using chromatography methods. Method: Review of databases in Elsevier, SciELO, Springer, Hindawi, FAO, EFSA, Senasa and Sanipes, using keywords such as “liquid chromatography”, “mass spectrometry”, “antibiotic residues” and “products of animal origin” in Spanish and English. Results: They were selected 71 references among articles, book chapters, norms and regulations published between 2000 and 2017, which it is emphasized that chromatographic methodologies for antibiotic residues monitoring must be sensitive, reproducible, reliable and identify volumes in mg/kg; likewise, they must follow the requirements of international standards for the maximum residue limits detecction. Conclusions: Liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer is the most used technique to allow the separation of complex matrices based on the molecular weight of the compound (antibiotic or its fragments; however, It is complex, expensive and requires highly trained personnel.

  6. Large-scale cross-species chemogenomic platform proposes a new drug discovery strategy of veterinary drug from herbal medicines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    Full Text Available Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.

  7. Veterinary antibiotic resistance, residues, and ecological risks in environmental samples obtained from poultry farms, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahshan, Hesham; Abd-Elall, Amr Mohamed Mohamed; Megahed, Ayman Mohamed; Abd-El-Kader, Mahdy A; Nabawy, Ehab Elsayed

    2015-02-01

    In Egypt, poultry production constitutes one of the main sources of pollution with veterinary antibiotics (VAs) into the environment. About 80 % of meat production in Egypt is of poultry origin, and the potential environmental risks associated with the use of VAs in these farms have not yet been properly evaluated. Thus, the main purpose of this research was to evaluate the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant enteric key bacteria and the incidence of residual antibiotics in poultry farm environmental samples and to determine whether fertilizing soils with poultry litter from farms potentially brings ecological risks. From December 2011 to September 2012, a total of 225 litter, bird dropping, and water samples were collected from 75 randomly selected boiler poultry farms. A high prevalence of Escherichia coli (n = 179; 79.5 %) in contrast to the low prevalence of Salmonella spp. (n = 7; 3.1 %) was detected. Amongst E. coli isolates, serotypes O142:K86, O125:K70, O91:K, and O119:K69 were the most common. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica serotypes emek and enteritidis were recovered. The antibiograms using the disc diffusion method revealed significantly more common resistant and multi-resistant isolates in broiler poultry farms. Residues of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin were detected at 2.125 and 1.401 mg kg(-1) mean levels, respectively, in environmental samples contaminated with E. coli-resistant strains by HPLC. The risk evaluations highlighted that tetracycline residues in poultry litter significantly display environmental risks with a hazard quotient value above 1 (1.64). Our study implies that ineffective implementation of veterinary laws which guide and guard against incorrect VA usage may potentially bring health and environmental risks.

  8. Veterinary drugs in the environment and their toxicity to plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártíková, H.; Podlipná, Radka; Skálová, L.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 144, FEB (2016), s. 2290-2301 ISSN 0045-6535 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05325S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Veterinary antibiotics * Growth promoters * Phytotoxicity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.208, year: 2016

  9. Veterinary drug prescriptions: to what extent do pet owners comply ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Separate questionnaires were designed for pet owners (clients) and veterinarians to ascertain the existence and extent of noncompliance in veterinary practice in lbadan and to elucidate the influence of such factors as logistics, education, economy, attitudes and veterinarian/client relationship on non-compliance. Analyses ...

  10. The residues and environmental risks of multiple veterinary antibiotics in animal faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Xia; Zhang, Xue-Lian; Li, Wei; Lu, Xiao-Fei; Liu, Bei; Wang, Jing

    2013-03-01

    To understand the residues and ecological risks of veterinary antibiotics (VAs) in animal faeces from concentrated animal feeding operations in northeastern China, 14 VAs were identified by high performance liquid chromatography, and the preliminary risks of six antibiotics were assessed using the hazard quotient (HQ). The investigated VAs occurred in 7.41 to 57.41 % of the 54 samples, and the levels ranged from 0.08 to 56.81 mg kg(-1). Tetracyclines were predominant with a maximum level of 56.81 mg kg(-1) mostly detected in pig faeces. Sulfonamides were common and detected with the highest concentration of 7.11 mg kg(-1). Fluoroquinolones were more widely detected in chicken faeces rather than in pig or cow faeces, which contained the dominant antibiotic enrofloxacin. In comparison, the residue of tylosin was less frequently found. The risk evaluations of the six antibiotics revealed that tetracyclines, especially oxytetracycline, displayed the greatest ecological risk because of its high HQ value of 15.75. The results of this study imply that multiple kinds of VAs were jointly used in animal feeding processes in the study area. These medicine residues in animal faeces may potentially bring ecological risks if the animal manure is not treated effectively.

  11. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and their role in uptake and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártíková, Hana; Skálová, Lenka; Stuchlíková, Lucie; Vokřál, Ivan; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2015-08-01

    Many various xenobiotics permanently enter plants and represent potential danger for their organism. For that reason, plants have evolved extremely sophisticated detoxification systems including a battery of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes. Some of them are similar to those in humans and animals, but there are several plant-specific ones. This review briefly introduces xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and summarizes present information about their action toward veterinary drugs. Veterinary drugs are used worldwide to treat diseases and protect animal health. However, veterinary drugs are also unwantedly introduced into environment mostly via animal excrements, they persist in the environment for a long time and may impact on the non-target organisms. Plants are able to uptake, transform the veterinary drugs to non- or less-toxic compounds and store them in the vacuoles and cell walls. This ability may protect not only plant themselves but also other organisms, predominantly invertebrates and wild herbivores. The aim of this review is to emphasize the importance of plants in detoxification of veterinary drugs in the environment. The results of studies, which dealt with transport and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in plants, are summarized and evaluated. In conclusion, the risks and consequences of veterinary drugs in the environment and the possibilities of phytoremediation technologies are considered and future perspectives are outlined.

  12. The veterinary drug ivermectin influences immune response in the yellow dung fly (Scathophaga stercoraria)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, Helen M.; Tracy, Saoirse R.

    2009-01-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) is a key enzyme involved in the immune response of insects. We show that egg-to-adult exposure to residues of 0.001, but not 0.0005 mg kg -1 ivermectin elevated PO activity in yellow dung flies (Scathophaga stercoraria) developing in cattle dung. Fly fat content was unaffected by the treatments. Therefore, the response of PO was a direct effect of ivermectin and not an indirect one caused by an alteration in body 'condition'. This supports the non-intuitive conclusion that flies surviving exposure to faecal residues may have enhanced immune function. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the effects on PO activity of insecticidal residues in livestock dung. The non-target effects of such residues are of wide interest, given the global use of veterinary products. - Phenoloxidase activity in Scathophaga stercoraria is enhanced by ivermectin and that effect is transferred to the adult fly from the larval stage

  13. Application of PK/PD Modeling in Veterinary Field: Dose Optimization and Drug Resistance Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ijaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among veterinary drugs, antibiotics are frequently used. The true mean of antibiotic treatment is to administer dose of drug that will have enough high possibility of attaining the preferred curative effect, with adequately low chance of concentration associated toxicity. Rising of antibacterial resistance and lack of novel antibiotic is a global crisis; therefore there is an urgent need to overcome this problem. Inappropriate antibiotic selection, group treatment, and suboptimal dosing are mostly responsible for the mentioned problem. One approach to minimizing the antibacterial resistance is to optimize the dosage regimen. PK/PD model is important realm to be used for that purpose from several years. PK/PD model describes the relationship between drug potency, microorganism exposed to drug, and the effect observed. Proper use of the most modern PK/PD modeling approaches in veterinary medicine can optimize the dosage for patient, which in turn reduce toxicity and reduce the emergence of resistance. The aim of this review is to look at the existing state and application of PK/PD in veterinary medicine based on in vitro, in vivo, healthy, and disease model.

  14. Protein microarray: sensitive and effective immunodetection for drug residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zer Cindy

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Veterinary drugs such as clenbuterol (CL and sulfamethazine (SM2 are low molecular weight ( Results The artificial antigens were spotted on microarray slides. Standard concentrations of the compounds were added to compete with the spotted antigens for binding to the antisera to determine the IC50. Our microarray assay showed the IC50 were 39.6 ng/ml for CL and 48.8 ng/ml for SM2, while the traditional competitive indirect-ELISA (ci-ELISA showed the IC50 were 190.7 ng/ml for CL and 156.7 ng/ml for SM2. We further validated the two methods with CL fortified chicken muscle tissues, and the protein microarray assay showed 90% recovery while the ci-ELISA had 76% recovery rate. When tested with CL-fed chicken muscle tissues, the protein microarray assay had higher sensitivity (0.9 ng/g than the ci-ELISA (0.1 ng/g for detection of CL residues. Conclusions The protein microarrays showed 4.5 and 3.5 times lower IC50 than the ci-ELISA detection for CL and SM2, respectively, suggesting that immunodetection of small molecules with protein microarray is a better approach than the traditional ELISA technique.

  15. Effectiveness of Action in India to Reduce Exposure of Gyps Vultures to the Toxic Veterinary Drug Diclofenac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, Richard; Taggart, Mark A.; Prakash, Vibhu; Saini, Mohini; Swarup, Devendra; Upreti, Suchitra; Mateo, Rafael; Chakraborty, Soumya Sunder; Deori, Parag; Green, Rhys E.

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of their carrion food supply with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac has caused rapid population declines across the Indian subcontinent of three species of Gyps vultures endemic to South Asia. The governments of India, Pakistan and Nepal took action in 2006 to prevent the veterinary use of diclofenac on domesticated livestock, the route by which contamination occurs. We analyse data from three surveys of the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac residues in carcasses of domesticated ungulates in India, carried out before and after the implementation of a ban on veterinary use. There was little change in the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac between a survey before the ban and one conducted soon after its implementation, with the percentage of carcasses containing diclofenac in these surveys estimated at 10.8 and 10.7%, respectively. However, both the prevalence and concentration of diclofenac had fallen markedly 7–31 months after the implementation of the ban, with the true prevalence in this third survey estimated at 6.5%. Modelling of the impact of this reduction in diclofenac on the expected rate of decline of the oriental white-backed vulture (Gyps bengalensis) in India indicates that the decline rate has decreased to 40% of the rate before the ban, but is still likely to be rapid (about 18% year−1). Hence, further efforts to remove diclofenac from vulture food are still needed if the future recovery or successful reintroduction of vultures is to be feasible. PMID:21589920

  16. Veterinary vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastoret, P P

    1999-11-01

    Veterinary vaccinology is a very interesting and rapidly developing field. In fact veterinary vaccines are not only used for the prevention of infectious diseases in the animal health sector, but also help to solve problems of public health, to reduce detrimental environmental impact of the use of some veterinary drugs and prevent the emergence of resistance of micro-organisms or parasites. After a short introduction, this paper will deal with the use of vaccines for animal health and welfare, including new developments in the veterinary field such as marker vaccines and vectored vaccines, the special case of equine influenza-inactivated vaccines and the use of veterinary vaccines in public health. The conclusions will analyse the reasons as to why develop veterinary vaccines and the obstacles to their development.

  17. Biodegradable polyesters for veterinary drug delivery systems: Characterization, in vitro degradation and release behavior of Oligolactides and Polytartrate

    OpenAIRE

    Schliecker, Gesine

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the degradation and release behavior of aliphatic polyesters with special respect to the influence of oligomers on the degradation rate and the potential use of these biomaterials for the development of veterinary drug delivery systems. In Chapter 1 the animal health care market is introduced with regard to opportunities and challenges of veterinary drug delivery systems. . In the second part of this chapter...

  18. Risk-based approach to developing a national residue sampling plan for testing under European Union regulation for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives in domestic animal production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaher, Martin; Shanahan, Conor; Butler, Francis; Evans, Rhodri; O'Sullivan, Dan; Glynn, Denise; Camon, Tim; Lawlor, Peadar; O'Keeffe, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A ranking system for veterinary medicinal products and coccidiostat feed additives has been developed as a tool to be applied in a risk-based approach to the residue testing programme for foods of animal origin in the Irish National Residue Control Plan (NRCP). Three characteristics of substances that may occur as residues in food are included in the developed risk ranking system: Potency, as measured by the acceptable daily intake assigned by the European Medicines Agency Committee for Medicinal Products for Veterinary Use, to each substance; Usage, as measured by the three factors of Number of Doses, use on Individual animals or for Group treatment, and Withdrawal Period; and Residue Occurrence, as measured by the number of Non-Compliant Samples in the NRCP. For both Number of Doses and Non-Compliant Samples, data for the 5-year period 2008-12 have been used. The risk ranking system for substances was developed for beef cattle, sheep and goats, pigs, chickens and dairy cattle using a scoring system applied to the various parameters described above to give an overall score based on the following equation: Potency × Usage (Number of Doses + Individual/Group Use + Withdrawal Period) × Residue Occurrence. Applying this risk ranking system, the following substances are ranked very highly: antimicrobials such as amoxicillin (for all species except pigs), marbofloxacillin (for beef cattle), oxytetracycline (for all species except chickens), sulfadiazine with trimethoprim (for pigs and chickens) and tilmicosin (for chickens); antiparasitic drugs, such as the benzimidazoles triclabendazole (for beef and dairy cattle), fenbendazole/oxfendazole (for sheep/goats and dairy cattle) and albendazole (for dairy cattle), the avermectin ivermectin (for beef cattle), and anti-fluke drugs closantel and rafoxanide (for sheep/goats); the anticoccidials monensin, narasin, nicarbazin and toltrazuril (for chickens). The risk ranking system described is a relatively simple system

  19. Chemotherapy drug handling in first opinion small animal veterinary practices in the United Kingdom: results of a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edery, E G

    2017-05-27

    To investigate how first opinion small animal veterinary surgeons in the UK handled chemotherapeutic agents, a questionnaire was distributed at the 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association congress and by internet. Chemotherapy was regularly offered by 70.4 per cent of the respondents. Gold standards defined according to available guidelines for safe handling of antineoplastic drugs were poorly followed by general practitioners with only 2 per cent of respondents complying with all of them. Dedicated facilities for preparation and administration of cytotoxic drugs were variably available among participants. The level of training of staff indirectly involved in handling chemotherapy was appropriate in less than 50 per cent of practices. No association was found between demographic characteristics of the sampled population and the decision to perform chemotherapy. The results of this study raise concerns about the safety of the veterinary staff in first opinion practices involved in handling chemotherapy. British Veterinary Association.

  20. Suspected adverse reactions to veterinary drugs reported in South Africa (January 1998 - February 2001 : special report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gehring

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance Centre received 59 reports of suspected adverse drug reactions during the period January 1998 - February 2001. The number of reports received increased after the establishment of a formal procedure for recording and responding to reports. The number of reports received per species was: dogs 19, cats 15, cattle 7, sheep/ goats 6, chickens 4, pigs 3, horses 2 and giraffe 1. Many different types of adverse reactions were reported, including lack of efficacy, hypersensitivity, inappropriate use of products by non-veterinarians, known adverse effects and adverse effects encountered with extra-label use of products.

  1. Antineoplastic drugs in veterinary oncology: excretion in dogs, contamination of the environment and exposure assessment of people at risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, T.

    2012-01-01

    Anticancer drugs themselves can cause adverse health effects when administered to human patients. In addition, it has become apparent that personnel in human medicine, occupationally exposed to these anticancer drugs, may also be at risk. The past decades, the use of chemotherapy in veterinary

  2. Determination of drug residues by CLAR-MS/MS in animal tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenes Jimenez, Jose Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    Produced food of animal origin, present the possibility of occurrence of any contact with substances that have negative effects on the health of people who consume them. The use of drugs in veterinary medicine is one of the possible sources of such waste; so, the conditions for the analysis of some classes of antibiotics in animal tissues are based on the study. Costa Rica and the countries that are export destination, have regulation and programs for control before to be distributed in local markets, or post if it is received any complaint of pollution. The high resolution liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometers (CLAR-MS/MS) allows the analysis of analytes monitored, according to the specifications required by the legislation. The cases of two laboratories in Costa Rica are presented as the only ones who have the ability to perform the analysis of drug residues CLAR-MS/MS. (author) [es

  3. Validation of a standard field test method in four countries to assess the toxicity of residues in dung of cattle treated with veterinary medical products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Floate, Kevin D.; Düring, Rolf Alexander; Hanafi, Jamal; Jud, Priska; Lahr, Joost; Lumaret, Jean Pierre; Scheffczyk, Adam; Tixier, Thomas; Wohde, Manuel; Römbke, Jörg; Sautot, Lucille; Blanckenhorn, Wolf U.

    2016-01-01

    Registration of veterinary medical products includes the provision that field tests may be required to assess potential nontarget effects associated with the excretion of product residues in dung of treated livestock (phase II, tier B testing). However, regulatory agencies provide no guidance on

  4. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Claassen, F.C.; Engelen, M.C.; Beek, van T.A.

    2009-01-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS

  5. Ectoparasites of medical and veterinary importance: drug resistance and the need for alternative control methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Carol M

    2015-03-01

    Despite multiple attempts at eradication, many ectoparasites of humans and domestic livestock remain a persistent problem in the modern world. For many years, a range of pesticide drugs including organophosphates, organochlorides and synthetic pyrethroids provided effective control of these parasites; but intensive use of these drugs has led to the evolution of resistance in many target species. This paper aims to review the effectiveness of current control methods and discuss potential alternatives for the long term sustainable control of ectoparasites. Important medical ectoparasites such as scabies mites, head lice and bed bugs present a significant public health problem, and so adequate control methods are essential. Ectoparasites of domestic livestock and farmed fish (for example sheep scab mites, poultry mites and sea lice) are also of concern given the increasing strain on the world's food supply. These parasites have become resistant to several classes of pesticide, making control very difficult. Recently, an increasing amount of research has focussed on alternative control methods such as insect growth regulators, biological control using essential oils or fungi, as well as vaccine development against some ectoparasites of medical and veterinary importance. Drug resistance is prevalent in all of the ectoparasites discussed in this review. A wide variety of alternative control methods have been identified, however further research is necessary in order for these to be used to successfully control ectoparasitic diseases in the future. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  6. 77 FR 72254 - New Animal Drugs; Updating Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 500, 520, 522, 524, 529, 556, and 558 [Docket No. FDA-2012-N-1067] RIN 0910-AG17 New Animal Drugs; Updating Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs in Food AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION...

  7. Residues and risks of veterinary antibiotics in protected vegetable soils following application of different manures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Yujuan; Wu, Longhua; Liu, Xinghua; Luo, Yongming

    2016-06-01

    The protected vegetable farming is a style of high frequent rotation farming which requires a huge amount of fertilizers to maintain soil fertility. A total of 125 surface soils covering from east to west of China were sampled for the analysis of 17 antibiotics in order to identify antibiotics contamination caused by long-term manures application. The results indicate that the agricultural land has accumulated a statistically significantly higher antibiotics concentration than conventional open croplands. The maximum oxytetracycline concentration was 8400 μg kg(-1), the highest level that has ever been reported for oxytetracycline in soils. The residual concentration is decided by both plant duration and manure type. Short-term (antibiotics residue in the soils on the whole. Principal component analysis suggests that the various combinations of antibiotic compounds in the soil may be used to trace the manure source. The antibiotics in soil may threaten water quality through contamination by diffusion. Ciprofloxacin and sulfachinoxalin are calculated to be a higher migration risk to surface waters, hence their environmental fate requires further study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Simultaneous HPLC method for determination of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline in veterinary drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puangkaew Lakkanatinaporn

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple HPLC method has been developed for the separation and determination of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline in veterinary preparations. Both drugs were separated well on a Kromasil C18 column (5 µm, 150 × 4.6 mm using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.5% triethylamine in 1% acetic acid, pH 3 (18:82, v/v as the mobile phase at the flow rate of 1.5 ml/ min. The presence of both substances was monitored by UV absorption detection at 271 nm. The retention times of sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline were 3.2 and 16.0 min, respectively. The performance of the developed method was tested. Linear responses of both drugs were achieved between 48-145% of labeled amount over the concentration ranges of 35-101 µg/ml and 102-306 µg/ ml for sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and sodium sulfaquinoxaline with correlation coefficients (R2 of 0.9980 and 0.9998, respectively. Accuracy expressed in term of recoveries were 101.4± 1.21% (n=6 for sodium trimethoprim phenylpropanol disulphonate and 99.7±0.92% (n=6 for sodium sulfaquinoxaline. Precision of the method in terms of the relative standard deviation is not more than 2% in all cases. These figures of merit indicated the validity of the developed method.

  9. Residues of veterinary antibiotics in manures from feedlot livestock in eight provinces of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ling; Dong, Yuan Hua; Wang, Hui

    2010-02-01

    The residue levels of selected fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides and tetracyclines in 143 animal dung samples collected in 2007 from large-scale livestock and poultry feedlots in 8 provinces were determined by using ultrasonic extraction and liquid chromatography. Recoveries from spiked pig dung samples (spike level=1mg/kg) ranged from 73.9 to 102.0% for fluoroquinolones, from 81.6 to 92.3% for sulfonamides, and from 57.2 to 72.6% for tetracyclines. Relative standard deviations of the recoveries were less than 10% within the same day. Method quantification limits were measured from 0.031 to 0.150 mg/kg for fluoroquinolones, from 0.023 to 0.082 mg/kg for sulfonamides, and 0.091 to 0.182 mg/kg for tetracyclines in spiked pig manure samples. Analysis of 61 pig, 54 chicken and 28 cow dung samples collected in China revealed that in pig and cow dung, up to 33.98 and 29.59 mg/kg ciprofloxacin, 33.26 and 46.70 mg/kg enrofloxacin, 59.06 and 59.59 mg/kg oxytetracycline, and 21.06 and 27.59 mg/kg chlortetracycline could be detected, respectively. A maximum concentration of 99.43 mg/kg fleroxacin, 225.45 mg/kg norfloxacin, 45.59 mg/kg ciprofloxacin and 1420.76 mg/kg enrofloxacin could be detected in chicken dung. No appreciable sulfonamide antibiotic concentrations (less than 10mg/kg) were found in any animal dung, and only sulfadimidine was observed, at a maximum concentration of 6.04 mg/kg, in chicken dung. Both enrofloxacin and chlortetracycline were detected with a very high occurrence in three animal manure samples. The residue levels for most antibiotics showed significant statistical differences among the sampling districts and the animal species. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. [Do pharmaceutical waste and drug residue pose a risk to public health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haguenoer, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Recently, awareness has developed of the environmental consequences of drug waste and disposal. These residues are identified as coming from either diffuse sources, the most significant of which is via the discharge of these residues in urine and feces, and thus the sewage system and water contains these drug remnants and their metabolites, or from point sources, sometimes with very high levels of concentration in waste from chemical and pharmaceutical industries, health care settings, but also from intensive livestock farming and aquaculture. Depending on their physical chemistry properties, these substances are more or less naturally biodegradable and easily treated in sewage purification plants. The effectiveness of these treatment processes is highly random and unpredictable, but is overall around 60%, nevertheless with variations of 2-99% according to the molecules. The silt from these treatment plants, sometimes very rich in lipophilic substances is on occasion reused for agricultural application as fertilizer, paving the way for a possible contamination of crops. Furthermore, the use of veterinary drugs in animals can lead to soil contamination either directly or through manure and slurry. The contamination can equally reach and affect surface water, groundwater and sometimes the water intended for human consumption. The National academy of Pharmacy has established some general recommendations on the proper use of drugs, environmental monitoring and surveillance, risk assessment for humans and the environment, prevention and the need for prevention. Several categories of drugs are more worrying: cancer treatments, antibiotics as well as transfers of anti-bio-resistance, and hormonal derivatives which has been previously demonstrated to contribute, along with other molecules, to detrimental effects on endocrines.

  11. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Hooijerink, H.; Claassen, F.C.; Engelen, M.C. van; Beek, T.A. van

    2009-01-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS n spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future

  12. Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: A rapid screening tool for veterinary drug preparations and forensic samples from hormone crime investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielen, M.W.F. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: michel.nielen@wur.nl; Hooijerink, H. [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Claassen, F.C. [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands); Engelen, M.C. van [RIKILT Institute of Food Safety, P.O. Box 230, 6700 AE Wageningen (Netherlands); Beek, T.A. van [Wageningen University, Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Dreijenplein 8, 6703 HB Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2009-04-01

    Hormone and veterinary drug screening and forensics can benefit from the recent developments in desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS). In this work the feasibility of DESI application has been studied. Using a linear ion trap or quadrupole time-of-flight (TOF) MS instrument both full-scan and data-dependent collision-induced dissociation MS{sup n} spectra were acquired in seconds without sample preparation. Preliminary data are presented for the rapid screening of (pro)hormone supplement samples, an illegal steroid cocktail and forensic samples from veterinary drug investigations. The potential of this DESI approach is clearly demonstrated since compounds observed could be independently confirmed by liquid chromatography/TOFMS with accurate mass measurement, and/or proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Specific concerns related to false-positive and false-negative findings due to limitations in quantification and memory-effects are briefly discussed. It is envisaged that DESI will achieve a prominent role in hormone and veterinary drug analysis in the near future.

  13. Structural characterization of product ions of regulated veterinary drugs by electrospray ionization and quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (part 3) Anthelmintics, thyreostats, and flukicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Previously we have reported a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the identification and quantification of regulated veterinary drugs. The methods used three selected transition ions but most of these ions lacked structural characterization. The work presented here ...

  14. Drug residues in used syringes in Switzerland: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefrançois, Elodie; Augsburger, Marc; Esseiva, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Harm reduction services, including needle-exchange programmes, have been implemented in Switzerland for over 20 years. Their main aim is to lessen the negative social and/or physical consequences associated with illicit drug consumption and, therefore, improve prevention messages. To this end, knowledge of illicit drug consumption practices is necessary. Periodic self-report surveys are the primary source of data for monitoring drug users' behaviour. Analysis of residual content of used syringes can bring further and objective knowledge about consumed products through analytically confirmed data. Used syringes were sampled in 2 syringe-exchange facilities in Lausanne. These structures are a bus where the users bring back their syringes (ABS) and an automatic injecting kit dispenser (AIKD). Once syringes were collected, a validated gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method was implemented in order to detect drugs (licit or illicit) contained in the residual content of used syringes. Cocaine was the most common drug detected alone (39% in ABS and 31% in AIKD), followed by the simultaneous detection of heroin and cocaine (12% and 17%) and heroin and midazolam (12% and 17%). The differences between the illicit drugs distribution of used syringes collected in AIKD and ABS were not statistically significant. Analysis of residual content of used syringes as a monitoring tool is an original approach that has already led to a better understanding of the habits of drug-injection users. Over the long term, this approach is a powerful tool to track and detect new consumption practices in a quasi-real-time. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Survey study: The antibacterial drugs used for treatment of the animals in the teaching veterinary hospital in Kirkuk province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.J. Mousa

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this survey is to collect data relating to antibacterial drugs used to treat different animals in the veterinary teaching hospital in the province of Kirkuk, which is taking place for the first time at the province level for the purpose of knowing the types of drugs most commonly used and the outcome whether these drugs used are optimal. Data were collected from the veterinary teaching hospital in Kirkuk province for 6 consecutive months and for the period between 1/7/2016 and until 1/1/2017 period included both the summer and autumn and winter seasons. The results show that the most commonly used drugs were Oxytetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Doxycycline-Colistin compound by 26, 57 and 36% in cattle, sheep-goats and Poultry, respectively. While the least commonly used drugs were Tylosin, Gentamicin and Gentamicin-Tylosin compound by 10, 5 and 4% in cattle, sheep-goats and poultry, respectively. Based on the results obtained from this survey, we recommend the use of Penicillin-Streptomycin compound because it has a synergistic effect against most of the resistant bacteria and not to increase usage of Oxytetracycline because of its side effects and lack of effectiveness in recent times due to the abundance of resistant germs. Also, using antibacterial drugs, we would like to note the need for optimal scientific use of these drugs and to give attention to the period in which it takes the medicine to withdraw from the animal body before milking animals or slaughtering it, so that the bacterial resistance does not develop against these drugs in the future.

  16. Workshop report: the 2012 antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine: exploring the consequences of antimicrobial drug use: a 3-D approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M; Blondeau, J; Cerniglia, C E; Fink-Gremmels, J; Guenther, S; Hunter, R P; Li, X-Z; Papich, M; Silley, P; Soback, S; Toutain, P-L; Zhang, Q

    2014-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a global challenge that impacts both human and veterinary health care. The resilience of microbes is reflected in their ability to adapt and survive in spite of our best efforts to constrain their infectious capabilities. As science advances, many of the mechanisms for microbial survival and resistance element transfer have been identified. During the 2012 meeting of Antimicrobial Agents in Veterinary Medicine (AAVM), experts provided insights on such issues as use vs. resistance, the available tools for supporting appropriate drug use, the importance of meeting the therapeutic needs within the domestic animal health care, and the requirements associated with food safety and food security. This report aims to provide a summary of the presentations and discussions occurring during the 2012 AAVM with the goal of stimulating future discussions and enhancing the opportunity to establish creative and sustainable solutions that will guarantee the availability of an effective therapeutic arsenal for veterinary species. © Published (2014). This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  17. Quantitative analysis of veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk by liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito-Shida, Shizuka; Sakai, Takatoshi; Nemoto, Satoru; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    2017-07-01

    A simple and reliable multiresidue method for quantitative determination of veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk using liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS) was developed. Critical MS parameters such as capillary voltage, cone voltage, collision energy, desolvation gas temperature and extraction mass window were carefully optimised to obtain the best possible sensitivity. Analytical samples were prepared using extraction with acetonitrile and hexane in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulphate and acetic acid, followed by ODS cartridge clean-up. The developed method was validated for 82 veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk at spike levels of 0.01 and 0.1 mg kg - 1 . With the exception of cefoperazone and phenoxymethylpenicillin, all these compounds exhibited sufficient signal intensity at 0.01 μg ml -1 (equivalent to 0.01 mg kg - 1 ), indicating the high sensitivity of the developed method. For most targets, the determined accuracies were within 70-120%, with repeatability and reproducibility being below 20% at both levels. Except for sulfathiazole in bovine muscle, no interfering peaks at target compound retention times were detected in the blank extract, indicating that the developed method is highly selective. The absence of sulfathiazole in bovine muscle was confirmed by simultaneous acquisition at low and high collision energies to afford exact masses of molecular adduct and fragment ions. Satisfactory linearity was observed for all compounds, with matrix effects being negligible for most targets in bovine muscle and milk at both spike levels. Overall, the results suggest that the developed LC-QTOF-MS method is suitable for routine regulatory-purpose analysis of veterinary drugs in bovine muscle and milk.

  18. Distribution of Penicillin G Residues in Culled Dairy Cow Muscles: Implications for Residue Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration sets tolerances for veterinary drug residues in muscle, but does not specify which type of muscle should be analyzed. In order to determine if antibiotic residue levels are dependent on muscle type, 7 culled dairy cows were dosed with Penicillin G (Pen G) from ...

  19. Veterinary drug usage and antimicrobial resistance in bacteria of animal origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    2005-01-01

    In the production of food animals, large amounts of antimicrobial agents are used for therapy and prophylaxis of bacterial infections and in feed to promote growth. There are large variations in the amounts of antimicrobial agents used to produce the same amount of meat among the different Europe...... monitoring the occurrence and development of resistance and consumption of antimicrobial agents are strongly desirable, as is research into the most appropriate ways to use antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine....

  20. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy prediction indexes and residue depletion of antibacterial drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Anadón

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacokinetics behaviour of the antibacterial in food producing animals, provides information on the rates of absorption and elimination, half-life in plasma and tissue, elimination pathways and metabolism. The dose and the dosing interval of the antimicrobial can be justified by considering the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD relationship, if established, as well as the severity of the disease, whereas the number of administrations should be in line with the nature of the disease. The target population for therapy should be well defined and possible to identify under field conditions. Based on in vitro susceptibility data, and target animal PK data, an analysis for the PK/PD relationship may be used to support dose regimen selection and interpretation criteria for a clinical breakpoint. Therefore, for all antibacterials with systemic activity, the MIC data collected should be compared with the concentration of the compound at the relevant biophase following administration at the assumed therapeutic dose as recorded in the pharmacokinetic studies. Currently, the most frequently used parameters to express the PK/PD relationship are Cmax/MIC (maximum serum concentration/MIC, %T > MIC (fraction of time in which concentration exceeds MIC and AUC/MIC (area under the inhibitory concentration– time curve/MIC. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetic parameters provide the first indication of the potential for persistent residues and the tissues in which they may occur. The information on residue depletion in food-producing animals, provides the data on which MRL recommendations will be based. A critical factor in the antibacterial medication of all food-producing animals is the mandatory withdrawal period, defined as the time during which drug must not be administered prior to the slaughter of the animal for consumption. The withdrawal period is an integral part of the regulatory authorities’ approval process and is designed to ensure that no

  1. Multi-residue determination of 210 drugs in pork by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhiqiang; Chai, Tingting; Mu, Pengqian; Xu, Nana; Song, Yue; Wang, Xinlu; Jia, Qi; Qiu, Jing

    2016-09-09

    This paper presents a multi-residue analytical method for 210 drugs in pork using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-Q-Trap tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) within 20min via positive ESI in scheduled multi-reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The 210 drugs, belonging to 21 different chemical classes, included macrolides, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, β-lactams, β-agonists, aminoglycosides, antiviral drugs, glycosides, phenothiazine, protein anabolic hormones, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), quinolones, antifungal drugs, corticosteroids, imidazoles, piperidines, piperazidines, insecticides, amides, alkaloids and others. A rapid and simple preparation method was applied to process the animal tissues, including solvent extraction with an acetonitrile/water mixture (80/20, v/v), defatting and clean-up processes. The recoveries ranged from 52% to 130% with relative standard deviations (RSDs)<20% for spiked concentrations of 10, 50 and 250μg/kg. More than 90% of the analytes achieved low limits of quantification (LOQs)<10μg/kg. The decision limit (CCα), detection capability (CCβ) values were in the range of 2-502μg/kg and 4-505μg/kg, respectively. This method is significant for food safety monitoring and controlling veterinary drug use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Sample-based reporting of official national control of veterinary drug residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Jensen, Louise Grønhøj Hørbye; Madsen, Helle L.

    assessment as well as risk management. The European Food Safety Authority has been assigned with the task to set up a system for data collection based on individual analytical results. A pilot project has been launched with participants from eleven Member States for parallel reporting of monitoring results...... from 2015 in aggregated form as well as individual analytical results using a standardised data model. The challenges that face the pilot participants include provisions for categorised sample information, specific method performance data, result evaluation and follow-up actions. Experience gained...

  3. Multiclass method for the quantification of 92 veterinary antimicrobial drugs in livestock excreta, wastewater, and surface water by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jinfang; Cui, Yonghui; Tao, Yanfei; Huang, Lingli; Peng, Dapeng; Xie, Shuyu; Wang, Xu; Liu, Zhenli; Chen, Dongmei; Yuan, Zonghui

    2016-11-01

    A simple multiresidue method was developed for detecting and quantifying 92 veterinary antimicrobial drugs from eight classes (β-lactams, quinolones, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, lincomycins, macrolides, chloramphenicols, and pleuromutilin) in livestock excreta and water by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The feces samples were extracted by ultrasound-assisted extraction with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (80:20, v/v) and edetate disodium, followed by a cleanup using solid-phase extraction with an amino cartridge. Water samples were purified with hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid-phase extraction column. Urine samples were extracted with acetonitrile and edetate disodium. Detection of veterinary antimicrobial drugs was achieved by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry using both positive and negative electrospray ionization mode. The recovery values of veterinary antimicrobial drugs in feces, urine, and water samples were 75-99, 85-110, and 85-101% and associated relative standard deviations were less than 15, 10, and 8%, respectively. The limits of quantification in feces, urine, and water samples were 0.5-1, 0.5-1, and 0.01-0.05 μg/L, respectively. This method was applied to determine real samples obtained from local farms and provides reliable quantification and identification results of 92 veterinary antimicrobial drugs in livestock excreta and water. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Application of EU guidelines for the validation of screening methods for veterinary drugs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Commission Decision (CD) 2002/657/EC describes detailed rules for method validation within the framework of residue monitoring programmes. The approach described in this CD is based on criteria. For (qualitative) screening methods, the most important criteria is that the CCß has to be below any

  5. Ion-exchange solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for the determination of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Yanmei; Xuan, Yanfang; Song, Wei; Si, Wenshuai; Zhao, Zhihui; Rao, Qinxiong

    2016-06-01

    The analysis of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers is crucial for an assessment of potential risks to soil microbial communities and human health. We develop a robust and sensitive method to quantitatively determine 19 veterinary drugs (amantadine, sulfonamides and fluoroquinolones) in organic fertilizers. The method involved a simple solid-liquid extraction step using the combination of acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer as extraction solvent, followed by cleanup with a solid-phase extraction cartridge containing polymeric mixed-mode anion-exchange sorbents. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) was used to separate and detect target analytes. We particularly focused on the optimization of sample clean-up step: different diluents and dilution factors were tested. The developed method was validated in terms of linearity, recovery, precision, sensitivity and specificity. The recoveries of all the drugs ranged from 70.9% to 112.7% at three concentration levels, with the intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation lower than 15.7%. The limits of quantification were between 1.0 and 10.0μg/kg for all the drugs. Matrix effect was minimized by matrix-matched calibration curves. The analytical method was successfully applied for the survey of veterinary drugs contamination in 20 compost samples. The results indicated that fluoroquinolones had higher incidence rate and mean concentration levels ranging from 31.9 to 308.7μg/kg compared with other drugs. We expect the method will provide the basis for risk assessment of veterinary drugs in organic fertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. VETSTAT - the Danish system for surveillance of the veterinary use of drugs for production animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Bager, Flemming; Jacobsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Fisheries funds a monitoring system based on drug usage information collected at the herd level: VETSTAT. VETSTAT is constructed as a relational database and data originates from three sources: pharmacies, veterinarians and feed mills. All administration...... of drugs for use in animal production is reported on a monthly basis. Pharmacies provided 95% of the total weight antimicrobial compounds used in Denmark in 2001. More than 80% of the antimicrobial compounds reported by pharmacies were sold on prescription to end-users (owners) and included information...

  7. 21 CFR 530.5 - Veterinary records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary records...

  8. Veterinary Compounding: Regulation, Challenges, and Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Davidson, Gigi

    2017-01-01

    The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to ...

  9. A simulation model for the prediction of tissue:plasma partition coefficients for drug residues in natural casings.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haritova, A.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2010-01-01

    Tissue residues arise from the exposure of animals to undesirable substances in animal feed materials and drinking water and to the therapeutic or zootechnical use of veterinary medicinal products. In the framework of this study, an advanced toxicokinetic model was developed to predict the

  10. Molecular Target Homology as a Basis for Species Extrapolation to Assess the Ecological Risk of Veterinary Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased identification of veterinary pharmaceutical contaminants in aquatic environments has raised concerns regarding potential adverse effects of these chemicals on non-target organisms. The purpose of this work was to develop a method for predictive species extrapolation ut...

  11. Activities and influence of veterinary drug marketers on antimicrobial usage in livestock production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Ernest Ojo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial usage in animals contributes to the emergence of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains. Investigations were carried out on how the characteristics, knowledge, attitude and practices of antimicrobial marketers influenced antimicrobials usage in animal production in Oyo and Kaduna States, Nigeria. Focus group discussions, in-depth interviews and structured questionnaires were used to gather information about the characteristics and activities of antimicrobial marketers. Overall, 70 (56.9 % of 123 marketers had post-secondary education while 76 (61.8 % were trained on the use of antimicrobials. Eighteen (14.6 % of the marketers were licensed veterinarians. Only 51 (41.5 % marketers displayed adequate knowledge about antimicrobials and antimicrobial usage. Sixty-seven (54.6 % marketers requested a prescription before selling antimicrobials while 113 (91.9 % marketer recommended antimicrobials for use in animals. Two-third of the marketers (66.7 % prescribed antimicrobials without physically examining sick animals but based their prescriptions on verbal reports of clinical signs by farmers and on their personal experience. Marketers with higher educational qualification displayed more adequate knowledge of antimicrobials and antimicrobial usage than those with basic education background only. More years of experience in antimicrobial marketing did not translate to better knowledge on antimicrobial usage. Only 45 (36.6 % respondents were aware of the existence of regulatory agencies monitoring the use of antimicrobials in animals. Farmers ignored the services of veterinarians in the diagnosis and control of animal diseases but resorted to drug marketers for help. Effective communication of existing legislations on antimicrobial usage, improved access to veterinary services and strict enforcement of regulatory policies are recommended for checking non-judicious use of antimicrobial agents in animal production. Sales of

  12. MARKETING STUDIES OF VETERINARY PHARMACY ORGANIZATIONS ASSORTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Deltsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays there is an active growth of veterinary pharmacy organizations and consumed medicinal drugs for veterinary use. Content-analysis showed that there was an insufficient number of studies devoted to the activity of veterinary pharmacies. The purpose of our work was the analysis of correspondence of range fullness of veterinary pharmacies to the contemporary state of pharmaceutical market of drugs for veterinary use. Veterinary clinics and pharmacies of Moscow and Moscow oblast were the object of our study. We have applied sociological methods (questionnaire, interview, marketing and statistic analysis methods. We have established that liquid dosage forms (53% occupy the biggest part of drugs in the State Registry of Veterinary Drugs. Solutions occupy 68% of this amount. Antimicrobial drugs for systematic use (40% are the most numerous drugs from pharmacotheraperutic group represented in the State Registry. Assortment of veterinary drugs is targeted mainly on a farm livestock (more than 50%. 58% of the market share is domestic drugs. Principal commodity groups which are released by veterinary pharmacies are feed-stuff (31% and drugs (30%. Pharmacy organizations does not have sufficient number of drugs in their assortment (fullness coefficient 7.9% which speaks about nonconformity of the assortment fullness.

  13. Polar drug residues in sewage and natural waters in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, M; Ternes, T A; Wilken, R D; Rodrigues, S V; Baumann, W

    1999-01-12

    The drug residues of lipid regulators, anti-inflammatories and some drug metabolites have been detected in raw sewage, treated waste water and river water in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These residues are mainly derived from humans via excretion. The median concentrations in the effluents of sewage treatment plants (STPs) of most drugs investigated in this study ranged from 0.1 to 1 microgram/l. The removal rates of individual drugs during passage through a Brazilian STP varied from 12 to 90%. As a consequence of the incomplete removal of these residues during passage through a STP, rivers were also found to be contaminated. Median concentrations ranged from between 0.02 and 0.04 microgram/l in river water, whereas the maximum values were observed to be up to 0.5 microgram/l.

  14. Simultaneous detection for three kinds of veterinary drugs: Chloramphenicol, clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol by high-throughput suspension array technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Nan; Su Pu [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China); Gao Zhixian [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)], E-mail: gaozhx@163.com; Zhu Maoxiang; Yang Zhihua; Pan Xiujie [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing 100850 (China); Fang Yanjun; Chao Fuhuan [Institute of Hygiene and Environmental Medicine, Tianjin 300050 (China)

    2009-01-19

    Suspension array technology for simultaneous detection of three kinds of veterinary drugs, chloramphenicol (CAP), clenbuterol and 17-beta-estradiol has been developed. Conjugates of chloramphenicol and clenbuterol coupled with bovine serum albumin were synthesized and purified. Probes of suspension array were constituted by coupling the three conjugates on the fluorescent microspheres/beads and the microstructures of the beads' surface were observed by scanning electron microscopy which was a direct confirmation for the successful conjugates' coupling. The optimal addition of conjugates and the amounts of antibodies were optimized and selected, respectively. Standard curves were plotted and the coefficient of determination-R{sup 2} was greater than 0.989 which suggested good logistic correlation. The detection ranges for the three veterinary drugs are 40-6.25 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, 50-7.81 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1} and 1 x 10{sup 3-}7.29 x 10{sup 5} ng L{sup -1}, respectively and the lowest detection limits (LDLs) of them are 40, 50 and 1000 ng L{sup -1}, respectively. The suspension array is specific and has no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. Meanwhile, unknown samples were detected by suspension array and ELISA in comparison with each other. The errors between found and real for the detection of the unknown samples were relatively small to both of the two methods, whereas, the detection ranges of suspension array are broader and sensitive than that of the traditional ELISA. The high-throughput suspension array is proved to be a novel method for multi-analysis of veterinary drugs with simple operation, high sensitivity and low cost.

  15. Carry-over of veterinary drugs from medicated to non-medicated feeds in commercial feed manufacturing plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Egmond, van H.J.; Deckers, E.R.; Herbes, R.; Hooglught, J.; Olde Heuvel, E.; Jong, de J.

    2013-01-01

    Different compound feeds have to be manufactured in the same production line. As a consequence, traces of the first produced feed may remain in the production and get mixed with the next feed batches. This "carry-over" is unavoidable, and so non-medicated feed can be contaminated with veterinary

  16. Quality Control Guidelines for Disk Diffusion and Broth Microdilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests with Seven Drugs for Veterinary Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odland, Brant A.; Erwin, Meredith E.; Jones, Ronald N.

    2000-01-01

    This multicenter study proposes antimicrobial susceptibility (MIC and disk diffusion methods) quality control (QC) parameters for seven compounds utilized in veterinary health. Alexomycin, apramycin, tiamulin, tilmicosin, and tylosin were tested by broth microdilution against various National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS)-recommended QC organisms (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853). In addition, disk diffusion zone diameter QC limits were determined for apramycin, enrofloxacin, and premafloxacin by using E. coli ATCC 25922, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The results from five or six participating laboratories produced ≥99.0% of MICs and ≥95.0% of the zone diameters within suggested guidelines. The NCCLS Subcommittee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing has recently approved these ranges for publication in the next M31 document. PMID:10618141

  17. Recommendations for Clinical Pathology Data Generation, Interpretation, and Reporting in Target Animal Safety Studies for Veterinary Drug Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siska, William; Gupta, Aradhana; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Tripathi, Niraj; von Beust, Barbara

    Clinical pathology testing is routinely performed in target animal safety studies in order to identify potential toxicity associated with administration of an investigational veterinary pharmaceutical product. Regulatory and other testing guidelines that address such studies provide recommendations for clinical pathology testing but occasionally contain outdated analytes and do not take into account interspecies physiologic differences that affect the practical selection of appropriate clinical pathology tests. Additionally, strong emphasis is often placed on statistical analysis and use of reference intervals for interpretation of test article-related clinical pathology changes, with limited attention given to the critical scientific review of clinically, toxicologically, or biologically relevant changes. The purpose of this communication from the Regulatory Affairs Committee of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology is to provide current recommendations for clinical pathology testing and data interpretation in target animal safety studies and thereby enhance the value of clinical pathology testing in these studies.

  18. High-throughput screening and confirmation of 22 banned veterinary drugs in feedstuffs using LC-MS/MS and high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xufeng; Liu, Yanghong; Su, Yijuan; Yang, Jianwen; Bian, Kui; Wang, Zongnan; He, Li-Min

    2014-01-15

    A new analytical strategy based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) combined with accurate mass high-resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry (HR-Orbitrap MS) was performed for high-throughput screening, confirmation, and quantification of 22 banned or unauthorized veterinary drugs in feedstuffs according to Bulletin 235 of the Ministry of Agriculture, China. Feed samples were extracted with acidified acetonitrile, followed by cleanup using solid-phase extraction cartridge. The extracts were first screened by LC-MS/MS in a single selected reaction monitoring mode. The suspected positive samples were subjected to a specific pretreatment for confirmation and quantification of analyte of interest with LC-MS/MS and HR-Orbitrap MS. Mean recoveries for all target analytes (except for carbofuran and chlordimeform, which were about 35 and 45%, respectively) ranged from 52.2 to 90.4%, and the relative standard deviations were screening of real samples obtained from local feed markets and confirmation of the suspected target analytes. It provides a high-throughput, sensitive, and reliable screening, identification, and quantification of banned veterinary drugs in routine monitoring programs of feedstuffs.

  19. In vivo selection of resistant E. coli after ingestion of milk with added drug residues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Van Vleck Pereira

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance represents a major global threat to modern medicine. In vitro studies have shown that very low concentrations of drugs, as frequently identified in the environment, and in foods and water for human and animal consumption, can select for resistant bacteria. However, limited information is currently available on the in vivo impact of ingested drug residues. The objective of our study was to evaluate the effect of feeding preweaned calves milk containing antimicrobial drug residues (below the minimum inhibitory concentration, similar to concentrations detected in milk commonly fed to dairy calves, on selection of resistant fecal E. coli in calves from birth to weaning. At birth, thirty calves were randomly assigned to a controlled feeding trial where: 15 calves were fed raw milk with no drug residues (NR, and 15 calves were fed raw milk with drug residues (DR by adding ceftiofur, penicillin, ampicillin, and oxytetracycline at final concentrations in the milk of 0.1, 0.005, 0.01, and 0.3 µg/ml, respectively. Fecal samples were rectally collected from each calf once a week starting at birth prior to the first feeding in the trial (pre-treatment until 6 weeks of age. A significantly greater proportion of E. coli resistant to ampicillin, cefoxitin, ceftiofur, streptomycin and tetracycline was observed in DR calves when compared to NR calves. Additionally, isolates from DR calves had a significant decrease in susceptibility to ceftriaxone and ceftiofur when compared to isolates from NR calves. A greater proportion of E. coli isolates from calves in the DR group were resistant to 3 or more antimicrobial drugs when compared to calves in the ND group. These findings highlight the role that low concentrations of antimicrobial drugs have on the evolution and selection of resistance to multiple antimicrobial drugs in vivo.

  20. Quantification of residual solvents in antibody drug conjugates using gas chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, Colin D., E-mail: medley.colin@gene.com [Genentech Inc., Small Molecule Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States); Kay, Jacob [Research Pharmaceutical Services, 520 Virginia Dr. Fort, Washington, PA (United States); Li, Yi; Gruenhagen, Jason; Yehl, Peter; Chetwyn, Nik P. [Genentech Inc., Small Molecule Pharmaceutical Sciences, 1 DNA Way, South San Francisco, CA 94080 (United States)

    2014-11-19

    Highlights: • Sensitive residual solvents detection in ADCs. • 125 ppm QL for common conjugation solvents. • Generic and validatable method. - Abstract: The detection and quantification of residual solvents present in clinical and commercial pharmaceutical products is necessary from both patient safety and regulatory perspectives. Head-space gas chromatography is routinely used for quantitation of residual solvents for small molecule APIs produced through synthetic processes; however residual solvent analysis is generally not needed for protein based pharmaceuticals produced through cultured cell lines where solvents are not introduced. In contrast, antibody drug conjugates and other protein conjugates where a drug or other molecule is covalently bound to a protein typically use solvents such as N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA), N,N‑dimethylformamide (DMF), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), or propylene glycol (PG) to dissolve the hydrophobic small molecule drug for conjugation to the protein. The levels of the solvent remaining following the conjugation step are therefore important to patient safety as these parental drug products are introduced directly into the patients bloodstream. We have developed a rapid sample preparation followed by a gas chromatography separation for the detection and quantification of several solvents typically used in these conjugation reactions. This generic method has been validated and can be easily implemented for use in quality control testing for clinical or commercial bioconjugated products.

  1. 77 FR 3653 - Import Tolerances for Residues of Unapproved New Animal Drugs in Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... find a safe import tolerance. It could look at toxicity and residue data and build in a conservative... drugs covered by import tolerances are manufactured under good manufacturing practices (GMP)-like... resistant bacteria in or on the target animal and the potential impact on human health. C. International...

  2. Targeting the environmental assessment of veterinary drugs with the multi-species-soil system (MS{center_dot}3) agricultural soil microcosms: the ivermectin case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbonell-Martin, G.; Pro-Gonzalez, J.; Aragones-Grunert, P.; Babib-Vich, M. M.; Fernandez-Rorija, C.; Tarazona-Lafarga, J. V.

    2011-07-01

    The environmental risk assessment of the veterinary pharmaceutical ivermectin is receiving significant attention. This paper assesses the capacity of the MS{center_dot}3 soil microcosm as a tool for targeting the environmental impact assessment of veterinary drugs, using ivermectin as model. Two screening MS{center_dot}3 were performed using different European soils; one with a soil collected in an agricultural station near to Madrid, Spain and a second with a soil collected in a farm area close to York, UK. Soils were fortified with ivermectin at the following ranges: 0.01-10 mg kg{sup -}1 and 0.1-100 mg kg{sup -}1 in the Madrid and York studies, respectively. The effects on earthworms, plants and soil microorganisms were assessed in the Madrid soil. Toxicity tests on aquatic organisms (algae, cladocerans and in vitro fish cell line RTLW1) were also conducted with the leachates. No effects were observed in earthworms and plants at any tested concentration; reduction in the respiration rate (< 5%) of soil microorganisms was detected. Earthworm/soil bioconcentration factors decreased with the increase in soil concentrations and were higher for the York soil. Effects on daphnids were observed in tested leachates; based on measured levels of ivermectin in the leachates an EC50 of about 0.5{mu}gL{sup -}1 can be estimated. Comparisons based on toxicity data and equilibrium partitioning confirmed that the main risk is expected to be related to the high sensitivity of cladocerans. The results confirm that MS{center_dot}3 systems are cost-effective tools for assessing the impact of veterinary pharmaceuticals when applied to agricultural land, as previously demonstrated for antimicrobials. (Author) 39 refs.

  3. Assessment of veterinary drugs in plants using pharmacokinetic approaches: The absorption, distribution and elimination of tetracycline and sulfamethoxazole in ephemeral vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui-Ru; Rairat, Tirawat; Loh, Shih-Hurng; Wu, Yu-Chieh; Vickroy, Thomas W.

    2017-01-01

    The present study was carried out to demonstrate novel use of pharmacokinetic approaches to characterize drug behaviors/movements in the vegetables with implications to food safety. The absorption, distribution, metabolism and most importantly, the elimination of tetracycline (TC) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) in edible plants Brassica rapa chinensis and Ipomoea aquatica grown hydroponically were demonstrated and studied using non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The results revealed drug-dependent and vegetable-dependent pharmacokinetic differences and indicated that ephemeral vegetables could have high capacity accumulating antibiotics (up to 160 μg g-1 for TC and 38 μg g-1 for SMX) within hours. TC concentration in the root (Cmax) could reach 11 times higher than that in the cultivation fluid and 3–28 times higher than the petioles/stems. Based on the volume of distribution (Vss), SMX was 3–6 times more extensively distributed than TC. Both antibiotics showed evident, albeit slow elimination phase with elimination half-lives ranging from 22 to 88 hours. For the first time drug elimination through the roots of a plant was demonstrated, and by viewing the root as a central compartment and continuous infusion without a loading dose as drug administration mode, it is possible to pharmacokinetically monitor the movement of antibiotics and their fate in the vegetables with more detailed information not previously available. Phyto-pharmacokinetic could be a new area worth developing new models for the assessment of veterinary drugs in edible plants. PMID:28797073

  4. Veterinary radiobiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirshin, V.A.; Belov, A.D.; Budarkov, V.A.; Prochazka, Z.

    1989-01-01

    The monograph summarizes the authors' experience and data from Soviet and foreign scientific literature. It consists of the following chapters: radioactive sources; utilization of ionizing radiation and radioactive isotopes; biological effects of ionizing radiation; radiation sickness in animals; combined post-irradiation syndromes; prophylaxis of radiation injury; therapy of irradiated animals; and veterinary radiation hygiene control of the environment, fodder, animals and animal products. (P.A.)

  5. Bound xenobiotic residues in food commodities of plant and animal origin: IUPAC Reports on Pesticides (40)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skidmore, M.W.; Paulson, G.D.; Kuiper, H.A.; Ohlin, B.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the dietary risk resulting from the use of pesticides or veterinary drugs the nature of the chemical residues on food commodities needs to be determined. Elucidation of the nature of the chemical residue is carried out using radiolabelled studies where the radiolabelled xenobiotic

  6. 75 FR 75482 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers... Solvents in Animal Drug Products; Questions and Answers.'' The draft questions and answers (Q&A) guidance addresses the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) General Chapter Residual Solvents that applies to both human...

  7. Multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex infection outbreak in dogs and cats in a veterinary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzi, S; Blum, S E; Kahane, N; Adler, A; Hussein, O; Segev, G; Aroch, I

    2016-11-01

    Members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex cause severe outbreaks in humans, and are increasingly reported in animals. A retrospective study, describing a severe outbreak in dogs and cats caused by a multidrug resistant member of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in a veterinary hospital, between July 2010 and November 2012. The study included 19 dogs and 4 cats. Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex bacteria were isolated from urine (9 animals), respiratory tract (11), tissues (3) and blood (1). The most common infection-associated findings included fever, purulent discharge from endotracheal tubes, hypotension, and neutropaenia. Infections led to pneumonia, urinary tract infection, cellulitis and sepsis. Infection was transmitted in the intensive care unit, where 22 of 23 animals were initially hospitalised. The mortality rate was 70% (16 of 23 animals), and was higher in cases of respiratory infection compared to other infections. Aggressive environmental cleaning and disinfection, with staff education for personal hygiene and antisepsis, sharply decreased the infection incidence. Health care-associated outbreaks with multidrug resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex in dogs and cats are potentially highly fatal and difficult to eradicate, warranting monitoring, antiseptic techniques and judicious antibiotic use. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  8. 75 FR 4576 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ...] Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory... Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl...

  9. Simultaneous analysis of aminoglycosides with many other classes of drug residues in bovine tissues by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry using an ion-pairing reagent added to final extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehotay, Steven J; Lightfield, Alan R

    2018-01-01

    The way to maximize scope of analysis, sample throughput, and laboratory efficiency in the monitoring of veterinary drug residues in food animals is to determine as many analytes as possible as fast as possible in as few methods as possible. Capital and overhead expenses are also reduced by using fewer instruments in the overall monitoring scheme. Traditionally, the highly polar aminoglycoside antibiotics require different chromatographic conditions from other classes of drugs, but in this work, we demonstrate that an ion-pairing reagent (sodium 1-heptanesulfonate) added to the combined final extracts from two sample preparation methods attains good separation of 174 targeted drugs, including 9 aminoglycosides, in the same 10.5-min ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. The full method was validated in bovine kidney, liver, and muscle tissues according to US regulatory protocols, and 137-146 (79-84%) of the drugs gave between 70 and 120% average recoveries with ≤ 25% RSDs in the different types of tissues spiked at 0.5, 1, and 2 times the regulatory levels of interest (10-1000 ng/g depending on the drug). This method increases sample throughput and the possible number of drugs monitored in the US National Residue Program, and requires only one UHPLC-MS/MS method and instrument for analysis rather than two by the previous scheme. Graphical abstract Outline of the streamlined approach to monitor 174 veterinary drugs, including aminoglycosides, in bovine tissues by combining two extracts of the same sample with an ion-pairing reagent for analysis by UHPLC-MS/MS.

  10. Assessment of veterinary services in central Ethiopia: A case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    services, and black-market drug dealers were found to be challengers associated .... veterinary service, private veterinarians, traditional healers and NGOs mainly ... timeliness, effectiveness and affordability of the veterinary service providers.

  11. 78 FR 37202 - Codex Alimentarius Commission: Meeting of the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... CCRVDF will be accessible via the World Wide Web at the following address: http://www.codexalimentarius... Session of the CCRVDF Contact: Kevin Greenlees, Senior Advisor for Science and Policy, Office of New... Organization and the World Health Organization. Through adoption of food standards, codes of practice, and...

  12. Resident cats in small animal veterinary hospitals carry multi-drug resistant enterococci and are likely involved in cross-contamination of the hospital environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuradha eGhosh

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the U.S., small animal veterinary hospitals (SAVHs commonly keep resident cats living permanently as pets within their facilities. Previously, multi-drug resistant (MDR enterococci were found as a contaminant of multiple surfaces within such veterinary hospitals, and nosocomial infections are a concern. The objectives of this study were to determine whether resident cats carry MDR enterococci and if they potentially play a role in the contamination of the hospital environment. Enterococcal strains (n=180 were isolated from the feces of six healthy resident cats from different SAVHs. The concentration of enterococci ranged from 1.1 x 105 to 6.0 x 108 CFU g-1 of feces, and the population comprised E. hirae (38.3±18.6%, E. faecium (35.0±14.3%, E. faecalis (23.9±11.0%, and E. avium (2.8±2.2%. Testing of phenotypic resistance to 14 antimicrobial agents revealed multi-drug resistance (≥3 antimicrobials in 48.9% of all enterococcal isolates with most frequent resistance to tetracycline (72.8%, erythromycin (47.8%, and rifampicin (35.6%. Vancomycin resistant E. faecalis (3.9% with vanB not horizontally transferable in in vitro conjugation assays were detected from one cat. Genotyping (pulsed-field gel electrophoresis demonstrated a host-specific clonal population of MDR E. faecalis and E. faecium. Importantly, several feline isolates were genotypically identical or closely related to isolates from surfaces of cage door, thermometer, and stethoscope of the corresponding SAVHs. These data demonstrate that healthy resident cats at SAVHs carry MDR enterococci and likely contribute to contamination of the SAVH environment. Proper disposal and handling of fecal material and restricted movement of resident cats within the ward is recommended.

  13. Efficiency of the Clinical Veterinary Diagnostic Practices and Drug Choices for Infectious Diseases in Livestock in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haider, Najmul; Khan, S. U.; Islam, A.

    2017-01-01

    ) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). We conducted the study from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals where veterinarians collected samples from sick livestock and recorded the presumptive diagnosis on the basis of clinical presentations. Samples were tested for PPR and FMD using...... competency of these veterinarians needs to be improved and access to laboratory diagnostic facilities could help veterinarians to improve the diagnostics and outcomes. The rational use of antibiotics by veterinarians in animals must be ensured....... validation process for PPR (kappa: 0.25) and FMD (kappa 0.36) indicated a poor performance of the presumptive diagnoses. Most of the animals (93%) were treated with antibiotics. Our findings indicate that veterinarians can detect animals not infected with FMD or PPR but miss the true cases. The clinical...

  14. 76 FR 51038 - Guidance for Industry on Residual Drug in Transdermal and Related Drug Delivery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-17

    ... a larger amount of the drug substance than what is intended to be delivered to the patient. This... patient, but also to others, including family members, caregivers, children, and pets. For example...

  15. Hazardous drug residue on exterior vial surfaces: evaluation of a commercial manufacturing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Luci A; Sessink, Paul J M; Gesy, Kathy; Charbonneau, Flay

    2014-04-01

    Hazardous drug residue on the exterior surface of drug vials poses a potential risk for exposure of health care workers involved in handling these products. The purpose of this article is to heighten the awareness of this serious issue and to evaluate a commercial manufacturing process for removing and containing hazardous drug (HD) residue on exterior vial surfaces. Additionally, findings from this study are interpreted, incorporated into the current body of evidence, and discussed by experts in this field. This study includes separate evaluations for the presence or absence of surface drug contamination on the vials of 3 HD products: 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and methotrexate. The drug products were packaged in vials using a patented prewashing/decontamination method, application of a polyvinylchloride (PVC) base, and use of clear glass vials. An additional step of encasing the vial in a shrink-wrapped sheath was used for 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin. Of all 5-fluorouracil (110 vials), methotrexate (60 vials), and cisplatin (60 vials) tested, only 2 had detectable amounts of surface residue. One 5-fluorouracil vial was found to have approximately 4 mg of 5-fluorouracil on the surface of the vial. The second contaminated vial was cisplatin, which was discovered to have 131 ng of platinum, equal to 200 ng of cisplatin or 0.2 μL of cisplatin solution, on the vial sheath. Using validated extraction and analytic methods, all but 2 of the 230 tested vials were found to be free of surface drug contamination. Pharmacy leaders need to take an active role in promoting the need for clean HD vials. Manufacturers should be required to provide their clients with data derived from externally validated analytic studies, reporting the level of HD contamination on the exterior of their vial products.

  16. Mathematical modeling and simulation in animal health - Part II: principles, methods, applications, and value of physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling in veterinary medicine and food safety assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Z; Gehring, R; Mochel, J P; Lavé, T; Riviere, J E

    2016-10-01

    This review provides a tutorial for individuals interested in quantitative veterinary pharmacology and toxicology and offers a basis for establishing guidelines for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model development and application in veterinary medicine. This is important as the application of PBPK modeling in veterinary medicine has evolved over the past two decades. PBPK models can be used to predict drug tissue residues and withdrawal times in food-producing animals, to estimate chemical concentrations at the site of action and target organ toxicity to aid risk assessment of environmental contaminants and/or drugs in both domestic animals and wildlife, as well as to help design therapeutic regimens for veterinary drugs. This review provides a comprehensive summary of PBPK modeling principles, model development methodology, and the current applications in veterinary medicine, with a focus on predictions of drug tissue residues and withdrawal times in food-producing animals. The advantages and disadvantages of PBPK modeling compared to other pharmacokinetic modeling approaches (i.e., classical compartmental/noncompartmental modeling, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling, and interspecies allometric scaling) are further presented. The review finally discusses contemporary challenges and our perspectives on model documentation, evaluation criteria, quality improvement, and offers solutions to increase model acceptance and applications in veterinary pharmacology and toxicology. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Norepinephrine transporter function and desipramine: residual drug effects versus short-term regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Gregory A; Jia, Weihong; Li, Jing; Zhu, Meng-Yang; Mandela, Prashant; Pan, Jun

    2005-04-30

    Previous research has shown that exposure of norepinephrine transporter (NET)-expressing cells to desipramine (DMI) downregulates the norepinephrine transporter, although changes in the several transporter parameters do not demonstrate the same time course. Exposures to desipramine for effects of residual desipramine on norepinephrine transporter binding and uptake were re-evaluated following exposures of PC12 cells to desipramine using different methods to remove residual drug. Using a method that minimizes residual drug, exposure of intact PC12 cells to desipramine for 4h had no effect on uptake capacity or [(3)H]nisoxetine binding to the norepinephrine transporter, while exposures for > or =16 h reduced uptake capacity. Desipramine-induced reductions in binding to the transporter required >24 h or greater periods of desipramine exposure. This study confirms that uptake capacity of the norepinephrine transporter is reduced earlier than changes in radioligand binding, but with a different time course than originally shown. Special pre-incubation procedures are required to abolish effects of residual transporter inhibitor when studying inhibitor-induced transporter regulation.

  18. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    ¹Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ABU Zaria, Nigeria, ²Department of. Veterinary Physiology ... dogs, AGRs have a highly sensitive sense of smell. The rats ..... Gonadal Axis and thyroid Activity in. Male rats.

  19. Nanomedicine in veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei

    2015-08-01

    Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Residues in food derived from animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossklaus, D.

    1989-01-01

    The first chapter presents a survey of fundamentals and methods of the detection and analysis of residues in food derived from animals, also referring to the resulting health hazards to man, and to the relevant legal provisions. The subsequent chapters have been written by experts of the Federal Health Office, each dealing with particular types of residues such as those of veterinary drugs, additives to animal feeds, pesticide residues, and with environmental pollutants and the contamination of animal products with radionuclides. (MG) With 35 figs., 61 tabs [de

  1. Cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmeiro, Brian S

    2013-01-01

    Cyclosporine is an immunomodulatory medication that is efficacious and approved for atopic dermatitis in dogs and allergic dermatitis in cats; it has also been used to successfully manage a variety of immune-mediated dermatoses in dogs and cats. This article reviews the use of cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology including its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, side effects, and relevant clinical updates. Dermatologic indications including atopic/allergic dermatitis, perianal fistulas, sebaceous adenitis, and other immune-mediated skin diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Holistic pediatric veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesch, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 36588 - Veterinary Feed Directive; Extension of Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... 558 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0155] Veterinary Feed Directive; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food... veterinary feed directive (VFD) regulation. The agency is taking this action in response to requests for an... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration, 7500...

  4. 75 FR 52605 - Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ...] Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory..., Rockville, MD 20852, 301-468-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3...

  5. Residual Complexity Does Impact Organic Chemistry and Drug Discovery: The Case of Rufomyazine and Rufomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choules, Mary P; Klein, Larry L; Lankin, David C; McAlpine, James B; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Cheng, Jinhua; Lee, Hanki; Suh, Joo-Won; Jaki, Birgit U; Franzblau, Scott G; Pauli, Guido F

    2018-05-24

    Residual complexity (RC) involves the impact of subtle but critical structural and biological features on drug lead validation, including unexplained effects related to unidentified impurities. RC commonly plagues drug discovery efforts due to the inherent imperfections of chromatographic separation methods. The new diketopiperazine, rufomyazine (6), and the previously known antibiotic, rufomycin (7), represent a prototypical case of RC that (almost) resulted in the misassignment of biological activity. The case exemplifies that impurities well below the natural abundance of 13 C (1.1%) can be highly relevant and calls for advanced analytical characterization of drug leads with extended molar dynamic ranges of >1:1,000 using qNMR and LC-MS. Isolated from an actinomycete strain, 6 was originally found to be active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2 μg/mL and high selectivity. As a part of lead validation, the dipeptide was synthesized and surprisingly found to be inactive. The initially observed activity was eventually attributed to a very minor contamination (0.24% [m/m]) with a highly active cyclic peptide (MIC ∼ 0.02 μM), subsequently identified as an analogue of 7. This study illustrates the serious implications RC can exert on organic chemistry and drug discovery, and what efforts are vital to improve lead validation and efficiency, especially in NP-related drug discovery programs.

  6. The selenazal drug ebselen potently inhibits indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase by targeting enzyme cysteine residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terentis, Andrew C; Freewan, Mohammed; Sempértegui Plaza, Tito S; Raftery, Mark J; Stocker, Roland; Thomas, Shane R

    2010-01-26

    The heme enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) plays an important immune regulatory role by catalyzing the oxidative degradation of l-tryptophan. Here we show that the selenezal drug ebselen is a potent IDO inhibitor. Exposure of human macrophages to ebselen inhibited IDO activity in a manner independent of changes in protein expression. Ebselen inhibited the activity of recombinant human IDO (rIDO) with an apparent inhibition constant of 94 +/- 17 nM. Optical and resonance Raman spectroscopy showed that ebselen altered the active site heme of rIDO by inducing a transition of the ferric heme iron from the predominantly high- to low-spin form and by lowering the vibrational frequency of the Fe-CO stretch of the CO complex, indicating an opening of the distal heme pocket. Substrate binding studies showed that ebselen enhanced nonproductive l-tryptophan binding, while circular dichroism indicated that the drug reduced the helical content and protein stability of rIDO. Thiol labeling and mass spectrometry revealed that ebselen reacted with multiple cysteine residues of IDO. Removal of cysteine-bound ebselen with dithiothreitol reversed the effects of the drug on the heme environment and significantly restored enzyme activity. These findings indicate that ebselen inhibits IDO activity by reacting with the enzyme's cysteine residues that result in changes to protein conformation and active site heme, leading to an increase in the level of nonproductive substrate binding. This study highlights that modification of cysteine residues is a novel and effective means of inhibiting IDO activity. It also suggests that IDO is under redox control and that the enzyme represents a previously unrecognized in vivo target of ebselen.

  7. Xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in plants and their role in uptake and biotransformation of veterinary drugs in the environment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártíková, H.; Skálová, L.; Stuchlíková, L.; Vokřál, I.; Vaněk, Tomáš; Podlipná, Radka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2015), s. 374-387 ISSN 0360-2532 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05325S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22593S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Pollutants * phytoremediation * drug phytotoxicity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.526, year: 2015 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/03602532.2015.1076437

  8. Development of irradiation technique on controlling food contamination residue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bin; Xiong Shanbai; Xiong Guangquan; Cheng Wei; Chen Yuxia; Liao Tao; Li Xin; Lin Ruotai

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the researches of irradiation technology on controlling food mycotoxin, pesticide, veterinary drugs and fishery drugs residue was summarized. And the degradation rate, mechanism, products and toxicities of food contamination were expatiated. The free radical from irradiation attack the site of weaker bond, and the less or more toxic substances were produced, which lead to the degradation of the food contamination. The limitations and future application of irradiation technique on controlling food contamination were also analyzed. (authors)

  9. Analysis of pirlimycin residues in beef muscle, milk and honey by a biotin-streptavidin-amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food contamination caused by veterinary drug residues is a world-wide public health concern and requires continuous monitoring. In this paper, we describe a biotin–streptavidin-amplified ELISA (BA-ELISA) for detecting pirlimycin residues in beef, milk, and honey. The IC50 value of the BA-ELISA was...

  10. Multi-residue screening of prioritised human pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and bactericides in sediments and sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Katherine H; Reid, Malcolm; Thomas, Kevin V

    2011-08-01

    A robust multi-residue method was developed for the analysis of a selection of pharmaceutical compounds, illicit drugs and personal care product bactericides in sediments and sludges. Human pharmaceuticals were selected for analysis in Scottish sewage sludge and freshwater sediments based on prescription, physico-chemical and occurrence data. The method was suitable for the analysis of the selected illicit drugs amphetamine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, and methamphetamine, the pharmaceuticals atenolol, bendroflumethiazide, carbamazepine, citalopram, diclofenac, fluoxetine, ibuprofen, and salbutamol, and the bactericides triclosan and triclocarban in sewage sludge and freshwater sediment. The method provided an overall recovery of between 56 and 128%, RSDs of between 2 and 19% and LODs of between 1 and 50 ng g(-1). Using the methodology the human pharmaceuticals atenolol, carbamazepine and citalopram and the bactericides triclosan and triclocarban were detected in Scottish sewage sludge. The illicit drugs cocaine, its metabolite benzoylecgonine, amphetamine and methamphetamine were not detected in any of the samples analysed. Triclosan and triclocarban were present at the highest concentrations with triclocarban detected in all but one sample and showing a pattern of co-occurrence in both sludge and sediment samples.

  11. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin ... One of these mutations led to an amino acid exchange at position 544 ... organs such as comb, wattle, brain, heart, .... congestion in various tissues and edema of.

  12. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    and Aji, T. G.. 1. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. ... limited nervous, muscle and skeletal systems development ... samples. Colloid area/volume and perimeter: This ..... BANKS, W. J., (1993): Applied Veterinary.

  13. Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. ... dogs diagnosed with parvovirus enteritis in some veterinary clinics in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Rabies vaccination status among occupationally exposed humans in Nigeria ...

  14. American Veterinary Medical Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... free client handout to share with them. Compounding Veterinary Compounding FDA has withdrawn its draft guidance for ... new guidance, the AVMA is working to ensure veterinary access and animal health are protected. NEWS & ALERTS ...

  15. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 3Veterinary. Teaching ... salivation, cornea opacity, haematuria and convulsion were observed in 20, 8, 2, 4, 1 and 3 of the patients ... intravenous fluid administration either for.

  16. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krzeminski, M.; Lass, P.; Teodorczyk, J.; Krajka, J.

    2004-01-01

    The veterinary use of radionuclide techniques dates back to the mid-sixties, but its more extensive use dates back to the past two decades. Veterinary nuclear medicine is focused mainly on four major issues: bone scintigraphy - with the majority of applications in horses, veterinary endocrinology - dealing mainly with the problems of hyperthyreosis in cats and hyperthyreosis in dogs, portosystemic shunts in small animals and veterinary oncology, however, most radionuclide techniques applied to humans can be applied to most animals. (author)

  17. Dielectric properties of residual water in amorphous lyophilized mixtures of sugar and drug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moznine, R El [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leiceste (United Kingdom); Smith, G [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Polygalov, E [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Suherman, P M [School of Pharmacy, De Montfort University, Leicester (United Kingdom); Broadhead, J [AstraZeneca Charnwood R and D, Bakewell Rd, Loughborough (United Kingdom)

    2003-02-21

    Dielectric relaxation spectroscopy was used to investigate the properties of residual water in lyophilized formulations of a proprietary tri-phosphate drug containing a sugar (trehalose, lactose or sucrose) or dextran. The dielectric properties of each formulation were determined in the frequency range (0.1 Hz-0.1 MHz) and temperature range (30 deg. C-T{sub g}). The temperature dependence of the relaxation times for all samples showed Arrhenuis behaviour, from which the activation energy was derived. Proton hopping through the hydrogen-bonded network (clusters) of water molecules was suggested as the principle mode of charge transport. Significant differences in dielectric relaxation kinetics and activation energy were observed for the different formulations, which were found to correlate with the amount of monophosphate degradation product.

  18. Residual Neurocognitive Features of Long-Term Ecstasy Users With Minimal Exposure to Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, John H.; Sherwood, Andrea R.; Hudson, James I.; Gruber, Staci; Kozin, David; Pope, Harrison G.

    2010-01-01

    Aims In field studies assessing cognitive function in illicit ecstasy users, there are several frequent confounding factors that might plausibly bias the findings toward an overestimate of ecstasy-induced neurocognitive toxicity. We designed an investigation seeking to minimize these possible sources of bias. Design We compared illicit ecstasy users and non-users while 1) excluding individuals with significant lifetime exposure to other illicit drugs or alcohol; 2) requiring that all participants be members of the “rave” subculture; and 3) testing all participants with breath, urine, and hair samples at the time of evaluation to exclude possible surreptitious substance use. We compared groups with adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, family-of-origin variables, and childhood history of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We provide significance levels without correction for multiple comparisons. Setting Field study. Participants Fifty-two illicit ecstasy users and 59 non-users, age 18-45. Measurements Battery of 15 neuropsychological tests tapping a range of cognitive functions. Findings We found little evidence of decreased cognitive performance in ecstasy users, save for poorer strategic-self-regulation, possibly reflecting increased impulsivity. However this finding might have reflected a premorbid attribute of ecstasy users, rather than a residual neurotoxic effect of the drug. Conclusions In a study designed to minimize limitations found in many prior investigations, we failed to demonstrate marked residual cognitive effects in ecstasy users. This finding contrasts with many previous findings—including our own—and emphasizes the need for continued caution in interpreting field studies of cognitive function in illicit ecstasy users. PMID:21205042

  19. Drug residues and endocrine disruptors in drinking water: risk for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touraud, Evelyne; Roig, Benoit; Sumpter, John P; Coetsier, Clémence

    2011-11-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors in the environment raises many questions about risk to the environment and human health. Environmental exposure has been largely studied, providing to date a realistic picture of the degree of contamination of the environment by pharmaceuticals and hormones. Conversely, little information is available regarding human exposure. NSAIDS, carbamazepine, iodinated contrast media, β-blockers, antibiotics have been detected in drinking water, mostly in the range of ng/L. it is questioned if such concentrations may affect human health. Currently, no consensus among the scientific community exists on what risk, if any, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors pose to human health. Future European research will focus, on one hand, on genotoxic and cytotoxic anti-cancer drugs and, on the other hand, on the induction of genetic resistance by antibiotics. This review does not aim to give a comprehensive overview of human health risk of drug residues and endocrine disruptors in drinking water but rather highlight important topics of discussion. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Simple and sensitive monitoring of sulfonamide veterinary residues in milk by stir bar sorptive extraction based on monolithic material and high performance liquid chromatography analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaojia; Qiu, Ningning; Yuan, Dongxing

    2009-11-13

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the quantitative monitoring of five sulfonamide antibacterial residues (SAs) in milk was developed by stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) coupling to high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The analytes were concentrated by SBSE based on poly (vinylimidazole-divinylbenzene) monolithic material as coating. The extraction procedure was very simple, milk was diluted with water then directly sorptive extraction without elimination of fats and protein in samples was required. To achieve optimum extraction performance for SAs, several parameters, including extraction and desorption time, desorption solvent, ionic strength and pH value of sample matrix were investigated. Under the optimized experimental conditions, low detection limits (S/N=3) quantification limits (S/N=10) of the proposed method for the target compounds were achieved within the range of 1.30-7.90 ng/mL and 4.29-26.3 ng/mL from spiked milk, respectively. Good linearities were obtained for SAs with the correlation coefficients (R(2)) above 0.996. Finally, the proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of SAs compounds in different milk samples and satisfied recoveries of spiked target compounds in real samples were obtained.

  1. Veterinary medicines in the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxall, A B A; Fogg, L A; Blackwell, P A; Kay, P; Pemberton, E J; Croxford, A

    2004-01-01

    The impact of veterinary medicines on the environment will depend on a number of factors including physicochemical properties, amount used and method of administration, treatment type and dose, animal husbandry practices, manure storage and handling practices, metabolism within the animal, and degradation rates in manure and slurry. Once released to the environment, other factors such as soil type, climate, and ecotoxicity also determine the environmental impact of the compound. The importance of individual routes into the environment for different types of veterinary medicines varies according to the type of treatment and livestock category. Treatments used in aquaculture have a high potential to reach the aquatic environment. The main routes of entry to the terrestrial environment are from the use of veterinary medicines in intensively reared livestock, via the application of slurry and manure to land, and by the use of veterinary medicines in pasture-reared animals where pharmaceutical residues are excreted directly into the environment. Veterinary medicines applied to land via spreading of slurry may also enter the aquatic environment indirectly via surface runoff or leaching to groundwater. It is likely that topical treatments have greater potential to be released to the environment than treatments administered orally or by injection. Inputs from the manufacturing process, companion animal treatments, and disposal are likely to be minimal in comparison. Monitoring studies demonstrate that veterinary medicines do enter the environment, with sheep dip chemicals, antibiotics, sealice treatments, and anthelmintics being measured in soils, groundwater, surface waters, sediment, or biota. Maximum concentrations vary across chemical classes, with very high concentrations being reported for the sheep dip chemicals. The degree to which veterinary medicines may adsorb to particulates varies widely. Partition coefficients (K(d)) range from low (0.61 L kg(-1)) to high

  2. Comparison of different agar diffusion methods for the detection of residues in the kidneys of pigs treated with antimicrobial drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkeala, H; Sorvettula, O; Mäki-Petäys, O; Hirn, J

    1983-01-01

    Residue analyses of the kidneys of twenty-six pigs treated with various antimicrobial drugs 20 h before slaughter and of eleven untreated pigs were performed. The effects of storage temperature of the kidneys, and of sampling location, on the residue analysis were also studied. No method alone was sufficient for the detection of residues. Oxytetracycline residues could be detected at pH 6, dihydrostreptomycin residues at pH 8, and sulphonamide residues if trimethoprim was present in the medium. Chloramphenicol, penicillin G procaine, tylosin and lincomycin residues were not detectable with the methods used. The concentration of ampicillin decreased during the storage of samples at +4°C. Most methods also yielded zones of inhibition for the frozen kidneys from untreated pigs. It seems necessary to use agar media of two different pH values: the addition of trimethoprim to the medium is also needed. The use of fresh pig kidneys, and samples containing both kidney medulla and kidney cortex, is recommended in residue analysis. Copyright © 1983. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Survey of pyrethroid, macrocyclic lactone and antibacterial residues in bulk milk tank from Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia C.A. Picinin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A survey of veterinary drug residues in bulk milk tank from Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was carried out through a broad scope analysis. Here, 132 raw milk samples were collected at 45 dairy farms in Minas Gerais from August 2009 to February 2010, and analyzed for 42 analytes, comprising pyrethroids, macrocyclic lactones and antibacterials, using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry in tandem mode and gas chromatography with electron capture detection. Within all milk samples, at least one veterinary drug residue was identified in 40 milk samples (30.30% by confirmatory tests, whereas 16 samples (12.12% showed the presence of at least two residues. With regard to the Brazilian maximum residue levels, 11 milk samples (8.33% were non-compliant according to Brazilian Legislation. The veterinary drugs detected in the non-compliant milk samples include penicillin V (one sample, abamectin (one sample and cypermethrin (nine samples. Furthermore, the antibacterial screening methods failed to identify most of the positive samples that were detected by confirmatory tests, leading to a large discrepancy between the screening and confirmatory antimicrobial tests. Thus, the present study indicated that the veterinary drugs residues still represents a great concern for the milk production chain.

  4. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Muñana, Karen

    2015-01-01

    with the initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug...... treatment protocols, 1) is based on current published evidence-based literature, 2) considers the current legal framework of the cascade regulation for the prescription of veterinary drugs in Europe, and 3) reflects the authors' experience. With this paper it is aimed to provide a consensus...

  5. Drug residues in urban water: A database for ecotoxicological risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destrieux, Doriane; Laurent, François; Budzinski, Hélène; Pedelucq, Julie; Vervier, Philippe; Gerino, Magali

    2017-12-31

    Human-use drug residues (DR) are only partially eliminated by waste water treatment plants (WWTPs), so that residual amounts can reach natural waters and cause environmental hazards. In order to properly manage these hazards in the aquatic environment, a database is made available that integrates the concentration ranges for DR, which cause adverse effects for aquatic organisms, and the temporal variations of the ecotoxicological risks. To implement this database for the ecotoxicological risk assessment (ERA database), the required information for each DR is the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs), along with the predicted environmental concentrations (PECs). The risk assessment is based on the ratio between the PNECs and the PECs. Adverse effect data or PNECs have been found in the publicly available literature for 45 substances. These ecotoxicity test data have been extracted from 125 different sources. This ERA database contains 1157 adverse effect data and 287 PNECs. The efficiency of this ERA database was tested with a data set coming from a simultaneous survey of WWTPs and the natural environment. In this data set, 26 DR were searched for in two WWTPs and in the river. On five sampling dates, concentrations measured in the river for 10 DR could pose environmental problems of which 7 were measured only downstream of WWTP outlets. From scientific literature and measurements, data implementation with unit homogenisation in a single database facilitates the actual ecotoxicological risk assessment, and may be useful for further risk coming from data arising from the future field survey. Moreover, the accumulation of a large ecotoxicity data set in a single database should not only improve knowledge of higher risk molecules but also supply an objective tool to help the rapid and efficient evaluation of the risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 76 FR 46818 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Veterinary Feed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-03

    ...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Veterinary Feed Directive... distribution and use of Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) drugs and animal feeds containing VFD drugs. DATES... of information technology. Veterinary Feed Directive--21 CFR Part 558 (OMB Control Number 0910- 0363...

  7. 21 CFR 510.112 - Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for... DRUGS Specific Administrative Rulings and Decisions § 510.112 Antibiotics used in veterinary medicine and for nonmedical purposes; required data. (a) An ad hoc committee, Committee on the Veterinary...

  8. Residues of carcinogenic animal drugs in food: difficulties in evaluation of human safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A

    1979-01-01

    The indisputable need to intensify animal production in order to provide an adequate food supply for the world population involves the use of substances that are highly potent pharmacologically and toxicologically. The history of regulatory action with regard to such additives is similar to that for other substances: first, no regulation; next, an over-reaction; and now decisions based on judicious evaluation of scientific facts. One factor that differentiates the chemicals used in animal production from other food additives is that both the parent compounds and their metabolites appear in edible products, posing problems both for the analytical detection and safety evaluation of such residues. It would be unrealistic to propose 'zero' tolerances for these additives, even if they are carcinogenic. The benefits gained from drugs that cure and prevent infections and parasitic diseases in food-producing animals, and the fact that analytical methods can now detect very small quantities make the presence of low levels of these substances in food unobjectionable.

  9. Veterinary Services Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...

  10. A direct qPCR method for residual DNA quantification in monoclonal antibody drugs produced in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Musaddeq

    2015-11-10

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the host cell of choice for manufacturing of monoclonal antibody (mAb) drugs in the biopharmaceutical industry. Host cell DNA is an impurity of such manufacturing process and must be controlled and monitored in order to ensure drug purity and safety. A conventional method for quantification of host residual DNA in drug requires extraction of DNA from the mAb drug substance with subsequent quantification of the extracted DNA using real-time PCR (qPCR). Here we report a method where the DNA extraction step is eliminated prior to qPCR. In this method, which we have named 'direct resDNA qPCR', the mAb drug substance is digested with a protease called KAPA in a 96-well PCR plate, the protease in the digest is then denatured at high temperature, qPCR reagents are added to the resultant reaction wells in the plate along with standards and controls in other wells of the same plate, and the plate subjected to qPCR for analysis of residual host DNA in the samples. This direct resDNA qPCR method for CHO is sensitive to 5.0fg of DNA with high precision and accuracy and has a wide linear range of determination. The method has been successfully tested with four mAbs drug, two IgG1 and two IgG4. Both the purified drug substance as well as a number of process intermediate samples, e.g., bioreactor harvest, Protein A column eluate and ion-exchange column eluates were tested. This method simplifies the residual DNA quantification protocol, reduces time of analysis and leads to increased assay sensitivity and development of automated high-throughput methods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 75 FR 45640 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Residual Drug in Transdermal and Related Drug Delivery Systems...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-03

    ... drug substance than what is intended to be delivered to the patient. This excess amount of drug... issue not only to the patient, but also to others including family members, caregivers, children, and...

  12. 78 FR 63221 - Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ...] Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The... entitled ``Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary...

  13. Veterinary microbiology and microbial disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Quinn, P. J

    2011-01-01

    "Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...

  14. Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.

  15. Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...

  16. Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 16 of 16 Items ...

  17. Open Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...

  18. .* Nigerian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Central Diagnostic, National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, 'Department of Veterinary Medicine. Ahmadu Bello ..... environment as reported by (Olabode et al., 2009; Okwor and Eze, 2011;Jwander et al., 2013b). Farmers who had the same complaints of. Marek's disease from the same source of.

  19. A single acidic residue can guide binding site selection but does not govern QacR cationic-drug affinity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate M Peters

    Full Text Available Structures of the multidrug-binding repressor protein QacR with monovalent and bivalent cationic drugs revealed that the carboxylate side-chains of E90 and E120 were proximal to the positively charged nitrogens of the ligands ethidium, malachite green and rhodamine 6G, and therefore may contribute to drug neutralization and binding affinity. Here, we report structural, biochemical and in vivo effects of substituting these glutamate residues. Unexpectedly, substitutions had little impact on ligand affinity or in vivo induction capabilities. Structures of QacR(E90Q and QacR(E120Q with ethidium or malachite green took similar global conformations that differed significantly from all previously described QacR-drug complexes but still prohibited binding to cognate DNA. Strikingly, the QacR(E90Q-rhodamine 6G complex revealed two mutually exclusive rhodamine 6G binding sites. Despite multiple structural changes, all drug binding was essentially isoenergetic. Thus, these data strongly suggest that rather than contributing significantly to ligand binding affinity, the role of acidic residues lining the QacR multidrug-binding pocket is primarily to attract and guide cationic drugs to the "best available" positions within the pocket that elicit QacR induction.

  20. Electrochemical oxidation of drug residues in water by the example of tetracycline, gentamicin and Aspirin {sup trademark}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weichgrebe, D.; Danilova, E.; Rosenwinkel, K.H. [Inst. of Water Quality and Waste Management, Univ. of Hannover, Hannover (Germany); Vedenjapin, A.; Baturova, M. [Inst. of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Science, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2003-07-01

    The electrochemical oxidation as a method to destroy drug residues like Aspirin {sup trademark}, tetracycline or gentamicin in water was investigated with C-Anode (modified by manganese oxides) and Pt Anode. The mechanism of Aspirin {sup trademark} and tetracycline oxidation and the influence of the biocide effect was observed using GC-MS and three different microbiological tests. In general the biological availability increases with progressive oxidation of the antibiotics. (orig.)

  1. 75 FR 15387 - Veterinary Feed Directive

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ..., drug toxicity, drug residues, antimicrobial resistance, or other reasons may dictate that the use of a... relating to the distribution and use of VFD drugs and animal feeds containing such drugs. FDA is... existed for regulating the distribution of animal drugs, including drugs in animal feed: (1) Over-the...

  2. Evaluating the economic and noneconomic impacts of the veterinary medical profession in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, J W; Dartt, B A

    2000-01-01

    This study reaffirms the diversity and breadth of the veterinary profession. As it turns out, some of the furthest-reaching impacts of the veterinary medical profession were largely non-quantifiable. The veterinary medical profession had a substantial direct economic impact in Michigan during 1995. The total economic contribution of the veterinary medical profession to Michigan during 1995 that was attributable to expenditures on salaries, supplies, services, and their multiplier effect was approximately $500 million. In addition, the profession was associated with nearly 8,500 jobs (combined professional and lay positions). The veterinary medical profession was also considered to have an impact on the prosperity of the live-stock, equine, and pet food industries in Michigan, even though the economic contribution in these areas could not be directly quantified. Economic well-being of the individual businesses in these industries is directly related to the health and productivity of the associated animals, and improvements in output or productivity that accompany improved animal health likely carry substantial economic benefits in these sectors. In addition, progressive animal health management provides a crucial method of managing risk in the animal industries. Similarly, although the economic contribution could not be quantified, the veterinary medical profession enhances the safety and quality of human food through research, regulation, and quality assurance programs in livestock production, minimizing the risk of drug residues and microbial contamination. During 1995, approximately 5.3 million Michigan residents benefitted from the physical, psychological, and emotional well-being that accompanies companion animal ownership. By preserving the health and longevity of companion animals, veterinarians sustain and enhance these aspects of the human-animal bond. As Michigan enters a new century, it is likely that the state's veterinary medical profession will

  3. 75 FR 58411 - Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ...] Center for Veterinary Medicine eSubmitter Workshop; Public Workshop; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food... Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing a public workshop entitled: ``Center for Veterinary Medicine... be emailed to all registrants. Contact Person: Charles Andres, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV...

  4. 77 FR 22247 - Veterinary Feed Directive; Draft Text for Proposed Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    .... FDA-2010-N-0155] Veterinary Feed Directive; Draft Text for Proposed Regulation AGENCY: Food and Drug... the efficiency of FDA's Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) program. The Agency is making this draft text..., rm. 1061, Rockville, MD 20852. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sharon Benz, Center for Veterinary...

  5. 21 CFR 1308.25 - Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant... OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.25 Exclusion of a veterinary anabolic steroid implant product; application. (a) Any person seeking...

  6. 21 CFR 1308.26 - Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant... SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Excluded Veterinary Anabolic Steroid Implant Products § 1308.26 Excluded veterinary anabolic steroid implant products. (a) Products containing an anabolic steroid, that are expressly...

  7. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Corresponding author: Email: yahidauad@gmail.com; Tel No:+2348037811882 ... and veterinary medicine as potent anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and .... steroid skeleton, similar to hydrocortisone. ... for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth.

  8. Tanzania Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Journal are the Research Workers, Veterinary Clinicians, Animal Scientists, Field Officers ... Prevalence and risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infestations in ... Mastitis pathogens prevalent in dairy cattle at Magadu farm, Morogoro- ...

  9. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Also, the advantage of ... antibodies. The major disadvantage of the polyclonal ... advantage of a monoclonal antibody over .... department in the veterinary school was obtained from the ..... methodology for both routine diagnostic and research ...

  10. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Control Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Abuja; 9National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B 01 Vom,. Nigeria. *Corresponding ... because the poultry industry contributes ..... holidays have been identified as source of transmission ...

  11. Ethiopian Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  12. Teaching veterinary parasitology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, A

    1994-08-01

    The history of parasitology and the teaching of veterinary parasitology in South Africa are reviewed briefly. Courses in veterinary parasitology are presented at the faculties of veterinary science at the University of Pretoria and the Medical University of South Africa as well as at the Pretoria Technicon. At the University of Pretoria, the three disciplines of veterinary parasitology, entomology, helminthology and protozoology, are covered in 330 core lectures; from 13 to 40% of the contact time is devoted to practical classes. Teaching veterinary parasitology is both labour intensive and costly, viz. R1700 (US$570) per student per annum. Such costs are justified by the R148.8 million (US$49.6 million) spent every year in South Africa on anthelmintics, ectoparasiticides and vaccines to control parasites. Veterinary parasitology is a dynamic subject and the curriculum must be revised regularly to incorporate new information. Because the parasite faunas are so diverse no single textbook can satisfy the requirements of the various institutions worldwide which teach the subject, with the result that extensive use is made of notes. In Australia and in Europe, ticks and tick-borne diseases are less important than they are in Africa; consequently insufficient space is devoted to them in textbooks to satisfy the requirements of the subject in African countries. Parasite control under extensive and intensive conditions is dealt with adequately at the University of Pretoria, but increasing emphasis will be given to small-scale farming systems, particularly if alternative food animals are to be kept.

  13. Screening and confirmation criteria for hormone residue analysis using liquid chromatography accurate mass time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and orbitrap mass spectrometry techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, M.W.F.; Engelen, M.C. van; Zuiderent, R.; Ramaker, R.

    2007-01-01

    An emerging trend is recognised in hormone and veterinary drug residue analysis from liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) based screening and confirmation towards accurate mass alternatives such as LC coupled with time-of-flight (TOF), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance

  14. Measurement of residual solvents in a drug substance by a purge-and-trap method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, Miklós

    2008-08-05

    The purge-and-trap (P&T) gas extraction method combined with gas chromatography was studied for its suitability for quantitative residual solvents determination in a water-soluble active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Some analytical method performance characteristics were investigated, namely, the repeatability, the accuracy and the detection limit of determination. The results show that the P&T technique is--as expected--more sensitive than the static headspace, thus it can be used for the determination of residual solvents pertaining to the ICH Class 1 group. It was found that it could be an alternative sample preparation method besides the static headspace (HS) method.

  15. Database on veterinary clinical research in homeopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Jürgen; Albrecht, Henning

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the present report is to provide an overview of the first database on clinical research in veterinary homeopathy. Detailed searches in the database 'Veterinary Clinical Research-Database in Homeopathy' (http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/clinresvet/index.php). The database contains about 200 entries of randomised clinical trials, non-randomised clinical trials, observational studies, drug provings, case reports and case series. Twenty-two clinical fields are covered and eight different groups of species are included. The database is free of charge and open to all interested veterinarians and researchers. The database enables researchers and veterinarians, sceptics and supporters to get a quick overview of the status of veterinary clinical research in homeopathy and alleviates the preparation of systematical reviews or may stimulate reproductions or even new studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Drug residues recovered in feed after various feedlot mixer truck cleanout procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Donkersgoed, Joyce; Sit, Dan; Gibbons, Nicole; Ramogida, Caterina; Hendrick, Steve

    2010-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of two methods of equipment cleanout, sequencing or flushing, for reducing drug carryover in feedlot mixer trucks. Feed samples were collected from total mixed rations before and after various feed mixer equipment cleanout procedures. Medicated rations contained either 11 ppm of tylosin or 166 or 331 ppm of chlortetracycline. There were no differences between sequencing and flushing or between flushing with dry barley and flushing with barley silage in the median proportion of drug recovered in the next ration. A larger drug reduction was achieved using flush material at a volume of 10 versus 5% of the mixer capacity and mixing the flush material for 3 versus 4 min. Regardless of the drug or prescription concentrations in the total mixed rations or the equipment cleanout procedure used, concentrations of chlortetracycline and tylosin recovered were very low.

  17. Errors in veterinary practice: preliminary lessons for building better veterinary teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, T; Guile, D; May, S A

    2015-11-14

    Case studies in two typical UK veterinary practices were undertaken to explore teamwork, including interprofessional working. Each study involved one week of whole team observation based on practice locations (reception, operating theatre), one week of shadowing six focus individuals (veterinary surgeons, veterinary nurses and administrators) and a final week consisting of semistructured interviews regarding teamwork. Errors emerged as a finding of the study. The definition of errors was inclusive, pertaining to inputs or omitted actions with potential adverse outcomes for patients, clients or the practice. The 40 identified instances could be grouped into clinical errors (dosing/drugs, surgical preparation, lack of follow-up), lost item errors, and most frequently, communication errors (records, procedures, missing face-to-face communication, mistakes within face-to-face communication). The qualitative nature of the study allowed the underlying cause of the errors to be explored. In addition to some individual mistakes, system faults were identified as a major cause of errors. Observed examples and interviews demonstrated several challenges to interprofessional teamworking which may cause errors, including: lack of time, part-time staff leading to frequent handovers, branch differences and individual veterinary surgeon work preferences. Lessons are drawn for building better veterinary teams and implications for Disciplinary Proceedings considered. British Veterinary Association.

  18. A critical assessment of the performance criteria in confirmatory analysis for veterinary drug residue analysis using mass spectrometric detection in selected reaction monitoring mode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, Bjorn J.A.; Meijer, Thijs; Wegh, Robin; Mol, Hans G.J.; Smyth, Wesley G.; Armstrong Hewitt, S.; Ginkel, van Leen; Nielen, Michel W.F.

    2016-01-01

    Besides the identification point system to assure adequate set-up of instrumentation, European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC includes performance criteria regarding relative ion abundances in mass spectrometry and chromatographic retention time. In confirmatory analysis, the relative abundance

  19. Veterinary Forensic Toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwaltney-Brant, S M

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Radiology in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrusovsky, J.; Benes, J.

    1985-01-01

    A textbook is presented for pregraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary medicine, offering an extensive review of all aspects of radiology as applied in veterinary sciences. Based on findings published in the literature and the authors' own research, the textbook familiarizes the reader with the problems of nuclear physics, biological effects of ionizing radiation on animals, the principles of biological cycles of radionuclides in the atmosphere, the fundamentals of radiochemistry, dosimetry, radiometry and nuclear medicine. Radiation protection of animals, raw materials, feeds, foodstuff and water, and the questions of the aplications of ionizing radiation and of radionuclides in veterinary medicine are discussed in great detail. The publication is complemented with numerous photographs, figures and graphs. (L.O.)

  1. Simultaneous screening and confirmation of multiple classes of drug residues in fish by liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shani; Gieseker, Charles; Reimschuessel, Renate; Decker, Christie-Sue; Carson, Mary C

    2009-11-13

    LC-ion trap mass spectrometry was used to screen and confirm 38 compounds from a variety of drug classes in four species of fish: trout, salmon, catfish, and tilapia. Samples were extracted with acetonitrile and hexane. The acetonitrile phase was evaporated, redissolved in water and acetonitrile, and analyzed by gradient chromatography on a phenyl column. MS(2) or MS(3) spectra were monitored for each compound. Qualitative method performance was evaluated by the analysis over several days of replicate samples of control fish, fish fortified with a drug mixture at 1 ppm, 0.1 ppm and 0.01 ppm, and fish dosed with a representative from each drug class. Half of the 38 drugs were confirmed at 0.01 ppm, the lowest fortification level. This included all of the quinolones and fluoroquinolones, the macrolides, malachite green, and most of the imidazoles. Florfenicol amine, metronidazole, sulfonamides, tetracyclines, and most of the betalactams were confirmed at 0.1 ppm. Ivermectin and penicillin G were only detectable in the 1 ppm fortified samples. With the exception of amoxicillin, emamectin, metronidazole, and tylosin, residue presence was confirmed in all the dosed fish.

  2. Veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Comar, C.L.; Wentworth, R.A.

    1974-01-01

    A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)

  3. Assessment of MEKC suitability for residue drug monitoring on pharmaceutical manufacturing equipment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Boca, MB

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available obtained for all compounds. The method could be used as part of a cleaning validation study when assaying trace levels of co-trimoxazole drug, some of its decomposition products and detergent in the swab samples collected from pharmaceutical manufacturing...

  4. Infrared thermography in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudak, R.; Zivcak, J.; Sevcik, A.; Danko, J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine has been practiced since at least the 1960's, but it is only now, in approximately the last 5 years, that it has been viewed with a reasonably open mind in the veterinary community at large. One of the reasons is progress in sensors technology, which contributed for an outstanding improvement of the thermal imager parameters. Paper deals with veterinary thermography and with description of applications at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice. (authors)

  5. Tanzania Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the ...

  6. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain. Meseko, C. A.. 1. ; Shittu, I. 1. ; Bwala, D. G.. 2. ; Joannis, T. M.. 1 and Nwosuh, C. I.. 2. 1Regional Laboratory For Animal Influenza and Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Veterinary ...

  7. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...

  8. Veterinary Molecular Diagnostics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roest, H.I.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weesendorp, E.; Bossers, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2017-01-01

    In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this

  9. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Sonographic Measurements of Ocular Biometry of Indigenous Nigerian. Dogs in Zaria ..... between L2 and R) anesthetic risks and additional costs were ... prevalent worldwide problem (Toni et al.,. 2013). Paunknis and ... correlation with refractive error is larger for axial length than .... Veterinary Medical Association. 207:12.

  10. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, ... momohasabeh@gmail.com; Tel No:+2348038352906. ... in-contact humans from pig farms and abattoir. ... Momoh et al. 141 and may enhance the distribution of resistance genes into ... treating clinical infections in both man and.

  11. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    xyphoid cartilage to the pelvic area and aquasonic gel applied. The uterus was ... is used in both veterinary and human medicine ... Idris et al. 135 the pelvic region was gently made wet, with ... showing multiple fetuses (blue arrow). Plate IV: ... The beginning of bone formation which appears as hyperechoic structures ...

  12. Computational Biology Tools for Identifying Specific Ligand Binding Residues for Novel Agrochemical and Drug Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshich, Izabella Agostinho Pena; Nishimura, Leticia; de Moraes, Fabio Rogerio; Salim, Jose Augusto; Villalta-Romero, Fabian; Borro, Luiz; Yano, Inacio Henrique; Mazoni, Ivan; Tasic, Ljubica; Jardine, Jose Gilberto; Neshich, Goran

    2015-01-01

    The term "agrochemicals" is used in its generic form to represent a spectrum of pesticides, such as insecticides, fungicides or bactericides. They contain active components designed for optimized pest management and control, therefore allowing for economically sound and labor efficient agricultural production. A "drug" on the other side is a term that is used for compounds designed for controlling human diseases. Although drugs are subjected to much more severe testing and regulation procedures before reaching the market, they might contain exactly the same active ingredient as certain agrochemicals, what is the case described in present work, showing how a small chemical compound might be used to control pathogenicity of Gram negative bacteria Xylella fastidiosa which devastates citrus plantations, as well as for control of, for example, meningitis in humans. It is also clear that so far the production of new agrochemicals is not benefiting as much from the in silico new chemical compound identification/discovery as pharmaceutical production. Rational drug design crucially depends on detailed knowledge of structural information about the receptor (target protein) and the ligand (drug/agrochemical). The interaction between the two molecules is the subject of analysis that aims to understand relationship between structure and function, mainly deciphering some fundamental elements of the nanoenvironment where the interaction occurs. In this work we will emphasize the role of understanding nanoenvironmental factors that guide recognition and interaction of target protein and its function modifier, an agrochemical or a drug. The repertoire of nanoenvironment descriptors is used for two selected and specific cases we have approached in order to offer a technological solution for some very important problems that needs special attention in agriculture: elimination of pathogenicity of a bacterium which is attacking citrus plants and formulation of a new fungicide. Finally

  13. Veterinary pharmacovigilance in India: A need of hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rishi; Kalaiselvan, Vivekanandan; Verma, Ravendra; Kaur, Ismeet; Kumar, Pranay; Singh, G N

    2017-01-01

    Veterinary pharmacovigilance (PV) is important for the Medicine which are used for treating disease in animals. It becomes more important when these animals are further used for producing food. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) have a direct impact on animals and indirect impact on human beings, for example, through milk products, other animal producing food products. Currently, PV program of India is playing a vital role in assessing the safety of medicines in Indian Population. The safety of medicine in animals can be assessed by veterinary PV. The research institutes involved in animal research and veterinary hospitals can be considered as ADR monitoring centers to assess the safety of medicines on animals.

  14. Prioritizing veterinary pharmaceuticals for aquatic environment in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Younghee; Jung, Jinyong; Kim, Myunghyun; Park, Jeongim; Boxall, Alistair B A; Choi, Kyungho

    2008-09-01

    Pharmaceutical residues may have serious impacts on nontarget biological organisms in aquatic ecosystems, and have therefore precipitated numerous investigations worldwide. Many pharmaceutical compounds available on the market need to be prioritized based on their potential ecological and human health risks in order to develop sound management decisions. We prioritized veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea by their usage, potential to enter the environment, and toxicological hazard. Twenty compounds were identified in the top priority class, most of which were antibiotics. Among these compounds, 8 were identified as deserving more immediate attention: amoxicillin, enramycin, fenbendazole, florfenicol, ivermectin, oxytetracycline, tylosin, and virginiamycin. A limitation of this study is that we initially screened veterinary pharmaceuticals by sales tonnage for veterinary use only. However, this is the first attempt to prioritize veterinary pharmaceuticals in Korea, and it provides important concepts for developing environmental risk management plans for such contaminants in aquatic systems. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Drug: D08455 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available as: C18605 ... veterinary medicine Juvenile hormone mimic Larval growth inhibitor ... CAS: 95737-68-1 PubChem: ... D08455 Drug Pyriproxyfen; Cyclio [veterinary] (TN) ... C20H19NO3 D08455.gif ... Same

  16. Drug: D07613 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07613 Drug Carbaryl (BAN); Carbaril; Flea and tick powder [veterinary] (TN) ... C12H...11NO2 D07613.gif ... Same as: C07491 ... carbamate insecticide cholinesterase inhibitor veterinary medicine ...

  17. Drug: D08251 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08251 Drug Nandrolone laurate; Nandrolone dodecanoate; Laurabolin [veterinary] (T...14AB01 S01XA11 Chemical group: DG00142 ... Estren derivative veterinary medicine NR3C4 (AR) [HSA:367] [KO:K085

  18. New directions for veterinary technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.

  19. 75 FR 29352 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ...] Draft Guidance for Industry on Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for Veterinary Medicine; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... industry 188 entitled ``Data Elements for Submission of Veterinary Adverse Event Reports to the Center for...

  20. Veterinary homeopathy: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Vockeroth, W G

    1999-01-01

    Complementary and alternative therapies, including homeopathy, have a definite place in veterinary medicine today. The public is demanding access to a full range of conventional and complementary therapies, and the best scenario is to have all therapies available, for there is a place and a need for all of them in the right situation. In my own practice, I use both alternative and conventional therapies, as well as referring patients to specialists, for services such as ultrasound and surgery...

  1. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): Guideline for the evaluation of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa in livestock and companion animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurden, T; Olson, M E; O'Handley, R M; Schetters, T; Bowman, D; Vercruysse, J

    2014-08-29

    The current guideline was written to aid in the design, implementation and interpretation of studies for the assessment of drug efficacy against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoan parasites, with Giardia spp. as the leading example. The information provided in this guideline deals with aspects of how to conduct controlled studies using experimental infection models (dose determination and dose confirmation) and efficacy studies in commercial facilities (field effectiveness studies). Furthermore, the selection of suitable animals, housing, infection procedure, choice of diagnostic technique and data analysis are discussed. This guideline is intended to assist investigators in conducting specific studies, to provide specific information for registration authorities involved in the decision-making process, to assist in the approval and registration of new drugs and to facilitate the worldwide adoption of uniform procedures. The primary parameter for drug efficacy is the reduction in either parasite excretion or parasite counts and a minimum efficacy of 90% is required against non-coccidial gastrointestinal protozoa. A supporting efficacy parameter is a significant difference in the proportion of infected animals between treated and non-treated groups. Persistent efficacy is considered as an additional claim to therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Proceedings of a course on veterinary nursing, Massey University 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, G.V.

    1991-01-01

    This conference proceedings consists of 15 papers by 15 authors, which deal with veterinary nursing around the world, skills required for dealing with clients and selling drugs, safe handling of animals, samples and drugs, radiation safety, monitoring anaesthesia and post-operative monitoring, canine diabetes mellitus, cleaning, disinfection and sterilization and collection of blood and urine samples from dogs, cats and birds

  3. Generic Drugs: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products Drugs Home Drugs Resources for You Information for Consumers (Drugs) Questions & Answers Generic Drugs: Questions & Answers Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  4. Radiation protection for veterinary practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A.

    1993-01-01

    This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.)

  5. About veterinary education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathalla, M

    2003-01-01

    The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.

  6. Veterinary Oncology Immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Homology modeling and docking analyses of M. leprae Mur ligases reveals the common binding residues for structure based drug designing to eradicate leprosy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Anusuya; Natarajan, Jeyakumar

    2012-06-01

    Multi drug resistance capacity for Mycobacterium leprae (MDR-Mle) demands the profound need for developing new anti-leprosy drugs. Since most of the drugs target a single enzyme, mutation in the active site renders the antibiotic ineffective. However, structural and mechanistic information on essential bacterial enzymes in a pathway could lead to the development of antibiotics that targets multiple enzymes. Peptidoglycan is an important component of the cell wall of M. leprae. The biosynthesis of bacterial peptidoglycan represents important targets for the development of new antibacterial drugs. Biosynthesis of peptidoglycan is a multi-step process that involves four key Mur ligase enzymes: MurC (EC:6.3.2.8), MurD (EC:6.3.2.9), MurE (EC:6.3.2.13) and MurF (EC:6.3.2.10). Hence in our work, we modeled the three-dimensional structure of the above Mur ligases using homology modeling method and analyzed its common binding features. The residues playing an important role in the catalytic activity of each of the Mur enzymes were predicted by docking these Mur ligases with their substrates and ATP. The conserved sequence motifs significant for ATP binding were predicted as the probable residues for structure based drug designing. Overall, the study was successful in listing significant and common binding residues of Mur enzymes in peptidoglycan pathway for multi targeted therapy.

  8. Veterinary medical education in Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah

    2004-01-01

    Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international

  9. ABC transporter Cdr1p harbors charged residues in the intracellular loop and nucleotide-binding domain critical for protein trafficking and drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Abdul Haseeb; Banerjee, Atanu; Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Saxena, Ajay Kumar; Mondal, Alok Kumar; Prasad, Rajendra

    2015-08-01

    The ABC transporter Cdr1 protein of Candida albicans, which plays a major role in antifungal resistance, has two transmembrane domains (TMDs) and two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). The 12 transmembrane helices of TMDs that are interconnected by extracellular and intracellular loops (ICLs) mainly harbor substrate recognition sites where drugs bind while cytoplasmic NBDs hydrolyze ATP which powers drug efflux. The coupling of ATP hydrolysis to drug transport requires proper communication between NBDs and TMDs typically accomplished by ICLs. This study examines the role of cytoplasmic ICLs of Cdr1p by rationally predicting the critical residues on the basis of their interatomic distances. Among nine pairs that fall within a proximity of trafficking. These results point to a new role for ICL/NBD interacting residues in PDR ABC transporters in protein folding and trafficking. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Direct analyte-probed nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization-mass spectrometry of drug residues from latent fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Kristina; Wiley, Rachel; Waverka, Kristin; Fox, James; Dziekonski, Eric; Verbeck, Guido F

    2013-07-01

    Here, we present a method of extracting drug residues from fingerprints via Direct Analyte-Probed Nanoextraction coupled to nanospray ionization-mass spectrometry (DAPNe-NSI-MS). This instrumental technique provides higher selectivity and lower detection limits over current methods, greatly reducing sample preparation, and does not compromise the integrity of latent fingerprints. This coupled to Raman microscopy is an advantageous supplement for location and identification of trace particles. DAPNe uses a nanomanipulator for extraction and differing microscopies for localization of chemicals of interest. A capillary tip with solvent of choice is placed in a nanopositioner. The surface to be analyzed is placed under a microscope, and a particle of interest is located. Using a pressure injector, the solvent is injected onto the surface where it dissolves the analyte, and then extracted back into the capillary tip. The solution is then directly analyzed via NSI-MS. Analyses of caffeine, cocaine, crystal methamphetamine, and ecstasy have been performed successfully. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  11. The Yin and Yang of SagS: Distinct Residues in the HmsP Domain of SagS Independently Regulate Biofilm Formation and Biofilm Drug Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Jozef; Poudyal, Bandita

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT The formation of inherently drug-tolerant biofilms by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires the sensor-regulator hybrid SagS, with ΔsagS biofilms being unstructured and exhibiting increased antimicrobial susceptibility. Recent findings indicated SagS to function as a switch to control biofilm formation and drug tolerance independently. Moreover, findings suggested the periplasmic sensory HmsP domain of SagS is likely to be the control point in the regulation of biofilm formation and biofilm cells transitioning to a drug-tolerant state. We thus asked whether specific amino acid residues present in the HmsP domain contribute to the switch function of SagS. HmsP domain residues were therefore subjected to alanine replacement mutagenesis to identify substitutions that block the sensory function(s) of SagS, which is apparent by attached cells being unable to develop mature biofilms and/or prevent transition to an antimicrobial-resistant state. Mutant analyses revealed 32 residues that only contribute to blocking one sensory function. Moreover, amino acid residues affecting attachment and subsequent biofilm formation but not biofilm tolerance also impaired histidine kinase signaling via BfiS. In contrast, residues affecting biofilm drug tolerance but not attachment and subsequent biofilm formation negatively impacted BrlR transcription factor levels. Structure prediction suggested the two sets of residues affecting sensory functions are located in distinct areas that were previously described as being involved in ligand binding interactions. Taken together, these studies identify the molecular basis for the dual regulatory function of SagS. IMPORTANCE The membrane-bound sensory protein SagS plays a pivotal role in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and biofilm cells gaining their heightened resistance to antimicrobial agents, with SagS being the control point at which both pathways diverge. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that the two

  12. Piloting interprofessional education interventions with veterinary and veterinary nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnison, Tierney; Lumbis, Rachel; Orpet, Hilary; Welsh, Perdi; Gregory, Sue; Baillie, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) has received little attention in veterinary education even though members of the veterinary and nursing professions work closely together. The present study investigates veterinary and veterinary nursing students' and practitioners' experiences with interprofessional issues and the potential benefits of IPE. Based on stakeholder consultations, two teaching interventions were modified or developed for use with veterinary and veterinary nursing students: Talking Walls, which aimed to increase individuals' understanding of each other's roles, and an Emergency-Case Role-Play Scenario, which aimed to improve teamwork. These interventions were piloted with volunteer veterinary and veterinary nursing students who were recruited through convenience sampling. A questionnaire (the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [RIPLS]) was modified for use in veterinary education and used to investigate changes in attitudes toward IPE over time (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and four to five months afterward). The results showed an immediate and significant positive change in attitude after the intervention, highlighting the students' willingness to learn collaboratively, their ability to recognize the benefits of IPE, a decreased sense of professional isolation, and reduced hierarchical views. Although nearly half of the students felt concerned about learning with students from another profession before the intervention, the majority (97%) enjoyed learning together. However, the positive change in attitude was not evident four to five months after the intervention, though attitudes remained above pre-intervention levels. The results of the pilot study were encouraging and emphasize the relevance and importance of veterinary IPE as well as the need for further investigation to explore methods of sustaining a change in attitude over time.

  13. Computer applications in veterinary medicine | Hassan | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... become essential tools in almost every field of research and applied technology. ... Computers in veterinary medicine have been used for veterinary education; ... agro-veterinary project design, monitoring and implementation; preparation of ...

  14. Radiation protection in veterinary radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hone, C.P.

    1989-06-01

    This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)

  15. Perspectives on academic veterinary administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S

    2001-09-15

    It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.

  16. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...

  17. Radiological protection in veterinary practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi; Kusama, Tomoko.

    1990-01-01

    To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author)

  18. Detecting and confirming residual hotspots of lymphatic filariasis transmission in American Samoa 8 years after stopping mass drug administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Colleen L; Sheridan, Sarah; Ryan, Stephanie; Roineau, Maureen; Andreosso, Athena; Fuimaono, Saipale; Tufa, Joseph; Graves, Patricia M

    2017-09-01

    The Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) aims to eliminate the disease as a public health problem by 2020 by conducting mass drug administration (MDA) and controlling morbidity. Once elimination targets have been reached, surveillance is critical for ensuring that programmatic gains are sustained, and challenges include timely identification of residual areas of transmission. WHO guidelines encourage cost-efficient surveillance, such as integration with other population-based surveys. In American Samoa, where LF is caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, and Aedes polynesiensis is the main vector, the LF elimination program has made significant progress. Seven rounds of MDA (albendazole and diethycarbamazine) were completed from 2000 to 2006, and Transmission Assessment Surveys were passed in 2010/2011 and 2015. However, a seroprevalence study using an adult serum bank collected in 2010 detected two potential residual foci of transmission, with Og4C3 antigen (Ag) prevalence of 30.8% and 15.6%. We conducted a follow up study in 2014 to verify if transmission was truly occurring by comparing seroprevalence between residents of suspected hotspots and residents of other villages. In adults from non-hotspot villages (N = 602), seroprevalence of Ag (ICT or Og4C3), Bm14 antibody (Ab) and Wb123 Ab were 1.2% (95% CI 0.6-2.6%), 9.6% (95% CI 7.5%-12.3%), and 10.5% (95% CI 7.6-14.3%), respectively. Comparatively, adult residents of Fagali'i (N = 38) had significantly higher seroprevalence of Ag (26.9%, 95% CI 17.3-39.4%), Bm14 Ab (43.4%, 95% CI 32.4-55.0%), and Wb123 Ab 55.2% (95% CI 39.6-69.8%). Adult residents of Ili'ili/Vaitogi/Futiga (N = 113) also had higher prevalence of Ag and Ab, but differences were not statistically significant. The presence of transmission was demonstrated by 1.1% Ag prevalence (95% CI 0.2% to 3.1%) in 283 children aged 7-13 years who lived in one of the suspected hotspots; and microfilaraemia in four individuals, all of whom lived in the

  19. En Route towards European Clinical breakpoints for veterinary antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A.; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T.; Lees, Peter

    2017-01-01

    VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve

  20. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of general analytical factors in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E

    2010-09-01

    Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  1. Dental Education in Veterinary Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana L. Eubanks

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.

  2. Computer automation in veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, H

    1996-05-01

    Computers have been used to automate complex and repetitive tasks in veterinary hospitals since the 1960s. Early systems were expensive, but their use was justified because they performed jobs which would have been impossible or which would have required greater resources in terms of time and personnel had they been performed by other methods. Systems found in most veterinary hospitals today are less costly, magnitudes more capable, and often underused. Modern multitasking operating systems and graphical interfaces bring many opportunities for automation. Commercial and custom programs developed and used in a typical multidoctor mixed species veterinary practice are described.

  3. Current Issues and the Veterinary Medical Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nault, Andre J.

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…

  4. The effects of veterinary antibiotics on soil microbial communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitt, Heike

    2005-01-01

    The possible environmental “side effects” of pharmaceuticals to the environment have not yet been investigated extensively. Among the veterinary drugs, the antibiotics are an important group, due to their extensive use and their potential to also affect environmental bacteria. The main entry path

  5. Adverse reaction to veterinary multivitamins and vitamin B complex ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been reported that dogs in South-western Nigeria react adversely to injectable veterinary multivitamins and human vitamin B complex preparations. Experimentation and interview survey were concurrently conducted to identify the type of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) that the indications produced. For the survey ...

  6. Drugs’ maximal residual limits determination methodology and waiting period’s establishing, in the light of E.U. regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina , T. Romeo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Communitary concept’s related to the drug residues assumption is essential to Romania’s full integration amongst the countries where alimentary security and human consumer’s security have had become national policy. In this respect a concise enumeration of E.U. basic legislative notions, with the specific terminology and of technicalpremises presentation, it is proposed in the aim of Communitary veterinary medicinal product’s residues evaluation as well the MRL’s determination phases in the light of 2377/90 EU Regulation’s understanding.

  7. Needlestick injuries in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J Scott; Jack, Douglas C

    2008-08-01

    Needlestick injuries are an inherent risk of handling needles during the course of veterinary practice. While significant effort has been expended to reduce needlestick injuries in human medicine, a relatively lax approach seems to be prevalent in veterinary medicine. It appears that needlestick injuries are very common among veterinary personnel and that serious adverse effects, while uncommon, do occur. Clients may also receive injuries in clinics during the course of animal restraint, and at home following prescription of injectable medications or fluids. Because of occupational health, personal health, and liability concerns, veterinary practices should review the measures they are taking to reduce the likelihood of needlestick injuries and develop written needlestick injury avoidance protocols.

  8. Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...

  9. Qualitative and Quantitative Drug residue analyses: Florfenicol in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and supermarket meat by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Shanoy C; Subbiah, Seenivasan; Gentles, Angella; Austin, Galen; Stonum, Paul; Brooks, Tiffanie A; Brooks, Chance; Smith, Ernest E

    2016-10-15

    A method for confirmation and detection of Florfenicol amine residues in white-tailed deer tissues was developed and validated in our laboratory. Tissue samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and cleaned up on sorbent (Chem-elut) cartridges. Liguid chromatography (LC) separation was achieved on a Zorbax Eclipse plus C18 column with gradient elution using a mobile phase composed of ammonium acetate in water and methanol at a flow rate of 300μL/min. Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out using liquid chromatography - heated electrospray ionization(HESI) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI)-tandem mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) interface. The limits of detection (LODs) for HESI and APCI probe were 1.8ng/g and 1.4ng/g respectively. Limits of quantitation (LOQs) for HESI and APCI probe were 5.8ng/g and 3.4ng/g respectively. Mean recovery values ranged from 79% to 111% for APCI and 30% to 60% for HESI. The validated method was used to determine white-tailed deer florfenicol tissue residue concentration 10-days after exposure. Florfenicol tissue residues concentration ranged from 0.4 to 0.6μg/g for liver and 0.02-0.05μg/g for muscle and a trace in blood samples. The concentration found in the tested edible tissues were lower than the maximum residual limit (MRL) values established by the federal drug administration (FDA) for bovine tissues. In summary, the resulting optimization procedures using the sensitivity of HESI and APCI probes in the determination of florfenicol in white-tailed deer tissue are the most compelling conclusions in this study, to the extent that we have applied this method in the evaluation of supermarket samples drug residue levels as a proof of principle. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A comparison of antimicrobial usage in human and veterinary medicine in France from 1999 to 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Gérard; Cavalié, Philippe; Pellanne, Isabelle; Chevance, Anne; Laval, Arlette; Millemann, Yves; Colin, Pierre; Chauvin, Claire

    2008-09-01

    The antimicrobials allowed and amounts sold in veterinary and human medicine in France were compared to see if the same antimicrobial drugs are used in veterinary and human medicine, and to the same extent. Registers of all approved antimicrobial commercial products, kept by the French Agency for Veterinary Medicinal Products (AFSSA ANMV) for animals and the French Health Products Safety Agency (AFSSAPS) for humans, were compared to determine whether the same antimicrobials were approved in 2007 for use in both human and animal populations. Sales data were collected from pharmaceutical companies between 1999 and 2005 by the AFSSA ANMV and AFSSAPS. Usage of the different antimicrobial anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classes in human and veterinary medicines was recorded. Data were expressed in tonnes of active ingredients and were then related to the animal and human biomasses to compare usages expressed in mg/kg. All antimicrobial ATC classes were used in both human and veterinary medicine. Tetracyclines accounted for the most sales in veterinary medicine. beta-Lactams predominated in human medicine. A decrease in the amounts consumed by both human and animal populations was observed during the study. In 2005, 760 tonnes were used in human medicine and 1320 tonnes in veterinary medicine, corresponding to 199 and 84 mg/kg of live weight in human and animal populations, respectively. The same antimicrobial drugs were used in human and veterinary medicines but the quantitative patterns of use were different. Expression of antimicrobial usage is a key point to address when comparing usage trends.

  11. Diagnostic microbiology in veterinary dermatology: present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2017-02-01

    The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories. The advent of mass spectrometry has significantly reduced the time required for ID of key pathogens such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. However, the turnaround time for validated AST methods has remained unchanged for many years. Beyond scientific and technological constraints, AST methods are not harmonized and clinical breakpoints for some antimicrobial drugs are either missing or inadequate. Small laboratories, including in-clinic laboratories, are usually not adequately equipped to run up-to-date clinical microbiologic diagnostic tests. ESGVM recommends the use of laboratories employing mass spectrometry for ID and broth micro-dilution for AST, and offering assistance by expert microbiologists on pre- and post-analytical issues. Setting general standards for veterinary clinical microbiology, promoting antimicrobial stewardship, and the development of new, validated and rapid diagnostic methods, especially for AST, are among the missions of ESGVM. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.

  12. Review of hazards to female reproductive health in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A

    2017-04-15

    OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting

  13. Anxiety in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2012-01-01

    The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...

  14. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines for an integrative veterinary medicine curriculum within veterinary colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.

    2016-01-01

    Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270

  15. Emotions in veterinary surgical students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard

    2012-01-01

    A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...

  16. Health risk from veterinary antimicrobial use in China's food animal production and its reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2016-12-01

    The overuse and misuse of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, in food animal production in China cause environmental pollution and wide food safety concerns, and pose public health risk with the selection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) that can spread from animal populations to humans. Elevated abundance and diversity of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and resistant bacteria (including multi-drug resistant strains) in food-producing animals, food products of animal origin, microbiota of human gut, and environmental media impacted by intensive animal farming have been reported. To rein in drug use in food animal production and protect public health, the government made a total of 227 veterinary drugs, including 150 antimicrobial products, available only by prescription from licensed veterinarians for curing, controlling, and preventing animal diseases in March 2014. So far the regulatory ban on non-therapeutic use has failed to bring major changes to the long-standing practice of drug overuse and misuse in animal husbandry and aquaculture, and significant improvement in its implementation and enforcement is necessary. A range of measures, including improving access to veterinary services, strengthening supervision on veterinary drug production and distribution, increasing research and development efforts, and enhancing animal health management, are recommended to facilitate transition toward rational use of veterinary drugs, particularly antimicrobials, and to reduce the public health risk arising from AMR development in animal agriculture. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Clinical Pharmacology Course for Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Lynn Mulcahy

    1983-01-01

    A one-semester, two-credit course is described that was developed cooperatively by the colleges of pharmacy and veterinary medicine at Washington State University to help resolve an acute shortage of clinical pharmacologists in veterinary medicine and veterinary medical education. Course procedures, content, and evaluation are outlined (MSE)

  18. 7 CFR 371.4 - Veterinary Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary Services. 371.4 Section 371.4 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.4 Veterinary Services. (a) General statement. Veterinary Services (VS) protects and safeguards the Nation's livestock and...

  19. Fosfomycin: Uses and potentialities in veterinary medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Pérez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fosfomycin (FOS is a natural bactericidal broad-spectrum antibiotic which acts on proliferating bacteria by inhibiting cell wall and early murein/peptidoglycan synthesis. Bactericidal activity is evident against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and can also act synergistically with other antibiotics. Bacterial resistance to FOS may be natural or acquired. Other properties of this drug include inhibition of bacterial adhesion to epithelial cells, exopolysaccharide biofilm penetration, immunomodulatory effect, phagocytosis promotion and protection against the nephrotoxicity caused by other drugs. FOS has chemical characteristics not typically observed in organic phosphoric compounds and its molecular weight is almost the lowest of all the antimicrobials. It tends to form salts easily due to its acidic nature (disodium salt, for intravenous (IV, intramuscular (IM and subcutaneous (SC administration; calcium and trometamol salt: for oral (PO administration. FOS has a very low protein binding (<0.5% which, along with its low molecular weight and water solubility, contributes to its good diffusion into fluids (cerebrospinal fluid, aqueous and vitreous humor, interstitial fluid and tissues (placenta, bone, muscle, liver, kidney and skin/fat. In all species, important differences in the bioavailability have been found after administration in relation to the various derivatives of FOS salts. Pharmacokinetic profiles have been described in humans, chickens, rabbits, cows, dogs, horses and weaning piglets. The low toxicity and potential efficacy of FOS are the main factors that contribute to its use in humans and animals. Thus, it has been used to treat a broad variety of bacterial infections in humans, such as localized peritonitis, brain abscesses, severe soft tissue infections, cystitis and other conditions. In veterinary medicine, FOS is used to treat infectious diseases of broiler chickens and pigs. In broilers, it is administered for the

  20. Understanding veterinary leadership in practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Caroline Elizabeth; Butler, Allan J; Murray, Yaqub Paul

    2018-04-21

    The Vet Futures Report has identified 'exceptional leadership' as a key ambition for the long-term sustainability of the industry. This research investigates what it is like to be a veterinary surgeon in an in-practice leadership position, applying the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Through the researchers' interpretation of the seven participants' stories of their leadership experiences, the study advances understanding of the work environment, underlying motivations and the perceived responsibilities of veterinary leaders. Findings suggest, for many, a struggle in transition to leader positions, improving with time. The increase in pace of work is relayed by participants, with an ongoing, and unchallenged, work-life imbalance. The vets involved are highly motivated, driven by enjoyment of their jobs, a desire for self-determination and a need to make a difference. Relationships form the core of the perceived responsibilities, and yet are identified as the greatest day-to-day challenge of leadership. This study offers a valuable insight for veterinary surgeons, suggesting the industry could benefit from pausing and reflecting on behaviours. With a greater understanding of the complexity of leadership and followership, progress can be made to enact positive changes for the future. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Veterinary Microbiology, 3rd Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...

  2. African Journals Online: Veterinary Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... African Journals Online: Veterinary Science ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ... Life Sciences, Chemistry, Mathematics & Physics, Earth Sciences ... The Nigerian Journal of Animal Science (NJAS) is an official ...

  3. Radiation protection in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection

  4. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal: Editorial Policies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Focus and Scope. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked Peer Reviewed. Publication Frequency.

  5. Determination of anthelmintic drug residues in milk using ultra high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with rapid polarity switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelan, Michelle; Kinsella, Brian; Furey, Ambrose; Moloney, Mary; Cantwell, Helen; Lehotay, Steven J; Danaher, Martin

    2010-07-02

    A new UHPLC-MS/MS (ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry) method was developed and validated to detect 38 anthelmintic drug residues, consisting of benzimidazoles, avermectins and flukicides. A modified QuEChERS-type extraction method was developed with an added concentration step to detect most of the analytes at keeper to ensure analytes remain in solution. Using rapid polarity switching in electrospray ionisation, a single injection was capable of detecting both positively and negatively charged ions in a 13 min run time. The method was validated at two levels: the unapproved use level and at the maximum residue level (MRL) according to Commission Decision (CD) 2002/657/EC criteria. The decision limit (CCalpha) of the method was in the range of 0.14-1.9 and 11-123 microg kg(-1) for drugs validated at unapproved and MRL levels, respectively. The performance of the method was successfully verified for benzimidazoles and levamisole by participating in a proficiency study.

  6. Using mutagenesis to explore conserved residues in the RNA-binding groove of influenza A virus nucleoprotein for antiviral drug development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Lin; Hung, Hui-Chen; Lo, Shou-Chen; Chiang, Ching-Hui; Chen, I.-Jung; Hsu, John T.-A.; Hou, Ming-Hon

    2016-02-01

    Nucleoprotein (NP) is the most abundant type of RNA-binding viral protein in influenza A virus-infected cells and is necessary for viral RNA transcription and replication. Recent studies demonstrated that influenza NP is a valid target for antiviral drug development. The surface of the groove, covered with numerous conserved residues between the head and body domains of influenza A NP, plays a crucial role in RNA binding. To explore the mechanism by which NP binds RNA, we performed a series of site-directed mutagenesis in the RNA-binding groove, followed by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), to characterize the interactions between RNA and NP. Furthermore, a role of Y148 in NP stability and NP-RNA binding was evaluated. The aromatic residue of Y148 was found to stack with a nucleotide base. By interrupting the stacking interaction between Y148 and an RNA base, we identified an influenza virus NP inhibitor, (E, E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) -1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione; this inhibitor reduced the NP’s RNA-binding affinity and hindered viral replication. Our findings will be useful for the development of new drugs that disrupt the interaction between RNA and viral NP in the influenza virus.

  7. In silico analysis of conformational changes induced by mutation of aromatic binding residues: consequences for drug binding in the hERG K+ channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Knape

    Full Text Available Pharmacological inhibition of cardiac hERG K(+ channels is associated with increased risk of lethal arrhythmias. Many drugs reduce hERG current by directly binding to the channel, thereby blocking ion conduction. Mutation of two aromatic residues (F656 and Y652 substantially decreases the potency of numerous structurally diverse compounds. Nevertheless, some drugs are only weakly affected by mutation Y652A. In this study we utilize molecular dynamics simulations and docking studies to analyze the different effects of mutation Y652A on a selected number of hERG blockers. MD simulations reveal conformational changes in the binding site induced by mutation Y652A. Loss of π-π-stacking between the two aromatic residues induces a conformational change of the F656 side chain from a cavity facing to cavity lining orientation. Docking studies and MD simulations qualitatively reproduce the diverse experimentally observed modulatory effects of mutation Y652A and provide a new structural interpretation for the sensitivity differences.

  8. Multiclass methods for the analysis of antibiotic residues in milk by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Rosanna; Saluti, Giorgio; Moretti, Simone; Diamanti, Irene; Giusepponi, Danilo; Galarini, Roberta

    2018-02-01

    Milk is an important and beneficial food from a nutritional point of view, being an indispensable source of high quality proteins. Furthermore, it is a raw material for many dairy products, such as yoghurt, cheese, cream etc. Before reaching consumers, milk goes through production, processing and circulation. Each step involves potentially unsafe factors, such as chemical contamination that can affect milk quality. Antibiotics are widely used in veterinary medicine for dry cow therapy and mastitis treatment in lactating cows, which can cause the presence of antimicrobial residues in milk. In order to ensure consumers' safety, milk is analyzed to make sure that the fixed Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) for antibiotics are not exceeded. Multiclass methods can monitor more drug classes through a single analysis, so they are faster, less time-consuming and cheaper than traditional methods (single-class); this aspect is particularly important for milk, which is a highly perishable food. Nevertheless, multiclass methods for veterinary drug residues in foodstuffs are real analytical challenges. This article reviews the major multiclass methods published for the determination of antibiotic residues in milk by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, with a special focus on sample preparation approaches.

  9. Veterinary clinical nutrition: success stories: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mike

    2016-08-01

    In this overview of success stories in veterinary clinical nutrition topics in cats and dogs reviewed include the dietary management of chronic kidney disease, dissolution of urinary tract uroliths by dietary modification, the recognition that taurine and L-carnitine deficiencies can cause dilated cardiomyopathy; that clinical signs associated with feline hyperthyroidism (caused by a benign adenoma) can be controlled by a low-iodine diet alone; that dietary management of canine osteoarthritis can also reduce non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug doses; and that disease-free intervals and survival times can be statistically longer in dogs with Stage III lymphoma managed with diet. As we discover more about nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, and as we expand our basic understanding of idiopathic diseases we are bound to identify more nutritionally related causes, and be able to develop novel dietary strategies to manage disease processes, including the formulation of diets designed to alter gene expression to obtain beneficial clinical outcomes.

  10. Drug Development Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preclinical Research Preclinical Research Drugs undergo laboratory and animal testing to answer basic questions about safety. More Information ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products

  11. Veterinary Homeopathy: The Implications of Its History for Unorthodox Veterinary Concepts and Veterinary Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Dwight B.

    1979-01-01

    The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)

  12. Factors that influencing veterinary drug’s metabolisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina, Romeo T.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper wants to make a recall for the vet practitioners, of the main veterinary drug's metabolism rate influencing factors. Among the most important physiological factors (pharmacokinetics, sanguine flow and urinary ones, plasmatic proteins binding, enzymatic induction and inhibition are essential. Between the animal’s bounded factors more important are: species, individuality, age, sex, pregnancy, alimentation, genetic factors, and health status and from exogenous factors, daily rhythm, influences of chemical compounds and of the stress are presented.

  13. Safety analysis of occupational exposure of healthcare workers to residual contaminations of cytotoxic drugs using FMECA security approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Laetitia Minh Mai; Reitter, Delphine; He, Sophie; Bonle, Franck Té; Launois, Amélie; Martinez, Diane; Prognon, Patrice; Caudron, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Handling cytotoxic drugs is associated with chemical contamination of workplace surfaces. The potential mutagenic, teratogenic and oncogenic properties of those drugs create a risk of occupational exposure for healthcare workers, from reception of starting materials to the preparation and administration of cytotoxic therapies. The Security Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) was used as a proactive method to assess the risks involved in the chemotherapy compounding process. FMECA was carried out by a multidisciplinary team from 2011 to 2016. Potential failure modes of the process were identified based on the Risk Priority Number (RPN) that prioritizes corrective actions. Twenty-five potential failure modes were identified. Based on RPN results, the corrective actions plan was revised annually to reduce the risk of exposure and improve practices. Since 2011, 16 specific measures were implemented successively. In six years, a cumulative RPN reduction of 626 was observed, with a decrease from 912 to 286 (-69%) despite an increase of cytotoxic compounding activity of around 23.2%. In order to anticipate and prevent occupational exposure, FMECA is a valuable tool to identify, prioritize and eliminate potential failure modes for operators involved in the cytotoxic drug preparation process before the failures occur. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of residues in ABCG2 affecting protein trafficking and drug transport, using co-evolutionary analysis of ABCG sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Ameena J; Cox, Megan H; Jones, Natalie; Goode, Alice J; Bridge, Katherine S; Wong, Kelvin; Briggs, Deborah; Kerr, Ian D

    2015-07-17

    ABCG2 is an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter with a physiological role in urate transport in the kidney and is also implicated in multi-drug efflux from a number of organs in the body. The trafficking of the protein and the mechanism by which it recognizes and transports diverse drugs are important areas of research. In the current study, we have made a series of single amino acid mutations in ABCG2 on the basis of sequence analysis. Mutant isoforms were characterized for cell surface expression and function. One mutant (I573A) showed disrupted glycosylation and reduced trafficking kinetics. In contrast with many ABC transporter folding mutations which appear to be 'rescued' by chemical chaperones or low temperature incubation, the I573A mutation was not enriched at the cell surface by either treatment, with the majority of the protein being retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Two other mutations (P485A and M549A) showed distinct effects on transport of ABCG2 substrates reinforcing the role of TM helix 3 in drug recognition and transport and indicating the presence of intracellular coupling regions in ABCG2. © 2015 Authors.

  15. Veterinary vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Innes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.

  16. The role of validated analytical methods in JECFA drug assessments and evaluation for recommending MRLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Joe O

    2016-05-01

    The Joint Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) is one of three Codex committees tasked with applying risk analysis and relying on independent scientific advice provided by expert bodies organized by FAO/WHO when developing standards. While not officially part of the Codex Alimentarius Commission structure, JECFA provides independent scientific advice to the Commission and its specialist committees such as the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods (CCRVDF) in setting maximum residue limits (MRLs) for veterinary drugs. Codex methods of analysis (Types I, II, III, and IV) are defined in the Codex Procedural Manual as are criteria to be used for selecting methods of analysis. However, if a method is to be used under a single laboratory condition to support regulatory work, it must be validated according to an internationally recognized protocol and the use of the method must be embedded in a quality assurance system in compliance with ISO/IEC 17025:2005. This paper examines the attributes of the methods used to generate residue depletion data for drug registration and/or licensing and for supporting regulatory enforcement initiatives that experts consider to be useful and appropriate in their assessment of methods of analysis. Copyright © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Determination of drug residues in urine of dogs receiving anti-cancer chemotherapy by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization- tandem mass spectrometry: is there an environmental or occupational risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamscher, Gerd; Mohring, Siegrun A I; Knobloch, Anna; Eberle, Nina; Nau, Heinz; Nolte, Ingo; Simon, Daniela

    2010-04-01

    Cytotoxic drugs, previously used only in human medicine, are increasingly utilized for cancer treatment in veterinary practice. We developed and validated a liquid chromatography (LC)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) method to determine vincristine, vinblastine, cyclophosphamide, and doxorubicin in canine urine. Sample pretreatment consisted of liquid-liquid extraction, and LC separation was carried out on an RP C(18) column employing a 0.5% formic acid/methanol gradient system. The analytes were detected in positive ion mode using the MS-MS scan mode. The mean recoveries in six different urine samples were between 64.2% and 86.9%. Limits of quantitation were 0.5 microg/L for vincristine and vinblastine, 1 microg/L for cyclophosphamide, and 5 microg/L for doxorubicin; limits of detection were approximately 0.25 microg/L for vincristine, vinblastine, and cyclophosphamide and 0.5 microg/L for doxorubicin. It could be demonstrated that all investigated drugs are found in urine of dogs undergoing chemotherapy. In samples from day 1 after chemotherapy, as much as 63 microg/L vincristine, 111 microg/L vinblastine, and 762 microg/L doxorubicin could be detected. Cyclophosphamide showed only minor concentrations on day 1, but up to 2583 microg/L could be found directly after chemotherapy. These initial data show that there might be a potential contamination risk when administering cytotoxics in veterinary medicine.

  18. A step towards the environmental prioritisation of veterinary medicines from animal manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahr, J.; Bondt, N.; Koeijer, de Tanja; Wipfler, E.L.; Berendsen, Bjorn; Hoeksma, Paul; Overbeek, van Leo; Mevius, D.J.

    2017-01-01

    Animal manure from intensive livestock farming is spread on arable fields and grassland on a large scale in the Netherlands. This manure can contain residues of veterinary medicines that have been given to livestock. Some of these substances are increasingly found in groundwater and surface water.

  19. Overview of suspected adverse reactions to veterinary medicinal products reported in South Africa (March 2002 – February 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naidoo

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre is responsible for the monitoring of veterinary adverse drug reactions in South Africa. An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the centre during the period March 2002 to February 2003 is given. In total, 40 reports were received. This had declined from the previous year. Most reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most of the products implicated were Stock Remedies. The animal owner predominantly administered these products. Only 1 report was received from a veterinary pharmaceutical company. Increasing numbers of reports are being received from veterinarians.

  20. Veterinary School Applicants: Financial Literacy and Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.

  1. Analysis of Food Contaminants, Residues, and Chemical Constituents of Concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Baraem; Reuhs, Bradley L.; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    The food chain that starts with farmers and ends with consumers can be complex, involving multiple stages of production and distribution (planting, harvesting, breeding, transporting, storing, importing, processing, packaging, distributing to retail markets, and shelf storing) (Fig. 18.1). Various practices can be employed at each stage in the food chain, which may include pesticide treatment, agricultural bioengineering, veterinary drug administration, environmental and storage conditions, processing applications, economic gain practices, use of food additives, choice of packaging material, etc. Each of these practices can play a major role in food quality and safety, due to the possibility of contamination with or introduction (intentionally and nonintentionally) of hazardous substances or constituents. Legislation and regulation to ensure food quality and safety are in place and continue to develop to protect the stakeholders, namely farmers, consumers, and industry. [Refer to reference (1) for information on regulations of food contaminants and residues.

  2. Veterinary Business Management Association presents program to aid future growth and stability of veterinary profession

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Spiraling veterinary student debt and the lack of a sustainable and profitable business model for many private practices in the modern business environment threaten the future growth and stability of the veterinary profession.

  3. Drug: D02601 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02601 Drug Phenothiazine (INN); Thiodiphenylamin; Nemazine [veterinary] (TN) ... C12...H9NS D02601.gif ... veterinary medicine ... CAS: 92-84-2 PubChem: 17396771 ChEMBL: CHEMBL828 LigandBox: D02601 NIKKAJI: J3.932B ...

  4. Drug: D03867 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03867 Drug Dirlotapide (USAN/INN); Slentrol [veterinary] (TN) ... C40H33F3N4O3 D0386...7.gif ... Not for use in humans. veterinary medicine - Treatment of obesity in companion animals (dogs) M

  5. Drug: D04140 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04140 Drug Fenbendazole (USP/INN); Panacur [veterinary] (TN) ... C15H13N3O2S D04140....gif ... ATC code: P02CA06 ... Benzimidazole derivative veterinary medicine ... CAS: 43210-67-9 PubChem: 47206087 ChEBI: 77092 ChEMBL: CHEMBL37161 LigandBox: D04140 NIKKAJI: J15.833J ...

  6. Drug: D07730 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07730 Drug Cloprostenol (INN); Dalmazin [veterinary] (TN) ... C22H29ClO6 D07730.gif ... ... Prostaglandin derivative veterinary medicine ... CAS: 40665-92-7 PubChem: 51092026 LigandBox: D07730 NIKKAJI: J299.284A ...

  7. Drug: D08150 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08150 Drug Lufenuron (INN); Program [veterinary] (TN) ... C17H8Cl2F8N2O3 D08150.gif ... ... Same as: C18434 ... Benzoyl phenylurea derivative veterinary medicine ... CAS: 103055-07-8 PubChem: 96024840 ChEBI: 39384 ChEMBL: CHEMBL1364906 LigandBox: D08150 NIKKAJI: J481.190I ...

  8. Drug: D08391 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D08391 Drug Pirlimycin (INN); Pirsue [veterinary] (TN) ... C17H31ClN2O5S D08391.gif ... ... ... Antibacterial ... DG01578 ... Lincosamide antibiotic Chemical group: DG01577 ... Lincosamide Target: 50S ribosomal subunit (veterinary

  9. Drug: D10034 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D10034 Drug Tylvalosin tartrate (USAN); Aiviosin [veterinary] (TN) ... C53H87NO19. (C... 50S ribosomal subunit (veterinary) ... CAS: 63428-13-7 PubChem: 135626754 LigandBox: D10034 ... ... and porcine proliferative enteropathy caused by Lawsonia intracellularis Target:

  10. Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.

  11. Use of antimicrobials in veterinary medicine and mechanisms of resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, S; Chaslus-Dancla, E

    2001-01-01

    This review deals with the application of antimicrobial agents in veterinary medicine and food animal production and the possible consequences arising from the widespread and multipurpose use of antimicrobials. The various mechanisms that bacteria have developed to escape the inhibitory effects of the antimicrobials most frequently used in the veterinary field are reported in detail. Resistance of bacteria to tetracyclines, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics, beta-lactam antibiotics, aminoglycosides, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, fluoroquinolones and chloramphenicol/florfenicol is described with regard to enzymatic inactivation, decreased intracellular drug accumulation and modification/protection/replacement of the target sites. In addition, basic information is given about mobile genetic elements which carry the respective resistance genes, such as plasmids, transposons, and gene cassettes/integrons, and their ways of spreading via conjugation, mobilisation, transduction, and transformation.

  12. 78 FR 23742 - Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute... information collection for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). This notice initiates a 30...

  13. Introduction to veterinary clinical oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1991-10-01

    Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.

  14. Ethical dilemmas in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Carol A; McDonald, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Veterinarians frequently encounter situations that are morally charged and potentially difficult to manage. Situation involving euthanasia, end-of-life care, economics, and inadequate provision of care create practical and moral dilemmas. Ethical tension may be attributable to differences in beliefs regarding the moral value of animals, client and veterinary responsibilities, and deciding what is best for an animal. Veterinarians can employ communication skills used in medical situations to explore the reasons underpinning ethical dilemmas and to search for solutions with clients, staff, and colleagues.

  15. 77 FR 15961 - Oral Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Phenylpropanolamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-19

    ... Laboratories, Inc. The NADA provides for the veterinary prescription use of phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride... Veterinary Medicine (HFV-116), Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855, 240-276... Ely Rd., Pensacola, FL 32514, filed NADA 141-324 that provides for the veterinary prescription use of...

  16. A review of novel strategies of sample preparation for the determination of antibacterial residues in foodstuffs using liquid chromatography-based analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marazuela, M.D., E-mail: marazuela@quim.ucm.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Bogialli, S [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome ' La Sapienza' , Piazza Aldo Moro, 5 00185 Rome (Italy)

    2009-07-10

    The determination of trace residues and contaminants in food has been of growing concern over the past few years. Residual antibacterials in food constitute a risk to human health, especially because they can contribute to the transmission of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria through the food chain. Therefore, to ensure food safety EU and USA regulatory agencies have established lists of forbidden or banned substances and tolerance levels for authorized veterinary drugs (e.g. antibacterials). In addition, the EU Commission Decision 2002/657/EC has set requirements about the performance of analytical methods for the determination of veterinary drug residues in food and feedstuffs. During the past years, the use of powerful mass spectrometric detectors in combination with innovative chromatographic technologies has solved many problems related to sensitivity and selectivity of this type of analysis. However sample preparation still remains as the bottleneck step, mainly in terms of analysis time and sources of error. This review covering research published between 2004 and 2008 intends to provide an update overview of the past five years, on recent trends in sample preparation for the determination of antibacterial residues in foods, making special emphasis in on-line, high-throughput, multi-class methods and including several applications in detail.

  17. Determination of residual acetone and acetone related impurities in drug product intermediates prepared as Spray Dried Dispersions (SDD) using gas chromatography with headspace autosampling (GCHS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Emma; Doggett, Adrian; Bretnall, Alison

    2014-08-05

    Spray Dried Dispersions (SDD) are uniform mixtures of a specific ratio of amorphous active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and polymer prepared via a spray drying process. Volatile solvents are employed during spray drying to facilitate the formation of the SDD material. Following manufacture, analytical methodology is required to determine residual levels of the spray drying solvent and its associated impurities. Due to the high level of polymer in the SDD samples, direct liquid injection with Gas Chromatography (GC) is not a viable option for analysis. This work describes the development and validation of an analytical approach to determine residual levels of acetone and acetone related impurities, mesityl oxide (MO) and diacetone alcohol (DAA), in drug product intermediates prepared as SDDs using GC with headspace (HS) autosampling. The method development for these analytes presented a number of analytical challenges which had to be overcome before the levels of the volatiles of interest could be accurately quantified. GCHS could be used after two critical factors were implemented; (1) calculation and application of conversion factors to 'correct' for the reactions occurring between acetone, MO and DAA during generation of the headspace volume for analysis, and the addition of an equivalent amount of polymer into all reference solutions used for quantitation to ensure comparability between the headspace volumes generated for both samples and external standards. This work describes the method development and optimisation of the standard preparation, the headspace autosampler operating parameters and the chromatographic conditions, together with a summary of the validation of the methodology. The approach has been demonstrated to be robust and suitable to accurately determine levels of acetone, MO and DAA in SDD materials over the linear concentration range 0.008-0.4μL/mL, with minimum quantitation limits of 20ppm for acetone and MO, and 80ppm for DAA. Copyright

  18. Veterinary Preventive Medicine Curriculum Development at Louisiana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbert, William T.

    1976-01-01

    The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)

  19. The potential of circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNA) in veterinary diagnostics-Identifying biomarker signatures by multivariate data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie, Spornraft; Benedikt, Kirchner; Pfaffl, Michael W; Irmgard, Riedmaier

    2015-09-01

    Worldwide growth and performance-enhancing substances are used in cattle husbandry to increase productivity. In certain countries however e.g., in the EU, these practices are forbidden to prevent the consumers from potential health risks of substance residues in food. To maximize economic profit, 'black sheep' among farmers might circumvent the detection methods used in routine controls, which highlights the need for an innovative and reliable detection method. Transcriptomics is a promising new approach in the discovery of veterinary medicine biomarkers and also a missing puzzle piece, as up to date, metabolomics and proteomics are paramount. Due to increased stability and easy sampling, circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNAs) in bovine plasma were small RNA-sequenced and their potential to serve as biomarker candidates was evaluated using multivariate data analysis tools. After running the data evaluation pipeline, the proportion of miRNAs (microRNAs) and piRNAs (PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs) on the total sequenced reads was calculated. Additionally, top 10 signatures were compared which revealed that the readcount data sets were highly affected by the most abundant miRNA and piRNA profiles. To evaluate the discriminative power of multivariate data analyses to identify animals after veterinary drug application on the basis of smexRNAs, OPLS-DA was performed. In summary, the quality of miRNA models using all mapped reads for both treatment groups (animals treated with steroid hormones or the β-agonist clenbuterol) is predominant to those generated with combined data sets or piRNAs alone. Using multivariate projection methodologies like OPLS-DA have proven the best potential to generate discriminative miRNA models, supported by small RNA-Seq data. Based on the presented comparative OPLS-DA, miRNAs are the favorable smexRNA biomarker candidates in the research field of veterinary drug abuse.

  20. A new era in veterinary immunology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.

    1979-01-01

    The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of

  1. The ninth international veterinary immunology symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...

  2. Veterinary Forensic Pathology: The Search for Truth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J

    2016-09-01

    Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Making a difference through veterinary public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-11

    More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. British Veterinary Association.

  4. Veterinary Safety's Conflicts in the EAEU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalymbek, Bakytzhan; Shulanbekova, Gulmira K.; Madiyarova, Ainur S.; Mirambaeva, Gulnaz Zh.

    2016-01-01

    This article is devoted to the problem of veterinary safety of the countries under the Eurasian Economic Union. Animal health's measures are provided in order to prevent the entry and spread of infectious animal diseases, including common to humans and animals, as well as goods not conforming to the common veterinary and sanitary requirements.…

  5. 9 CFR 3.110 - Veterinary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine mammals...

  6. Perceptions of veterinary admissions committee members of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, ...

  7. Global alteration of the drug-binding pocket of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) by substitution of fifteen conserved residues reveals a negative correlation between substrate size and transport efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahedi, Shahrooz; Chufan, Eduardo E; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2017-11-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump, is linked to the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. However, the drug-binding sites and translocation pathways of this transporter are not yet well-characterized. We recently demonstrated the important role of tyrosine residues in regulating P-gp ATP hydrolysis via hydrogen bond formations with high affinity modulators. Since tyrosine is both a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor, and non-covalent interactions are key in drug transport, in this study we investigated the global effect of enrichment of tyrosine residues in the drug-binding pocket on the drug binding and transport function of P-gp. By employing computational analysis, 15 conserved residues in the drug-binding pocket of human P-gp that interact with substrates were identified and then substituted with tyrosine, including 11 phenylalanine (F72, F303, F314, F336, F732, F759, F770, F938, F942, F983, F994), two leucine (L339, L975), one isoleucine (I306), and one methionine (M949). Characterization of the tyrosine-rich P-gp mutant in HeLa cells demonstrated that this major alteration in the drug-binding pocket by introducing fifteen additional tyrosine residues is well tolerated and has no measurable effect on total or cell surface expression of this mutant. Although the tyrosine-enriched mutant P-gp could transport small to moderate size (transport large (>1000 Daltons) substrates such as NBD-cyclosporine A, Bodipy-paclitaxel and Bodipy-vinblastine was significantly decreased. This was further supported by the physico-chemical characterization of seventeen tested substrates, which revealed a negative correlation between drug transport and molecular size for the tyrosine-enriched P-gp mutant. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. The use of intravenous lipid emulsion as an antidote in veterinary toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Alberto L; Lee, Justine A; Rahilly, Louisa; Hovda, Lynn; Brutlag, Ahna G; Engebretsen, Kristin

    2011-08-01

    To review the use of IV lipid emulsion (ILE) for the treatment of toxicities related to fat-soluble agents; evaluate current human and veterinary literature; and to provide proposed guidelines for the use of this emerging therapy in veterinary medicine and toxicology. Human and veterinary medical literature. Human data are composed mostly of case reports describing the response to treatment with ILE as variant from mild improvement to complete resolution of clinical signs, which is suspected to be due to the variability of lipid solubility of the drugs. The use of ILE therapy has been advocated as an antidote in cases of local anesthetic and other lipophilic drug toxicoses, particularly in the face of cardiopulmonary arrest and unsuccessful cardiopulmonary cerebral resuscitation. The use of ILE therapy in veterinary medicine has recently been advocated by animal poison control centers for toxicoses associated with fat-soluble agents, but there are only few clinical reports documenting successful use of this therapy. Evidence for the use of ILE in both human and veterinary medicine is composed primarily from experimental animal data. The use of ILE appears to be a safe therapy for the poisoned animal patient, but is warranted only with certain toxicoses. Adverse events associated with ILE in veterinary medicine are rare and anecdotal. Standard resuscitation protocols should be exhausted before considering this therapy and the potential side effects should be evaluated before administration of ILE as a potential antidote in cases of lipophilic drug toxicoses. Further research is waranted. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2011.

  9. A review of analytical procedures for the simultaneous determination of medically important veterinary antibiotics in environmental water: Sample preparation, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chansik; Ryu, Hong-Duck; Chung, Eu Gene; Kim, Yongseok; Lee, Jae-Kwan

    2018-07-01

    Medically important (MI) antibiotics are defined by the United States Food and Drug Administration as drugs containing certain active antimicrobial ingredients that are used for the treatment of human diseases or enteric pathogens causing food-borne diseases. The presence of MI antibiotic residues in environmental water is a major concern for both aquatic ecosystems and public health, particularly because of their potential to contribute to the development of antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms. In this article, we present a review of global trends in the sales of veterinary MI antibiotics and the analytical methodologies used for the simultaneous determination of antibiotic residues in environmental water. According to recently published government reports, sales volumes have increased steadily, despite many countries having adopted strategies for reducing the consumption of antibiotics. Global attention needs to be directed urgently at establishing new management strategies for reducing the use of MI antimicrobial products in the livestock industry. The development of standardized analytical methods for the detection of multiple residues is required to monitor and understand the fate of antibiotics in the environment. Simultaneous analyses of antibiotics have mostly been conducted using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with a solid-phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment step. Currently, on-line SPE protocols are used for the rapid and sensitive detection of antibiotics in water samples. On-line detection protocols must be established for the monitoring and screening of unknown metabolites and transformation products of antibiotics in environmental water. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors for urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P

    2012-03-01

    In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  11. Determination of Anthracycline Drug Residual in Cleaning Validation Swabs of Stainless-Steel Equipment after Production of Cytostatic Injections Using HPLC Analytical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Slivová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard cleaning procedures of production line equipment were verified after manufacture of cytostatic injections containing Anthracycline derivate substance. Residual content of Anthracycline drug substance on stainless-steel equipment surface was determined using swab sampling with a specific HPLC-DAD analysis. The acceptance limit was decided as 200.0 μg/100 cm2. Recovery from the stainless-steel surface was 90.1%. Linearity of the method was observed in the concentration range of 0.155–194 μg/mL when estimated using Zorbax TMS (5 μm, 0.25 m × 4.6 mm ID column at 1.3 mL/min flow rate and 254 nm (DAD 190–600 nm. The mobile phase consisted of lauryl hydrogen sulphate solution (3.7 g/L : methanol : acetonitrile (54 : 16 : 30, v/v/v with pH adjusted to 2.5 using phosphoric acid (85%. The LOD and LOQ for Anthracycline derivate were found to be 0.047 and 0.155 μg/mL, respectively. The method validation confirmed the method provides acceptable degree of selectivity, linearity, accuracy, and precision for the intended purposes.

  12. Teaching Veterinary Anesthesia: A Survey-Based Evaluation of Two High-Fidelity Models and Live-Animal Experience for Undergraduate Veterinary Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, Gabrielle C; Collins, Teresa; Hosgood, Giselle

    In veterinary medical education, reduction, replacement, and refinement (the three Rs) must be considered. Three clinical skills in anesthesia were identified as challenging to students: endotracheal intubation, intravenous catheterization, and drug dose calculations. The aims of this project were to evaluate students' perception of their level of confidence in performing these three clinical skills in veterinary anesthesia, to document the extent of students' previous experience in performing these three tasks, and to describe students' emotional states during this training. Veterinary students completed a series of four surveys over the period of their pre-clinical training to evaluate the usefulness of high-fidelity models for skill acquisition in endotracheal intubation and intravenous catheterization. In addition, practice and ongoing assessment in drug dose calculations were performed. The curriculum during this period of training progressed from lectures and non-animal training, to anesthesia of pigs undergoing surgery from which they did not recover, and finally to anesthesia of dogs and cats in a neutering clinic. The level of confidence for each of the three clinical skills increased over the study period. For each skill, the number of students with no confidence decreased to zero and the proportion of students with higher levels of confidence increased. The high-fidelity models for endotracheal intubation and intravenous catheterization used to complement the live-animal teaching were considered a useful adjunct to the teaching of clinical skills in veterinary anesthesia. With practice, students became more confident performing drug dose calculations.

  13. Domestic violence shelter partnerships and veterinary student attitudes at North American veterinary schools and colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K

    2013-01-01

    Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.

  14. The European system of veterinary specialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnoli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Veterinary specialist diplomas were available in many European countries during the second half of the 20th century. However, such an early recognition of the importance of veterinary specialization actually delayed the concept of the European veterinary specialist in Europe, compared with the United States, where the first specialist colleges were established in the 1960s, because it was felt that the national system was functioning properly and there was therefore no need for a new structure in the European countries. The European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS) was established in 1996, and currently there are 23 specialist colleges with more than 2,600 veterinarians officially listed in the EBVS register as European specialists. The Advisory Committee on Veterinary Training (ACVT) approved the establishment of EBVS but never implemented a supervising body (with ACVT representation). Such a body, the European Coordinating Committee on Veterinary Training, was later implemented by the profession itself, although it still lacked a political component. Each college depends on the EBVS, which has the function to define standards and criteria for monitoring the quality of college diplomates. To become a European Diplomate, veterinarians must have gone through an intensive period of training supervised by a diplomate, after which candidates must pass an examination. Although the term European veterinary specialist still does not have any legal recognition, national specialist qualifications are being phased out in many countries because of the inherent higher quality of EBVS specialist qualifications.

  15. The need for veterinary nursing in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funmilayo A. Okanlawon, RN, PhD, FWACN

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, nursing care has been identified as an integral part of human medicine but is not well recognised in veterinary medicine as practised in Nigeria. In caring for human beings, a nurse is expected to have the fundamental understanding of disease aetiology, manifestations, diagnosis, manage-ment, rehabilitation, prevention and control. This is equally applicable to the care of animals. The role of veterinary nursing in veterinary medicine is significant considering the multitude of issues involved in the care of animals. The keeping of domestic animals is becoming popular and consequently the spread of infectious diseases from animals to human beings is on the increase. It is vital for human beings and animals to coexist in a healthy environment. The authors examine the importance of nursing care in veterinary medicine, the current situation in Nigeria, the role of veterinary nurses, the inter-professional approach to veterinary medicine, preparedness for the emergence of infectious diseases and career opportunities for veterinary nurses. This premise falls within the context of the ‘One Health’ concept.

  16. Veterinary and human vaccine evaluation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009

  17. Widespread occurrence of chemical residues in beehive matrices from apiaries located in different landscapes of Western France.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Lambert

    Full Text Available The honey bee, Apis mellifera, is frequently used as a sentinel to monitor environmental pollution. In parallel, general weakening and unprecedented colony losses have been reported in Europe and the USA, and many factors are suspected to play a central role in these problems, including infection by pathogens, nutritional stress and pesticide poisoning. Honey bee, honey and pollen samples collected from eighteen apiaries of western France from four different landscape contexts during four different periods in 2008 and in 2009 were analyzed to evaluate the presence of pesticides and veterinary drug residues.A multi-residue analysis of 80 compounds was performed using a modified QuEChERS method, followed by GC-ToF and LC-MS/MS. The analysis revealed that 95.7%, 72.3% and 58.6% of the honey, honey bee and pollen samples, respectively, were contaminated by at least one compound. The frequency of detection was higher in the honey samples (n = 28 than in the pollen (n = 23 or honey bee (n = 20 samples, but the highest concentrations were found in pollen. Although most compounds were rarely found, some of the contaminants reached high concentrations that might lead to adverse effects on bee health. The three most frequent residues were the widely used fungicide carbendazim and two acaricides, amitraz and coumaphos, that are used by beekeepers to control Varroa destructor. Apiaries in rural-cultivated landscapes were more contaminated than those in other landscape contexts, but the differences were not significant. The contamination of the different matrices was shown to be higher in early spring than in all other periods.Honey bees, honeys and pollens are appropriate sentinels for monitoring pesticide and veterinary drug environmental pollution. This study revealed the widespread occurrence of multiple residues in beehive matrices and suggests a potential issue with the effects of these residues alone or in combination on honey bee health.

  18. Workplace safety and health for the veterinary health care team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, John D; MacMahon, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary clinic employers have a legal and ethical responsibility to provide a safe and healthy workplace. Clinic members are responsible for consistently using safe practices and procedures set up by their employer. Development and implementation of a customized comprehensive workplace safety and health program is emphasized, including an infection control plan. Occupational safety and health regulations are reviewed. The hazards of sharps, animal bites and scratches, and drugs are discussed. Strategies to prevent or minimize adverse health effects and resources for training and education are provided. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  20. Inspections in veterinary medicine 2005; Veterinaerinspektioner 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joensson, Helene

    2006-11-15

    In Sweden 300 veterinary clinics have a license for x-ray diagnostics. Six of them also have a license for nuclear medicine. During 2005 eight clinics were inspected and the results show that the radiation protection in veterinary medicine can be improved. No clinic fulfilled the regulations of categorization of workplaces and workers (SSI FS 1998:3). Half of the clinics had no Swedish manual to the x-ray equipment and just as many had not performed the annual function check. Obviously, there is a need for more information to staff in veterinary medicine.

  1. Veterinary medicine books recommended for academic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawley-Low, Jill

    2004-10-01

    This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).

  2. Multiclass analysis of antibiotic residues in honey by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Jose Luis Martínez; Aguilera-Luiz, María Del Mar; Romero-González, Roberto; Frenich, Antonia Garrido

    2009-03-11

    A method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous analysis of different veterinary drug residues (macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones, and sulfonamides) in honey. Honey samples were dissolved with Na(2)EDTA, and veterinary residues were extracted from the supernatant by solid-phase extraction (SPE), using OASIS HLB cartridges. The separation and determination was carried out by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), using an electrospay ionization source (ESI) in positive mode. Data acquisition under MS/MS was achieved by applying multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two ion transitions per compound to provide a high degree of sensitivity and specificity. The method was validated, and mean recoveries were evaluated at three concentration levels (10, 50, and 100 microg/kg), ranging from 70 to 120% except for doxycycline, erythromycin, and tylmicosin with recovery higher than 50% at the three levels assayed. Relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the recoveries were less than 20% within the intraday precision and less than 25% within the interday precision. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were always lower than 4 microg/kg. The developed procedure was applied to 16 honey samples, and erythromycin, sarafloxacin, and tylosin were found in a few samples.

  3. 78 FR 14803 - Ag-Mark, Inc., et al.; Withdrawal of Approval of New Animal Drug Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-07

    ... the legal status of the drug products. Therefore, the Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine, is... Veterinary Medicine (HFV-212), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855, 240-453... Pharmaceuticals, LLC, Bldg. 31, 24 Olney Ave., Cherry Hill, NJ 08034. The Director, Center for Veterinary Medicine...

  4. Genomics and systems biology - How relevant are the developments to veterinary pharmacology, toxicology and therapeutics?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkamp, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    This review discusses some of the recent developments in genomics and its current and future relevance for veterinary pharmacology and toxicology. With the rapid progress made in this field several new approaches in pharmacological and toxicological research have developed and drug discovery and

  5. Biochemical changes and drug residues in ascidian Halocynthia roretzi after formalin–hydrogen peroxide treatment regimen designed against soft tunic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Hoon Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Soft tunic syndrome (STS is a protozoal disease caused by Azumiobodo hoyamushi in the edible ascidian Halocynthia roretzi. Previous studies have proven that combined formalin–hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 bath is effective in reducing STS progress and mortality. To secure target animal safety for field applications, toxicity of the treatment needs to be evaluated. Healthy ascidians were bathed for 1 week, 1 h a day at various bathing concentrations. Bathing with 5- and 10-fold optimum concentration caused 100% mortality of ascidians, whereas mortality by 0.5- to 2.0-fold solutions was not different from that of control. Of the oxidative damage parameters, MDA levels did not change after 0.5- and 1.0-fold bathing. However, free radical scavenging ability and reducing power were significantly decreased even with the lower-than-optimal 0.5-fold concentration. Glycogen content tended to increase with 1-fold bathing without statistical significance. All changes induced by the 2-fold bathing were completely or partially restored to control levels 48 h post-bathing. Free amino acid analysis revealed a concentration-dependent decline in aspartic acid and cysteine levels. In contrast, alanine and valine levels increased after the 2-fold bath treatment. These data indicate that the currently established effective disinfectant regimen against the parasitic pathogen is generally safe, and the biochemical changes observed are transient, lasting approximately 48 h at most. Low levels of formalin and H2O2 were detectable 1 h post-bathing; however, the compounds were completely undetectable after 48 h of bathing. Formalin–H2O2 bathing is effective against STS; however, reasonable care is required in the treatment to avoid unwanted toxicity. Drug residues do not present a concern for consumer safety.

  6. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...

  7. Sleep hygiene among veterinary medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, Kenneth D; Hunt, Suzanne A; Borst, Luke B; Gerard, Mathew

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to better understand veterinary medical students' sleep hygiene and identify the extent to which sleep hygiene behaviors may result in consequences (either positive or negative) for students. A total of 187 doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) program students at a large College of Veterinary Medicine in the United States. The Epworth Sleep Scale and Daytime Sleepiness Scale were administered to 393 students enrolled in the DVM program. About 55.1% of students reported sleep per night, 28.9% reported having trouble sleeping, and 50.3% reported feeling sleepy all day. With respect to sleep quality, 5.3% described it as excellent, 52.4% as good, 34.2% as fair, and 8.0% as poor. A significant percentage of veterinary medical students exhibit poor sleep hygiene habits that may be detrimental to both their health and academic endeavors.

  8. Good veterinary governance: definition, measurement and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msellati, L; Commault, J; Dehove, A

    2012-08-01

    Good veterinary governance assumes the provision of veterinary services that are sustainably financed, universally available, and provided efficiently without waste or duplication, in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. Good veterinary governance is a necessary condition for sustainable economic development insomuch as it promotes the effective delivery of services and improves the overall performance of animal health systems. This article defines governance in Veterinary Services and proposes a framework for its measurement. It also discusses the role of Veterinary Services and analyses the governance dimensions of the performance-assessment tools developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). These tools (OIE PVS Tool and PVS Gap Analysis) track the performance of Veterinary Services across countries (a harmonised tool) and over time (the PVS Pathway). The article shows the usefulness of the OIE PVS Tool for measuring governance, but also points to two shortcomings, namely (i) the lack of clear outcome indicators, which is an impediment to a comprehensive assessment of the performance of Veterinary Services, and (ii) the lack of specific measures for assessing the extent of corruption within Veterinary Services and the extent to which demand for better governance is being strengthened within the animal health system. A discussion follows on the drivers of corruption and instruments for perception-based assessments of country governance and corruption. Similarly, the article introduces the concept of social accountability, which is an approach to enhancing government transparency and accountability, and shows how supply-side and demand-side mechanisms complement each other in improving the governance of service delivery. It further elaborates on two instruments--citizen report card surveys and grievance redress mechanisms--because of their wider relevance and their possible applications in many settings, including Veterinary

  9. Clinical decision making in veterinary practice

    OpenAIRE

    Everitt, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the factors which influence veterinary surgeons’ clinical decision making during routine consultations. Methods The research takes a qualitative approach using video-cued interviews, in which one of the veterinary surgeon’s own consultations is used as the basis of a semi-structured interview exploring decision making in real cases. The research focuses primarily on small animal consultations in first opinion practice, how...

  10. National post-market surveillance assessment of veterinary medicines in Korea during the past decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, JeongWoo; Park, Hae-Chul; Jang, Yang Ho; Hossain, Md Akil; Jeong, Kyunghun; Jeong, Mi Young; Yun, Seon-Jong; Park, Sung-Won; Kim, Dae Gyun; Lee, Kwang-Jick

    2017-05-22

    Veterinary medicines have been widely used for the prevention and treatment of diseases, growth promotion, and to promote feeding efficacy in livestock. As the veterinary medicine industry has steadily grown, it is crucial to set up a baseline for the quality of medicine as well as the insufficiency or excessiveness of the active ingredients in drug products to ensure the compliance, safety and efficacy of these medicines. Thus, the 10 years data of post-marketing quality control study was summarized to determine the rate and extent of non-compliance of these medicines and to establish baseline data for future quality control measures of veterinary medicine. In this study, 1650 drugs for veterinary use were collected per year from each city and province in Korea and analysed for the quantity of active ingredients according to the "national post-market surveillance (NPMS) system" over the past decade. The NPMS assessment was performed using liquid and gas chromatography, titration, UV/Vis spectrophotometry, and bioassays. A total of 358 cases were deemed noncompliant, with the average noncompliance rate for all medicine types being 2.0%. The average noncompliance rates for antibiotics, biologics and other chemical drugs except antibiotics (OCD) were 1.1%, 1.2%, and 3.0%, respectively. The first leading cause for noncompliant products was insufficient quantity of major ingredients (283 cases), and the second leading cause was the existence of excess amount of active ingredients (60 cases). Tylosin, spiramycin, ampicillin, tetracyclines and penicillins were most frequently found to be noncompliant among antibiotics. Among the OCD, the noncompliance was found commonly in vitamin A. The overall trend presented gradually decreasing violation rates, suggesting that the quality of veterinary medicines has improved. Consistent application of the NPMS assessment and the establishment of the Korea Veterinary Good Manufacturing Practice (KVGMP) will help to maintain the good

  11. Research data services in veterinary medicine libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerby, Erin E

    2016-10-01

    The study investigated veterinary medicine librarians' experience with and perceptions of research data services. Many academic libraries have begun to offer research data services in response to researchers' increased need for data management support. To date, such services have typically been generic, rather than discipline-specific, to appeal to a wide variety of researchers. An online survey was deployed to identify trends regarding research data services in veterinary medicine libraries. Participants were identified from a list of contacts from the MLA Veterinary Medical Libraries Section. Although many respondents indicated that they have a professional interest in research data services, the majority of veterinary medicine librarians only rarely or occasionally provide data management support as part of their regular job responsibilities. There was little consensus as to whether research data services should be core to a library's mission despite their perceived importance to the advancement of veterinary research. Furthermore, most respondents stated that research data services are just as or somewhat less important than the other services that they provide and feel only slightly or somewhat prepared to offer such services. Lacking a standard definition of "research data" and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.

  12. Factors Associated with Veterinary Clinical Faculty Attrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furr, Martin

    Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded, and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.

  13. Cultural awareness in veterinary practice: student perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida

    2011-01-01

    Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.

  14. Veterinary antimicrobial-usage statistics based on standardized measures of dosage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vibeke Frøkjær; Jacobsen, Erik; Bager, Flemming

    2004-01-01

    In human medicine, the defined daily dose is used as a technical measure of drug usage, which is independent of the variations in the potency of the active compound and the formulation of the pharmaceutical product-therefore providing a measure of the relative importance of different drugs....... A national system of animal defined daily doses (ADD) for each age-group and species has been defined in VetStat (the Danish national system monitoring veterinary therapeutic drug use). The usage is further standardized according to the number of animals in the target population, acquired from production...... data on the national level or on herd size by species and age in the Danish central husbandry register (CHR). Statistics based on standardized measures of VetStat data can be used for comparison of drug usage between different herds, veterinary practices, or geographic regions (allowing subdivision...

  15. Quantitative determination of quinolones residues in milk by HPLC-FLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Gili

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Veterinary drugs have become an integral part of the livestock production and play an important role in maintenance of animal welfare. The use of veterinary medicines may be cause of the presence of drug residues in animal food products if appropriate withdrawal periods are not respected or if contaminated feeds are used. This work presents the development of an HPLC-FLD method for the quantitative de-tection of eight quinolones – norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, enrofloxacin, difloxacin, oxolinic acid, nalidixic acid, flumequine– in bovine milk. After deproteination and extraction with a metaphos-phoric acid 1% w/v / methanol / acetonitrile (60/20/20 v/v/v solution, the sample is partially evaporated and cleaned up on a reversed phase SPE cartridge.The extract is analyzed using an high performance liquid chromatograph with fluorescence detector. Mean recovery ranged between 65% - 88%. All the an-alytes can be identified and quantified in the concentration range 15 - 60 μg/Kg for danofloxacin and 25 - 150 μg/Kg for the other quinolones.

  16. Results of extended plant tests using more realistic exposure scenarios for improving environmental risk assessment of veterinary pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Elisabeth; Berkner, Silvia; Ebert, Ina; Förster, Bernhard; Graf, Nadin; Herrchen, Monika; Kuehnen, Ute; Römbke, Jörg; Simon, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Background Residues of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) enter the environment via application of manure onto agricultural areas where in particular antibiotics can cause phytotoxicity. Terrestrial plant tests according to OECD guideline 208 are part of the environmental risk assessment of VMPs. However, this standard approach might not be appropriate for VMPs which form non-extractable residues or transformation products in manure and manure-amended soil. Therefore, a new test design with...

  17. Chemometric quality inspection control of pyrantel pamoate, febantel and praziquantel in veterinary tablets by mid infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantavini, Mário S; Pontes, Flávia L D; Uber, Caroline P; Stremel, Dile P; Sena, Marcelo M; Pontarolo, Roberto

    2014-05-05

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new multivariate calibration method based on diffuse reflectance mid infrared spectroscopy for direct and simultaneous determination of three veterinary pharmaceutical drugs, pyrantel pamoate, praziquantel and febantel, in commercial tablets. The best synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) model was obtained by selecting three spectral regions, 3715-3150, 2865-2583, and 2298-1733 cm(-1), preprocessed by first derivative and Savitzky-Golay smoothing followed by mean centering. This model was built with five latent variables and provided root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) equal or lower than 0.69 mg per 100 mg of powder for the three analytes. The method was validated according the appropriate regulations through the estimate of figures of merit, such as trueness, precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity, bias and residual prediction deviation (RPD). Then, it was applied to three different veterinary pharmaceutical formulations found in the Brazilian market, in a situation of multi-product calibration, since the excipient composition of these commercial products, which was not known a priori, was modeled by an experimental design that scanned the likely content range of the possible constituents. The results were verified with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and were in agreement with the predicted values at 95% confidence level. The developed method presented the advantages of being simple, rapid, solvent free, and about ten times faster than the HPLC ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemometric quality inspection control of pyrantel pamoate, febantel and praziquantel in veterinary tablets by mid infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piantavini, Mário S.; Pontes, Flávia L. D.; Uber, Caroline P.; Stremel, Dile P.; Sena, Marcelo M.; Pontarolo, Roberto

    This paper describes the development and validation of a new multivariate calibration method based on diffuse reflectance mid infrared spectroscopy for direct and simultaneous determination of three veterinary pharmaceutical drugs, pyrantel pamoate, praziquantel and febantel, in commercial tablets. The best synergy interval partial least squares (siPLS) model was obtained by selecting three spectral regions, 3715-3150, 2865-2583, and 2298-1733 cm-1, preprocessed by first derivative and Savitzky-Golay smoothing followed by mean centering. This model was built with five latent variables and provided root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) equal or lower than 0.69 mg per 100 mg of powder for the three analytes. The method was validated according the appropriate regulations through the estimate of figures of merit, such as trueness, precision, linearity, analytical sensitivity, bias and residual prediction deviation (RPD). Then, it was applied to three different veterinary pharmaceutical formulations found in the Brazilian market, in a situation of multi-product calibration, since the excipient composition of these commercial products, which was not known a priori, was modeled by an experimental design that scanned the likely content range of the possible constituents. The results were verified with high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) and were in agreement with the predicted values at 95% confidence level. The developed method presented the advantages of being simple, rapid, solvent free, and about ten times faster than the HPLC ones.

  19. SPECIAL ISSUE VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY IMMUNOPATHOLOGY: PROCEEDINGS 8TH INTERNATIONAL VETERINARY IMMUNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the Special Issue of Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. that summarizes the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto, Brazil. The 8 th IVIS highlighted the importance of veterinary immunology for animal health, vaccinology, reproducti...

  20. Ethnography in the Danish Veterinary Learning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Kirketerp Nielsen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The overall objective of this project is research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based learning concept to be used in the veterinary education. Herd visits and animal contact are essential for the development of veterinary competences and skills during education. Yet veterinary students have little occasion to reach/attain a proper level of confidence in their own skills/abilities, as they have limited “training-facilities” (Kneebone & Baillie, 2008. One possible solution mightbe to provide a safe, virtual environment (game-based where students could practise interdisciplinary clinical skills in an easily-accessible, interactive setting. A playable demo using Classical Swine Fever in a pig herd as an example has been produced for this purpose. In order totailor the game concept to the specific veterinary learning environment and to ensure compliance with both learning objectives and the actual learning processes/procedures of the veterinary students, the project contains both a developmental aspect (game development and an exploration of the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context. The initial phase of the project was a preliminary exploration of the actual learning context, providing an important starting point for the upcoming phase in which I will concentrate on research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based virtual environment in this course context. In the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context of a veterinary course in Herd Health Management (Pig module,ethnographic studies have been conducted by using multiple data collection methods; participant observation, spontaneous dialogues and interviews (Borgnakke, 1996; Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007. All courserelated activities in the different learning spaces (commercial pig herds, auditoriums, post-mortem examinations, independent group work were followed.This paper will

  1. Validation of the BetaStar® Advanced for Beta-lactams Test Kit for the Screening of Bulk Tank and Tanker Truck Milks for the Presence of Beta-lactam Drug Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhartigh, Andrew; Reynolds, Lindsay; Palmer, Katherine; Klein, Frank; Rice, Jennifer; Rejman, John J

    2018-05-18

    A validation study was conducted for an immunochromatographic method (BetaStar ® Advanced for Beta-lactams) for the detection of beta-lactam residues in raw, commingled bovine milk. The assay detected amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, penicillin, cephapirin, and ceftiofur below the U.S. Food and Drug Administration tolerance levels but above the maximum sensitivity thresholds established by the National Conference on Interstate Milk Shipments. The results of internal and independent laboratory dose-response studies employing spiked samples were in agreement. The test detected all six drugs at the approximate 90/95% sensitivity levels in milk from cows treated with each drug. Selectivity of the assay was 100%, as no false-positive results were obtained in testing 1148 control milk samples. Testing the estimated 90/95% sensitivity level for amoxicillin (8.5 ppb), ampicillin (6.9 ppb), cloxacillin (8.9 ppb), penicillin (4.2 ppb), and cephapirin (17.6 ppb), and at 100 ppb for each antibiotic, resulted in 94-100% positive tests for each of the beta-lactam drugs. The results of ruggedness experiments established the operating parameter tolerances for the assay. Cross-reactivity testing established that the assay detects other certain beta-lactam drugs, but it does not cross-react with any of 30 drugs belonging to seven different drug classes. Abnormally high bacterial or somatic cell counts in raw milk produced no assay interference.

  2. Monte Carlo Simulations Suggest Current Chlortetracycline Drug-Residue Based Withdrawal Periods Would Not Control Antimicrobial Resistance Dissemination from Feedlot to Slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazer, Casey L; Ducrot, Lucas; Volkova, Victoriya V; Gröhn, Yrjö T

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial use in beef cattle can increase antimicrobial resistance prevalence in their enteric bacteria, including potential pathogens such as Escherichia coli . These bacteria can contaminate animal products at slaughterhouses and cause food-borne illness, which can be difficult to treat if it is due to antimicrobial resistant bacteria. One potential intervention to reduce the dissemination of resistant bacteria from feedlot to consumer is to impose a withdrawal period after antimicrobial use, similar to the current withdrawal period designed to prevent drug residues in edible animal meat. We investigated tetracycline resistance in generic E. coli in the bovine large intestine during and after antimicrobial treatment by building a mathematical model of oral chlortetracycline pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics and E. coli population dynamics. We tracked three E. coli subpopulations (susceptible, intermediate, and resistant) during and after treatment with each of three United States chlortetracycline indications (liver abscess reduction, disease control, disease treatment). We compared the proportion of resistant E. coli before antimicrobial use to that at several time points after treatment and found a greater proportion of resistant enteric E. coli after the current withdrawal periods than prior to treatment. In order for the proportion of resistant E. coli in the median beef steer to return to the pre-treatment level, withdrawal periods of 15 days after liver abscess reduction dosing (70 mg daily), 31 days after disease control dosing (350 mg daily), and 36 days after disease treatment dosing (22 mg/kg bodyweight for 5 days) are required in this model. These antimicrobial resistance withdrawal periods would be substantially longer than the current U.S. withdrawals of 0-2 days or Canadian withdrawals of 5-10 days. One published field study found similar time periods necessary to reduce the proportion of resistant E. coli following chlortetracycline disease

  3. Monte Carlo Simulations Suggest Current Chlortetracycline Drug-Residue Based Withdrawal Periods Would Not Control Antimicrobial Resistance Dissemination from Feedlot to Slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casey L. Cazer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial use in beef cattle can increase antimicrobial resistance prevalence in their enteric bacteria, including potential pathogens such as Escherichia coli. These bacteria can contaminate animal products at slaughterhouses and cause food-borne illness, which can be difficult to treat if it is due to antimicrobial resistant bacteria. One potential intervention to reduce the dissemination of resistant bacteria from feedlot to consumer is to impose a withdrawal period after antimicrobial use, similar to the current withdrawal period designed to prevent drug residues in edible animal meat. We investigated tetracycline resistance in generic E. coli in the bovine large intestine during and after antimicrobial treatment by building a mathematical model of oral chlortetracycline pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics and E. coli population dynamics. We tracked three E. coli subpopulations (susceptible, intermediate, and resistant during and after treatment with each of three United States chlortetracycline indications (liver abscess reduction, disease control, disease treatment. We compared the proportion of resistant E. coli before antimicrobial use to that at several time points after treatment and found a greater proportion of resistant enteric E. coli after the current withdrawal periods than prior to treatment. In order for the proportion of resistant E. coli in the median beef steer to return to the pre-treatment level, withdrawal periods of 15 days after liver abscess reduction dosing (70 mg daily, 31 days after disease control dosing (350 mg daily, and 36 days after disease treatment dosing (22 mg/kg bodyweight for 5 days are required in this model. These antimicrobial resistance withdrawal periods would be substantially longer than the current U.S. withdrawals of 0–2 days or Canadian withdrawals of 5–10 days. One published field study found similar time periods necessary to reduce the proportion of resistant E. coli following

  4. 75 FR 38699 - Implantation or Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Propofol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ... Fort Dodge Animal Health, Division of Wyeth. The NADA provides for veterinary prescription use of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Melanie R. Berson, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-110), Food and Drug Administration... 42d St., New York, NY 10017 filed NADA 141-303 that provides for veterinary prescription use of...

  5. 75 FR 59610 - Implantation and Injectable Dosage Form New Animal Drugs; Firocoxib

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ...) filed by Merial Ltd. The NADA provides for the veterinary prescription use of firocoxib injectable... Veterinary Medicine (HFV-110), Food and Drug Administration, 7500 Standish Pl., Rockville, MD 20855, 240-276...., Bldg. 500, Duluth, GA 30096-4640 filed NADA 141-313 that provides for veterinary prescription use of...

  6. Characterization of veterinary hospital-associated isolates of Enterococcus species in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeon Soo; Kwon, Ka Hee; Shin, Sook; Kim, Jae Hong; Park, Yong Ho; Yoon, Jang Won

    2014-03-28

    Possible cross-transmission of hospital-associated enterococci between human patients, medical staff, and hospital environments has been extensively studied. However, limited information is available for veterinary hospital-associated Enterococcus isolates. This study investigated the possibility of cross-transmission of antibiotic-resistant enterococci between dog patients, their owners, veterinary staff, and hospital environments. Swab samples (n =46 5) were obtained from five veterinary hospitals in Seoul, Korea, during 2011. Forty-three Enterococcus strains were isolated, representing seven enterococcal species. E. faecalis and E. faecium were the most dominant species (16 isolates each, 37.2%). Although slight differences in the antibiotic resistance profiles were observed between the phenotypic and the genotypic data, our antibiogram analysis demonstrated high prevalence of the multiple drug-resistant (MDR) isolates of E. faecalis (10/16 isolates, 62.5%) and E. faecium (12/16 isolates, 75.0%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoretic comparison of the MDR isolates revealed three different clonal sets of E. faecalis and a single set of E. faecium, which were isolated from different sample groups or dog patients at the same or two separate veterinary hospitals. These results imply a strong possibility of cross-transmission of the antibiotic-resistant enterococcal species between animal patients, owners, veterinary staff, and hospital environments.

  7. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahotra, I.M.

    2006-01-01

    The principal effect of unloading a material strained into the plastic range is to create a permanent set (plastic deformation), which if restricted somehow, gives rise to a system of self-balancing within the same member or reaction balanced by other members of the structure., known as residual stresses. These stresses stay there as locked-in stresses, in the body or a part of it in the absence of any external loading. Residual stresses are induced during hot-rolling and welding differential cooling, cold-forming and extruding: cold straightening and spot heating, fabrication and forced fitting of components constraining the structure to a particular geometry. The areas which cool more quickly develop residual compressive stresses, while the slower cooling areas develop residual tensile stresses, and a self-balancing or reaction balanced system of residual stresses is formed. The phenomenon of residual stresses is the most challenging in its application in surface modification techniques determining endurance mechanism against fracture and fatigue failures. This paper discusses the mechanism of residual stresses, that how the residual stresses are fanned and what their behavior is under the action of external forces. Such as in the case of a circular bar under limit torque, rectangular beam under limt moment, reclaiming of shafts welds and peening etc. (author)

  8. Overview of suspected adverse reactions to veterinary medicinal products reported in South Africa (March 2004 - February 2006 : report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naidoo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre is responsible for the monitoring of veterinary adverse drug reactions in South Africa. An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the centre during the period March 2004 to February 2006 is presented. A total of 21 reports was received in the 2-year period, continuing the decline in the number of reports to a lower figure than in any previous year. This is surprising considering the legal obligation of the veterinary professionals to report all adverse drug reactions. Once again the majority of reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most of the products implicated were stock remedies. Veterinarians predominantly administered these products.

  9. Lessons of history in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald F

    2013-01-01

    The future of veterinary medicine is best understood in the context of history. What began as a profession rooted in urban centers in proximity to horses, physicians, and medical schools, was transformed into a land grant-based agricultural profession with the arrival of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century. Most of the United States' current veterinary colleges are still located in towns or small cities in the middle section of the country, outside the largest metropolitan areas where most veterinarians practice companion-animal medicine. Throughout veterinarian history, substantial numbers of US students have been educated in foreign colleges and this continues today, creating an even greater geographic imbalance between the veterinary educational process and US population centers and major medical schools. Three themes deserve special attention as we celebrate the profession's 150th anniversary. We must first move beyond the land-grant culture and develop a more geographically balanced approach to establishing new veterinary colleges that are also in closer association with schools of medicine and public health. We must also facilitate more opportunities for women leadership in organized veterinary medicine, in practice ownership, in academia, and in the corporate structures that educate, hire, and interface with veterinarians. Finally, we need to expand our understanding of One Health to include the concept of zooeyia (the role of animals in promoting human health), as well as continue to emphasize veterinarians' special roles in the control and management of zoonotic diseases and in advancing comparative medicine in the age of the genome.

  10. Career identity in the veterinary profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page-Jones, S; Abbey, G

    2015-04-25

    This research investigates vet and vet nurse career identity through the qualitative methodology of narrative enquiry. It derives learning and understanding from these empirical data to assist the veterinary profession to adjust to the changing industry landscape. Through a case series of 20 vets and vet nurses' career stories, this paper seeks understanding about career identity and its impact on individuals and organisations in the light of industry consolidation. Findings suggest that career is central to identity for many veterinary professionals who tend to have a strong sense of self; this is particularly evident around self as learner and technically competent, teacher and educator, ethical and moral and dedicated and resilient. Consequently, mismatches between 'who I am' and 'what I do' tend not to lead to identity customisation (to fit self into role or organisation) but to the search for alternative, more identity-compatible employment. This study offers a valuable insight for employers, veterinary professionals and universities. It suggests that businesses can gain competitive advantage and employees achieve validation and enrichment by working towards organisational and individual identity congruence and that teaching veterinary professionals with contemporary business in mind may develop graduates with a more sustainable identity. British Veterinary Association.

  11. Residual stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macherauch, E.

    1978-01-01

    Residual stresses are stresses which exist in a material without the influence of external powers and moments. They come into existence when the volume of a material constantly changes its form as a consequence of mechanical, thermal, and/or chemical processes and is hindered by neighbouring volumes. Bodies with residual stress are in mechanical balance. These residual stresses can be manifested by means of all mechanical interventions disturbing this balance. Acoustical, optical, radiological, and magnetical methods involving material changes caused by residual stress can also serve for determining residual stress. Residual stresses have an ambivalent character. In technical practice, they are feared and liked at the same time. They cause trouble because they can be the cause for unexpected behaviour of construction elements. They are feared since they can cause failure, in the worst case with catastrophical consequences. They are appreciated, on the other hand, because, in many cases, they can contribute to improvements of the material behaviour under certain circumstances. But they are especially liked for their giving convenient and (this is most important) mostly uncontrollable explanations. For only in very few cases we have enough knowledge and possibilities for the objective evaluation of residual stresses. (orig.) [de

  12. Veterinary Students' Recollection Methods for Surgical Procedures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langebaek, Rikke; Tanggaard, Lene; Berendt, Mette

    2016-01-01

    When veterinary students face their first live animal surgeries, their level of anxiety is generally high and this can affect their ability to recall the procedure they are about to undertake. Multimodal teaching methods have previously been shown to enhance learning and facilitate recall; however......, student preferences for recollection methods when translating theory into practice have not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate veterinary students' experience with recollection of a surgical procedure they were about to perform after using multiple methods for preparation. From...... a group of 171 veterinary students enrolled in a basic surgery course, 26 students were randomly selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. Results showed that 58% of the students used a visual, dynamic method of recollection, mentally visualizing the video they had watched as part...

  13. Thermoluminescent dosimetry in veterinary diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Ruiz, L.; Jimenez-Flores, Y.; Rivera-Montalvo, T.; Arias-Cisneros, L.; Méndez-Aguilar, R.E.; Uribe-Izquierdo, P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of Environmental and Personnel Dosimetry made in a radiology area of a veterinary hospital. Dosimetry was realized using thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Environmental Dosimetry results show that areas closer to the X-ray equipment are safe. Personnel Dosimetry shows important measurements of daily workday in some persons near to the limit established by ICRP. TL results of radiation measurement suggest TLDs are good candidates as a dosimeter to radiation dosimetry in veterinary radiology. - Highlights: ► Personnel dosimetry in laboratory veterinary diagnostic was determined. ► Student workplaces are safe against radiation. ► Efficiency value of apron lead was determined. ► X-ray beams distribution into veterinarian laboratory was measured.

  14. Health implications of water quality: drugs residues in water Repercusiones sanitarias de la calidad del agua: los residuos de medicamentos en el agua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damià Barceló Culleres

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript summarizes the main results obtained in various monitoring studies conducted in the Llobregat and the Ebro River basins to evaluate the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in their aquatic environments and the potentially derived risks for environmental and human health. The occurrence of these compounds in surface waters, located downstream the point of discharge of sewage treatment plants (STP, points out STPs effluents as the main source of these substances in the aquatic environment. Both river basins had similar pharmaceutical contamination patterns. However, hazard quotients (HQ calculated for three different trophic levels (algae, daphnia and fish pointed out sulfamethoxazol (sulfamide antibiotic for algae, gemfibrozil (lipid regulator for algae and fish, clofibric acid (lipid regulator and erythromycine (macrolide antibiotic for daphnia, and ibuprofen (analgesic anti-inflammatory for all investigated tropic levels, as the compounds with the highest ecotoxicological risk in the Llobregat. In the Ebro River, the most problematic pharmaceuticals were sulfamethoxazol for algae, and erythromycine, clofibric acid and fluoxetine (anti-depressive for daphnids. Levels of drugs of abuse measured in surface waters of the Ebro River were one and two orders of magnitude lower than those observed in effluent and influent sewage waters, respectively. Lack of data about their ecotoxicity does not allow calculation of HQ for these compounds. The presence of pharmaceuticals and drugs of abuse in surface and drinking waters is not subjected to regulation; hence, they are not considered priority pollutants to be included in monitoring programs. However, due to their possible harmful outcomes in wildlife, research on their potential effects in human health is indispensable.Este trabajo resume varios estudios de monitorización de fármacos y drogas de abuso llevados a cabo en el medio ambiente acuático de las cuencas de los r

  15. [The organisation and future development of Veterinary Services in Latin America].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimeno, E

    2003-08-01

    Latin America undoubtedly has comparative advantages in the fields of animal production, animal health and the production of food of animal origin. However, countries in Latin America must build on these strengths if the continent is to become more competitive and be able to deal with the complexities of world markets. To do this, Veterinary Services must define their objectives and establish quality standards on which to base their work. For this to occur, the State must create well-defined regulations, establish systems of audit and find ways of working which allow for a high degree of coordination and collaboration between the public and private sectors. This should be done within a framework of a quality assurance system, which allows for responsible accreditation and independent audit and evaluation. The author discusses the approaches of the different countries in the region to animal health, zoonosis, food safety, veterinary drugs control, animal welfare and export-import control. All programmes relating to these issues must be based on technical information gained through epidemiological surveillance, the network of diagnostic laboratories, quarantine systems, risk analysis, identification and traceability of animals and animal products, registration and control of veterinary drugs, and food safety research. In some countries these systems are already being developed. Maintaining good international relations and cooperating with neighbouring countries is always a challenge for official Veterinary Services and international organisations such as the OIE (World organisation for animal health) have a key role to play in facilitating these relationships.

  16. Balancing knowledge and basic principles in veterinary parasitology - Competencies for future Danish veterinary graduates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only...... clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical...

  17. A Simple Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Method for on-Site Screening of Tetracycline Residue in Whole Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Dhakal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic and subtherapeutic use of veterinary drugs has increased the risk of residue contamination in animal food products. Antibiotics such as tetracycline are used for mastitis treatment of lactating cows. Milk expressed from treated cows before the withdrawal period has elapsed may contain tetracycline residue. This study developed a simple surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS method for on-site screening of tetracycline residue in milk and water. Six batches of silver colloid nanoparticles were prepared for surface enhancement measurement. Milk-tetracycline and water-tetracycline solutions were prepared at seven concentration levels (1000, 500, 100, 10, 1, 0.1, and 0.01 ppm and spiked with silver colloid nanoparticles. A 785 nm Raman spectroscopic system was used for spectral measurement. Tetracycline vibrational modes were observed at 1285, 1317 and 1632 cm−1 in water-tetracycline solutions and 1322 and 1621 cm−1 (shifted from 1317 and 1632 cm−1, respectively in milk-tetracycline solutions. Tetracycline residue concentration as low as 0.01 ppm was detected in both the solutions. The peak intensities at 1285 and 1322 cm−1 were used to estimate the tetracycline concentrations in water and milk with correlation coefficients of 0.92 for water and 0.88 for milk. Results indicate that this SERS method is a potential tool that can be used on-site at field production for qualitative and quantitative detection of tetracycline residues.

  18. A Simple Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopic Method for on-Site Screening of Tetracycline Residue in Whole Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhakal, Sagar; Chao, Kuanglin; Huang, Qing; Kim, Moon; Schmidt, Walter; Qin, Jianwei; Broadhurst, C Leigh

    2018-02-01

    Therapeutic and subtherapeutic use of veterinary drugs has increased the risk of residue contamination in animal food products. Antibiotics such as tetracycline are used for mastitis treatment of lactating cows. Milk expressed from treated cows before the withdrawal period has elapsed may contain tetracycline residue. This study developed a simple surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) method for on-site screening of tetracycline residue in milk and water. Six batches of silver colloid nanoparticles were prepared for surface enhancement measurement. Milk-tetracycline and water-tetracycline solutions were prepared at seven concentration levels (1000, 500, 100, 10, 1, 0.1, and 0.01 ppm) and spiked with silver colloid nanoparticles. A 785 nm Raman spectroscopic system was used for spectral measurement. Tetracycline vibrational modes were observed at 1285, 1317 and 1632 cm -1 in water-tetracycline solutions and 1322 and 1621 cm -1 (shifted from 1317 and 1632 cm -1 , respectively) in milk-tetracycline solutions. Tetracycline residue concentration as low as 0.01 ppm was detected in both the solutions. The peak intensities at 1285 and 1322 cm -1 were used to estimate the tetracycline concentrations in water and milk with correlation coefficients of 0.92 for water and 0.88 for milk. Results indicate that this SERS method is a potential tool that can be used on-site at field production for qualitative and quantitative detection of tetracycline residues.

  19. Competency-based veterinary education - An integrative approach to learning and assessment in the clinical workplace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bok, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    When graduating from veterinary school, veterinary professionals must be ready to enter the complex veterinary profession. Therefore, one of the major responsibilities of any veterinary school is to develop training programmes that support students’ competency development on the trajectory from

  20. Veterinary and human medicine: learning from each other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey, Laura

    2016-03-26

    A well-attended session at this year's joint SPVS/VPMA congress considered what lessons the medical and veterinary professions might learn from one another. Laura Honey reports. British Veterinary Association.

  1. Thirtieth Annual Congress on Veterinary Acupuncture: IVAS Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kaphle

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 155 participants from 25 countries attended the 30th Annual IVAS Congress, September 8–11, 2004 in Oostende, Belgium. The focus was on veterinary acupuncture (AP and immunology, and the event was sponsored by the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society (IVAS. IVAS is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting excellence in the practice of veterinary AP as an integral part of the total veterinary health care delivery system. The Society endeavors to establish uniformly high standards of veterinary AP through its educational programs and accreditation examination. IVAS seeks to integrate veterinary AP and the practice of Western veterinary science, while also noting that the science of veterinary AP does not overlook allied health systems, such as homeopathy, herbology, nutrition, chiropractic, kinesiology, etc. (www.ivas.org.

  2. Chapter 5. Assessing the Aquatic Hazards of Veterinary Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...

  3. Magnetic solid-phase extraction based on carbon nanotubes for the determination of polyether antibiotic and s-triazine drug residues in animal food with LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoxing; Xie, Shuyu; Ni, Tengteng; Chen, Dongmei; Wang, Xu; Pan, Yuanhu; Wang, Yulian; Huang, Lingli; Cheng, Guyue; Qu, Wei; Liu, Zhenli; Tao, Yanfei; Yuan, Zonghui

    2017-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes-magnetic nanoparticles, comprising ferroferric oxide nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes, were prepared through a simple one-step synthesis method and subsequently applied to magnetic solid-phase extraction for the determination of polyether antibiotic and s-triazine drug residues in animal food coupled with liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The nanocomposites were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The components within the nanocomposites endowed the material with high extraction performance and manipulative convenience. Compared with carbon nanotubes, the as-prepared carbon nanotubes-magnetic nanoparticles showed better extraction and separation efficiencies for polyether antibiotics and s-triazine drugs thanks to the contribution of the iron-containing magnetic nanoparticles. Various experimental parameters affecting the extraction efficiency had been investigated in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the good linearity ranging from 1 to 200 μg/kg for diclazuril, toltrazuril, toltrazuril sulfone, lasalocid, monensin, salinomycin, narasin, nanchangmycin, and maduramicin, low limits of detection ranging from 1 to 5 μg/kg, and satisfactory spiked recoveries (77.1-91.2%, with the inter relative standard deviation values from 4.0 to 12.2%) were shown. It was confirmed that this novel method was an efficient pretreatment and enrichment procedure and could be successfully applied for extraction and determination of polyether and s-triazine drug residues in complex matrices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Veterinary Technician Program Director Leadership Style and Program Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda-Francis, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    Program directors of American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) accredited veterinary technician programs may have little or no training in leadership. The need for program directors of AVMA-accredited veterinary technician programs to understand how leadership traits may have an impact on student success is often overlooked. The purpose of…

  5. Veterinary education in Africa: current and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, G E; Kriek, N P J

    2009-03-01

    Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa. Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and agricultural economies of countries worldwide. Veterinary education, postgraduate training, and research, and adequate numbers of veterinarians, are essential to satisfy the millennium development goals, the objectives of NEPAD and the African Union, and the agreements regulating international trade. The relevance of the veterinary profession internationally is currently subject to profound scrutiny. Its contributions are assessed against major environmental, demographic, political, disease, technological and economic needs. The scope of veterinary training in future will have to emphasise veterinary public health, food safety, emerging diseases, international trade, bioterrorism, and biomedical research, within the context of a one-health system focusing on the interface between wildlife, domesticated animals, humans, and their environment. Within the context of time available, it would mean reducing the time allocated to training in the field of companion animals. A brief history and scope of veterinary education; current international trends in veterinary education and provisioning; and some perspectives on future veterinary training and initiatives applicable to Africa are provided.

  6. Undergraduates\\' view of the veterinary profession: A study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the veterinary profession: A study of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria. ... the university, however only 33.7% believed that they obtain veterinary services ... of the opinion that both veterinary and medical students study similar courses. ... that veterinarians, pharmacists and physicians can work together in the Food ...

  7. The Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine Shelter Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234

  8. 78 FR 69991 - Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-22

    .... FDA-2013-N-1380] Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination AGENCY: Food... announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. This document removes the Veterinary Advisory Committee from the Agency's list of standing advisory committees. DATES: This rule is...

  9. 75 FR 57658 - National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Correcting Amendment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0093] RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Correcting Amendment..., Docket No. APHIS-2006-0093), and effective on February 1, 2010, we amended the National Veterinary... Veterinary Accreditation Program, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 200, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851-3401...

  10. 9 CFR 107.1 - Veterinary practitioners and animal owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary practitioners and animal... FROM PREPARATION PURSUANT TO AN UNSUSPENDED AND UNREVOKED LICENSE § 107.1 Veterinary practitioners and...)(1) Products prepared by a veterinary practitioner (veterinarian) solely for administration to...

  11. Entrepreneurship Education and Veterinary Medicine: Enhancing Employable Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Colette; Treanor, Lorna

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper has the purpose of exploring the potential for entrepreneurship education within veterinary medicine. It aims to examine some of the key themes in the entrepreneurship education literature, discuss the make-up of the UK veterinary sector, consider veterinary curricula requirements and illustrate how entrepreneurship education…

  12. European veterinary specialists denounce alternative medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horzinek, M.C.; Venker-van Haagen, Anjop

    On November 19, the Federation of Veterinarians in Europe (FVE) issued a policy statement urging its 200,000 members "to work only on the basis of scientifically proven and evidence-based methods and to stay away from non-evidence-based methods." The Swedish Veterinary Association banned its members

  13. Approach to complexity in veterinary epidemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ducrot, C.; Calavas, D.; Legay, J.-M.

    1996-01-01

    One of the main goals of veterinary epidemiology is to analyse the determinants of disease, commonly called risk factors. The analysis of such systems is usually based on a pluridisciplinary approach, a planned observation of the natural state, and a judicious use of various methods to analyse...

  14. Improving Student Engagement in Veterinary Business Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth; Jackson, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    Improving Student Engagement in Veterinary Business StudiesIn a densely packed veterinary curriculum, students may find it particularly challenging to engage in the less overtly clinical subjects, yet pressure from industry and an increasingly competitive employment market necessitate improved veterinary student education in business and management skills. We describe a curriculum intervention (formative reflective assignment) that optimizes workplace learning opportunities and aims to provide better student scaffolding for their in-context business learning. Students were asked to analyze a business practice they experienced during a period of extra-mural studies (external work placement). Following return to the college, they were then instructed to discuss their findings in their study group, and produce a group reflection on their learning. To better understand student engagement in this area, we analyzed individual and group components of the assignment. Thematic analysis revealed evidence of various depths of student engagement, and provided indications of the behaviors they used when engaging at different levels. Interactive and social practices (discussing business strategies with veterinary employees and student peers) appeared to facilitate student engagement, assist the perception of relevance of these skills, and encourage integration with other curriculum elements such as communication skills and clinical problem solving.

  15. Mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E

    2009-12-01

    This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.

  16. Prose Learning for Veterinary Educators: Facilitating Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, John E.

    1978-01-01

    A prose text in veterinary medicine can be arranged and supplemented to facilitate efficient and effective acquisition into short-term memory. Methods include: variation in textual format; relating new information to previous knowledge and future goals; providing specific, test-relevant objectives or introductions, describing mnemonic devices; and…

  17. Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health Technology Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.

    The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…

  18. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences: Submissions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Author Guidelines. The Editorial Board of the Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (SJVS) wishes to invite research articles, case reports and review articles for ... be accompanied by a cover letter verifying that the final manuscript has been seen and approved by all authors and transferring copyright ownership to SJVS.

  19. Research data services in veterinary medicine libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin E. Kerby, MSI

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: Lacking a standard definition of ‘‘research data’’ and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.

  20. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...

  1. Enhancing cognitive learning in Veterinary Osteology through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    at Veterinary anatomy education. The objective was to assess the importance of student participation in skeletal preparation. The hypothesis that the students would be more interested in the discipline if the teaching methodology used is based on creative and constructivist methods. Thirteen animal skeletons were ...

  2. Comparative oncology: Integrating human and veterinary medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cancer constitutes the major health problem both in human and veterinary medicine. Comparative oncology as an integrative approach offers to learn more about naturally occurring cancers across different species. Canine models have many advantages as they experience spontaneous disease, have many genes similar ...

  3. Integrative veterinary medical education and consensus guidelines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, ...

  4. Cone beam computed tomography in veterinary dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Thielen, B.; Siguenza, F.; Hassan, B.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in imaging dogs and cats for diagnostic dental veterinary applications. CBCT scans of heads of six dogs and two cats were made. Dental panoramic and multi-planar reformatted (MPR) para-sagittal

  5. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force recommendations for a veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials...... sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification...... of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can...

  6. Guidelines for zoo and aquarium veterinary medical programs and veterinary hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backues, Kay; Clyde, Vickie; Denver, Mary; Fiorello, Christine; Hilsenroth, Rob; Lamberski, Nadine; Larson, Scott; Meehan, Tom; Murray, Mike; Ramer, Jan; Ramsay, Ed; Suedmeyer, Kirk; Whiteside, Doug

    2011-03-01

    These guidelines for veterinary medical care and veterinary hospitals are written to conform with the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act, which states that programs of disease prevention and parasite control, euthanasia, and adequate veterinary care shall be established and maintained under the supervision of a veterinarian. Ideally the zoo and aquarium should be providing the best possible veterinary medical care for the animals in their collections. Many of these animals are rare and endangered and the institutions should endeavor both to provide for the long term health and well being of these animals and to advance the field of non-domestic animal medicine. It is hoped that this publication will aid in this process.

  7. 77 FR 77008 - Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... clients can reasonably be expected to pay for professional veterinary services and where food animal... the event of a discrepancy between the primary reviewer's scoring and the panel poll results, the...

  8. Occurrence of veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in broiler manure and agricultural soil in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yu Bin; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Latif, Puziah Abdul; Saari, Nazamid

    2014-08-01

    Repeated applications of animal manure as fertilizer are normal agricultural practices that may release veterinary antibiotics and hormones into the environment from treated animals. Broiler manure samples and their respective manure-amended agricultural soil samples were collected in selected locations in the states of Selangor, Negeri Sembilan and Melaka in Malaysia to identify and quantify veterinary antibiotic and hormone residues in the environment. The samples were analyzed using ultrasonic extraction followed by solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The broiler manure samples were found to be contaminated with at least six target analytes, namely, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, trimethoprim and tylosin. These analytes were detected in broiler manure samples with maximum concentrations reaching up to 78,516 μg kg(-1) dry weight (DW) (doxycycline). For manure-amended agricultural soil samples, doxycycline and enrofloxacin residues were detected in every soil sample. The maximum concentration of antibiotic detected in soil was 1331 μg kg(-1) DW (flumequine). The occurrence of antibiotics and hormones in animal manure at high concentration poses a risk of contaminating agricultural soil via fertilization with animal manure. Some physico-chemical parameters such as pH, total organic carbon (TOC) and metal content played a considerable role in the fate of the target veterinary antibiotics and progesterone in the environment. It was suggested that these parameters can affect the adsorption of pharmaceuticals to solid environmental matrices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. From “One Health” to “One Communication”: The Contribution of Communication in Veterinary Medicine to Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Cipolla

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that health communication is a discipline developed only recently, its importance in human medicine is well recognized. However, it is less considered in veterinary medicine, even if it has the potential to improve public health because of the role of veterinary medicine in public health. For this reason, an One Health approach is useful for communication as well. This approach leads to a “One Communication” concept, which is the result of the synergy in communicative efforts both in human and in veterinary medicine. Our analysis explores the potential of communication in several veterinary fields: institutions, food safety, companion animal and food-producing animal practice, pharmacology and drugs, wildlife fauna and environment. In almost all the areas of veterinary activity communication can contribute to human health. It takes many forms and use several channels, and this variety of communicative opportunities represent a challenge for veterinarians. For this reason, the communication course should be included in the curricula of Veterinary Medicine Schools. As One Health, One Communication is a strategy for expanding collaborations in health communication and it will enhance public health.

  10. Drug: D08248 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [veterinary] (TN) ... C19H21NO3. HCl D08248.gif ... Analgesic ... DG01586 ... Opioid receptor antagonist Other ... DG01718 ... Drugs... for addictive disorder ... DG01717 ... Drugs for opioid dependence ATC code: V03AB02 Chemical group: DG0

  11. Veterinary Fusarioses within the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A R G; Crous, Pedro W; Geiser, David M

    2016-11-01

    Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. The Veterinary Clinical Trials Network - a Pragmatic Approach to Filling the Evidence Gaps for Veterinary Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Doit

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Including current published evidence is vital as part of evidence-based decision making in veterinary practice. Sometimes there is no published evidence which is relevant or applicable to the clinical situation.This can be either because it refers to patients with experimentally induced conditions, from a referral population or who lack the co-morbities often seen outside of the experimental context. The Veterinary Clinical Trials Network is unique. It is a rapidly expanding network of veterinary practices, with whom we are working to establish methods for running prospective, pragmatic, practical clinical trials in veterinary practice.Data is extracted from the patient record using an XML Schema. The data extracted is already captured by the Practice Management Software (PMS system as part of the consultation, no extra information is required, and the extraction method is automated. This improves participation as it minimises the time input required from vets and vet nurses. Other data is obtained directly from owners of the animals involved.By working with a large number of first opinion veterinary practices we are able to include enough patients to ensure that our trials are suitably powered, and the participants will be representative of the wider vet-visiting pet population. The research generated from this clinical trials network will help strengthen the evidence base to aid decision making by veterinary practitioners.

  13. Examining why ethics is taught to veterinary students: a qualitative study of veterinary educators' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate M; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I Anna S

    2014-01-01

    Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010-2011). The content of the interview transcripts were analyzed using Toulmin's argumentative model. Ten objectives in teaching veterinary ethics were identified, which can be grouped into four overarching themes: ethical awareness, ethical knowledge, ethical skills, and individual and professional qualities. These objectives include recognizing values and ethical viewpoints, identifying norms and regulations, developing skills of communication and decision making, and contributing to a professional identity. Whereas many of the objectives complement each other, there is tension between the view that ethics teaching should promote knowledge of professional rules and the view that ethics teaching should emphasize critical reasoning skills. The wide range of objectives and the possible tensions between them highlight the challenges faced by educators as they attempt to prioritize among these goals of ethics teaching within a crowded veterinary curriculum.

  14. Microscope use in clinical veterinary practice and potential implications for veterinary school curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R

    2014-01-01

    Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.

  15. The role of veterinary team effectiveness in job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Irene C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Sargeant, Jan M

    2014-09-01

    To determine the role of veterinary team effectiveness regarding job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary practice. Cross-sectional observational study. 48 companion animal veterinary health-care teams. 274 team members participated in an online survey. Overall job satisfaction was evaluated with a 1-item measure, and the 3 dimensions of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) were measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Team effectiveness was assessed with a survey developed for this study. Demographic and team effectiveness factors (coordinated team environment, toxic team environment, team engagement, and individual engagement) associated with job satisfaction and burnout were evaluated. Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.46 of 7 (median, 6.00); veterinary technicians and kennel attendants had the lowest scores. According to the Maslach survey results, 22.4% of participants were in the high-risk category for exhaustion, 23.2% were in the high-risk category for cynicism, and 9.3% were in the high-risk category for professional efficacy. A coordinated team environment was associated with increased professional efficacy and decreased cynicism. A toxic team environment was negatively associated with job satisfaction and positively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Individual engagement was positively associated with job satisfaction and professional efficacy and negatively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Results suggested the effectiveness of a veterinary team can significantly influence individual team members' job satisfaction and burnout. Practices should pay specific attention to the effectiveness with which their veterinary team operates.

  16. Solid residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulder, E.; Duin, P.J. van; Grootenboer, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    A summary is presented of the many investigations that have been done on solid residues of atmospheric fluid bed combustion (AFBC). These residues are bed ash, cyclone ash and bag filter ash. Physical and chemical properties are discussed and then the various uses of residues (in fillers, bricks, gravel, and for recovery of aluminium) are summarised. Toxicological properties of fly ash and stack ash are discussed as are risks of pneumoconiosis for workers handling fly ash, and contamination of water by ashes. On the basis of present information it is concluded that risks to public health from exposure to emissions of coal fly ash from AFBC appear small or negligible as are health risk to workers in the coal fly ash processing industry. 35 refs., 5 figs., 12 tabs

  17. Detection of pencillin residue in cow milk at Kombolcha dairy farms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The use of antibiotics in dairy cattle for the treatment of diseases such as mastitis has contributed to the presence ... Penicillin is commonly used veterinary drug to treat mastitis in dairy cattle.

  18. Controlled release veterinary drug delivery: biological and pharmaceutical considerations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rathbone, Michael J; Gurny, Robert

    2000-01-01

    ... terms and conditions apply to its use: Photocopying Single photocopies of single chapters may be made for personal use as allowed by national copyright laws. Permission of the Publisher and pay...

  19. Probing the In Vitro Cytotoxicity of the Veterinary Drug Oxytetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Zhenxing; Liu, Rutao; You, Hong; Ma, Shanshan; Cui, Hao; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of oxytetracycline (OTC) on the anti-oxidative defense system, the structure (hemolysis rate and morphology) and function (ATP enzyme activity) of human red blood cells (hRBCs) to investigate the possible toxic mechanism of OTC to hRBCs. The experimental results indicate that OTC can cause a decline in the function of the antioxidant defense system of hRBCs, resulting in oxidative stress. OTC can bring about morphological changes to hRBCs, and further leads to hemolysis, when the concentration of OTC is over 8×10−5 M (about 164 µg/ml). At a low OTC concentration, below 4×10−5 M (82 µg/ml), OTC can enhance the activity of ATP enzyme of hRBCs, known as hormesis. However, at a high concentration, above 4×10−5 M (about 82 µg/ml), the ATP enzymatic activity was inhibited, affecting the function of hRBCs. The estalished mechanism of toxicity of OTC to hRBCs can facilitate a deeper understanding of the toxicity of OTC in vivo. PMID:25019386

  20. Probing the in vitro cytotoxicity of the veterinary drug oxytetracycline.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenxing Chi

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of oxytetracycline (OTC on the anti-oxidative defense system, the structure (hemolysis rate and morphology and function (ATP enzyme activity of human red blood cells (hRBCs to investigate the possible toxic mechanism of OTC to hRBCs. The experimental results indicate that OTC can cause a decline in the function of the antioxidant defense system of hRBCs, resulting in oxidative stress. OTC can bring about morphological changes to hRBCs, and further leads to hemolysis, when the concentration of OTC is over 8×10(-5 M (about 164 µg/ml. At a low OTC concentration, below 4×10(-5 M (82 µg/ml, OTC can enhance the activity of ATP enzyme of hRBCs, known as hormesis. However, at a high concentration, above 4×10(-5 M (about 82 µg/ml, the ATP enzymatic activity was inhibited, affecting the function of hRBCs. The estalished mechanism of toxicity of OTC to hRBCs can facilitate a deeper understanding of the toxicity of OTC in vivo.

  1. Leveraging existing data for prioritization of the ecological risks of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals to aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicinal innovation has lead to the discovery and use of thousands of human and veterinary drugs. With this comes the potential for unintended effects on non-target organisms exposed to pharmaceuticals inevitably entering the environment. The impracticality of generating whole-o...

  2. Quality systems in veterinary diagnostics laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Branco, Freitas Maia L M

    2007-01-01

    Quality assurance of services provided by veterinary diagnostics laboratories is a fundamental element promoted by international animal health organizations to establish trust, confidence and transparency needed for the trade of animals and their products at domestic and international levels. It requires, among other things, trained personnel, consistent and rigorous methodology, choice of suitable methods as well as appropriate calibration and traceability procedures. An important part of laboratory quality management is addressed by ISO/IEC 17025, which aims to facilitate cooperation among laboratories and their associated parties by assuring the generation of credible and consistent information derived from analytical results. Currently, according to OIE recommendation, veterinary diagnostics laboratories are only subject to voluntary compliance with standard ISO/IEC 17025; however, it is proposed here that OIE reference laboratories and collaboration centres strongly consider its adoption.

  3. Information prescriptions: A tool for veterinary practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.R. Kogan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become a major source of health information and has the potential to offer many benefits for both human and animal health. In order for impact to be positive, however, it is critical that users be able to access reliable, trustworthy information. Although more pet owners are using the Internet to research animal health information than ever before, there remains limited research surrounding their online activities or the ability to influence owners’ online search behaviors. The current study was designed to assess the online behaviors and perceptions of pet owners after receiving either general or topic-specific information prescriptions as part of their veterinary appointment. Results indicate that nearly 60% of clients accessed the suggested websites and nearly all of these clients reported positive feelings about this addition to their veterinary services. These results suggest that offering information prescriptions to clients can facilitate better online searches by clients and positively impact both animal health and client satisfaction.

  4. Financing and organisation of veterinary services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallacher, M; Barcos, L

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyses the different ways of financing official Veterinary Services (VS) and the effects of these choices on the performance of such Services. The links between governance, organisational effectiveness and financing arrangements are seen as particularly important. The paper comments on some of the advantages and disadvantages of financing VS with service fees, as compared to budget transfers from general government revenues. Evidence is presented on the considerable heterogeneity in the size of VS and on the impact of this heterogeneity on organisation and financing. The paper concludes with a stylised case study, which emphasises the importance of collaboration and the division of labour between the official and the private sector of the veterinary profession.

  5. Problems associated with veterinary dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisner, E.R.

    1990-01-01

    Veterinarians have been radiographing animal skulls for many years, but sophisticated dentistry was not widely used until the 1970s. Elevated awareness of veterinary dental techniques has led to the need for producing accurate radiographic images of the teeth and periodontal structures. Many problems arise for the clinician who treats small animals who has, before this time, radiographed the skull of dogs and cats solely for the purpose of assessing neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic disease of the mandible, maxilla, or calvarium and now desires to perform dental radiography. This chapter will describe the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more common types of radiographic equipment and supplies, discuss extraoral and intraoral radiographic positioning and technique, identify anatomic landmarks and diagnostic features of intraoral radiography, and offer suggestions concerning the art of using dental radiography in veterinary practice

  6. Radiotherapy in veterinary medicine: beginnings and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Marco A.R.; Andrade, Alexandre L.; Luvizoto, Maria C.R.; Piero, Juliana R.; Ciarlini, Luciana D.R.P.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a brief historical about the use of ionizing radiations in Veterinary Medicine, instructing the physical beginnings and techniques wrapped in the realization of the proceedings of radiotherapy in animals, illustrating some treated cases, highlighting the difficulties and pointing to the perspectives and importance of the acting of the medical physics in this kind of therapeutic still little used in the national scenery. (author)

  7. The responsibilities of veterinary educators in responding to emerging needs in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliwell, R E W

    2009-08-01

    It is an unfortunate fact that not only has veterinary education failed to adapt in the face of likely future needs, but it has also failed to respond to societal changes that have already taken place and that have affected the requirements for veterinary services and veterinary capability. The responsibility is primarily that of educators, although vision and foresight require a co-ordinated approach involving national and international veterinary organisations. Once it is accepted by all parties that change is essential, the implementation will fail unless there is a unified programme involving the schools and colleges, the accrediting agencies, the licensing authorities, governments, the professional organisations and corporate veterinary medicine. All have a role to play, and any one can readily block progress. A unified approach is an absolute requirement. The developed countries must take a leading role, but the issues are global, and ways must be found to facilitate change in all parts of the world. Disease knows no boundaries, and any strategy is only as strong as its weakest link.

  8. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force recommendations for a veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena; Milne, Marjorie; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Farqhuar, Robyn G; Fischer, Andrea; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Pakozdy, Akos; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A

    2015-08-28

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials for seizures, the parameters for MRI examination should allow the detection of subtle lesions which may not be obvious with existing techniques. In addition, there are several differentials for idiopathic epilepsy in humans, for example some focal cortical dysplasias, which may only apparent with special sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can be adapted for both low and high field scanners. Standardisation of imaging will improve clinical communication and uniformity of case definition between research studies. A 6-7 sequence epilepsy-specific MRI protocol for veterinary patients is proposed and further advanced MR and functional imaging is reviewed.

  9. Prevalence of hazardous exposures in veterinary practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.

    1989-01-01

    All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects.

  10. Use of adenoviral vectors as veterinary vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, T B; Alves, P M; Aunins, J G; Carrondo, M J T

    2005-10-01

    Vaccines are the most effective and inexpensive prophylactic tool in veterinary medicine. Ideally, vaccines should induce a lifelong protective immunity against the target pathogen while not causing clinical or pathological signs of diseases in the vaccinated animals. However, such ideal vaccines are rare in the veterinary field. Many vaccines are either of limited effectiveness or have harmful side effects. In addition, there are still severe diseases with no effective vaccines. A very important criterion for an ideal vaccine in veterinary medicine is low cost; this is especially important in developing countries and even more so for poultry vaccination, where vaccines must sell for a few cents a dose. Traditional approaches include inactivated vaccines, attenuated live vaccines and subunit vaccines. Recently, genetic engineering has been applied to design new, improved vaccines. Adenovirus vectors are highly efficient for gene transfer in a broad spectrum of cell types and species. Moreover, adenoviruses often induce humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted foreign genes. Thus, adenoviruses have become a vector of choice for delivery and expression of foreign proteins for vaccination. Consequently, the market requirements for adenovirus vaccines are increasing, creating a need for production methodologies of concentrated vectors with warranted purity and efficacy. This review summarizes recent developments and approaches of adenovirus production and purification as the application of these vectors, including successes and failures in clinical applications to date.

  11. Prevalence of hazardous exposures in veterinary practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.

    1989-01-01

    All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects

  12. [Marketing in veterinary practice; a theoretical framework].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuurmans, A J; Smidts, A

    1990-03-15

    An increase in the number of veterinarians, while at the same time the number of animals has remained constant, has resulted in growing competition. By extending the range of products and by enlarging the veterinarians' scope of activities this competition can be decreased. A marketing-orientation will be helpful in this respect. This article indicates in which way marketing concepts can be used in a veterinary practice. The services of the veterinarian will be looked at by means of the Abell approach. This focuses on the functions performed by the services and examines, per function performed, for whom this might be interesting and which alternatives there might be. Next the concept of market segmentation is filled in for a veterinary practice by means of a hypothetical example. The marketing mix (product, place, price, promotion and personnel) is given considerable attention. The last element of marketing in a veterinary practice that is discussed here is the marketing information system. In a next article the question will be answered how marketing-directed the Dutch veterinarian works nowadays. To find this out research has been done; 166 vets were interviewed by telephone for approximately 40 minutes each.

  13. Curriculum Redesign in Veterinary Medicine: Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Kristin P; Macik, Maria L; Turner, Jacqueline S; Korich, Jodi A; Rogers, Kenita S; Fowler, Debra; Scallan, Elizabeth M; Keefe, Lisa M

    Curricular review is considered a necessary component for growth and enhancement of academic programs and requires time, energy, creativity, and persistence from both faculty and administration. At Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (TAMU), the faculty and administration partnered with the university's Center for Teaching Excellence to create a faculty-driven, data-enhanced curricular redesign process. The 8-step process begins with the formation of a dedicated faculty curriculum design team to drive the redesign process and to support the college curriculum committee. The next steps include defining graduate outcomes and mapping the current curriculum to identify gaps and redundancies across the curriculum. Data are collected from internal and external stakeholders including veterinary students, faculty, alumni, and employers of graduates. Data collected through curriculum mapping and stakeholder engagement substantiate the curriculum redesign. The guidelines, supporting documents, and 8-step process developed at TAMU are provided to assist other veterinary schools in successful curricular redesign. This is the first of a two-part report that provides the background, context, and description of the process for charting the course for curricular change. The process involves defining expected learning outcomes for new graduates, conducting a curriculum mapping exercise, and collecting stakeholder data for curricular evaluation (steps 1-4). The second part of the report describes the development of rubrics that were applied to the graduate learning outcomes (steps 5-8) and engagement of faculty during the implementation phases of data-driven curriculum change.

  14. Residual basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elboux, C.V.; Paiva, I.B.

    1980-01-01

    Exploration for uranium carried out over a major portion of the Rio Grande do Sul Shield has revealed a number of small residual basins developed along glacially eroded channels of pre-Permian age. Mineralization of uranium occurs in two distinct sedimentary units. The lower unit consists of rhythmites overlain by a sequence of black shales, siltstones and coal seams, while the upper one is dominated by sandstones of probable fluvial origin. (Author) [pt

  15. Determination of residual nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in aqueous sample using magnetic nanoparticles modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoeini Sharifabadi, Malihe; Saber-Tehrani, Mohammad; Waqif Husain, Syed; Mehdinia, Ali; Aberoomand-Azar, Parviz

    2014-01-01

    A simple and sensitive solid-phase extraction method for separation and preconcentration of trace amount of four nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (naproxen, indomethacin, diclofenac, and ibuprofen) using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide has been developed. For this purpose, the surface of MNPs was modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant. Effects of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of drugs including the pH, amount of salt, shaking time, eluent type, the volume of solvent, amount of adsorbent, sample volume, and the time of desorption were investigated and optimized. Methanol has been used as desorption solvent and the extracts were analysed on a reversed-phase octadecyl silica column using 0.02 M phosphate-buffer (pH = 6.02) acetonitrile (65 : 35 v/v) as the mobile phase and the effluents were measured at 202 nm with ultraviolet detector. The relative standard deviation (RSD%) of the method was investigated at three concentrations (25, 50, and 200 ng/mL) and was in the range of 3.98-9.83% (n = 6) for 50 ng/mL. The calibration curves obtained for studied drugs show reasonable linearity (R (2) > 0.99) and the limit of detection (LODs) ranged between 2 and 7 ng/mL. Finally, the proposed method has been effectively employed in extraction and determination of the drugs in biological and environmental samples.

  16. Implementation of Online Veterinary Hospital on Cloud Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chung, Yu-Fang; Huang, Yao-Min; Chen, Tao-Chieh; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Pet markets involve in great commercial possibilities, which boost thriving development of veterinary hospital businesses. The service tends to intensive competition and diversified channel environment. Information technology is integrated for developing the veterinary hospital cloud service platform. The platform contains not only pet medical services but veterinary hospital management and services. In the study, QR Code andcloud technology are applied to establish the veterinary hospital cloud service platform for pet search by labeling a pet's identification with QR Code. This technology can break the restriction on veterinary hospital inspection in different areas and allows veterinary hospitals receiving the medical records and information through the exclusive QR Code for more effective inspection. As an interactive platform, the veterinary hospital cloud service platform allows pet owners gaining the knowledge of pet diseases and healthcare. Moreover, pet owners can enquire and communicate with veterinarians through the platform. Also, veterinary hospitals can periodically send reminders of relevant points and introduce exclusive marketing information with the platform for promoting the service items and establishing individualized marketing. Consequently, veterinary hospitals can increase the profits by information share and create the best solution in such a competitive veterinary market with industry alliance.

  17. Statistical inference on residual life

    CERN Document Server

    Jeong, Jong-Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    This is a monograph on the concept of residual life, which is an alternative summary measure of time-to-event data, or survival data. The mean residual life has been used for many years under the name of life expectancy, so it is a natural concept for summarizing survival or reliability data. It is also more interpretable than the popular hazard function, especially for communications between patients and physicians regarding the efficacy of a new drug in the medical field. This book reviews existing statistical methods to infer the residual life distribution. The review and comparison includes existing inference methods for mean and median, or quantile, residual life analysis through medical data examples. The concept of the residual life is also extended to competing risks analysis. The targeted audience includes biostatisticians, graduate students, and PhD (bio)statisticians. Knowledge in survival analysis at an introductory graduate level is advisable prior to reading this book.

  18. Overview of suspected adverse reactions to veterinary medicinal products reported in South Africa (March 2001 - February 2002 : report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Naidoo

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available An overview of reports of suspected adverse drug reactions received by the Veterinary Pharmacovigilance and Medicines Information Centre during the period March 2001 to February 2002 is given. A total of 77 reports were received. The majority of reports involved suspected adverse reactions that occurred in dogs and cats. Most products implicated in the reports were Stock Remedies. The products were predominantly administered either by veterinarians or trained paraveterinary professionals. Although the majority of reports were received from veterinary pharmaceutical companies, the proportion of reports received directly from veterinarians increased compared with previous years.

  19. Nitrofurans residue in broiler chicken meat which analysed by an HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaella Widiastuti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Furazolidone (FZD, furaltadone (FTD, nitrofurantoin (NFT and nitrofurazone (NFZ are veterinary drugs that belong to the nitrofurans (NFs group and employed as feed additives for growth promotion and theurapetic treatment of gastrointestinal infections caused by Eschericia coli and Salmonella spp. The occurrence of NFs in animal products will end to cause health problem in human consumed such food. This research conducted to study the analysis of NF residues in chicken meat by a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and to study the occurrence of NFs residues in samples collected from traditional markets and supermarkets in Bandung, Bogor and Depok. The results of validation method on several parameters for each NF showed that the average of the relative standard deviation (RSD from the precision study were 2.15 to 2.38%, the R2 values of the linearity study were 0.9964 to 0.9995; recoveries were 75.90 % to 91.50 % and the detection limits were 12.01 to 37.25 ng/g. The residual level of NFs for 42 field samples showed that 2 samples positive for NFZ (9.09 and 10.74 ng/g, 1 positive for NFT (10.46 ng/g, 4 positive for FTD (16.44 up to 27.21 ng/g and none positive for FZD. Present results showed that analysis of NFs in broiler chicken meat can be done using an HPLC and the analysis results from field samples showed that these types of drugs were being used for broiler chicken production both as single and/or combination drugs, therefore it is necessary to raise public awareness to monitor the use of NF in livestock production in Indonesia.

  20. Therapeutic potential of stem cells in veterinary practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin E Gade

    Full Text Available Stem cell research acquired great attention during last decade inspite of incredible therapeutic potential of these cells the ethical controversies exists. Stem cells have enormous uses in animal cloning, drug discovery, gene targeting, transgenic production and regenerative therapy. Stem cells are the naïve cells of body which can self-renew and differentiate into other cell types to carry out multiple functions, these properties have been utilized in therapeutic application of stem cells in human and veterinary medicine. The application of stem cells in human medicine is well established and it is commonly used for chronic and accidental injuries. In Veterinary sciences previous studies mostly focused on establishing protocols for isolation and their characterization but with advancement in array of techniques for in vitro studies, stem cells rapidly became a viable tool for regenerative therapy of chronic, debilitating and various unresponsive clinical diseases and disorders. Multipotent adult stem cells have certain advantages over embryonic stem cells like easy isolation and expansion from numerous sources, less immunogenicity and no risk of teratoma formation hence their use is preferred in therapeutics. Adult stem cells have been utilized for treatment of spinal injuries, tendonitis, cartilage defects, osteoarthritis and ligament defects, liver diseases, wounds, cardiac and bone defects in animals. The multi-potential capability of these cells can be better utilized in near future to overcome the challenges faced by the clinicians. This review will emphasize on the therapeutic utilization and success of stem cell therapies in animals. [Vet. World 2012; 5(8.000: 499-507

  1. Methicillin-resistant staphylococcal contamination of cellular phones of personnel in a veterinary teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Timothy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hospital-associated infections are an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality in veterinary patients. With the emergence of multi-drug resistant bacteria, these infections can be particularly difficult to eradicate. Sources of hospital-associated infections can include the patients own flora, medical staff and inanimate hospital objects. Cellular phones are becoming an invaluable feature of communication within hospitals, and since they are frequently handled by healthcare personnel, there may be a potential for contamination with various pathogens. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of contamination of cellular phones (hospital issued and personal carried by personnel at the Ontario Veterinary College Health Sciences Centre with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. Results MRSP was isolated from 1.6% (2/123 and MRSA was isolated from 0.8% (1/123 of cellular phones. Only 21.9% (27/123 of participants in the study indicated that they routinely cleaned their cellular phone. Conclusions Cellular phones in a veterinary teaching hospital can harbour MRSP and MRSA, two opportunistic pathogens of significant concern. While the contamination rate was low, cellular phones could represent a potential source for infection of patients as well as infection of veterinary personnel and other people that might have contact with them. Regardless of the low incidence of contamination of cellular phones found in this study, a disinfection protocol for hospital-issued and personal cellular phones used in veterinary teaching hospitals should be in place to reduce the potential of cross-contamination.

  2. Prevalence and antimicrogram of Staphylococcus intermedius group isolates from veterinary staff, companion animals, and the environment in veterinary hospitals in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Jung-Ho; Yoon, Jang Won; Koo, Hye Cheong; Lim, Suk-Kyung; Park, Yong Ho

    2011-03-01

    The Staphylococcus intermedius bacterial group (SIG) includes 3 distinct genetically heterogenous species: S. intermedius, S. pseudintermedius, and S. delphini. This pathogen group is associated with many opportunistic skin and ear infections in companion animals. Human infections with S. intermedius and S. pseudintermedius isolates and the emergence of methicillin-resistant isolates have been recently reported, which emphasizes the importance of nationwide identification of SIG isolate prevalence and antibiotic resistance in veterinary clinics. In the present study, a total of 178 SIG isolates were obtained from veterinary staff (n  =  40), companion animals (n  =  115), and the local environment (n  =  23) in 8 Korean veterinary hospitals. Isolates were differentiated into 167 S. pseudintermedius (93.8%) and 11 S. intermedius (6.2%) isolates; S. delphini isolates were not identified. The most effective antibiotics against these isolates included amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, amikacin, nitrofloxacin, imipenem, and vancomycin; whereas ampicillin, penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole were not effective. Surprisingly, the 128 SIG isolates (71.9%) displayed multiple drug resistance (MDR) against 3 or more antibiotic classes. Out of 52 SIG isolates carrying the methicillin-resistance gene (mecA), only 34 (65.4%) were oxacillin-resistant, and 49 (94.2%) methicillin-resistant SIG were multidrug resistant. This finding suggests the presence of greater numbers of MDR phenotypes than other isolates (P < 0.05).

  3. Determination of Residual Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Aqueous Sample Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Modified with Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Khoeini Sharifabadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and sensitive solid-phase extraction method for separation and preconcentration of trace amount of four nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (naproxen, indomethacin, diclofenac, and ibuprofen using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide has been developed. For this purpose, the surface of MNPs was modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB as a cationic surfactant. Effects of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of drugs including the pH, amount of salt, shaking time, eluent type, the volume of solvent, amount of adsorbent, sample volume, and the time of desorption were investigated and optimized. Methanol has been used as desorption solvent and the extracts were analysed on a reversed-phase octadecyl silica column using 0.02 M phosphate-buffer (pH = 6.02 acetonitrile (65 : 35 v/v as the mobile phase and the effluents were measured at 202 nm with ultraviolet detector. The relative standard deviation (RSD% of the method was investigated at three concentrations (25, 50, and 200 ng/mL and was in the range of 3.98–9.83% (n=6 for 50 ng/mL. The calibration curves obtained for studied drugs show reasonable linearity (R2>0.99 and the limit of detection (LODs ranged between 2 and 7 ng/mL. Finally, the proposed method has been effectively employed in extraction and determination of the drugs in biological and environmental samples.

  4. Determination of Residual Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Aqueous Sample Using Magnetic Nanoparticles Modified with Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Khoeini Sharifabadi, Malihe; Saber-Tehrani, Mohammad; Waqif Husain, Syed; Mehdinia, Ali; Aberoomand-Azar, Parviz

    2014-01-01

    A simple and sensitive solid-phase extraction method for separation and preconcentration of trace amount of four nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (naproxen, indomethacin, diclofenac, and ibuprofen) using Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide has been developed. For this purpose, the surface of MNPs was modified with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a cationic surfactant. Effects of different parameters influencing the extraction efficiency of dr...

  5. Antibiotic prophylaxis in veterinary cancer chemotherapy: A review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, J L; Argyle, D J; Argyle, S A

    2018-06-12

    Bacterial infection following cancer chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in human and veterinary patients. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is controversial in the human oncology field, as any decreased incidence in bacterial infections is countered by patient adverse effects and increased antimicrobial resistance. Comprehensive guidelines exist to aid human oncologists in prescribing antimicrobial prophylaxis but similar recommendations are not available in veterinary literature. As the veterinarian's role in antimicrobial stewardship is increasingly emphasized, it is vital that veterinary oncologists implement appropriate antimicrobial use. By considering the available human and veterinary literature we present an overview of current clinical practices and are able to suggest recommendations for prophylactic antimicrobial use in veterinary cancer chemotherapy patients. © 2018 The Authors. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Educational programme on radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djuric, G.; Popovic, D.

    1992-01-01

    The education of radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists on the University of Belgrade is integrated both in regular graduate studies and in postgraduate studies. Within the graduate studies, students attend courses in physics and biophysics and in radiation hygiene. During postgraduate or specialistic veterinary medicine studies, veterinary medicine specialists expand their knowledge in radiation protection through a number of courses on radiation biophysics, radioecology, nuclear instrumentation and environmental protection. (author)

  7. THE APIPHYTOTHERAPY WITH PROACTIVATOR IN THE VETERINARY DERMATOLOGY AND SURGERY

    OpenAIRE

    A. SICEANU; AGRIPINA SAPCALIU; I. RADOI; D. CONDUR; ELIZA CAUIA; CRENGUTA PAVEL

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this clinical study consisted in evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the propolis extract used in different disorders at company animals, thus being improved the palette of the apitherapeutical products used in veterinary purposes. The experiments were carried out on company animals (two experimental groups) during the 2007-2008 period, in the frame of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty – Bucharest and the University - Spiru Haret, at the veterinary departments: Parasi...

  8. Calibration and LOD/LOQ estimation of a chemiluminescent hybridization assay for residual DNA in recombinant protein drugs expressed in E. coli using a four-parameter logistic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K R; Dipaolo, B; Ji, X

    2000-06-01

    Calibration is the process of fitting a model based on reference data points (x, y), then using the model to estimate an unknown x based on a new measured response, y. In DNA assay, x is the concentration, and y is the measured signal volume. A four-parameter logistic model was used frequently for calibration of immunoassay when the response is optical density for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or adjusted radioactivity count for radioimmunoassay (RIA). Here, it is shown that the same model or a linearized version of the curve are equally useful for the calibration of a chemiluminescent hybridization assay for residual DNA in recombinant protein drugs and calculation of performance measures of the assay.

  9. Evidence-based integrative medicine in clinical veterinary oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W

    2014-09-01

    Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Veterinary Pharmaceutics: An Opportunity for Interprofessional Education in New Zealand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Arlene; Beard, Rebekah; Brightmore, Anna; Lu, Lisa W; McKay, Amelia; Mistry, Maadhuri; Owen, Kate; Swan, Emma; Young, Jessica

    2017-07-26

    Globally pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in veterinary medicine; however, little is known about the level of interest for pharmacists playing a larger role in animal treatment in New Zealand. A key stakeholder in any progression of pharmacists becoming more involved in the practice of veterinary pharmacy is the veterinary profession. The aim of this study was to investigate views of veterinarians and veterinary students on the role of pharmacists supporting veterinarians with advice on animal medicines. Open interviews were conducted with veterinarians in Dunedin, New Zealand. Veterinary students at Massey University completed an online survey. Most veterinarians do not have regular communication with pharmacists regarding animal care, but believe it may be beneficial. In order to support veterinarians, pharmacists would need further education in veterinary medicine. Veterinary students believe there is opportunity for collaboration between professions provided that pharmacists have a better working knowledge of animal treatment. Most of the veterinary students surveyed perceive a gap in their knowledge concerning animal medicines, specifically pharmacology and compounding. While there is support for pharmacists contributing to veterinary medicine, particularly in the area of pharmaceutics, this is currently limited in New Zealand due to a lack of specialized education opportunities.

  11. Applications of Metal Additive Manufacturing in Veterinary Orthopedic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.

  12. Ethical principles for novel therapies in veterinary practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, J W

    2016-02-01

    To present insights to aid decision-making about novel veterinary treatments from regulations concerning animal experimentation and human clinical medical trials. EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes and EU Regulation 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use were analysed, evaluated and "translated" into relevant principles for veterinary surgeons. A number of principles are relevant, relating to treatment expectations, thresholds and objectives; client consent; minimising harms; personnel; review committees; assessment and publication. These principles should assist veterinary surgeons to make good ethical decisions about novel treatments. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Development of a Database for Study Data in Registration Applications for Veterinary Medicinal Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Finnah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In the present study, the feasibility of a systematic record of clinical study data from marketing authorisation applications for veterinary medicinal products (VMP and benefits of the selected approach were investigated.Background: Drug registration dossiers for veterinary medicinal products contain extensive data from drug studies, which are not easily accessible to assessors.Evidentiary value: Fast access to these data including specific search tools could facilitate a meaningful use of the data and allow assessors for comparison of test and studies from different dossiers.Methods: First, pivotal test parameters and their mutual relationships were identified. Second, a data model was developed and implemented in a relational database management system, including a data entry form and various reports for database searches. Compilation of study data in the database was demonstrated using all available clinical studies involving VMPs containing the anthelmintic drug Praziquantel. By means of descriptive data analysis possibilities of data evaluation including graphical presentation were shown. Suitability of the database to support the performance of meta-analyses was tentatively validated.Results: The data model was designed to cover the specific requirements arising from study data. A total of 308 clinical studies related to 95 VMPs containing Praziquantel (single agent and combination drugs was selected for prototype testing. The relevant data extracted from these studies were appropriately structured and shown to be basically suitable for descriptive data analyses as well as for meta-analyses.Conclusion: The database-supported collection of study data would provide users with easy access to the continuously increasing pool of scientific information held by competent authorities. It enables specific data analyses. Database design allows expanding the data model to all types of studies and classes of drugs registered in veterinary

  14. Validation of an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify illicit drug and pharmaceutical residues in wastewater using accuracy profile approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Cécile; Roosen, Martin; Levi, Yves; Karolak, Sara

    2017-06-02

    The analysis of biomarkers in wastewater has become a common approach to assess community behavior. This method is an interesting way to estimate illicit drug consumption in a given population: by using a back calculation method, it is therefore possible to quantify the amount of a specific drug used in a community and to assess the consumption variation at different times and locations. Such a method needs reliable analytical data since the determination of a concentration in the ngL -1 range in a complex matrix is difficult and not easily reproducible. The best analytical method is liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry coupling after solid-phase extraction or on-line pre-concentration. Quality criteria are not specially defined for this kind of determination. In this context, it was decided to develop an UHPLC-MS/MS method to analyze 10 illicit drugs and pharmaceuticals in wastewater treatment plant influent or effluent using a pre-concentration on-line system. A validation process was then carried out using the accuracy profile concept as an innovative tool to estimate the probability of getting prospective results within specified acceptance limits. Influent and effluent samples were spiked with known amounts of the 10 compounds and analyzed three times a day for three days in order to estimate intra-day and inter-day variations. The matrix effect was estimated for each compound. The developed method can provide at least 80% of results within ±25% limits except for compounds that are degraded in influent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An introduction to metabolomics and its potential application in veterinary science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Oliver A H; Cheung, Victoria L

    2007-10-01

    Metabolomics has been found to be applicable to a wide range of fields, including the study of gene function, toxicology, plant sciences, environmental analysis, clinical diagnostics, nutrition, and the discrimination of organism genotypes. This approach combines high-throughput sample analysis with computer-assisted multivariate pattern-recognition techniques. It is increasingly being deployed in toxico- and pharmacokinetic studies in the pharmaceutical industry, especially during the safety assessment of candidate drugs in human medicine. However, despite the potential of this technique to reduce both costs and the numbers of animals used for research, examples of the application of metabolomics in veterinary research are, thus far, rare. Here we give an introduction to metabolomics and discuss its potential in the field of veterinary science.

  16. A conceptual holding model for veterinary applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Ferrè

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a “schema” that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application “schema” of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE. The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application “schema” that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community.

  17. Impact of Hemoglobin A1c Levels on Residual Platelet Reactivity and Outcomes After Insertion of Coronary Drug-Eluting Stents (from the ADAPT-DES Study)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Mikkel M.; Dangas, George D.; Mehran, Roxana

    2016-01-01

    An increasing hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level portends an adverse cardiovascular prognosis; however, the association between glycemic control, platelet reactivity, and outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with drug-eluting stents (DES) is unknown. We sought to investigate whether Hb...... With Drug Eluting Stents registry, HbA1c levels were measured as clinically indicated in 1,145 of 8,582 patients, stratified by HbA1c 8.5% (n = 171, 14.9%). HPR on clopidogrel and aspirin was defined after PCI as P2Y12 reaction units (PRU) >208...... >208 (42.5%, 50.2%, and 62.3%, p definite or probable stent thrombosis (ST; 0.9%, 2.7%, and 4.2%, p = 0.02) increased progressively with HbA1c groups. Clinically relevant bleeding was greatest in the intermediate HbA1c group (8.2% vs 13.1% vs 9.5%, p = 0.04). In adjusted models...

  18. Gamma rays application in veterinary immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulkhanov, R.U.; Butaev, M.K.; Mirzaev, B.Sh.; Ryasnyanskiy, I.V.; Yuldashev, R.Yu.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: The process based on stimulated action of ionized radiation, change of quality of agricultural goods and row materials, biocides including bactericide action of ionized radiation are among the methods of radiation biotechnology, which can be applied in agriculture. We used the bactericide action of ionized radiation in technological process for creation of fundamentally new preparation possessed by by immunogenic properties and named as 'radio vaccine'. This term is well known and frequently used in scientific papers in the field of applied radiobiology. It is well known that physical (thermal) and chemical actions are used for preparation of vaccine for veterinary. It was noted that this process resulted in destruction of antigenic structure of bacteria cells, with are responsible for immunity creation. The possibility of virulence reduction at constant immunogenic properties of microorganism and keeping its antigenic structure can be achieved by using ionized radiation as one of the factor, which influences on bacteria. Taking into account the necessity of vaccine improvement and increase of quantity of associated vaccine one of the most important problems of veterinary science and particle is creation of vaccines of new generation which are characterized by the ability to form immunity against several diseases of agricultural animals. As a result of many-years investigations using gamma rays radiations in UzSRIV (laboratory of radiobiology) the radiation biotechnology of vaccine preparation was developed. These vaccines are necessary for practical application. Radiation biotechnology allows to prepare high-effective mono-, associated and polyvalent radio vaccines against widespread infection diseases of agricultural animals especially cubs (calves, lambs, young pigs). On the basis of developed radiation biotechnology there were prepared the following vaccines: 'Associated radio vaccine against colibacteriosis and salmonellosis of small horned cattle

  19. Whole-genome sequencing of veterinary pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronco, Troels

    -electrophoresis and single-locus sequencing has been widely used to characterize such types of veterinary pathogens. However, DNA sequencing techniques have become fast and cost effective in recent years and whole-genome sequencing data provide a much higher discriminative power and reproducibility than any...... genetic background. This indicates that dairy cows can be natural carriers of S. aureus subtypes that in certain cases lead to CM. A group of isolates that mostly belonged to ST151 carried three pathogenicity islands that were primarily found in this group. The prevalence of resistance genes was generally...

  20. 76 FR 80878 - Solicitation of Veterinary Shortage Situation Nominations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary Sherman; National Program Leader, Veterinary Science; National Institute of Food and... of Consultation 3. Rationale for Capping Nominations and State Allocation Method 4. State Allocation... adding section 1415A to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1997...

  1. 76 FR 5131 - Solicitation of Nomination of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Science; National Institute of Food and Agriculture; U.S. Department of Agriculture; STOP 2220; 1400... and State Allocation Method 4. State Allocation of Nominations 5. FY 2011 Shortage Situation..., Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1997 (NARETPA). This law established a new Veterinary Medicine Loan...

  2. 75 FR 52505 - Fiscal Year 2011 Veterinary Import/Export Services, Veterinary Diagnostic Services, and Export...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-26

    ... plant and plant product export certification program operations, contact Mr. William E. Thomas, Director...; Birds or poultry, including zoo birds or poultry, receiving nonstandard housing, care, or handling to... diseases of livestock and poultry within the United States. Veterinary diagnostics is the work performed in...

  3. Changes in Veterinary Students' Attitudes Toward the Rural Environment and Rural Veterinary Practice: A Longitudinal Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashizume, Cary T; Woloschuk, Wayne; Hecker, Kent G

    2015-01-01

    There is a paucity of research regarding veterinary students' attitudes toward the rural environment and rural veterinary practice and how these attitudes might change over the course of a veterinary medicine program that includes rural clinical experience. Using a 23-item questionnaire, attitudes toward rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, opportunities for career and skill development in rural veterinary practice, and inter-professional teamwork in the rural environment were assessed at the beginning and completion of a four-year veterinary medicine program. Eighty-six students (74.4% female) were included in this Canadian study over a six-year period. Thirty-one participants (36.1%) were rural students. Overall, students' attitudes toward the rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, and inter-professional teamwork in rural veterinary practice all significantly decreased (pstudents, rural students had significantly higher rural lifestyle scores at both the beginning (pworking in a rural environment could influence students to exclude rural veterinary practice as a career choice. Rural clinical experiences designed to sustain or increase veterinary student interest in rural practice may not be sufficient to support positive rural attitudes. Given the demand for rural veterinary services in developed countries, the implications of this study may extend beyond Canada.

  4. Balancing knowledge and basic principles in veterinary parasitology - Competencies for future Danish veterinary graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter; Williams, Andrew R; Mejer, Helena

    2018-03-15

    Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only a few parasites have Danish names. In our veterinary curriculum, zoology has disappeared as a discipline, and parasitology has gradually moved from the third year to the beginning of the second year, which implies that, for example, pathology and pharmacology are "unknown fields". The number of contact hours in veterinary parasitology has been gradually cut to 24 lectures (35 min each) and practical exercises (24 h), including 9 h on coprology. The course is taught and examined jointly with bacteriology and virology in a 8-week course. As a comprehensive course, it has become increasingly difficult to get students to acquire enough active knowledge of the most common parasites and an understanding of the basic principles in relation to, for example, transmission and control. Even though information is readily accessible through books and on-line resources, we still believe that a competent clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical and diagnostic parasitology. The students can also now select a One Health track for six months in which zoonotic parasites are obviously a relevant topic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Zebrafish: an animal model for research in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowik, N; Podlasz, P; Jakimiuk, A; Kasica, N; Sienkiewicz, W; Kaleczyc, J

    2015-01-01

    The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become known as an excellent model organism for studies of vertebrate biology, vertebrate genetics, embryonal development, diseases and drug screening. Nevertheless, there is still lack of detailed reports about usage of the zebrafish as a model in veterinary medicine. Comparing to other vertebrates, they can lay hundreds of eggs at weekly intervals, externally fertilized zebrafish embryos are accessible to observation and manipulation at all stages of their development, which makes possible to simplify the research techniques such as fate mapping, fluorescent tracer time-lapse lineage analysis and single cell transplantation. Although zebrafish are only 2.5 cm long, they are easy to maintain. Intraperitoneal and intracerebroventricular injections, blood sampling and measurement of food intake are possible to be carry out in adult zebrafish. Danio rerio is a useful animal model for neurobiology, developmental biology, drug research, virology, microbiology and genetics. A lot of diseases, for which the zebrafish is a perfect model organism, affect aquatic animals. For a part of them, like those caused by Mycobacterium marinum or Pseudoloma neutrophila, Danio rerio is a natural host, but the zebrafish is also susceptible to the most of fish diseases including Itch, Spring viraemia of carp and Infectious spleen and kidney necrosis. The zebrafish is commonly used in research of bacterial virulence. The zebrafish embryo allows for rapid, non-invasive and real time analysis of bacterial infections in a vertebrate host. Plenty of common pathogens can be examined using zebrafish model: Streptococcus iniae, Vibrio anguillarum or Listeria monocytogenes. The steps are taken to use the zebrafish also in fungal research, especially that dealing with Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. Although, the zebrafish is used commonly as an animal model to study diseases caused by external agents, it is also useful in studies of metabolic

  6. Reconsidering the lecture in modern veterinary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Michelangelo; Lygo-Baker, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Those teaching in the higher-education environment are now increasingly meeting with larger cohorts of students. The result is additional pressure on the resources available and on the teacher and learners. Against this backdrop, discussions and reflections took place between a practitioner, within a UK veterinary school, and an educational researcher with extensive experience in observing teaching in veterinary medicine. The result was an examination of the lecture as a method of teaching to consider how to resolve identified challenges. The focus of much of the literature is on technical aspects of teaching and learning, reverting to a range of tips to resolve particular issues recognized in large-group settings. We suggest that while these tips are useful, they will only take a practitioner so far. To be able to make a genuine connection to learners and help them connect directly to the discipline, we need to take account of the emotional aspects of our role as teachers, without which, delivery of knowledge may be undermined.

  7. The preanalytic phase in veterinary clinical pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jean-Pierre; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Trumel, Cathy

    2015-03-01

    This article presents the general causes of preanalytic variability with a few examples showing specialists and practitioners that special and improved care should be given to this too often neglected phase. The preanalytic phase of clinical pathology includes all the steps from specimen collection to analysis. It is the phase where most laboratory errors occur in human, and probably also in veterinary clinical pathology. Numerous causes may affect the validity of the results, including technical factors, such as the choice of anticoagulant, the blood vessel sampled, and the duration and conditions of specimen handling. While the latter factors can be defined, influence of biologic and physiologic factors such as feeding and fasting, stress, and biologic and endocrine rhythms can often not be controlled. Nevertheless, as many factors as possible should at least be documented. The importance of the preanalytic phase is often not given the necessary attention, although the validity of the results and consequent clinical decision making and medical management of animal patients would likely be improved if the quality of specimens submitted to the laboratory was optimized. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  8. Preferential sampling in veterinary parasitological surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cecconi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy in the years 2013-2014.

  9. Biosafety and biosecurity in veterinary laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Melissa R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brass, Van Hildren [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Here, with recent outbreaks of MERS-Cov, Anthrax, Nipah, and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, much emphasis has been placed on rapid identification of infectious agents globally. As a result, laboratories are building capacity, conducting more advanced and sophisticated research, increasing laboratory staff, and establishing collections of dangerous pathogens in an attempt to reduce the impact of infectious disease outbreaks and characterize disease causing agents. With this expansion, the global laboratory community has started to focus on laboratory biosafety and biosecurity to prevent the accidental and/or intent ional release o f these agents. Laboratory biosafety and biosecurity systems are used around the world to help mit igate the risks posed by dangerous pathogens in the laboratory. Veterinary laboratories carry unique responsibilities to workers and communities to safely and securely handle disease causing microorganisms. Many microorganisms studied in veterinary laboratories not only infect animals, but also have the potential to infect humans. This paper will discuss the fundamentals of laboratory biosafety and biosecurity.

  10. Views of professionalism: a veterinary institutional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, C; Whittlestone, K; May, S A

    2012-12-08

    In many western countries, there has been a marked change in the demographic profile of those entering the veterinary profession, with a shift from a predominantly male to a predominantly female intake. There have been parallel changes in society, with greater emphasis on human rights and work-life balance. It is, therefore, timely to consider what constitutes correct professional conduct for the profession, as there is the potential for problems to arise over the interpretation of 'professionalism' due to cultural and generational differences. A cross-section of staff and students within one veterinary institution were invited to take part in a survey exploring their prioritisation of 10 aspects of the professional role. A cluster analysis was performed, and four distinctly different profiles were established according to the views held by the cluster members. Cluster membership was found to significantly correlate to career stage, with altruism and social justice progressively giving way to professional autonomy and dominance. All four clusters in this educational environment prioritised technical and interpersonal competences above all other aspects of the professional role.

  11. 75 FR 31745 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-04

    ...] Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services Laboratories... collection associated with the National Veterinary Services Laboratories animal health diagnostic system...: For information on request forms associated with the National Veterinary Services Laboratories animal...

  12. 75 FR 57737 - Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ...] Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services Laboratories... Service's intention to request approval of an information collection associated with National Veterinary...' Information Collection Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Veterinary...

  13. 77 FR 77004 - Data Standards for Electronic Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ...] Data Standards for Electronic Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection AGENCY: Animal and Plant... data standards required to generate an official interstate certificate of veterinary inspection (ICVI... interstate certificate of veterinary inspection (ICVI). The standards were developed with the National...

  14. 75 FR 65293 - Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ...] Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for... Requirements for the Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH) has developed a draft guideline titled ``Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for Transfer of Data...

  15. [Vigilance for veterinary medicinal products: declarations of adverse reactions in the year 2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müntener, C R; Bruckner, L; Stürer, A; Althaus, F R; Caduff-Janosa, P

    2010-12-01

    During the year 2009, 134 reports of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) to veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) were received (106 in the year 2008). The distribution according to species and drug classes remained in line with previous years. Companion animals were involved in most of the reports (46 % dogs, 19 % cats), followed by cattle or calves (22 %). Antiparasitic drugs made the biggest part with 30 % of the reports, followed by antiinfectives (19 %) and hormones (13 %). Some reactions following their use are specifically discussed. 95 additional enquiries about ADRs of VMPs were received by the Swiss Toxicological Information Centre in Zürich. Most of them concerned dogs or cats and antiparasitics or anti-inflammatory drugs. In the vaccinovigilance program, a total of 1020 reports were received, of which 1000 were related to the vaccination against blue tongue disease. The most frequently reported adverse reactions were aborts, mastitis or alterations of milk quality and they are specifically discussed.

  16. Residual nilpotence and residual solubility of groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, R V

    2005-01-01

    The properties of the residual nilpotence and the residual solubility of groups are studied. The main objects under investigation are the class of residually nilpotent groups such that each central extension of these groups is also residually nilpotent and the class of residually soluble groups such that each Abelian extension of these groups is residually soluble. Various examples of groups not belonging to these classes are constructed by homological methods and methods of the theory of modules over group rings. Several applications of the theory under consideration are presented and problems concerning the residual nilpotence of one-relator groups are considered.

  17. Ethno-veterinary control of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks in Zhombe, Njelele and Shamrock resettlement in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndhlovu, Daud Nyosi; Masika, Patrick J

    2013-02-01

    A structured questionnaire survey was conducted to determine the ethno-veterinary practices and other control methods used by smallholder farmers for the management of bovine dermatophilosis and ticks. A total of 153 farmers were interviewed from Njelele, Zhombe communal and Shamrock resettlement areas. Crop production contributed most to livelihoods (83.2 %) while livestock contributed 9.0 %. Over 90 % of the respondents had attended school up to primary level, with 11.4 % undergoing animal health and husbandry training. Treatment of livestock diseases was practised by 96 % of the farmers, and 49.7 % of these farmers used ethno-veterinary medicines. Across the study sites, dermatophilosis was controlled using the following plants: Cissus quadrangularis (59.7 %), Catunaregam spinosa (10.5 %), Pterocarpus angolensis (10.5 %), Kalanchoe lanceolata (5.3 %), Aloe chabaudii (3.5 %), Cassia abbreviata (1.8 %), Dichrostachys cinerea (1.8 %), Urginea sanguinea (1.8 %), Ximenia caffra (1.8 %) and a plant locally called umfanawembila (1.8 %). Carica papaya and two plants, locally called mugimbura and umdungudungu, were used for tick control, and these were reported once from Njelele communal. Other control methods, besides plants or conventional drugs, were used by 28 % of the farmers for the treatment of dermatophilosis and ticks. Some farmers (14.4 %) claimed that ethno-veterinary medicines performed better than conventional drugs. The study revealed that farmers used ethno-veterinary medical practices for the treatment of dermatophilosis but rarely for tick control.

  18. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Babesia caballi infection in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, ... control ticks by regular use of acaricide and timely treatment of affected horses in ... enlarged spleen and liver, pale kidney and oedema in lungs. Babesiosis is usually diagnosed by .... Journal of Animal and Plant.

  19. Comparing Tolerance of Ambiguity in Veterinary and Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Jason; Hammond, Jennifer A; Roberts, Martin; Mattick, Karen

    Current guidelines suggest that educators in both medical and veterinary professions should do more to ensure that students can tolerate ambiguity. Designing curricula to achieve this requires the ability to measure and understand differences in ambiguity tolerance among and within professional groups. Although scales have been developed to measure tolerance of ambiguity in both medical and veterinary professions, no comparative studies have been reported. We compared the tolerance of ambiguity of medical and veterinary students, hypothesizing that veterinary students would have higher tolerance of ambiguity, given the greater patient diversity and less well-established evidence base underpinning practice. We conducted a secondary analysis of questionnaire data from first- to fourth-year medical and veterinary students. Tolerance of ambiguity scores were calculated and compared using the TAMSAD scale (29 items validated for the medical student population), the TAVS scale (27 items validated for the veterinary student population), and a scale comprising the 22 items common to both scales. Using the TAMSAD and TAVS scales, medical students had a significantly higher mean tolerance of ambiguity score than veterinary students (56.1 vs. 54.1, pambiguity than veterinary students, although this depends on the scale used.

  20. The role of veterinary medical librarians in teaching information literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkelman, Andrea L; Viera, Ann R; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle A

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study seeks to determine the nature of the instruction librarians provide to veterinary medical students at all 28 United States veterinary colleges. A secondary goal of the study was to determine in what ways and to what extent librarians participated in other instructional activities at their colleges. Over half of the librarians formally taught in one or more courses, predominantly in the first two years of the veterinary curriculum. One presentation per course was most common. Over half of the librarians interviewed stated that evidence-based veterinary medicine was taught at their colleges, and about half of these librarians collaborated with veterinary faculty in this instruction. Many librarians participated in orientation for first-year veterinary students. The librarians also taught instructional sessions for residents, interns, faculty, graduate students, and practicing veterinarians. This study found that librarians teach information literacy skills both formally and informally, but, in general, instruction by librarians was not well integrated into the curriculum. This study advances several recommendations to help veterinary students develop information literacy skills. These include: encourage veterinary faculty and administrators to collaborate more closely with librarians, incorporate a broader array of information literacy skills into assignments, and add a literature evaluation course to the curriculum.

  1. Veterinary Immunology Committee Toolkit Workshop 2010: Progress and plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Third Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) Toolkit Workshop took place at the Ninth International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (IVIS) in Tokyo, Japan on August 18, 2020. The Workshop built on previous Toolkit Workshops and covered various aspects of reagent development, commercialisation an...

  2. Highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veterinary immunologists have expanded understanding of the immune systems for our companion animals and developed new vaccines and therapeutics. This manuscript summarizes the highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto,...

  3. Status and role of radiobiology in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this presentation history of radiobiology in University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice from 1949 is presented. Scientific and pedagogic programs, role of veterinary physician as well as concept of radiobiology and cooperation are reviewed. Changes in Poecilia reticulata and Artemia franciscana after gamma radiation are presented.

  4. The status and role of radiobiology in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benova, K.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with history of the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice as well as with the status and role of radiobiology in veterinary medicine. Some results of gamma irradiation of Pecilia reticulata are presented. Activity levels of cesium-137 in contaminated mushrooms gathered in Slovakia in 2001 are presented.

  5. A Theoretical Framework for Human and Veterinary Medical Ethics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    In their practice, physicians and veterinarians need to resort to an array of ethical competences. As a teaching topic, however, there is no accepted gold standard for human medical ethics, and veterinary medical ethics is not yet well established. This paper provides a reflection on the underlying aims of human and veterinary medical ethics…

  6. Quality documentation challenges for veterinary clinical pathology laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchini, Federico; Freeman, Kathleen P

    2008-05-01

    An increasing number of veterinary laboratories worldwide have obtained or are seeking certification based on international standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission 17025. Compliance with any certification standard or quality management system requires quality documentation, an activity that may present several unique challenges in the case of veterinary laboratories. Research specifically addressing quality documentation is conspicuously absent in the veterinary literature. This article provides an overview of the quality system documentation needed to comply with a quality management system with an emphasis on preparing written standard operating procedures specific for veterinary laboratories. In addition, the quality documentation challenges that are unique to veterinary clinical pathology laboratories are critically evaluated against the existing quality standards and discussed with respect to possible solutions and/or recommended courses of action. Documentation challenges include the establishment of quality requirements for veterinary tests, the use or modification of human analytic methods for animal samples, the limited availability of quality control materials satisfactory for veterinary clinical pathology laboratories, the limited availability of veterinary proficiency programs, and the complications in establishing species-specific reference intervals.

  7. Some Observations on Veterinary Undergraduate Training in Surgical Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittick, William G.

    1978-01-01

    The undergraduate surgery course of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, is described with focus on its experential method of teaching surgical techniques. Also discussed are the benefits of veterinary school cooperation with a large city Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). (JMD)

  8. Emergency deployment of genetically engineered veterinary vaccines in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramezanpour, Bahar; Foucauld, de Jean; Kortekaas, Jeroen

    2016-01-01

    On the 9th of November 2015, preceding the World Veterinary Vaccine Congress, a workshop was held to discuss how veterinary vaccines can be deployed more rapidly to appropriately respond to future epizootics in Europe. Considering their potential and unprecedented suitability for surge

  9. Ethno-veterinary practices amongst livestock farmers in Ngamiland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although the intervention of conventional veterinary medicine is pervasive in Toteng, and many livestock owners are resorting to it, there is evidence, however, of generalized ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases. Local farmers and their herders in Ngamiland are not only knowledgeable ...

  10. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Epiphyseal plate closure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    Nigeria. 2. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Sokoto, Nigeria ... from three different small ruminant farms with birth record within Sokoto metropolis,. Nigeria. They were ... animals, one of which is the use of epiphyseal plate closure (Choi et al., ...

  11. Network on veterinary medicines initiated by the European Federation For Pharmaceutical Sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochel, J P; Tyden, E; Hellmann, K; Vendrig, J C; Şenel, S; Dencker, L; Cristina, R T; Linden, H; Schmerold, I

    2018-06-01

    The European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) was founded 25 years ago by more than 20 national pharmaceutical societies and faculty members. As a pan-European organization, it brings together pharmaceutical societies as well as academic, industrial and regulatory scientists engaged in drug research and development, drug regulation and education of professionals working in these fields. EUFEPS represents pharmaceutical sciences in Europe and is recognized as such by both the European Commission and the European Medicines Agency. EUFEPS cooperates with the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and other European organizations and maintains global connections with agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration and the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists. EUFEPS has established specified networks forming the basis of its activities. The creation of a Network on Veterinary Medicines is prompted by the manifold problems resulting from the use of veterinary drugs and its inherent interconnections with human medicine, environmental and public health. A long-term goal of this initiative was to expand the spectrum of available therapeutics for use in animals, including the development of innovative delivery systems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. An overview of the main foodstuff sample preparation technologies for tetracycline residue determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Rodríguez, Michael; Pellerano, Roberto Gerardo; Pezza, Leonardo; Pezza, Helena Redigolo

    2018-05-15

    Tetracyclines are widely used for both the treatment and prevention of diseases in animals as well as for the promotion of rapid animal growth and weight gain. This practice may result in trace amounts of these drugs in products of animal origin, such as milk and eggs, posing serious risks to human health. The presence of tetracycline residues in foods can lead to the transmission of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria through the food chain. In order to ensure food safety and avoid exposure to these substances, national and international regulatory agencies have established tolerance levels for authorized veterinary drugs, including tetracycline antimicrobials. In view of that, numerous sensitive and specific methods have been developed for the quantification of these compounds in different food matrices. One will note, however, that the determination of trace residues in foods such as milk and eggs often requires extensive sample extraction and preparation prior to conducting instrumental analysis. Sample pretreatment is usually the most complicated step in the analytical process and covers both cleaning and pre-concentration. Optimal sample preparation can reduce analysis time and sources of error, enhance sensitivity, apart from enabling unequivocal identification, confirmation and quantification of target analytes. The development and implementation of more environmentally friendly analytical procedures, which involve the use of less hazardous solvents and smaller sample sizes compared to traditional methods, is a rapidly increasing trend in analytical chemistry. This review seeks to provide an updated overview of the main trends in sample preparation for the determination of tetracycline residues in foodstuffs. The applicability of several extraction and clean-up techniques employed in the analysis of foodstuffs, especially milk and egg samples, is also thoroughly discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Drug: D08442 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available icine acetylcholinesterase (AChE) [KO:K01049] ... CAS: 114-26-1 PubChem: 96025128 ChEBI: 34938 ChEMBL: CHEMBL446060 LigandBox: D08442 NIKKAJI: J2.893B ... ... D08442 Drug Propoxur (BAN); Bolfo (TN) ... C11H15NO3 D08442.gif ... Same as: C14334 ... Carbamate veterinary med

  14. Drug: D03771 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03771 Drug Diaveridine (USAN/INN) ... C13H16N4O2 D03771.gif ... Antiparasitic ... DG01932 ... Antifolate, antiprotoz...oal ... Veterinary medicine dihydrofolate reductase [KO:K13998] ... CAS: 5355-16-8 Pub

  15. Drug: D02534 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D02534 Drug Nitrovin (BAN); Difurazone; Nitrovin (TN) ... C14H12N6O6 D02534.gif ... Same as: C19487 ... veterina...ry medicine ... CAS: 804-36-4 PubChem: 17396705 ChEBI: 82516 ChEMBL: CHEMBL1395447 LigandBox: D02534 NIKKAJI: J4.527F ...

  16. Drug: D04135 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D04135 Drug Febantel (USAN/INN); Rintal (TN) ... C20H22N4O6S D04135.gif ... Component of Drontal (TN) veter...inary medicine ... CAS: 58306-30-2 PubChem: 47206082 ChEMBL: CHEMBL1080983 LigandBox: D04135 NIKKAJI: J14.650A ...

  17. Drug: D07801 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D07801 Drug Dexamethasone phenylpropionate; Dexafort [veterinary] (TN) ... C31H37FO6 D07801...A:1551] CYP induction: CYP2D6 [HSA:1565] CAS: 1879-72-7 PubChem: 96024498 LigandBox: D07801 NIKKAJI: J199.699A ...

  18. A fabric phase sorptive extraction-High performance liquid chromatography-Photo diode array detection method for the determination of twelve azole antimicrobial drug residues in human plasma and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locatelli, Marcello; Kabir, Abuzar; Innosa, Denise; Lopatriello, Teresa; Furton, Kenneth G

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a novel fabric phase sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (FPSE-HPLC-PDA) method for the simultaneous extraction and analysis of twelve azole antimicrobial drug residues that include ketoconazole, terconazole, voriconazole, bifonazole, clotrimazole, tioconazole, econazole, butoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, and itraconazole in human plasma and urine samples. The selected azole antimicrobial drugs were well resolved by using a Luna C 18 column (250mm×4.6mm; 5μm particle size) in gradient elution mode within 36min. The analytical method was calibrated and validated in the range from 0.1 to 8μg/mL for all the drug compounds. Blank human plasma and urine were used as the sample matrix for the analysis; while benzyl-4-hydroxybenzoate was used as the internal standard (IS). The limit of quantification of the FPSE-HPLC-PDA method was found as 0.1μg/mL and the weighted-matrix matched standard calibration curves of the drugs showed a good linearity upto a concentration of 8μg/mL. The parallelism tests were also performed to evaluate whether overrange sample can be analyzed after dilution, without compromising the analytical performances of the validated method. The intra- and inter-day precision (RSD%) values were found ≤13.1% and ≤13.9%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day trueness (bias%) values were found in the range from -12.1% to 10.5%. The performances of the validated FPSE-HPLC-PDA were further tested on real samples collected from healthy volunteers after a single dose administration of itraconazole and miconazole. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first FPSE extraction procedure applied on plasma and urine samples for the simultaneous determination of twelve azole drugs possessing a wide range of logK ow values (extending from 0.4 for fluconazole to 6.70 of butoconazole) and could be adopted as a rapid and robust green analytical tool for clinical and

  19. Examining why ethics is taught to veterinary students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magalhães-Sant’Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics...... and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010–2011). The content of the interview...... transcripts were analyzed using Toulmin's argumentative model. Ten objectives in teaching veterinary ethics were identified, which can be grouped into four overarching themes: ethical awareness, ethical knowledge, ethical skills, and individual and professional qualities. These objectives include recognizing...

  20. Evaluating veterinary practitioner perceptions of communication skills and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, M P; Cobb, M A; Tischler, V A; Robbé, I J; Dean, R S

    2017-03-25

    A survey was conducted among veterinary practitioners in the UK and the USA in 2012/2013. Thematic analysis was used to identify underlying reasons behind answers to questions about the importance of communication skills and the desire to participate in postgraduate communication skills training. Lack of training among more experienced veterinary surgeons, incomplete preparation of younger practitioners and differences in ability to communicate all contribute to gaps in communication competency. Barriers to participating in further communication training include time, cost and doubts in the ability of training to provide value. To help enhance communication ability, communication skills should be assessed in veterinary school applicants, and communication skills training should be more thoroughly integrated into veterinary curricula. Continuing education/professional development in communication should be part of all postgraduate education and should be targeted to learning style preferences and communication needs and challenges through an entire career in practice. British Veterinary Association.

  1. Risk assessment and risk management at the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA): a perspective on the monitoring of foods for chemical residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bietlot, Henri P; Kolakowski, Beata

    2012-08-01

    The Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) uses 'Ranked Risk Assessment' (RRA) to prioritize chemical hazards for inclusion in monitoring programmes or method development projects based on their relative risk. The relative risk is calculated for a chemical by scoring toxicity and exposure in the 'risk model scoring system' of the Risk Priority Compound List (RPCL). The relative ranking and the risk management options are maintained and updated in the RPCL. The ranking may be refined by the data generated by the sampling and testing programs. The two principal sampling and testing programmes are the National Chemical Residue Monitoring Program (NCRMP) and the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP). The NCRMP sampling plans focus on the analysis of federally registered products (dairy, eggs, honey, meat and poultry, fresh and processed fruit and vegetable commodities, and maple syrup) for residues of veterinary drugs, pesticides, environmental contaminants, mycotoxins, and metals. The NCRMP is complemented by the Food Safety Action Plan (FSAP) targeted surveys. These surveys focus on emerging chemical hazards associated with specific foods or geographical regions for which applicable maximum residue limits (MRLs) are not set. The data from the NCRMP and FSAP also influence the risk management (follow-up) options. Follow-up actions vary according to the magnitude of the health risk, all with the objective of preventing any repeat occurrence to minimize consumer exposure to a product representing a potential risk to human health. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2012. Drug Testing and Analysis © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. What is the veterinary professional identity? Preliminary findings from web-based continuing professional development in veterinary professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armitage-Chan, E; Maddison, J; May, S A

    2016-03-26

    Professionalism and professional skills are increasingly being incorporated into veterinary curricula; however, lack of clarity in defining veterinary professionalism presents a potential challenge for directing course outcomes that are of benefit to the veterinary professional. An online continuing education course in veterinary professionalism was designed to address a deficit in postgraduate support in this area; as part of this course, delegates of varying practice backgrounds participated in online discussions reflecting on the implications of professional skills for their clinical practice. The discussions surrounding the role of the veterinary professional and reflecting on strengths and weaknesses in professional skills were analysed using narrative methodology, which provided an understanding of the defining skills and attributes of the veterinary professional, from the perspectives of those involved (i.e. how vets understood their own career identity). The veterinary surgeon was understood to be an interprofessional team member, who makes clinical decisions in the face of competing stakeholder needs and works in a complex environment comprising multiple and diverse challenges (stress, high emotions, financial issues, work-life balance). It was identified that strategies for accepting fallibility, and those necessary for establishing reasonable expectations of professional behaviour and clinical ability, are poorly developed. British Veterinary Association.

  3. World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP): the 50th anniversary in 2013--history, achievements, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckert, J

    2013-08-01

    In 2013 the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology (WAAVP) can celebrate its 50th anniversary. At this occasion in this article selected historical data are updated, and the achievements and future perspectives of the WAAVP are discussed. Although the WAAVP is a small association with only a few hundred members, it has been able to develop remarkable activities. Between 1963 and 2011 the WAAVP has organized 23 international scientific congresses, and the 24th conference will take place in Perth, Western Australia, in 2013. These conferences have achieved a high degree of international recognition as indicated by relatively large numbers of participants (up to ~800). Furthermore, the WAAVP has promoted veterinary parasitology in various ways, such as publishing international guidelines (efficacy evaluation of antiparasitic drugs, parasitological methods, standardized nomenclature of animal parasitic diseases "SNOAPAD"), stimulating international discussions on teaching and continued education ("colleges of veterinary parasitology") and by supporting the high quality journal "Veterinary Parasitology" which is the official organ of the WAAVP. In retrospect, the development of the WAAVP can be classified as very successful. New challenges associated with global changes (growth of the world population, urbanization, climate change, new developments in animal and plant production, etc.) will require new efforts in research in various fields, including veterinary parasitology. Future activities of WAAVP may include inter alia: (a) support of international parasitological networks; (b) stimulation of coordinated research aimed at the solution of defined problems; (c) increasing the exposure of WAAVP to parasitology from hitherto neglected regions of the world; (d) strengthening of official links to international organizations (FAO, WHO, etc.); (e) continuation of guideline preparation; and (d) preparation and international distribution of high

  4. Edible vaccines against veterinary parasitic diseases--current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Siju S; Cherian, Susan; Sumithra, T G; Raina, O K; Sankar, M

    2013-04-08

    Protection of domestic animals against parasitic infections remains a major challenge in most of the developing countries, especially in the surge of drug resistant strains. In this circumstance vaccination seems to be the sole practical strategy to combat parasites. Most of the presently available live or killed parasitic vaccines possess many disadvantages. Thus, expression of parasitic antigens has seen a continued interest over the past few decades. However, only a limited success was achieved using bacterial, yeast, insect and mammalian expression systems. This is witnessed by an increasing number of reports on transgenic plant expression of previously reported and new antigens. Oral delivery of plant-made vaccines is particularly attractive due to their exceptional advantages. Moreover, the regulatory burden for veterinary vaccines is less compared to human vaccines. This led to an incredible investment in the field of transgenic plant vaccines for veterinary purpose. Plant based vaccine trials have been conducted to combat various significant parasitic diseases such as fasciolosis, schistosomosis, poultry coccidiosis, porcine cycticercosis and ascariosis. Besides, passive immunization by oral delivery of antibodies expressed in transgenic plants against poultry coccidiosis is an innovative strategy. These trials may pave way to the development of promising edible veterinary vaccines in the near future. As the existing data regarding edible parasitic vaccines are scattered, an attempt has been made to assemble the available literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Avoiding sexual harassment liability in veterinary practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, C A; Wilson, J F

    1996-05-15

    Harassment based on gender violates the rule of workplace equality established by Title VII of the Civil Rights Act and enforced by the EEOC. In 1986, the US Supreme Court, in Meritor Savings Bank v Vinson, established the criteria that must be met for a claim of hostile environment sexual harassment to be considered valid. Plaintiffs must show that they were subjected to conduct based on their gender, that it was unwelcome, and that it was severe and pervasive enough to alter their condition of employment, resulting in an abusive working environment. There have been few sexual harassment cases involving veterinary professionals, and it is our goal to help keep the number of filed actions to a minimum. The most effective way to avoid hostile environment sexual harassment claims is to confront the issue openly and to adopt a sexual harassment policy for the practice. When it comes to sexual harassment, an ounce of prevention is unquestionably worth a pound of cure.

  6. New alternatives in veterinary anthelminthic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeo T. Cristina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Present paper proposes the presentation of antiparasitic boluses, veterinary use specific conditionings with importance in gastro intestinal helminth population control, as a modern alternative to the classic antihelmintic therapy. The active substances are released consecutive to: diffusion, osmotic procesess, to progressive erosion, or through electronic programmed devices. Anthelmintic boluses are classified upon the releasing system in: a anthelmintic sustained release systems: for albendazole (Proftril bolus, morantel tartrate (Paratect flex and bolus ivermectines (Enzec and Alzet, Ivomec SR Bolus, levamisole (Chronominthic bolus, oxfendazol (Synanthic multidose bolus fenbendazole (Panacur Bolus.b anthelmintic programmed periodic release systems: Intra Ruminal Pulse Release Electronic Device (I.R.P.R.E.D and Repidose (Autoworm, Oxfendazole Pulsed Release Bolus.

  7. ASVCP quality assurance guidelines: control of preanalytical and analytical factors for hematology for mammalian and nonmammalian species, hemostasis, and crossmatching in veterinary laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vap, Linda M; Harr, Kendal E; Arnold, Jill E; Freeman, Kathleen P; Getzy, Karen; Lester, Sally; Friedrichs, Kristen R

    2012-03-01

    In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and provides recommendations for control of preanalytical and analytical factors related to hematology for mammalian and nonmammalian species, hemostasis testing, and crossmatching and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.3 (mammalian hematology), 1.2 and 2.4 (nonmammalian hematology), 1.5 and 2.7 (hemostasis testing), and 1.6 and 2.8 (crossmatching) of the complete guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  8. Occurrence and source analysis of typical veterinary antibiotics in manure, soil, vegetables and groundwater from organic vegetable bases, northern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiangang; Zhou Qixing; Luo Yi

    2010-01-01

    The residue of antibiotics is becoming an intractable environmental problem in many organic vegetable bases. However, their residual levels and distribution are still obscure. This work systematically analyzed the occurrence and migration of typical veterinary antibiotics in organic vegetable bases, northern China. The results showed that there was no obvious geographical difference in antibiotic distribution between soil and manure. A simple migration model can be easy and quick to predict the accumulation of antibiotics in soil. Antibiotics were mainly taken up through water transport and passive absorption in vegetables. The distribution of antibiotics in a plant was in the sequence leaf > stem > root, and performed biological accumulation. The residues of antibiotics in all samples in winter were significantly higher than those in summer. Overall, this work can lay the foundation for understanding ecological risk of antibiotics and their potential adverse effects on human health by food chain. - The residues of typical veterinary antibiotics from manure were detected and migrated in soil, vegetables and groundwater of organic vegetable bases.

  9. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing by Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardefeldt, L Y; Marenda, M; Crabb, H; Stevenson, M A; Gilkerson, J R; Billman-Jacobe, H; Browning, G F

    2018-04-01

    The national strategy for tackling antimicrobial resistance highlights the need for antimicrobial stewardship in veterinary practice and for surveillance of antimicrobial susceptibility in veterinary pathogens. Diagnostic laboratories have an important role in facilitating both of these processes, but it is unclear whether data from veterinary diagnostic laboratories are similar enough to allow for compilation and if there is consistent promotion of appropriate antimicrobial use embedded in the approaches of different laboratories to susceptibility testing. A cross-sectional study of antimicrobial susceptibility testing and reporting procedures by Australian veterinary diagnostic laboratories was conducted in 2017 using an online questionnaire. All 18 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia completed the questionnaire. Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion was the method predominantly used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing and was used to evaluate 86% of all isolates, although two different protocols were used across the 18 laboratories (CLSI 15/18, CDS 3/18). Minimum inhibitory concentrations were never reported by 61% of laboratories. Common isolates were consistently reported on across all species, except for gram-negative isolates in pigs, for which there was some variation in the approach to reporting. There was considerable diversity in the panels of antimicrobials used for susceptibility testing on common isolates and no consistency was apparent between laboratories for any bacterial species. We recommend that nationally agreed and consistent antimicrobial panels for routine susceptibility testing should be developed and a uniform set of guidelines should be adopted by veterinary diagnostic laboratories in Australia. © 2018 Australian Veterinary Association.

  10. Code of practice for radiation protection in veterinary medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, J.; Fenton, D.; McGarry, A.; McAllister, H.; Skelly, C

    2002-11-01

    This Code of Practice updates the Code of Practice on Radiation Protection in Veterinary Radiology prepared by the Nuclear Energy Board in June 1989. The Code is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons to ensure that they, their employees and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of X-ray equipment and radioactive substances in the practice of veterinary medicine. It reflects the regulations as specified in the Radiological Protection Act, 1991, (Ionising Radiation) Order, 2000 (S.I. No. 125 of 2000)

  11. Radiation surveillance procedure during veterinary application of radioisotope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaldeep; Bhaktivinayagam, A.; Singh, Sanjay Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Radioisotopes have found wide applications in the field of biomedical veterinary nuclear medicine and research. Radiation safety issues during internal administration of radioisotopes to laboratory animals, unlike human use, are far more challenging and requires stringent, well planned and an organized system of radiation protection in the animal house facility. In this paper, we discuss our experience during veterinary research experiments involving use, handling and administration of liquid sources of 131 I. With extensive radiation protection surveillance and application of practical and essential radiation safety and hygiene practices, the radiation exposure and contamination levels during the veterinary application of isotopes can be kept ALARA

  12. Development of a new screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in muscle tissues using liquid chromatography and high resolution mass spectrometry with a LC-LTQ-Orbitrap instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtaud-Pessel, D; Jagadeshwar-Reddy, T; Verdon, E

    2011-10-01

    A liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) method was developed for screening meat for a wide range of antibiotics used in veterinary medicine. Full-scan mode under high resolution mass spectral conditions using an LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer with resolving power 60,000 full width at half maximum (FWHM) was applied for analysis of the samples. Samples were prepared using two extraction protocols prior to LC-HRMS analysis. The scope of the method focuses on screening the following main families of antibacterial veterinary drugs: penicillins, cephalosporins, sulfonamides, macrolides, tetracyclines, aminoglucosides and quinolones. Compounds were successfully identified in spiked samples from their accurate mass and LC retention times from the acquired full-scan chromatogram. Automated data processing using ToxId software allowed rapid treatment of the data. Analyses of muscle tissues from real samples collected from antibiotic-treated animals was carried out using the above methodology and antibiotic residues were identified unambiguously. Further analysis of the data for real samples allowed the identification of the targeted antibiotic residues but also non-targeted compounds, such as some of their metabolites.

  13. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus carriage among veterinary staff and dogs in private veterinary clinics in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Kanako; Saito, Mieko; Shimokubo, Natsumi; Muramatsu, Yasukazu; Maetani, Shigeki; Tamura, Yutaka

    2014-03-01

    To explore the prevalence and molecular characteristics of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in veterinary medical practices, MRSA carriage was tested among 96 veterinarians (Vets), 70 veterinary technicians (VTs) and 292 dogs with which they had contact at 71 private veterinary clinics (VCs) in Hokkaido, Japan. MRSA isolates were obtained from 22 Vets [22.9%] and 7 VTs [10%]. The prevalence of MRSA among Vets was as high as that found in an academic veterinary hospital in our previous study. In contrast, only two blood donor dogs and one dog with liver disease (1.0%, 3/292) yielded MRSA. All MRSA-positive dogs were reared or treated in different VCs, in each of which at least one veterinary staff member carrying MRSA worked. Sequence types (ST) identified by multilocus sequence typing, spa types, and SCCmec types for canine MRSA isolates (ST5-spa t002-SCCmec II [from two dogs] or ST30-spa t021-SCCmec IV [from a dog]) were concordant with those from veterinary staff members in the same clinics as the MRSA-positive dogs, with which they had potentially had contact. Most MRSA isolates from veterinary staff were the same genotype (SCCmec type II and spa type t002) as a major hospital-acquired MRSA clone in Japan. The remaining MRSA was the same genotypes as domestic and foreign community-associated MRSA. Measures against MRSA infection should be provided in private VCs. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. 9 CFR 2.40 - Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... veterinary care (dealers and exhibitors). 2.40 Section 2.40 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT... and Adequate Veterinary Care § 2.40 Attending veterinarian and adequate veterinary care (dealers and... veterinary care to its animals in compliance with this section. (1) Each dealer and exhibitor shall employ an...

  15. The potential for improving welfare standards and productivity in United Kingdom sheep flocks using veterinary flock health plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, P R; Sargison, N D; Wilson, D J

    2007-05-01

    Data from industry sources detailing variable costs in 2003 revealed that the average farmer keeping 1000 lowland ewes in the United Kingdom spent 3500 UK pounds annually on veterinary fees and medicines. Despite such expenditure, psoroptic mange and cutaneous myiasis are common in the UK, resistance to one or more anthelmintic group is not only common but increasing in frequency and distribution, and abortion outbreaks caused by Toxoplasma gondii and Chlamydophila abortus are frequently reported by veterinary laboratories. Welfare concerns also arise from farmers' intransigence towards tail docking and castration in lambs (mutilations), reported market forces necessitating long distance road transportation to slaughter plants, and an unwillingness to employ veterinary surgeons for obstetrical problems. The spread of sheep scab in the UK over the past decade illustrates the failure of flock owners to effect rudimentary biosecurity and disease control measures. A first step towards improving the health and welfare of sheep would be the immediate implementation of basic good husbandry practices, including ectoparasiticide treatment for sheep scab eradication, prophylaxis for cutaneous myiasis in selected lambs, and appropriate vaccination strategies for clostridial diseases and certain abortion agents. There would also be money from within current farm expenditure to provide veterinary attention for obstetrical problems affecting up to 2% of ewes per annum. Planned use of ecto- and endoparasiticides is urgently needed to maintain the efficacy of these unique drugs.

  16. [The 1935 veterinary agreements of the League of the Nations: A vision of a united veterinary Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häsler, S

    2018-01-01

    A group of leading veterinary experts engaged by the league of the Nations created three new Veterinary Conventions focusing at consequently controlling the import, export and transit of animals and animal products. The aim was on one hand to facilitate trade and on the other hand to make sure that livestock epidemic laws were respected. The outbreak of war prevented the laws from coming into effect. Nevertheless they became the basis for veterinary regulations of the World Trade Organisation and of the European Union.

  17. South African Association of Veterinary Technologists : congress abstracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The following are abstracts of papers and posters presented at the 'Back to Basics Congress' of the South African Association of Veterinary Technologists (SAAVT, 15-16 September 2009, Batter Boys, Pretoria, South Africa.

  18. [The Swiss border veterinary service in the 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluep, J

    2018-01-01

    The first animal disease act of Switzerland was released in 1872. Its revision in 1886 brought the basis for establishing a border veterinary inspection service. This service was first reporting to the federal Ministry of Agriculture; after 1914, the newly created Federal Veterinary Office became responsible for it. The border checks were first limited to live biungulate animals and horses; later on they were extended to meat and meat products and finally to venison and fishery products. At the beginning, part-time veterinarians with own practice were engaged. As the traffic increased, full time border veterinary inspectors joined the team; these were mainly active at the most important border posts (like Basel, St. Margrethen, Buchs, Chiasso, Geneva, more recently the international airports). The border veterinary inspection service, including the relevant instruction of the personnel, was (and is) financed with weight depending fees which included until 1966 a fee intended for financing the efforts to control livestocks epidemics.

  19. Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tanzania Veterinary Journal - Vol 32, No 1 (2017) ... factors for porcine cysticercosis transmission and animal welfare in selected villages in Nyasa, Tanzania ... Thoracic radiographic anatomy in sheep · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  20. Risk Assessment Considerations for Veterinary Medicines in Aquatic Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter provides a critical evaluation of prospective and retrospective risk assessment approaches for veterinary medicines in aquatic ecosystems and provides recommendations for possible alternative approaches for hazard characterization.