... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for other veterinary... FEES USER FEES § 130.17 User fees for other veterinary diagnostic laboratory tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at authorized sites. (a) User fees for veterinary diagnostics tests performed at the...
Petersen, A.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Hofshagen, Merete
A total of 100 bacterial strains (25 Escherichia coli, 25 Salmonella enterica, 25 Staphylococcus aureus, and 25 Enterococcus strains) and four reference strains were tested for susceptibility toward 8-12 antimicrobial agents in 12 veterinary diagnostic laboratories in the five Nordic countries......, whereas for Enterococcus spp., two laboratories had less than 90 % concordant results. Susceptibility testing of Salmonella to fluoroquinolones gave rise to almost 0.5% nonconcordant results and susceptibility testing of S. aureus to vancomycin resulted in that 1.8% of the strains were incorrectly...... reported as vancomycin resistant. Ten laboratories identified the Enterococcus spp. to species level. All five Enterococcus faecium and 10 Enterococcus faecalis selected from the strain collection at the Danish Veterinary Institute were correctly identified by all laboratories, whereas some problems were...
Wobeser, B K; Kidney, B A; Powers, B E; Withrow, S J; Mayer, M N; Spinato, M T; Allen, A L
Amputation is commonly performed in an attempt to both treat and diagnose conditions affecting the digits of cats. The records of multiple veterinary diagnostic laboratories were searched to identify submissions of amputated digits from cats. Eighty-five separate submissions were reviewed for diagnosis, age, sex, limb of origin, and digits affected; and the original submitting clinics were surveyed to determine clinical outcome. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to determine the disease-free interval and survival time. Neoplastic disease was identified in 63 of 85 submissions, with exclusively inflammatory lesions composing the other 22 cases. In 60 (95.2%) of the neoplastic cases, a malignant tumor was identified. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most commonly identified malignant tumor (n = 15; 23.8%) and was associated with a median survival time of 73 days. Other diagnoses included fibrosarcoma (n = 14; 22.2%); adenocarcinoma, likely metastases of a primary pulmonary neoplasm (n = 13; 20.6%); osteosarcoma (n = 5; 7.9%); mast cell tumor (n = 4; 6.3%); hemangiosarcoma (n = 5; 7.9%); malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n = 2; 3.2%); giant cell tumor of bone (n = 2; 3.2%); and hemangioma (n = 2; 3.2%). Giant cell tumor of bone has not been previously described in the digits of cats. Various neoplasms can occur in the digits of cats, and submission of the amputated digit for histopathologic diagnosis is essential to determine the histogenesis and predict the clinical outcome.
Dargatz, David A; Erdman, Matthew M; Harris, Beth
Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to animal and human health worldwide, requiring a collaborative, holistic approach. The U.S. Government has developed a national strategy to address antimicrobial resistance, with one component being to monitor antimicrobial resistance in agricultural settings. We developed a survey to collect information about antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) from the veterinary diagnostic laboratory community in the United States, assessing current practices and technologies and determining how AST information is shared. Of the 132 surveys administered, 52 (39%) were returned. Overall, responding laboratories conducted susceptibility tests on 98,788 bacterial isolates in 2014, with Escherichia coli being the most common pathogen tested across all animal species. The 2 most common AST methods employed were the disk diffusion method (71%) and the Sensititre platform broth microdilution system (59%). Laboratories primarily used the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) VET-01 standard (69%) and the automatically calculated interpretations provided by the commercial AST systems (61%) for interpreting their AST data. Only 22% of laboratories published AST data on a periodic basis, usually via annual reports published on the laboratory's website or through peer-reviewed journals for specific pathogens. Our results confirm that disk diffusion and broth microdilution remain the standard AST methods employed by U.S. veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and that CLSI standards are commonly used for interpreting AST results. This information will help determine the most efficient standardized methodology for future surveillance. Furthermore, the current infrastructure within laboratories, once harmonized, will help provide a mechanism for conducting national surveillance programs.
Petrovski, K R; Williamson, N B; Lopez-Villalobos, N; Parkinson, T J; Tucker, I G
To determine the pattern of isolation of major mastitis-causing organisms isolated from milk samples submitted to five veterinary diagnostic laboratories in New Zealand. The culture results of 25,288 milk samples that were collected from dairy cows throughout New Zealand from August 2003 to December 2006 and submitted to a group of veterinary diagnostic laboratories were assembled, reviewed and summarised. Logistic regression was used to analyse the effect of year, region (i.e. North vs South Island), and season on the probability of isolating the two most common organisms. The most commonly isolated mastitis causing organisms from all samples were: Streptococcus uberis (23.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (23.5%), coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS; 7.2%), Strep. dysgalactiae (6.2%), Bacillus spp. (4.0%), and coliforms (3.7%). The percentage of samples with isolates of Strep. uberis or Staph. aureus was affected by island, year and season (pculture of milk samples submitted to diagnostic laboratories in New Zealand, has changed significantly over the last 40 years, with a substantial increase in the percentage of isolates that are Strep. uberis and a decrease in isolates of Strep. agalactiae. There is a clear seasonal pattern to the isolation of both Strep. uberis and Staph. aureus, particularly the former. Knowledge of the aetiological agents causing bovine mastitis on a farm is of value in determining the choice of treatment. This dataset shows that, although there is seasonal pattern to the isolation of mastitis-causing organisms in New Zealand, both Strep. uberis and Staph. aureus are isolated throughout the year, so bacteriology is of value in determining aetiology even in late winter/early spring.
Luchins, Kerith R; Baker, Kate C; Gilbert, Margaret H; Blanchard, James L; Liu, David Xianhong; Myers, Leann; Bohm, Rudolf P
Alopecia in nonhuman primates in the biomedical research setting is often attributed to compromised psychologic wellbeing. Behavioral causes, mainly hair plucking, have become the unconfirmed and exclusive default diagnosis, and the possibility that alopecia may be secondary to a primary medical or dermatologic disease is often overlooked. Although nonbehavioral causes of alopecia in nonhuman primates are described in the literature, few prospective hypothesis-based studies have investigated medical and behavioral etiologies concurrently. We therefore undertook such a study with the aim of designing a clinical diagnostic guide for approaching cases of nonhuman primate alopecia. Because most cases of alopecia in nonhuman primates in the literature and at our facility are not associated with a definitive diagnosis, the hypothesis we tested was that the well-established diagnostic evaluation for alopecia used for traditional veterinary species is not applicable to nonhuman primates. Discounting differences in histopathology and behavioral assessment, the current study revealed few clinically relevant significant differences between nonhuman primates with and without alopecia. As a result, our hypothesis was confirmed, and we conclude that the standard dermatologic diagnostic plan typically described for alopecia diagnosis in traditional veterinary species and used as the basis for assessment of alopecia in nonhuman primates should be reassessed. PMID:22330789
Glass-Kaastra, Shiona K; Pearl, David L; Reid-Smith, Richard J; McEwen, Beverly; Slavic, Durda; McEwen, Scott A; Fairles, Jim
Antimicrobial susceptibility data on Escherichia coli F4, Pasteurella multocida, and Streptococcus suis isolates from Ontario swine (January 1998 to October 2010) were acquired from a comprehensive diagnostic veterinary laboratory in Ontario, Canada. In relation to the possible development of a surveillance system for antimicrobial resistance, data were assessed for ease of management, completeness, consistency, and applicability for temporal and spatial statistical analyses. Limited farm location data precluded spatial analyses and missing demographic data limited their use as predictors within multivariable statistical models. Changes in the standard panel of antimicrobials used for susceptibility testing reduced the number of antimicrobials available for temporal analyses. Data consistency and quality could improve over time in this and similar diagnostic laboratory settings by encouraging complete reporting with sample submission and by modifying database systems to limit free-text data entry. These changes could make more statistical methods available for disease surveillance and cluster detection.
Gates, Maureen C; Nolan, Thomas J
The sensitivity of fecal examination methods can be influenced by both technician error and methodology. In this analysis, we compared the results of 335 passive fecal flotation examinations performed on the feces of stray dogs by 3rd-yr veterinary students at the University of Pennsylvania, School of Veterinary Medicine, to the results obtained through zinc-sulfate centrifugation performed by the diagnostic parasitology laboratory on the same fecal samples. The students' passive flotation results agreed with the laboratory zinc-sulfate centrifugation for only 62.4% of samples. Students were able to diagnose 75.0% of Ancylostoma caninum cases, 71.4% of Toxocara canis cases, 54.2% of Trichuris vulpis cases, 26.7% of Cystoisospora spp. (C. ohioensis-like and C. canis) cases, and 14.7% of Giardia lamblia cases. There were also 70 instances where students reported the presence of parasites in the sample that were not diagnosed by zinc-sulfate centrifugation. Based on the overall study findings, passive fecal flotation examinations run in private practice could be missing up to 50.5% of infected dogs, due to either technician error or inherent limitations to the passive fecal flotation technique.
Stewart, Linda D; McCallan, Lyanne; McNair, James; McGoldrick, Adrian; Morris, Rowan; Moyen, Jean-Louis; De Juan Ferré, Lucía; Romero, Beatriz; Alonso, Elena; Parsons, Sven D C; Van Helden, Paul; Araújo, Flábio R; Grant, Irene R
A novel lateral flow immunochromatographic device (LFD) was evaluated in several veterinary diagnostic laboratories. It was confirmed to be specific for Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae cells. The performance of the novel LFD was assessed relative to the confirmatory tests routinely applied after culture (spoligotyping or qPCR) in each laboratory; liquid (MGIT or BacT/Alert) and/or solid (Stonebrink, Coletsos or Lowenstein-Jensen) cultures were tested. In comparison to spoligotyping of acid-fast positive MGIT cultures, percentage agreement between positive LFD and spoligotyping results was excellent in two UK laboratories (97.7-100%), but lower in the Spanish context (76%) where spoligotyping was applied to MGIT cultures previously confirmed to be positive for M. tuberculosis complex (MTBC) by qPCR. Certain spoligotypes of M. bovis and M. caprae were not detected by the LFD in Spanish MGIT cultures. Compared to qPCR confirmation, the percentage agreement between positive LFD and qPCR results was 42.3% and 50% for BacT/Alert and MGIT liquid cultures, respectively, and for solid cultures ranged from 11.1-89.2%, depending on solid medium employed (Coletsos 11.1%, Lowenstein-Jensen 55.6%, Stonebrinks 89.2%). Correlation between the novel LFD and BD MGIT TBc ID test results was excellent when 190 MGIT cultures were tested (r = 0.9791; P<0.0001), with the added benefit that M. bovis was differentiated from another MTBC species in one MGIT culture by the novel LFD. This multi-laboratory evaluation has demonstrated the novel LFD's potential utility as a rapid test to confirm isolation of M. bovis and M. caprae from veterinary specimens following culture. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
In the search for improved diagnostic methodologies, livestock disease diagnostics and therapeutics have moved from the traditional methods to molecular and currently nanotechnology. In this contribution, the authors identified the importance of nanotechnology in veterinary diagnostics and therapeutics and suggest that ...
Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne; Kopp, Peter A; Broens, Els M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314627723; Toutain, Pierre-Louis
BACKGROUND: The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including the
O'Sullivan, T; Friendship, R; Pearl, D L; McEwen, B; Ker, A; Dewey, C
An intuitive assumption is to believe that the number of submissions made to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory is dictated by the financial state of the industries using the laboratory. However, no research is available to document how the economics of a food animal industry affects laboratory submissions and therefore disease monitoring and surveillance efforts. The objective of this study was to determine if economic indices associated with the Ontario swine industry can account for the variability seen in these submissions. Retrospective swine submissions made to the Animal Health Laboratory at the University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario from January 1998 to July 2009 were compiled. The following economic, demographic, and health variables impacting Ontario swine production were selected for analysis: auction price, lean-hog futures, currency exchange rate, price of corn, an outbreak of porcine circovirus type-2 associated diseases (PCVAD), government incentive program, number of farms in province, and average farm size. All independent variables identified by unconditional associations to have a significance of P≤0.2 with the outcome of monthly submission count were included in a multivariable negative binomial model. A final model was identified by a backwards elimination procedure. A total of 30,432 swine submissions were recorded. The mean frequency of monthly submissions over 139 months was 212.9 (SD=56.0). After controlling for farm size, the number of pigs in Ontario, higher submission counts were associated with a weaker CAD$ versus US$, higher auction prices, and a PCVAD outbreak (Plaboratory. In conclusion, lab submissions are a useful source of animal health data for disease surveillance; however, surveillance activities should also monitor the economics of the industry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Camus, Melinda S
This review, aimed primarily at general practitioners, focuses on quality assurance/quality control principles for all three phases of clinical pathology testing: preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic. Specific emphasis is placed on the preanalytic phase of diagnostic modalities for identifying neoplastic cells, specifically flow cytometry, PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement, and immunocytochemistry. Recommendations for establishing an in-clinic quality assurance system are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne
Background The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. Objectives The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including...... the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. Methods The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational...... and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories. Results The advent of mass spectrometry has significantly reduced the time required for ID of key pathogens such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. However, the turnaround time...
Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E
Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
requirement for special skills in food chemistry and animal disease diagnosis plus the continuing shortage of 92B enlis ted personnel indicate that key...to provide proper supervision and perform required bench ‘work in this major workload area. Sufficient technicians with laboratory skills in...Chorionic Gonadotropin 475 730 17 1,222 UCG or Human Pregnancy 147 42 189 Tularemia 332 332 OX—19 211 211 Salmonella 219 219 Trichinella 17 17 Venipuncture
Skeldon, N; Dewhurst, E
To establish the proportion of cytology samples sent to a commercial veterinary laboratory that yields diagnostically useful information in the context of current use and perceptions of cytology. Nine hundred and forty-five cytology submissions were retrospectively collected and categorised according to diagnostic utility. A survey into the use and perceptions of cytology was distributed at the British Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress 2008. A specific diagnosis was reached in 23.1 per cent of samples and a cytological diagnosis in 35.3 per cent. 22.4 per cent of samples yielded some useful information, but 19.2 per cent were unacceptable. Seventy-four participants in the survey took an average of 3.9 cytological samples per week, of which they examined 27.0 per cent in-house only, 21.6 per cent in-house before sending to an external laboratory and 51.4 per cent were sent externally without prior examination. "To obtain a definitive diagnosis" was the principal reason cited for performing cytology. Results suggest that cytology is underused and may be applied in an inappropriate context in the UK. It is hoped that illustrating the diagnostic outcome of samples received by a commercial laboratory will encourage increased, appropriate use of cytology.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...
Keller, S M; Vernau, W; Moore, P F
The accurate distinction of reactive and neoplastic lymphoid proliferations can present challenges. Given the different prognoses and treatment strategies, a correct diagnosis is crucial. Molecular clonality assays assess rearranged lymphocyte antigen receptor gene diversity and can help differentiate reactive from neoplastic lymphoid proliferations. Molecular clonality assays are commonly used to assess atypical, mixed, or mature lymphoid proliferations; small tissue fragments that lack architecture; and fluid samples. In addition, clonality testing can be utilized to track neoplastic clones over time or across anatomic sites. Molecular clonality assays are not stand-alone tests but useful adjuncts that follow clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic assessment. Even though clonality testing provides valuable information in a variety of situations, the complexities and pitfalls of this method, as well as its dependency on the experience of the interpreter, are often understated. In addition, a lack of standardized terminology, laboratory practices, and interpretational guidelines hinders the reproducibility of clonality testing across laboratories in veterinary medicine. The objectives of this review are twofold. First, the review is intended to familiarize the diagnostic pathologist or interested clinician with the concepts, potential pitfalls, and limitations of clonality testing. Second, the review strives to provide a basis for future harmonization of clonality testing in veterinary medicine by providing diagnostic guidelines. © The Author(s) 2016.
Bujak, Renata; Struck-Lewicka, Wiktoria; Markuszewski, Michał J; Kaliszan, Roman
Metabolomics is an emerging approach in a systems biology field. Due to continuous development in advanced analytical techniques and in bioinformatics, metabolomics has been extensively applied as a novel, holistic diagnostic tool in clinical and biomedical studies. Metabolome's measurement, as a chemical reflection of a current phenotype of a particular biological system, is nowadays frequently implemented to understand pathophysiological processes involved in disease progression as well as to search for new diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers of various organism's disorders. In this review, we discussed the research strategies and analytical platforms commonly applied in the metabolomics studies. The applications of the metabolomics in laboratory diagnostics in the last 5 years were also reviewed according to the type of biological sample used in the metabolome's analysis. We also discussed some limitations and further improvements which should be considered taking in mind potential applications of metabolomic research and practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Treatment history and antimicrobial susceptibility results for Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni isolates from bovine respiratory disease cases submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from 2013 to 2015.
Magstadt, Drew R; Schuler, Adlai M; Coetzee, Johann F; Krull, Adam C; O'Connor, Annette M; Cooper, Vickie L; Engelken, Terry J
Bovine respiratory disease is the most costly disease facing the cattle industry. Increasing resistance to antimicrobial treatment has been presented as a significant contributing factor, often through summarized susceptibility testing data. We assessed the relationship between previous antimicrobial treatment and antimicrobial susceptibility results from isolates of Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Histophilus somni cultured from bovine respiratory cases submitted to the Iowa State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from 2013 to 2015. Antimicrobial susceptibility data from 1,251 bacterial isolates were included for analysis. More bacterial isolates from cattle that received antimicrobial treatment showed resistance compared to isolates from untreated cattle, and the percentage of resistant isolates increased as the number of antimicrobial treatments increased. Resistance to enrofloxacin, spectinomycin, tilmicosin, and tulathromycin was present in >75% of M. haemolytica isolates from cattle that had received 3 or more antimicrobial treatments; resistance to each of those 4 antimicrobials was present in ≤10% of M. haemolytica isolates from untreated cattle. Similar but less dramatic trends were apparent for isolates of P. multocida and H. somni. The percentage of multi-drug resistant bacterial isolates also increased with the number of treatments. Results of our study suggest that previous antimicrobial treatment may have a profound effect on antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Summarized susceptibility results from diagnostic laboratories should not be used to make generalized statements regarding trends in antimicrobial resistance without providing context regarding antimicrobial treatment history.
Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed
Cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization in veterinary medicine. Primary care clinicians often screen common cutaneous and subcutaneous aspirates, with other samples most frequently evaluated by board certified veterinary clinical pathologists in reference laboratories. Wright-Giemsa stains are frequently utilized with the application of ancillary diagnostics such as cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostic techniques complicated by the need to develop and validate species specific reagents and protocols. The interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, which includes familiarity with the frequency and biological behavior of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic lesions that are influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. This review is the first of two parts that focus on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse), taking an organ system approach to survey important lesions that may be unique to veterinary species or have interesting correlates in human medicine. The first of the two-part series covers skin and subcutaneous tissue, the musculoskeletal system, and lymphoid organs. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected molecular mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when characterized. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not a comprehensive catalog of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates in veterinary practice. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sacchini, Federico; Freeman, Kathleen P
An increasing number of veterinary laboratories worldwide have obtained or are seeking certification based on international standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission 17025. Compliance with any certification standard or quality management system requires quality documentation, an activity that may present several unique challenges in the case of veterinary laboratories. Research specifically addressing quality documentation is conspicuously absent in the veterinary literature. This article provides an overview of the quality system documentation needed to comply with a quality management system with an emphasis on preparing written standard operating procedures specific for veterinary laboratories. In addition, the quality documentation challenges that are unique to veterinary clinical pathology laboratories are critically evaluated against the existing quality standards and discussed with respect to possible solutions and/or recommended courses of action. Documentation challenges include the establishment of quality requirements for veterinary tests, the use or modification of human analytic methods for animal samples, the limited availability of quality control materials satisfactory for veterinary clinical pathology laboratories, the limited availability of veterinary proficiency programs, and the complications in establishing species-specific reference intervals.
Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P
In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Shankar B.P.; H. S. Madhusudhan and Harish. D. B
Laboratory work should be carried out with a minimum of risk to the health of the staff working in laboratory. This requires careful consideration of the risks involved in a particular procedure,followed by appropriate measures to minimise the risk of human disease. This concerned exclusively with risks from infectious agents, but physical and chemical injuries in microbiology laboratories must also be prevented. Risks from infection are reduced by good laboratory techniques and secured facil...
Shankar B. P.
Full Text Available Laboratory work should be carried out with a minimum of risk to the health of the staff working in laboratory. This requires careful consideration of the risks involved in a particular procedure,followed by appropriate measures to minimise the risk of human disease. This concerned exclusively with risks from infectious agents, but physical and chemical injuries in microbiology laboratories must also be prevented. Risks from infection are reduced by good laboratory techniques and secured facilities which aid in the containment of pathogens. It is important to understand that containment of pathogens can be used for preventing disease in humans and animals. Often the same methods of containment are used for both preventing laboratory-acquired infection in humans and for preventing escape of pathogens that could cause an outbreak of animal disease. Although the methods, techniques and facilities required may be the same, the list of pathogens and categorization into levels of risk will differ depending on whether it is human or animal disease control that is the primary objective. Existing national and international reference laboratories have considerable experience in the operation of safe working practices and provision of appropriate facilities. When new laboratories are being established, it would be prudent to seek advice from the competent authorities at established institutes and it is important to comply with legislative requirements. [Vet. World 2009; 2(3.000: 113-117
Wilson, William C; Daniels, Peter; Ostlund, Eileen N; Johnson, Donna E; Oberst, Richard D; Hairgrove, Thomas B; Mediger, Jessica; McIntosh, Michael T
This review provides an overview of current and potential new diagnostic tests for bluetongue (BT) and epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD) viruses compiled from international participants of the Orbivirus Gap Analysis Workshop, Diagnostic Group. The emphasis of this review is on diagnostic tools available to North American veterinary diagnosticians. Standard diagnostic tests are readily available for BT/EHD viruses, and there are described tests that are published in the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Manual. There is however considerable variation in the diagnostic approach to these viruses. Serological assays are well established, and many laboratories are experienced in running these assays. Numerous nucleic acid amplification assays are also available for BT virus (BTV) and EHD virus (EHDV). Although there is considerable experience with BTV reverse-transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR), there are no standards or comparisons of the protocols used by various state and federal veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Methods for genotyping BTV and EHDV isolates are available and are valuable tools for monitoring and analyzing circulating viruses. These methods include RT-PCR panels or arrays, RT-PCR and sequencing of specific genome segments, or the use of next-generation sequencing. In addition to enabling virus characterization, use of advanced molecular detection methods, including DNA microarrays and next-generation sequencing, significantly enhance the ability to detect unique virus strains that may arise through genetic drift, recombination, or viral genome segment reassortment, as well as incursions of new virus strains from other geographical areas.
...; National Veterinary Services Laboratories; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Surveillance Program Documents... associated with National Veterinary Services Laboratories diagnostic support for the bovine spongiform... Veterinary Services Laboratories; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Surveillance Program Documents. OMB Number...
Full Text Available Nucleic acid testing (NAT designate any molecular approach used for the detection, identification and characterization of pathogenic microorganisms, enabling the rapid, specific and sensitive diagnostic of infectious diseases, such as tuberculosis. These assays have been widely used since the 90´s of the last century in human clinical laboratories and, subsequently, also in veterinary diagnostics. Most NAT strategies are based in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR and its several enhancements and variations. From the conventional PCR, real-time PCR and its combinations, isothermal DNA amplification, to the nanotechnologies, here we review how the NAT assays have been applied to decipher if and which member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is present in a clinical sample. Recent advances in DNA sequencing also brought new challenges and have made possible to generate rapidly and at a low cost, large amounts of sequence data. This revolution with the high-throughput sequencing (HTS technologies makes whole genome sequencing (WGS and metagenomics the trendiest NAT strategies, today. The ranking of NAT techniques in the field of clinical diagnostics is rising, and we provide a SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats analysis with our view of the use of molecular diagnosis for detecting tuberculosis in veterinary laboratories, notwithstanding the gold standard being still the classical culture of the agent. The complementary use of both classical and molecular diagnosis approaches is recommended to speed the diagnostic, enabling a fast decision by competent authorities and rapid tackling of the disease.
... Information Collection; National Veterinary Services Laboratories; Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy... information collection associated with National Veterinary Services Laboratories diagnostic support for the... Staff Veterinarian, Veterinary Services, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 43, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851...
Milnes, A S; Binns, S H; Oliver, S L; Bridger, J C
A collaborative study was undertaken by the Veterinary Laboratories Agency (vla) and the Royal Veterinary College (rvc) to determine the prevalence of bovine noroviruses in cattle with diarrhoea. Samples of bovine diarrhoea were provided by the vla from routine diagnostic submissions and a reverse transcription-pcr was used by the rvc to detect the viruses. Epidemiological information about the samples was provided retrospectively by the Farmfile database. Noroviruses were detected in 44 (11 per cent) of the 398 samples tested, and Farmfile data were used to investigate the differences between the positive and negative animals.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for other veterinary... User fees for other veterinary diagnostic services or materials provided at NVSL (excluding FADDL). (a) User fees for other veterinary diagnostic services or materials available from NVSL (excluding FADDL...
Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed
This is the second in a two-part review of diagnostic cytopathology in veterinary medicine. As in human medicine, cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization. In this second part, the diagnostic applications of cytology in respiratory, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, endocrine, ocular, and central nervous system tissues are discussed with a section describing fluid analysis in veterinary medicine. As noted in the previous manuscript, which characterized the cytology of the skin/subcutis, musculoskeletal, and lymphoid tissues, the interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, including familiarity with the frequency and clinical progression of diseases, both of which can be influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. Similar to part one, this review focuses on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse) and highlights lesions that are either unique to veterinary species or have relevant correlates in people. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when appropriate. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not an exhaustive archive of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates and unique entities in veterinary practice. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Freeman, Kathleen P; Bauer, Natali; Jensen, Asger L; Thoresen, Stein
A trend in human and veterinary medical laboratory management is to achieve accreditation based on international standards. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189 standard is the first developed especially for accreditation of medical laboratories, and emphasizes the laboratory-client interface. European veterinary laboratories seeking to train candidates for the certification examination of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) require approval by the ECVCP Laboratory Standards Committee, which bases its evaluation in part on adherence to quality systems described in the ISO 15189 standards. The purpose of this article was to introduce the latest ISO quality standard and describe its application to veterinary laboratories in Europe, specifically as pertains to accreditation of laboratories involved in training veterinary clinical pathologists. Between 2003 and 2006, the Laboratory Standards Committee reviewed 12 applications from laboratories (3 commercial and 9 university) involved in training veterinary clinical pathologists. Applicants were asked to provide a description of the facilities for training and testing, current methodology and technology, health and safety policy, quality assurance policy (including internal quality control and participation in an external quality assurance program), written standard operating procedures (SOPs) and policies, a description of the laboratory information system, and personnel and training. Also during this time period multiple informal and formal discussions among ECVCP diplomates took place as to current practices and perceived areas of concern with regard to laboratory accreditation requirements. Areas in which improvement most often was needed in veterinary laboratories applying for ECVCP accreditation were the written quality plan, defined quality requirements for the tests performed, written SOPs and policies, training records, ongoing audits and competency
Vap, Linda M; Harr, Kendal E; Arnold, Jill E; Freeman, Kathleen P; Getzy, Karen; Lester, Sally; Friedrichs, Kristen R
In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and provides recommendations for control of preanalytical and analytical factors related to hematology for mammalian and nonmammalian species, hemostasis testing, and crossmatching and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.3 (mammalian hematology), 1.2 and 2.4 (nonmammalian hematology), 1.5 and 2.7 (hemostasis testing), and 1.6 and 2.8 (crossmatching) of the complete guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic isolation and identification tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or other authorized site. 130.15... AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.15 User fees for veterinary diagnostic isolation and identification...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic reagents produced at NVSL or other authorized site (excluding FADDL). 130.18 Section 130.18 Animals and... § 130.18 User fees for veterinary diagnostic reagents produced at NVSL or other authorized site...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology tests performed at NVSL (excluding FADDL) or at authorized sites. 130.16 Section 130.16 Animals... USER FEES § 130.16 User fees for veterinary diagnostic serology tests performed at NVSL (excluding...
De Risio, Luisa; Bhatti, Sofie; Muñana, Karen; Penderis, Jacques; Stein, Veronika; Tipold, Andrea; Berendt, Mette; Farqhuar, Robyn; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Mandigers, Paul J J; Matiasek, Kaspar; Packer, Rowena M A; Pakozdy, Akos; Patterson, Ned; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Batlle, Martí Pumarola; Rusbridge, Clare; Volk, Holger A
This article outlines the consensus proposal on diagnosis of epilepsy in dogs by the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force. The aim of this consensus proposal is to improve consistency in the diagnosis of epilepsy in the clinical and research settings. The diagnostic approach to the patient
Cunha, Mónica V; Inácio, João
Terrestrial, aquatic, and aerial animals, either domestic or wild, humans, and plants all face similar health threats caused by infectious agents. Multifaceted anthropic pressure caused by an increasingly growing and resource-demanding human population has affected biodiversity at all scales, from the DNA molecule to the pathogen, to the ecosystem level, leading to species declines and extinctions and, also, to host-pathogen coevolution processes. Technological developments over the last century have also led to quantic jumps in laboratorial testing that have highly impacted animal health and welfare, ameliorated animal management and animal trade, safeguarded public health, and ultimately helped to "secure" biodiversity. In particular, the field of molecular diagnostics experienced tremendous technical progresses over the last two decades that significantly have contributed to our ability to study microbial pathogens in the clinical and research laboratories. This chapter highlights the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (or challenges) of molecular technologies in the framework of a veterinary microbiology laboratory, in view of the latest advances.
Full Text Available This work presents a summary of current knowledge on the laboratory diagnosis of periodontitis. It focuses on the theoretical foundations and is supplemented with new knowledge. It subsequently describes specifically the laboratory diagnosis methods of periodontitis: the protein expression of inflammation, oral microbiology and molecular diagnostics. Periodontitis is a serious disease worldwide and its confirmed association with systemic diseases means its severity is increasing. Its laboratory diagnosis has the potential to rise to the level of clinical and diagnostic imaging. The transfer of diagnostic methods from laboratory to clinical use is increasingly used in the prevention and monitoring of the exacerbation and treatment of periodontal disease, as well as of its impact on systemic disease.
Mrs. Ulleberg, T.; Robben, J.H.; Nordahl, K.; Mr. Ulleberg, T.; Heiene, R.
Abstract BACKGROUND: There is substantial variation in reported reference intervals for canine plasma creatinine among veterinary laboratories, thereby influencing the clinical assessment of analytical results. The aims of the study was to determine the inter- and intra-laboratory variation in
Ceciliani, F; Eckersall, D; Burchmore, R; Lecchi, C
Advancement in electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques along with the recent progresses in genomics, culminating in bovine and pig genome sequencing, widened the potential application of proteomics in the field of veterinary medicine. The aim of the present review is to provide an in-depth perspective about the application of proteomics to animal disease pathogenesis, as well as its utilization in veterinary diagnostics. After an overview on the various proteomic techniques that are currently applied to veterinary sciences, the article focuses on proteomic approaches to animal disease pathogenesis. Included as well are recent achievements in immunoproteomics (ie, the identifications through proteomic techniques of antigen involved in immune response) and histoproteomics (ie, the application of proteomics in tissue processed for immunohistochemistry). Finally, the article focuses on clinical proteomics (ie, the application of proteomics to the identification of new biomarkers of animal diseases).
Dubin, Stephen; Zietz, Stanley; Gabriel, Karl L.; Gabriel, David; DellaVecchia, Michael A.; Ansari, Rafat R.
In dynamic light scattering (DLS), the structure or material of interest, suspended in a fluid, is illuminated by a beam of laser light and the scattered light is interpreted in terms of diffusion coefficient, particle size or its distribution. DLS has shown clear promise as a non-invasive, objective and precise diagnostic modality for investigation of lens opacity (cataract) and other medical and toxicological problems. The clinical potential of LDS has been demonstrated in several species both in vivo and in vitro. In many clinical cases, discernment between normal and diseased patients is possible by simple inspection of the particle size distribution. However a more rigorous and sensitive classification scheme is needed, particularly for evaluation of therapy and estimation of tissue injury. The data supplied by DLS investigation is inherently multivariate and its most efficient interpretation requires a multivariate approach which includes the variability among specimens as well as any correlation among the variables (e.g. across the particle size distribution). We present a brief review of DLS methodology, illustrative data and our efforts toward a diagnostic classification scheme. In particular we will describe application of the Mahalanobis distance and related statistical methods to DLS data.
Haider, N; Khan, S U; Islam, A; Osmani, M G; Rahman, M Z; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Zeidner, N S
As in most low-income countries, adequate laboratory facilities are not available in Bangladesh to assist veterinarians in diagnosing animal diseases. We aimed to determine the efficiency of veterinary diagnoses for two common ruminant diseases in Bangladesh: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). We conducted the study from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals where veterinarians collected samples from sick livestock and recorded the presumptive diagnosis on the basis of clinical presentations. Samples were tested for PPR and FMD using real-time RT-PCR. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the presumptive diagnoses when compared to laboratory tests. We tested 539 goats for PPR and 340 cattle and goats for FMD. Our results indicate that the veterinarians' presumptive diagnoses were different from laboratory findings for both PPR (P clinical diagnoses was 54% (95% CI: 47-61%) while specificity was 81% (95% CI: 78-84%) compared to real-time RT-PCR tests. The kappa value obtained in our validation process for PPR (kappa: 0.25) and FMD (kappa 0.36) indicated a poor performance of the presumptive diagnoses. Most of the animals (93%) were treated with antibiotics. Our findings indicate that veterinarians can detect animals not infected with FMD or PPR but miss the true cases. The clinical competency of these veterinarians needs to be improved and access to laboratory diagnostic facilities could help veterinarians to improve the diagnostics and outcomes. The rational use of antibiotics by veterinarians in animals must be ensured. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
The need to rapidly diagnose disease in avian/exotic animal patients has led to the increased use of on-site diagnostic testing by veterinarians treating these animals. This article explores the use of on-site veterinary diagnostic testing: advantages and disadvantages of such testing; tests that are performed; type of equipment available; and the need for quality control.
Croxatto, A; Greub, G
The need for diagnostic laboratories to improve both quality and productivity alongside personnel shortages incite laboratory managers to constantly optimize laboratory workflows, organization, and technology. These continuous modifications of the laboratories should be conducted using efficient project and change management approaches to maximize the opportunities for successful completion of the project. This review aims at presenting a general overview of project management with an emphasis on selected critical aspects. Conventional project management tools and models, such as HERMES, described in the literature, associated personal experience, and educational courses on management have been used to illustrate this review. This review presents general guidelines of project management and highlights their importance for microbiology diagnostic laboratories. As an example, some critical aspects of project management will be illustrated with a project of automation, as experienced at the laboratories of bacteriology and hygiene of the University Hospital of Lausanne. It is important to define clearly beforehand the objective of a project, its perimeter, its costs, and its time frame including precise duration estimates of each step. Then, a project management plan including explanations and descriptions on how to manage, execute, and control the project is necessary to continuously monitor the progression of a project to achieve its defined goals. Moreover, a thorough risk analysis with contingency and mitigation measures should be performed at each phase of a project to minimize the impact of project failures. The increasing complexities of modern laboratories mean clinical microbiologists must use several management tools including project and change management to improve the outcome of major projects and activities. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The limited capacity of the Malawian public sector to efficiently deliver animal health services and the inaccurate disease database were highlighted as some of the challenging constraints during the 1999 National Livestock Development Master Plan (NLDMP survey. Veterinary Assistants (VA distributed in the dip tanks and veterinary stations throughout the country are supposed to generate the livestock disease information which is channelled to the policy decision makers at headquarters. A study was conducted to assess the diagnostic capacity of those VAs and to determine the livestock owners' ability to detect sick animals. The study focused on the diagnosis of tsetse-transmitted bovine trypanosomosis in Nkhotakota District. Results showed that VAs were able to identify animals in poor conditions but no relationship was observed between their diagnosis and the actual trypanosomal infection status of the animals. Livestock owners were aware of disease problems but lacked ability to detect animals in poor condition.
Fotedar, R; Stark, D; Beebe, N; Marriott, D; Ellis, J; Harkness, J
The genus Entamoeba contains many species, six of which (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, Entamoeba polecki, Entamoeba coli, and Entamoeba hartmanni) reside in the human intestinal lumen. Entamoeba histolytica is the causative agent of amebiasis and is considered a leading parasitic cause of death worldwide in humans. Although recent studies highlight the recovery of E. dispar and E. moshkovskii from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, there is still no convincing evidence of a causal link between the presence of these two species and the symptoms of the host. New approaches to the identification of E. histolytica are based on detection of E. histolytica-specific antigen and DNA in stool and other clinical samples. Several molecular diagnostic tests, including conventional and real-time PCR, have been developed for the detection and differentiation of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii in clinical samples. The purpose of this review is to discuss different methods that exist for the identification of E. histolytica, E. dispar, and E. moshkovskii which are available to the clinical diagnostic laboratory. To address the need for a specific diagnostic test for amebiasis, a substantial amount of work has been carried out over the last decade in different parts of the world. The molecular diagnostic tests are increasingly being used for both clinical and research purposes. In order to minimize undue treatment of individuals infected with other species of Entamoeba such as E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, efforts have been made for specific diagnosis of E. histolytica infection and not to treat based simply on the microscopic examination of Entamoeba species in the stool. The incorporation of many new technologies into the diagnostic laboratory will lead to a better understanding of the public health problem and measures to control the disease.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electrochemical Analysis and Diagnostics Laboratory (EADL) provides battery developers with reliable, independent, and unbiased performance evaluations of their...
Derek A. Rosenfield
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Empirical studies proved that C-peptides are performing numerous intrinsic biological roles, and serve as a marker for pancreatic performance analysis. Since the last decade, C-peptide assays for differential diagnosis in veterinary diabetic patients are becoming more available, but still only for a very limited number of species. Studies on C-peptide as a diagnostic tool, therapy for associated complications, or as replacement therapies for C-peptide deficiency still showed not to be a common practice in veterinary medicine. This review was conducted to determine the potential importance of C-peptide in Veterinary Medicine, relevant in the diagnosis of diabetes and for other metabolic processes, as well as its proposed therapeutic benefits. Numerous articles were identified that reported positive results in their experimental studies, whether C-peptide as a biomarker for pancreatic performance in dogs, cats, and horses, as a non-invasive method to monitor nutritional status in primates, or to investigate its potential therapeutic benefits for diabetes-related illnesses.
Joiner, Kellye S; Spangler, Elizabeth A
HistoGel™ is an aqueous specimen-processing gel that encapsulates and suspends histologic and cytologic specimens in a solidified medium. HistoGel-embedded specimens can then be processed and evaluated by routine histologic and immunohistochemical methods. This methodology has been used in human diagnostic pathology and is especially useful for small, friable, or viscous tissue samples that are difficult to process. In addition, special histochemical stains or immunohistochemistry can be performed on HistoGel-embedded cytologic specimens using standardized methods developed for histopathology. The current report describes several applications for HistoGel, including use with cytologic specimens, bone marrow aspirates, retention of tissue orientation for endoscopic biopsy specimens, and evaluation of friable tissues. Samples were encapsulated in HistoGel, fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin, routinely processed, paraffin embedded, and sectioned for histochemical and immunohistochemical evaluation. The results of this study support the use of HistoGel in veterinary diagnostic pathology.
Acierno, Mark J; Schnellbacher, Rodney; Tully, Thomas N
Although abnormalities in blood glucose concentrations in avian species are not as common as they are in mammals, the inability to provide point-of-care glucose measurement likely results in underreporting and missed treatment opportunities. A veterinary glucometer that uses different optimization codes for specific groups of animals has been produced. To obtain data for a psittacine bird-specific optimization code, as well as to calculate agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer, blood samples were obtained from 25 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) in a 2-phase study. In the initial phase, blood samples were obtained from 20 parrots twice at a 2-week interval. For each sample, the packed cell volume was determined, and the blood glucose concentration was measured by the veterinary glucometer. The rest of each sample was placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube and centrifuged, and plasma was removed and frozen at -30 degrees C. Within 5 days, tubes were thawed, and blood glucose concentrations were measured with a laboratory analyzer. The data from both procedures were used to develop a psittacine bird-specific code. For the second phase of the study, the same procedure was repeated twice at a 2-week interval in 25 birds to determine agreement between the veterinary glucometer, a standard human glucometer, and a laboratory analyzer. Neither glucometer was in good agreement with the laboratory analyzer (veterinary glucometer bias, 9.0; level of agreement, -38.1 to 56.2; standard glucometer bias, 69.4; level of agreement -17.8 to 156.7). Based on these results, the use of handheld glucometers in the diagnostic testing of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots and other psittacine birds cannot be recommended.
Gwaltney-Brant, S M
Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.
Mergel, E.; Feige, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS) (Germany); Haeusler, U. [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany)
The implementation of the Council directive 96/29 EURATOM and the corresponding national Radiation Protection Ordinance and the X-ray Protection Ordinance coming subsequently into effect led to a changed situation regarding the occupational radiation protection in the medical sector. To reduce the occupational exposure of veterinarians and assisting staff in veterinary radiography is particularly challenging as, in opposite to human radiological examination, the presence of staff is indispensable to restrain the patient. Beyond that the relevant literature reports about too high and/or about unnecessary radiation exposures. To gain a comprehensive knowledge upon the possible exposure of involved staff, the variety of typical examination methods in veterinary clinics and at practitioners had been investigated during the daily routine. Dose measurements were performed for different employees during the examinations taking into account several places of exposure (lens, thyroid, chest, hand, gonad, and feet). Veterinary X-ray diagnostic examinations for pets as well as in equine radiography had been accounted for this study. In total, 101 examination methods, 4.484 accompanied examinations and 53.892 single dose readings resulted in a reliable statistical base to set up a 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' allowing the dose assessment for a variable number and kind of examinations. The 'Job-Exposure-Matrix' is believed to be a useful tool for optimization of occupational radiation exposure of veterinarians by appraising the height of a possible dose, forcing a review of the status quo and triggering the improvement of personal protection by establishing adequate measures. (orig.)
... diagnostic imaging and laboratory evaluations of specimens. Computers have also crept into the field of agro-veterinary consultancy services and have been useful here for clinical consultancy; agro-veterinary project design, monitoring and implementation; preparation of presentations as resource persons or instructor; ...
Schultze, A Eric; Bounous, Denise I; Bolliger, Anne Provencher
There is an international shortage of veterinary clinical pathologists in the workplace. Current trainees in veterinary clinical pathology may choose to pursue careers in academe, diagnostic laboratories, government health services, biopharmaceutical companies, or private practice. Academic training programs attempt to provide trainees with an exposure to several career choices. However, due to the proprietary nature of much of the work in the biopharmaceutical industry, trainees may not be fully informed regarding the nature of work for veterinary clinical pathologists and the myriad opportunities that await employment in the biopharmaceutical industry. The goals of this report are to provide trainees in veterinary clinical pathology and other laboratory personnel with an overview of the work-life of veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry, and to raise the profile of this career choice for those seeking to enter the workforce. Biographical sketches, job descriptions, and motivation for 3 successful veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are provided. Current and past statistics for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are reviewed. An overview of the drug development process and involvement of veterinary clinical pathologists in the areas of discovery, lead optimization, and candidate evaluation are discussed. Additional duties for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry include development of biomarkers and new technologies, service as scientific resources, diagnostic support services, and laboratory management responsibilities. There are numerous opportunities available for trainees in veterinary clinical pathology to pursue employment in the biopharmaceutical industry and enjoy challenging and rewarding careers.
Stolker, A.A.M.; Sterk, S.S.
This report if the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for residues of veterinary drugs and growth promoting agents in products of animal origin according to Council Directive 96/23/EC describes the activities employed in 2012. The main tasks of the NRL are communication with Official Laboratories
Stolker, A.A.M.; Sterk, S.S.
This report of the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) for residues of veterinary drugs in products of animal origin according to 96/23/EC describes the activities employed in 2010. The main tasks of the NRL are the communication with Routine Field Laboratories (RFL), the preparation of quality
Haider, Najmul; Khan, S. U.; Islam, A.
As in most low-income countries, adequate laboratory facilities are not available in Bangladesh to assist veterinarians in diagnosing animal diseases. We aimed to determine the efficiency of veterinary diagnoses for two common ruminant diseases in Bangladesh: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR......) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). We conducted the study from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals where veterinarians collected samples from sick livestock and recorded the presumptive diagnosis on the basis of clinical presentations. Samples were tested for PPR and FMD using...
Slana, Marko; Dolenc, Marija Sollner
The fate and environmental risk of antimicrobial compounds of different groups of veterinary medicine pharmaceuticals (VMP's) have been compared. The aim was to demonstrate a correlation between the physical and chemical properties of active compounds and their metabolism in target animals, as well as their fate in the environment. In addition, the importance of techniques for manure management and agricultural practice and their influence on the fate of active compounds is discussed. The selected active compounds are shown to be susceptible to at least one environmental factor (sun, water, bacterial or fungal degradation) to which they are exposed during their life cycle, which contributes to its degradation. Degradation under a number of environmental factors has also to be considered as authentic information additional to that observed in the limited conditions in laboratory studies and in Environmental Risk Assessment calculations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Electrophoretic techniques, used to separate mixtures of electrically charged particles, are widely used in science. One of these techniques, native protein electrophoresis in an agarose gel, is applied in human and veterinary medicine. Changes in the proportions of individual protein fractions correspond to significant changes in the physiology of the body. Although the pattern obtained by electrophoretic separation rarely indicates a specific disease, it provides valuable information for the differential diagnosis. Decades of research on the types of patterns obtained in the case of particular diseases have led to the accumulation of substantial knowledge. The paper presents the available information on this topic. Serum protein electrophoresis is recommended in cases of increased levels of total protein in order to reveal the nature of the process. The basic information which can be obtained from electrophoretic separation includes the immune status of the organism. Both increased antigenic stimulation and immunodeficiency are clearly visible in electropherograms. Moreover, the level of heterogeneity of the corresponding protein fractions can help to distinguish between infectious diseases and cancer - multiple myeloma - the latter producing a homogeneous immunoglobulin fraction. Analysis of other protein fractions helps to detect or confirm an ongoing inflammatory process and provides information regarding liver function. Even when the concentration of total protein is within the reference range, this analysis can be recommended as a basic laboratory test.
Full Text Available The animal and public health communities need to address the challenge posed by zoonotic emerging infectious diseases. To minimize the impacts of future events, animal disease surveillance will need to enable prompt event detection and response. Diagnostic laboratory-based surveillance systems targeting domestic animals depend in large part on private veterinarians to submit samples from cases to a laboratory. In contexts where pre-diagnostic laboratory surveillance systems have been implemented, this group of veterinarians is often asked to input data. This scenario holds true in Alberta where private cattle veterinarians have been asked to participate in the Alberta Veterinary Surveillance Network-Veterinary Practice Surveillance, a platform to which pre-diagnostic disease and non-disease case data are submitted. Consequently, understanding the factors that influence these veterinarians to submit cases to a laboratory and the complex of factors that affect their participation in surveillance programs is foundational to interpreting disease patterns reported by laboratories and engaging veterinarians in surveillance. A focused ethnographic study was conducted with ten cattle veterinarians in Alberta. Individual in-depth interviews with participants were recorded and transcribed to enable thematic analysis. Laboratory submissions were biased toward outbreaks of unknown cause, cases with unusual mortality rates, and issues with potential herd-level implications. Decreasing cattle value and government support for laboratory testing have contributed to fewer submissions over time. Participants were willing participants in surveillance, though government support and collaboration were necessary. Changes in the beef industry and veterinary profession, as well as cattle producers themselves, present both challenges and opportunities in surveillance.
Rautemaa-Richardson, R.; van der Reijden, W.A.; Dahlen, G.; Smith, A.J.
Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC) processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB)
Background: The laboratory diagnosis of Cryptosporidium parum infection involves the demonstration of the infective oocysts in stool specimen. The conventional method of modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) is very laborious, and stool debris can be mistaken for the parasite oocytes. Objective: This research was set to evaluate ...
De Risio, Luisa; Bhatti, Sofie; Muñana, Karen; Penderis, Jacques; Stein, Veronika; Tipold, Andrea; Berendt, Mette; Farqhuar, Robyn; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Mandigers, Paul J J; Matiasek, Kaspar; Packer, Rowena M A; Pakozdy, Akos; Patterson, Ned; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Batlle, Martí Pumarola; Rusbridge, Clare; Volk, Holger A
This article outlines the consensus proposal on diagnosis of epilepsy in dogs by the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force. The aim of this consensus proposal is to improve consistency in the diagnosis of epilepsy in the clinical and research settings. The diagnostic approach to the patient presenting with a history of suspected epileptic seizures incorporates two fundamental steps: to establish if the events the animal is demonstrating truly represent epileptic seizures and if so, to identify their underlying cause. Differentiation of epileptic seizures from other non-epileptic episodic paroxysmal events can be challenging. Criteria that can be used to make this differentiation are presented in detail and discussed. Criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy (IE) are described in a three-tier system. Tier I confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based on a history of two or more unprovoked epileptic seizures occurring at least 24 h apart, age at epileptic seizure onset of between six months and six years, unremarkable inter-ictal physical and neurological examination, and no significant abnormalities on minimum data base blood tests and urinalysis. Tier II confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based on the factors listed in tier I and unremarkable fasting and post-prandial bile acids, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain (based on an epilepsy-specific brain MRI protocol) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Tier III confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based on the factors listed in tier I and II and identification of electroencephalographic abnormalities characteristic for seizure disorders. The authors recommend performing MRI of the brain and routine CSF analysis, after exclusion of reactive seizures, in dogs with age at epileptic seizure onset 6 years, inter-ictal neurological abnormalities consistent with intracranial neurolocalisation, status epilepticus or cluster seizure at epileptic seizure onset, or a previous
Fernanda C Dórea
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent focus on earlier detection of pathogen introduction in human and animal populations has led to the development of surveillance systems based on automated monitoring of health data. Real- or near real-time monitoring of pre-diagnostic data requires automated classification of records into syndromes--syndromic surveillance--using algorithms that incorporate medical knowledge in a reliable and efficient way, while remaining comprehensible to end users. METHODS: This paper describes the application of two of machine learning (Naïve Bayes and Decision Trees and rule-based methods to extract syndromic information from laboratory test requests submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. RESULTS: High performance (F1-macro = 0.9995 was achieved through the use of a rule-based syndrome classifier, based on rule induction followed by manual modification during the construction phase, which also resulted in clear interpretability of the resulting classification process. An unmodified rule induction algorithm achieved an F(1-micro score of 0.979 though this fell to 0.677 when performance for individual classes was averaged in an unweighted manner (F(1-macro, due to the fact that the algorithm failed to learn 3 of the 16 classes from the training set. Decision Trees showed equal interpretability to the rule-based approaches, but achieved an F(1-micro score of 0.923 (falling to 0.311 when classes are given equal weight. A Naïve Bayes classifier learned all classes and achieved high performance (F(1-micro= 0.994 and F(1-macro = .955, however the classification process is not transparent to the domain experts. CONCLUSION: The use of a manually customised rule set allowed for the development of a system for classification of laboratory tests into syndromic groups with very high performance, and high interpretability by the domain experts. Further research is required to develop internal validation rules in order to establish
Dórea, Fernanda C; Muckle, C Anne; Kelton, David; McClure, J T; McEwen, Beverly J; McNab, W Bruce; Sanchez, Javier; Revie, Crawford W
Recent focus on earlier detection of pathogen introduction in human and animal populations has led to the development of surveillance systems based on automated monitoring of health data. Real- or near real-time monitoring of pre-diagnostic data requires automated classification of records into syndromes--syndromic surveillance--using algorithms that incorporate medical knowledge in a reliable and efficient way, while remaining comprehensible to end users. This paper describes the application of two of machine learning (Naïve Bayes and Decision Trees) and rule-based methods to extract syndromic information from laboratory test requests submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory. High performance (F1-macro = 0.9995) was achieved through the use of a rule-based syndrome classifier, based on rule induction followed by manual modification during the construction phase, which also resulted in clear interpretability of the resulting classification process. An unmodified rule induction algorithm achieved an F(1-micro) score of 0.979 though this fell to 0.677 when performance for individual classes was averaged in an unweighted manner (F(1-macro)), due to the fact that the algorithm failed to learn 3 of the 16 classes from the training set. Decision Trees showed equal interpretability to the rule-based approaches, but achieved an F(1-micro) score of 0.923 (falling to 0.311 when classes are given equal weight). A Naïve Bayes classifier learned all classes and achieved high performance (F(1-micro)= 0.994 and F(1-macro) = .955), however the classification process is not transparent to the domain experts. The use of a manually customised rule set allowed for the development of a system for classification of laboratory tests into syndromic groups with very high performance, and high interpretability by the domain experts. Further research is required to develop internal validation rules in order to establish automated methods to update model rules without user
Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone L; Wagg, Catherine R; Priest, Heather; Fernandez, Nicole J
Visual diagnostic reasoning is the cognitive process by which pathologists reach a diagnosis based on visual stimuli (cytologic, histopathologic, or gross imagery). Currently, there is little to no literature examining visual reasoning in veterinary pathology. The objective of the study was to use eye tracking to establish baseline quantitative and qualitative differences between the visual reasoning processes of novice and expert veterinary pathologists viewing cytology specimens. Novice and expert participants were each shown 10 cytology images and asked to formulate a diagnosis while wearing eye-tracking equipment (10 slides) and while concurrently verbalizing their thought processes using the think-aloud protocol (5 slides). Compared to novices, experts demonstrated significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (p<.017), shorter time to diagnosis (p<.017), and a higher percentage of time spent viewing areas of diagnostic interest (p<.017). Experts elicited more key diagnostic features in the think-aloud protocol and had more efficient patterns of eye movement. These findings suggest that experts' fast time to diagnosis, efficient eye-movement patterns, and preference for viewing areas of interest supports system 1 (pattern-recognition) reasoning and script-inductive knowledge structures with system 2 (analytic) reasoning to verify their diagnosis.
Stothard, J Russell; Adams, Emily
There are many reasons why detection of parasites of medical and veterinary importance is vital and where novel diagnostic and surveillance tools are required. From a medical perspective alone, these originate from a desire for better clinical management and rational use of medications. Diagnosis can be at the individual-level, at close to patient settings in testing a clinical suspicion or at the community-level, perhaps in front of a computer screen, in classification of endemic areas and devising appropriate control interventions. Thus diagnostics for parasitic diseases has a broad remit as parasites are not only tied with their definitive hosts but also in some cases with their vectors/intermediate hosts. Application of current diagnostic tools and decision algorithms in sustaining control programmes, or in elimination settings, can be problematic and even ill-fitting. For example in resource-limited settings, are current diagnostic tools sufficiently robust for operational use at scale or are they confounded by on-the-ground realities; are the diagnostic algorithms underlying public health interventions always understood and well-received within communities which are targeted for control? Within this Special Issue (SI) covering a variety of diseases and diagnostic settings some answers are forthcoming. An important theme, however, throughout the SI is to acknowledge that cross-talk and continuous feedback between development and application of diagnostic tests is crucial if they are to be used effectively and appropriately.
N. S. Makhlay
Full Text Available Abstract. The laboratory diagnostics of trichomoniasis is strongly recommended for the diagnosis confirmation. The current review summarizes information concerning diagnostic methods directed to identification of this protozoa by morphology, to detection of antigens of T. vaginalis as well as specific antibodies and pathogen DNA. The existing problems in the interpretation of results and information about the efficacy of each method in the patient’s testing algorithm are discussed in the article.
Könönen, Eija; Rasinperä, Marja; Virolainen, Anni; Mentula, Silja; Lyytikäinen, Outi
Due to increased interest directed to Clostridium difficile-associated infections, a questionnaire survey of laboratory diagnostics of toxin-producing C. difficile was conducted in Finland in June 2006. Different aspects pertaining to C. difficile diagnosis, such as requests and criteria used for testing, methods used for its detection, yearly changes in diagnostics since 1996, and the total number of investigations positive for C. difficile in 2005, were asked in the questionnaire, which was sent to 32 clinical microbiology laboratories, including all hospital-affiliated and the relevant private clinical microbiology laboratories in Finland. The situation was updated by phone and email correspondence in September 2008. In June 2006, 28 (88%) laboratories responded to the questionnaire survey; 24 of them reported routinely testing requested stool specimens for C. difficile. Main laboratory methods included toxin detection (21/24; 88%) and/or anaerobic culture (19/24; 79%). In June 2006, 18 (86%) of the 21 laboratories detecting toxins directly from feces, from the isolate, or both used methods for both toxin A (TcdA) and B (TcdB), whereas only one laboratory did so in 1996. By September 2008, all of the 23 laboratories performing diagnostics for C. difficile used methods for both TcdA and TcdB. In 2006, the number of specimens processed per 100,000 population varied remarkably between different hospital districts. In conclusion, culturing C. difficile is common and there has been a favorable shift in toxin detection practice in Finnish clinical microbiology laboratories. However, the variability in diagnostic activity reported in 2006 creates a challenge for national monitoring of the epidemiology of C. difficile and related diseases.
Andrew J. Smith
Full Text Available Participation in diagnostic microbiology internal and external quality control (QC processes is good laboratory practice and an essential component of a quality management system. However, no QC scheme for diagnostic oral microbiology existed until 2009 when the Clinical Oral Microbiology (COMB Network was created. At the European Oral Microbiology Workshop in 2008, 12 laboratories processing clinical oral microbiological samples were identified. All these were recruited to participate into the study and six laboratories from six European countries completed both the online survey and the first QC round. Three additional laboratories participated in the second round. Based on the survey, European oral microbiology laboratories process a significant (mean per laboratory 4,135 number of diagnostic samples from the oral cavity annually. A majority of the laboratories did not participate in any internal or external QC programme and nearly half of the laboratories did not have standard operating procedures for the tests they performed. In both QC rounds, there was a large variation in the results, interpretation and reporting of antibiotic susceptibility testing among the laboratories. In conclusion, the results of this study demonstrate the need for harmonisation of laboratory processing methods and interpretation of results for oral microbiology specimens. The QC rounds highlighted the value of external QC in evaluating the efficacy and safety of processes, materials and methods used in the laboratory. The use of standardised methods is also a prerequisite for multi-centre epidemiological studies that can provide important information on emerging microbes and trends in anti-microbial susceptibility for empirical prescribing in oro-facial infections.
In recent years, there has been an increase in interest in applied ethology and animal welfare, and an increase in the popularity of the domestic cat. This has stimulated research on the behaviour and welfare of cats kept in different environments. This article presents a review of the recent research and makes recommendations for the housing of domestic cats in the home, in catteries and animal shelters, in laboratories and in veterinary surgeries. Copyright 1999 W.B. Saunders Company Ltd.
Miller, J Michael; Astles, Rex; Baszler, Timothy; Chapin, Kimberle; Carey, Roberta; Garcia, Lynne; Gray, Larry; Larone, Davise; Pentella, Michael; Pollock, Anne; Shapiro, Daniel S; Weirich, Elizabeth; Wiedbrauk, Danny
Prevention of injuries and occupational infections in U.S. laboratories has been a concern for many years. CDC and the National Institutes of Health addressed the topic in their publication Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical Laboratories, now in its 5th edition (BMBL-5). BMBL-5, however, was not designed to address the day-to-day operations of diagnostic laboratories in human and animal medicine. In 2008, CDC convened a Blue Ribbon Panel of laboratory representatives from a variety of agencies, laboratory organizations, and facilities to review laboratory biosafety in diagnostic laboratories. The members of this panel recommended that biosafety guidelines be developed to address the unique operational needs of the diagnostic laboratory community and that they be science based and made available broadly. These guidelines promote a culture of safety and include recommendations that supplement BMBL-5 by addressing the unique needs of the diagnostic laboratory. They are not requirements but recommendations that represent current science and sound judgment that can foster a safe working environment for all laboratorians. Throughout these guidelines, quality laboratory science is reinforced by a common-sense approach to biosafety in day-to-day activities. Because many of the same diagnostic techniques are used in human and animal diagnostic laboratories, the text is presented with this in mind. All functions of the human and animal diagnostic laboratory--microbiology, chemistry, hematology, and pathology with autopsy and necropsy guidance--are addressed. A specific section for veterinary diagnostic laboratories addresses the veterinary issues not shared by other human laboratory departments. Recommendations for all laboratories include use of Class IIA2 biological safety cabinets that are inspected annually; frequent hand washing; use of appropriate disinfectants, including 1:10 dilutions of household bleach; dependence on risk assessments for many activities
Kreuzig, Robert [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Oekologische Chemie und Abfallanalytik
The technical protocol under consideration describes a laboratory test method to evaluate the transformation of chemicals in liquid bovine and pig manures under anaerobic conditions and primarily is designed for veterinary medicinal products and biocides. The environmentally relevant entry routes into liquid manures occur via urine and feces of cattle and pigs in stable housings after excretion of veterinary medicinal products as parent compounds or metabolites and after the application of biocides in animal housings. Further entry routes such as solid dung application and direct dung pat deposition by production animals on pasture are not considered by this technical protocol. Thus, this technical protocol focused on the sampling of excrements from cattles and pigs kept in stables and fed under standard nutrition conditions. This approach additionally ensures that excrement samples are operationally free of any contamination by veterinary medicinal products and biocides. After the matrix characterization, reference-manure samples are prepared from the excrement samples by adding tap water to adjust defined dry substance contents typical for bovine or pig manures. This technical protocol comprehends a tiered experimental design in two parts: (a) Sampling of excrements and preparation of reference bovine and pig manures; (b) Testing of anaerobic transformation of chemicals in reference manures.
1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria, 2Department of. Veterinary Anatomy ... laboratory technologists and academic staff of the departments of veterinary anatomy, pathology and public health. Design of the ... Early histology and histopathology based research was ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...
Dórea, Fernanda C; McEwen, Beverly J; McNab, W Bruce; Revie, Crawford W; Sanchez, Javier
Diagnostic test orders to an animal laboratory were explored as a data source for monitoring trends in the incidence of clinical syndromes in cattle. Four years of real data and over 200 simulated outbreak signals were used to compare pre-processing methods that could remove temporal effects in the data, as well as temporal aberration detection algorithms that provided high sensitivity and specificity. Weekly differencing demonstrated solid performance in removing day-of-week effects, even in series with low daily counts. For aberration detection, the results indicated that no single algorithm showed performance superior to all others across the range of outbreak scenarios simulated. Exponentially weighted moving average charts and Holt-Winters exponential smoothing demonstrated complementary performance, with the latter offering an automated method to adjust to changes in the time series that will likely occur in the future. Shewhart charts provided lower sensitivity but earlier detection in some scenarios. Cumulative sum charts did not appear to add value to the system; however, the poor performance of this algorithm was attributed to characteristics of the data monitored. These findings indicate that automated monitoring aimed at early detection of temporal aberrations will likely be most effective when a range of algorithms are implemented in parallel.
Lumbreras-Lacarra, Blanca; Ramos-Rincón, José Manuel; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso
The application of epidemiologic principles to clinical diagnosis has been less developed than in other clinical areas. Knowledge of the main flaws affecting diagnostic laboratory test research is the first step for improving its quality. We assessed the methodologic aspects of articles on laboratory tests. We included articles that estimated indexes of diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) and were published in Clinical Chemistry or Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine in 1996, 2001, and 2002. Clinical Chemistry has paid special attention to this field of research since 1996 by publishing recommendations, checklists, and reviews. Articles were identified through electronic searches in Medline. The strategy combined the Mesh term "sensitivity and specificity" (exploded) with the text words "specificity", "false negative", and "accuracy". We examined adherence to seven methodologic criteria used in the study by Reid et al. (JAMA1995;274:645-51) of papers published in general medical journals. Three observers evaluated each article independently. Seventy-nine articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The percentage of studies that satisfied each criterion improved from 1996 to 2002. Substantial improvement was observed in reporting of the statistical uncertainty of indices of diagnostic accuracy, in criteria based on clinical information from the study population (spectrum composition), and in avoidance of workup bias. Analytical reproducibility was reported frequently (68%), whereas information about indeterminate results was rarely provided. The mean number of methodologic criteria satisfied showed a statistically significant increase over the 3 years in Clinical Chemistry but not in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The methodologic quality of the articles on diagnostic test research published in Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine is comparable to the quality observed in the best general medical journals
Spigaglia, Patrizia; Barbanti, Fabrizio; Morandi, Matteo; Moro, Maria Luisa; Mastrantonio, Paola
A laboratory diagnosis survey of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) was performed in Italy in 2012-2013. Questionnaires from 278 healthcare settings from 15 regions of Italy were collected and analysed. Eighty seven percent of the laboratories declared to routinely perform CDI diagnosis, 99% of them only after the clinician's request. Among the 216 laboratories providing information on the size of the hospitals in which they were located, 65 had more than 500 beds (large hospitals), while 151 had less than 500 beds (small hospitals). The average percentage of positive tests for C. difficile toxins was 12.2%. Almost half of the laboratories (42%) used immunoenzymatic assay (EIA) for Tox A/B as a stand-alone method, while only 34% used an algorithm for CDI as indicated by the European guidelines. A low percentage of laboratories performed molecular assays or C. difficile culture, 25% and 29%, respectively. Most laboratories (161/278) declared to type C. difficile strains, the majority in collaboration with a reference laboratory. Among the 103 C. difficile clinical isolates collected during the study, 31 different PCR-ribotypes were identified. PCR-ribotype 356/607 (27%) was predominant, followed by 018 (12%). These two PCR-ribotypes show 87.5% of similarity in ribotyping profile. PCR-ribotypes 027 and 078 represented 8% and 4% of the strains, respectively. Four PCR-ribotypes (027, 033, 078 and 126) were positive for the binary toxin CDT. In particular, PCR-ribotype 033 produces only CDT, and it has recently been associated with symptomatic cases. The majority of strains were multidrug resistant. In particular, all strains PCR-ribotypes 356/607 and 018 were resistant to moxifloxacin, rifampicin, erythromycin and clindamycin. The results obtained highlight the need to raise awareness to the microbiological diagnosis of CDI among clinicians and to implement and harmonize diagnostic methods for CDI in Italian laboratories in the perspective of a future national
... information on the specific reagents contact: Laboratory Chief, USDA, APHIS, VS, FADDL, Greenport, NY 11344....00 204.00 Fluorescent antibody conjugate 1 mL 169.00 172.00 176.00 179.00 Guinea pig antiserum, any...
Full Text Available It is known that laboratory investigations secure safe and reliable results that provide a final confirmation of the quality of work. Ideas, planning, knowledge, skills, experience, and environment, along with good laboratory practice, quality control and reliability of quality, make the area of biological investigations very complex. In recent years, quality control, including the control of work in the laboratory, is based on international standards and is used at that level. The implementation of widely recognized international standards, such as the International Standard ISO/IEC 17025 (1 and the implementing of the quality system series ISO/IEC 9000 (2 have become the imperative on the grounds of which laboratories have a formal, visible and corresponding system of quality. The diagnostic methods that are used must constantly yield results which identify the animal as positive or negative, and the precise status of the animal is determined with a predefined degree of statistical significance. Methods applied on a selected population reduce the risk of obtaining falsely positive or falsely negative results. A condition for this are well conceived and documented methods, with the application of the corresponding reagents, and work with professional and skilled staff. This process requires also a consistent implementation of the most rigorous experimental plans, epidemiological and statistical data and estimations, with constant monitoring of the validity of the applied methods. Such an approach is necessary in order to cut down the number of misconceptions and accidental mistakes, for a referent population of animals on which the validity of a method is tested. Once a valid method is included in daily routine investigations, it is necessary to apply constant monitoring for the purpose of internal quality control, in order adequately to evaluate its reproducibility and reliability. Consequently, it is necessary at least twice yearly to conduct
Harris, D. L.
Students responded favorably to a new approach to laboratory instruction of pathogenic bacteriology. For each of five course units students were given behavioral objectives, an autotutorial program using color slides and a script, and a formal laboratory exercise. Results included a saving of student time and opportunity for more individualized…
Geaghan, Sharon Markham
Maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility is common but less commonly results in hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). HDFN is associated with greater peak bilirubin, at an earlier age, and for longer duration than other causes of hyperbilirubinemia. It poses a substantial risk for kernicterus and accounts for the majority of exchange transfusions for hyperbilirubinemia. Advances in diagnosis and management are described, from identification of the alloimmunized pregnancy by maternal ABO and Rh typing, antibody screen (indirect Coombs test), identification and titration; laboratory evaluation of the maternal-fetal unit with a critical maternal antibody titer to prompt fetal antigen status determination; assessment of fetomaternal hemorrhage by conventional Kleihauer-Betke testing or by flow cytometric methodology; to antenatal management of isoimmunization and fetal status assessments using the systems of Liley, Queenan, and serial Doppler fetal middle cerebral artery peak velocity measurements. The utility of laboratory diagnostics in the approach to hemolysis in the neonate, including hematology, chemistry, and peripheral blood smear review, is reviewed. The goal of management, to deliver a healthy infant at or near term, is attained for the majority of cases using current modalities; future directions include noninvasive genotyping of fetal blood from maternal serum to fully eliminate RhD alloimmunization and HDFN; and development of prophylaxis and intervention strategies for non-RhD alloimmunizations for which immune globulin is currently unavailable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
John F. Antiabong
Full Text Available Aim: The interpretation of conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay results is often limited to either positive or negative (non-detectable. The more robust quantitative PCR (qPCR method is mostly reserved for quantitation studies and not a readily accessible technology in laboratories across developing nations. The aim of this study was to evaluate a semi-quantitative method for conventional PCR amplicons using digital image analysis of electrophoretic gel. The potential applications are also discussed. Materials and Methods: This study describes standard conditions for the digital image analysis of PCR amplicons using the freely available ImageJ software and confirmed using the qPCR assay. Results and Conclusion: Comparison of ImageJ analysis of PCR-electrophoresis gel and qPCR methods showed similar trends in the Fusobacterium necrophorum DNA concentration associated with healthy and periodontal disease infected wallabies (p≤0.03. Based on these empirical data, this study adds descriptive attributes (“more” or “less” to the interpretation of conventional PCR results. The potential applications in low-income veterinary laboratories are suggested, and guidelines for the adoption of the method are also highlighted.
Miller, David S; Weiser, Glen C; Ward, Alton C S; Drew, Mark L; Chapman, Phillip L
A retrospective study of Pasteurellaceae isolated from domestic sheep (Ovis aries) was conducted. The aim was to identify Pasteurellaceae present in animals that were clinically healthy and others with evidence of respiratory disease. The bacteria had been isolated from samples submitted to the University of Idaho Caine Veterinary Teaching Center as part of disease diagnostic testing. The 844 isolates identified mainly three species of Pasteurellaceae: Mannheimia haemolytica, Pasteurella multocida, and Pasteurella (Bibersteinia) trehalosi. A total of 114 biovariants were identified among these three species. Individual biovariants were identified 1-180 times. Two of those (M. haemolytica 1 and P. (B.) trehalosi 2) constituted 36% of the isolates, and were the only biovariants sufficiently numerous to account for >7% of the total isolates. Samples were primarily submitted from sheep with signs of respiratory disease. Eighty percent of biovariants were identified most often in animals with signs of respiratory disease, but 26% of biovariants were isolated from both sheep with respiratory disease and apparently healthy sheep. P. multocida constituted 4.7% of isolates, and were exclusively associated with animals with respiratory disease. The ability of isolates to produce beta-hemolysis on culture media was not associated with animals with respiratory disease (odds ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.50-1.19). The inference of this study is limited due to the retrospective study design. However, it is the first study that provides an extensive baseline list of biovariants associated with respiratory disease in domestic sheep. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Allen, Andrew L; Goupil, Brad A; Valentine, Beth A
A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats was conducted to identify the range of lesions and diseases recognized and to make recommendations regarding the best tissues to examine and tests to conduct in order to maximize the likelihood of arriving at a definitive etiologic diagnosis in goats with clinical signs referable to the spinal cord. Twenty-seven goats with a spinal cord lesion were identified. The most common lesion recognized, in 13 of 27 goats, was degenerative myelopathy. Eight goats with degenerative myelopathy were diagnosed with copper deficiency. Non-suppurative inflammation due to caprine arthritis encephalitis virus, necrosis due to parasite larvae migration, and neoplasia were each diagnosed 3 times. Based on these findings, it is recommended that, in addition to careful handling and histologic examination of the spinal cord, samples of other tissues, including the brain, liver, and serum, be collected for ancillary testing if warranted.
at the Maiduguri municipal abattoir and were used for this study. Thyroid glands collected were transported in ice packs to the Department of Veterinary Pathology laboratory, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria for gross examination and thereafter, fixed and sent to Department of Veterinary. Anatomy, University of Abuja, were it ...
... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic--Hematology; Including On-Site Leased... Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology division, including on-site leased workers from Manpower Service Group... to the production of hematology reagents and instruments. The company reports that workers leased...
Widyasari-Mehta, Arum; Suwito, Hanna Resti Kartika Ayu; Kreuzig, Robert
The veterinary antibiotic doxycycline (DOXY) is today frequently applied in conventional pig husbandry for the control of respiratory diseases. After the treatment, pigs excrete major amounts of DOXY as the unchanged active substance. Thus, DOXY residues were found in liquid manures and digestates of biogas plants at concentrations of mg kg(-1) dry weight. In order to assess the impact of field applications of contaminated manures and digestates on the entry of DOXY residues into arable and grassland soils, thorough information about the removal of DOXY during long-term storage of farm fertilizers is required. Since this aspect has been only less investigated for manures but not for digestates, first long-term storage simulation tests were performed at laboratory scale. Within the 170-d incubation periods under strictly anaerobic conditions, doxycycline was removed in liquid pig manure by 61% and in digestate by 76%. The calculated half-lives of 120 d and 91 d thus emphasized the persistence of doxycycline in both matrices. Due to the substance specific properties of DOXY, this removal was caused neither by mineralization, epimerization nor biotransformation. According to the high affinity of DOXY to manure and digestate solids, however, the formation of non-extractable residues has to be taken into account as the predominant concentration determining process. This was indicated by the sequential extraction procedure applied. Hence, these results confirmed that a full removal capacity for doxycycline cannot be reached through the long-term storage of farm fertilizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Díez, J R; Styles, D K
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Veterinary Services (VS) is charged with monitoring, controlling, and responding to select reportable diseases and all foreign animal diseases. Emergency Management and Diagnostics (EM&D) oversees Foreign Animal Disease (FAD) preparedness and response. In order to effectively prepare for and respond to FADs, such as highly pathogenic avian influenza and foot-and-mouth disease, VS develops plans, strategies, and policies to effectively combat an intrusion. USDA APHIS VS has made significant gains in preparedness and response planning. However, much remains to be done especially in surveillance, diagnostic tools, and vaccines. There are significant needs for novel medical technologies to improve diagnostic capabilities and offer additional approaches for FAD response.
Kohli, Divyanshoo R; Vachhani, Ravi; Shah, Tilak U; BouHaidar, Doumit S; Siddiqui, M Shadab
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is often required to diagnose post-liver transplant (LT) biliary strictures. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of noninvasive laboratory and imaging tests in detecting post-LT biliary strictures. Adult LT recipients who underwent ERCP between 2008 and 2015 were evaluated. Biliary strictures were diagnosed after blinded review of cholangiograms by three interventional endoscopists. The accuracy of liver enzymes, ultrasound, and MRI was determined using cholangiography as the reference standard. To evaluate the accuracy of change in liver enzymes, the difference between baseline and liver enzymes prior to ERCP (Δlab) was utilized. Biliary strictures were present on cholangiogram in 48 (58%) of 82 LT recipients meeting inclusion criteria. Baseline liver enzyme values did not differ significantly between patients with and without strictures. The optimal cutoffs for ΔALT, ΔAST, Δbilirubin, and Δalkaline phosphatase (AP) were determined to be 174 IU/L, 75 IU/L, 3.1 mg/dL, and 225 IU/L, respectively. ΔALT had a sensitivity of 100%, specificity 43%, and negative predictive value 100%. ΔAP had the highest specificity (53%) but modest sensitivity (69%) with a positive predictive value of 67%. Ultrasound had sensitivity of 29% and specificity of 69%, while MRI had sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 56%. The diagnostic accuracy of liver enzymes and imaging modalities is modest in detecting post-LT biliary strictures and cannot be used solely to identify patients needing further workup.
Fernanda C Dórea
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Syndromic surveillance research has focused on two main themes: the search for data sources that can provide early disease detection; and the development of efficient algorithms that can detect potential outbreak signals. METHODS: This work combines three algorithms that have demonstrated solid performance in detecting simulated outbreak signals of varying shapes in time series of laboratory submissions counts. These are: the Shewhart control charts designed to detect sudden spikes in counts; the EWMA control charts developed to detect slow increasing outbreaks; and the Holt-Winters exponential smoothing, which can explicitly account for temporal effects in the data stream monitored. A scoring system to detect and report alarms using these algorithms in a complementary way is proposed. RESULTS: The use of multiple algorithms in parallel resulted in increased system sensitivity. Specificity was decreased in simulated data, but the number of false alarms per year when the approach was applied to real data was considered manageable (between 1 and 3 per year for each of ten syndromic groups monitored. The automated implementation of this approach, including a method for on-line filtering of potential outbreak signals is described. CONCLUSION: The developed system provides high sensitivity for detection of potential outbreak signals while also providing robustness and flexibility in establishing what signals constitute an alarm. This flexibility allows an analyst to customize the system for different syndromes.
Kim, Taehoon; Choi, Seung Ho; Lambert-Cheatham, Nathan; Xu, Zhengbin; Kritchevsky, Janice E.; Bertin, Francois-René; Kim, Young L.
Anemia associated with intestinal parasites and malnutrition is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in small ruminants worldwide. Qualitative scoring of conjunctival redness has been developed so that farmers can gauge anemia in sheep and goats to identify animals that require treatment. For clinically relevant anemia diagnosis, complete blood count-comparable quantitative methods often rely on complicated and expensive optical instruments, requiring detailed spectral information of hemoglobin. We report experimental and numerical results for simple, yet reliable, noninvasive hemoglobin detection that can be correlated with laboratory-based blood hemoglobin testing for anemia diagnosis. In our pilot animal study using calves, we exploit the third eyelid (i.e., palpebral conjunctiva) as an effective sensing site. To further test spectrometer-free (or spectrometerless) hemoglobin assessments, we implement full spectral reconstruction from RGB data and partial least square regression. The unique combination of RGB-based spectral reconstruction and partial least square regression could potentially offer uncomplicated instrumentation and avoid the use of a spectrometer, which is vital for realizing a compact and inexpensive hematology device for quantitative anemia detection in the farm field.
Dórea, Fernanda C; McEwen, Beverly J; McNab, W Bruce; Sanchez, Javier; Revie, Crawford W
Syndromic surveillance research has focused on two main themes: the search for data sources that can provide early disease detection; and the development of efficient algorithms that can detect potential outbreak signals. This work combines three algorithms that have demonstrated solid performance in detecting simulated outbreak signals of varying shapes in time series of laboratory submissions counts. These are: the Shewhart control charts designed to detect sudden spikes in counts; the EWMA control charts developed to detect slow increasing outbreaks; and the Holt-Winters exponential smoothing, which can explicitly account for temporal effects in the data stream monitored. A scoring system to detect and report alarms using these algorithms in a complementary way is proposed. The use of multiple algorithms in parallel resulted in increased system sensitivity. Specificity was decreased in simulated data, but the number of false alarms per year when the approach was applied to real data was considered manageable (between 1 and 3 per year for each of ten syndromic groups monitored). The automated implementation of this approach, including a method for on-line filtering of potential outbreak signals is described. The developed system provides high sensitivity for detection of potential outbreak signals while also providing robustness and flexibility in establishing what signals constitute an alarm. This flexibility allows an analyst to customize the system for different syndromes.
Mancini, Irene; Pinzani, Pamela; Simi, Lisa
A companion diagnostic test provides information that is essential for the safe and effective use of a corresponding therapeutic product as indicated in the drug instructions. The implementation of a companion diagnostic follows the rules of a molecular test for somatic mutations in a routine cli...
Toombs-Ruane, L J; Riley, C B; Kendall, A T; Hill, K E; Benschop, J; Rosanowski, S M
To describe antimicrobial susceptibility, and identify antimicrobial resistance (AMR), in bacteria isolated from New Zealand foals. A database search was performed of submissions to a veterinary pathology laboratory between April 2004 and December 2013 for bacterial culture of samples from foals foals were examined, and 127 bacterial isolates were cultured from 64 (63%) foals. Of the 127 isolates, 32 (25%) were Streptococcus spp., 30 (24%) were Staphylococcus spp., 12 (10%) were Enterococcus spp. and 26 (21%) were Escherichia coli. Of 83 Gram-positive isolates, 57 (69%) were susceptible to penicillin. Over all isolates, 92/126 (73%) were susceptible to gentamicin and 117/126 (93%) to enrofloxacin; 62/82 (76%) of Gram-positive, and 22/42 (52%) of Gram-negative bacteria were susceptible to ceftiofur; 53/81 (65%) of Gram-positive, and 23/44 (52%) of Gram-negative bacteria were susceptible to tetracycline; 59/82 (72%) of Gram-positive, and 23/44 (43%) of Gram-negative bacteria were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfonamide. Of 126 isolates, 33 (26%) had MDR; >1 isolate with MDR was cultured from 24/64 (38%) foals, and ≥2 isolates with MDR were recovered from 8/64 (13%) foals. Multi-drug resistance, including resistance to commonly used antimicrobials, was found in bacterial isolates from foals in New Zealand. The results of this study are of concern from a treatment perspective as they indicate a potential for antimicrobial treatment failure. For future surveillance of AMR and the creation of national guidelines, it is important to record more data on samples submitted for bacterial culture.
when tested for specific reac- TABLE 3 Reproducibility ofanti- Rickettsia tsutsugamushi immunoglobulin specific liP Test Kit results between evaluating...others, 1983. Eval- hospitalized patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg 33: uation of latex- Rickettsia rickettsii test for Rocky 311-315. file m83; (ui) 84176341...1.00), reproducibility of 0.86, and efficiency of 0.92 when compared to the reference laboratory. In a proficiency survey in which 10 laboratories
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Diagnostic parasitology services in Ontario were assessed to determine whether the reduction in the number of provider laboratories from 209 to 70 over the period 1977 to 1994 has affected the availability and quality of service.
Jellema, Laurens-Jan C.; Backus, Barbra E.; Six, A. Jacob; Braam, Richard; Groenemeijer, Bjorn; van der Zaag-Loonen, Hester J.; Tio, Rene; van Suijlen, Jeroen D. E.
Background: The focus during the diagnostic process for patients with acute chest pain is to discriminate patients who can be safely discharged from those who are at risk for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). In this study the diagnostic value of the clinical examination is compared with laboratory
B N Kootallur
Full Text Available The major impetus for bacterial identification came after the advent of solid culture media. Morphological appearance of bacterial colonies was often sufficient for their identification in the laboratory. Even in modern times, preliminary identification of most cultivable bacteria is based on such morphological characters. Advances have been made media for the presumptive identifi cation of common organisms encountered in clinical samples. Phenotypic characterisation of bacteria with, physiological tests with a battery of biochemical tests differentiate related bacterial genera as well as confirm their identity. . Each laboratory can select its own method(s of identification, provided they are based on scientific / epidemiological evidence; clinical laboratory and standards institute (CLSI is a widely accepted organization and laboratories in many parts of the world follow its recommendations for bacterial identification. Some of the latest advances in identification include Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization - Time of Flight Mass Spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF is a state of art facility used for fast and reliable species-specific identification of bacteria including Mycobacteria and fungi including yeasts. However the single most important factor that decides the method of bacterial identification in any laboratory is the cost involved. In the final analysis, selection of tests for bacterial identification should be based on their standardization with proper scientific basis. Considering the cost and lack of easy availability of commercial kits, we have put forward a simplified and rapid method of identification for most commonly encountered bacterial pathogens causing human infection in India
Full Text Available Urogenital trichomoniasis is still one of the most common sexually transmitted diseases. Evolutionary vaginal Tricho-monas parazited initially in female genital tract, and later adapted to the conditions of the male genital tract. This contributed to the formation of certain gender biology of the parasite, epidemiology and clinics of trichomoniasis. Existing gender differences should be taken into account in prevention, diagnostics and treatment of urogenital trichomoniasis.
Kaufmann, J O; Smit, J W; Huisman, W; Idema, R N; Bakker, E; Giordano, P C
After a first survey in 2001, the Dutch Association of Hematological Laboratory Research (VHL) advised its members to adopt a basic protocol for haemoglobinopathy carrier detection and to provide genetic information with all positive results to allow health-care professionals to inform carriers about potential genetic risks. This article reports on the compliance with these recommendations and their consequences. Clinical chemists of all 106 Dutch laboratories were invited to answer a survey on patient population, diagnostic techniques used, (self-reported) knowledge, use and effect of the additional information. The average increase in diagnostic output was over 60% and the recommended basic protocol was applied by 65% of the laboratories. Over 84% of the laboratories reported to be aware of the additional recommendations and 77% to be using them. Most laboratories with limited diagnostic requests were still sending their cases to other laboratories and included the genetic information received from these laboratories in their diagnostic reports. The effect of information on subsequent 'family analysis' was estimated to be between 26 and 50%. The present study shows an increase in diagnostic potential for haemoglobinopathy over the last decade, especially in the larger cities. Low 'family testing' rates were mostly found in areas with lower carrier prevalence or associated with local reluctance to pass the information to carriers. In spite of a dramatic improvement, too many carriers are still not informed because of lack of awareness among health-care providers and more education is needed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bankole Henry Oladeinde
Conclusion: In all laboratories (public and private surveyed, marked deficiencies were observed in the area of administrative control responsible for implementing biosafety. Increased emphasis on provision of biosafety devices and compliance with standard codes of practices issued by relevant authorities is strongly advocated.
Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Scottish Centre)
This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.).
To elucidate the role of a modern diagnostic laboratory in the management of diabetesmellitus Available literature on local and international studies on the role of the laboratory in the management of diabetesmellitus Preclinical diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, good monitoring of short, medium and long-term glycaemic ...
Van Borm, S; Wang, J; Granberg, F; Colling, A
Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies and sequence data analysis have revolutionised research in many areas of biology and medicine, including veterinary infection biology. New technology is poised to bridge the gap between the research and diagnostic laboratory. This paper defines the potential diagnostic value and purposes of next-generation sequencing (NGS) applications in veterinary infection biology and explores their compatibility with the existing validation principles and methods of the World Organisation for Animal Health. Critical parameters for validation and quality control (quality metrics) are suggested, with reference to established validation and quality assurance guidelines for NGS-based methods of diagnosing human heritable diseases. Although most currently described NGS applications in veterinary infection biology are not primary diagnostic tests that directly result in control measures, this critical reflection on the advantages and remaining challenges of NGS technology should stimulate discussion on its diagnostic value and on the potential to validate NGS methods and monitor their diagnostic performance.
Šenolt, Ladislav; Grassi, Walter; Szodoray, Peter
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common autoimmune disease in which a heterogeneous course and different pathogenic mechanisms are implicated in chronic inflammation and joint destruction. Despite the diagnostic contribution of anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs) and rheumatoid factors, about one-third of RA patients remain seronegative. ACPAs belong to a heterogeneous family of autoantibodies targeting citrullinated proteins, including myelin-basic protein, several histone proteins, filaggrin and fibrin, fibrinogen or vimentin. In addition to ACPAs, antibodies directed against other post-translationally modified-carbamylated proteins (anti-CarP) were detected in up to 30% of ACPA-negative patients. Using phage display technology, further autoantibodies were recently discovered as candidate biomarkers for seronegative RA patients. Furthermore, in clinical practice, ultrasound may reveal subclinical synovitis and radiographically undetected bone erosions. To improve diagnostic certainty in undifferentiated arthritis and seronegative patients, ultrasound imaging and several new biomarkers may help to identify at risk patients and those with early disease. In this commentary we summarize recent advances in joint ultrasound and future potential of serological biomarkers to improve diagnosis of RA.
Mercante, Jeffrey W.
SUMMARY Legionnaires' disease (LD) is an often severe and potentially fatal form of bacterial pneumonia caused by an extensive list of Legionella species. These ubiquitous freshwater and soil inhabitants cause human respiratory disease when amplified in man-made water or cooling systems and their aerosols expose a susceptible population. Treatment of sporadic cases and rapid control of LD outbreaks benefit from swift diagnosis in concert with discriminatory bacterial typing for immediate epidemiological responses. Traditional culture and serology were instrumental in describing disease incidence early in its history; currently, diagnosis of LD relies almost solely on the urinary antigen test, which captures only the dominant species and serogroup, Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1). This has created a diagnostic “blind spot” for LD caused by non-Lp1 strains. This review focuses on historic, current, and emerging technologies that hold promise for increasing LD diagnostic efficiency and detection rates as part of a coherent testing regimen. The importance of cooperation between epidemiologists and laboratorians for a rapid outbreak response is also illustrated in field investigations conducted by the CDC with state and local authorities. Finally, challenges facing health care professionals, building managers, and the public health community in combating LD are highlighted, and potential solutions are discussed. PMID:25567224
Heredia N., Ronald; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria de la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Perales C., Rosa; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Chavera C., Alfonso; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima-Perú.; Tabacchi N., Luis; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Perú; Santillán A., Gilberto; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima
The aim of this retrospective study was to classify mastocytomas according to histologic grade from samples of canine necropsies and biopsies diagnosed by histopathology in the Pathology Laboratory of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine of the National University of San Marcos, Lima, Peru in the period 2000-2006. A total of 40 cases of mastocytomas were found (4.5%) in 881 neoplasms. The classification of the mastocytomas based on the histologic grade indicated that el 42.5% were of grade I (w...
The progress of the LLL Laser Fusion Program to achieve high gain thermonuclear micro-explosions is discussed. Many experiments have been successfully performed and diagnosed using the large complex, 10-beam, 30 TW Shiva laser system. A 400 kJ design of the 20-beam Nova laser has been completed. The construction of the first phase of this facility has begun. New diagnostic instruments are described which provide one with new and improved resolution, information on laser absorption and scattering, thermal energy flow, suprathermal electrons and their effects, and final fuel conditions. Measurements were made on the absorption and Brillouin scattering for target irradiations at both 1.064 ..mu..m and 532 nm. These measurements confirm the expected increased absorption and reduced scattering at the shorter wavelength. Implosion experiments have been performed which have produced final fuel densities over the range of 10x to 100x liquid DT density.
Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E
Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.
Alexander, C L; Currie, S; Pollock, K; Smith-Palmer, A; Jones, B L
Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species are protozoan parasites capable of causing gastrointestinal disease in humans and animals through the ingestion of infective faeces. Whereas Cryptosporidium species can be acquired locally or through foreign travel, there is the mis-conception that giardiasis is considered to be largely travel-associated, which results in differences in laboratory testing algorithms. In order to determine the level of variation in testing criteria and detection methods between diagnostic laboratories for both pathogens across Scotland, an audit was performed. Twenty Scottish diagnostic microbiology laboratories were invited to participate with questions on sample acceptance criteria, testing methods, testing rates and future plans for pathogen detection. Reponses were received from 19 of the 20 laboratories representing each of the 14 territorial Health Boards. Detection methods varied between laboratories with the majority performing microscopy, one using a lateral flow immunochromatographic antigen assay, another using a manually washed plate-based enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and one laboratory trialling a plate-based EIA automated with an EIA plate washer. Whereas all laboratories except one screened every stool for Cryptosporidium species, an important finding was that significant variation in the testing algorithm for detecting Giardia was noted with only four laboratories testing all diagnostic stools. The most common criteria were 'travel history' (11 laboratories) and/or 'when requested' (14 laboratories). Despite only a small proportion of stools being examined in 15 laboratories for Giardia (2%-18% of the total number of stools submitted), of interest is the finding that a higher positivity rate was observed for Giardia than Cryptosporidium in 10 of these 15 laboratories. These findings highlight that the underreporting of Giardia in Scotland is likely based on current selection and testing algorithms.
Full Text Available Abstract This work describes the experience at a tuberculosis clinical laboratory where relatively new TB diagnosis technologies; nucleic acid detection of two target strands, IS6110 and devR, by PCR and microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS were used. The LJ culture was the gold standard. This evaluation was done from August 2007 to July 2009 on 463 sputum samples of tuberculosis suspects at a specialized tuberculosis clinic in Delhi, India. None of the tests we evaluated can accurately detect the presence or absence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in all the samples and smear microscopy was found to be the most reliable assay in this study. The PCR assay could detect down to 2 pg of H37Rv DNA. Sensitivity, specificity was 0.40, 0.60 and 0.19, 0.81 for smear positive (n = 228 and negative samples (n = 235 respectively. In the MODS assay, sensitivity, specificity of 0.48, 0.52 and 0.38, 0.76 was observed for smear positive and negative samples. Sputum smear microscopy had sensitivity of 0.77 and specificity of 0.70.
Da Rin, Giorgio; Zoppelletto, Maira; Lippi, Giuseppe
Although automation has become widely utilized in certain areas of diagnostic testing, its adoption in diagnostic microbiology has proceeded much more slowly. To describe our real-world experience of integrating an automated instrument for diagnostic microbiology (Walk-Away Specimen Processor, WASPLab) within a model of total laboratory automation (TLA). The implementation process was divided into 2 phases. The former period, lasting approximately 6 weeks, entailed the installation of the WASPLab processor to operate as a stand-alone instrumentation, whereas the latter, lasting approximately 2 weeks, involved physical connection of the WASPLab with the automation. Using the WASPLab instrument in conjunction with the TLA model, we obtained a time savings equivalent to the work of 1.2 full-time laboratory technicians for diagnostic microbiology. The connection of WASPLab to TLA allowed its management by a generalist or clinical chemistry technician, with no need for microbiology skills on the part of either worker. Hence, diagnostic microbiology could be performed by the staff that is already using the TLA, extending their activities to include processing urgent clinical chemistry and hematology specimens. The time to result was also substantially improved. According to our experience, using the WASPLab instrument as part of a TLA in diagnostic microbiology holds great promise for optimizing laboratory workflow and improving the quality of testing. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Jang, Mi Ae; Yoon, Young Ahn; Song, Junghan; Kim, Jeong Ho; Min, Won Ki; Lee, Ji Sung; Lee, Yong Wha; Lee, You Kyoung
Medical laboratories play a central role in health care. Many laboratories are taking a more focused and stringent approach to quality system management. In Korea, laboratory standardization efforts undertaken by the Korean Laboratory Accreditation Program (KLAP) and the Korean External Quality Assessment Scheme (KEQAS) may have facilitated an improvement in laboratory performance, but there are no fundamental studies demonstrating that laboratory standardization is effective. We analyzed the results of the KEQAS to identify significant differences between laboratories with or without KLAP and to determine the impact of laboratory standardization on the accuracy of diagnostic tests. We analyzed KEQAS participant data on clinical chemistry tests such as albumin, ALT, AST, and glucose from 2010 to 2013. As a statistical parameter to assess performance bias between laboratories, we compared 4-yr variance index score (VIS) between the two groups with or without KLAP. Compared with the group without KLAP, the group with KLAP exhibited significantly lower geometric means of 4-yr VIS for all clinical chemistry tests (Plaboratories. Confidence intervals for the mean of each test in the two groups (accredited and non-accredited) did not overlap, suggesting that the means of the groups are significantly different. These results confirmed that practice standardization is strongly associated with the accuracy of test results. Our study emphasizes the necessity of establishing a system for standardization of diagnostic testing.
... consulting physician if that physician is a doctor of medicine, osteopathy, podiatric medicine, dental surgery, or dental medicine. (iv) An RHC. (v) A laboratory, if it meets the applicable requirements for... or nonphysician practitioner, including any ICD-9-CM code or narrative description supplied. (ii...
Makarovskiĭ, V V; Shcherbatkin, D D; Nazarov, G D
Introduction of the complex computer-aided mechanization and automatization into the laboratory process and their integration with other automated information hospital systems significantly raise efficacy of laboratory data application in treatment and diagnosis, thus reducing work losses of the medical staff. The structure of biochemical research for clinical therapeutic and surgical departments is presented along with the main biochemical diagnostic programmes for some diseases.
Huang, Q; Gehring, R; Tell, L A; Li, M; Riviere, J E
Allometric scaling is widely used for the determination of first dosage regimen and the interpolation or extrapolation of pharmacokinetic parameters across many animal species during drug development. In this article, 85 drugs used in veterinary medicine obtained from the Food Animal Residue Avoidance Databank database were selected for allometric scaling analysis. Outlier species were identified by statistical methods. The results showed that 77% and 88% of drugs displayed significant correlations between total systemic clearance (CL) and volume of distribution at steady status (Vss) vs. body weight (P allometric exponent b for CL and Vss displays approximate normal distribution, with means (0.87 and 0.99) and standard deviations (0.143 and 0.157) for CL and Vss, respectively. Twelve drugs were identified to have at least one outlier species for CL and ten drugs for Vss. The human CL and Vss were predicted for selected drugs by the obtained allometric equations. The predicted CL and Vss were within a threefold error compared to observed values, except the predicted CL values for antipyrine, warfarin and diazepam. The results can be used to estimate cross-species pharmacokinetic profiles for predicting drug dosages in veterinary species, and to identify those species for which interpolation or extrapolation of pharmacokinetics properties may be problematic. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mani, Reeta Subramaniam; Anand, Ashwini Manoor; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan
Rabies, an acute progressive encephalomyelitis, continues to be a serious public health problem in India and many other countries in Asia and Africa. The low level of commitment to rabies control is partly attributable to challenges in laboratory diagnosis and lack of adequate surveillance to indicate the disease burden. A laboratory audit of human rabies cases was undertaken to disseminate information on the clinical, demographic, prophylactic and most importantly the laboratory diagnostic aspects of rabies. A retrospective analysis of all clinically suspected human rabies cases, whose samples were received at a rabies diagnostic laboratory in South India in the last 3 years, was performed. Clinical and demographic details of patients were obtained. The clinical samples included cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), serum, saliva and nuchal skin biopsy collected antemortem, and brain tissue obtained post-mortem. Various laboratory tests were performed for diagnosis. Clinical samples from 128 patients with suspected rabies, from 11 states in India, were received for diagnostic confirmation. About 94% of the victims reported dog-bites, more than a third of them were children and most of the victims did not receive adequate post-exposure prophylaxis. Antemortem confirmation of rabies by a combination of laboratory diagnostic assays (detection of viral RNA in CSF, skin and saliva, and neutralising antibodies in CSF) could be achieved in 40.6% cases. Increasing awareness about adequate post-exposure prophylaxis, additional rabies diagnostic facilities, and enhanced human and animal rabies surveillance to indicate the true disease burden are essential to control this fatal disease. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Veterinary surgeons have a long tradition of consulting one another about problem cases and many have unwittingly practised telemedicine when discussing cases by telephone or by sending laboratory reports by telefax. Specific veterinary telemedicine applications have been in use since the early 1980s, but little research has been undertaken in this field. The Pubmed and CAB International databases were searched for the following Boolean logic-linked keywords; veterinary AND telemedicine, veterinary AND telecare, animal AND telemedicine, animal AND telecare and veterinary AND e-mail and an additional search was made of the worldwide web, using Google Scholar. This returned 25 papers which were reviewed. Of these only 2 report research. Sixteen papers had no references and 1 author was associated with 13 papers. Several themes emerge in the papers reviewed. These include remarks about the use of telemedicine, the benefits that can and are derived from the use of telemedicine, areas of practice in which telemedicine is being used, ethical and legal issues around the practice of telemedicine, image standards required for telemedicine, the equipment that is required for the practice of telemedicine, advice on ways in which digital images can be obtained and educational aspects of telemedicine. These are discussed. Veterinary practice has lagged behind its human counterpart in producing research on the validity and efficacy of telemedicine. This is an important field which requires further research.
O. V. Narvskaya
Full Text Available Abstract. The information reflected modern knowledge about virus of human papilloma (VHP and pathogenesis of papilloma viral infection is presented in the lecture. The actual problems of epidemiology, laboratory diagnostics and prevention of VHP associated damage of cervical epithelium have been described.
... classified (NOC)'' code but that would otherwise meet the criteria set forth in section 3113 for being a... Procedure Coding System (HCPCS) code other than a not otherwise classified (NOC) code under such Coding... for diagnostic laboratory tests defined in section 3113(a)(2) but currently billed using NOC codes...
Dorizzi, R M; Maconi, M; Giavarina, D; Loza, G; Aman, M; Moreira, J; Bisoffi, Z; Gennuso, C
Robinson, James C; Whaley, Christopher; Brown, Timothy T
Prices for laboratory and other clinical services vary widely. Employers and insurers increasingly are adopting "reference pricing" policies to create incentives for patients to select lower-priced facilities. To measure the association between implementation of reference pricing and patient choice of laboratory, test prices, patient out-of-pocket spending, and insurer spending. We conducted an observational study of changes in laboratory pricing and selection by employees of a large national grocery firm (n = 30 415) before and after the firm implemented a reference pricing policy for laboratory services and compared the findings with changes over the same period for policy holders of a large national insurer that did not implement reference pricing (n = 181 831). The grocery firm established a maximum payment limit at the 60th percentile of the distribution of prices for each laboratory test in each region. Employees were provided with data on prices at all laboratories through a mobile digital platform. Patients selecting a laboratory that charged more than the payment limit were required to pay the full difference themselves. A total of 2.13 million claims were analyzed for 285 types of in vitro diagnostic tests between 2010 and 2013. Patient choice of laboratory, price paid per test, patient out-of-pocket costs, and employer spending. Compared with trends in prices paid by insurance policy holders not subject to reference pricing, and after adjusting for characteristics of tests and patients, implementation of reference pricing was associated with a 31.9% reduction (95% CI, 20.6%-41.6%) in average price paid per test by the third year of the program. In these 3 years, total spending on laboratory tests declined by $2.57 million (95% CI, $1.59-$3.35 million). Out-of-pocket costs by patients declined by $1.05 million (95% CI, $0.73-$1.37 million). Spending by the employer declined by $1.70 million (95% CI, $0.92-$2.48 million). When combined with
according to International guiding principles for biochemical research involving animals. (C. I .O. M .S .1985). Source of Trypanosomes. Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federe strain) used for the study was obtained from donor rats maintained at the postgraduate laboratory of the Department of Veterinary. Microbiology and ...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...
The practices (veterinary anatomy laboratory, veterinarian physiology laboratory I, veterinarian physiology laboratory II, and veterinarian physiology chemistry laboratory) in the area of basic veterinary medicine are important subjects for acquiring knowledge and the technique by the process of shifting from the liberal arts subject to a specialized subjects for the area of applied veterinary medicine and clinical veterinary medicine. The number of equipment is insufficient to practice effec...
... infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and research facilities. 75.4... IN HORSES, ASSES, PONIES, MULES, AND ZEBRAS Equine Infectious Anemia (swamp Fever) § 75.4 Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and...
Wong, Joyce Y P; Chin, David; Fung, Henry; Li, Ann; Wong, Marcus M S; Kwok, Henry K H
Upper limb musculoskeletal complaints are common among certain health professionals. We report two cases, both involving technicians working in a diagnostic tuberculosis laboratory in Hong Kong. A work process evaluation suggest that the need to repeatedly open and close small bottles, as well as to work for prolonged periods of time in confined areas, could be related to the workers' clinical presentation. The cases are also compatible with the diagnosis of repetitive strain injury (RSI) of the upper limb, but this term is not commonly used nowadays because of various definitional issues. A review of the various diagnostic issues in RSI is presented.
Hartung, K; Seelig, H-P
This is the second part in a series of articles on the laboratory diagnostics of rheumatic diseases. It addresses rheumatoid arthritis, systemic, anti-neutrophil cytoplasmatic antibody (ANCA) positive vasculitides and antiphospholipid-syndrome. The diagnostics of rheumatoid arthritis has been substantially improved by the recently introduced assay for antibodies against citrullinated peptides. In addition, a number of vasculitides can be differentiated by the presence of ANCA. Beta2-glycoprotein I antibodies and lupus anticoagulants are at present the most specific markers for antiphospholipid syndrome. Inflammatory activity can be monitored by determining the levels of acute phase proteins and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, but only in some situations by measuring immunoglobulins and interleukins.
Wilfredo R Matias
Full Text Available Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT for cholera are promising tools for detecting cholera in areas with limited laboratory infrastructure. However, evidence on the characteristics of the many available RDTs is scarce, and their use has been limited by suboptimal performance. We evaluated the performance characteristics of three cholera RDTs from Span Diagnostics, Artron Laboratories, and Standard Diagnostics in a regional laboratory in Haiti.We retrospectively reviewed records from May 2014 to October 2015 of a laboratory-based surveillance program for Vibrio cholerae at Hôpital Saint-Nicolas in Saint-Marc, Haiti. We compared the results of 511 Crystal VC, 129 Artron and 451 SD Bioline RDTs to bacterial culture as the gold standard. Of 905 cultures, 477 (52.7% were positive for V. cholerae O1, of which 27.7% were serotype Inaba. No cultures grew V. cholerae O139. Sensitivity and specificity of Crystal VC were 98.6% (95%CI: 96.5%-99.6% and 71.1% (95%CI: 64.7%-76.9%, respectively. Artron demonstrated a sensitivity of 98.6% (95%CI: 92.7%-100% and specificity of 69.1% (95%CI: 55.2%-80.9%. SD Bioline demonstrated a sensitivity of 81.1% (95%CI: 75.6%-85.8% and specificity of 92.8% (95%CI: 88.4%-95.9%. Crystal VC and Artron frequently showed false positive O139 bands, whereas none were seen with SD Bioline.There is significant variation in the performance of different cholera diagnostic RDTs. Artron and Crystal VC RDTs have high sensitivity and low specificity, while SD Bioline RDT has low to moderate sensitivity and high specificity when performed by laboratory technicians in Haiti. Study limitations included its retrospective design. The suboptimal characteristics of these tests limit their use as clinical point-of-care tests; however, they may be useful in outbreak response, surveillance, and research in resource-limited settings.
Adams, Ronita; Smith, Jackie; Locke, Stephen; Phillips, Erica; Erol, Erdal; Carter, Craig; Odoi, Agricola
Antimicrobial resistance limits traditional treatment options and increases costs. It is therefore important to estimate the magnitude of the problem so as to provide empirical data to guide control efforts. The aim of this study was to investigate the burden and patterns of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory (UKVDL) from 1993 to 2009. Retrospective data of 1711 equine Staphylococcus samples submitted to the UKVDL during the time period 1993 to 2009 were included in the study. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing, that included 16 drugs, were performed using cultures followed by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion susceptibility test. The proportion of resistant isolates by animal breed, species of organism, sample source, and time period were computed. Chi-square and Cochran-Armitage trend tests were used to identify significant associations and temporal trends, respectively. Logistic regression models were used to investigate predictors of AMR and multidrug resistance (MDR). A total of 66.3% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial, most of which were Staphylococcus aureus (77.1%), while 25.0% were MDR. The highest level of resistance was to penicillins (52.9%). Among drug classes, isolates had the highest rate of AMR to at least one type of β-lactams (49.2%), followed by aminoglycosides (30.2%). Significant (p resistance to up to 12 antimicrobials, AMR profiles featuring single antimicrobials such as penicillin were more common than those with multiple antimicrobials. Demographic factors were significant predictors of AMR and MDR. The fact that some isolates had resistance to up to 12 of the 16 antimicrobials assessed is quite concerning. To address the high levels of AMR and MDR observed in this study, future studies will need to focus on antimicrobial prescription practices and education of both practitioners and animal owners on judicious
Lamb, L S; Parrish, R S; Goran, S F; Biel, M H
The development of user-friendly laboratory analyzers, combined with the need for rapid assessment of critically ill patients, has led to the performance of in vitro diagnostic testing at the point of care by personnel without formal laboratory training. To determine the range of laboratory testing performed by critical care nurses and their attitudes toward this role. A survey of critical care nursing consultants was conducted, using a modified Likert scale, to assess objective measures of point-of-care testing practice in critical care units and to determine nurses' attitudes toward the practice of point-of-care testing. Statistical analysis was performed to determine significant trends in responses. Of the units responding to the survey, 35% used critical care nurses exclusively to perform point-of-care testing, 32.5% used laboratory technicians and critical care nurses, and 25% used other personnel. Of critical care nurses performing laboratory testing, 95.5% performed blood glucose analysis; 18.7%, arterial blood gas analysis; 4.5%, electrolyte analysis; 4.5%, hematology profiles; and 22.7%, other testing. Most agreed that stat tests were not reported promptly, thereby necessitating bedside testing. Respondents indicated that they would prefer that laboratory personnel operate in vitro diagnostic equipment and that requirements for critical care nurses to perform laboratory testing detracted from other patient care duties. Most nurses who perform point-of-care testing responded that it was necessary and helpful in patient management. However, they would prefer, because of their other patient care responsibilities, that laboratory personnel take this responsibility.
Men'shikov, V V
The generalized data concerning the conditions of application of regulations of national standards in clinical diagnostic laboratories of medical organizations is presented. The primary information was provided by 14 regions of 6 federal administrative okrugs of Russia. The causes of challenges of application of requirements of standards are presented. They are mostly related with insufficient financial support, lacking of manpower, difficulties with reagents supply, inadequate technical maintenance of devices and absence of support of administration of medical organizations. The recommendations are formulated concerning the necessity of publishing the document of Minzdrav of Russia to determine the need in application of standards in laboratory practice.
O. V. Zarucheynova
Full Text Available Wide distribution of urogenital mycoplasmas in the population, the high frequency of carrier state and a long asymptomatic course of disease, the lack of specific clinical symptoms making the diagnosis impossible without using of special laboratory tests. The review focuses on indications for mycoplasma infection screening and for an appointmentof antibiotic therapy. The most commonly used laboratory diagnostic methods of urogenital infections, associated with Mycoplasma hominis and Ureaplasma spp., with their characteristics, advantages and disadvantages are described.
Badrick, Tony C; Gutscher, Anton; Sakamoto, Nakako; Chin, Daniel
This is the result of a Survey of various aspects of quality, cost and speed in a large sample of diagnostic laboratories in the Asia Pacific region. It is the first of its type to be published and represents a snapshot of the current performance in a large number of diagnostic laboratories in a broad range of countries in the Asia Pacific region. This demonstrates that there are common issues facing all the laboratories surveyed but also common solutions using a Quality Systems approach which involves Accreditation, Customer responsiveness, greater use of IT, automation and Lean principles. The Survey provides data on some quality characteristics such as Turnaround Time (TAT) and quality improvement activities. It has been the case that some of the KPIs have improved over the course of the Surveys for example a reduction in the average TAT, and it might be that this occurred as a result of participation. Most laboratories have a target of 46-60min for STAT (Short Turnaround Time) on Clinical Chemistry and Immunoassay samples. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Homeopathy is an alternative medicine practice, which has been used for the past 200 years but, until now, scientific methods have not proven its effectiveness. The use of highly diluted natural substances based on the principal that similar heals similar is contrary to the scientific theories of the conventional medicine. In veterinary medicine homeopathic remedies are most frequently used for chronic conditions of small animals, but also their application in organic farming is increasing. Minimal number of clinical studies about the use of homeopathy in veterinary medicine has been published in scientific literature. The results of effectiveness are contradictory, which can be explained by being a consequence of different research methodologies. However, there is a significant inverse proportionality between the quality of research and results that approve of the use of homeopathy. In evidence based veterinary medicine scientific approach is fundamental for objective diagnostics and treatment prescription, and homeopathy is an excellent teaching model for possible methodological failures in scientific research. Key words: homeopathy, alternative medicine, evidence based veterinary medicine
...; National Veterinary Services Laboratories Request Forms AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... intention to request approval of an information collection associated with the National Veterinary Services... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For information on request forms associated with the National Veterinary...
Full Text Available Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF is a frequently fatal disease, primarily of ruminants, caused by a group of gammaherpesviruses. Due to complexities of pathogenesis and epidemiology in various species, which are either clinically-susceptible or reservoir hosts, veterinary clinicians face significant challenges in laboratory diagnostics. The recent development of specific assays for viral DNA and antibodies has expanded and improved the inventory of laboratory tests and opened new opportunities for use of MCF diagnostics. Issues related to understanding and implementing appropriate assays for specific diagnostic needs must be addressed in order to take advantage of molecular diagnostics in the laboratory.
Rondon, F. C. M.; Bevilaqua, C.M.L.; Franke,C.R.; Barros, R. S.; Oliveira,F.R.; Alcântara, Adriano Costa de; Diniz, A. T.
Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 24-31 Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important reemerging parasitic disease in the world. The domestic dog is the main reservoir in urban environments. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge on canine Leishmania infection in the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil, identifying the risk factors inherent in dog susceptibility to the infection. Two populations were analyzed, domestic dogs from clinics and the Veterinary ...
Biewer, Theodore M. [ORNL; Marcus, Chris [ORNL; Klepper, C Christopher [ORNL; Andrew, Philip [ITER Organization, Cadarache, France; Gardner, W. L. [United States ITER Project Office; Graves, Van B. [ORNL; Hughes, Shaun [ITER Organization, Saint Paul Lez Durance, France
The divertor-specific ITER Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer (DRGA) will provide essential information relating to DT fusion plasma performance. This includes pulse-resolving measurements of the fuel isotopic mix reaching the pumping ducts, as well as the concentration of the helium generated as the ash of the fusion reaction. In the present baseline design, the cluster of sensors attached to this diagnostic's differentially pumped analysis chamber assembly includes a radiation compatible version of a commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer, as well as an optical gas analyzer using a plasma-based light excitation source. This paper reports on a laboratory study intended to validate the performance of this sensor cluster, with emphasis on the detection limit of the isotopic measurement. This validation study was carried out in a laboratory set-up that closely prototyped the analysis chamber assembly configuration of the baseline design. This includes an ITER-specific placement of the optical gas measurement downstream from the first turbine of the chamber's turbo-molecular pump to provide sufficient light emission while preserving the gas dynamics conditions that allow for \\textasciitilde 1 s response time from the sensor cluster .
Klepper, C. C.; Biewer, T. M.; Marcus, C.; Andrew, P.; Gardner, W. L.; Graves, V. B.; Hughes, S.
The divertor-specific ITER Diagnostic Residual Gas Analyzer (DRGA) will provide essential information relating to DT fusion plasma performance. This includes pulse-resolving measurements of the fuel isotopic mix reaching the pumping ducts, as well as the concentration of the helium generated as the ash of the fusion reaction. In the present baseline design, the cluster of sensors attached to this diagnostic's differentially pumped analysis chamber assembly includes a radiation compatible version of a commercial quadrupole mass spectrometer, as well as an optical gas analyzer using a plasma-based light excitation source. This paper reports on a laboratory study intended to validate the performance of this sensor cluster, with emphasis on the detection limit of the isotopic measurement. This validation study was carried out in a laboratory set-up that closely prototyped the analysis chamber assembly configuration of the baseline design. This includes an ITER-specific placement of the optical gas measurement downstream from the first turbine of the chamber's turbo-molecular pump to provide sufficient light emission while preserving the gas dynamics conditions that allow for \\textasciitilde 1 s response time from the sensor cluster .
Degernes, Laurel A; Osborne, Julie A Nettifee
Injured or sick wild avian species, especially raptors (birds of prey, including hawks, owls, falcons, and eagles), can present different challenges to veterinary students and veterinarians who are trained in companion avian medicine (e.g., parrot medicine). Proper capture and restraint, feeding, housing, and certain diagnostic and treatment techniques involving raptors require different skills, knowledge, and resources than working with parrots. We developed an innovative raptor medicine program that enables students to acquire proficiency in safe capture, restraint, and examination techniques and in common diagnostic and treatment procedures. A self-assessment survey was developed to determine students' confidence and proficiency in 10 procedures taught in the lab. Groups were compared by class status (Year 1 vs. Year 2 and 3) and level of prior raptor experience (non-experienced or experienced). In surveys conducted before and after teaching two sets of raptor training labs, students rated themselves significantly more proficient in all 10 diagnostic and treatment procedures after completing the two raptor laboratories. The greatest improvements were observed in technical skill procedures such as fluid administration, intramuscular injections, cloacal swabs, venipuncture, and bandaging. Our approach to incorporating elective wildlife learning experiences into the veterinary curriculum may be replicable in other veterinary schools, with or without a wildlife rehabilitation program.
Herbert P. Schneider
Full Text Available Until the middle of the 19th century, very few references exist regarding the occurrence of animal diseases in Namibia. With the introduction of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP in 1859, this picture changed completely and livestock owners implemented various forms of disease control in an effort to contain the spread of this disease and minimise its devastating effects. After the establishment of the colonial administration in 1884, the first animal disease legislation was introduced in 1887 and the first veterinarian, Dr Wilhelm Rickmann, arrived in 1894. CBPP and the outbreak of rinderpest in 1897 necessitated a greatly expanded veterinary infrastructure and the first veterinary laboratory was erected at Gammams near Windhoek in 1897. To prevent the spread of rinderpest, a veterinary cordon line was established, which was the very beginning of the Veterinary Cordon Fence as it is known today. After the First World War, a small but dedicated corps of veterinarians again built up an efficient animal health service in the following decades, with veterinary private practice developing from the mid–1950s. The veterinary profession organised itself in 1947 in the form of a veterinary association and, in 1984, legislation was passed to regulate the veterinary profession by the establishment of the Veterinary Council of Namibia. The outbreak of foot and mouth disease in 1961 was instrumental in the creation of an effective veterinary service, meeting international veterinary standards of quality and performance which are still maintained today.
Schneider, Herbert P
Until the middle of the 19th century, very few references exist regarding the occurrence of animal diseases in Namibia. With the introduction of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in 1859, this picture changed completely and livestock owners implemented various forms of disease control in an effort to contain the spread of this disease and minimise its devastating effects. After the establishment of the colonial administration in 1884, the first animal disease legislation was introduced in 1887 and the first veterinarian, Dr Wilhelm Rickmann, arrived in 1894. CBPP and the outbreak of rinderpest in 1897 necessitated a greatly expanded veterinary infrastructure and the first veterinary laboratory was erected at Gammams near Windhoek in 1897. To prevent the spread of rinderpest, a veterinary cordon line was established, which was the very beginning of the Veterinary Cordon Fence as it is known today. After the First World War, a small but dedicated corps of veterinarians again built up an efficient animal health service in the following decades, with veterinary private practice developing from the mid-1950s. The veterinary profession organised itself in 1947 in the form of a veterinary association and, in 1984, legislation was passed to regulate the veterinary profession by the establishment of the Veterinary Council of Namibia. The outbreak of foot and mouth disease in 1961 was instrumental in the creation of an effective veterinary service, meeting international veterinary standards of quality and performance which are still maintained today.
Raftery, Philomena; Condell, Orla; Wasunna, Christine; Kpaka, Jonathan; Zwizwai, Ruth; Nuha, Mahmood; Fallah, Mosoka; Freeman, Maxwell; Harris, Victoria; Miller, Mark; Baller, April; Massaquoi, Moses; Katawera, Victoria; Saindon, John; Bemah, Philip; Hamblion, Esther; Castle, Evelyn; Williams, Desmond; Gasasira, Alex; Nyenswah, Tolbert
The 2014-16 Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa highlighted the necessity for readily available, accurate and rapid diagnostics. The magnitude of the outbreak and the re-emergence of clusters of EVD cases following the declaration of interrupted transmission in Liberia, reinforced the need for sustained diagnostics to support surveillance and emergency preparedness. We describe implementation of the Xpert Ebola Assay, a rapid molecular diagnostic test run on the GeneXpert platform, at a mobile laboratory in Liberia and the subsequent impact on EVD outbreak response, case management and laboratory system strengthening. During the period of operation, site coordination, management and operational capacity was supported through a successful collaboration between Ministry of Health (MoH), World Health Organization (WHO) and international partners. A team of Liberian laboratory technicians were trained to conduct EVD diagnostics and the laboratory had capacity to test 64-100 blood specimens per day. Establishment of the laboratory significantly increased the daily testing capacity for EVD in Liberia, from 180 to 250 specimens at a time when the effectiveness of the surveillance system was threatened by insufficient diagnostic capacity. During the 18 months of operation, the laboratory tested a total of 9,063 blood specimens, including 21 EVD positives from six confirmed cases during two outbreaks. Following clearance of the significant backlog of untested EVD specimens in November 2015, a new cluster of EVD cases was detected at the laboratory. Collaboration between surveillance and laboratory coordination teams during this and a later outbreak in March 2016, facilitated timely and targeted response interventions. Specimens taken from cases during both outbreaks were analysed at the laboratory with results informing clinical management of patients and discharge decisions. The GeneXpert platform is easy to use, has relatively low running costs and can be
D. G. Rekalov
Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA leads not only to a rapid development of disability, but can influence the life of these patients. One-third of patients with rheumatoid arthritis may have signs of disability during the first 3 years of the onset of the disease, while mortality in patients with RA almost two times higher in comparison with the general population. Analysis of recent prospective studies on the progression of the pathological process and predicting of the long-term outcomes in RA clearly indicate the need for clinical evaluation and a comprehensive laboratory and instrumental diagnosis of the disease in the initial manifestations of the most followed by early adequate pathogenetic therapy. The purpose of this survey was to determine modern clinical aspects of diagnosis, the possibility of standard and specialized instrumental examinations in patients with eRA, followed by predicting long-term results. We studied 52 specialized publications on clinical classification and a modern laboratory and diagnostic tests for eRA. This review presents the data of the importance of differentiation of several stages of RA in relation to the time factor. The data on the sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic classification and clinical criteria of eRA and an algorithm for the identification of the disease were presented. It was shown prognostic value of the main serological markers of RA, and the predictive value for early detection of antibodies to the circulating peptide as a marker of the severity of bone-destructive changes in patients with certain clinical manifestations. Antibodies to the circulating peptide (ACPA can be detected many years before the onset of RA. Study of anti-citrulline mutated vimentin (anti-MCV in patients with eRA can be applied as a marker of activity of the process and the subsequent possibility of use for predicting long-term results. This review presents the major diagnostic errors using standard instrumental
Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei
Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Nikolaev, N S; Nazarova, V V; Dobrovol'skaia, N Iu; Orlova, A V; Pchelova, N N
The article presents experience of clinical diagnostic laboratory of the Federal Center of traumatology, orthopedics and endoprosthesis replacement of Minzdrav of Russia (Cheboksary) in the area of quality management of medical laboratory services on the basis of evaluation of efficacy and effectiveness of processes. The factors effecting quality of functioning of clinical diagnostic laboratory are indicated. The criteria and indicators of efficacy of work of employees of clinical diagnostic laboratory are presented.
Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare
In vitro human diagnostic (IVD) company recalls are a common practice aimed to either minimize a potential error or eliminate an existing failure. In this case report, we aim to provide a critical analysis of a recent IVD recall and to provide a practical framework about what to do when an IVD company recalls product(s) based on the International Organization for Standardization--ISO 15189:2012 standard. In 2014, Abbott Laboratories® (Green Oaks, IL) published an urgent field safety notice regarding a product recall (Architect Intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) Assay List Number 8K25) with immediate action required. The IVD company explained the reasons for the recall as follows: i) Abbott has confirmed that a performance shift in the Architect Intact PTH assay has the potential to generate falsely elevated results on patient samples; ii) results generated with impacted lots may demonstrate a positive shift relative to those generated with previous reagent and/or calibrator lots. This issue may also impact established Architect Intact PTH reference ranges; iii) the magnitude of shift averages approximately 13% to 45%; iv) Abbott Architect Intact PTH controls do not detect the shift; and v) all current reagent, calibrator, and control inventory are impacted. The recall could have resulted in ~40,000 inaccurate laboratory tests reported by 18 laboratories from Italy (Lombardy region). IVD company recalls have a serious impact on the patient safety and require a thorough investigation and responsible approach to minimize the possible damage. Medical laboratories accredited according to the ISO 15189 standard have procedures in place to manage such situations and ensure that patient safety is maintained when such recalls are issued.
Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Brocco, Giorgio; Guidi, Gian Cesare
Introduction In vitro human diagnostic (IVD) company recalls are a common practice aimed to either minimize a potential error or eliminate an existing failure. In this case report, we aim to provide a critical analysis of a recent IVD recall and to provide a practical framework about what to do when an IVD company recalls product(s) based on the International Organization for Standardization - ISO 15189:2012 standard. Case report In 2014, Abbott Laboratories® (Green Oaks, IL) published an urgent field safety notice regarding a product recall (Architect Intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) Assay List Number 8K25) with immediate action required. The IVD company explained the reasons for the recall as follows: i) Abbott has confirmed that a performance shift in the Architect Intact PTH assay has the potential to generate falsely elevated results on patient samples; ii) results generated with impacted lots may demonstrate a positive shift relative to those generated with previous reagent and/or calibrator lots. This issue may also impact established Architect Intact PTH reference ranges; iii) the magnitude of shift averages approximately 13% to 45%; iv) Abbott Architect Intact PTH controls do not detect the shift; and v) all current reagent, calibrator, and control inventory are impacted. The recall could have resulted in ~40,000 inaccurate laboratory tests reported by 18 laboratories from Italy (Lombardy region). Conclusion IVD company recalls have a serious impact on the patient safety and require a thorough investigation and responsible approach to minimize the possible damage. Medical laboratories accredited according to the ISO 15189 standard have procedures in place to manage such situations and ensure that patient safety is maintained when such recalls are issued. PMID:26110040
Camus, Melinda S; Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathleen P; Cruz Cardona, Janice A
The purpose of this document is to educate providers of veterinary laboratory diagnostic testing in any setting about comparative testing. These guidelines will define, explain, and illustrate the importance of a multi-faceted laboratory quality management program which includes comparative testing. The guidelines will provide suggestions for implementation of such testing, including which samples should be tested, frequency of testing, and recommendations for result interpretation. Examples and a list of vendors and manufacturers supplying control materials and services to veterinary laboratories are also included. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Aarsand, Aasne K; Villanger, Jørild H; Støle, Egil; Deybach, Jean-Charles; Marsden, Joanne; To-Figueras, Jordi; Badminton, Mike; Elder, George H; Sandberg, Sverre
The porphyrias are a group of rare metabolic disorders whose diagnosis depends on identification of specific patterns of porphyrin precursor and porphyrin accumulation in urine, blood, and feces. Diagnostic tests for porphyria are performed by specialized laboratories in many countries. Data regarding the analytical and diagnostic performance of these laboratories are scarce. We distributed 5 sets of multispecimen samples from different porphyria patients accompanied by clinical case histories to 18-21 European specialist porphyria laboratories/centers as part of a European Porphyria Network organized external analytical and postanalytical quality assessment (EQA) program. The laboratories stated which analyses they would normally have performed given the case histories and reported results of all porphyria-related analyses available, interpretative comments, and diagnoses. Reported diagnostic strategies initially showed considerable diversity, but the number of laboratories applying adequate diagnostic strategies increased during the study period. We found an average interlaboratory CV of 50% (range 12%-152%) for analytes in absolute concentrations. Result normalization by forming ratios to the upper reference limits did not reduce this variation. Sixty-five percent of reported results were within biological variation-based analytical quality specifications. Clinical interpretation of the obtained analytical results was accurate, and most laboratories established the correct diagnosis in all distributions. Based on a case-based EQA scheme, variations were apparent in analytical and diagnostic performance between European specialist porphyria laboratories. Our findings reinforce the use of EQA schemes as an essential tool to assess both analytical and diagnostic processes and thereby to improve patient care in rare diseases.
Frickmann, Hagen; Zautner, Andreas Erich; Moter, Annette; Kikhney, Judith; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Stender, Henrik; Poppert, Sven
Early identification of microbial pathogens is essential for rational and conservative antibiotic use especially in the case of known regional resistance patterns. Here, we describe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as one of the rapid methods for easy identification of microbial pathogens, and its advantages and disadvantages for the diagnosis of pathogens in human infections in the laboratory diagnostic routine. Binding of short fluorescence-labeled DNA or nucleic acid-mimicking PNA probes to ribosomes of infectious agents with consecutive analysis by fluorescence microscopy allows identification of bacterial and eukaryotic pathogens at genus or species level. FISH analysis leads to immediate differentiation of infectious agents without delay due to the need for microbial culture. As a microscopic technique, FISH has the unique potential to provide information about spatial resolution, morphology and identification of key pathogens in mixed species samples. On-going automation and commercialization of the FISH procedure has led to significant shortening of the time-to-result and increased test reliability. FISH is a useful tool for the rapid initial identification of microbial pathogens, even from primary materials. Among the rapidly developing alternative techniques, FISH serves as a bridging technology between microscopy, microbial culture, biochemical identification and molecular diagnostic procedures.
Pérez-Jáuregui, José; González-Cardel, Ana María; Olay-Fuentes, Gabriela; Reza-Albarrán, Alfredo; Mehta, Roopa; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A
To evaluate whether educational messages regarding oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) indications in laboratory reports increase the number of OGTTs appropriately requested. The following message was printed on the lab reports of individuals with a fasting plasma glucose (FPG) concentration between 5.5 and 6.9 mmol/l: "A FPG between 5.5 and 6.9 mmol/l is considered abnormal by the American Diabetes Association (impaired fasting glucose). An OGTT is recommended if the patient does not have a diagnosis of diabetes and suffers from conditions associated with an increased risk for having type 2 diabetes (i.e., overweight, high blood pressure, abnormal plasma lipids or family history of diabetes)." The number of educational messages printed was 81,099. The intervention resulted in a significant increase in the number of OGTTs requested, from 78 +/- 19 to 268 +/- 48 tests per month. It also resulted in a greater proportion of case subjects that had an abnormal OGTT result. Educational messages in laboratory reports aid in the diagnostic workup of hyperglycemia.
Magnusson, Bertil; Ossowicki, Haakan; Rienitz, Olaf; Theodorsson, Elvar
Healthcare laboratories are increasingly joining into larger laboratory organizations encompassing several physical laboratories. This caters for important new opportunities for re-defining the concept of a 'laboratory' to encompass all laboratories and measurement methods measuring the same measurand for a population of patients. In order to make measurement results, comparable bias should be minimized or eliminated and measurement uncertainty properly evaluated for all methods used for a particular patient population. The measurement as well as diagnostic uncertainty can be evaluated from internal and external quality control results using GUM principles. In this paper the uncertainty evaluations are described in detail using only two main components, within-laboratory reproducibility and uncertainty of the bias component according to a Nordtest guideline. The evaluation is exemplified for the determination of creatinine in serum for a conglomerate of laboratories both expressed in absolute units (μmol/L) and relative (%). An expanded measurement uncertainty of 12 μmol/L associated with concentrations of creatinine below 120 μmol/L and of 10% associated with concentrations above 120 μmol/L was estimated. The diagnostic uncertainty encompasses both measurement uncertainty and biological variation, and can be estimated for a single value and for a difference. This diagnostic uncertainty for the difference for two samples from the same patient was determined to be 14 μmol/L associated with concentrations of creatinine below 100 μmol/L and 14 % associated with concentrations above 100 μmol/L.
Schroeder, Lee F; Elbireer, Ali; Jackson, J Brooks; Amukele, Timothy K
Diagnostic laboratory tests are routinely defined in terms of their sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use. But the actual clinical impact of a diagnostic test also depends on its availability and price. This is especially true in resource-limited settings such as sub-Saharan Africa. We present a first-of-its-kind report of diagnostic test types, availability, and prices in Kampala, Uganda. Test types (identity) and availability were based on menus and volumes obtained from clinical laboratories in late 2011 in Kampala using a standard questionnaire. As a measure of test availability, we used the Availability Index (AI). AI is the combined daily testing volumes of laboratories offering a given test, divided by the combined daily testing volumes of all laboratories in Kampala. Test prices were based on a sampling of prices collected in person and via telephone surveys in 2015. Test volumes and menus were obtained for 95% (907/954) of laboratories in Kampala city. These 907 laboratories offered 100 different test types. The ten most commonly offered tests in decreasing order were Malaria, HCG, HIV serology, Syphilis, Typhoid, Urinalysis, Brucellosis, Stool Analysis, Glucose, and ABO/Rh. In terms of AI, the 100 tests clustered into three groups: high (12 tests), moderate (33 tests), and minimal (55 tests) availability. 50% and 36% of overall availability was provided through private and public laboratories, respectively. Point-of-care laboratories contributed 35% to the AI of high availability tests, but only 6% to the AI of the other tests. The mean price of the most commonly offered test types was $2.62 (range $1.83-$3.46). One hundred different laboratory test types were in use in Kampala in late 2011. Both public and private laboratories were critical to test availability. The tests offered in point-of-care laboratories tended to be the most available tests. Prices of the most common tests ranged from $1.83-$3.46.
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Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake
Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234
Melanie, Spornraft; Benedikt, Kirchner; Pfaffl, Michael W; Irmgard, Riedmaier
Worldwide growth and performance-enhancing substances are used in cattle husbandry to increase productivity. In certain countries however e.g., in the EU, these practices are forbidden to prevent the consumers from potential health risks of substance residues in food. To maximize economic profit, 'black sheep' among farmers might circumvent the detection methods used in routine controls, which highlights the need for an innovative and reliable detection method. Transcriptomics is a promising new approach in the discovery of veterinary medicine biomarkers and also a missing puzzle piece, as up to date, metabolomics and proteomics are paramount. Due to increased stability and easy sampling, circulating extracellular small RNAs (smexRNAs) in bovine plasma were small RNA-sequenced and their potential to serve as biomarker candidates was evaluated using multivariate data analysis tools. After running the data evaluation pipeline, the proportion of miRNAs (microRNAs) and piRNAs (PIWI-interacting small non-coding RNAs) on the total sequenced reads was calculated. Additionally, top 10 signatures were compared which revealed that the readcount data sets were highly affected by the most abundant miRNA and piRNA profiles. To evaluate the discriminative power of multivariate data analyses to identify animals after veterinary drug application on the basis of smexRNAs, OPLS-DA was performed. In summary, the quality of miRNA models using all mapped reads for both treatment groups (animals treated with steroid hormones or the β-agonist clenbuterol) is predominant to those generated with combined data sets or piRNAs alone. Using multivariate projection methodologies like OPLS-DA have proven the best potential to generate discriminative miRNA models, supported by small RNA-Seq data. Based on the presented comparative OPLS-DA, miRNAs are the favorable smexRNA biomarker candidates in the research field of veterinary drug abuse.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood meningitis continues to be an important cause of mortality in many countries. The search for rapid diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis has lead to the further exploration of prognostic factors. This study was scheduled in an attempt to analyze various clinical symptoms as well as rapid laboratory results and provide an algorithm for the prediction of specific bacterial aetiology of childhood bacterial meningitis. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: During the 32 year period, 2477 cases of probable bacterial meningitis (BM were collected from the Meningitis Registry (MR. Analysis was performed on a total of 1331 confirmed bacterial meningitis cases of patients aged 1 month to 14 years. Data was analysed using EPI INFO (version 3.4.3-CDC-Atlanta and SPSS (version 15.0-Chicago software. Statistically significant (p or = 15000/microL (OR 2.19 with a PPV of 77.8% (95%CI 40.0-97.2. For the diagnosis of Haemophilus influenzae, the most significant group of diagnostic criteria included, absence of haemorrhagic rash (OR 13.61, age > or = 1 year (OR 2.04, absence of headache (OR 3.01, CSF Glu < 40 mg/dL (OR 3.62 and peripheral WBC < 15,000/microL (OR 1.74 with a PPV of 58.5% (95%CI 42.1-73.7. CONCLUSIONS: The use of clinical and laboratory predictors for the assessment of the causative bacterial pathogen rather than just for predicting outcome of mortality seems to be a useful tool in the clinical management and specific treatment of BM. These findings should be further explored and studied.
Flatland, Bente; Weiser, Glade
Over 30 yr of technological evolution have resulted in sophisticated instrumentation for in-clinic laboratories, yet there is no regulatory oversight of diagnostic testing quality. Long overdue, the veterinary profession must address quality assurance (QA) of diagnostic testing. Each practice must weigh the responsibility for laboratory instrumentation test results that are often a combination of in-clinic and send-out testing. Challenges faced by clinic staff maintaining in-clinic laboratories include lack of training in QA and quality control (QC), lack of emphasis placed on QA/QC by instrument suppliers, QC financial and time costs, and a general lack of laboratory QA/QC support resources in the veterinary community. Possible solutions include increased continuing education opportunities and the provision of guidelines and other resources by national veterinary organizations; specialty certification of veterinary technicians; an increasing role of veterinary clinical pathologists as QA/QC consultants; and development of external quality assessment programs aimed at veterinary practices. The potential exists for animal health companies to lead in this effort by innovating instrument design, providing QC services, and exploiting instrument connectivity to monitor performance. Veterinary laboratory QA/QC is a neglected aspect of the profession. In coming years, veterinarians will hopefully find increased support for this core practice component.
Rácz, R.; Biri, S.; Pálinkás, J.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Caliri, C.; Romano, F. P.; Gammino, S.
Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is the most frequent infection-related cause of death. The reference standard to diagnose CAP is a new infiltrate on chest radiograph in the presence of recently acquired respiratory signs and symptoms. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of clinical signs and symptoms and laboratory biomarkers for CAP. Methods 545 patients with suspected lower respiratory tract infection, admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital were included in a pre-planned post-hoc analysis of two controlled intervention trials. Baseline assessment included history, clinical examination, radiography and measurements of procalcitonin (PCT, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP and leukocyte count. Results Of the 545 patients, 373 had CAP, 132 other respiratory tract infections, and 40 other final diagnoses. The AUC of a clinical model including standard clinical signs and symptoms (i.e. fever, cough, sputum production, abnormal chest auscultation and dyspnea to diagnose CAP was 0.79 [95% CI, 0.75–0.83]. This AUC was significantly improved by including PCT and hsCRP (0.92 [0.89–0.94]; p Conclusion PCT, and to a lesser degree hsCRP, improve the accuracy of currently recommended approaches for the diagnosis of CAP, thereby complementing clinical signs and symptoms. PCT is useful in the severity assessment of CAP.
Fischer, Melina; Renevey, Nathalie; Thür, Barbara; Hoffmann, Donata; Beer, Martin; Hoffmann, Bernd
The occurrence of nucleic acid cross contamination in the laboratory resulting in false positive results of diagnostic samples is seriously problematic. Despite precautions to minimize or even avoid nucleic acid cross contaminations, it may appear anyway. Until now, no standardized strategy is available to evaluate the efficacy of commercially offered decontamination reagents. Therefore, a protocol for the reliable determination of nucleic acid decontamination efficacy using highly standardized solution and surface tests was established and validated. All tested sodium hypochlorite-based reagents proved to be highly efficient in nucleic acid decontamination even after short reaction times. For DNA Away, a sodium hydroxide-based decontamination product, dose- and time-dependent effectiveness was ascertained. For two other commercial decontamination reagents, the phosphoric acid-based DNA Remover and the non-enzymatic reagent DNA-ExitusPlus™ IF, no reduction of amplifiable DNA/RNA was observed. In conclusion, a simple test procedure for evaluation of the elimination efficacy of decontamination reagents against amplifiable nucleic acid is presented.
Rácz, R., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Biri, S.; Pálinkás, J. [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/C, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Caliri, C.; Gammino, S. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare—Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy)
Imaging of the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas by using CCD camera in combination with a pinhole is a non-destructive diagnostics method to record the strongly inhomogeneous spatial density distribution of the X-ray emitted by the plasma and by the chamber walls. This method can provide information on the location of the collisions between warm electrons and multiple charged ions/atoms, opening the possibility to investigate the direct effect of the ion source tuning parameters to the plasma structure. The first successful experiment with a pinhole X-ray camera was carried out in the Atomki ECR Laboratory more than 10 years ago. The goal of that experiment was to make the first ECR X-ray photos and to carry out simple studies on the effect of some setting parameters (magnetic field, extraction, disc voltage, gas mixing, etc.). Recently, intensive efforts were taken to investigate now the effect of different RF resonant modes to the plasma structure. Comparing to the 2002 experiment, this campaign used wider instrumental stock: CCD camera with a lead pinhole was placed at the injection side allowing X-ray imaging and beam extraction simultaneously. Additionally, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) and High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors were installed to characterize the volumetric X-ray emission rate caused by the warm and hot electron domains. In this paper, detailed comparison study on the two X-ray camera and detector setups and also on the technical and scientific goals of the experiments is presented.
Goerigk, D; Theuß, T; Pfeffer, M; Konrath, A; Kalthoff, D; Woll, D; Vahlenkamp, T W; Beer, M; Starke, A
Orthopoxvirus infections appear to be rare in South American Camelids, because only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Based on a generalized infection with cowpox virus in an alpaca, the clinical symptoms, laboratory diagnostic findings and the pathological changes are described. The case history showed a long treatment because of chronic skin lesions. The main clinical symptom was miliary papules over the entire skin. Furthermore, a bilateral mucopurulent conjunctivitis occurred as well as excessive salivation due to a severe erosive-ulcerative stomatitis. Although the animal received intensive treatment, it died 8 days after admission to the clinic. During necropsy, an erosive-ulcerative laryngitis as well as a necrotising pneumonia and lymphadenitis were observed. Histopathological examination of representative organ samples led to the diagnosis of a suspected orthopoxvirus infection. Electron microscopy and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) of tissue samples confirmed this diagnosis. The virus could be isolated in tissue culture and a PCR with subsequent nucleotide sequencing identified cowpox virus as the causative agent for this generalised infection.
Tembuyser, Lien; Dequeker, Elisabeth M C
Quality assurance is an indispensable element in a molecular diagnostic laboratory. The ultimate goal is to warrant patient safety. Several risks that can compromise high quality procedures are at stake, from sample collection to the test performed by the laboratory, the reporting of test results to clinicians, and the organization of effective external quality assessment schemes. Quality assurance should therefore be safeguarded at each level and should imply a holistic multidisciplinary approach. This review aims to provide an overview of good quality assurance practices and discusses certain risks and recommendations to promote and improve quality assurance for both diagnostic laboratories and for external quality assessment providers. The number of molecular targets is continuously rising, and new technologies are evolving. As this poses challenges for clinical implementation and increases the demand for external quality assessment, the formation of an international association for improving quality assurance in molecular pathology is called for.
In Sweden 300 veterinary clinics have a license for x-ray diagnostics. Six of them also have a license for nuclear medicine. During 2005 eight clinics were inspected and the results show that the radiation protection in veterinary medicine can be improved. No clinic fulfilled the regulations of categorization of workplaces and workers (SSI FS 1998:3). Half of the clinics had no Swedish manual to the x-ray equipment and just as many had not performed the annual function check. Obviously, there is a need for more information to staff in veterinary medicine.
Bartels, Kenneth E.
As in other facets of medical science, the use of lasers in veterinary medicine is a relatively new phenomenon. Economic aspects of the profession as well as questionable returns on investment have limited laser applications primarily to the academic community, research institutions, and specialty practices. As technology improves and efficacy is proven, costs should decrease and allow further introduction of laser surgical and diagnostic devices into the mainstream of clinical veterinary medicine.
McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J
Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.
Thrusfield, M.; Ortega, C.; Blas, de I.; Noordhuizen, J.P.; Frankena, K.
Recent changes in veterinary medicine have required quantitative epidemiological techniques for designing field surveys, identifying risk factors for multifactorial diseases, and assessing diagnostic tests. Several relevant techniques are brought together in the package of veterinary epidemiological
Full Text Available To compare the validity of diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI through urine culture between samples processed in routine health service laboratories and those processed in a research laboratory.We conducted a prospective diagnostic cohort study in 4808 acutely ill children aged <5 years attending UK primary health care. UTI, defined as pure/predominant growth ≥105 CFU/mL of a uropathogen (the reference standard, was diagnosed at routine health service laboratories and a central research laboratory by culture of urine samples. We calculated areas under the receiver-operator curve (AUC for UTI predicted by pre-specified symptoms, signs and dipstick test results (the "index test", separately according to whether samples were obtained by clean catch or nappy (diaper pads.251 (5.2% and 88 (1.8% children were classified as UTI positive by health service and research laboratories respectively. Agreement between laboratories was moderate (kappa = 0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.29, 0.43, and better for clean catch (0.54; 0.45, 0.63 than nappy pad samples (0.20; 0.12, 0.28. In clean catch samples, the AUC was lower for health service laboratories (AUC = 0.75; 95% CI 0.69, 0.80 than the research laboratory (0.86; 0.79, 0.92. Values of AUC were lower in nappy pad samples (0.65 [0.61, 0.70] and 0.79 [0.70, 0.88] for health service and research laboratory positivity, respectively than clean catch samples.The agreement of microbiological diagnosis of UTI comparing routine health service laboratories with a research laboratory was moderate for clean catch samples and poor for nappy pad samples and reliability is lower for nappy pad than for clean catch samples. Positive results from the research laboratory appear more likely to reflect real UTIs than those from routine health service laboratories, many of which (particularly from nappy pad samples could be due to contamination. Health service laboratories should consider adopting procedures used
Fischer, Melina; Wernike, Kerstin; Freuling, Conrad M.
Rabies is a lethal and notifiable zoonotic disease for which diagnostics have to meet the highest standards. In recent years, an evolution was especially seen in molecular diagnostics with a wide variety of different detection methods published. Therefore, a first international ring trial...... participants were asked to investigate a panel of defined lyssavirus RNAs, consisting of Rabies virus (RABV) and European bat lyssavirus 1 and 2 (EBLV-1 and -2) RNA samples, with systems available in their laboratory. The ring trial allowed the important conclusion that conventional RT-PCR assays were really...
... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for veterinary technologists and technicians. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of veterinary technologists and ...
Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, ... Parasitic diseases have a debilitating impact on human and animal health worldwide particularly in developing countries. Haemoparasitism have largely been ..... exerts a major health concern in domestic.
Bonar, Roslyn; Favaloro, Emmanuel; Zebeljan, Diane; Rosenfeld, David; Kershaw, Geoff; Mohammed, Soma; Marsden, Katherine; Hertzberg, Mark
Laboratory identification of lupus anticoagulants (LA), an important component of the clinical diagnosis of the autoimmune disorder antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), is challenged by the heterogeneity of tests available, the diagnostic and laboratory approach undertaken, and the heterogeneity of the autoantibodies present. : To assess the laboratory approach for investigation of LA, as well as the utility of various tests and test approaches, given a difficult clinical scenario in which LA might or might not be present. Ninety-three participants in the Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA) Haematology Quality Assurance Program (QAP) were sent 4 mL of a complex but strongly positive LA sample blinded to the nature of the abnormality. Seventy-three (79%) participants returned results and in most cases diagnostic interpretations. The laboratory approach to LA investigation of this sample was quite varied: 34.7% of participants concluded the sample was LA negative, with 91.7% of these performing dilute Russell viper venom time (dRVVT) testing without mixing, whereas 43.5% of participants identified a strong LA, with 96.7% of these having performed mixing studies. Most laboratories reporting negative LA instead identified the false presence of specific factor inhibitors against a variety of factors, including II, V and VIII. For this difficult challenge, performance of non-mixing dRVVT was associated with a high false negative LA rate. (C) 2012 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia.
Coles, G C
Current evidence suggests research in veterinary parasitology is in decline despite its importance. This is particularly true in the UK where research funds have been diverted into BSE. Decline in interest in veterinary parasitology is at least in part due to the success of major pharmaceutical companies in producing a range of effective and safe anti-parasitic drugs. Research is needed because of the effects of parasites on animal welfare and the economic costs of parasites. However, there is little information on the actual costs of animal parasites. Another major reason for research is the development of drug resistance in protozoa, helminths and arthropods of veterinary importance. This is a serious problem particularly for sheep and goats in the southern hemisphere. A prioritised list of research requirements is suggested: (i) new drugs; (ii) resistance management; (iii) vaccines; (iv) breeding for resistance; (v) improved diagnostics; (vi) zoonoses; (vii) global warming and parasites. There is a major political challenge to raise the profile of veterinary parasitology and thus the funding essential for its advancement and the continued welfare and productivity of animals.
Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake
The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association's Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education.
Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G
This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.
Full Text Available Abstract Food-borne parasites (FBPs are a neglected topic in food safety, partly due to a lack of awareness of their importance for public health, especially as symptoms tend not to develop immediately after exposure. In addition, methodological difficulties with both diagnosis in infected patients and detection in food matrices result in under-detection and therefore the potential for underestimation of their burden on our societies. This, in consequence, leads to lower prioritization for basic research, e.g. for development new and more advanced detection methods for different food matrices and diagnostic samples, and thus a vicious circle of neglect and lack of progress is propagated. The COST Action FA1408, A European Network for Foodborne Parasites (Euro-FBP aims to combat the impact of FBP on public health by facilitating the multidisciplinary cooperation and partnership between groups of researchers and between researchers and stakeholders. The COST Action TD1302, the European Network for cysticercosis/taeniosis, CYSTINET, has a specific focus on Taenia solium and T. saginata, two neglected FBPs, and aims to advance knowledge and understanding of these zoonotic disease complexes via collaborations in a multidisciplinary scientific network. This report summarizes the results of a meeting within the Euro-FBP consortium entitled ‘Analytical methods for food-borne parasites in human and veterinary diagnostics and in food matrices’ and of the joined Euro-FBP and CYSTINET meeting.
Translational research serves as a bench-to-field "translation" of basic scientific research into practical diagnostic procedures and therapies useful in human and veterinary clinical services. The productivity of translational research involving infectious diseases relevant to both human and animal health (e.g., influenza diagnosis and epidemiology using emerging molecular detection and identification methods) can be maximized when both human and veterinary medical virology disciplines are integrated. Influenza viruses are continually evolving through site-specific mutation and segment reassortment, and these processes occur in all potential carrier species - including birds, humans, and many agriculturally important animals. This evolutionary plasticity occasionally allows "novel" influenzas to move from animal hosts to humans, potentially causing destructive pandemics; therefore, a rapid laboratory technique that can detect and identify "novel" influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A technique-focused translational research approach is pursued to enhance detection and characterization of emerging influenza viruses circulating in both humans and other animal hosts. The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Doig, Kenneth D; Fellowes, Andrew; Bell, Anthony H; Seleznev, Andrei; Ma, David; Ellul, Jason; Li, Jason; Doyle, Maria A; Thompson, Ella R; Kumar, Amit; Lara, Luis; Vedururu, Ravikiran; Reid, Gareth; Conway, Thomas; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Fox, Stephen B
The increasing affordability of DNA sequencing has allowed it to be widely deployed in pathology laboratories. However, this has exposed many issues with the analysis and reporting of variants for clinical diagnostic use. Implementing a high-throughput sequencing (NGS) clinical reporting system requires a diverse combination of capabilities, statistical methods to identify variants, global variant databases, a validated bioinformatics pipeline, an auditable laboratory workflow, reproducible clinical assays and quality control monitoring throughout. These capabilities must be packaged in software that integrates the disparate components into a useable system. To meet these needs, we developed a web-based application, PathOS, which takes variant data from a patient sample through to a clinical report. PathOS has been used operationally in the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre for two years for the analysis, curation and reporting of genetic tests for cancer patients, as well as the curation of large-scale research studies. PathOS has also been deployed in cloud environments allowing multiple institutions to use separate, secure and customisable instances of the system. Increasingly, the bottleneck of variant curation is limiting the adoption of clinical sequencing for molecular diagnostics. PathOS is focused on providing clinical variant curators and pathology laboratories with a decision support system needed for personalised medicine. While the genesis of PathOS has been within cancer molecular diagnostics, the system is applicable to NGS clinical reporting generally. The widespread availability of genomic sequencers has highlighted the limited availability of software to support clinical decision-making in molecular pathology. PathOS is a system that has been developed and refined in a hospital laboratory context to meet the needs of clinical diagnostics. The software is available as a set of Docker images and source code at https://github.com/PapenfussLab/PathOS .
Pusterla, Nicola; Mapes, Samantha; Leutenegger, Christian M
A questionnaire was developed to document the knowledge base of large-animal diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) regarding polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology and to identify the common use of this technology in equine practice. Ninety-three of the 278 mailed questionnaires were returned, for an overall response rate of 33.4%. Ninety respondents (99%) reported being familiar with the general principles of nucleic acid probe technology; however, only 52 (57%) knew the difference between conventional (traditional) and real-time (second-generation) PCR. The majority of the respondents (88%) emphasized the need for continuing education on molecular diagnostics. Eighty-four (92%) of the respondents regularly use PCR (conventional and/or real-time) for the detection of equine pathogens, and 80 (88%) commonly submit their samples to university/state veterinary laboratories. Blood, nasal swabs, and feces are the three equine specimens most commonly submitted for PCR analysis of Streptococcus equi, Lawsonia intracellularis, Neorickettsia risticii, equine herpesvirus 1/4, Rhodococcus equi, Sarcocystis neurona, and equine influenza virus. Diplomates reported costs associated with molecular diagnostics and unreliability of PCR as the most common limitations of PCR. Didactic training in veterinary curricula and during continuing-education opportunities continues to be necessary to produce veterinarians who have an understanding of the clinical applications of molecular diagnostics.
Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. British Veterinary Association.
The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of enhancing the livestock ...
The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the Journal are the ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(3). 2017. Gberindyer et al. 250. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2017. Vol 38 (3): 250-259. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Drugs Prescription Pattern in Dogs Diagnosed with Parvovirus Enteritis in Some Veterinary Clinics in Nigeria. Gberindyer, F. A.. 1.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(2). 2017. Mustapha et al. 129 ... 1 Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta,. Abeokuta, Ogun State; 2 ..... lamina 9; IB: Internal basilar nucleus; ICI: Intercalated nucleus; ICo9: Intercostal muscle motor neurons of lamina 9; ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Thomas et al. 123 .... Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of. Agriculture Abeokuta and were ..... immunogenic Salmonella ghost confers protection against internal organ colonization and egg contamination. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology,. 162(1-2): 41–50. JOSHI ...
1288. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., December 2015. Vol. 36 (4): 1288-1298. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Anatomical Studies of ... 1Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; 2 Department of .... back, the internal organs were measured in.
Sosa, Nestor R; Rodriguez, Giselle M; Schier, Joshua G; Sejvar, James J
Diethylene glycol is a toxic industrial solvent responsible for more than 13 mass poisonings since 1937. Little is known about the clinical spectrum, progression, and neurotoxic potential of diethylene glycol-associated disease because of its high mortality and the absence of detailed information in published mass poisoning reports. This incident includes the largest proportion of cases with neurotoxic signs and symptoms. We characterize the features of a diethylene glycol mass poisoning resulting from a contaminated cough syrup distributed in Panama during 2006. This was a retrospective chart review and descriptive analysis in a tertiary level, urban health care facility. A case was a person admitted to the Social Security Metropolitan Hospital in Panama City between June 1 and October 22, 2006, with unexplained acute kidney injury and a serum creatinine level of greater than or equal to 2 mg/dL, or unexplained chronic renal failure exacerbation (>2-fold increase in baseline serum creatinine level) and history of implicated cough syrup exposure. Main outcomes and measures were demographic, clinical, laboratory, diagnostic, histopathologic, and mortality data with descriptive statistics. Forty-six patients met inclusion criteria. Twenty-four (52%) were female patients; median age was 67 years (range 25 to 91 years). Patients were admitted with acute kidney injury or a chronic renal failure exacerbation (median serum creatinine level 10.0 mg/dL) a median of 5 days after symptom onset. Forty patients (87%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 74% to 95%) had neurologic signs, including limb (n=31; 77%; 95% CI 62% to 89%) or facial motor weakness (n=27; 68%; 95% CI 51% to 81%). Electrodiagnostics in 21 patients with objective weakness demonstrated a severe sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy (n=19; 90%; 95% CI 70% to 99%). In 14 patients without initial neurologic findings, elevated cerebrospinal fluid protein concentrations without pleocytosis were observed: almost all
Fernanda C. Dórea
Full Text Available Background: We describe a veterinary syndromic surveillance system developed in Sweden based on laboratory test requests. Materials and methods: The system is a desktop application built using free software. Results: Development took 1 year. During the first year of operation, utility was demonstrated by the detection of statistically significant increases in the number of laboratory submissions. The number of false alarms was considered satisfactory in order to achieve the desired sensitivity. Discussion: Besides the demonstrated benefit for disease surveillance, the system contributed to improving data quality and communication between the diagnostic departments and the epidemiology department.
[Operation and interaction peculiarities of diagnostic laboratories involved in providing protection from infectious diseases during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].
Onishenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Bragina, I V; Kuz'kin, B P; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Iu V; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhova, V P; Grechanaia, T V; Tesheva, S Ch; Kulichenko, A N; Efremenko, D B; Manin, E A; Kuznetsova, I V; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Rafeenko, G K; Shcherbina, L I; Zavora, D L; Briukhanov, A F; Eldinova, V E; Iunicheva, Iu V; Derliatko, S K; Komarov, N S
The experience of the organization and functioning of the laboratory network during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is considered. Efforts to establish an effective system of laboratory support, the order of work and interaction of diagnostic laboratories involved in diseases control of population during the Olympic Games are analyzed.
Drake, Karla K.; Bowen, Lizabeth; Lewison, Rebecca L.; Esque, Todd C.; Nussear, Kenneth E.; Braun, Josephine; Waters, Shannon C.; Miles, A. Keith
The analysis of blood constituents is a widely used tool to aid in monitoring of animal health and disease. However, classic blood diagnostics (i.e. hematologic and plasma biochemical values) often do not provide sufficient information to determine the state of an animal’s health. Field studies on wild tortoises and other reptiles have had limited success in drawing significant inferences between blood diagnostics and physiological and immunological condition. However, recent research using gene transcription profiling in the threatened Mojave desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) has proved useful in identifying immune or physiologic responses and overall health. To improve our understanding of health and immune function in tortoises, we evaluated both standard blood diagnostic (body condition, hematologic, plasma biochemistry values, trace elements, plasma proteins, vitamin A levels) and gene transcription profiles in 21 adult tortoises (11 clinically abnormal; 10 clinically normal) from Clark County, NV, USA. Necropsy and histology evaluations from clinically abnormal tortoises revealed multiple physiological complications, with moderate to severe rhinitis or pneumonia being the primary cause of morbidity in all but one of the examined animals. Clinically abnormal tortoises had increased transcription for four genes (SOD, MyD88, CL and Lep), increased lymphocyte production, biochemical enzymes and organics, trace elements of copper, and decreased numbers of leukocytes. We found significant positive correlations between increased transcription for SOD and increased trace elements for copper, as well as genes MyD88 and Lep with increased inflammation and microbial insults. Improved methods for health assessments are an important element of monitoring tortoise population recovery and can support the development of more robust diagnostic measures for ill animals, or individuals directly impacted by disturbance.
Mitchell, P. Shawn; Mandrekar, Jayawant N.
Clinical laboratories are constantly facing challenges to do more with less, enhance quality, improve test turnaround time, and reduce operational expenses. Experience with adopting and applying lean concepts and tools used extensively in the manufacturing industry is described for a high-volume clinical molecular microbiology laboratory, illustrating how operational success and benefits can be achieved. PMID:24829247
Wanja, Elizabeth; Achilla, Rachel; Obare, Peter; Adeny, Rose; Moseti, Caroline; Otieno, Victor; Morang'a, Collins; Murigi, Ephantus; Nyamuni, John; Monthei, Derek R; Ogutu, Bernhards; Buff, Ann M
One objective of the Kenya National Malaria Strategy 2009-2017 is scaling access to prompt diagnosis and effective treatment. In 2013, a quality assurance (QA) pilot was implemented to improve accuracy of malaria diagnostics at selected health facilities in low-transmission counties of Kenya. Trends in malaria diagnostic and QA indicator performance during the pilot are described. From June to December 2013, 28 QA officers provided on-the-job training and mentoring for malaria microscopy, malaria rapid diagnostic tests and laboratory QA/quality control (QC) practices over four 1-day visits at 83 health facilities. QA officers observed and recorded laboratory conditions and practices and cross-checked blood slides for malaria parasite presence, and a portion of cross-checked slides were confirmed by reference laboratories. Eighty (96%) facilities completed the pilot. Among 315 personnel at pilot initiation, 13% (n = 40) reported malaria diagnostics training within the previous 12 months. Slide positivity ranged from 3 to 7%. Compared to the reference laboratory, microscopy sensitivity ranged from 53 to 96% and positive predictive value from 39 to 53% for facility staff and from 60 to 96% and 52 to 80%, respectively, for QA officers. Compared to reference, specificity ranged from 88 to 98% and negative predictive value from 98 to 99% for health-facility personnel and from 93 to 99% and 99%, respectively, for QA officers. The kappa value ranged from 0.48-0.66 for facility staff and 0.57-0.84 for QA officers compared to reference. The only significant test performance improvement observed for facility staff was for specificity from 88% (95% CI 85-90%) to 98% (95% CI 97-99%). QA/QC practices, including use of positive-control slides, internal and external slide cross-checking and recording of QA/QC activities, all increased significantly across the pilot (p malaria QA/QC practices over the pilot. However, these advances did not translate into improved accuracy of
Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R
Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.
The Aschheim–Zondek reaction is generally regarded as the first reliable hormone test for pregnancy and as a major product of the ‘heroic age’ of reproductive endocrinology. Invented in Berlin in the late 1920s, by the mid 1930s a diagnostic laboratory in Edinburgh was performing thousands of tests every year for doctors around Britain. In her classic history of antenatal care, sociologist Ann Oakley claimed that the Aschheim–Zondek test launched a ‘modern era’ of obstetric knowledge, which asserted its superiority over that of pregnant women. This article reconsiders Oakley’s claim by examining how pregnancy testing worked in practice. It explains the British adoption of the test in terms less of the medicalisation of pregnancy than of clinicians’ increasing general reliance on laboratory services for differential diagnosis. Crucially, the Aschheim–Zondek reaction was a test not directly for the fetus, but for placental tissue. It was used, less as a yes-or-no test for ordinary pregnancy, than as a versatile diagnostic tool for the early detection of malignant tumours and hormonal deficiencies believed to cause miscarriage. This test was as much a product of oncology and the little-explored world of laboratory services as of reproductive medicine. PMID:24388014
The Aschheim-Zondek reaction is generally regarded as the first reliable hormone test for pregnancy and as a major product of the 'heroic age' of reproductive endocrinology. Invented in Berlin in the late 1920s, by the mid 1930s a diagnostic laboratory in Edinburgh was performing thousands of tests every year for doctors around Britain. In her classic history of antenatal care, sociologist Ann Oakley claimed that the Aschheim-Zondek test launched a 'modern era' of obstetric knowledge, which asserted its superiority over that of pregnant women. This article reconsiders Oakley's claim by examining how pregnancy testing worked in practice. It explains the British adoption of the test in terms less of the medicalisation of pregnancy than of clinicians' increasing general reliance on laboratory services for differential diagnosis. Crucially, the Aschheim-Zondek reaction was a test not directly for the fetus, but for placental tissue. It was used, less as a yes-or-no test for ordinary pregnancy, than as a versatile diagnostic tool for the early detection of malignant tumours and hormonal deficiencies believed to cause miscarriage. This test was as much a product of oncology and the little-explored world of laboratory services as of reproductive medicine. Copyright © 2013 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Dogs have been studied for many years as a medical diagnostic tool to detect a pre-clinical disease state by sniffing emissions directly from a human or an in vitro biological sample. Some of the studies report high sensitivity and specificity in blinded case-control studies. How...
Bogale, Agajie Likie; Kassa, Habtamu Belay; Ali, Jemal Haidar
The most effective strategies in the fight against malaria are to correctly diagnose and timely treat the illness. A diagnosis based on clinical symptoms alone is subjected to misuse of anti-malarial drugs, increased costs to the health services, patient dissatisfaction and also contributes to an increase in non-malaria morbidity and mortality. Among others, inappropriate perception and inadequate satisfaction of patients are significant challenges reported to affect the quality of laboratory malaria diagnostic services. A facility-based, cross-sectional study was conducted from November to December 2013 among 300 patients. Their level of satisfaction was measured using both pre-tested structured and open ended questionnaires. A 5-point Likert scales and their weighted average were used to categorize satisfaction level of the patients. Data were entered in Epi-Info version 3.5.3 and analysed using SPSS version 20. Chi-square test was used to see the association between the outcome variable and independent and the strength of the association was identified using odds ratio in the binary logistic regression. In addition the open ended questionnaire findings were coded and analysed thematically. Over half (52.6%) of the patients were satisfied with the malaria diagnostic service with a 98.7% response rate. The majority (89.3%) of patients perceived they were well diagnosed in facing fever upon giving blood for laboratory malaria diagnosis within 30 min waiting time in most (62.5%) of the patients. Ethnicity, residence, knowing malaria diagnosis after consulting clinician, and time period to receive malaria result were the independent predictors for patient satisfaction (pscale-up in the enhancement of malaria laboratory diagnostic service in the fight against malaria.
van Thielen, B.; Siguenza, F.; Hassan, B.
The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in imaging dogs and cats for diagnostic dental veterinary applications. CBCT scans of heads of six dogs and two cats were made. Dental panoramic and multi-planar reformatted (MPR) para-sagittal
The Aschheim–Zondek reaction is generally regarded as the first reliable hormone test for pregnancy and as a major product of the ‘heroic age’ of reproductive endocrinology. Invented in Berlin in the late 1920s, by the mid 1930s a diagnostic laboratory in Edinburgh was performing thousands of tests every year for doctors around Britain. In her classic history of antenatal care, sociologist Ann Oakley claimed that the Aschheim–Zondek test launched a ‘modern era’ of obstetric knowledge, which a...
Ishengoma, D R S; Rwegoshora, R T; Mdira, K Y
of supplies. If the health services in Tanga are not to be overwhelmed by the progressively increasing burden of HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis and other emerging and re-emerging diseases, more funding and appropriate policies to improve the availability and quality of the area's diagnostic services......Although critical for good case management and the monitoring of health interventions, the health-laboratory services in sub-Saharan Africa are grossly compromised by poor infrastructures and a lack of trained personnel, essential reagents and other supplies. The availability and quality...
Kontis, Alexios-Patapios; Siassiakos, Konstantinos; Kaimakamis, Georgios; Lazakidou, Athina
The field of the Laboratory Diagnostics (in vitro), a sector of the field of health services, constitutes an industrial market that includes activities of research, development, production and products distribution that are designated for laboratory use. These products are defined as techno-medical products including various categories of products such as simple medicines, advanced technological systems, etc. Despite the high performance, the enlargement and the increasing trends of the field, it is not recorded the expected progress in the methods and the ways of promotion, trading and supporting of these products in the market. The present paper aims at the investigation of the consumers' opinion and the specification of those services that are possible to be implemented in electronic services and commerce for a strongly competitive advantage for the enterprises of the sector. The analysis of the findings from the Consumer Purchase Decision Centres (CPDC) shows how important it is to implement web-based applications in the proposed services.
Felipe Sueiro Ruiz
Full Text Available Immunohistochemistry has become a practical and widely used tool for diagnosis in human pathology since the 70's. However, its application in veterinary diagnostic pathology has not been so common, especially due to the lack of specific antibodies. To overcome this drawback, antibodies which present cross reactivity with human and animal antigens have been applied. The purpose of the present study was to test the cross reactivity of some antibodies intended for the human pathology, which may be used in animal tissues, with the help of antigen retrieval and amplification systems. In the present study it was confirmed that many of the antibodies produced for use in human histopathology might be applied in veterinary pathology. Further studies are needed to increase the list of applicability of these antibodies to different animal species. It must be stressed that in this type of study some variables, such as clone of antibody, dilution, antigen retrieval method, and detection system, have to be evaluated.A técnica de imuno-histoquímica é usada na rotina diagnóstica e na pesquisa em patologia humana desde 1970, porém seu uso na patologia veterinária é relativamente recente, principalmente com objetivo diagnóstico. A maior dificuldade no uso da imuno-histoquímica na patologia veterinária tem sido a falta de anticorpos específicos para os tecidos animais. Na falta de anticorpos específicos para as espécies domésticas, a patologia veterinária freqüentemente faz uso de anticorpos que apresentam reatividade cruzada entre antígenos humanos e animais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi testar a reatividade cruzada de diversos anticorpos feitos para uso humano em tecido parafinado de algumas espécies animais, utilizando-se dos novos métodos de recuperação antigênica e amplificação da reação imuno-histoquímica. No presente estudo foi possível confirmar a aplicabilidade de que muitos anticorpos produzidos para diagnóstico imuno
Alphus D. Wilson
The rapid development of new electronic technologies and instruments, utilized to perform many current clinical operations in the biomedical field, is changing the way medical health care is delivered to patients. The majority of test results from laboratory analyses, performed with these analytical instruments often prior to clinical examinations, are frequently used...
Quinn, P. J
"Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...
The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.
A K Srikrishnan
Full Text Available To describe the changes in HIV services provided and the patient population utilizing voluntary counseling and testing (VCT services at private testing laboratories in Chennai, India in 2001 and 2006.In 2001, a cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted to assess the services provided and client population of 1,031 private laboratories. A subset of labs (9% that had been surveyed in 2001 were also studied in 2006.In 2001, significantly more high volume labs (>10 HIV tests per month offered HIV diagnostic tests than low volume labs (<10 HIV test per month (p<0.001. More high volume labs (20.0% provided pre-test counseling as part of HIV testing than low volume labs (11.1% (p = 0.003. Between 2001 and 2006, the number of labs that provided HIV diagnostic tests significantly increased, including ELISA (87.8% vs. 40.0%, Western Blot (84.4% vs. 13.3%, and Tridot (98.9% vs. 72.2% (p<0.001. Also the number of labs that reported greater than 10 women seeking HIV testing per month significantly increased from 14.5% to 79.0% (p = 0.006. More labs provided pre-test counseling in 2006 (34.4% than in 2001 (21.1% (p = 0.046.Though HIV diagnostic testing services have increasingly become available, counseling services have not expanded commensurately. Further outreach and education is necessary to expand comprehensive HIV VCT services in both urban and rural India.
Danny A Asogun
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lassa fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa. However, none of the hospitals in the endemic areas of Nigeria has the capacity to perform Lassa virus diagnostics. Case identification and management solely relies on non-specific clinical criteria. The Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH in the central senatorial district of Edo State struggled with this challenge for many years. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A laboratory for molecular diagnosis of Lassa fever, complying with basic standards of diagnostic PCR facilities, was established at ISTH in 2008. During 2009 through 2010, samples of 1,650 suspected cases were processed, of which 198 (12% tested positive by Lassa virus RT-PCR. No remarkable demographic differences were observed between PCR-positive and negative patients. The case fatality rate for Lassa fever was 31%. Nearly two thirds of confirmed cases attended the emergency departments of ISTH. The time window for therapeutic intervention was extremely short, as 50% of the fatal cases died within 2 days of hospitalization--often before ribavirin treatment could be commenced. Fatal Lassa fever cases were older (p = 0.005, had lower body temperature (p<0.0001, and had higher creatinine (p<0.0001 and blood urea levels (p<0.0001 than survivors. Lassa fever incidence in the hospital followed a seasonal pattern with a peak between November and March. Lassa virus sequences obtained from the patients originating from Edo State formed--within lineage II--a separate clade that could be further subdivided into three clusters. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Lassa fever case management was improved at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria through establishment of a laboratory for routine diagnostics of Lassa virus. Data collected in two years of operation demonstrate that Lassa fever is a serious public health problem in Edo State and reveal new insights into the disease in hospitalized patients.
Asogun, Danny A; Adomeh, Donatus I; Ehimuan, Jacqueline; Odia, Ikponmwonsa; Hass, Meike; Gabriel, Martin; Olschläger, Stephan; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Folarin, Onikepe; Phelan, Eric; Ehiane, Philomena E; Ifeh, Veritas E; Uyigue, Eghosasere A; Oladapo, Yemisi T; Muoebonam, Ekene B; Osunde, Osagie; Dongo, Andrew; Okokhere, Peter O; Okogbenin, Sylvanus A; Momoh, Mojeed; Alikah, Sylvester O; Akhuemokhan, Odigie C; Imomeh, Peter; Odike, Maxy A C; Gire, Stephen; Andersen, Kristian; Sabeti, Pardis C; Happi, Christian T; Akpede, George O; Günther, Stephan
Lassa fever is a viral hemorrhagic fever endemic in West Africa. However, none of the hospitals in the endemic areas of Nigeria has the capacity to perform Lassa virus diagnostics. Case identification and management solely relies on non-specific clinical criteria. The Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (ISTH) in the central senatorial district of Edo State struggled with this challenge for many years. A laboratory for molecular diagnosis of Lassa fever, complying with basic standards of diagnostic PCR facilities, was established at ISTH in 2008. During 2009 through 2010, samples of 1,650 suspected cases were processed, of which 198 (12%) tested positive by Lassa virus RT-PCR. No remarkable demographic differences were observed between PCR-positive and negative patients. The case fatality rate for Lassa fever was 31%. Nearly two thirds of confirmed cases attended the emergency departments of ISTH. The time window for therapeutic intervention was extremely short, as 50% of the fatal cases died within 2 days of hospitalization--often before ribavirin treatment could be commenced. Fatal Lassa fever cases were older (p = 0.005), had lower body temperature (pLassa fever incidence in the hospital followed a seasonal pattern with a peak between November and March. Lassa virus sequences obtained from the patients originating from Edo State formed--within lineage II--a separate clade that could be further subdivided into three clusters. Lassa fever case management was improved at a tertiary health institution in Nigeria through establishment of a laboratory for routine diagnostics of Lassa virus. Data collected in two years of operation demonstrate that Lassa fever is a serious public health problem in Edo State and reveal new insights into the disease in hospitalized patients.
Deans, Zandra C.; Costa, Jose Luis; Cree, Ian; Dequeker, Els; Edsjo, Anders; Henderson, Shirley; Hummel, Michael; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J. L.; Loddo, Marco; Machado, Jose Carlos; Marchetti, Antonio; Marquis, Katherine; Mason, Joanne; Normanno, Nicola; Rouleau, Etienne; Schuuring, Ed; Snelson, Keeda-Marie; Thunnissen, Erik; Tops, Bastiaan; Williams, Gareth; van Krieken, Han; Hall, Jacqueline A.
The clinical demand for mutation detection within multiple genes from a single tumour sample requires molecular diagnostic laboratories to develop rapid, high-throughput, highly sensitive, accurate and parallel testing within tight budget constraints. To meet this demand, many laboratories employ
Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture,. Umudike, P.M.B 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: Email: email@example.com; Tel. No:+234 8034509991. SUMMARY. This study investigated comparatively the genetic influence on the ...
Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...
The importance of computers in all works of life need not to be overemphasized. However, in. Nigeria, the application of computers in veterinary medicine has not been fully utilized. Computer aided diagnosis is a process that has significantly improved the practice of veterinary medicine in other parts of the world. This paper ...
SCOPE The Editorial Board of the Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) welcomes contributions in the form of original research papers, review articles, clinical case reports, and short communications on all aspects of Veterinary Medicine, Surgery and Animal Production. Submissions are accepted on the understanding that ...
Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 16 of 16 Items ...
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Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Meseko et al. 155. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): 155-159. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Detection of Haemagglutination inhibition antibody to Pandemic and. Classical Swine Influenza Virus in Commercial Piggery in ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(1). 2016. Igado et al. 54. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 54-63. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cranio-facial and Ocular Morphometrics of the Male Greater Cane Rat. (Thryonomys swinderianus). Igado, O. O.. 1. *; Adebayo, A. O.. 2.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Ogunro et al. 187. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): 187-191. CASE REPORT. Management of Epitheliogenesis Imperfecta in a Piglet (Sus Scrofa domesticus) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ogunro, B. N.. 1. ; Otuh, P. I.. 1.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(2). 2017. Meseko et al. 124. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., June 2017. Vol 38 (2): 124-128. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain.
Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...
Principal Contact. Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, P. O. Box 13662, Tripoli, Libya Phone: +218 21 462 8422. Fax: +218 21 462 8421. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ...
variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks from Nigeria. Ogo, N. I.. 1. ; Okubanjo, O. O.. 2. ; Inuwa, H. M.. 3 and Agbede, R. I. S.. 4. 1National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State. 2Department of Veterinary Parasitology and. Entomology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 3Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu ...
Vet. J., December 2015. Vol. 36 (4): 1272-1282. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Gross and Morphometric Anatomical Changes of the Thyroid Gland in the West African Dwarf ... Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. .... common carotid artery, internal jugular vein,.
Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 45-53. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. A Retrospective Evaluation of Intravenous Fluid Usage in Animal. Patients Treated at Veterinary Teaching Hospital Nsukka, 2005-2015 ... 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. ... they carried with them their own internal sea.
SUMMARY. The prevalence and morphological pathology of renal failure in exotic breeds of dog in Lagos and Ogun States, within Southwestern Nigeria were determined from postmortem records of the. Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of. Agriculture, Abeokuta ...
Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D
To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders. British Veterinary Association.
Priosoeryanto, Bambang Pontjo; Arifiantini, Iis
The beginning of the veterinary profession in Indonesia dates back to the middle of the 19th century. During the Dutch colonization period a development program for large ruminants was started by the 'Nederlandsch-Indië' government. In 1907 this government established a veterinary laboratory, planned by Dr. J.K.F. de Does. The laboratory was then merged with a veterinary training course for Indonesian (bumiputera) 'veterinarians' named 'Cursus tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Veeartsen'. In 1910 the name of the training course was changed to 'Inlandsche Veeartsenschool', and in 1914 the school was named 'Nederlandsch-Indische Veeartsenijschool' (NIVS). During the Japanese occupation (1942-1945) the veterinary school was named 'Bogor Semon Zui Gakko'. After the declaration of independence by Indonesia in August 1945, it became the High School of Veterinary Education. In 1946 the curriculum was extended from 4 to 5 years. Thereafter the school was closed and re-opened a few times due to the changing political circumstances. In 1947 the first Faculty of Veterinary Medicine ('Diergeneeskundige Faculteit') of the University of Indonesia was established in the former building of NIVS at Taman Kencana Campus in Bogor. Between 1948 and 1963, four more veterinary faculties were established in Indonesia: Gajah Mada, Syiahkuala, Airlangga and Udayana. The Indonesian Veterinary Medical Association (IVMA) was established on January 9, 1953. The membership now exceeds 20,000 veterinarians and the association has 15 special interest groups. Since 2008, five new faculties of veterinary medicine have been established, bringing the total to 10.
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Waste produced by health and treatment centers (hospitals including medical diagnostic laboratories is one of the sources of municipal waste production. Waste produced by medical diagnostic laboratories due to the existence of pathogens and infectious materials by high importance is one of the environmental issues. This survey has been done on the qualitative-quantitative analytical bases, and the investigation has focused on the management strategies of the waste material of medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht, Iran in 2009. Methods: In this descriptive study, samples were collected from 19 medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht in 3 consecutive days (Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday every week, after filling the questionnaire and interviewing with the managers. Then, the samples were separated manually, and divided into 46 different constituents and weighed. Next, the constituents were classified based on characteristics and potentiality of being hazardous.Results: The total amount of annual waste production by the medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht is 25785.143kg. In this study, the share of manufacturing conventional waste (domestic type wastes, especially infectious, chemical, pharmaceutical, and radioactive wastes were 1.16%, 95.34%, 1.42% and 2.08%, respectively. The highest and lowest amount of waste production relates to plastic materials and wood which are 48.37 and 0.43%, respectively. In this study sharp cutting things were calculated to be 10.52%. Furthermore, 84 percent of the managers of the medical diagnostic laboratories had not had enough information of the circulars and instructions on the enforceable management strategies of the medical wastes.Conclusion: Concerning the management of the medical waste production in the medical diagnostic laboratories, it is suggested that the managers and the personnel be trained on the separation, collection, and disinfection techniques and final disposal
Bildfell, Robert J; Löhr, Christiane V; Tornquist, Susan J
This article provides an overview of tests and appropriate samples to send to a Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory for the diagnosis of common diseases of New World Camelids (NWC) such as abortions, congenital anomalies, anemia, enteritis, endoparasitism, gastric ulcer, hepatic lipidosis, encephalitis, pneumonia, dermatosis, neoplasia and cryptococcosis. Unique anatomic features of NWC and common findings encountered during gross necropsy examination are briefly reviewed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lo Re, Vincent; Carbonari, Dena M; Forde, Kimberly A; Goldberg, David; Lewis, James D; Haynes, Kevin; Leidl, Kimberly B F; Reddy, Rajender K; Roy, Jason; Sha, Daohang; Marks, Amy R; Schneider, Jennifer L; Strom, Brian L; Corley, Douglas A
Identification of acute liver failure (ALF) is important for post-marketing surveillance of medications, but the validity of using ICD-9 diagnoses and laboratory data to identify these events within electronic health records is unknown. We examined positive predictive values (PPVs) of hospital ICD-9 diagnoses and laboratory tests of liver dysfunction for identifying ALF within a large, community-based integrated care organization. We identified Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan members (2004-2010) with a hospital diagnosis suggesting ALF (ICD-9 570, 572.2, 572.4, 572.8, 573.3, 573.8, or V42.7) plus an inpatient international normalized ratio ≥1.5 (off warfarin) and total bilirubin ≥5.0 mg/dL. Hospital records were reviewed by hepatologists to adjudicate ALF events. PPVs for confirmed outcomes were determined for individual ICD-9 diagnoses, diagnoses plus prescriptions for hepatic encephalopathy treatment, and combinations of diagnoses in the setting of coagulopathy and hyperbilirubinemia. Among 669 members with no pre-existing liver disease, chart review confirmed ALF in 62 (9%). Despite the presence of co-existing coagulopathy and hyperbilirubinemia, individual ICD-9 diagnoses had low PPVs (range, 5-15%); requiring prescriptions for encephalopathy treatment did not increase PPVs of these diagnoses (range, 2-23%). Hospital diagnoses of other liver disorders (ICD-9 573.8) plus hepatic coma (ICD-9 572.2) had high PPV (67%; 95%CI, 9-99%) but only identified two (3%) ALF events. Algorithms comprising relevant hospital diagnoses, laboratory evidence of liver dysfunction, and prescriptions for hepatic encephalopathy treatment had low PPVs for confirmed ALF events. Studies of ALF will need to rely on medical records to confirm this outcome. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Libman, M. D.; Gyorkos, T. W.; Kokoskin, E.; MacLean, J. D.
Stool microscopy as performed in clinical parasitology laboratories is a complex procedure with subjective interpretation. Quality assurance (QA) programs often emphasize proficiency testing as an assessment tool. We describe a result reproducibility assessment tool, which can form part of a broader QA program, and which is based on the blinded resubmission of selected clinical samples, using concordance between the reports of the initial and resubmitted specimen as an indicator. Specimens preserved in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin can be stored for several months for use in such a program. The presence of multiple protozoa in one specimen does not affect concordance. Some dilution of specimens occurs in this process, and this may explain poor concordance when specimens with low protozoal concentrations are resubmitted. Evaluation of this tool in a large parasitology laboratory revealed concordance rates for pathogenic protozoa (Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, and Dientamoeba fragilis) of about 80%, which may be considered for use as a benchmark value. We also used this tool to demonstrate that when pairs of specimens from one patient are pooled to create a single specimen, concordance between the results of the individual and pooled specimens is high. PMID:18448690
Cankovic, Milena; Varney, Ruan C.; Whiteley, Lisa; Brown, Ron; D'Angelo, Rita; Chitale, Dhananjay; Zarbo, Richard J.
Accurate and timely molecular test results play an important role in patient management; consequently, there is a customer expectation of short testing turnaround times. Baseline data analysis revealed that the greatest challenge to timely result generation occurred in the preanalytic phase of specimen collection and transport. Here, we describe our efforts to improve molecular testing turnaround times by focusing primarily on redesign of preanalytic processes using the principles of LEAN production. Our goal was to complete greater than 90% of the molecular tests in less than 3 days. The project required cooperation from different laboratory disciplines as well as individuals outside of the laboratory. The redesigned processes involved defining and standardizing the protocols and approaching blood and tissue specimens as analytes for molecular testing. The LEAN process resulted in fewer steps, approaching the ideal of a one-piece flow for specimens through collection/retrieval, transport, and different aspects of the testing process. The outcome of introducing the LEAN process has been a 44% reduction in molecular test turnaround time for tissue specimens, from an average of 2.7 to 1.5 days. In addition, extending LEAN work principles to the clinician suppliers has resulted in a markedly increased number of properly collected and shipped blood specimens (from 50 to 87%). These continuous quality improvements were accomplished by empowered workers in a blame-free environment and are now being sustained with minimal management involvement. PMID:19661386
Vicente R., Karla; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Perales C., Rosa; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Tabacchi N., Luis; Laboratorio de Histología, Embriología y Patología Veterinaria, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima. Perú
The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of perianal neoplasms in dogs from samples histopathologically diagnosed in the Animal Pathology Laboratory of the National University of San Marcos in the period 2005 to 2012. A total of 52 cases of perianal tumors were diagnosed in 1283 cases of canine tumors (4.1%). The hepatoid gland adenoma was the most frequent (46.2%, 24/52). El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar la frecuencia de neoplasias perianales en caninos mediante...
Beylis, Natalie; Nicol, Mark; Nkuna, Gloria; Molapo, Sebaka; Berrie, Leigh; Duse, Adriano; Stevens, Wendy Susan
South Africa implemented Xpert MTB/RIF as the initial diagnostic test for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB). Xpert MTB/RIF's accuracy for diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) was investigated. EPTB specimens (n = 7,916) from hospitalized patients received over a 6-month period at a high-throughput TB referral laboratory in Johannesburg were investigated. Large-volume specimens were centrifuged, tissue biopsy specimens homogenized, and all specimens checked for growth of contaminating bacteria on blood agar. Contaminated samples received NALC-NaOH (N-acetyl-l-cysteine–sodium hydroxide) decontamination prior to liquid culture. Residual specimens (volumes > 1 ml) after inoculation of culture (n = 1,175) were tested using the Xpert MTB/RIF sputum protocol. Using culture as the reference, Xpert MTB/RIF's overall sensitivity was 59% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 53% to 65%) and specificity was 92% (CI, 90% to 94%), with the highest sensitivities of 91% (95% CI, 78% to 97%) for pus, 80% (95% CI, 56% to 94%) for lymph node aspirates, and 51% (95% CI, 44% to 58%) for fluids (ascitic, 59%; pleural, 47%). A difference in sensitivities was noticed between specimens classified as having a thick (87% [95% CI, 76% to 94%]) versus clear (watery) (48% [95% CI, 36% to 61%]) appearance. This was unchanged with traces of blood (52% [95% CI, 44% to 60%]) or precentrifugation (57% [95% CI, 28% to 82%]) among clear specimens. Xpert MTB/RIF generated an additional 124 specimen results that were contaminated by Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tubes (MGIT; 10.5%) and diagnosed rifampin (RIF) resistance earlier (9.6% [25/260]). Xpert MTB/RIF's performance on EPTB specimens provides very promising results and should be considered for incorporation into national TB guidelines. Xpert MTB/RIF is less affected by contaminating bacteria and reduces laboratory labor and diagnostic delay compared to traditional methods. PMID:24622091
Klein, Roger D; Dykas, Daniel J; Bale, Allen E
This study determines which clinical features predict positive test results among samples submitted for DNA-based diagnostic nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) testing, and further defines the mutational spectrum of the PTCH gene. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes, and polymerase chain reaction products from exons 1 to 23 of the PTCH gene were directly sequenced. Pedigree phenotypic information was obtained by written questionnaire. Among 106 presumably unrelated pedigrees, 44 independent mutations were found in 47 families. There were 11 nonsense mutations; 1 in-frame deletion; 17 deletions, 6 insertions, and 1 deletion-insertion that generated frameshifts; 5 splice-site mutations; 1 in-frame duplication; and 2 presumptive missense mutations. Twenty-seven of 46 pedigrees (58.7%) with two or more typical radiographic or pathologic features of NBCCS tested positive for PTCH mutations. Of these, 26 had jaw cysts in combination with other characteristics or neoplasms including basal cell carcinomas, palmar pits, skeletal abnormalities, ocular abnormalities, medulloblastomas, cardiac or ovarian fibromas, calcification of the falx cerebri, polydactyly, cleft lip and/or palate, and agenesis of the corpus callosum or other central nervous system malformations. None of the 13 pedigrees solely affected by multiple or early-onset basal cell carcinomas and none of the four pedigrees with jaw cysts alone had PTCH mutations. Pedigrees with multiple features of NBCCS were most likely to test positive for PTCH mutations. Pedigrees with multiple or early-onset basal cell carcinomas without other features of the disease did not test positive for PTCH mutations.
Logue, Christopher H; Lewis, Suzanna M; Lansley, Amber; Fraser, Sara; Shieber, Clare; Shah, Sonal; Semper, Amanda; Bailey, Daniel; Busuttil, Jason; Evans, Liz; Carroll, Miles W; Silman, Nigel J; Brooks, Tim; Shallcross, Jane A
As part of the UK response to the 2013-2016 Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in West Africa, Public Health England (PHE) were tasked with establishing three field Ebola virus (EBOV) diagnostic laboratories in Sierra Leone by the UK Department for International Development (DFID). These provided diagnostic support to the Ebola Treatment Centre (ETC) facilities located in Kerry Town, Makeni and Port Loko. The Novel and Dangerous Pathogens (NADP) Training group at PHE, Porton Down, designed and implemented a pre-deployment Ebola diagnostic laboratory training programme for UK volunteer scientists being deployed to the PHE EVD laboratories. Here, we describe the training, workflow and capabilities of these field laboratories for use in response to disease epidemics and in epidemiological surveillance. We discuss the training outcomes, the laboratory outputs, lessons learned and the legacy value of the support provided. We hope this information will assist in the recruitment and training of staff for future responses and in the design and implementation of rapid deployment diagnostic field laboratories for future outbreaks of high consequence pathogens.This article is part of the themed issue 'The 2013-2016 West African Ebola epidemic: data, decision-making and disease control'. © 2017 The Author(s).
Kelly, Donald F
This article presents a historical perspective on veterinary anatomic pathology in the United Kingdom from the late nineteenth century to the present. Prior to World War II, the specialty was a rather general one that also included bacteriology and parasitology and was only slightly affected by strong Germanic developments in cell and tissue pathology. The few notable figures of this era include John McFadyean, Sidney Gaiger, and J.R.M Innes. The specialty developed strongly in the second half of the twentieth century, led by a small number of individuals, and was greatly aided by the development of specialist colleges and residency training. Key individuals of this era include W.F. Blakemore, Ernest Cotchin, R.J.M. Franklin, W.F.H. Jarrett, A.R. Jennings, and A.C. Palmer. A remarkable feature of this period has been the increased employment of veterinary pathologists in biomedical industry and in private diagnostic laboratories. While standards of pathology practice have benefited from the college initiatives, there are major financial constraints on the availability of funded training posts in the United Kingdom, and there remain considerable shortages in the supply of pathologists trained to contemporary standards. The acknowledged professional and scientific importance of veterinary pathology needs to be translated into effective financial support for the training that underpins competence in this specialty. Further developments seem likely to be dominated by advances in the technology of tissue handling, applications of molecular biology to pathology, and greater use of telepathology in teaching, in quality assurance, and in continuing professional development.
Full Text Available Otto J.B. Hübschle passed away in Paris on 16 July 2008.Born on 9 October 1945 in Radolfzell, Germany, Otto qualified as a veterinarian from the universities of Munich and Zurich. In 1970, he received a scholarship from the German student exchange programme to study at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute where he was awarded the degree of M Med Vet having majored in virology.Otto Hübschle worked in the Virology section at Onderstepoort for several years. In 1976, he joined the Federal Research Institute for Virus Animal Diseases in Tübingen where he worked on foot and mouth disease and other airborne viral diseases. During this period he obtained the Dr Med Vet and Fachtierarzt qualifications (specialist microbiology/ serology. He also worked on different developmental projects in Madagascar and Kenya as was a consultant to the European Union.In 1983, he was appointed Deputy Director responsible for the Central Veterinary Laboratory (CVL in Windhoek. Under his guidance, the laboratory was entirely renovated and new sections were introduced, such as the rabies diagnostic and molecular biology sections. He was a prolific researcher who authored or co-authored over 60 scientific papers.In 2006, Otto Hübschle was appointed Chief Veterinary Officer, a position he held until his untimely death. During this time, he strived to achieve freedom for the communal areas of Namibia from foot and mouth disease and contagious bovine pleuropneumonia to provide farmers with greater access to local, regional and international markets for animals and animal products. Otto Hübschle was a man of science who faithfully served his country of adoption and its livestock industry for many years. As Head of the CVL in Windhoek and then Chief Veterinary Officer, he succeeded in elevating the Namibian Veterinary Services to the status of an internationally recognised institution. He will be missed not only by his family, his Namibian colleagues and friends but also
Full Text Available Uzorci krvi za dijagnostiku uzeti pomoću flebotomije najčeštić su od svih bioloških uzoraka koji se uzimaju i šalju u medicinske laboratorije na analizu, time se pruža podrška nadleinim lekarima u postavljanju dijagnoze, pradenju i/ili terapijskom nadzoru bolesnika. Flebotomija, kao relativno irrvazivna medicinska procedura, zaista je presudna za postupke koji slede bilo u analitiCkoj fazi u laboratory ili u procesu interpretacije koji obavljaju lekari. Loš kvalitet flebotomije može kompromitovati postavljanje dijagnoze, upravljanje pacijentom, njegovo lečenje i najzad bezbednost pacijenta. Sa zanimanjem smo nedavno pročitali članak u kom se autori bave vainim aspektima uzimanja uzoraka venske krvi za medicinske laboratorijske analize. Autori su sproveli anketu o flebotomiji zasnovanu na dokumentu H03-A6 (danas ga zamenjuje dokument GP41-A6 Instituta za kliniCke i laboratorijske standarde (IKLS u tri vladine bolnice u Etiopiji da bi ispitali 120 zaposlenih (101 nije bio laboratorijski radnik, dok 19 jesu bili laboratorijski radnici o praksi uzimanja uzoraka venske krvi. Cilj ovog mini (nesistematičnog pregleda je osvrt na sugestije iz pomenutog Clanka kao i na trenutne prakse koje smo vet primetili u drugim laboratorijama, i uz to kratka diskusija o Cetiri problematične aktivnosti koje prilikom uzimanja uzoraka venske krvi obavljaju zdravstveni radnici. Ovo se odnosi na: i procenu restrikcija u ishrani; ii čišdenje mesta punkcije; iii vreme uklanjanja poveske i iv mešanje uzoraka sa aditivima
Bencic, Timothy J.; Fagan, Amy; Van Zante, Judith F.; Kirkegaard, Jonathan P.; Rohler, David P.; Maniyedath, Arjun; Izen, Steven H.
A light extinction tomography technique has been developed to monitor ice water clouds upstream of a direct connected engine in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The system consists of 60 laser diodes with sheet generating optics and 120 detectors mounted around a 36-inch diameter ring. The sources are pulsed sequentially while the detectors acquire line-of-sight extinction data for each laser pulse. Using computed tomography algorithms, the extinction data are analyzed to produce a plot of the relative water content in the measurement plane. To target the low-spatial-frequency nature of ice water clouds, unique tomography algorithms were developed using filtered back-projection methods and direct inversion methods that use Gaussian basis functions. With the availability of a priori knowledge of the mean droplet size and the total water content at some point in the measurement plane, the tomography system can provide near real-time in-situ quantitative full-field total water content data at a measurement plane approximately 5 feet upstream of the engine inlet. Results from ice crystal clouds in the PSL are presented. In addition to the optical tomography technique, laser sheet imaging has also been applied in the PSL to provide planar ice cloud uniformity and relative water content data during facility calibration before the tomography system was available and also as validation data for the tomography system. A comparison between the laser sheet system and light extinction tomography resulting data are also presented. Very good agreement of imaged intensity and water content is demonstrated for both techniques. Also, comparative studies between the two techniques show excellent agreement in calculation of bulk total water content averaged over the center of the pipe.
Djangirova, T V; Shabalova, I P; Pronichev, A N; Polyakov, E V
The article considers application of technology of analysis of cytological slides in external quality control of clinical diagnostic laboratories. The advantages of virtual slides are demonstrated against other applied technologies of external evaluation of quality i.e. slide plate and digital micro-photography. The conditions of formation of virtual slides for external evaluation of quality of clinical diagnostic laboratories. The technology of their application is described. The success of practical application of considered technology in the Federal system of external evaluation of quality is emphasized.
Wagner, G Gale; Brown, Corrie C
The public needs no reminder that deadly infectious diseases such as FMD could emerge in any country at any moment, or that national food security could be compromised by Salmonella or Listeria infections. Protections against these risks include the knowledge that appropriate and equivalent veterinary education will enable detection and characterization of emerging disease agents, as well as an appropriate response, wherever they occur. Global veterinary leadership is needed to reduce the global threat of infectious diseases of major food animal and public health importance. We believe that the co-curriculum is an excellent way to prepare and train veterinarians and future leaders who understand and can deal with global issues. The key to the success of the program is the veterinarian's understanding that there is a cultural basis to the practice of veterinary medicine in any country. The result will be a cadre of veterinarians, faculty, and other professionals who are better able (language and culture) to understand the effects of change brought about by free trade and the importance of interdisciplinary and institutional relationships to deal effectively with national and regional issues of food safety and security. New global veterinary leadership programs will build on interests, experience, ideas, and ambitions. A college that wishes to take advantage of this diversity must offer opportunities that interest veterinarians throughout their careers and that preferably connect academic study with intensive experiential training in another country. At its best, the global veterinary leadership program would include a partnership between veterinarians and several international learning centers, a responsiveness to the identified international outreach needs of the profession, and attention to critical thinking and reflection. The global veterinary leadership program we have described is intended to be a set of ideas meant to promote collaboration, coalitions, and
Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials...... sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification...
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Background and Objectives: Waste produced by health and treatment centers (hospitals including medical diagnostic laboratories is one of the sources of municipal waste production. Waste produced by medical diagnostic laboratories due to the existence of pathogens and infectious materials by high importance is one of the environmental issues. This survey has been done on the qualitative-quantitative analytical bases, and the investigation has focused on the management strategies of the waste material of medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht, Iran in 2009.
Methods: In this descriptive study, samples were collected from 19 medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht in 3 consecutive days (Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday every week, after filling the questionnaire and interviewing with the managers. Then, the samples were separated manually, and divided into 46 different constituents and weighed. Next, the constituents were classified based on characteristics and potentiality of being hazardous.
Results: The total amount of annual waste production by the medical diagnostic laboratories of Rasht is 25785.143kg. In this study, the share of manufacturing conventional waste (domestic type wastes, especially infectious, chemical, pharmaceutical, and radioactive wastes were 1.16%, 95.34%, 1.42% and 2.08%, respectively. The highest and lowest amount of waste production relates to plastic materials and wood which are 48.37 and 0.43%, respectively. In this study sharp cutting things were calculated to be 10.52%. Furthermore, 84 percent of the managers of the medical diagnostic laboratories had not had enough information of the circulars and instructions on the enforceable management strategies of the medical wastes.
Conclusion: Concerning the management of the medical waste production in the
... Coordinator, National Veterinary Services Laboratories, Veterinary Services, APHIS, 1800 Dayton Avenue, Ames..., position, telephone number, and e-mail address; emergency contact information; and proficiency test results... laboratory submissions, purpose and reason for laboratory submissions, test methods, test equipment, test...
Petrovski, K R; Laven, R A; Lopez-Villalobos, N
To describe the antimicrobial susceptibility of mastitis-causing bacteria isolated from milk samples submitted to commercial laboratories over a period of 40 months. The records of reported results of milk samples submitted by veterinary practitioners to five commercial veterinary laboratories in the North and South Islands of New Zealand, between August 2003 and December 2006 were reviewed. Logistic regression was used to analyse the effect of year, island, and the interaction of year and antimicrobial on the probability of antimicrobial susceptibility for each pathogen and antimicrobial combination, where the causative bacteria had >1,000 susceptibility tests in total and the antimicrobials was tested on >500 isolates. A total of 9,262 isolates were included in this study, with an average of nearly seven susceptibility tests per isolate, totalling 62,918 tests. Streptococcus uberis isolates demonstrated high overall susceptibility (>90.0%) to the majority of antimicrobial agents except ampicillin (81.7%), lincomycin (85.3%), trimethoprim/sulphonamide combination (88.6%), and, as expected, aminoglycosides (penicillin (73.1%), and streptomycin (71.7%). No antimicrobial was effective against all Staph. aureus isolates. Minor changes were found in the overall susceptibility of the main mastitis-causing bacteria between 2003 and 2006. The antimicrobial agents intended for treatment of bovine mastitis currently available in New Zealand generally demonstrated good in-vitro efficacy against streptococci and staphylococci, with the exception of aminoglycosides. Analysis of the results of antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates from milk samples from dairy cows in New Zealand provides useful data for surveillance purposes, and a baseline for identifying changes in antimicrobial sensitivity in this population. However, the variation in antimicrobial susceptibility between individual isolates means that these data are of limited value when determining treatment of
Mohammad Yazid Abdad
Full Text Available Arboviruses continue to pose serious public health threats in the World Health Organization (WHO Western Pacific Region. As such, laboratories need to be equipped for their accurate detection. In 2011, to ensure test proficiency, the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific piloted an external quality assessment (EQA programme for arbovirus diagnostics. By 2016, it had grown into a global programme with participation of 96 laboratories worldwide, including 25 laboratories from 19 countries, territories and areas in the Region. The test performance of the 25 laboratories in the Region in 2016 was high with 23 (92% reporting correct results in all specimens for dengue and chikungunya viruses. For Zika virus, 18 (72% of the 25 laboratories reported correct results in all specimens, while seven (28% demonstrated at least one error. When comparing iterations of this EQA programme in the Region between 2013 and 2016, the number of participating laboratories increased from 18 to 25. The first round only included dengue virus, while the latest round additionally included chikungunya, Zika and yellow fever viruses. Proficiency for molecular detection of dengue virus remained high (83–94% over the four-year period. The observed proficiency for arbovirus diagnostics between 2013 and 2016 is an indicator of laboratory quality improvement in the Region.
... and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. Keywords: Complementary and alternative veterinary medicine, Integrative veterinary course, Integrative veterinary curriculum, Integrative veterinary medicine, ...
Cherry, Athena M; Akkari, Yassmine M; Barr, Kimberly M; Kearney, Hutton M; Rose, Nancy C; South, Sarah T; Tepperberg, James H; Meck, Jeanne M
Disclaimer: ACMG Clinical Laboratory Practice Resources are developed primarily as an educational tool for clinical laboratory geneticists to help them provide quality clinical laboratory genetic services. Adherence to these practice resources is voluntary and does not necessarily assure a successful medical outcome. This Clinical Laboratory Practice Resource should not be considered inclusive of all proper procedures and tests or exclusive of other procedures and tests that are reasonably directed to obtaining the same results. In determining the propriety of any specific procedure or test, the clinical laboratory geneticist should apply his or her own professional judgment to the specific circumstances presented by the individual patient or specimen. Clinical laboratory geneticists are encouraged to document in the patient's record the rationale for the use of a particular procedure or test, whether or not it is in conformance with this Clinical Laboratory Practice Resource. They also are advised to take notice of the date any particular guideline was adopted, and to consider other relevant medical and scientific information that becomes available after that date. It also would be prudent to consider whether intellectual property interests may restrict the performance of certain tests and other procedures.Noninvasive prenatal screening (NIPS) using cell-free DNA has been rapidly adopted into prenatal care. Since NIPS is a screening test, diagnostic testing is recommended to confirm all cases of screen-positive NIPS results. For cytogenetics laboratories performing confirmatory testing on prenatal diagnostic samples, a standardized testing algorithm is needed to ensure that the appropriate testing takes place. This algorithm includes diagnostic testing by either chorionic villi sampling or amniocentesis samples and encompasses chromosome analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and chromosomal microarray.
Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena; Milne, Marjorie; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Farqhuar, Robyn G; Fischer, Andrea; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Pakozdy, Akos; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials for seizures, the parameters for MRI examination should allow the detection of subtle lesions which may not be obvious with existing techniques. In addition, there are several differentials for idiopathic epilepsy in humans, for example some focal cortical dysplasias, which may only apparent with special sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can be adapted for both low and high field scanners. Standardisation of imaging will improve clinical communication and uniformity of case definition between research studies. A 6-7 sequence epilepsy-specific MRI protocol for veterinary patients is proposed and further advanced MR and functional imaging is reviewed.
Background Studies conducted on Mycobacterium spp. isolated from human patients indicate that sequencing of a 711 bp portion of the rpoB gene can be useful in assigning a species identity, particularly for members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). Given that MAC are important pathogens in livestock, companion animals, and zoo/exotic animals, we were interested in evaluating the use of rpoB sequencing for identification of Mycobacterium isolates of veterinary origin. Results A total of 386 isolates, collected over 2008 - June 2011 from 378 animals (amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals) underwent PCR and sequencing of a ~ 711 bp portion of the rpoB gene; 310 isolates (80%) were identified to the species level based on similarity at ≥ 98% with a reference sequence. The remaining 76 isolates (20%) displayed Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis was the species most frequently isolated from specimens from pigs, cervids, companion animals, cattle, and exotic/zoo animals. Conclusions rpoB sequencing proved useful in identifying Mycobacterium isolates of veterinary origin to clade, species, or subspecies levels, particularly for assemblages (such as the MAC) where 16S rRNA sequencing alone is not adequate to demarcate these taxa. rpoB sequencing can represent a cost-effective identification tool suitable for routine use in the veterinary diagnostic laboratory. PMID:22118247
Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Ali, Adam; Bunn, Diane K; Jennings, Amy; John, W Garry; Kerry, Susan; Lindner, Gregor; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Sjöstrand, Fredrik; Walsh, Neil P; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Potter, John F; Hunter, Paul R; Shepstone, Lee
To assess which osmolarity equation best predicts directly measured serum/plasma osmolality and whether its use could add value to routine blood test results through screening for dehydration in older people. Diagnostic accuracy study. Older people (≥65 years) in 5 cohorts: Dietary Strategies for Healthy Ageing in Europe (NU-AGE, living in the community), Dehydration Recognition In our Elders (DRIE, living in residential care), Fortes (admitted to acute medical care), Sjöstrand (emergency room) or Pfortmueller cohorts (hospitalised with liver cirrhosis). Directly measured serum/plasma osmolality: current dehydration (serum osmolality>300 mOsm/kg), impending/current dehydration (≥295 mOsm/kg). 39 osmolarity equations calculated using serum indices from the same blood draw as directly measured osmolality. Across 5 cohorts 595 older people were included, of whom 19% were dehydrated (directly measured osmolality>300 mOsm/kg). Of 39 osmolarity equations, 5 showed reasonable agreement with directly measured osmolality and 3 had good predictive accuracy in subgroups with diabetes and poor renal function. Two equations were characterised by narrower limits of agreement, low levels of differential bias and good diagnostic accuracy in receiver operating characteristic plots (areas under the curve>0.8). The best equation was osmolarity=1.86×(Na++K+)+1.15×glucose+urea+14 (all measured in mmol/L). It appeared useful in people aged ≥65 years with and without diabetes, poor renal function, dehydration, in men and women, with a range of ages, health, cognitive and functional status. Some commonly used osmolarity equations work poorly, and should not be used. Given costs and prevalence of dehydration in older people we suggest use of the best formula by pathology laboratories using a cutpoint of 295 mOsm/L (sensitivity 85%, specificity 59%), to report dehydration risk opportunistically when serum glucose, urea and electrolytes are measured for other reasons in
191-203. FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. USMANU DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY. P.M.B. 2346, SOKOTO. NIGERIA. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. ISSN 1595-093X. Nwanta et al. /Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (2008). 7(2): 42-45. Field trial of Malaysian thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine in.
Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... ... of the Kenya Veterinary Association. It publishes original papers in English, within the whole field of animal science and veterinary medicine and those addressing legal and policy issues related to the veterinary profession. The journal accepts articles and reports in the areas of Anatomy and Histology, ...
1Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria; 2Department of Animal Health .... and Tucker, 2004). Even for animals for which direct observation of intraocular structures is possible, ultrasonography may be helpful for tumor identification, ..... determination of the size of eye prosthesis in.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Vol 34 pi res-sea. Epizootiologicul Survey of Bovine Brucellosis in. Nomadic Pastoral ... brucellosis in the pastoral herds of Niger State despite its high cattle population and no research has ..... Brucella abortus infection in Cattle in Chile. Archivos de Med.Veterin.. 27: 45-50. ROTH, F., ZINSSTAG ...
Hikke, Mia C.; Pijlman, Gorben P.
Vaccination is essential in livestock farming and in companion animal ownership. Nucleic acid vaccines based on DNA or RNA provide an elegant alternative to those classical veterinary vaccines that have performed suboptimally. Recent advances in terms of rational design, safety, and efficacy have
leptospirosis. Case report. An 1 1 year old male Alsatian dog was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the. University of lbadan (VTH-Ul) with a hist01y of anorexia, weakness and exercise intolerance of5 days duration. On clinical examination, the rectal temperature was normal andlung auscultation revealed a ...
Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...
'*Nigerian Veterinary Journal. ~. Vol35 (1)9~8· 955. ARTICLE. Prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila. Isolates in cultured and Feral Clarias gariepinus of the Kainji Lake Area, Nigeria,. OMEJE, V.O.' and CHUKWU, C.C.. Aquaculture Programme. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Researcl1. PMB 6006, New Bussa, ...
Although the safety profile of short term dexamethasone treatment has been established, there has been ... Although low-dose dexamethasone treatment has been used in veterinary and human clinics for many years and produced no severe ..... in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PcOS) (Keay et al., 2001).
Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…
prevalence of diseases and available veterinary services were noticed to be present in these communities. The draught animal survival ability rather ... labour in farming and transportation. (Chantalakhana and Bunyavejehewin, 1994) ..... spreading of these diseases such as. Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis to these animals.
ovemight in a cool box. Serum was extracted using a plastic micropipette and transferred into sample bottles and was frozen until tested. Detection of antibodies to N DV. Antigen. Newcastle disease virus LaSota strain obtained from the National Veterinary Research Institute. (NVRI), Vom, was used as antigen for HI-test.
Vet. J., March 2017. Vol 38 (1): 57-68. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. An Audit of Castration of Male Dogs in Enugu Metropolis, South. Eastern Nigeria. Raheem, K. A.. 1Department of Veterinary ..... The internal genital organs like the prostate gland, urethra, penis, bulbis ... As biotechnology and medicine continue to advance, other ...
Vet. J., June 2016. Vol. 37 (2): 82-87. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cystographic Evaluation Post Colocystoplasty in Two Nigerian. Indigenous Dogs. Muhammad S. T.*. 1 ., Awasum C. A.. 2 ... integrity/morphology of most internal body organs or system(s) of an individual, ..... Journal of Veterinary. Medicine and Animal Health, 7(1):.
Lungworms of Small Ruminants Slaughtered in Restaurants of Ambo, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. 1. 1. 1. 2. GAROMSSA, T. , BERSISSA, K. , DINKA, A.* and ENDRIAS, Z. 1. 2. School of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University. Ambo University. *Corresponding author: email@example.com. INTRODUCTION.
NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 24-31. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Occurrence of Klebsiella Species in Cultured African Catfish in Oyo. State, South-West Nigeria. Adeshina, I. 1. *; Abdrahman, S. A.. 2 and Yusuf, A. A.. 3. 1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, ...
SUMMARY. An audit of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, lbadan between 2008 and 2011 was conducted to evaluate the level of compliance with standard practices. The study involved retrospective case note audit of surgical procedures performed during the period. A total number of 108.
Antonelli, Giorgia; Padoan, Andrea; Aita, Ada; Sciacovelli, Laura; Plebani, Mario
Background The International Standard ISO 15189 is recognized as a valuable guide in ensuring high quality clinical laboratory services and promoting the harmonization of accreditation programmes in laboratory medicine. Examination procedures must be verified in order to guarantee that their performance characteristics are congruent with the intended scope of the test. The aim of the present study was to propose a practice model for implementing procedures employed for the verification of validated examination procedures already used for at least 2 years in our laboratory, in agreement with the ISO 15189 requirement at the Section 188.8.131.52. Methods In order to identify the operative procedure to be used, approved documents were identified, together with the definition of performance characteristics to be evaluated for the different methods; the examination procedures used in laboratory were analyzed and checked for performance specifications reported by manufacturers. Then, operative flow charts were identified to compare the laboratory performance characteristics with those declared by manufacturers. Results The choice of performance characteristics for verification was based on approved documents used as guidance, and the specific purpose tests undertaken, a consideration being made of: imprecision and trueness for quantitative methods; diagnostic accuracy for qualitative methods; imprecision together with diagnostic accuracy for semi-quantitative methods. Conclusions The described approach, balancing technological possibilities, risks and costs and assuring the compliance of the fundamental component of result accuracy, appears promising as an easily applicable and flexible procedure helping laboratories to comply with the ISO 15189 requirements.
Van Thielen, Bert; Siguenza, Francis; Hassan, Bassam
The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in imaging dogs and cats for diagnostic dental veterinary applications. CBCT scans of heads of six dogs and two cats were made. Dental panoramic and multi-planar reformatted (MPR) para-sagittal reconstructions were created using specialized software. Image quality and visibility of anatomical landmarks were subjectively assessed by two observers. Good image quality was obtained for the MPR para-sagittal reconstructions through multiple teeth. The image quality of the panoramic reconstructions of dogs was moderate while the panoramic reconstructions of cats were poor since the images were associated with an increased noise level. Segmental panoramic reconstructions of the mouth seem to be useful for studying the dental anatomy especially in dogs. The results of this study using human dental CBCT technology demonstrate the potential of this scanning technology in veterinary medicine. Unfortunately, the moderate image quality obtained with the CBCT technique reported here seems to be inferior to the diagnostic image quality obtained from 2-dimensional dental radiographs. Further research is required to optimize scanning and reconstruction protocols for veterinary applications.
Full Text Available Bagoes Widjanarko,1 Dyah Anantalia Widyastari,2 Martini Martini,3 Praba Ginandjar3 1Department of Health Education and Behavior Sciences, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia; 2Institute for Population and Social Research, Mahidol University, Salaya, Thailand; 3Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia Purpose: Detection of acid-fast bacilli in respiratory specimens serves as an initial pulmonary tuberculosis (TB diagnosis. Laboratories are the essential and fundamental part of all health systems. This study aimed to describe how laboratory technicians perceived their own self and work. This included perceived self-efficacy, perceived role, perceived equipment availability, perceived procedures, perceived reward and job, and perceived benefit of health education, as well as level of knowledge and attitudes related to work performance of laboratory technicians.Methods: This was a cross-sectional quantitative study involving 120 laboratory technicians conducted in Central Java. Interviews and observation were conducted to measure performance and work-related variables.Results: Among 120 laboratory technicians, 43.3% showed fairly good performance. They complied with 50%–75% of all procedures, including sputum collection, laboratory tools utilization, sputum smearing, staining, smear examination, grading of results, and universal precaution practice. Perceived role, perceived self-efficacy, and knowledge of laboratory procedures were significantly correlated to performance, besides education and years of working as a laboratory technician. Perceived equipment availability was also significantly correlated to performance after the education variable was controlled.Conclusion: Most of the laboratory technicians believed that they have an important role in TB patients’ treatment and should display proper self-efficacy in performing laboratory activities. The
Jensen, Tim Kåre
, Chapter 2.4.6 and Chapter 2.7.13) regarding diagnostic examinations. The DTU-VET is the national reference laboratory of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and TSE/Scrapie, and therefore the results of all neuropathological examinations on BSE and Scrapie in Denmark are given in the present report......The aim of this report is to give detailed information on the diagnostic examination on trans-missible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) performed in Denmark during 2013. The present annual report is the 18th on this topic published by the National Veterinary Institute, Technical University...
Jensen, Tim Kåre
, Chapter 2.4.6 and Chapter 2.7.13) regarding diagnostic examinations.The DTU-VET is the national reference laboratory of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and TSE/Scrapie, and therefore the results of all neuropathological examinations on BSE and Scrapie in Denmark are given in the present report......The aim of this report is to give detailed information on the diagnostic examination on trans-missible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) performed in Denmark during 2016. The present annual report is the 21st on this topic published by the National Veterinary Institute, Technical University...
Jensen, Tim Kåre
, Chapter 2.4.6 and Chapter 2.7.13) regarding diagnostic examinations. The DTU-VET is the national reference laboratory of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and TSE/Scrapie, and therefore the results of all neuropathological examinations on BSE and Scrapie in Denmark are given in the present report......The aim of this report is to give detailed information on the diagnostic examination on trans-missible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) performed in Denmark during 2012. The present annual report is the 17th on this topic published by the National Veterinary Institute, Technical University...
Roeder, Peter; Mariner, Jeffrey; Kock, Richard
Rinderpest was a devastating disease of livestock responsible for continent-wide famine and poverty. Centuries of veterinary advances culminated in 2011 with the UN Food and Agriculture Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health declaring global eradication of rinderpest; only the second disease to be eradicated and the greatest veterinary achievement of our time. Conventional control measures, principally mass vaccination combined with zoosanitary procedures, led to substantial declines in the incidence of rinderpest. However, during the past decades, innovative strategies were deployed for the last mile to overcome diagnostic and surveillance challenges, unanticipated variations in virus pathogenicity, circulation of disease in wildlife populations and to service remote and nomadic communities in often-unstable states. This review provides an overview of these challenges, describes how they were overcome and identifies key factors for this success.
Wilson, Christina R; Hooser, Stephen B
Due to the potential implications of food-related illnesses in animals, recognition of pet food-related outbreaks is one of the many crucial roles of the veterinarian. This article describes the veterinarian’s role in investigating and reporting food-related illnesses in cats and dogs. Recommendations regarding taking thorough case histories, appropriate sample collection, effective use of veterinary diagnostic laboratories, and recommendations for reporting such illnesses are described.
Fischer, M.; Wernike, K.; Freuling, C.M.; Müller, T.; Aylan, O.; Brochier, B.; Cliquet, F.; Vázquez-Morón, S.; Hostnik, P.; Huovilainen, A.; Isaksson, M.; Kooi, E.A.
Rabies is a lethal and notifiable zoonotic disease for which diagnostics have to meet the highest standards. In recent years, an evolution was especially seen in molecular diagnostics with a wide variety of different detection methods published. Therefore, a first international ring trial
Barnard, Marinus; Warren, Rob; Gey Van Pittius, Nico; van Helden, Paul; Bosman, Marlein; Streicher, Elizabeth; Coetzee, Gerrit; O'Brien, Richard
Conventional culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST) for the second-line antituberculosis drugs is slow, leading to diagnostic delay with associated exacerbation of transmission, amplification of resistance, and increased mortality. To assess the diagnostic performance of the GenoType MTBDRsl line probe assay (LPA) for the rapid detection of mutations conferring resistance to ofloxacin (OFX), amikacin (AMK), and ethambutol and to determine the impact of implementation on the turnaround time in a high-throughput diagnostic laboratory. Six hundred and fifty-seven direct patient acid-fast bacilli smear-positive specimens resistant to isoniazid, rifampin, or both according to the GenoType MTBDRplus assay were consecutively tested, using the GenoType MTBDRsl LPA. The diagnostic performance was assessed relative to the "gold standard" culture-based method, and the laboratory turnaround times for both methods were determined. A total of 516 of 657 patient specimens had valid results for both tests. The sensitivity for detecting OFX, AMK, and extensive drug resistance, using the GenoType MTBDRsl LPA, was 90.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.1-96.0%), 100% (95% CI, 91.8-100%), and 92.3% (95% CI, 75.9-97.9%), respectively, and the specificity for detection was 98.1% (95% CI, 96.3-99.0%), 99.4% (95% CI, 98.2-99.8%), and 99.6% (95% CI, 98.5-99.9%), respectively. Implementation of this test significantly reduced the turnaround time by 93.3% (P < 0.001), calculated from the date that the specimen was received at the laboratory to reporting second-line results. In addition, a significant increase in diagnostic yield of 20.1% and 19.3% (P < 0.001) for OFX and AMK resistance, respectively, was obtained for isolates that were either contaminated or had lost viability. The GenoType MTBDRsl LPA is a rapid and reliable DST that can be easily incorporated into the diagnostic algorithm. This assay significantly improved diagnostic yield (P < 0.001) while simultaneously
Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E
Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. © 2015 The Authors Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Newman, Carlton; Jaggar, David H.
Lasers have been used for some time now on animals for experimental purposes prior to their use in human medical and surgical fields. However the use of lasers in veterinary medicine and surgery per se is a recent development. We describe the application of high and low intensity laser technology in a general overview of the current uses, some limitations to its use and future needs for future inquiry and development.
Corley, Kevin T T; Mathews, Karol; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Bain, Fairfield T; Hughes, Dez
Veterinary species experience similar perturbations of their health to those of human patients. When the long-term prognosis is good and providing suffering can be minimized, animals stand to benefit greatly from recent advances in the field of emergency and critical care. Outcomes in many conditions in small and large animals have improved markedly in the last 15 years, as management has improved, making the financial and emotional investment in critical care worthwhile for many owners.
Lumbreras Lacarra, B; Ramos Rincón, J M; Hernández Aguado, I
The identification of the methodological limitations of diagnostic research on laboratory tests is the basis in order to guide its enhancement and facilitate the application of the results to the clinical decisions. Seventeen articles published in Revista Clínica Española and Medicina Clínica from 1997 to 2000 were analyzed, in which the sensitivity and specificity of a diagnostic laboratory test were determined. Some standardized criteria of methodological quality were independently applied by three investigators. A high frequency in the fulfillment of some key methodological aspects was observed: adequate description of the standard of reference (88%), of the test investigated (88%), of the clinical sample evaluated (71%), and of the prevention of the sequence bias (82%). The assessment of indeterminate results (12%), the test reproducibility (12%), or the description of the origin of the evaluated population (6%) were infrequent. The methodological defects of diagnostic laboratory research could be prevented through the collaboration with clinical services and with simple modifications of the trial's designs.
Petersen, Andrea K; Cheung, Sau Wai; Smith, Janice L; Bi, Weimin; Ward, Patricia A; Peacock, Sandra; Braxton, Alicia; Van Den Veyver, Ignatia B; Breman, Amy M
Since its debut in 2011, cell-free fetal DNA screening has undergone rapid expansion with respect to both utilization and coverage. However, conclusive data regarding the clinical validity and utility of this screening tool, both for the originally included common autosomal and sex-chromosomal aneuploidies as well as the more recently added chromosomal microdeletion syndromes, have lagged behind. Thus, there is a continued need to educate clinicians and patients about the current benefits and limitations of this screening tool to inform pre- and posttest counseling, pre/perinatal decision making, and medical risk assessment/management. The objective of this study was to determine the positive predictive value and false-positive rates for different chromosomal abnormalities identified by cell-free fetal DNA screening using a large data set of diagnostic testing results on invasive samples submitted to the laboratory for confirmatory studies. We tested 712 patient samples sent to our laboratory to confirm a cell-free fetal DNA screening result, indicating high risk for a chromosome abnormality. We compiled data from all cases in which the indication for confirmatory testing was a positive cell-free fetal DNA screen, including the common trisomies, sex chromosomal aneuploidies, microdeletion syndromes, and other large genome-wide copy number abnormalities. Testing modalities included fluorescence in situ hybridization, G-banded karyotype, and/or chromosomal microarray analysis performed on chorionic villus samples, amniotic fluid, or postnatally obtained blood samples. Positive predictive values and false-positive rates were calculated from tabulated data. The positive predictive values for trisomy 13, 18, and 21 were consistent with previous reports at 45%, 76%, and 84%, respectively. For the microdeletion syndrome regions, positive predictive values ranged from 0% for detection of Cri-du-Chat syndrome and Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome to 14% for 1p36 deletion
Shea, Shari; Kubota, Kristy A; Maguire, Hugh; Gladbach, Stephen; Woron, Amy; Atkinson-Dunn, Robyn; Couturier, Marc Roger; Miller, Melissa B
INTRODUCTIONIn November 2015, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sent a letter to state and territorial epidemiologists, state and territorial public health laboratory directors, and state and territorial health officials. In this letter, culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs) for detection of enteric pathogens were characterized as "a serious and current threat to public health surveillance, particularly for Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Salmonella" The document says CDC and its public health partners are approaching this issue, in part, by "reviewing regulatory authority in public health agencies to require culture isolates or specimen submission if CIDTs are used." Large-scale foodborne outbreaks are a continuing threat to public health, and tracking these outbreaks is an important tool in shortening them and developing strategies to prevent them. It is clear that the use of CIDTs for enteric pathogen detection, including both antigen detection and multiplex nucleic acid amplification techniques, is becoming more widespread. Furthermore, some clinical microbiology laboratories will resist the mandate to require submission of culture isolates, since it will likely not improve patient outcomes but may add significant costs. Specimen submission would be less expensive and time-consuming for clinical laboratories; however, this approach would be burdensome for public health laboratories, since those laboratories would need to perform culture isolation prior to typing. Shari Shea and Kristy Kubota from the Association of Public Health Laboratories, along with state public health laboratory officials from Colorado, Missouri, Tennessee, and Utah, will explain the public health laboratories' perspective on why having access to isolates of enteric pathogens is essential for public health surveillance, detection, and tracking of outbreaks and offer potential workable solutions which will allow them to do this. Marc Couturier of
..., or other therapeutic or diagnostic substance or medical or surgical technique, or (2) The use of... reproductive management, or (4) The rendering of advice or recommendation by any means including telephonic and... veterinary specialists to assist in the control and eradication of animal disease outbreaks. Sec. 3431.9...
Stone, Brett M; Gan, David
Limited availability of diagnostic cytopathologic material may preclude additional diagnostic techniques. Tissue transfer allows for preparation of additional slides from a single original slide. Information pertaining to the application of the tissue transfer technique in veterinary cytopathology is lacking. The objectives were to evaluate the application of the tissue transfer technique on Quick Dip-stained veterinary cytologic smears and to assess if a selection of histochemical and immunocytochemical stains, and PCR analyses could be performed on transferred material. Archived Quick Dip-stained canine lymph node aspirate smears from previously diagnosed lymphoma cases were utilized to validate and optimize the tissue transfer technique. In this technique, diagnostic material is lifted from the original stained slide, is divided and transferred to multiple new slides. Histochemical stains such as Gram, periodic acid Schiff, Congo red, and Ziehl-Neelson, immunohistochemistry for CD3 and PAX5, and PCR for cryptococcal and mycobacterial organisms were selectively performed on transferred material. The tissue transfer technique was simple, and transferred Quick Dip-stained material retained cellular morphology. Histochemical and immunohistochemical stains, and PCR analysis yielded reliable results when performed on the additional smears produced by this technique. The tissue transfer technique was simple and easy to perform on previously Quick Dip-stained cytology smears. Cellular detail was preserved and multiple additional ancillary diagnostic techniques were facilitated, such as histochemical and immunohistochemical stains, and PCR analysis. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Huang, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ming; Suo, Xun; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Many parasites of domestic animals in China are of major socioeconomic and medical importance. Hence, veterinary parasitology is one of the core subjects for undergraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary science. Here, we review the teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities, including a description of the veterinary science curricula and measures to improve the quality of veterinary parasitology teaching in China.
Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone
As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.
Naicker, Serisha D; Govender, Nevashan; Patel, Jaymati; Zietsman, Inge L; Wadula, Jeannette; Coovadia, Yacoob; Kularatne, Ranmini; Seetharam, Sharona; Govender, Nelesh P
From February 2009 through August 2010, we compared species-level identification of bloodstream Candida isolates and susceptibility to fluconazole, voriconazole, and caspofungin between diagnostic and reference South African laboratories during national surveillance for candidemia. Diagnostic laboratories identified isolates to genus/species level and performed antifungal susceptibility testing, as indicated. At a reference laboratory, viable Candida isolates were identified to species-level using automated systems, biochemical tests, or DNA sequencing; broth dilution susceptibility testing was performed. Categorical agreement (CA) was calculated for susceptibility results of isolates with concordant species identification. Overall, 2172 incident cases were detected, 773 (36%) by surveillance audit. The Vitek 2 YST system (bioMérieux Inc, Marcy l'Etoile, France) was used for identification (360/863, 42%) and susceptibility testing (198/473, 42%) of a large proportion of isolates. For the five most common species (n = 1181), species-level identification was identical in the majority of cases (Candida albicans: 98% (507/517); Candida parapsilosis: 92% (450/488); Candida glabrata: 89% (89/100); Candida tropicalis: 91% (49/54), and Candida krusei: 86% (19/22)). However, diagnostic laboratories were significantly less likely to correctly identify Candida species other than C. albicans versus C. albicans (607/664, 91% vs. 507/517, 98%; P albicans (36/362, 10% vs. 3/362, 0.8%; P Candida species other than C. albicans, under-reported fluconazole resistance for C. parapsilosis and over-reported fluconazole resistance for C. albicans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Pantanowitz, Liron; Sinard, John H; Henricks, Walter H; Fatheree, Lisa A; Carter, Alexis B; Contis, Lydia; Beckwith, Bruce A; Evans, Andrew J; Lal, Avtar; Parwani, Anil V
There is increasing interest in using whole slide imaging (WSI) for diagnostic purposes (primary and/or consultation). An important consideration is whether WSI can safely replace conventional light microscopy as the method by which pathologists review histologic sections, cytology slides, and/or hematology slides to render diagnoses. Validation of WSI is crucial to ensure that diagnostic performance based on digitized slides is at least equivalent to that of glass slides and light microscopy. Currently, there are no standard guidelines regarding validation of WSI for diagnostic use. To recommend validation requirements for WSI systems to be used for diagnostic purposes. The College of American Pathologists Pathology and Laboratory Quality Center convened a nonvendor panel from North America with expertise in digital pathology to develop these validation recommendations. A literature review was performed in which 767 international publications that met search term requirements were identified. Studies outside the scope of this effort and those related solely to technical elements, education, and image analysis were excluded. A total of 27 publications were graded and underwent data extraction for evidence evaluation. Recommendations were derived from the strength of evidence determined from 23 of these published studies, open comment feedback, and expert panel consensus. Twelve guideline statements were established to help pathology laboratories validate their own WSI systems intended for clinical use. Validation of the entire WSI system, involving pathologists trained to use the system, should be performed in a manner that emulates the laboratory's actual clinical environment. It is recommended that such a validation study include at least 60 routine cases per application, comparing intraobserver diagnostic concordance between digitized and glass slides viewed at least 2 weeks apart. It is important that the validation process confirm that all material present on
Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bergman, Philip J
The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Douglas, Jeffrey S.
The Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's (VMRCVM) Class of 2011 was formally admitted to the college recently following a "White Coat Ceremony" at Virginia Tech in which the 91 new students were issued white laboratory coats and administered the "Veterinary Student's Oath."
Kogan, Lori R.; Dowers, Kristy L.; Cerda, Jacey R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.; Stewart, Sherry M.
Veterinary schools, similar to many professional health programs, face a myriad of evolving challenges in delivering their professional curricula including expansion of class size, costs to maintain expensive laboratories, and increased demands on veterinary educators to use curricular time efficiently and creatively. Additionally, exponential…
Martin, Michael; Tummons, John; Ball, Anna; Bird, William
The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore how an urban high school veterinary program impacted students' affective skill development. The program was unique because students were required to participate in internships with local animal care businesses and care for animals within the school veterinary laboratory. The…
Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena
The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.
Newman, H. C.
Veterinary medicine is a latecomer in benefiting from the advent of surgical lasers. It is ironic that although most of the basic work in lasers is carried out in animal species with which we are most conversant, veterinary medicine as a profession has not been very extensively involved.
This is a clinician's view of the current state of veterinary dentistry at the level of the general practitioner across the different species. An indication of the work done and the hazards commonly encountered are covered. To increase awareness within the dental profession of the current state of veterinary dentistry.
Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...
1Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology. 2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine. Ahmadu Bello .... and cresol as its active ingredients. The most common disinfectant reported to be used in the various hatcheries investigated was Morigad® which has phenol as its active ingredient.
Focus and Scope. Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.
Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S
It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.
Laboratory testing for von Willebrand's disease: an assessment of current diagnostic practice and efficacy by means of a multi-laboratory survey. RCPA Quality Assurance Program (QAP) in Haematology Haemostasis Scientific Advisory Panel.
Favaloro, E J; Smith, J; Petinos, P; Hertzberg, M; Koutts, J
assay variation, and had the poorest overall performance with respect to sensitivity to low levels of VWF. The VWF:CBA also performed better than the VWF:RCo in terms of ability to detect functional VWF 'discordance' (i.e. Type 2 VWD). Within VWF:Ag method analysis showed that the EID assay procedure was associated with the greatest variation in assay results, while the EID and LIA test methods showed poorer sensitivity at low VWF levels compared to the ELISA method. Within the VWF:RCo assay procedure, greatest variation in assay results and poorest sensitivity to low VWF levels was obtained using the agglutination method; however, the agglutination procedure showed better performance than the 'functional VWF:RCo-alternative' ELISA assay in identifying Type 2 VWD plasma samples. Finally, despite identified variations, most laboratories appeared to understand the complexities involved in the VWD-diagnostic process, and made appropriate diagnostic predictions regarding tested samples. From a total possible 246 interpretation events, laboratories in most cases correctly identified normal samples as normal (67/75 events = 89%), and VWD samples as derived from individuals with VWD (117/121 events = 97%). Moreover, when VWD was suggested by laboratory findings, laboratories usually correctly predicted the general subtype of VWD present (96/109 events = 88%). When 'misinterpretations' occurred, these could often be linked to the test panels utilised by laboratories. That is, laboratories using the VWF:Ag and VWF:RCo combination were more likely to incorrectly identify samples derived from Type 2 VWD patients as being Type 1, Type 1 VWD patients as being Type 2, and normal plasma samples as potentially derived from patients with VWD, compared to those using the VWF:Ag and VWF:CBA.
Ellie Patterson, Vetlife marketing officer, summarises the services offered by Vetlife - an independent, confidential and free charity for everyone in the veterinary community. British Veterinary Association.
Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Engineering and Technology); Kusama, Tomoko
To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author).
Equipment concept design and development plans for microgravity science and applications research on space station: Combustion tunnel, laser diagnostic system, advanced modular furnace, integrated electronics laboratory
Uhran, M. L.; Youngblood, W. W.; Georgekutty, T.; Fiske, M. R.; Wear, W. O.
Taking advantage of the microgravity environment of space NASA has initiated the preliminary design of a permanently manned space station that will support technological advances in process science and stimulate the development of new and improved materials having applications across the commercial spectrum. Previous studies have been performed to define from the researcher's perspective, the requirements for laboratory equipment to accommodate microgravity experiments on the space station. Functional requirements for the identified experimental apparatus and support equipment were determined. From these hardware requirements, several items were selected for concept designs and subsequent formulation of development plans. This report documents the concept designs and development plans for two items of experiment apparatus - the Combustion Tunnel and the Advanced Modular Furnace, and two items of support equipment the Laser Diagnostic System and the Integrated Electronics Laboratory. For each concept design, key technology developments were identified that are required to enable or enhance the development of the respective hardware.
Air kerma standardization for diagnostic radiology, and requirements proposal for calibration laboratories; Padronizacao da grandeza Kerma no ar para radiodiagnostico e proposta de requisitos para laboratorios de calibracao
Ramos, Manoel Mattos Oliveira
The demand for calibration services and quality control in diagnostic radiology has grown in the country since the publication of the governmental regulation 453, issued by the Ministry of Health in 1998. At that time, to produce results facing the new legislation, many laboratories used different standards and radiation qualities, some of which could be inadequate. The international standards neither supplied consistent radiation qualities and standardization for the different types of equipment available. This situation changed with the publication of the new edition of the IEC 61267 standard, published in 2005. A metrology network was created, but it is not yet accredited by the accreditation organism of the country, INMETRO. The objective of this work was to implement the standardization of the air kerma for the un attenuated qualities (RQR) of IEC 61267, and to develop a requirement proposal for instruments calibration laboratories. Results of interlaboratory comparisons demonstrate that the quantity is standardized and internationally traceable. A laboratory requirement proposal was finalized and it shall be submitted to INMETRO to be used as auxiliary normative document in laboratory accreditation. (author)
Finn, William G
Functional genomics and proteomics involve the simultaneous analysis of hundreds or thousands of expressed genes or proteins and have spawned the modern discipline of computational biology. Novel informatic applications, including sophisticated dimensionality reduction strategies and cancer outlier profile analysis, can distill clinically exploitable biomarkers from enormous experimental datasets. Diagnostic pathologists are now charged with translating the knowledge generated by the "omics" revolution into clinical practice. Food and Drug Administration-approved proprietary testing platforms based on microarray technologies already exist and will expand greatly in the coming years. However, for diagnostic pathology, the greatest promise of the "omics" age resides in the explosion in information technology (IT). IT applications allow for the digitization of histological slides, transforming them into minable data and enabling content-based searching and archiving of histological materials. IT will also allow for the optimization of existing (and often underused) clinical laboratory technologies such as flow cytometry and high-throughput core laboratory functions. The state of pathology practice does not always keep up with the pace of technological advancement. However, to use fully the potential of these emerging technologies for the benefit of patients, pathologists and clinical scientists must embrace the changes and transformational advances that will characterize this new era.
Wilhelm, Jan; Yubero, Joao; Fuentes, Constanza; Ríos, Paulina; Leyton, Oscar; Reyes, Felipe
The specific diagnosis of influenza A infection makes it possible to control its spread, decreases the unnecessary use of antibiotics, clinical procedures and laboratory test, and allows early recognition of outbreaks. Different technologies are currently available in Chile for this purpose. The study presented here compares the sensitivity for influenza A virus detection of immunocromatography (RIDT), direct fluorescent antibodies-DFA and DFA with cytocentrifugation against the gold standard, RT-PCR. In 175 nasal swab samples influenza A RIDT and RT-PCR were performed. Another 1689 nasal swab samples were tested by DFA and RT-PCR for influenza A. Finally, 29 nasal swab samples confirmed as Influenza A positive by RT-PCR were tested by DFA with cytocentrifugation. The RIDT, DFA and DFA + cytocentrifugation sensitivity was 47,3%, 57,2% and 72,4%, respectively. Their lower cost and faster turnaround time when compared to PCR make RIDT and DFA the tests of choice in diagnostic laboratories in Chile. However, their low sensitivity and NPV, especially during low season, makes more sensitive diagnostic tools necessary to confirm the results. In our study cytocentrifugation increased DFA sensitivity from 57% to 72%.
Diana L. Eubanks
Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.
Buchanan, James W
Throughout civilization, animals have played a pivotal role in the advancement of science and medicine. From as early as 400 BC when Hippocrates recognized that diseases had natural causes, the steadfast advances made by biologists, scientists, physicians and scholars were fueled by timely and important facts and information- much of it gained through animal observations that contributed importantly to understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology. There have been many breakthroughs and historic developments. For example, William Harvey in the 16th and 17th centuries clarified the importance of the circulatory system, aided by observations in dogs and pigs, which helped to clarify and confirm his concepts. The nineteenth century witnessed advances in physical examination techniques including auscultation and percussion. These helped create the basis for enhanced proficiency in clinical cardiology. An explosion of technologic advances that followed in the 20th century have made possible sophisticated, accurate, and non-invasive diagnostics. This permitted rapid patient assessment, effective monitoring, the development of new cardiotonic drugs, clinical trials to assess efficacy, and multi-therapy strategies. The latter 20th century has marshaled a dizzying array of advances in medical genetics and molecular science, expanding the frontiers of etiologies and disease mechanisms in man, with important implications for animal health. Veterinary medicine has evolved during the last half century, from a trade designed to serve agrarian cultures, to a diverse profession supporting an array of career opportunities ranging from private, specialty practice, to highly organized, specialized medicine and subspecialty academic training programs in cardiology and allied disciplines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
van Foreest, Andries
Rooted in human dentistry, veterinary dentistry has developed steadily in the Netherlands since the 1980s and is now recognized as an essential discipline of veterinary medicine. The availability of specialized tools and techniques has led to improved treatment outcomes and results, with the choice of treatment being largely determined by the functionality of the dentition and the costs involved. Domestic animals and horses with dental problems should be referred to dental veterinarians. The Working Group Veterinary Dentistry in the Netherlands is an association for skilled veterinarians with professional dental equipment at their disposal.
Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D
A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments. Suitability for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Evaluation of 10 veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers showed that these instruments often fail to meet quality requirements. At least 60% of analyzers reasonably determined RBC, WBC, HCT, and HGB, when assessed by most quality goal criteria; platelets were less reliably measured, with 80% deemed suitable for low platelet counts, but only 30% for high platelet counts, and automated differential leukocyte counts were generally considered unsuitable for clinical use with fewer than 40% of analyzers meeting the least stringent quality goal requirements. Fewer than 50% of analyzers were able to meet requirements for statistical quality control for any measurand. These findings reflect the current status of in-clinic hematology analyzer performance and provide a basis for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Nault, Andre J.
Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…
Li, Jiakui; Guo, Dingzong; Zhou, Donghai; Wu, Xiaoxiong
Veterinary internal medicine (VIM) is a core subject and important clinical discipline for undergraduate students of veterinary science. The present paper reviews current information about the teaching of VIM, presents a description of the veterinary science curriculum, suggests methods to improve the quality of VIM teaching in China, and describes difficulties, problems, and trends in veterinary education in China.
Sanne C van Kampen
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Successful integration of new diagnostics in national tuberculosis (TB control programs, also called 'retooling', is highly dependent on operational aspects related to test availability, accessibility and affordability. This survey aimed to find out whether recommendations to use new diagnostics lead to successful retooling in high TB endemic countries, using immunochromatographic tests (ICTs for TB culture speciation as a case study. ICTs are recommended to accurately confirm the presence of bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in liquid culture isolates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Questionnaires were sent to national TB reference laboratories (NRLs in 42 high TB endemic countries to address their access to information on ICT implementation, logistics related to availability, accessibility and affordability of ICTs, and testing algorithms. Results from 16 responding countries indicated that half of the NRLs were aware of the contents of WHO guidance documents on liquid culture and ICT implementation, as well as their eligibility for a negotiated pricing agreement for ICT procurement. No major issues with availability and accessibility of ICTs were raised. When asked about testing algorithms, ICTs were not used as stand-alone or first test for TB culture identification as recommended by WHO. CONCLUSIONS: The low response rate was a limitation of this survey and together with NRLs managers' unawareness of global guidance, suggests a lack of effective communication between partners of the global laboratory network and NRLs. TB tests could become more affordable to high TB endemic countries, if the possibility to negotiate lower prices for commercial products is communicated to them more successfully. NRLs need additional guidance to identify where available technologies can be most usefully implemented and in what order, taking into account long-term laboratory strategies.
van Kampen, Sanne C; Oskam, Linda; Tuijn, Coosje J; Klatser, Paul R
Successful integration of new diagnostics in national tuberculosis (TB) control programs, also called 'retooling', is highly dependent on operational aspects related to test availability, accessibility and affordability. This survey aimed to find out whether recommendations to use new diagnostics lead to successful retooling in high TB endemic countries, using immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) for TB culture speciation as a case study. ICTs are recommended to accurately confirm the presence of bacteria of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in liquid culture isolates. Questionnaires were sent to national TB reference laboratories (NRLs) in 42 high TB endemic countries to address their access to information on ICT implementation, logistics related to availability, accessibility and affordability of ICTs, and testing algorithms. Results from 16 responding countries indicated that half of the NRLs were aware of the contents of WHO guidance documents on liquid culture and ICT implementation, as well as their eligibility for a negotiated pricing agreement for ICT procurement. No major issues with availability and accessibility of ICTs were raised. When asked about testing algorithms, ICTs were not used as stand-alone or first test for TB culture identification as recommended by WHO. The low response rate was a limitation of this survey and together with NRLs managers' unawareness of global guidance, suggests a lack of effective communication between partners of the global laboratory network and NRLs. TB tests could become more affordable to high TB endemic countries, if the possibility to negotiate lower prices for commercial products is communicated to them more successfully. NRLs need additional guidance to identify where available technologies can be most usefully implemented and in what order, taking into account long-term laboratory strategies.
... the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA), and sponsored by the Food Supply Veterinary... by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in the spring of 2009, the average educational... grateful to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the American Veterinary...
... the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA), and sponsored by the Food Supply Veterinary... by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in the spring of 2009, the average educational... grateful to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the American Veterinary...
Full Text Available In 1908 a Pan-African Veterinary Conference formed part of the inauguration ceremony of the Onderstepoort Veterinary Laboratory. Attended by 18 delegates from 12 countries in southern Africa, including the four colonies and three protectorates forming British South Africa, Rhodesia, German South West Africa, Portuguese East Africa, Madagascar and the Belgian Congo, discussions focussed on the animal diseases of the region with the emphasis on trypanosomosis (nagana and East Coast fever. The successful meeting was followed by a series of similar conferences held in different African countries during the first half of the 20th Century.
Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources; Board on Higher Education and Workforce; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Policy and Global Affairs; National Research Council
In a study of the issues related to the veterinary medical workforce, including demographics, workforce supply, trends affecting job availability, and capacity of the educational system to fill future...
Martinsen, Siri; Jukes, Nick
There is a vast array of learning tools and approaches to veterinary education, many tried and true, many innovative and with potential. Such new methods have come about partly from an increasing demand from both students and teachers to avoid methods of teaching and training that harm animals. The aim is to create the best quality education, ideally supported by validation of the efficacy of particular educational tools and approaches, while ensuring that animals are not used harmfully and that respect for animal life is engendered within the student. In this paper, we review tools and approaches that can be used in the teaching of veterinary students, tools and approaches that ensure the dignity and humane treatment of animals that all teachers and students must observe as the very ethos of the veterinary profession that they serve. Veterinary education has not always met, and still often does not meet, this essential criterion.
Braun, Jean-Pierre; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Trumel, Cathy
This article presents the general causes of preanalytic variability with a few examples showing specialists and practitioners that special and improved care should be given to this too often neglected phase. The preanalytic phase of clinical pathology includes all the steps from specimen collection to analysis. It is the phase where most laboratory errors occur in human, and probably also in veterinary clinical pathology. Numerous causes may affect the validity of the results, including technical factors, such as the choice of anticoagulant, the blood vessel sampled, and the duration and conditions of specimen handling. While the latter factors can be defined, influence of biologic and physiologic factors such as feeding and fasting, stress, and biologic and endocrine rhythms can often not be controlled. Nevertheless, as many factors as possible should at least be documented. The importance of the preanalytic phase is often not given the necessary attention, although the validity of the results and consequent clinical decision making and medical management of animal patients would likely be improved if the quality of specimens submitted to the laboratory was optimized. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Fortier, Lisa A; Travis, Alexander J
The stem cell field in veterinary medicine continues to evolve rapidly both experimentally and clinically. Stem cells are most commonly used in clinical veterinary medicine in therapeutic applications for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries in horses and dogs. New technologies of assisted reproduction are being developed to apply the properties of spermatogonial stem cells to preserve endangered animal species. The same methods can be used to generate transgenic animals for production o...
Musser Jeffrey MBDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, TX, USAThis year marks the 250th anniversary of the Royal Veterinary School in Lyon, France, the world's first veterinary college. Since its inception, many changes have occurred in veterinary medicine such as views on education and didactic learning, demographics of our profession, and standards of practice in animal husbandry, medicine, surgery, anesthesia, and vacci...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early and effective detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB, particularly in smear-negative tuberculosis (TB, is a priority for global TB control. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification with a procedure for ultra rapid DNA extraction (PURE-LAMP can detect TB in sputum samples rapidly and with high sensitivity and specificity. However, the PURE-LAMP test has not been effectively evaluated, especially in resource-limited laboratories. In this study, we evaluated the performance of the PURE-LAMP test for TB detection in TB suspects from two county-level TB dispensaries in China. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From April 2011 to February 2012, patients with suspected TB were continuously enrolled from two county-level TB laboratories in China. Three sputum samples (spot, night, and morning sputum were collected from each recruited patient. Detection of MTB by PURE-LAMP was compared to a reference standard L-J culture. The results showed that the sensitivity of the PURE-LAMP test based on spot sputum for MTB detection was 70.67%, while the sensitivity of the PURE-LAMP test based on spot sputum for MTB detection in smear positive and culture positive patients and smear negative and culture positive patients was 92.12% and 53.81%, respectively. The specificity of PURE-LAMP based on spot sputum for MTB detection was 98.32%. The sensitivity and specificity of the PURE-LAMP test based on three sputa combination for MTB detection was 88.80% and 96.86%, respectively. The results also showed that the PURE-LAMP test had a significantly lower contamination rate than did solid culture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The study suggested that, in peripheral-level TB laboratories in China, the PURE-LAMP test showed high sensitivity and specificity for TB detection in TB suspects, making it a more effective, rapid, and safe method worthy of broader use in the future.
King, L J
The veterinary profession finds itself in the midst of a new world order. Today veterinarians are part of a world that is exquisitely interconnected culturally, economically, socially, and professionally. As a consequence, societal needs and expectations of the profession are more demanding, critical and far-reaching. Veterinarians must play important roles in five intersecting domains of work: public health, bio-medical research, global food safety and security, ecosystem health and the more traditional role of caring for animals. To be successful in this broad and complex range of services and activities, veterinarians must possess an expanded knowledge base, acquire new skills, and develop a new mindset that will ensure their success and excellence in all these domains. The veterinary profession is becoming more fragmented and specialised, and it needs to be brought back together by a single sphere of knowledge or discipline that can serve as an intellectual foundation. The concept of One World of Veterinary Medicine can do just that. With this mindset veterinarians will become better connected to the world around and gain new public recognition and esteem. To achieve this, a special commitment by academic veterinary medicine is, of course, essential. Veterinary schools must lead an educational transformation that reaffirms the social contract of veterinarians and works to align diverse sectors, build a global community, find a common purpose and expand the 21st Century veterinary portfolio of services, activities, and new possibilities.
This review of governance distinguishes between ends and means and, by highlighting the complexity and differing definitions of the concept, defines its scope and focuses discussion on its characteristics in order to establish an interrelationship between veterinary legislation and governance. Good governance must be backed by legislation, and good legislation must incorporate the principles and instruments of good governance. This article lists some of the main characteristics of governance and then reviews them in parallel with the methodology used to draft veterinary legislation, emphasising the importance of goal-setting and stakeholder participation. This article describes the criteria developed by the Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for assessing the quality of veterinary legislation. It then makes a comparison between the quality assurance process and the good governance process in order to demonstrate that the introduction and proper use of the tools for developing veterinary legislation offered by the OIE VLSP leads to a virtuous circle linking legislation with good governance. Ultimately, the most important point remains the implementation of legislation. Consequently, the author points out that satisfactory implementation relies not only on legislation that is technically and legally appropriate, acceptable, applicable, sustainable, correctly drafted, well thought through and designed for the long term, but also on the physical and legal capacity of official Veterinary Services to perform their administrative and enforcement duties, and on there being the means available for all those involved to discharge their responsibilities.
findings comparable to VHS for evaluation of heart size (Nakayama et al., ... have applied VHS along with the other cardiac diagnostic modalities ... very cheap and may be a very good alternate means of evaluating cardiac size. This study is a preliminary assessment of VHS of the. Nigerian mongrel dog. MATERIALS AND ...
Beckert, M. Brooke; Gallego, Sabrina; Elder, Eric; Nadler, Jason
This study sought to mitigate risk in transitioning newly developed glass-ceramic scintillator technology from a laboratory concept to commercial product by identifying the most significant hurdles to increased scale. These included selection of cost effective raw material sources, investigation of process parameters with the most significant impact on performance, and synthesis steps that could see the greatest benefit from participation of an industry partner that specializes in glass or optical component manufacturing. Efforts focused on enhancing the performance of glass-ceramic nanocomposite scintillators developed specifically for medical imaging via composition and process modifications that ensured efficient capture of incident X-ray energy and emission of scintillation light. The use of cost effective raw materials and existing manufacturing methods demonstrated proof-of-concept for economical viable alternatives to existing benchmark materials, as well as possible disruptive applications afforded by novel geometries and comparatively lower cost per volume. The authors now seek the expertise of industry to effectively navigate the transition from laboratory demonstrations to pilot scale production and testing to evince the industry of the viability and usefulness of composite-based scintillators.
Fish is capable of habouring diseases and therefore, must be safe and free of .... significant work on occurrence of Klebsiella ... The samples were brought to the laboratory and subjected to microbiological analysis under sterile conditions.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Blood agar is used for the identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing of many bacterial pathogens. In the developing world, microbiologists use human blood agar because of the high cost and inhospitable conditions for raising wool sheep or horses to supply blood. Many pathogens either fail to grow entirely or exhibit morphologies and hemolytic patterns on human blood agar that confound colony recognition. Furthermore, human blood can be hazardous to handle due to HIV and hepatitis. This study investigated whether blood from hair sheep, a hardy, low-maintenance variety of sheep adapted for hot climates, was suitable for routine clinical microbiology studies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Hair sheep blood obtained by jugular venipuncture was anticoagulated by either manual defibrination or collection in human blood bank bags containing citrate-phosphate-dextrose. Trypticase soy 5% blood agar was made from both forms of hair sheep blood and commercial defibrinated wool sheep blood. Growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and hemolytic patterns of selected human pathogens, including several streptococcal species, were evaluated. Specialized identification tests, including CAMP test, reverse CAMP test, and satellite colony formation with Haemophilus influenzae and Abiotrophia defectiva were also performed. Mueller-Hinton blood agar plates prepared from the three blood types were compared in antibiotic susceptibility tests by disk diffusion and E-test. CONCLUSIONS: The results of all studies showed that blood agar prepared from citrated hair sheep blood is suitable for microbiological tests used in routine identification and susceptibility profiling of human pathogens. The validation of citrated hair sheep blood eliminates the labor-intensive and equipment-requiring process of manual defibrination. Use of hair sheep blood, in lieu of human blood currently used by many developing world laboratories and as an alternative to cost
Tomlinson, Lindsay; Boone, Laura I; Ramaiah, Lila; Penraat, Kelley A; von Beust, Barbara R; Ameri, Mehrdad; Poitout-Belissent, Florence M; Weingand, Kurt; Workman, Heather C; Aulbach, Adam D; Meyer, Dennis J; Brown, Diane E; MacNeill, Amy L; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Bounous, Denise I
The purpose of this paper by the Regulatory Affairs Committee (RAC) of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) is to review the current regulatory guidances (eg, guidelines) and published recommendations for best practices in veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, and to utilize the combined experience of ASVCP RAC to provide updated recommendations. Discussion points include (1) instrumentation, validation, and sample collection, (2) routine laboratory variables, (3) cytologic laboratory variables, (4) data interpretation and reporting (including peer review, reference intervals and statistics), and (5) roles and responsibilities of clinical pathologists and laboratory personnel. Revision and improvement of current practices should be in alignment with evolving regulatory guidance documents, new technology, and expanding understanding and utility of clinical pathology. These recommendations provide a contemporary guide for the refinement of veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology best practices. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Floss, Doreen Manuela; Falkenburg, Dieter; Conrad, Udo
During the past two decades, antibodies, antibody derivatives and vaccines have been developed for therapeutic and diagnostic applications in human and veterinary medicine. Numerous species of dicot and monocot plants have been genetically modified to produce antibodies or vaccines, and a number of diverse transformation methods and strategies to enhance the accumulation of the pharmaceutical proteins are now available. Veterinary applications are the specific focus of this article, in particular for pathogenic viruses, bacteria and eukaryotic parasites. We focus on the advantages and remaining challenges of plant-based therapeutic proteins for veterinary applications with emphasis on expression platforms, technologies and economic considerations.
Erzinclioglu, Y Z
Diagnostic features are described as a series of couplets that enable separation of the third instar larvae of the following pairs of closely related forms of blowflies of medical and veterinary importance: Chrysomya chloropyga (Wiedemann) and Ch.putoria (Wiedemann), Chrysomya albiceps (Wiedemann) and Ch.rufifacies (Macquart), Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) and Co.macellaria (Fabricius), Lucilia sericata (Mergen) and L. cuprina (Wiedemann), Calliphora augur (Fabricius) and C. stygia (Fabricius).
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Uganda scaled-up Early HIV Infant Diagnosis (EID when simplified methods for testing of infants using dried blood spots (DBS were adopted in 2006 and sample transport and management was therefore made feasible in rural settings. Before this time only 35% of the facilities that were providing EID services were reached through the national postal courier system, Posta Uganda. The transportation of samples during this scale-up, therefore, quickly became a challenge and varied from facility to facility as different methods were used to transport the samples. This study evaluates a novel specimen transport network system for EID testing. METHODS: A retrospective study was done in mid-2012 on 19 pilot hubs serving 616 health facilities in Uganda. The effect on sample-result turnaround time (TAT and the cost of DBS sample transport on 876 sample-results was analyzed. RESULTS: The HUB network system provided increased access to EID services ranging from 36% to 51%, drastically reduced transportation costs by 62%, reduced turn-around times by 46.9% and by a further 46.2% through introduction of SMS printers. CONCLUSIONS: The HUB model provides a functional, reliable and efficient national referral network against which other health system strengthening initiatives can be built to increase access to critical diagnostic and treatment monitoring services, improve the quality of laboratory and diagnostic services, with reduced turn-around times and improved quality of prevention and treatment programs thereby reducing long-term costs.
Kiyaga, Charles; Sendagire, Hakim; Joseph, Eleanor; McConnell, Ian; Grosz, Jeff; Narayan, Vijay; Esiru, Godfrey; Elyanu, Peter; Akol, Zainab; Kirungi, Wilford; Musinguzi, Joshua; Opio, Alex
Uganda scaled-up Early HIV Infant Diagnosis (EID) when simplified methods for testing of infants using dried blood spots (DBS) were adopted in 2006 and sample transport and management was therefore made feasible in rural settings. Before this time only 35% of the facilities that were providing EID services were reached through the national postal courier system, Posta Uganda. The transportation of samples during this scale-up, therefore, quickly became a challenge and varied from facility to facility as different methods were used to transport the samples. This study evaluates a novel specimen transport network system for EID testing. A retrospective study was done in mid-2012 on 19 pilot hubs serving 616 health facilities in Uganda. The effect on sample-result turnaround time (TAT) and the cost of DBS sample transport on 876 sample-results was analyzed. The HUB network system provided increased access to EID services ranging from 36% to 51%, drastically reduced transportation costs by 62%, reduced turn-around times by 46.9% and by a further 46.2% through introduction of SMS printers. The HUB model provides a functional, reliable and efficient national referral network against which other health system strengthening initiatives can be built to increase access to critical diagnostic and treatment monitoring services, improve the quality of laboratory and diagnostic services, with reduced turn-around times and improved quality of prevention and treatment programs thereby reducing long-term costs.
This article suggests that veterinary medicine has a leadership role to play in our society on ethical matters involving non-human animals. The article contrasts two trends within veterinary medicine; the first trend is a continuation of the avowedly utilitarian attitude toward non-humans that has its roots in Western veterinary medicine's eighteenth-century origins, and the second is the implicit view in veterinary practice that animals matter in and of themselves. Using the idea of alternatives in research and teaching, the article suggests that, in the years to come, veterinary medicine's answers to the relationships of these two trends will shape not only the soul of veterinary medicine, veterinary education, and the veterinary profession but, just as importantly, the larger society and culture themselves. This text is based on the keynote address delivered at the AAVMC Education Symposium in Washington, DC, on March 9, 2006, under the title "Ethical Issues Impacting Animal Use in Veterinary Medical Teaching."
Brühschwein, Andreas; Klever, Julius; Wilkinson, Tom; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andrea
In 2016, the recommendations of the DICOM Standards Committee for the use of veterinary identification DICOM tags had its 10th anniversary. The goal of our study was to survey veterinary DICOM standard conformance in Germany regarding the specific identification tags veterinarians should use in veterinary diagnostic imaging. We hypothesized that most veterinarians in Germany do not follow the guidelines of the DICOM Standards Committee. We analyzed the metadata of 488 imaging studies of referral cases from 115 different veterinary institutions in Germany by computer-aided DICOM header readout. We found that 25 (5.1%) of the imaging studies fully complied with the "veterinary DICOM standard" in this survey. The results confirmed our hypothesis that the recommendations of the DICOM Standards Committee for the consistent and advantageous use of veterinary identification tags have found minimal acceptance amongst German veterinarians. DICOM does not only enable connectivity between machines, DICOM also improves communication between veterinarians by sharing correct and valuable metadata for better patient care. Therefore, we recommend that lecturers, universities, societies, authorities, vendors, and other stakeholders should increase their effort to improve the spread of the veterinary DICOM standard in the veterinary world.
De Risio, Luisa; Bhatti, Sofie; Muñana, Karen
This article outlines the consensus proposal on diagnosis of epilepsy in dogs by the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force. The aim of this consensus proposal is to improve consistency in the diagnosis of epilepsy in the clinical and research settings. The diagnostic approach to the patient...... paroxysmal events can be challenging. Criteria that can be used to make this differentiation are presented in detail and discussed. Criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy (IE) are described in a three-tier system. Tier I confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based on a history of two or more...... for the diagnosis of IE is based on the factors listed in tier I and unremarkable fasting and post-prandial bile acids, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain (based on an epilepsy-specific brain MRI protocol) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Tier III confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based...
Dearing, Chey G; Kilburn, Sally; Lindsay, Kevin S
Sperm counts have been linked to several fertility outcomes making them an essential parameter of semen analysis. It has become increasingly recognised that Computer-Assisted Semen Analysis (CASA) provides improved precision over manual methods but that systems are seldom validated robustly for use. The objective of this study was to gather the evidence to validate or reject the Sperm Class Analyser (SCA) as a tool for routine sperm counting in a busy laboratory setting. The criteria examined were comparison with the Improved Neubauer and Leja 20-μm chambers, within and between field precision, sperm concentration linearity from a stock diluted in semen and media, accuracy against internal and external quality material, assessment of uneven flow effects and a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to predict fertility in comparison with the Neubauer method. This work demonstrates that SCA CASA technology is not a standalone 'black box', but rather a tool for well-trained staff that allows rapid, high-number sperm counting providing errors are identified and corrected. The system will produce accurate, linear, precise results, with less analytical variance than manual methods that correlate well against the Improved Neubauer chamber. The system provides superior predictive potential for diagnosing fertility problems.
Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jensen, Asger L
The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review and selection of publications as standard references. The following recommendations are provided in the format and order commonly found in veterinary publications. A checklist is provided to aid in planning, implementing, and evaluating veterinary studies on biologic variation (Appendix S1). These recommendations provide a valuable resource for clinicians, laboratorians, and researchers interested in conducting studies of biologic variation and in determining the quality of studies of biologic variation in veterinary laboratory testing. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Wesolowski, Laura G; Parker, Monica M; Delaney, Kevin P; Owen, S Michele
The 2016 HIV Diagnostics Conference, held in Atlanta, Georgia, was attended by public health officials, laboratorians, HIV testing program managers, surveillance coordinators and industry representatives. The conference addressed test performance data, the implementation of new testing algorithms, quality assurance, and the application of new tests in a variety of settings. With regard to the recommended Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Association of Public Health Laboratories HIV laboratory testing algorithm, the conference featured performance data, implementation challenges such as a lack of test options for the second and third steps, as well as data needs for new tests that may be used as part of the algorithm. There are delays when nucleic acid testing is needed with the algorithm. Novel tests such as point of care nucleic acid tests are needed on the U.S. market to readily identify acute infection. Multiplex tests are being developed which allow for the simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens. CDC staff highlighted new guidance for testing in non-clinical settings. Innovative approaches to linking testing and care in some settings have led to identification of early infections, improved receipt of test results and expedited initiation of therapy. Work continues to optimize testing so that infections are accurately identified as early as possible and time to treatment is minimized to improve health outcomes and prevent transmission. Published by Elsevier B.V.
SUMMARY. Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an acute, severe and economically important transboundary disease of cattle caused by LSD virus (LSDV). Suspected outbreaks of LSD are frequently reported in. Nigeria, but laboratory diagnosis is seldom carried out and the economic impact of the disease is unknown. This study ...
practice in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of drugs prescription in dogs diagnosed with CPE in some small animal clinics in Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS ... presumptive and/or laboratory diagnoses. Data obtained from individual .... be appropriate and prudent. There is currently no ...
INTRODUCTION. Rabbits are widely used as laboratory animals for biomedical research. (Flecknell, 1987). They have also gained popularity among urban dwellers as domestic pets (Kilic, 2004). As a result, the same level of attention in the form of cares given to other pets by veterinarians has been extended to them.
Prasse, Keith W
Dr. Keith Prasse is a very distinguished leader in veterinary education. He started his career achieving his BS and DVM degrees from Iowa State University (ISU). He returned to ISU after a brief period in private practice in Illinois. His well-recognized career in veterinary pathology began with his MS and PhD degrees, followed by a five-year period of teaching at ISU. Dr. Prasse joined the faculty of the University of Georgia in 1972, and thus began a long-term partnership with Dr. Bob Duncan that is arguably the foundation of veterinary clinical pathology. The textbook they authored, Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, or "Duncan and Prasse" as it is known, remains the standard today, with later participation from Dr. Ed Mahaffey and most recently Dr. Ken Latimer. Dr. Prasse has mentored numerous graduate students and received many awards over his 23-year career in teaching, including the Norden Distinguished Teaching award twice, once at ISU and once at Georgia. His leadership as President of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists was greatly acknowledged and appreciated. Dr. Prasse's administrative service at the University of Georgia spanned 14 years, first as Associate Dean for Public Service and Outreach and later as Dean for eight years, during which time he served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC). The growth of the College of Veterinary Medicine under Dean Prasse's visionary leadership was extraordinary. He led through difficult economic and political times, yet the college and its community continued to prosper. His legacy at the University of Georgia is indelible and perpetual. His outstanding leadership of the college was recognized by the Georgia Veterinary Medical Association in 2004, when he was given the Georgia Veterinarian of the Year award. Since his retirement from Georgia, Dr. Prasse has contributed greatly to the profession and to the AAVMC by leading the Foresight project
Drolet, Barbara S; Weingartl, Hana M; Jiang, Jieyuan; Neufeld, James; Marszal, Peter; Lindsay, Robbin; Miller, Myrna M; Czub, Markus; Wilson, William C
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic insect transmitted virus endemic to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Infection causes abortions and high mortality in newborn ruminants. The overall human infection rate is rRT-PCR) assay was modified for quick virus inactivation for use in BSL-2 laboratories, evaluated on serum and tissue samples from experimentally infected lambs and calves, and compared to virus isolation. Viremia was detected in all inoculated sheep with titers reaching 10(6.5) plaque forming units/ml, or up to 10(10) viral RNA copies/ml. Viremia in calves was lower and not detected in all inoculated animals; however, all animals became transiently febrile and were infected as determined by rRT-PCR of tissues. Virus was isolated from rRT-PCR-positive liver and/or spleen in 33% of lamb and 41% of calf samples between 2 and 7 days post inoculation. For RVFV antigen detection, reagents are typically produced at BSL-3Ag or BSL-4 conditions and require inactivation and safety testing for use outside of containment. In this study, antiserum against recombinant RVFV-nucleocapsid (N) was produced to develop an immunohistochemical (IHC) assay which was subsequently evaluated on formalin fixed lamb and calf tissues at BSL-2 laboratory conditions. Antigen was detected by IHC in 79% of rRT-PCR-positive sheep and 70% of rRT-PCR-positive calf tissues tested. Once validated and approved by national regulatory agencies, these assays can be safely produced and distributed to regional diagnostic laboratories, providing capacity for early detection of RVFV in suspected ruminant samples. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
DeForge, Donald H
Ergonomics is the application of a body of knowledge addressing the interactions between man and the total working environment, such as atmosphere, heat, light and sound, as well as all tools and equipment of the workplace. Work related musculoskeletal injuries, caused by poor posture, have been discussed in human dentistry for several years. Veterinary dentistry, as a relatively new specialty within veterinary medicine, should address the ergonomics of poor posture without further delay to prevent work-related injuries. The generalist, as well as the specialist and their technicians, are subject to various neck and back disorders if proper ergonomic recommendations are not followed. This review article highlights basic ergonomic design principles for illumination and posture in veterinary dentistry.
Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathleen P; Vap, Linda M; Harr, Kendal E
Point-of-care testing (POCT) refers to any laboratory testing performed outside the conventional reference laboratory and implies close proximity to patients. Instrumental POCT systems consist of small, handheld or benchtop analyzers. These have potential utility in many veterinary settings, including private clinics, academic veterinary medical centers, the community (eg, remote area veterinary medical teams), and for research applications in academia, government, and industry. Concern about the quality of veterinary in-clinic testing has been expressed in published veterinary literature; however, little guidance focusing on POCT is available. Recognizing this void, the ASVCP formed a subcommittee in 2009 charged with developing quality assurance (QA) guidelines for veterinary POCT. Guidelines were developed through literature review and a consensus process. Major recommendations include (1) taking a formalized approach to POCT within the facility, (2) use of written policies, standard operating procedures, forms, and logs, (3) operator training, including periodic assessment of skills, (4) assessment of instrument analytical performance and use of both statistical quality control and external quality assessment programs, (5) use of properly established or validated reference intervals, (6) and ensuring accurate patient results reporting. Where possible, given instrument analytical performance, use of a validated 13s control rule for interpretation of control data is recommended. These guidelines are aimed at veterinarians and veterinary technicians seeking to improve management of POCT in their clinical or research setting, and address QA of small chemistry and hematology instruments. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide a minimum standard for maintenance of POCT instruments in the veterinary setting. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Anderson, Jamie G; Goldstein, Gary; Boudreaux, Karen; Ilkiw, Jan E
Dental disease is important in the population of pets seen by veterinarians. Knowledge and skills related to oral disease and dentistry are critical entry-level skills expected of graduating veterinarians. A descriptive survey on the state of veterinary dental education was sent to respondents from 35 veterinary schools in the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean. Using the online SurveyMonkey application, respondents answered up to 26 questions. Questions were primarily designed to determine the breadth and depth of veterinary dental education from didactic instruction in years 1-3 to the clinical year programs. There was an excellent response to the survey with 86% compliance. Learning opportunities for veterinary students in years 1-3 in both the lecture and laboratory environments were limited, as were the experiences in the clinical year 4, which were divided between community-type practices and veterinary dentistry and oral surgery services. The former provided more hands-on clinical experience, including tooth extraction, while the latter focused on dental charting and periodontal debridement. Data on degrees and certifications of faculty revealed only 12 programs with board-certified veterinary dentists. Of these, seven veterinary schools had residency programs in veterinary dentistry at the time of the survey. Data from this study demonstrate the lack of curricular time dedicated to dental content in the veterinary schools participating in the survey, thereby suggesting the need for veterinary schools to address the issue of veterinary dental education. By graduation, new veterinarians should have acquired the needed knowledge and skills to meet both societal demands and professional expectations.
Memon, M A; Shmalberg, J; Adair, H S; Allweiler, S; Bryan, J N; Cantwell, S; Carr, E; Chrisman, C; Egger, C M; Greene, S; Haussler, K K; Hershey, B; Holyoak, G R; Johnson, M; Jeune, S Le; Looney, A; McConnico, R S; Medina, C; Morton, A J; Munsterman, A; Nie, G J; Park, N; Parsons-Doherty, M; Perdrizet, J A; Peyton, J L; Raditic, D; Ramirez, H P; Saik, J; Robertson, S; Sleeper, M; Dyke, J Van; Wakshlag, J
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative.
Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270
Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B
Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lasers have been used in human dentistry since the 1960's. Lasers can provide a veterinary dentist access to difficult to reach areas with a relatively bloodless surgical field. Due to vaporization of nerve endings, human patients undergoing laser dental treatment reveal less pain compared to scalpel driven procedures. Dental applications for the commonly used lasers are discussed, as are special safety precautions. Many dental procedures enhanced by a carbon dioxide laser are covered. Future applications for the laser in veterinary dentistry are also discussed.
Rekant, Steven I; Lyons, Mark A; Pacheco, Juan M; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis L
Abnormal body temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in body surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to a myriad of diseases of various etiologies across a wide range of host species in veterinary medicine. It is used to monitor the physiologic status of individual animals, such as measuring feed efficiency or diagnosing pregnancy. Infrared thermography has applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and has been used to detect soring in horses and monitor stress responses. This review addresses the variety of uses for IRT in veterinary medicine, including disease detection, physiologic monitoring, welfare assessment, and potential future applications.
Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.
Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel
Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that prognostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the aggressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vanel, Maïa, E-mail: email@example.com [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Blond, Laurent [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Vanel, Daniel [The Rizzoli Institute, Via del Barbiano 1-10, 40136, Bologna (Italy)
Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all.
Stacy, Nicole I; Alleman, A Rick; Sayler, Katherine A
The hematologic evaluation of reptiles is an indispensable diagnostic tool in exotic veterinary practice. The diversity of reptile species, their characteristic physiologic features, and effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors present unique challenges for accurate interpretation of the hemogram. Combining the clinical presentation with hematologic findings provides valuable information in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease and helps guide the clinician toward therapy and further diagnostic testing. This article outlines the normal and pathologic morphology of blood cells of reptile species. The specific comparative aspects of reptiles are emphasized, and structural and functional abnormalities in the reptilian hemogram are described. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A new methodology for the improvement of diagnostic immunohistochemistry in canine veterinary pathology: automated system using human monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies Uma nova metodologia para melhora do diagnóstico imunoistoquímico em patologia veterinária canina: sistema automático usando anticorpos humanos monoclonais e policlonais
Full Text Available The authors describe their experience with an automated immunohistochemical system applied to canine tissue samples. Twenty human cellular markers specific monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and two different antigen retrieval methods were used in normal and neoplastic breast tissue, as well as skin samples obtained from female dogs of pure and mixed breeds. The antibodies tested were the most frequently used in human and veterinary medicine studies, employed with diagnostic purposes in breast pathology, as well as in cancer research. Most of them may be used to study other normal and abnormal tissues and included cytokeratins, progesterone receptor, c-erbB2, p53, MIB-1, PCNA, EMA, vimentin, desmin, alpha-actin, S-100, pan-cadherin, and E-cadherin. The results demonstrated that using an automated staining system it is possible to use different human markers in veterinary pathology. The advantages of automated immunohistochemistry are improved quality, reproducibility, speed, and standardisation.Os autores descrevem sua experiência com um sistema automático de imunoistoquímica aplicada à amostras de tecido canino. Foram utilizados 20 anticorpos humanos monoclonais e policlonais e dois diferentes métodos de recuperação antigênica em tecido mamário normal e neoplásico, bem como em amostras de pele obtidas de cadelas. Os anticorpos testados estão entre os mais usados em estudos de medicina humana e veterinária, com finalidade de diagnóstico em patologia mamária, bem como na pesquisa do câncer. Muitos deles podem ser usados para estudar outros tecidos normais e com alterações e incluem citoqueratinas, receptor de progesterona, c-erbB2, p53, MIB-1, PCNA, EMA, vimentina, desmina, alfa-actina, S-100, pan-caderina e E-caderina. Os resultados demonstraram que usando um sistema automático de imunoistoquímica é possível usar diferentes marcadores humanos em patologia veterinária. As vantagens da imunoistoquímica automatizada s
Lockhart, Laura E; Motsinger-Reif, Alison A; Simpson, Wendy M; Posner, Lysa P
The current prevalence of onychectomy (declawing) in cats is unknown, and education regarding the procedure appears to vary greatly among veterinary schools. The purpose of this project was to determine the prevalence of onychectomized cats near Raleigh, NC and to document the frequency and style (laboratory or lecture) with which the procedure is taught in USA veterinary schools. One thousand seven hundred ninety four cats ranging in age from 8 days to 21 years, of which 938 (52.3%) were female and 1719 (95.8%) were sterilized. Data were collected over a 10-week period regarding cats seen for appointments in five veterinary facilities (two cat-only, two general, and one tertiary). Data collection included signalment and onychectomy status. During this time, 28 veterinary schools were polled regarding education of veterinary students in onychectomy. Three hundred and seventy four (20.8%) cats had undergone onychectomy. A significantly higher percentage of declawed cats were seen in the general practices compared with the other practice types (p declawed. Less than 50% of veterinary schools in the USA include a mandatory lecture or laboratory to teach the procedure. There appears to be a discrepancy between the popularity of the onychectomy procedure and the emphasis placed on relevant instruction in veterinary schools in the USA. © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.
Rudnik-Schöneborn, S; Tölle, D; Senderek, J; Eggermann, K; Elbracht, M; Kornak, U; von der Hagen, M; Kirschner, J; Leube, B; Müller-Felber, W; Schara, U; von Au, K; Wieczorek, D; Bußmann, C; Zerres, K
We present clinical features and genetic results of 1206 index patients and 124 affected relatives who were referred for genetic testing of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) neuropathy at the laboratory in Aachen between 2001 and 2012. Genetic detection rates were 56% in demyelinating CMT (71% of autosomal dominant (AD) CMT1/CMTX), and 17% in axonal CMT (24% of AD CMT2/CMTX). Three genetic defects (PMP22 duplication/deletion, GJB1/Cx32 or MPZ/P0 mutation) were responsible for 89.3% of demyelinating CMT index patients in whom a genetic diagnosis was achieved, and the diagnostic yield of the three main genetic defects in axonal CMT (GJB1/Cx32, MFN2, MPZ/P0 mutations) was 84.2%. De novo mutations were detected in 1.3% of PMP22 duplication, 25% of MPZ/P0, and none in GJB1/Cx32. Motor nerve conduction velocity was uniformly 40 m/s in MFN2, and more variable in GJB1/Cx32, MPZ/P0 mutations. Patients with CMT2A showed a broad clinical severity regardless of the type or position of the MFN2 mutation. Out of 75 patients, 8 patients (11%) with PMP22 deletions were categorized as CMT1 or CMT2. Diagnostic algorithms are still useful for cost-efficient mutation detection and for the interpretation of large-scale genetic data made available by next generation sequencing strategies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Hirayama, Takanori; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Takeshita, Nozomi; Kotaki, Akira; Tajima, Shigeru; Omatsu, Tsutomu; Sano, Kouichi; Kurane, Ichiro
The reemergence of dengue virus (DENV) infection has created a requirement for improved laboratory diagnostic procedures. In this study, DENV genome detection in urine was evaluated as a diagnostic method. The DENV genome was detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) in urine and serum of dengue patients. The detection rate of DENV genome in urine was 25% (2/8) on disease days 0 to 3 and 32% (7/22) on days 4 to 5. The rate was 50% or higher on days 6 to 16, 52% (11/21) on days 6 to 7, 78% (7/9) on days 8 to 9, 80% (4/5) on days 10 to 11, 50% (2/4) on days 12 to 13, and 60% (3/5) on days 14 to 16. The last positive urine sample was on day 16. The detection rates in serum were highest on days 0 to 3 and were greater than 50% on days 0 to 7. Detection rates decreased thereafter, and the last positive detection was on day 11. These results indicate that the time frames for positive detection differ between urine and serum samples, whereby detection rates of 50% or higher are evident between days 6 to 16 for urine samples and days 0 to 7 for serum samples. Nucleotide sequences of PCR products were identical between urine and serum samples. The detection of DENV genome in urine samples by real-time RT-PCR is useful to confirm DENV infection, particularly after viremia disappears. PMID:22442323
Kerker, Ann E.; Malamud, Judie
This course guide outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on the literature of veterinary medicine. Topics covered include: (1) an introduction to veterinary medicine as a discipline, including comparison with other medical sciences, veterinary medicine education, licensure, animal models, veterinary…
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... relating to veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs. FDA's VFD regulation, which became effective on January... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration, 7500...
Focus and Scope. The Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted.
Jones, Bruce Vivash
The American Veterinary Medical Association is marking its 150th anniversary in 2013, celebrating '150 years of education, science and service'. As Bruce Vivash Jones explains, veterinary surgeons from the UK played a key role in establishing a system of veterinary education in North America.
2. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello Unviersity, Zaria, Nigeria. 2College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Mando, Kaduna, Nigeria. Correspondence Author: Abstract. Village chickens in Kaduna State, Nigeria were vaccinated once with a Malaysian heat-resistant Newcastle disease ...
Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...
Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K
The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review......). These recommendations provide a valuable resource for clinicians, laboratorians, and researchers interested in conducting studies of biologic variation and in determining the quality of studies of biologic variation in veterinary laboratory testing....
Tomasi, Suzanne; Roberts, Kristin J; Stull, Jason; Spiller, Henry A; McKenzie, Lara B
To describe the epidemiology of veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures to children based on calls to a regional poison control center. A retrospective analysis of pediatric (≤19 years of age) exposures to pharmaceutical products intended for animal use, managed by a regional poison control center from 1999 through 2013, was conducted. Case narratives were reviewed and coded for exposure-related circumstances and intended species. Descriptive statistics were generated. From 1999 through 2013, the Central Ohio Poison Center received 1431 calls that related to a veterinary pharmaceutical exposure for children ≤19 years of age. Most of the pediatric calls (87.6%) involved children ≤5 years of age. Exploratory behavior was the most common exposure-related circumstance (61.4%) and ingestion accounted for the exposure route in 93% of cases. Substances commonly associated with exposures included: veterinary drugs without human equivalent (17.3%), antimicrobial agents (14.8%), and antiparasitics (14.6%). Based on substance and quantity, the majority of exposures (96.9%) were not expected to result in long-term or lasting health effects and were managed at home (94.1%). A total of 80 cases (5.6%) were referred to a health care facility, and 2 cases resulted in a moderate health effect. Children ≤5 years of age are most at risk for veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures. Although most exposures do not result in a serious medical outcome, efforts to increase public awareness, appropriate product dispensing procedures, and attention to home storage practices may reduce the risk of veterinary pharmaceutical exposures to young children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Irwin Jane A
Full Text Available Extremophiles are organisms that can grow and thrive in harsh conditions, e.g., extremes of temperature, pH, salinity, radiation, pressure and oxygen tension. Thermophilic, halophilic and radiation-resistant organisms are all microbes, some of which are able to withstand multiple extremes. Psychrophiles, or cold-loving organisms, include not only microbes, but fish that live in polar waters and animals that can withstand freezing. Extremophiles are structurally adapted at a molecular level to withstand these conditions. Thermophiles have particularly stable proteins and cell membranes, psychrophiles have flexible cellular proteins and membranes and/or antifreeze proteins, salt-resistant halophiles contain compatible solutes or high concentrations of inorganic ions, and acidophiles and alkaliphiles are able to pump ions to keep their internal pH close to neutrality. Their interest to veterinary medicine resides in their capacity to be pathogenic, and as sources of enzymes and other molecules for diagnostic and pharmaceutical purposes. In particular, thermostable DNA polymerases are a mainstay of PCR-based diagnostics.
Rattenborg, Erik; Dietz, Hans-Henrik; Andersen, T.H.
The distribution of diagnoses of mortality in mink submitted to the Danish Veterinary Laboratory (DVL) for diagnostic investigation in the calendar year 1997 was compared with the diagnoses of mortality in all dead mink collected at 4 selected farms (project farms) during the same period. A total...... of the material from project farms and that of the submissions were approximately the same. Differences in the distribution of diagnoses as well as recovered microorganisms were found however, mainly related to the proportion of gastro-intestinal disorders and E. coli respectively. These proportions were...
Gesek, M; Szarek, J; Babińska, I; Wojtacka, J; Sobczak-Filipiak, M; Felsmann, M Z
This paper presents the main trends in the activity of European veterinary pathologists in the context of their oral presentations (plenary lectures and short presentations) and posters provided during annual meetings of the European Society of Veterinary Pathology (ESVP), in the decade 1997-2006. It was found that the issue that was most often brought up in the meetings was organ pathology (566 presentations). Infectious and parasitical diseases were only slightly less frequent (548 presentations). Oncology was another common issue (404 presentations). During this decade, 52 plenary lectures were presented, 765 oral presentations and 1 072 posters. Altogether, 1 889 presentations were made, which is between 127 and 238 per year. Research by Polish scientists accounted for 3.16% of all presentations. Additionally, the subject matter discussed at the annual meetings is analysed, and the trends in the development of veterinary diagnostic pathology and broad pathology education are indicated. It is shown that veterinary pathology enhances knowledge in the field of veterinary medicine by fulfilling a cognitive and diagnostic role.
Umar Faruk Abdullahi
Full Text Available Biofilm has a tremendous impact in the field of veterinary medicine, especially the livestock industry, leading to a serious economic loss. Over the years, little attention has been given to biofilm in animals with most of the research geared toward human biofilm diseases. The greatest challenge posed by biofilm is in its incredible ability to resist most of the currently existing antibiotics. This mystery can best be demystified through understanding the mechanism of the quorum sensing which regulate the pathophysiology of biofilm. Ability of biofilm formation in a variety of inanimate surfaces such as animal food contact surfaces is responsible for a host of biofilm diseases affecting animals and umans. In this review, we highlighted some of the challenges of biofilm in livestock and food industries. Also highlighted are; mechanisms of biofilm development, best diagnostic approach and possible novel therapeutic measures needed to combat the menace of biofilm in veterinary medicine.
Alekseev, Yuriy V.; Rumyantseva, Valentina D.; Gorshkova, Anastasiya S.; Shchelkunova, Anastasiya E.; Shilov, Igor P.; Ivanov, Andrey V.
Photodynamic therapy becomes a widely spread method due to cancer growth in the world. However, to detect tumors at early stages, it is necessary to carry out diagnostic measures in a timely manner. Our aim was to test the developed pharmaceutical composition, which can be used for external application in early fluorescent diagnostics even in the absence of visual changes, as well as for therapy effectiveness control. Pharmacokinetic studies on laboratory animals and volunteers were carried out. The results have shown that the dipotassium salt of Yb3+-dimethoxyhematoporphyrin IX, which is highly soluble in water and stable in storage, is a promising marker for earlier diagnostics of tumors and can be used in dermatology, dentistry, gynecology, cosmetology, ear, nose, and throat diseases, veterinary, and in other areas of medicine.
Innes, Elisabeth A; Bartley, Paul M; Maley, Stephen; Katzer, Frank; Buxton, David
Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff
in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination......The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... anxiety questionnaires (Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory and Cox and Kenardy's performance anxiety questionnaire) were used. Anxiety levels were measured before the non-surgical course (111 students from 2009) and before live-animal surgery during the surgical course (153 students from 2009...
Elisabeth A Innes
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard
A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...... of emotions; 63% of students experienced negative emotions, while 58% experienced positive ones. In addition, 61% of students reported feeling excited or tense. Students' statements reveal that anxiety is perceived as counterproductive to learning, while excitement seems to enhance students' focus...
H. S. Vedpathak
Full Text Available The veterinary practitioner has an ethical obligation to help alleviate animal pain. Although most veterinarians accept the fact that animals feel pain, still, postoperative pain relief is not a routine practice in all veterinary hospitals and clinics today. Nociception is a physiological process which involves transduction, transmission, modulation and perception of the noxious stimuli. Chemical mediators are important components of the nociceptive reflex and offer a target of pharmacologic modulation. Assessment of pain in animals is the most important step in the successful management of pain. Choosing appropriate method of pain control would depend upon the type of procedure followed, severity of pain and economic considerations for each individual circumstance. Our understanding of the pain in its manifestation, mechanisms, assessment and alleviation in animals is still although improving, limited. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 360-363
Diana L. Eubanks
Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changin...
Mossop, Liz H; Cobb, Kate
The teaching and assessment of professional behaviors and attitudes are important components of veterinary curricula. This article aims to outline some important considerations and concepts which will be useful for veterinary educators reviewing or developing this topic. A definition or framework of veterinary professionalism must be decided upon before educators can develop relevant learning outcomes. The interface between ethics and professionalism should be considered, and both clinicians and ethicists should deliver professionalism teaching. The influence of the hidden curriculum on student development as professionals should also be discussed during curriculum planning because it has the potential to undermine a formal curriculum of professionalism. There are several learning theories that have relevance to the teaching and learning of professionalism; situated learning theory, social cognitive theory, adult learning theory, reflective practice and experiential learning, and social constructivism must all be considered as a curriculum is designed. Delivery methods to teach professionalism are diverse, but the teaching of reflective skills and the use of early clinical experience to deliver valid learning opportunities are essential. Curricula should be longitudinal and integrated with other aspects of teaching and learning. Professionalism should also be assessed, and a wide range of methods have the potential to do so, including multisource feedback and portfolios. Validity, reliability, and feasibility are all important considerations. The above outlined approach to the teaching and assessment of professionalism will help ensure that institutions produce graduates who are ready for the workplace.
The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Frequency, antimicrobial susceptibility and clonal distribution of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in canine clinical samples submitted to a veterinary diagnostic laboratory in Italy: A 3-year retrospective investigation
Ventrella, G.; Moodley, A.; Grandolfo, E.
In the last decade there has been a rapid global spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) clones displaying multidrug resistance in dogs. We investigated prevalence, antimicrobial susceptibility and clonal distribution of MRSP isolated from clinical canine samples...... between during 2011–2014. Following species identification by nuc PCR, MRSP were confirmed by the presence of mecA and characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), SCCmec typing, and Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) of a few isolates having distinct...... PFGE profiles. Both the MRSP isolation frequency in the 175 samples tested (12%) and the prevalence of methicillin resistance amongst the 63 S. pseudintermedius isolates (33%) were high compared to a previous study in Italy. Sequence type (ST)71 carrying SCCmec type II–III, described as the epidemic...
Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Klenner, Stefanie
Prior to introduction of a new method to the diagnostic laboratory, analytical performance must be validated to ensure operation within the manufacturer's specifications and/or within predetermined quality requirements. In addition, the new method may require diagnostic performance assessment to ensure it differentiates between diseased and nondiseased individuals as intended. These 2 phases of assessment, while complementary, are not equivalent and require a different set of experiments, statistical analyses, and interpretation. Studies of analytical performance typically include a method comparison experiment, the purpose of which is to identify bias (inaccuracy) of the "test" (or "index") method (new method) relative to a "comparative method" (established method). Analysis of method comparison data is facilitated by commercial software programs that present the statistical significance of identified bias; however, the clinical relevance of any bias also should be considered. Studies of diagnostic performance should not be pursued until analytical performance is fully characterized and may not be required for well-established tests or for those for which results are nonspecific (ie, not referable to a specific disease or condition). Diagnostic performance assessment may include assessment of sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, odds ratios, and/or likelihood ratios. The purpose of this review is to clarify differences between the assessment of analytical and diagnostic performance, and to explore the method comparison study and bias assessment from a perspective not addressed in prior veterinary articles. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Kogan, Lori R.; Dowers, Kristy L.; Cerda, Jacey R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.; Stewart, Sherry M.
Veterinary schools, similar to many professional health programs, face a myriad of evolving challenges in delivering their professional curricula including expansion of class size, costs to maintain expensive laboratories, and increased demands on veterinary educators to use curricular time efficiently and creatively. Additionally, exponential expansion of the knowledge base through ongoing biomedical research, educational goals to increase student engagement and clinical reasoning earlier in the curriculum, and students' desire to access course materials and enhance their educational experience through the use of technology all support the need to reassess traditional microscope laboratories within Professional Veterinary Medical (PVM) educational programs. While there is clear justification for teaching veterinary students how to use a microscope for clinical evaluation of cytological preparations (i.e., complete blood count, urinalysis, fecal analysis, fine needle aspirates, etc.), virtual microscopy may be a viable alternative to using light microscopy for teaching and learning fundamental histological concepts. This article discusses results of a survey given to assess Professional Veterinary Medical students' perceptions of using virtual microscope for learning basic histology/microscopic anatomy and implications of these results for using virtual microscopy as a pedagogical tool in teaching first-year Professional Veterinary Medical students' basic histology.
Buesa, René J
The information from 221 US histology laboratories (histolabs) and 104 from 24 other countries with workloads from 600 to 116 000 cases per year was used to calculate productivity standards for 23 technical and 27 nontechnical tasks and for 4 types of work flow indicators. The sample includes 254 human, 40 forensic, and 31 veterinary pathology services. Statistical analyses demonstrate that most productivity standards are not different between services or worldwide. The total workload for the US human pathology histolabs averaged 26 061 cases per year, with 54% between 10 000 and less than 30 000. The total workload for 70% of the histolabs from other countries was less than 20 000, with an average of 15 226 cases per year. The fundamental manual technical tasks in the histolab and their productivity standards are as follows: grossing (14 cases per hour), cassetting (54 cassettes per hour), embedding (50 blocks per hour), and cutting (24 blocks per hour). All the other tasks, each with their own productivity standards, can be completed by auxiliary staff or using automatic instruments. Depending on the level of automation of the histolab, all the tasks derived from a workload of 25 cases will require 15.8 to 17.7 hours of work completed by 2.4 to 2.7 employees with 18% of their working time not directly dedicated to the production of diagnostic slides. This article explains how to extrapolate this productivity calculation for any workload and different levels of automation. The overall performance standard for all the tasks, including 8 hours for automated tissue processing, is 3.2 to 3.5 blocks per hour; and its best indicator is the value of the gross work flow productivity that is essentially dependent on how the work is organized. This article also includes productivity standards for forensic and veterinary histolabs, but the staffing benchmarks for histolabs will be the subject of a separate article. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Steele, Michael; Crabb, Nicholas P; Moore, Lynda J; Reyher, Kristen K; Baillie, Sarah; Eisler, Mark C
Evidence-based veterinary medicine (EBVM) is of interest and relevance to veterinary practitioners. Consequently, veterinary schools take responsibility for teaching students how to appraise scientific articles and for equipping them with the skills needed to obtain and evaluate the best evidence and to apply this approach to their own cases. As part of our farm animal clinical rotation, we train students in qualitative and quantitative EBVM methods using an e-learning environment, online teaching materials, a wiki (a Web site that allows its users to edit its content via a Web browser), and face-to-face tutorials that support learning. Students working in small groups use a wiki to record details of the history, clinical presentation, diagnostic tests, herd data, and management plans for their chosen farm animal clinical cases. Using a standardized patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome (PICO) format, each group formulates a patient question based on either a proposed intervention or diagnostic procedure for the case and conducts an online scientific literature database search. The students appraise the articles retrieved using EBVM approaches and record the information in the wiki. The summation of this body of work, the group's critically appraised topic (CAT), includes the original PICO, a standardized table of the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of the intervention or diagnostic procedure, a summary statement in the form of a clinical bottom line, and their reflections upon the CAT. At the end of the rotation, students take part in a structured "CAT Club" where they present and discuss their findings with fellow students and clinicians.
Gabriela Cristina Schmitt
very toxic product, fatally poisoning mainly by the lack of an efficient antidote to revert the clinical state. FISIOPATHOLOGY: Toxicological effects are decurrent of oxidative stress. The most important target organ is the lung, which can display edema, hemorrhage, interstitial inflammation and fibroses, culminating in serious respiratory failure and death. Moreover, it is nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic, miotoxic and neurotoxic. TREATMENT: Besides aiming the decrease of absorption and stimulating the excretion of absorbed paraquat, the poisoning treatment nowadays is based on measures that decrease oxidative stress using antioxidants, consequently reverting clinical state, mainly the pulmonary. Diagnostic methods: Among the available quantitative methods, the chromatographic are the most reported ones for biological samples. However, capillary electrophoresis and immunoassay methods can be used. Immunoassays stand out for being typically found in hospital laboratories, while chromatographic and electrophoretic methods are not. On the other hand, a simple and fast urinary reaction with sodium dithionite is very utilized because it is predictive in acute poisoning suspect. CONCLUSION: In the presence of high morbimortality potential in paraquat intoxications, the reversion of pulmonary toxicity with antioxidants is extensively studied, but a specific antidote is not established. In laboratorial diagnostic, chromatographic, electrophoretic and immunologic techniques are applied to paraquat quantification, although in clinical toxicology the sodium dithionite reaction is still significant.
Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M
Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.
Full Text Available Musser Jeffrey MBDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, TX, USAThis year marks the 250th anniversary of the Royal Veterinary School in Lyon, France, the world's first veterinary college. Since its inception, many changes have occurred in veterinary medicine such as views on education and didactic learning, demographics of our profession, and standards of practice in animal husbandry, medicine, surgery, anesthesia, and vaccinology. In fact, the concept of infectious diseases has changed - remember the germ theory was proposed a mere 140 years ago. However, one constant tenet in our profession has been the need to disseminate progresses, innovations, advances, and developments in veterinary sciences. Published reports are the foundation for the growth of medicine and science. What would the state of medicine be if Pasteur, Koch, Bourgelat, or Theobald Smith had not published their works?
..., Director, Planning, Finance & Strategy, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 39, Riverdale, MD 20737- 1231; (301... user fees are authorized by section 2509(c)(1) of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of... authorized by section 2509(c) of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, as amended (21 U...
Douglas, Jeffrey S.
Spiraling veterinary student debt and the lack of a sustainable and profitable business model for many private practices in the modern business environment threaten the future growth and stability of the veterinary profession.
Milorad Radakovic is a teaching fellow in veterinary public health (VPH) at the University of Cambridge. Here, he explains why he believes the challenges in this field of veterinary medicine make for an exciting career path. In a second article to be published in Vet Record Careers next week, he will share some of his own experiences of working in this field. British Veterinary Association.
Pasquetti, Mario; Min, Anna Rita Molinar; Scacchetti, Stefania; Dogliero, Andrea; Peano, Andrea
Microsporum canis is a dermatophyte fungus of which cats and dogs are recognized as the natural hosts. M. canis is also easily transmitted to humans, causing lesions to the glabrous skin (tinea corporis) and to the head (tinea capitis). The present study describes some cases of infection with M. canis in children from a veterinary perspective, highlighting some important features of this clinical entity (e.g., the necessity to identify the animal source of infection with appropriate diagnostic tests; the fact that infected cats may present with no or atypical dermatological signs; and the importance of the environment as a fungal reserve).
Gelberg, Susan; Gelberg, Howard
Two-hundred-and-eighty-nine veterinary students from all four years of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM) were invited to complete the Derogatis Stress Profile (DSP)1 and an original Demographic Data Profile (DDP). The DSP assessed the students' current experiences of perceived stress, and the DDP was designed to gather information about students' academic year, their living situations, their financial situations, their interest area within the veterinary medical profession, and their current methods of coping with stress. These data were gathered as a baseline measure of veterinary medical students' perceived level of stress and quality of life. In an earlier study, data were also collected from faculty and staff about the perceived quality of the climate and culture of the veterinary college. The results of the DSP and DDP suggest that, although veterinary students at UTCVM do not experience significant levels of stress overall, they do report higher levels of subjective stress, time pressure, and depression than the general population. The more companion animals that veterinary students cared for in their personal lives, the more likely they were to report higher levels of perceived stress. Lastly, there were significant differences between genders, with female veterinary students reporting higher levels of perceived stress than their male counterparts. The preliminary results of the climate and culture data suggest that faculty and staff of the veterinary college individually feel that they are cared for in the work environment and collectively believe that the college strives for excellence.
Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.
... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA... Act of 1995, invites the general public to comment on an information collection for the Veterinary...
Sisk, Dudley B.; And Others
Members of the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges-Council of Educators were surveyed in an attempt to measure their opinions and feelings towards veterinary medical education. Their opinions on such topics as relationships between students, faculty, the curriculum, and the identity of veterinary medicine are reported. (LBH)
Pryor, Brian; Millis, Darryl L
Laser therapy is an increasingly studied modality that can be a valuable tool for veterinary practitioners. Mechanisms of action have been studied and identified for the reduction of pain and inflammation and healing of tissue. Understanding the basics of light penetration into tissue allows evaluation of the correct dosage to deliver for the appropriate condition, and for a particular patient based on physical properties. New applications are being studied for some of the most challenging health conditions and this field will continue to grow. Additional clinical studies are still needed and collaboration is encouraged for all practitioners using this technology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.
Hubbert, William T.
The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 14 Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory... [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Veterinary Medicine Committee was...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the...-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3), Food and Drug...
Guardabassi, Luca; Hedberg, Sandra; Jessen, Lisbeth Rem
-pathogens in veterinary practice. METHODS: Seventy-two urine samples from dogs and cats with suspected UTI presenting to seven veterinary facilities were used by clinical staff and an investigator to estimate sensitivity and specificity of Flexicult Vet A compared to laboratory reference standards for culture...
Banzato, T; Hellebuyck, T; Van Caelenberg, A; Saunders, J H; Zotti, A
Snakes and lizards are considered 'stoic' animals and often show only non-specific signs of illness. Consequently, diagnostic imaging--along with clinical examination and laboratory tests--is gaining importance in making a final diagnosis and establishing a correct therapy. The large number of captive snake and lizard species commonly kept as pets, together with the high inter- and intraspecific morphological variability that is innate in these animals, make the analysis of diagnostic images challenging for the veterinary practitioner. Moreover, a thorough knowledge of the anatomy, physiology and pathology of the species that are the object of clinical investigation is mandatory for the correct interpretation of diagnostic images. Despite the large amount of clinical and scientific work carried out in the past two decades, the radiographic features of snakes and lizards have not undergone systematic description, and therefore veterinarians often have to rely mostly on anatomical studies rather than radiological literature. The aim of this paper is to review the most commonly used diagnostic imaging modalities, as well as to provide an overview of the available international original studies and scientific reviews describing the normal and pathological imaging features in snakes and lizards.
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of most contagious animal diseases. It affects millions of cloven-hoofed animals and causes huge economic losses in many countries of the world. There are seven serotypes of which three (O, A and Asia 1) are endemic in China. Efficient control of FMD in China is crucial for the prevention and control of FMD in Asia and throughout the world. For the control of FMD, a powerful veterinary administration, a well-trained veterinary staff, a system of rapid and accurate diagnostic procedures and, in many countries, compulsory vaccination of susceptible animals are indispensable. This article strives to outline the Chinese animal disease control and prevention system, in particular for FMD, with the emphasis on diagnostic procedures applied in Chinese laboratories. In addition, new technologies for FMD diagnosis, which are currently in the phase of development or in the process of validation in Chinese laboratories, are described, such as lateral flow devices (LFD), Mab-based ELISAs, reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) and gold nanopariticle immuno-PCR (GNP-IPCR). PMID:23497282
Smith, Ronald D.; Williams, Mitsuko
This study used the peer-reviewed biomedical literature to define the veterinary informatics knowledgebase and associated subspecialties, and assesses the level of activity in the field over the thirty-year period from 1966 through 1995. Grateful Med was used to search the MEDLINE bibliographic database for articles that shared one or more Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords from the veterinary and medical informatics subject headings. Each of ninety-five MeSH medical informatics terms was assigned to one of twelve veterinary informatics subspecialties. The number of articles retrieved by each MeSH keyword and subspecialty was calculated. A total of 611 articles were retrieved, representing the contributions of 1,338 authors published in 153 journals. The field experienced slow growth over the twenty-year period from 1966 through 1985. In the following decade, the cumulative number of veterinary informatics articles almost tripled and the percentage of veterinary-related articles that included an informatics component increased almost two-and-one-half fold. Despite this recent growth, the number of veterinary-related articles with an informatics component has never exceeded 1% of either the veterinary or medical informatics literature over the past thirty years, and representation of veterinary subspecialties in the literature varied widely. PMID:10658963
Kalymbek, Bakytzhan; Shulanbekova, Gulmira K.; Madiyarova, Ainur S.; Mirambaeva, Gulnaz Zh.
This article is devoted to the problem of veterinary safety of the countries under the Eurasian Economic Union. Animal health's measures are provided in order to prevent the entry and spread of infectious animal diseases, including common to humans and animals, as well as goods not conforming to the common veterinary and sanitary requirements.…
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to the...
The study was conducted to. (1) determine the kinds of veterinary extension services that are provided to livestock farmers;. (2) determine the frequency of farmers contact with extension agents in relation to the extent of adoption of animal health innovations, and. (3) identify the various constraints to veterinary extension ...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine mammals...
Buchanan, Robert A; Wooldridge, Anne A
The body of knowledge in veterinary medicine and the biomedical sciences continues to grow logarithmically, and learning about new developments in veterinary medicine requires successful navigation of recently published literature worldwide. This article examines how veterinarians can use different types of automated services from databases and publishers to search the current and past literature, access articles, and manage references that are found.
Horne, R. D.
Graduate training in clinical veterinary medicine is discussed. The options available to the student and problems that must be dealt with are presented, along with the requirements to accomplish a finely structured program that satisfies the needs of both the trainee and clinical veterinary medicine. (Author/MLW)
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary records...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol. 26 (2), 2005. EFFECT OF ETHYLENE DIAMINE TETRAACETIC ACID (EDTA) ON IN VI TRO. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TETRACYCLINE AND AMPICILLIN AGAINST. ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS. CHAH*1, K.F. AND OBOEGBULEMz, S.I.. [Department of I Veterinary Pathology and ...
Womack, James E.; Templeton, Joe W.
Areas that will influence the development of veterinary medical genetics as a clinical discipline are discussed, some critical research areas of immediate concern are suggested, and misconceptions held by many practicing veterinarians which must be corrected at the level of veterinary education are identified. (JMD)
Black, Leslie S.; Turnwald, Grant H.; Meldrum, James B.
Describes the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's use of outcomes assessment (OA) as part of the accreditation review process for the American Veterinary Medical Association. Discusses its nine OA survey instruments and use of resulting data during accreditation. (EV)
Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.
The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of
Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.
The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of
This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...
Nigerian VeterinaryJournal. ~. Vol35(2) 995·1006 ... ADEN KOLA, A Y: and OKORO, L.1. Departm,entof Physiology Pharmacology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Nlgena. Corresponding ... defenses against external and internal aggressions such as ROS (SIES, 1993,.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AM Biotechnologies (AM) in partnership with Sandia National Laboratories will develop a Thioaptamer Diagnostic System (TDS) in response to Topic X10.01 Reusable...
Ortega S, César
This article analyzes curriculum offerings related to aquaculture and/or aquatic-animal health taught in veterinary medical schools or colleges in Mexico. The information database of the Mexican Association of Schools and Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and the Web sites of veterinary institutions indicate that 60% of veterinary colleges include courses related to aquaculture in their curriculum, but most of these are optional courses. There are few specialized continuing education programs or graduate level courses. There is also a lack of veterinary participation, in both public and private sectors, in aquatic-animal health. It is evident that there should be a greater involvement by the veterinary profession in Mexico's aquaculture to ensure food production in a safe and sustainable manner; to achieve this, veterinary medical institutions must include more aquaculture and aquatic-animal health courses in their curricula.
Killinger, Stacy L; Flanagan, Sean; Castine, Eleanor; Howard, Kimberly A S
While existing literature suggests that professional students (e.g., medical, dental, law, nursing, etc.) experience high levels of stress and depression, the experiences of veterinary medical students have been less well examined. The purpose of this study was to explore the levels of stress and depression among veterinary medical students and to examine the relationship between these variables. Study participants were 1,245 veterinary medical students from North America. The findings provide support for the assertion that veterinary medical students experience high levels of stress and depression. Results also indicated that there is a correlation between stress and depression for veterinary medical students and that female students experience higher levels of stress and depression than their male counterparts.
Conn, David Bruce
Tropical veterinary parasites have been maintained by the Museum of Comparative Zoology (MCZ) at Harvard University since the mid 1800s. Most of these are maintained by the Department of Invertebrate Zoology, but many vectors and intermediate hosts are maintained by the Departments of Entomology and Malacology. The largest collections are of avian and mammalian ticks (Acarina) that are important as both parasites and vectors. Nematodes are second in numbers, followed by cestodes, trematodes, and several minor helminth groups, crustacean parasites of fish, and protozoan parasites of various hosts. The MCZ directed or participated in several major expeditions to tropical areas around the globe in the early 1900s. Many of these expeditions focused on human parasites, but hundreds of veterinary and zoonotic parasites were also collected from these and numerous, smaller, tropical expeditions. Host sources include companion animals, livestock, laboratory species, domestic fowl, reptiles, amphibians, exotics/zoo animals, commercially important fishes, and other wildlife. Specimens are curated, either fixed whole in vials or mounted on slides as whole mounts or histopathological sections. The primary emphasis of MCZ's current work with tropical veterinary parasites is on voucher specimens from epidemiological, experimental, and clinical research.
Full Text Available Abstract The use of large animals as an experimental model for novel treatment techniques has many advantages over the use of laboratory animals, so veterinary medicine is becoming an increasingly important translational bridge between preclinical studies and human medicine. The results of preclinical studies show that gene therapy with therapeutic gene encoding interleukin-12 (IL-12 displays pronounced antitumor effects in various tumor models. A number of different studies employing this therapeutic plasmid, delivered by either viral or non-viral methods, have also been undertaken in veterinary oncology. In cats, adenoviral delivery into soft tissue sarcomas has been employed. In horses, naked plasmid DNA has been delivered by direct intratumoral injection into nodules of metastatic melanoma. In dogs, various types of tumors have been treated with either local or systemic IL-12 electrogene therapy. The results of these studies show that IL-12 based gene therapy elicits a good antitumor effect on spontaneously occurring tumors in large animals, while being safe and well tolerated by the animals. Hopefully, such results will lead to further investigation of this therapy in veterinary medicine and successful translation into human clinical trials.
Pavlin, Darja; Cemazar, Maja; Sersa, Gregor; Tozon, Natasa
The use of large animals as an experimental model for novel treatment techniques has many advantages over the use of laboratory animals, so veterinary medicine is becoming an increasingly important translational bridge between preclinical studies and human medicine. The results of preclinical studies show that gene therapy with therapeutic gene encoding interleukin-12 (IL-12) displays pronounced antitumor effects in various tumor models. A number of different studies employing this therapeutic plasmid, delivered by either viral or non-viral methods, have also been undertaken in veterinary oncology. In cats, adenoviral delivery into soft tissue sarcomas has been employed. In horses, naked plasmid DNA has been delivered by direct intratumoral injection into nodules of metastatic melanoma. In dogs, various types of tumors have been treated with either local or systemic IL-12 electrogene therapy. The results of these studies show that IL-12 based gene therapy elicits a good antitumor effect on spontaneously occurring tumors in large animals, while being safe and well tolerated by the animals. Hopefully, such results will lead to further investigation of this therapy in veterinary medicine and successful translation into human clinical trials.
Pospischil, Andreas; Folkers, Gerd
In diagnostic and research reports as well as text-books of human and veterinary pathology repeatability, reproducibility, inter- and intra-observer variation are mentioned rarely as a problem in preparing diagnosis from macroscopic and/or microscopic samples and discussed inconsistently. However, optimal care and restoration of health for a patient are dependent on reliability of diagnosis, therapy, prognosis and prophylaxis. This requires for all tests and procedures a maximal repeatability and reproducibility, a sensitivity and specificity of 85-95% for procedures and methodologies and a comparison of results procedures and methodologies to a gold standard. Looking at the various steps on the road to diagnosis in pathology this is influenced by a series of laboratory steps preparing tissue samples but most importantly reproducibility depends on the handling of visual information in the central nervous system of the individual diagnostician. Thus reproducibility in this context has to be divided into at least three levels: individual (epistemological, organoleptic, inter- and intra-observer variation, and formal/technological- and normative reproducibility). The aim of the present manuscript is to stimulate the reflection among the pathology experts on this most important topic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Erin E. Kerby
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in research data output, reuse, and sharing of the college of veterinary medicine faculty members at a large academic research institution. METHODS: This bibliographic study was conducted by examining original research articles for indication of the types of data produced, as well as evidence that the authors reused data or made provision for sharing their own data. Findings were recorded in the categories of research type, data type, data reuse, data sharing, author collaboration, and grants/funding and were analyzed to determine trends. RESULTS: A variety of different data types were encountered in this study, even within a single article, resulting primarily from clinical and laboratory animal studies. All of the articles resulted from author collaboration, both within the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, as well as with researchers outside the institution. There was little indication that data was reused, except some instances where the authors acknowledged that data was obtained directly from a colleague. There was even less indication that the research data was shared, either as a supplementary file on the publisher’s website or by submission to a repository, except in the case of genetic data. CONCLUSIONS: Veterinary researchers are prolific producers and users of a wide variety of data. Despite the large amount of collaborative research occurring in veterinary medicine, this study provided little evidence that veterinary researchers are reusing or sharing their data, except in an informal manner. Wider adoption of data management plans may serve to improve researchers’ data management practices.
Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia van Drunen
The prevention of infectious diseases of animals by vaccination has been routinely practiced for decades and has proved to be one of the most cost-effective methods of disease control. However, since the pioneering work of Pasteur in the 1880s, the composition of veterinary vaccines has changed very little from a conceptual perspective and this has, in turn, limited their application in areas such as the control of chronic infectious diseases. New technologies in the areas of vaccine formulation and delivery as well as our increased knowledge of disease pathogenesis and the host responses associated with protection from disease offer promising alternatives for vaccine formulation as well as targets for the prevention of bacterial disease. These new vaccines have the potential to lessen our reliance on antibiotics for disease control, but will only reach their full potential when used in combination with other intervention strategies.
Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N
Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Hesbach, Amie Lamoreaux
As it matures, the field of animal rehabilitation is welcoming utilization of interventions that have proven efficacy in the specialty of physical therapy for human patients. More recently, manual therapy techniques have become more accepted. Range-of-motion and stretching techniques; mobilization or manipulation of soft tissues, peripheral joints, and the spine; neuromuscular facilitation techniques; techniques unique to osteopathy; chest physical therapy; manual lymphatic drainage techniques; and neural mobilization techniques are now commonly incorporated in clinical practice, and these interventions are more commonly cited in the veterinary literature. The following is a brief review of these manual therapy approaches including the goals, effects, indications, precautions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K
Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.
... reasonable educational expenses, including fees, books, and laboratory expenses, incurred by the individual... Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1977 (7 U.S.C. 3151a). The purpose of this program... Policy Act of 1977 (NARETPA). This law established a new Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (7 U...
.... Loans eligible for repayment include educational loans made for one or more of the following: Loans for tuition expenses; other reasonable educational expenses, including fees, books, and laboratory expenses..., Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1997 (NARETPA). This law established a new Veterinary Medicine Loan...
Marques, Cristiano Corrêa de Azevedo; Carvalheiro, José da Rocha
to assess the performance of the diagnostic network in the implementation process of the Program for Viral Hepatitis Prevention and Control in São Paulo State, Brazil, from 1997 to 2012. evaluation study based on documentary research and structured interviews, combined with a historical series analysis of indicators developed to assess the implementation process of the program, using data from the Department of the Brazilian National Health System. from 1997 to 2012, the serology, biopsy and molecular biology diagnostic networks showed an increase in the coefficients of coverage of 7.4, 7.3, and 62.0 times, respectively, with an increase in cases detection and treatment access. despite the effective implementation of the diagnostic network, there is a need to review the search strategy for new cases, and access to liver biopsy, still insufficient to the program demand.
Funmilayo A. Okanlawon, RN, PhD, FWACN
Full Text Available Traditionally, nursing care has been identified as an integral part of human medicine but is not well recognised in veterinary medicine as practised in Nigeria. In caring for human beings, a nurse is expected to have the fundamental understanding of disease aetiology, manifestations, diagnosis, manage-ment, rehabilitation, prevention and control. This is equally applicable to the care of animals. The role of veterinary nursing in veterinary medicine is significant considering the multitude of issues involved in the care of animals. The keeping of domestic animals is becoming popular and consequently the spread of infectious diseases from animals to human beings is on the increase. It is vital for human beings and animals to coexist in a healthy environment. The authors examine the importance of nursing care in veterinary medicine, the current situation in Nigeria, the role of veterinary nurses, the inter-professional approach to veterinary medicine, preparedness for the emergence of infectious diseases and career opportunities for veterinary nurses. This premise falls within the context of the ‘One Health’ concept.
Kochevar, Deborah T
Veterinary clinical pharmacology encompasses all interactions between drugs and animals and applies basic and clinical knowledge to improve rational drug use and patient outcomes. Veterinary pharmacology instructors set educational goals and objectives that, when mastered by students, lead to improved animal health. The special needs of pharmacology instruction include establishing a functional interface between basic and clinical knowledge, managing a large quantity of information, and mastering quantitative skills essential to successful drug administration and analysis of drug action. In the present study, a survey was conducted to determine the extent to which veterinary pharmacology instructors utilize information technology (IT) in their teaching. Several IT categories were investigated, including Web-based instructional aids, stand-alone pharmacology software, interactive videoconferencing, databases, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and e-book applications. Currently IT plays a largely ancillary role in pharmacology instruction. IT use is being expanded primarily through the efforts of two veterinary professional pharmacology groups, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology (ACVCP) and the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT). The long-term outcome of improved IT use in pharmacology instruction should be to support the larger educational mission of active learning and problem solving. Creation of high-quality IT resources that promote this goal has the potential to improve veterinary pharmacology instruction within and across institutions.
Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.
Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009
The undergraduate teaching of veterinary parasitology in an African perspective is reviewed. Information was gathered from 8 of approximately 20 veterinary schools/faculties in Africa. In order to compare teaching in the different schools a standard questionnaire was designed for collecting data on different aspects of the curriculum, including the curriculum structure, the year(s) in which veterinary parasitology is taught, the contact hours allocated to teaching and the methods of teaching. The results of the eight faculties/schools reveal that veterinary parasitology is taught in a disciplinary approach allocating a total of 90-198 h to lectures (46-75%) and practicals 38-196 h (25-54%) during the full curriculum. There are considerable differences in structure of the curricula and methods of teaching undergraduate veterinary parasitology between the various schools/faculties. Availability of teaching staff and the cost of running practical classes are the most limiting factors in teaching of veterinary parasitology. There is a need to constantly review the curriculum of undergraduate veterinary parasitology and to standardise the materials and methods in light of new knowledge. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.
Hines, Stephen A; Collins, Peggy L; Quitadamo, Ian J; Brahler, C Jayne; Knudson, Cameron D; Crouch, Gregory J
A case-based program called ATLes (Adaptive Teaching and Learning Environments) was designed for use in a systemic pathology course and implemented over a four-year period. Second-year veterinary students working in small collaborative learning groups used the program prior to their weekly pathology laboratory. The goals of ATLes were to better address specific learning objectives in the course (notably the appreciation of pathophysiology), to solve previously identified problems associated with information overload and information sorting that commonly occur as part of discovery-based processes, and to enhance classroom discussion. The program was also designed to model and allow students to practice the problem-oriented approach to clinical cases, thereby enabling them to study pathology in a relevant clinical context. Features included opportunities for students to obtain additional information on the case by requesting specific laboratory tests and/or diagnostic procedures. However, students were also required to justify their diagnostic plans and to provide mechanistic analyses. The use of ATLes met most of these objectives. Student acceptance was high, and students favorably reviewed the online ''Content Links'' that made useful information more readily accessible and level appropriate. Students came to the lab better prepared to engage in an in-depth and high-quality discussion and were better able to connect clinical problems to underlying changes in tissue (lesions). However, many students indicated that the required time on task prior to lab might have been excessive relative to what they thought they learned. The classroom discussion, although improved, was not elevated to the expected level-most likely reflecting other missing elements of the learning environment, including the existing student culture and the students' current discussion skills. This article briefly discusses the lessons learned from ATLes and how similar case-based exercises might be
Laboratory diagnosis of gestational diabetes: An in silico investigation into the effects of pre-analytical processing on the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the oral glucose tolerance test.
Mansell, Erin; Lunt, Helen; Docherty, Paul
Delayed separation of red cells from plasma causes pre analytical glucose loss, which in turn results in an under-diagnosis of GDM (gestational diabetes) based on the OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test). In silico investigations may help laboratory decision making, when exploring pragmatic improvements to sample processing. Late pregnancy 0, 1 and 2h 75g OGTT values were obtained from two distinct populations of pregnant women: 1. Values derived from the HAPO (Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome) Study and 2. New Zealand women identified as at higher risk of GDM by their caregivers, undergoing OGTT during routine antenatal care. In both populations studied, in silico modelling focussed on the effects of pre-analytical delays in plasma separation, when using fluoride collection tubes. Using a model that 'batched' samples from the three OGTT collection times, diagnostic sensitivity was estimated as follows: 66.1% for HAPO research population and 48.4% for the 1305 women receiving routine antenatal care. If samples were not batched, but processed shortly after each blood sample was collected, then sensitivity increased to 81%. Exploration of a range of clinical and laboratory scenarios using in silico modelling, showed that delaying the processing of pregnancy OGTT samples, using batched sample collection into fluoride tubes, causes unacceptable loss of GDM diagnostic sensitivity across two distinct population groups. This modelling approach will hopefully provide information that helps with final decision making around improved laboratory processing techniques. Copyright © 2017 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US). PMID:15494763
This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).
Exposure to chemotherapy is a health hazard for all personnel in facilities that store, prepare, or administer antineoplastic agents. Contamination levels have been measured as much as 15 times higher in the veterinary medicine sector than in human facilities. Recent publications in human and veterinary medicine indicate that exposure extends beyond the clinic walls to affect the patient's home and family. This article provides an update on the advances in chemotherapy safety, the current issues, and the impact on cancer management in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Blach, Edward L
This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.
Tuijn, C.J.; Hoefman, B.J.; Beijma, H. van; Oskam, L.; Chevrollier, N.
Background: The emerging market of mobile phone technology and its use in the health sector is rapidly expanding and connecting even the most remote areas of world. Distributing diagnostic images over the mobile network for knowledge sharing, feedback or quality control is a logical innovation.
Mögling, Ramona; Zeller, Hervé; Revez, Joana; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal
With international travel, Zika virus (ZIKV) is introduced to Europe regularly. A country's ability to robustly detect ZIKV introduction and local transmission is important to minimise the risk for a ZIKV outbreak. Therefore, sufficient expertise and diagnostic capacity and capability are required
R. Mögling (Ramona); H. Zeller; Revez, J. (J.); M.P.G. Koopmans D.V.M. (Marion); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); S.W. Aberle (Stephan W.); M. van Esbroeck (M.); I. Christova; Vilibic-Cavlek, T. (Tatjana); Richter, J. (Jan); H. Zelena (Hana); Fomsgaard, A. (Anders); A. Jääskeläinen (Anne); Brichler, S. (Segolene); Illiaquer, M. (Marina); Gonfrier, G. (Geraldine); I. Leparc-Goffart (Isabelle); Poveda, J.-D. (Jean-Dominique); Hober, D. (D.); H. Fleury (Hervé); S. Fafi-Kremer (Samira); Foulongne, V. (V.); C. Henquell (Cécile); Leveque, N. (Nicolas); Carles, M.J. (Marie Josee); Mansuy, J.M. (J. M.); J. Schmidt-Chanasit (Jonas); A. Nitsche; A. Papa (Anna); Mentis, A. (Andreas); Takacs, M. (Maria); Love, A. (Arthur); Connell, J. (Jeff); Venturi, G. (Giulietta); J. Storozenko (Jelena); A. Griskevicius (Algirdas); M. Opp (Matthias); Barbara, C. (Christopher); C.B.E.M. Reusken (Chantal); J.H.J. Reimerink (Johan); S.G. Dudman (Susanne Gjeruldsen); K. Pancer (Katarzyna); M.J. Alves (M. João); C.S. Ceianu; Ticha, E. (Elena); Županc, T.A. (Tatjana Avšič); M.P. Sanchez-Seco (Maria Paz); Tolfvenstam, T. (Thomas); E. Aarons
textabstractWith international travel, Zika virus (ZIKV) is introduced to Europe regularly. A country’s ability to robustly detect ZIKV introduction and local transmission is important to minimise the risk for a ZIKV outbreak. Therefore, sufficient expertise and diagnostic capacity and capability
Byron, Julie K; Johnson, Susan E; Allen, L Clare V; Brilmyer, Cheryl; Griffiths, Robert P
There is an increasing demand in veterinary education to engage students, teach and reinforce clinical reasoning, and provide access anytime/anywhere to quality learning opportunities. In addition, accrediting bodies are asking for more concrete documentation of essential clinical-skills outcomes. Unfortunately, during the clinical year in a referral hospital setting, students are at the mercy of chance regarding the types of cases they will encounter and the opportunities they will have to participate. Patient- and case-simulation technology is becoming more popular as a way to achieve these objectives in human and veterinary medical education. Many of the current options available to the veterinary medical education community to develop virtual-patient cases are too time-consuming, cost prohibitive, or difficult for the instructor or learner to use. In response, we developed a learning tool, Case Manager, which is low-cost and user-friendly. Case Manager was designed to meet the demands of veterinary education by providing students with an opportunity to cultivate clinical reasoning skills and allowing for real-time student feedback. We launched a pilot test with 37 senior veterinary medical students as part of their Small Animal Internal Medicine clinical rotation. Students reported that Case Manager increased their engagement with the material, improved diagnostic and problem-solving skills, and broadened their exposure to a variety of cases. In addition, students felt that Case Manager was superior to a more traditional, less interactive case presentation format.
Dean, R; Brennan, M; Ewers, R; Hudson, C; Daly, J M; Baillie, S; Eisler, M C; Place, E J; Brearley, J; Holmes, M; Handel, I; Shaw, D; McLauchlan, G; McBrearty, A; Cripps, P; Jones, P; Smith, R; Verheyen, K
The Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons now lists 'How to evaluate evidence' as a day one competence for newly qualified vets. In this article, representatives from each of the veterinary schools in the UK discuss how the challenge of delivering and assessing the concepts of evidence-based veterinary medicine in a crowded undergraduate curriculum can be met. British Veterinary Association.
..., veterinarian in the practice of veterinary medicine, clinical laboratory or hospital to receive, acquire... only by physicians, veterinarians in the practice of veterinary medicine, clinical laboratories or... laboratory tests not involving internal or external administration of byproduct material, or the radiation...
Becker, Sören L; Piraisoody, Nivetha; Kramme, Stefanie; Marti, Hanspeter; Silué, Kigbafori D; Panning, Marcus; Nickel, Beatrice; Kern, Winfried V; Herrmann, Mathias; Hatz, Christoph F; N'Goran, Eliézer K; Utzinger, Jürg; von Müller, Lutz
Human infections with the helminth species Strongyloides stercoralis encompass a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to life-threatening disease. The diagnosis of S. stercoralis is cumbersome and the sensitivity of conventional stool microscopy is low. New molecular tools have been developed to increase sensitivity. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of real-time PCR with microscopy for the detection of S. stercoralis and hookworm in human stool samples, and investigated the inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific real-time PCR in two European laboratories. Stool specimens from 256 randomly selected individuals in rural Côte d'Ivoire were examined using three microscopic techniques (i.e. Kato-Katz, Koga agar plate (KAP) and Baermann (BM)). Additionally, ethanol-fixed stool aliquots were subjected to molecular diagnosis. The prevalence of S. stercoralis and hookworm infection was 21.9% and 52.0%, respectively, whilst co-infections were detected in 35 (13.7%) participants. The diagnostic agreement between real-time PCR and microscopy was excellent when both KAP and BM tested positive for S. stercoralis, but was considerably lower when only one microscopic technique was positive. The sensitivity of KAP, BM and real-time PCR for detection of S. stercoralis as compared to a combination of all diagnostic techniques was 21.4%, 37.5% and 76.8%, respectively. The inter-laboratory agreement of S. stercoralis-specific PCR was substantial (κ=0.63, p<0.001). We conclude that a combination of real-time PCR and stool microscopy shows high accuracy for S. stercoralis diagnosis. Besides high sensitivity, PCR may also enhance specificity by reducing microscopic misdiagnosis of morphologically similar helminth larvae (i.e. hookworm and S. stercoralis) in settings where both helminth species co-exist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Gonçalves, Vagner; Hazarbassanov, Nicolle Queiroz; de Siqueira, Adriana; Florio, Jorge Camilo; Ciscato, Claudia Helena Pastor; Maiorka, Paulo Cesar; Fukushima, André Rinaldi; de Souza Spinosa, Helenice
Agricultural pesticides used with the criminal intent to intoxicate domestic and wild animals are a serious concern in Veterinary Medicine. In order to identify the pesticide carbofuran and its metabolite 3- hydroxycarbofuran in animals suspected of exogenous intoxication a high pressure liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) method was developed and validated in stomach contents, liver, vitreous humor and blood. The method was evaluated using biological samples from seven different animal species. The following parameters of analytical validation were evaluated: linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity, recovery and matrix effect. The method was linear at the range of 6.25-100μg/mL and the correlation coefficient (r 2 ) values were >0.9811 for all matrices. The precision and accuracy of the method was determined by coefficient of variation (CV) and the relative standard deviation error (RSE), and both were less than 15%. Recovery ranged from 74.29 to 100.1% for carbofuran and from 64.72 to 100.61% for 3-hydroxycarbofuran. There were no significant interfering peaks or matrix effects. This method was suitable for detecting 25 positive cases for carbofuran amongst a total of 64 animal samples suspected of poisoning brought to the Toxicology Diagnostic Laboratory, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, University of Sao Paulo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Smith, Donald F
This article is the first in a series of three to be published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME). These articles are abridged versions of six lectures that make up an elective course on the history of the veterinary profession in North America offered at Cornell University's College of Veterinary Medicine in spring 2010. The course was based in large part on an oral history collection titled "An Enduring Veterinary Legacy"(1) that captures interesting and relevant veterinary stories. The course was designed to increase awareness of the history of veterinary medicine as we approach the sesquicentennial of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in 2013 and as we join with our international colleagues in marking the 250th anniversary of the establishment of the world's first veterinary college in Lyon, France, in 2011.(2) The overarching goal of this course and the articles is to record and also to share first-person stories that describe the development of veterinary education and the veterinary profession in North America from the mid-1860s to the present. In the process, it is hoped that this history will encourage respect, love, and admiration for the veterinary profession and an appreciation of veterinary medicine as a versatile profession. The articles are somewhat Cornell-centric because the lectures on which they are based were presented to Cornell students at their home institution. However, it is hoped that the events are representative of the broader American experience. For educators interested in the course itself, a brief synopsis and a summary of student evaluations for the first year of presentation is appended here and in subsequent articles in this series.
rodents, rabbits, dogs, cats , nonhuman primates, domestic farm animals, other vertebrates, invertebrates, and biological resource materials for research...on Dog and Cat Standards, Committee on Standards. 1973. Washington D.C.: Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources. 48 pp. 21. Laboratory Animal...by P. Tomasovic and K. Gray. 31 4 S 89 World Veterinary Association Policy Statement on Animal Welfare, Well-being, and Ethology . E. Mayer, Chairman
Batho, H L; Logar, B; Mariner, J C; W-A, Valder; Westergaard, J M
Veterinary Services (VS) as defined by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) are institutions that can have varied structures, from the centralised to the completely decentralised, with ranges in between these two extremes...
Full Text Available Animal paleopathology is not a very well known scientific discipline within veterinary science, but it has great importance for historical and archaeological investigations. In this paper, authors attention is focused on the description of one of the most common findings on the skeletal remains of animals - osteoarthropathies. This review particularly emphasizes the description and classification of the most common pathological changes in synovial joints. The authors have provided their observations on the importance of joint diseases in paleopathology and veterinary medicine. Analysis of individual processes in the joints of the animals from the past may help in the understanding of diseases in modern veterinary medicine. Differential diagnosis was made a point of emphasis and discussion, so that this work could have practical significance for paleopathology and veterinary medicine
Mar 28, 2016 ... and sports medicine and herbal therapy. Current curricular trends ..... competitive pursuits and in the demand from veterinary clients for accelerated ..... Effects of nutrition choices and lifestyle changes on the well- being of cats ...
Principal Contact. Prof. B. M. Agaie Editor-in-Chief Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, UDUS City Campus. P. M. B. 2346. Sokoto- Nigeria. Phone: +2348035073563. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ...
Topically administered dosage forms included solutions, sprays, ointments, creams, shampoos and powders, while those delivered via the intrauterine route included pessaries, solutions and suspensions. Keywords: dosage forms, administration route, veterinary pharmaceutical products, animal species, drug delivery.
Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F
Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...
Msellati, L; Commault, J; Dehove, A
Good veterinary governance assumes the provision of veterinary services that are sustainably financed, universally available, and provided efficiently without waste or duplication, in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. Good veterinary governance is a necessary condition for sustainable economic development insomuch as it promotes the effective delivery of services and improves the overall performance of animal health systems. This article defines governance in Veterinary Services and proposes a framework for its measurement. It also discusses the role of Veterinary Services and analyses the governance dimensions of the performance-assessment tools developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). These tools (OIE PVS Tool and PVS Gap Analysis) track the performance of Veterinary Services across countries (a harmonised tool) and over time (the PVS Pathway). The article shows the usefulness of the OIE PVS Tool for measuring governance, but also points to two shortcomings, namely (i) the lack of clear outcome indicators, which is an impediment to a comprehensive assessment of the performance of Veterinary Services, and (ii) the lack of specific measures for assessing the extent of corruption within Veterinary Services and the extent to which demand for better governance is being strengthened within the animal health system. A discussion follows on the drivers of corruption and instruments for perception-based assessments of country governance and corruption. Similarly, the article introduces the concept of social accountability, which is an approach to enhancing government transparency and accountability, and shows how supply-side and demand-side mechanisms complement each other in improving the governance of service delivery. It further elaborates on two instruments--citizen report card surveys and grievance redress mechanisms--because of their wider relevance and their possible applications in many settings, including Veterinary
Smith, Ronald D.; Williams, Mitsuko
This study used the peer-reviewed biomedical literature to define the veterinary informatics knowledgebase and associated subspecialties, and assesses the level of activity in the field over the thirty-year period from 1966 through 1995. Grateful Med was used to search the MEDLINE bibliographic database for articles that shared one or more Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords from the veterinary and medical informatics subject headings. Each of ninety-five MeSH medical informatics terms w...
Daas, A; Bruckner, L; Milne, C
Rabies is a deadly zoonotic disease. Control of rabies in animals by vaccination is an important strategy to protect humans from infection and control the spread of the disease. Requirements for the quality control of rabies vaccines (inactivated) for veterinary use include an in vivo quantitative potency determination as outlined in the Ph. Eur. monograph 0451. Performance of this assay requires a reference preparation calibrated in International Units (IU). A European Pharmacopeia (Ph. Eur.) Biological Reference Preparation (BRP) for rabies vaccines (inactivated) for veterinary use, calibrated in IU, has been established for this purpose. Due to the dwindling stocks of the current batch (batch 4) of Ph. Eur. BRP for rabies vaccines (inactivated) for veterinary use, a collaborative study was run as part of the EDQM Biological Standardisation Programme to establish BRP batch 5. Ten laboratories, including Official Medicines Control Laboratories and manufacturers, participated. The candidate BRP5 was assayed against the 6(th) International Standard for rabies vaccine using the in vivo vaccination-challenge assay (monograph 0451) to assign a potency value. The candidate was also compared to BRP batch 4 to establish continuity. Taking into account the results from the comparisons a potency of 10 IU/vial was assigned and in March 2015 the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted the material as Ph. Eur. BRP for rabies vaccines (inactivated) for veterinary use batch 5. In addition to the in vivo assay 3 laboratories tested the candidate material using their in-house in vitro assays for information.
Kerby, Erin E
The study investigated veterinary medicine librarians' experience with and perceptions of research data services. Many academic libraries have begun to offer research data services in response to researchers' increased need for data management support. To date, such services have typically been generic, rather than discipline-specific, to appeal to a wide variety of researchers. An online survey was deployed to identify trends regarding research data services in veterinary medicine libraries. Participants were identified from a list of contacts from the MLA Veterinary Medical Libraries Section. Although many respondents indicated that they have a professional interest in research data services, the majority of veterinary medicine librarians only rarely or occasionally provide data management support as part of their regular job responsibilities. There was little consensus as to whether research data services should be core to a library's mission despite their perceived importance to the advancement of veterinary research. Furthermore, most respondents stated that research data services are just as or somewhat less important than the other services that they provide and feel only slightly or somewhat prepared to offer such services. Lacking a standard definition of "research data" and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.
Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.
Watson, Elizabeth; Heng, Hock Gan
Imaging studies are often of evidentiary value in medicolegal investigations involving animals and the role of the veterinary radiologist is to interpret those images for courts as an expert or opinion witness. With progressing interest in prosecuting animal crimes and strengthening of penalties for crimes against animals, the participation of veterinary radiologists in medicolegal investigations is expected to increase. Veterinary radiologists who are aware of radiographic and imaging signs that result in animal suffering, abuse, or neglect; knowledgeable in ways radiology and imaging may support cause of death determinations; conversant in postmortem imaging; comfortable discussing mechanisms and timing of blunt or sharp force and projectile trauma in imaging; and prepared to identify mimics of abuse can assist court participants in understanding imaging evidence. The goal of this commentary review is to familiarize veterinary radiologists with the forensic radiology and imaging literature and with the advantages and disadvantages of various imaging modalities utilized in forensic investigations. Another goal is to provide background information for future research studies in veterinary forensic radiology and imaging. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida
Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.
Aguirre, A A
The current veterinary curriculum leaves graduates ill-equipped for careers in the field of zoological and wildlife medicine. Further postgraduate training is required to be an effective zoo or wildlife veterinarian. However, whether or not students choose to specialise in this field at a later date, the veterinary curriculum should cover several issues that are related to wildlife and zoo animals, including conservation biology, zoology, behaviour, physiology and conservation medicine. These subjects are essential, as we are preparing students to work in a world in which there is a global trade in wild animals, an increasing number of emerging infectious diseases and numerous environmental threats (habitat fragmentation, climate change) linked to anthropogenic change. Veterinary students should also be exposed to new opportunities to identify field and laboratory tools for the management and possible treatment of diseases in captive and wild populations and ecosystems using both in situ and ex situ approaches to conservation.
Full Text Available The purpose of research: improvement of quality of diagnostics at the patients in a critical condition in intensive care unit. Material and methods. In total have analyzed 1957 medical cards of the patients who have died in ICU»s. At the first stage studied the factors influencing on diagnostics of critically ill patients (medical cards of 1557 patients; at the second stage investigated influence of the diagnostic standards in ICU»s practice on improvement of quality of diag- nostics of critically ill patients (400 medical cards of the patients who have died. Entry criterions were standards and algorithm of diagnostics. Techniques of research: average bed-day in groups, first-day lethality, quantity of the carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores. Results. Quality of diagnostics depend on carried out laboratory tests and tool methods of research, level of consciousness of the patients (Glasgow come score, severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II score. The conclusion. The laboratory tests and tool methods of research conforming to the standards of diagnostics are necessary for improvement of quality of diagnostics, it is necessary to take into account an altered level of consciousness (Glasgow come score and severity of disease by ICU»s patients (APACHE II scores
[Detecting the markers of HIV infection with the new enzyme immunoassay diagnostic kit "DS-EIA-HIV-AB-AG-SPECTRUM" at the laboratories of AIDS prevention and control centers in the Volga Federal District].
Ivanova, N I; Peksheva, O Iu
A possibility of simultaneously detecting specific antibodies to HIV-1 and HIV-2 by enzyme immunoassay (EIA) at lower concentrations than those by immunoblotting (IB), and well as an additional possibility of earlier diagnosis of HIV infection, by identifying the HIV-1 antigen p24 lay the foundation of the "DS-EIA-HIV-AB-AG-SPECTRUM" test system made by OOO "Research-and-Production Association "Diagnosticheskiye Sistemy" (Diagnostic Systems). These peculiarities were compared with those of IB at a number of laboratories of AIDS prevention and control centers in the Volga Federal District, by using native serum/plasma samples and a specially designed control panel. The analysis of the conducted studies to identify HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies and HIV-1 antigen p24 in 65 plasma/serum samples in the "DS-EIA-HIV-AB-AG-SPECTRUM" and "LIA-HIV-1/2" (OOO "Niarmedik plus") test systems while confirming the positive result indicated agreement in 57 (87.7%) cases. The diagnostic possibilities of the "DS-EIA-HIV-AB-AG-SPECTRUM" test system versus the "New Lav-Blot I" one to make a laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection were studied. Irrefragable answers as to the availability of HIV-1 markers in the study serum samples on the enciphered panel were provided by IB in 73.3% of cases and EIA in 92%.
Fajt, Virginia R; Scott, H Morgan; McIntosh, W Alex; Dean, Wesley R; Vincent, Virginia C
The objective of this study was to ascertain current teaching methods for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in veterinary professional curricula and to find out what veterinary instructors consider to be prioritized subtopics related to AMR. The sampling frame was instructors in veterinary professional programs at US colleges of veterinary medicine who provide instruction about antibiotics or AMR in the disciplines of microbiology, pharmacology, public health, epidemiology, internal medicine, surgery, or related subjects. Identified instructors were invited to participate in an online survey of current teaching methods related to subtopics of AMR. From 1,207 invitations, 306 completed surveys were available for analysis (25% response rate) with the largest number of respondents stating their contact hours about antibiotics occur in the discipline of "medicine-food animal." The median contact time suggested for AMR in the core veterinary curriculum was 3-5 hours, and for antibiotics in general, 16-20 hours. Subtopics of AMR were prioritized based on respondents' indication that they use or would use various teaching tools. The most common teaching tool for all topics was projected text (i.e., slides or PowerPoint slides) and the least common were video clips, non-course Web sites, online modules, and laboratory experiments. Recommendations for identifying the priorities of AMR content coverage and learning outcomes are made.
The term 'personalised medicine' is frequently used when modern medicine or the future of medicine is being described. Although the term basically implies that patients are individuals and should be treated as such, its modern meaning embraces a major leap by combining diagnostics and therapy. Thus, personalised medicine as presently understood seeks mainly to improve the effectiveness of therapeutic measures by tailoring therapy protocols according to the molecular genotype and phenotype of the individual patient. This has been facilitated by the introduction of new technologies such as next generation sequencing and proteome analysis, which has demonstrated that each tumour is much more distinctive than previously thought. Nevertheless, bioinformatics and experimental assays suggest that only a restricted number of driver genes or molecular pathways contribute to the development of most tumours. So, while tumour genomes have not yet been analysed in veterinary oncology, studies focused on mRNA expression and proteomic profiles of (mainly canine) tumours have already provided clinically relevant biomarkers and gene expression patterns. These data may be the start point for personalised approaches in veterinary oncology leading to better efficacy and safety of therapeutic protocols. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Munro, R; Munro, H M C
Forensic veterinary pathology is a diverse discipline that is in an early phase of its development. Common challenges include estimation of the age of skin wounds and bruises, the diagnosis of drowning and estimation of the time since death. However, many details of the pathological findings related to these various aspects await validation. The 'multispecies' nature of veterinary pathology, combined with the preponderance of published observations originating from animal experimentation, rather than casework, poses two challenges. Firstly, extrapolation of results between species may jeopardize the reliability (and credibility) of the forensic opinion. Secondly, experimental studies may not truly reflect the spectrum of changes seen in actual cases (e.g. extent of injuries, infection, age and health of victim). With regard to drowning, diagnosis based on post-mortem findings remains problematical. Methods for estimation of the time since death (also known as the post-mortem interval) continue to be a major focus of study, with fresh avenues such as post-mortem diagnostic imaging offering interesting possibilities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mariano Beraldo, Carolina; Rondon Lopes, Érika; Hage, Raduan; Hage, Maria Cristina F. N. S.
Ingested or penetrating foreign bodies are common in veterinary medicine. When they are radiolucent, these objects become a diagnostic challenge, but they can be investigated sonographically. However, successful object identification depends on the skill of the sonographer. Considering that these cases appear randomly during hospital routines, it…
Bauer, Elizabeth K.
Traces the development, since its founding in 1863, of the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) influence over the standards of training required in the veterinary profession. Attention is focused on the roles of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, the military, and the land-grant colleges in that development. (JT)
This is the Special Issue of Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. that summarizes the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto, Brazil. The 8 th IVIS highlighted the importance of veterinary immunology for animal health, vaccinology, reproducti...
Camilla Kirketerp Nielsen
Full Text Available The overall objective of this project is research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based learning concept to be used in the veterinary education. Herd visits and animal contact are essential for the development of veterinary competences and skills during education. Yet veterinary students have little occasion to reach/attain a proper level of confidence in their own skills/abilities, as they have limited “training-facilities” (Kneebone & Baillie, 2008. One possible solution mightbe to provide a safe, virtual environment (game-based where students could practise interdisciplinary clinical skills in an easily-accessible, interactive setting. A playable demo using Classical Swine Fever in a pig herd as an example has been produced for this purpose. In order totailor the game concept to the specific veterinary learning environment and to ensure compliance with both learning objectives and the actual learning processes/procedures of the veterinary students, the project contains both a developmental aspect (game development and an exploration of the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context. The initial phase of the project was a preliminary exploration of the actual learning context, providing an important starting point for the upcoming phase in which I will concentrate on research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based virtual environment in this course context. In the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context of a veterinary course in Herd Health Management (Pig module,ethnographic studies have been conducted by using multiple data collection methods; participant observation, spontaneous dialogues and interviews (Borgnakke, 1996; Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007. All courserelated activities in the different learning spaces (commercial pig herds, auditoriums, post-mortem examinations, independent group work were followed.This paper will
Cullen, John M
Liver disease is a frequently encountered problem in small animal practice. The World Small Animal Veterinary Association has formed a group of experienced clinicians and pathologists to develop a standardized format for diagnostic terminology. This is hoped to lead to greater uniformity in diagnoses and better communication between clinicians and pathologists alike. The aim is to find a sound scientific basis of diagnostic and treatment protocols for hepatobiliary diseases. This article provides an overview of that monograph.
Food-supply veterinary medicine has been an essential part of veterinary degree programs in Australia since the first veterinary school opened in the late nineteenth century. Australian veterinary schools, like others internationally, are being challenged by the relevance of material in current curricula for modern food-supply veterinary medicine. Additionally, student aspirations are a major issue, as curriculum designers balance companion-animal training with the herd/flock-based issues that focus on productivity and profitability. One of the challenges is to examine the relative balance of education in generic skills (self-knowledge, change management, teamwork, leadership, negotiation) with more technically or scientifically based education. An ongoing process of curriculum review and renewal, which involves input from both external and internal stakeholders and allows regular review and assessment, is needed to ensure continuing curriculum relevance.
Studentova, Vendula; Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Izdebski, Radoslaw; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Chudackova, Eva; Bergerova, Tamara; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hrabak, Jaroslav
Carbapenemase-mediated resistance to carbapenems in Enterobacteriaceae has become the main challenge in the treatment and prevention of infections recently. The partially unnoticed spread of OXA-48-type carbapenemase producers is usually assigned to low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of carbapenems that OXA-48-producing isolates often display. Therefore, there is an urgent need of specific and sensitive methods for isolation and detection of OXA-48 producers in clinical microbiology diagnostics. The influence of bicarbonates on carbapenem MICs against carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was tested. We also checked whether the addition of bicarbonates to liquid media supplemented with meropenem may facilitate the selective enrichment of various carbapenemase producers in cultures. Furthermore, the sensitivity of carbapenemase confirmation by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and spectrophotometric hydrolysis assays upon the addition of NH4HCO3 was examined. The addition of NaHCO3 significantly increased MICs of ertapenem and meropenem for OXA-48 producers. Furthermore, liquid media supplemented with NaHCO3 and meropenem were reliable for the selective enrichment of carbapenemase producers. The presence of NH4HCO3 in buffers used in the spectrophotometric and MALDI-TOF MS carbapenemase detection increased the sensitivity of that assay. Our results demonstrate that bicarbonates in media or reaction buffers can enhance the sensitivity of screening methods and diagnostic tests for carbapenemase producers.
Total cholesterol performance of Abell-Levy-Brodie-Kendall reference measurement procedure: Certification of Japanese in-vitro diagnostic assay manufacturers through CDC's Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network.
Nakamura, Masakazu; Iso, Hiroyasu; Kitamura, Akihiko; Imano, Hironori; Kiyama, Masahiko; Yokoyama, Shinji; Kayamori, Yuzo; Koyama, Isao; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakai, Michikazu; Dasti, Mahnaz; Vesper, Hubert W; Teramoto, Tamio; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro
Accurate measurement of total cholesterol (TC) is important for cardiovascular disease risk management. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network (CRMLN) perform Abell-Levy-Brodie-Kendall (AK) reference measurement procedure (RMP) for TC as a secondary reference method, and implement Certification Protocol for Manufacturers. Japanese CRMLN laboratory at Osaka performed the AK RMP for 22 years, and conducted TC certification for reagent/calibrator/instrument systems of six Japanese manufacturers every 2 years for 16 years. Osaka TC performance was examined and compared to CDC's reference values. AK RMP involved sample hydrolysis, cholesterol extraction, and determination of cholesterol levels by spectrophotometry. The Certification Protocol for Manufacturers includes comparison with AK RMP using at least 40 fresh specimens. Demonstration of average bias ≤3% and total coefficient of variation ≤3% qualified an analytical system for certification. In the AK RMP used in the Osaka CRMLN laboratory, the regression equation for measuring TC was y (Osaka)=1.000x (CDC)+0.032 (n=619, R(2)=1.000). Six Japanese manufacturers had allowable performance for certification. The AK RMP for TC measurement was accurate, precise, and stable for 22 years. Six Japanese manufacturers were certified for 16 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kamstock, D A; Ehrhart, E J; Getzy, D M; Bacon, N J; Rassnick, K M; Moroff, S D; Liu, S M; Straw, R C; McKnight, C A; Amorim, R L; Bienzle, D; Cassali, G D; Cullen, J M; Dennis, M M; Esplin, D G; Foster, R A; Goldschmidt, M H; Gruber, A D; Hellmén, E; Howerth, E W; Labelle, P; Lenz, S D; Lipscomb, T P; Locke, E; McGill, L D; Miller, M A; Mouser, P J; O'Toole, D; Pool, R R; Powers, B E; Ramos-Vara, J A; Roccabianca, P; Ross, A D; Sailasuta, A; Sarli, G; Scase, T J; Schulman, F Y; Shoieb, A M; Singh, K; Sledge, D; Smedley, R C; Smith, K C; Spangler, W L; Steficek, B; Stromberg, P C; Valli, V E; Yager, J; Kiupel, M
Neoplastic diseases are typically diagnosed by biopsy and histopathological evaluation. The pathology report is key in determining prognosis, therapeutic decisions, and overall case management and therefore requires diagnostic accuracy, completeness, and clarity. Successful management relies on collaboration between clinical veterinarians, oncologists, and pathologists. To date there has been no standardized approach or guideline for the submission, trimming, margin evaluation, or reporting of neoplastic biopsy specimens in veterinary medicine. To address this issue, a committee consisting of veterinary pathologists and oncologists was established under the auspices of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists Oncology Committee. These consensus guidelines were subsequently reviewed and endorsed by a large international group of veterinary pathologists. These recommended guidelines are not mandated but rather exist to help clinicians and veterinary pathologists optimally handle neoplastic biopsy samples. Many of these guidelines represent the collective experience of the committee members and consensus group when assessing neoplastic lesions from veterinary patients but have not met the rigors of definitive scientific study and investigation. These questions of technique, analysis, and evaluation should be put through formal scrutiny in rigorous clinical studies in the near future so that more definitive guidelines can be derived.
... Medical Parasitology, Clinical Chemistry, Haematology, Blood Group Serology, Cytogenetics, Exfoliation Cytology, Medical Virology, Medical Mycology, Histopathology and Immunochemistry. There is Special Interest in New Biologicals, Laboratory Diagnostic Reagents, Fabricated Laboratory Hardware and Advances ...
The beginning of the 21st Century has been characterised by changed political and economic realities affecting the prevention, control and eradication of animal diseases and zoonoses and presenting new challenges to the veterinary profession. Veterinary Services (VS) need to have the capacity and capabilities to face these challenges and be able to detect, prevent, control and eradicate disease threats. Animal health and VS, being a public good, require global initiatives and collective international action to be able to implement global animal disease eradication. The application of the 'One World, One Health' strategy at the animal-human interface will strengthen veterinary capacity to meet this challenge. Good governance of VS at the national, regional and global level is at the heart of such a strategy. In this paper, the author lists the key elements comprising good veterinary governance and discusses the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) standards for the quality of VS. The OIE Tool for the Evaluation of the Performance of Veterinary Services (OIE PVS Tool) is introduced and its relevance in assessing compliance with OIE standards to prevent the spread of pathogens through trade is highlighted. A firm political commitment at the national, regional and international level, with provision of the necessary funding at all levels, is an absolute necessity in establishing good governance of VS to meet the ever-increasing threats posed by animal and human pathogens.
Page-Jones, S; Abbey, G
This research investigates vet and vet nurse career identity through the qualitative methodology of narrative enquiry. It derives learning and understanding from these empirical data to assist the veterinary profession to adjust to the changing industry landscape. Through a case series of 20 vets and vet nurses' career stories, this paper seeks understanding about career identity and its impact on individuals and organisations in the light of industry consolidation. Findings suggest that career is central to identity for many veterinary professionals who tend to have a strong sense of self; this is particularly evident around self as learner and technically competent, teacher and educator, ethical and moral and dedicated and resilient. Consequently, mismatches between 'who I am' and 'what I do' tend not to lead to identity customisation (to fit self into role or organisation) but to the search for alternative, more identity-compatible employment. This study offers a valuable insight for employers, veterinary professionals and universities. It suggests that businesses can gain competitive advantage and employees achieve validation and enrichment by working towards organisational and individual identity congruence and that teaching veterinary professionals with contemporary business in mind may develop graduates with a more sustainable identity. British Veterinary Association.