This Act, entitled the Radiation Emitting Devices Act, is concerned with the sale and importation of radiation emitting devices. Laws relating to the sale, lease or import, labelling, advertising, packaging, safety standards and inspection of these devices are listed as well as penalties for any person who is convicted of breaking these laws
The Radiation Emitting Devices Regulations are the regulations referred to in the Radiation Emitting Devices Act and relate to the operation of devices. They include standards of design and construction, standards of functioning, warning symbol specifications in addition to information relating to the seizure and detention of machines failing to comply with the regulations. The radiation emitting devices consist of the following: television receivers, extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, microwave ovens, baggage inspection x-ray devices, demonstration--type gas discharge devices, photofluorographic x-ray equipment, laser scanners, demonstration lasers, low energy electron microscopes, high intensity mercury vapour discharge lamps, sunlamps, diagnostic x-ray equipment, ultrasound therapy devices, x-ray diffraction equipment, cabinet x-ray equipment and therapeutic x-ray equipment
A tunable radiation emitting semiconductor device includes at least one elongated structure at least partially fabricated from one or more semiconductor materials exhibiting a bandgap characteristic including one or more energy transitions whose energies correspond to photon energies of light
Cosmetics are products you apply to your body to clean it, make it more attractive, or change ... include Hair dyes Makeup Perfumes Skin-care creams Cosmetics that treat or prevent diseases are also drugs. ...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database provides descriptions of radiation-emitting products that have been recalled under an approved corrective action plan to remove defective and...
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These Regulations of 10 February 1972, supplemented by SOR/77-895, lay down the classes of radiation emitting devices for the purposes of the Radiation Emitting Devices Act. They lay down their standards of design and construction and warning sign specifications and provide for the procedure to be followed by inspectors of such devices. The devices include inter alia extra-oral dental x-ray equipment, baggage inspection x-ray devices, laser scanners, television receivers. (NEA)
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If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices. Cosmetic dental procedures include Bleaching to make teeth whiter ...
This Act, entitled Bill C-5, allows for a series of amendments to the Radiation Emitting Devices Act. The amendments relate to regulations concerned with the sale, lease or import, labelling, advertising, packaging, safety standards and inspection of radiation emitting devices
De Marco, M; Maggi, S
Electrosurgery refers to the passage of a high-frequency, high-voltage electrical current through the body to achieve the desired surgical effects. At the same time, these procedures are accompanied by a general increase of the electromagnetic field in an operating room that may expose both patients and personnel to relatively high levels of radiofrequency radiation. In the first part of this study, we have taken into account the radiation emitted by different monopolar electrosurgical devices, evaluating the electromagnetic field strength delivered by an electrosurgical handle and straying from units and other electrosurgical accessories. As a summary, in the worst case a surgeon's hands are exposed to a continuous and pulsed RF wave whose magnetic field strength is 0.75 A m -1 (E-field 400 V m -1 ). Occasionally stray radiation may exceed ICNIRP's occupational exposure guidelines, especially close to the patient return plate. In the second part of this paper, we have analysed areas of particular concern to prevent electromagnetic interference with some life-support devices (ventilators and electrocardiographic devices), which have failed to operate correctly. Most clinically relevant interference occurred when an electrosurgery device was used within 0.3 m of medical equipment. In the appendix, we suggest some practical recommendations intended to minimize the potential for electromagnetic hazards due to therapeutic application of RF energy
El Boujlaidi, A.; Kaddouri, A.; Ait El Fqih, M.; Hammoum, K.; Aouchiche, H.
Optical emission of transition metals has been studied during 5 keV Kr + ions bombardment within and without oxygen atmosphere in the colliding chamber. The observed spectra consist of a series of discrete lines superimposed on a broad continuum. Generally, the emission intensity was influenced by the presence of oxygen giving rise to transient effects as well as to an increase in the line intensity. The behaviours of spectral lines were successfully explained in term of electron-transfer process between the excited sputtered atom and the solid surface. In this work, we have focused our study on the continuous radiation emitted during ion bombardment. The experimental results suggest that the continuum emission depends on the nature of metal and very probably related to its electronic structure. The collective deactivation of 3d-shell electrons appears to play a role in the emission of this radiation. The observed enhancement in the presence of oxygen is probably due to a significant contribution of the oxide molecules. (authors)
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Nina A Madnani
Full Text Available The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics.
Madnani, Nina A; Khan, Kaleem J
The nail as an anatomic structure protects the terminal phalanx of the digit from injury. Historically, it has served as a tool for protection and for survival. As civilizations developed, it attained the additional function of adornment. Nail beautification is a big industry today, with various nail cosmetics available, ranging from nail hardeners, polishes, extensions, artificial/sculpted nails, and nail decorations. Adverse events may occur either during the nail-grooming procedure or as a reaction to the individual components of the nail cosmetics. This holds true for both the client and the nail technician. Typically, any of the procedures involves several steps and a series of products. Separate "nail-bars" have been set up dedicated to serve women and men interested in nail beautification. This article attempts to comprehensively inform and educate the dermatologist on the services offered, the products used, and the possible/potential adverse effects related to nail-grooming and nail cosmetics.
... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ... to find out more. Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Cosmetic Surgery Extensive education and training in surgical procedures ...
Pastoret, P P
Veterinary vaccinology is a very interesting and rapidly developing field. In fact veterinary vaccines are not only used for the prevention of infectious diseases in the animal health sector, but also help to solve problems of public health, to reduce detrimental environmental impact of the use of some veterinary drugs and prevent the emergence of resistance of micro-organisms or parasites. After a short introduction, this paper will deal with the use of vaccines for animal health and welfare, including new developments in the veterinary field such as marker vaccines and vectored vaccines, the special case of equine influenza-inactivated vaccines and the use of veterinary vaccines in public health. The conclusions will analyse the reasons as to why develop veterinary vaccines and the obstacles to their development.
Nina Madnani; Kaleem Khan
The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dr...
Full Text Available The hair cosmetic industry has undergone a revolutionary change over the last two decades. The focus has dramatically veered from merely cleaning to repair, increasing the tensile strength, reducing oxidative damage, and stimulating growth. Newer shorter procedures to make hair look naturally more lustrous, smooth, and manageable have evolved. Specialized grooming products have been formulated to cleanse, calm, and condition the hair, and are tailored for different hair-types, for example, dry, dry-damaged, oily, colored, and gray hair. Other products are formulated to alter the color or structure of the hair shaft, for example, hair dyes, perming/relaxing. Hair sprays and waxes/gels, can alter the ′lift′ of the hair-shaft. Although dermatologists are experts in managing scalp and hair diseases, the esthetic applications of newer cosmetic therapies still remain elusive. This article attempts to fill the lacunae in our knowledge of hair cosmetics and esthetic procedures relevant in today′s rapidly changing beauty-enhancing industry, with special emphasis on the Indian scenario for chemical and ′natural′ hair products.
Miserey, F.; Lebon, P.; Septier, A.; Trehin, F.; Beaugrand, C.
Thick silver targets are obtained on flat glass discs by evaporation in a UHV cell (p -10 torr) and their optical coefficients measured by ellipsometry. A field-emission electron gun bombards a limited region of the target, corresponding to the entry pupil of a light spectrometer. Radiation emitted in the domain 250-600nm is analyzed for both normal and parallel polarizations. Spectral distributions of photons are obtained by using a very sensitive counting device including a multi channel analyzer. First experimental results concerning optical radiation generated by 6keV electrons are reported and compared to Transition Radiation and Bremsstrahlung theoretical spectra [fr
Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Altenbach, T.J.; Fischer, L.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC.
Jia, Hui-lin; Wang, En-yuan; Song, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Hong-jie; Li, Zhong-hui [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Safety Engineering
More accurate forecasting of rock burst might be possible from observations of electromagnetic radiation emitted in the mine. We analyzed experimental observations and field data from the Muchengjian coal mine to study the relationship between electromagnetic radiation signal intensity and stress during the fracturing of coal, or rock, and samples under load. The results show that the signal intensity is positively correlated with stress. In addition, we investigated the change in the electromagnetic radiation intensity, the supporting resistance in a real coal mine environment, and the coal or rock stress in the mining area. The data analysis indicates that: (1) electromagnetic radiation intensity can accurately reflect the distribution of stress in the mining area; and, (2) there is a correlation between electromagnetic radiation intensity and supporting resistance. The research has some practical guiding significance for rock burst forecasting and for the prevention of accidents in coal mines. 9 refs., 6 figs.
Jones, E.D.; Banks, W.W.; Altenbach, T.J.; Fischer, L.E.
This report describes a preliminary application of an analysis approach for assessing relative risks in the use of radiation- emitting medical devices. Results are presented on human-initiated actions and failure modes that are most likely to occur in the use of the Gamma Knife, a gamma irradiation therapy device. This effort represents an initial step in a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) plan to evaluate the potential role of risk analysis in regulating the use of nuclear medical devices. For this preliminary application of risk assessment, the focus was to develop a basic process using existing techniques for identifying the most likely risk contributors and their relative importance. The approach taken developed relative risk rankings and profiles that incorporated the type and quality of data available and could present results in an easily understood form. This work was performed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the NRC
Mortazavi, SMJ; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, AR
Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors. PMID:25505778
This study was designed to investigate the effects of exposure to radiation emitted from visual display terminals (VDTs) on the oral health status; a cross sectional study was carried out on 100 participants both males and females with age ranging between 22- 40 years working in various places in Cairo. They were divided into two groups; the first consists of 50 subjects working in front of VDTs eight hours min. daily, min. 5 days/ week, 2 years or more, and the other group 50 subjects working away from any VDTs. Both groups were subjected to both oral and dental examinations, including soft tissues assessment by using gingival index (GI) and hard tissues assessment by using decayed, missed, filled (DMF) index. Saliva analysis was done including ph analysis by ph meter cyberscan 500 and trace elements analysis by ion chromatography and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) analysis by ELISA, body temperature by using digital thermometer. The values were compared between both groups and also between before and after exposure in the exposed group. The results demonstrated that the difference in the mean values of either GI or DMF or ph or anions and cations or sIgA levels between exposed and non exposed groups or even between before and after exposure in the exposed group was found to be statistically insignificant. On the other hand there were significant changes in the mean values of body temperature between exposed and non-exposed group and also between before and after exposure in the exposed group. Accordingly, within the limits of this study we can conclude that radiation emitted from VDTs affects body temperature, but do not have any effect on oral health including; hard or soft tissues or salivary components. This might be explained by the radiation with very low energy emitted from VDTs
Full Text Available Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students, blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2 while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students, two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (ΔC in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.
Kazem, H H [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)
This study was designed to investigate the effects of exposure to radiation emitted from visual display terminals (VDTs) on the oral health status; a cross sectional study was carried out on 100 participants both males and females with age ranging between 22- 40 years working in various places in Cairo. They were divided into two groups; the first consists of 50 subjects working in front of VDTs eight hours min. daily, min. 5 days/ week, 2 years or more, and the other group 50 subjects working away from any VDTs. Both groups were subjected to both oral and dental examinations, including soft tissues assessment by using gingival index (GI) and hard tissues assessment by using decayed, missed, filled (DMF) index. Saliva analysis was done including ph analysis by ph meter cyberscan 500 and trace elements analysis by ion chromatography and salivary immunoglobulin A (sIgA) analysis by ELISA, body temperature by using digital thermometer. The values were compared between both groups and also between before and after exposure in the exposed group. The results demonstrated that the difference in the mean values of either GI or DMF or ph or anions and cations or sIgA levels between exposed and non exposed groups or even between before and after exposure in the exposed group was found to be statistically insignificant. On the other hand there were significant changes in the mean values of body temperature between exposed and non-exposed group and also between before and after exposure in the exposed group. Accordingly, within the limits of this study we can conclude that radiation emitted from VDTs affects body temperature, but do not have any effect on oral health including; hard or soft tissues or salivary components. This might be explained by the radiation with very low energy emitted from VDTs.
Coretti, C.; Ferrari, V.
In this paper the limits of applicability of the semi-relativistic approximation for estimating the radiation emitted in processes of capture of particles by black holes are discussed. It is shown that it gives reliable estimates in the case of spherically symmetric black holes, but it fails in the case of rotating black holes
Eliyahu, Ilan; Luria, Roy; Hareuveny, Ronen; Margaliot, Menachem; Meiran, Nachshon; Shani, Gad
The present study examined the effects of exposure to Electromagnetic Radiation emitted by a standard GSM phone at 890 MHz on human cognitive functions. This study attempted to establish a connection between the exposure of a specific area of the brain and the cognitive functions associated with that area. A total of 36 healthy right-handed male subjects performed four distinct cognitive tasks: spatial item recognition, verbal item recognition, and two spatial compatibility tasks. Tasks were chosen according to the brain side they are assumed to activate. All subjects performed the tasks under three exposure conditions: right side, left side, and sham exposure. The phones were controlled by a base station simulator and operated at their full power. We have recorded the reaction times (RTs) and accuracy of the responses. The experiments consisted of two sections, of 1 h each, with a 5 min break in between. The tasks and the exposure regimes were counterbalanced. The results indicated that the exposure of the left side of the brain slows down the left-hand response time, in the second-later-part of the experiment. This effect was apparent in three of the four tasks, and was highly significant in only one of the tests. The exposure intensity and its duration exceeded the common exposure of cellular phone users.
Full Text Available Background: Modern life prompted man to increasingly generate, transmit and use electricity that leads to exposure to different levels of electromagnetic fields (EMFs. Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to common sources of EMF such as mobile phones, laptops or wireless internet-connected laptops decreases human semen quality. In some countries, mobile jammers are occasionally used in offices, shrines, conference rooms and cinemas to block the signal. Aims: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of short term exposure of human sperm samples to radiofrequency (RF radiations emitted by common mobile jammers. Subjects and Methods: Fresh semen samples were collected by masturbation from 30 healthy donors who had referred to Infertility Treatment Center at the Mother and Child Hospital with their wives. Female problem was diagnosed as the reason for infertility in these couples. Statistical Analysis: T-test and analysis of variance were used to show statistical significance. Results: The motility of sperm samples exposed to jammer RF radiation for 2 or 4 h were significantly lower than those of sham-exposed samples. These findings lead us to the conclusion that mobile jammers may significantly decrease sperm motility and the couples′ chances of conception. Conclusion: Based on these results, it can be suggested that in countries that have not banned mobile jammer use, legislations should be urgently passed to restrict the use of these signal blocking devices in public or private places.
Mortazavi, SMJ; Parsanezhad, ME; Kazempour, M; Ghahramani, P; Mortazavi, AR; Davari, M
BACKGROUND: Modern life prompted man to increasingly generate, transmit and use electricity that leads to exposure to different levels of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Substantial evidence indicates that exposure to common sources of EMF such as mobile phones, laptops or wireless internet-connected laptops decreases human semen quality. In some countries, mobile jammers are occasionally used in offices, shrines, conference rooms and cinemas to block the signal. AIMS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the effect of short term exposure of human sperm samples to radiofrequency (RF) radiations emitted by common mobile jammers. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Fresh semen samples were collected by masturbation from 30 healthy donors who had referred to Infertility Treatment Center at the Mother and Child Hospital with their wives. Female problem was diagnosed as the reason for infertility in these couples. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: T-test and analysis of variance were used to show statistical significance. RESULTS: The motility of sperm samples exposed to jammer RF radiation for 2 or 4 h were significantly lower than those of sham-exposed samples. These findings lead us to the conclusion that mobile jammers may significantly decrease sperm motility and the couples’ chances of conception. CONCLUSION: Based on these results, it can be suggested that in countries that have not banned mobile jammer use, legislations should be urgently passed to restrict the use of these signal blocking devices in public or private places. PMID:24082653
Kirshin, V.A.; Belov, A.D.; Budarkov, V.A.; Prochazka, Z.
The monograph summarizes the authors' experience and data from Soviet and foreign scientific literature. It consists of the following chapters: radioactive sources; utilization of ionizing radiation and radioactive isotopes; biological effects of ionizing radiation; radiation sickness in animals; combined post-irradiation syndromes; prophylaxis of radiation injury; therapy of irradiated animals; and veterinary radiation hygiene control of the environment, fodder, animals and animal products. (P.A.)
Otoplasty; Ear pinning; Ear surgery - cosmetic; Ear reshaping; Pinnaplasty ... Cosmetic ear surgery may be done in the surgeon's office, an outpatient clinic, or a hospital. It can be performed under ...
... Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Cosmetic Dentistry URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... W XYZ List of All Topics All Cosmetic Dentistry - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...
Vo Dak Bang; Gangrskij, Yu.P.; Miller, M.B.; Mikhajlov, L.V.; Fam Zui Khien; Kharisov, I.F.
The neutron yield from the 9 Be nucleus under the action of beta and gamma-radiation emitted at the radiative decay of 11 C, 62 Cu, 66 Ga, 74 Br isotopes is measured. These isotopes differ essentially by the emitted radiation spectra. The contribution of various processes ((γ, n)-reactions, inelastic scattering and positron nonradiative annihilation) to the neutron yield observed is determined [ru
Jefferson, Julie; Rich, Phoebe
Nail cosmetics are used by millions of people worldwide who desire smooth, lustrous nails. The nail cosmetic industry continues to expand to meet increasing consumer demand. In 2011 alone, consumers spent $6.6 billion on nail salon services. Although nail cosmetics are relatively safe, poor application techniques can promote disease, deformity, and allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. The foundation for managing nail cosmetic problems is prevention through education. Familiarity with the procedures and materials used in the nail cosmetic industry is necessary in order to recommend safe nail care strategies. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
¹Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ABU Zaria, Nigeria, ²Department of. Veterinary Physiology ... dogs, AGRs have a highly sensitive sense of smell. The rats ..... Gonadal Axis and thyroid Activity in. Male rats.
Kanlayavattanakul, M; Lourith, N
Lipopeptides are biosurfactants extensively used in cosmetics. The consumption of cosmetics containing lipopeptides is increasing as a result of the exceptional surface properties and diverse biological activities of lipopeptides which facilitate a vast number of applications not only in the pharmaceutics industry which includes cosmetics but also in the food industry. Cosmetics containing lipopeptides are available in various dosage forms according to their beneficial surface properties, which include anti-wrinkle and moisturizing activities and cleansing cosmetics. The microbial production of lipopeptides particularly those with biological and surface activities applicable to cosmetics are summarized based on appropriate studies and patents up to the year 2008 to manage the information and sufficiently review the data.
... the product safely. Also, cosmetics marketed on a retail basis to consumers, such as in stores or person to person, must have a list of ingredients on the label. For cosmetics sold by mail order, including online, this list must be on the label, in ...
Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.
Held, E; Johansen, J D; Agner, T
In a 2-year period, 1527 patients with contact dermatitis were investigated in the patch-test clinic. In 531 patients, allergy to cosmetics was suspected from the history and they were tested with their own cosmetic products. 40 (7.5%) (of the 531 patients) had 1 or more positive reactions, 82 (15...
Opstrup, Morten Schjørring; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Bossi, Rossana
or an antimicrobial agent in cosmetic products at a concentration up to 0.3%, as set by the European Cosmetics Directive (now Regulations). OBJECTIVES: To identify cosmetic product types containing chlorhexidine, and to measure the concentration of chlorhexidine in selected products. METHODS: Between February 2013...... and April 2013, we checked for chlorhexidine in cosmetic products in 14 supermarkets, one hairdressing salon and one beauty and retail store in Copenhagen, Denmark by reading the ingredient labels. The chlorhexidine concentration was measured in 10 selected products by high-performance liquid chromatography...... concentrations were 0.01-0.15%. CONCLUSIONS: We found chlorhexidine in various cosmetic product types, predominantly aimed at females, and in hair products. The measured chlorhexidine concentrations were all within the permitted limit. The relevance for allergic sensitization should be further explored....
Full Text Available ... Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates ... Drugs Food Medical Devices Nutrition Radiation-Emitting Products Tobacco Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol Alimentos ...
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Veterinary Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin ... One of these mutations led to an amino acid exchange at position 544 ... organs such as comb, wattle, brain, heart, .... congestion in various tissues and edema of.
and Aji, T. G.. 1. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria. ... limited nervous, muscle and skeletal systems development ... samples. Colloid area/volume and perimeter: This ..... BANKS, W. J., (1993): Applied Veterinary.
The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. ... dogs diagnosed with parvovirus enteritis in some veterinary clinics in Nigeria · EMAIL ... Rabies vaccination status among occupationally exposed humans in Nigeria ...
... free client handout to share with them. Compounding Veterinary Compounding FDA has withdrawn its draft guidance for ... new guidance, the AVMA is working to ensure veterinary access and animal health are protected. NEWS & ALERTS ...
2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. 3Veterinary. Teaching ... salivation, cornea opacity, haematuria and convulsion were observed in 20, 8, 2, 4, 1 and 3 of the patients ... intravenous fluid administration either for.
Krzeminski, M.; Lass, P.; Teodorczyk, J.; Krajka, J.
The veterinary use of radionuclide techniques dates back to the mid-sixties, but its more extensive use dates back to the past two decades. Veterinary nuclear medicine is focused mainly on four major issues: bone scintigraphy - with the majority of applications in horses, veterinary endocrinology - dealing mainly with the problems of hyperthyreosis in cats and hyperthyreosis in dogs, portosystemic shunts in small animals and veterinary oncology, however, most radionuclide techniques applied to humans can be applied to most animals. (author)
Lu, Jian; Guo, Jin-He; Zhu, Hai-Dong; Zhu, Guang-Yu; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Li; Wang, Chao; Pan, Tian-Fan; Teng, Gao-Jun
The emerging data for stenting in combination with brachytherapy in unresectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma are encouraging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of radiation-emitting metallic stents (REMS) for unresectable Bismuth type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous placement with REMS or uncovered self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) for unresectable Bismuth type III or IV hilar cholangiocarcinoma between September 2011 and April 2016 were identified into this retrospective study. Data on patient demographics and overall survival, functional success, stent patency and complications were collected at the authors' hospital. A total of 59 patients were included: 33 (55.9%) in the REMS group and 26 (44.1%) in the SEMS group. The median overall survival was 338 days in the REMS group and 141 days in the SEMS group (philar cholangiocarcinoma, and seems to prolong survival as well as patency of stent in these patients.
Tykva, R.; Sabol, J.
About 5% of the commonly used colour monitors tested showed radiation levels on the screen surface approaching the dose rate of 5 μGy/h. There is practically no difference between 'low radiation' monitors and other monitors. The level of radiation emitted to the sides is generally higher than that of X-ray photons emerging from the surface of the screen. Although the contribution to the effective dose of a person exposed to radiation from the monitors may be below the limit set for the general public, the skin and eye lens dose may reach significant levels, taking into account some factors such as a high density of monitors in small rooms, short distance, long exposure time, etc. (M.D.)
Full Text Available Introduction: The rapid growth of wireless communication technologies has caused public concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations on human health. Some early reports indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians such as the alterations of the pattern of muscle extractions. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers on the pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period of frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz. Materials and Methods: Frogs were kept in plastic containers in a room. Animals in the jammer group were exposed to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted from a common Jammer at a distance of 1m from the jammer’s antenna for 2 hours while the control frogs were only sham exposed. Then animals were sacrificed and isolated gastrocnemius muscles were exposed to on/off jammer radiation for 3 subsequent 10 minute intervals. Isolated gastrocnemius muscles were attached to the force transducer with a string. Using a PowerLab device (26-T, the pattern of muscular contractions was monitored after applying single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz as stimuli. Results: The findings of this study showed that the pulse height of muscle contractions could not be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion: These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions.
Rafati, A; Rahimi, S; Talebi, A; Soleimani, A; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, S M J
The rapid growth of wireless communication technologies has caused public concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations on human health. Some early reports indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians such as the alterations of the pattern of muscle extractions. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers on the pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period of frog's isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz). Frogs were kept in plastic containers in a room. Animals in the jammer group were exposed to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from a common Jammer at a distance of 1m from the jammer's antenna for 2 hours while the control frogs were only sham exposed. Then animals were sacrificed and isolated gastrocnemius muscles were exposed to on/off jammer radiation for 3 subsequent 10 minute intervals. Isolated gastrocnemius muscles were attached to the force transducer with a string. Using a PowerLab device (26-T), the pattern of muscular contractions was monitored after applying single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz) as stimuli. The findings of this study showed that the pulse height of muscle contractions could not be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions.
Full Text Available This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015 in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.
Guerra-Tapia, A; Gonzalez-Guerra, E
Hair plays a significant role in body image, and its appearance can be changed relatively easily without resort to surgical procedures. Cosmetics and techniques have therefore been used to change hair appearance since time immemorial. The cosmetics industry has developed efficient products that can be used on healthy hair or act on concomitant diseases of the hair and scalp. Dyes embellish the hair by bleaching or coloring it briefly, for temporary periods of longer duration, or permanently, depending on the composition of a dye (oxidative or nonoxidative) and its degree of penetration of the hair shaft. The dermatologist's knowledge of dyes, their use, and their possible side effects (contact eczema, cancer, increased porosity, brittleness) can extend to an understanding of cosmetic resources that also treat hair and scalp conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Cosmetic surgery is one of the two branches of plastic surgery. The characteristic of non-necessity of this surgical speciality implies an increased severity in the evaluation of the risk-benefit balance. Therefore, great care must be taken in providing all the information necessary in order to obtain valid consent to the intervention. We analyzed judgments concerning cosmetic surgery found in national legal databases. A document of National Bioethics Committee (CNB was also analyzed. Conclusion: The receipt of valid, informed consent is of absolute importance not only to legitimise the medical-surgical act, but it also represents the key element in the question concerning the existence of an obligation to achieve certain results/use of certain methods in the cosmetic surgery.
Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C
Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.
De Cuyper, Christa
Cosmetic tattoos, which are better known as permanent make-up, have become popular in the last decades. This same procedure can be used to camouflage pathological skin conditions, to mask scars and to complete the aesthetic results of plastic and reconstructive surgeries. The risks and complications of tattooing procedures include infections and allergic reactions. Scarring can occur. Fanning and fading of the colorants and dissatisfaction with colour and shape are not unusual. Different lasers can offer solutions for the removal of unwanted cosmetic tattoos, but complications due to the laser treatment, such as paradoxical darkening and scarring, can arise. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
... Is Regulated as a Cosmetic “Essential Oils” and “Aromatherapy” Safety Requirements Labeling of Fragrance Ingredients Phthalates as ... or Is It a Soap) ." “Essential Oils” and “Aromatherapy” There is no regulatory definition for “essential oils,” ...
Full Text Available Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...
... AACD AACD 2018: A Masterpiece of Comprehensive Cosmetic Dentistry Education 34th Annual Scientific Session | April 18-21 ... 222.9540 Contact Us © 2017American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry American Academy of Cosmetic Dentistry (AACD) © 2017American Academy ...
Dalah, Entesar; Fakhry, Angham; Mukhtar, Asma; Al Salti, Farah; Bader, May; Khouri, Sara; Al-Zahmi, Reem
Based on security issues and regulations airports are provided with luggage cargo scanners. These scanners utilize ionizing radiation that in principle present health risks toward humans. The study aims to investigate the amount of backscatter produced by passenger luggage and cargo toward airport personnel who are located at different distances from the scanners. To approach our investigation a Thermo Electron Radeye-G probe was used to quantify the backscattered radiation measured in terms of dose-rate emitted from airport scanners, Measurements were taken at the entrance and exit positions of the X-ray tunnel at three different distances (0, 50, and 100 cm) for two different scanners; both scanners include shielding curtains that reduce scattered radiation. Correlation was demonstrated using the Pearson coefficient test. Measurements confirmed an inverse relationship between dose rate and distance. An estimated occupational accumulative dose of 0.88 mSv/y, and 2.04 mSv/y were obtained for personnel working in inspection of carry-on, and cargo, respectively. Findings confirm that the projected dose of security and engineering staff are being well within dose limits. - Highlights: • Backscattered radiation emitted from the airport security scanners is estimated. • Inverse relation observed between backscattered radiation and scanners distance. • Occupational dose for personnel inspecting the scanners were up to 2.04 mSv/y. • The projected dose of security and engineering staff are well within dose limits.
Danilychev, V.A.; Zvorykin, V.D.; Kholin, I.V.; Chugunov, A.Y.
The spectrum, brightness, and energy have been measured for the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a plasma produced in air near a solid surface by pulses from a high-power CO 2 laser. The air pressure was varied over the range p 0 = 0.1--760 torr, and the laser power density was varied over the range q = 5 x 10 6 --10 8 W/cm 2 . At p 0 > or approx. =2--5 torr the radiation properties of the plasma are determined by a laser-beam absorption wave which arises in the gas. The maximum brightness temperature, T/sub b/approx. =50 000 K (lambda = 400 +- 20 nm), is reached at p 0 = 25 torr. The emission spectrum is quite different from an equilibrium spectrum, consisting primarily of NII, OII, and NIII lines. The total energy radiation by the plasma in the wavelength interval 360--2600 nm into a solid angle of 4π sr reaches 2.3% of the laser pulse energy
Yang, Xue; Brunetti, Enrico; Jaroszynski, Dino A.
High-charge electron beams produced by laser-wakefield accelerators are potentially novel, scalable sources of high-power terahertz radiation suitable for applications requiring high-intensity fields. When an intense laser pulse propagates in underdense plasma, it can generate femtosecond duration, self-injected picocoulomb electron bunches that accelerate on-axis to energies from 10s of MeV to several GeV, depending on laser intensity and plasma density. The process leading to the formation of the accelerating structure also generates non-injected, sub-picosecond duration, 1–2 MeV nanocoulomb electron beams emitted obliquely into a hollow cone around the laser propagation axis. These wide-angle beams are stable and depend weakly on laser and plasma parameters. Here we perform simulations to characterise the coherent transition radiation emitted by these beams if passed through a thin metal foil, or directly at the plasma–vacuum interface, showing that coherent terahertz radiation with 10s μJ to mJ-level energy can be produced with an optical to terahertz conversion efficiency up to 10‑4–10‑3.
Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus
Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...
Quinn, P. J
"Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...
The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.
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Uter, Wolfgang; Gonçalo, Margarida; Yazar, Kerem; Kratz, Eva-Maria; Mildau, Gerd; Lidén, Carola
The use of cosmetics exposes consumers to mixtures of ingredients, many of which are potential allergens. Ultraviolet (UV) filters are used not just in sunscreens, but also in other products. Many UV filters are known contact allergens and photoallergens. To examine the pattern of co-exposure to UV filters in cosmetics. A survey of products marketed in Germany, conducted in 2006-2009 by the Chemical and Veterinary Investigation Office in Karlsruhe, identified 4447 products (of all 5667 cosmetic products examined) (i) that were categorizable according to Annex I to the Cosmetics Directive, and (ii) with information on the presence of UV filters or zinc oxide. The occurrence and co-occurrence of UV filters were analysed and presented in tabular and graphical format. UV filters or zinc oxide were present in 22.5% of all 4447 products, ranging from almost 100% in sunscreens to a few per cent in, for example, some hair products; they were absent in two product categories. Frequently, several different UV filters were included in one product, for example in sunscreens (median 4) and in perfumes (median 3). The overall most frequent UV filters were butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and titanium dioxide, combined mostly with octocrylene in sunscreens and with ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate in creams. The frequent co-occurrence of UV filters in cosmetic products possibly facilitates sensitization, and may explain why patients often react to chemically unrelated UV filters. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...
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Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...
'Central Diagnostic, National Veterinary Research Institute Vom, Plateau State, Nigeria, 'Department of Veterinary Medicine. Ahmadu Bello ..... environment as reported by (Olabode et al., 2009; Okwor and Eze, 2011;Jwander et al., 2013b). Farmers who had the same complaints of. Marek's disease from the same source of.
Roha Tukimin; Rozaimah Abd Rahim; Mohamad Amirul Nizam; Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali
Non-ionising radiation (NIR) is known to be hazardous if the amount received is excessive. It is a fact that NIR, including extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave radiation can be found almost everywhere generated by both natural and man-made source. This is due to increase in demand for telecommunication and wireless technology which is become very important and as part of our lives. However, the widespread of the relevant technology contributed more NIR man-made sources exposure to the human. Due to public concern their potential of causing such health hazard, members of public and companies approached and request NIR Group of Nuclear Malaysia to carry out surveys and safety assessments of radiofrequency and microwave radiation emitted by the mobile telephone base station (MTBS) erected near the residential area or installed on the rooftop of the commercial building. Objective of the survey was to assess the presence of radiofrequency and microwave radiation and to identify radiation level which may lead to significant personnel exposure. Findings of the survey was compared to the standard guidelines issued by Malaysian Communication and Multimedia Commission (MCMC) and International Committee on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP). This paper highlights the works that had been carried out by NIR Group of Nuclear Malaysia from 1997 to 2007. We will share the experience and challenge in carried out the NIR safety assessment at mobile telephone base station. Results of the assessment work will be used to develop non-ionising radiation database for future reference in Malaysia. (Author)
Maharaj, H.P., E-mail: H_P_Maharaj@hc-sc.gc.ca [Health Canada, Dept. of Health, Consumer and Clinical Radiaton Protection Bureau, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)
This paper aims to provide an overview of an optimized benefit/risk ratio for a radiation emitting device. The device, which is portable, hand-held, and open-beam x-ray tube based, is utilized by a wide variety of industries for purposes of determining elemental or chemical analyses of materials in-situ based on fluorescent x-rays. These analyses do not cause damage or permanent alteration of the test materials and are considered a non-destructive test (NDT). Briefly, the key characteristics, principles of use and radiation hazards associated with the Hay device are presented and discussed. In view of the potential radiation risks, a long term strategy that incorporates risk factors and guiding principles intended to mitigate the radiation risks to the end user was considered and applied. Consequently, an operator certification program was developed on the basis of an International Standards Organization (ISO) standard (ISO 20807:2004) and in collaboration with various stake holders and was implemented by a federal national NDT certification body several years ago. It comprises a written radiation safety examination and hands-on training with the x-ray device. The operator certification program was recently revised and the changes appear beneficial. There is a fivefold increase in operator certification (Levels 1 a nd 2) to date compared with earlier years. Results are favorable and promising. An operational guidance document is available to help mitigate radiation risks. Operator certification in conjunction with the use of the operational guidance document is prudent, and is recommended for end users of the x-ray device. Manufacturers and owners of the x-ray devices will also benefit from the operational guidance document. (author)
This paper aims to provide an overview of an optimized benefit/risk ratio for a radiation emitting device. The device, which is portable, hand-held, and open-beam x-ray tube based, is utilized by a wide variety of industries for purposes of determining elemental or chemical analyses of materials in-situ based on fluorescent x-rays. These analyses do not cause damage or permanent alteration of the test materials and are considered a non-destructive test (NDT). Briefly, the key characteristics, principles of use and radiation hazards associated with the Hay device are presented and discussed. In view of the potential radiation risks, a long term strategy that incorporates risk factors and guiding principles intended to mitigate the radiation risks to the end user was considered and applied. Consequently, an operator certification program was developed on the basis of an International Standards Organization (ISO) standard (ISO 20807:2004) and in collaboration with various stake holders and was implemented by a federal national NDT certification body several years ago. It comprises a written radiation safety examination and hands-on training with the x-ray device. The operator certification program was recently revised and the changes appear beneficial. There is a fivefold increase in operator certification (Levels 1 a nd 2) to date compared with earlier years. Results are favorable and promising. An operational guidance document is available to help mitigate radiation risks. Operator certification in conjunction with the use of the operational guidance document is prudent, and is recommended for end users of the x-ray device. Manufacturers and owners of the x-ray devices will also benefit from the operational guidance document. (author)
cigarettes, cosmetics, condoms, party balloons and other rubber ..... determine levels of nitrosamines, nitrates and nitrites entails the use of High performance liquid chromatography ... might lead to the secretion of nitrosamines into eggs.
Stachowski, Jill; Botts, Kayla; Rine, Lesley; Kato, Danielle; Pollock, Jennifer
Mesotherapy, which has been compared to the anti-wrinkle injection Botox, has only recently become popular in the United States for providing body contouring and spot weight loss. Most adverse reactions associated with mesotherapy are mild and transient, and supporters of the procedure consider it a safer alternative to liposuction. Mainly owing to the absence of safety and efficacy data pertaining to mesotherapy, liposuction is currently the only method for fat removal that is endorsed by the American Society of Plastic Surgeons . Although mesotherapy has been used as a treatment for pain syndromes, arthritis, and many other disorders, this article focuses on its cosmetic applications.
Handler, Marc Zachary; Goldberg, David J
Men are interested in reducing signs of aging, while maintaining a masculine appearance. A chief concern among men is maintenance of scalp hair. Men are also concerned with reducing under eye bags and dark circles. The concern of feminization is of significant importance. Neuromodulators remain the most common cosmetic procedure performed in men. Men often prefer a reduction in facial rhytids, as opposed to elimination of the lines. Softening facial lines in men is meant to maintain an appearance of wisdom, without appearing fragile. Men also wish to maintain a taut jawline and a slim waist and reduce breast tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sarveswari, K N
Vitiligo is not a life–threatening nor a contagious disease. But the disfigurement of vitiligo can be devastating to its sufferers, especially dark-skinned individuals. Available treatment options are disappointing and sufferers often use various forms of camouflage. Remedial cosmetic cover creams help conceal the blemish of vitiligo at least temporarily. A high concentration of pigment is incorporated into water–free or anhydrous foundations to give a color that matches the patient’s skin, thereby concealing vitiligo patches. The article highlights the content and technique of application of these creams. PMID:21063508
Full Text Available Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.
Corresponding author: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel No:+2348037811882 ... and veterinary medicine as potent anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and .... steroid skeleton, similar to hydrocortisone. ... for pregnant women at risk of preterm birth.
... Journal are the Research Workers, Veterinary Clinicians, Animal Scientists, Field Officers ... Prevalence and risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infestations in ... Mastitis pathogens prevalent in dairy cattle at Magadu farm, Morogoro- ...
Also, the advantage of ... antibodies. The major disadvantage of the polyclonal ... advantage of a monoclonal antibody over .... department in the veterinary school was obtained from the ..... methodology for both routine diagnostic and research ...
Control Services, Federal Ministry of Agriculture, Abuja; 9National Veterinary Research Institute, P.M.B 01 Vom,. Nigeria. *Corresponding ... because the poultry industry contributes ..... holidays have been identified as source of transmission ...
Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 15, No 1 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.
The history of parasitology and the teaching of veterinary parasitology in South Africa are reviewed briefly. Courses in veterinary parasitology are presented at the faculties of veterinary science at the University of Pretoria and the Medical University of South Africa as well as at the Pretoria Technicon. At the University of Pretoria, the three disciplines of veterinary parasitology, entomology, helminthology and protozoology, are covered in 330 core lectures; from 13 to 40% of the contact time is devoted to practical classes. Teaching veterinary parasitology is both labour intensive and costly, viz. R1700 (US$570) per student per annum. Such costs are justified by the R148.8 million (US$49.6 million) spent every year in South Africa on anthelmintics, ectoparasiticides and vaccines to control parasites. Veterinary parasitology is a dynamic subject and the curriculum must be revised regularly to incorporate new information. Because the parasite faunas are so diverse no single textbook can satisfy the requirements of the various institutions worldwide which teach the subject, with the result that extensive use is made of notes. In Australia and in Europe, ticks and tick-borne diseases are less important than they are in Africa; consequently insufficient space is devoted to them in textbooks to satisfy the requirements of the subject in African countries. Parasite control under extensive and intensive conditions is dealt with adequately at the University of Pretoria, but increasing emphasis will be given to small-scale farming systems, particularly if alternative food animals are to be kept.
Wollina, Uwe; Goldman, Alberto; Berger, Uwe; Abdel-Naser, Mohammed Badawy
The field of esthetic and cosmetic dermatology has gained remarkable interest all over the world. The major advantage of recent years is the high scientific levels of the most significant new developments in techniques and pharmacotherapy and other nonsurgical approaches. The present paper reviews selected fields of interest under this view. Sexual hormones are involved in the aging process of men and women. Skin function, in particular the epidermal barrier, is affected by a loss of endocrine activity. Hormone replacement therapy has only recently been introduced in treatment of aging males. This is an area of gender-medicine in dermatology with a strong well-aging attempt. Botulinum toxin therapy for hyperfunctional lines has become not only well-established but evidence-based medicine on its highest level. Recent advantages were gained in objective evaluation and monitoring the effect. Digital imaging techniques with various facets have been introduced to assess the achievements of treatment in the most objective way. This may become an example for other techniques as peeling, laser therapy, or radiofrequency in esthetic and cosmetic dermatology. Botulinum toxin has become a valuable tool for brow lifts. Details of the technique are discussed. Cellulite is a strongly female gender-related condition. During the past decades numerous treatments had been recommended but only recently a more critical scientific approach led to improvements in therapy of this common and disfiguring condition. Three major approaches are developed: (a) skin loosing with techniques such as subcision, (b) skin tightening with radiofrequency and other approaches, and (c) improving circulation in blood and lymphatic microvasculature using both physical treatments and pharmacotherapy. The last two chapters are devoted to body sculpturing by lipotransfer and lipolysis. Lipotransfer for facial or body sculpturing has a history of about 100 years. Nevertheless, recently the role of adult stem
... nasal complaints. Nasal deformity can be categorized as “cosmetic” or “functional.” Cosmetic deformity of the nose results in a less ... taste , nose bleeds and/or recurrent sinusitis . A cosmetic or functional nasal deformity may occur secondary to ...
Gwaltney-Brant, S M
Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.
Hrusovsky, J.; Benes, J.
A textbook is presented for pregraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary medicine, offering an extensive review of all aspects of radiology as applied in veterinary sciences. Based on findings published in the literature and the authors' own research, the textbook familiarizes the reader with the problems of nuclear physics, biological effects of ionizing radiation on animals, the principles of biological cycles of radionuclides in the atmosphere, the fundamentals of radiochemistry, dosimetry, radiometry and nuclear medicine. Radiation protection of animals, raw materials, feeds, foodstuff and water, and the questions of the aplications of ionizing radiation and of radionuclides in veterinary medicine are discussed in great detail. The publication is complemented with numerous photographs, figures and graphs. (L.O.)
Suhag, Jyoti; Dureja, Harish
The regulatory framework, compliance requirement, efficacy, safety, and marketing of cosmetic products are considered the most important factors for growth of the cosmetic industry. There are different regulatory bodies across the globe that have their own insights for regulation; moreover, governments such as the United States, European Union, and Japan follow a stringent regulatory framework, whereas cosmetics are not so much strictly regulated in countries such as India, Brazil, and China. The alignment of a regulatory framework will play a significant role in the removal of barriers to trade, growth of market at an international level, innovation in the development and presentation of new products, and most importantly safety and efficacy of the marketed products. The present contribution gives insight into the important cosmetic regulations in areas of premarket approval, ingredient control, and labeling and warnings, with a special focus on the cosmetic regulatory environments in the United States, European Union, Japan, and India. Most importantly, the authors highlight the dark side of cosmetics associated with allergic reactions and even skin cancer. The importance of cosmetic regulations has been highlighted by dint of which the society can be healthier, accomplished by more stringent and harmonized regulations.
Full Text Available Many invasive procedures, including surgery (ear cropping, tail docking, and debarking in the dog, are performed on dogs for purely cosmetic reasons or convenience. These procedures, also known as “cosmetic surgery”, fall into a variety of categories from the questionably unethical to the undoubtedly criminal, because they are mostly carried out solely to alter a dog’s physical appearance. Although in several European countries these procedures are banned, except when performed by a veterinarian for medical reasons, veterinarians are often requested to perform them for various reasons. Though controversial, canine cosmetic surgery continues to be performed, reaching epidemic proportions. The authors summarize legislation, individual positions and veterinary attitudes regarding cosmetic surgery in Italy and the Czech Republic. Additionally, they explain the ways in which the law is being used in the two countries to prevent these unnecessary procedures, and how current and future anti-cruelty laws can stop unethical use of cosmetic surgery.
Kallfelz, F.A.; Comar, C.L.; Wentworth, R.A.
A brief review is presented of the expanding horizons of nuclear medicine, the equipment necessary for a nuclear medicine laboratory is listed, and the value of this relatively new field to the veterinary clinician is indicated. Although clinical applications to veterinary medicine have not kept pace with those of human medicine, many advances have been made, particularly in the use of in vitro techniques. Areas for expanded applications should include competitive protein binding and other in vitro procedures, particularly in connection with metabolic profile studies. Indicated also is more intensive application by the veterinarian of imaging procedures, which have been found to be of such great value to the physician. (U.S.)
Hudak, R.; Zivcak, J.; Sevcik, A.; Danko, J.
The use of infrared thermography in veterinary medicine has been practiced since at least the 1960's, but it is only now, in approximately the last 5 years, that it has been viewed with a reasonably open mind in the veterinary community at large. One of the reasons is progress in sensors technology, which contributed for an outstanding improvement of the thermal imager parameters. Paper deals with veterinary thermography and with description of applications at the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice. (authors)
Focus and Scope. The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the ...
Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain. Meseko, C. A.. 1. ; Shittu, I. 1. ; Bwala, D. G.. 2. ; Joannis, T. M.. 1 and Nwosuh, C. I.. 2. 1Regional Laboratory For Animal Influenza and Transboundary Animal Diseases, National Veterinary ...
Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...
Roest, H.I.J.; Engelsma, M.Y.; Weesendorp, E.; Bossers, A.; Elbers, A.R.W.
In veterinary molecular diagnostics, samples originating from animals are tested. Developments in the farm animals sector and in our societal attitude towards pet animals have resulted in an increased demand for fast and reliable diagnostic techniques. Molecular diagnostics perfectly matches this
Sonographic Measurements of Ocular Biometry of Indigenous Nigerian. Dogs in Zaria ..... between L2 and R) anesthetic risks and additional costs were ... prevalent worldwide problem (Toni et al.,. 2013). Paunknis and ... correlation with refractive error is larger for axial length than .... Veterinary Medical Association. 207:12.
1Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, ... email@example.com; Tel No:+2348038352906. ... in-contact humans from pig farms and abattoir. ... Momoh et al. 141 and may enhance the distribution of resistance genes into ... treating clinical infections in both man and.
xyphoid cartilage to the pelvic area and aquasonic gel applied. The uterus was ... is used in both veterinary and human medicine ... Idris et al. 135 the pelvic region was gently made wet, with ... showing multiple fetuses (blue arrow). Plate IV: ... The beginning of bone formation which appears as hyperechoic structures ...
Spézia, François; Barrow, Paul C
In Europe, the developmental toxicity testing (including teratogenicity) of new cosmetic ingredients is performed according to the Cosmetics Directive 76/768/EEC: only alternatives leading to full replacement of animal experiments should be used. This chapter presents the three scientifically validated animal alternative methods for the assessment of embryotoxicity: the embryonic stem cell test (EST), the micromass (MM) assay, and the whole embryo culture (WEC) assay.
OVERVIEW The cosmetics industry is probably among the most promising for utilisation of natural substances. The dermocosmetics market is booming and, as the use of animal-based substances declines, natural marine or plant-based substances are increasingly sought after. Scientific approach “The cosmetics industry bases a lot of its communication on natural substances. But there is genuine scientific work going on behind the fashion for environmentalism”, says Patrice André, Director of the Dio...
A general picture of toxicological approach and practical aspects of cosmetic safety is described in this thesis. Such considerations are the basis for introducing negative and positive lists of cosmetic ingredients into cosmetic legislation. The first Dutch Cosmetic Act of 1968 already has several
Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E
Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.
Vockeroth, W G
Complementary and alternative therapies, including homeopathy, have a definite place in veterinary medicine today. The public is demanding access to a full range of conventional and complementary therapies, and the best scenario is to have all therapies available, for there is a place and a need for all of them in the right situation. In my own practice, I use both alternative and conventional therapies, as well as referring patients to specialists, for services such as ultrasound and surgery...
Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei
Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Due to the characteristics of its coal and orebody, Monsacro shaft was chosen to host the test. The ash percentage of the different coal seams was carried out by two different methods: Traditional analysis in laboratory. Analysis by means of natural gamma radiation emitted by coal. The following conclusions were obtained after the test: Neither during the mounting nor during the test, a problem was encountered in the working of the radioactive methods. The absolute error between the two methods was minimum. The radioactive analysis is total (this means that the whole coal is analysed) and it is carried out in short period of time. The traditional one is just partial, and could take a few hours to accomplish it. The radioactive one is done in the wagon or in the belt conveyor directly, meanwhile the traditional one needs sample takers permanently. The investment cost of the radioactivity method is amortized within two years. (Author)
Tran, Ann Q; Hoppener, Catherine; Venkateswaran, Nandini; Choi, Daniel S; Lee, Wendy W
Introduced in 2008 and subsequently popularized in South Korea, cosmetic eye whitening has been offered as a treatment of chronic conjunctival hyperemia. Patients undergo conjunctivectomy with topical mitomycin C (MMC) 0.02% application to achieve a whitened appearance from bleaching of avascular sclera. Much speculation has arisen from this procedure given the limited available evidence on its efficacy and safety. A literature search was performed to review common complications of cosmetic eye whitening, including chronic conjunctival epithelial defects, scleral thinning, avascular zones in the sclera, dry eye syndrome, and diplopia requiring strabismus surgery. Informing the general public of the risks of this procedure is of great importance for dermatologists and other cosmetic surgeons.
Varvaresou, A; Iakovou, K
Biosurfactants are surface-active biomolecules that are produced by various micro-organisms. They show unique properties i.e. lower toxicity, higher biodegradability and environmental compatibility compared to their chemical counterparts. Glycolipids and lipopeptides have prompted application in biotechnology and cosmetics due to their multi-functional profile i.e. detergency, emulsifying, foaming and skin hydrating properties. Additionally, some of them can be served as antimicrobials. In this study the current status of research and development on rhamnolipids, sophorolipids, mannosyloerythritol lipids, trehalipids, xylolipids and lipopeptides particularly their commercial application in cosmetics and biopharmaceuticals, is described. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
This paper summarises some of the major findings of a doctoral research entitled "Psychological Aspects of Cosmetic Rhinoplasty" carried out when the author was working in the United Kingdom on a thesis that was accepted for the degree of PhD by the University of London. From the point of view of the clinical psychologist there can be no doubt that cosmetic rhinoplasty does have largely beneficial short- and long-term psychological and behavioural effects on patients who request the operation and several observations and experiments are described to account for the efficacy and therapeutic value of this operation.
Zahide Eriş Eken
Full Text Available Hair is composed of a mixture of trace elements in small quantities, proteins, lipids and water. Proteins consist of helical polypeptide amino acid molecules. In the hair cells; polypeptide chains of keratin protein would be organized in filaments. In recent years, hair cosmetics showed a significant change and development. The content of shampoos which is used to cleanse the hair has enhanced significantly. Hair conditioner, hair styling products, pomades, brilliantine, and gloss sprays, hair protective products, camouflage products are most commonly used hair cosmetics. Hair shaping procedures are frequently applied.
Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A.
This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.)
The cons and pros of veterinary education in Iraq are described. Started as a small institution, with few students and with foreign staffs, then expanded to enroll more than hundred students each year, with all Iraqi staff. The graduates of the Veterinary College played an important role in monitoring animal health, supervising research projects involving animal welfare, some served as educators of various veterinary science specializations, others worked as private practitioners or recruited in the army. Veterinary education was very vital, as other sciences for progress of the country.
Bergman, Philip J
The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Palmeiro, Brian S
Cyclosporine is an immunomodulatory medication that is efficacious and approved for atopic dermatitis in dogs and allergic dermatitis in cats; it has also been used to successfully manage a variety of immune-mediated dermatoses in dogs and cats. This article reviews the use of cyclosporine in veterinary dermatology including its mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, drug interactions, side effects, and relevant clinical updates. Dermatologic indications including atopic/allergic dermatitis, perianal fistulas, sebaceous adenitis, and other immune-mediated skin diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The social desirability of a tanned skin is apparent and many people associate a bronzed body with good health and a sense of well-being. In Northern Europe and America the lack of long periods of sunshine has led to the establishment of the suntanning industry where artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation emitting almost entirely in the UV-A region supplement sunlight exposure
Kieć-Swierczyńska, Marta; Krecisz, Beata; Swierczyńska-Machura, Dominika
The authors report current information on allergy to aromatic agents present in cosmetics and products of household chemistry. In the perfume industry, about 3000 aromas are used. Single products may contain from 10 to 300 compounds. The problem of difficulties encountered in the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to odors is addressed. The mixture of 8 such products used in diagnostic screening is able to detect allergy only in about 30% of patients who do not tolerate cosmetics. Changing frequency of allergy to individual aromas is discussed. It has been now observed that cinnamon products are less allergic than chemical compounds present in oak moss. Since the 1990s of the last century, allergy to a synthetic aromatic agent, Lyral is the subject of interest in many research centers involved in studies of contact allergy. Half the cosmetics present in European markets, especially deodorants, after shave cosmetics, hand and body lotions contain this agent. It induces positive reactions in about 10% of patients allergic to aromatic agents. Detection of allergy to Lyral is difficult as it is not included in the set of commercial allergens used to diagnose hypersensitivity to aromatic agents.
... Search English Español Coping With Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment KidsHealth / For Parents / Coping With Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment What's in this article? Hair Loss Skin Problems ...
Khamas, Wael A; Nour, Abdelfattah
Iraq is an agricultural country with a large population of animals: sheep, goats, cattle, water buffaloes, horses, donkeys, mules, and camels. In the 1980s, the successful poultry industry managed to produce enough table eggs and meat to satisfy the needs of the entire population; at one time, the thriving fish industry produced different types of fish for Iraqis' yearly fish consumption. There are four veterinary colleges in Iraq, which have been destroyed along with the veterinary services infrastructure. Understandably, improvements to the quality of veterinary education and services in Iraq will be reflected in a healthy and productive animal industry, better food quality and quantity, fewer zoonotic diseases, and more income-generating activities in rural areas. Thus, if undergraduate, graduate, and continuing education programs are improved, the veterinary medical profession will attract more competent students. This will satisfy the country's increased demand for competent veterinarians in both public and private sectors. Although Iraq has an estimated 5,000-7,000 veterinarians, there is a need for quality veterinary services and for more veterinarians. In addition, there is a need for the improvement of veterinary diagnostic facilities, as zoonotic diseases are always highly probable in this region. This article provides insight into the status of veterinary medical education and veterinary services in Iraq before and after the 1991 Gulf War and gives suggestions for improvement and implementation of new programs. Suggestions are also offered for improving veterinary diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services. Improving diagnostic facilities and the quality of veterinary services will enhance animal health and production in Iraq and will also decrease the likelihood of disease transmission to and from Iraq. Threats of disease transmission and introduction into the country have been observed and reported by several international
Holst-Albrechtsen, Sine; Sørensen, Lene Birk; Juel, Jacob
Cosmetic tourism is defined as patient mobility across borders, typically constituted by patients seeking cosmetic surgery at lower costs abroad. The most common procedures are abdominoplasty, fat grafting and breast augmentation. Very little is known about the complication rates after cosmetic tourism, and there is a paucity of evidence in all aspects of cosmetic tourism. In this review, we focus on post-operative complications i.e. post-operative infections, in particular with rare microorganisms such as mycobacteria.
Kinnison, Tierney; Lumbis, Rachel; Orpet, Hilary; Welsh, Perdi; Gregory, Sue; Baillie, Sarah
Interprofessional education (IPE) has received little attention in veterinary education even though members of the veterinary and nursing professions work closely together. The present study investigates veterinary and veterinary nursing students' and practitioners' experiences with interprofessional issues and the potential benefits of IPE. Based on stakeholder consultations, two teaching interventions were modified or developed for use with veterinary and veterinary nursing students: Talking Walls, which aimed to increase individuals' understanding of each other's roles, and an Emergency-Case Role-Play Scenario, which aimed to improve teamwork. These interventions were piloted with volunteer veterinary and veterinary nursing students who were recruited through convenience sampling. A questionnaire (the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale [RIPLS]) was modified for use in veterinary education and used to investigate changes in attitudes toward IPE over time (pre-intervention, immediately post-intervention, and four to five months afterward). The results showed an immediate and significant positive change in attitude after the intervention, highlighting the students' willingness to learn collaboratively, their ability to recognize the benefits of IPE, a decreased sense of professional isolation, and reduced hierarchical views. Although nearly half of the students felt concerned about learning with students from another profession before the intervention, the majority (97%) enjoyed learning together. However, the positive change in attitude was not evident four to five months after the intervention, though attitudes remained above pre-intervention levels. The results of the pilot study were encouraging and emphasize the relevance and importance of veterinary IPE as well as the need for further investigation to explore methods of sustaining a change in attitude over time.
... become essential tools in almost every field of research and applied technology. ... Computers in veterinary medicine have been used for veterinary education; ... agro-veterinary project design, monitoring and implementation; preparation of ...
This Code of Practice is designed to give guidance to veterinary surgeons in ensuring that workers and members of the public are adequately protected from the hazards of ionising radiation arising from the use of x-ray equipment in veterinary practice. (author)
Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S
It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.
Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...
Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi; Kusama, Tomoko.
To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author)
Andersen, Klaus Ejner
Cosmetics and toiletries are indispensable everyday products used by the vast majority of the population. Evaluation of safety is needed to reduce the risk of side effects from intentional and unintentional use. This paper describes factors involved in the choice of test strategy for determining ...... the dermatotoxicological profile of the products. Emphasis is placed on tests for skin irritation, contact allergy, acne and subjective symptoms elicited by the products....
Klein, Holger J; Simic, Dario; Fuchs, Nina; Schweizer, Riccardo; Mehra, Tarun; Giovanoli, Pietro; Plock, Jan A
Cosmetic surgery tourism characterizes a phenomenon of people traveling abroad for aesthetic surgery treatment. Problems arise when patients return with complications or need of follow-up care. To investigate the complications of cosmetic surgery tourism treated at our hospital as well as to analyze arising costs for the health system. Between 2010 and 2014, we retrospectively included all patients presenting with complications arising from cosmetic surgery abroad. We reviewed medical records for patients' characteristics including performed operations, complications, and treatment. Associated cost expenditure and Diagnose Related Groups (DRG)-related reimbursement were analyzed. In total 109 patients were identified. All patients were female with a mean age of 38.5 ± 11.3 years. Most procedures were performed in South America (43%) and Southeast (29.4%) or central Europe (24.8%), respectively. Favored procedures were breast augmentation (39.4%), abdominoplasty (11%), and breast reduction (7.3%). Median time between the initial procedure abroad and presentation was 15 days (interquartile range [IQR], 9) for early, 81.5 days (IQR, 69.5) for midterm, and 4.9 years (IQR, 9.4) for late complications. Main complications were infections (25.7%), wound breakdown (19.3%), and pain/discomfort (14.7%). The majority of patients (63.3%) were treated conservatively; 34.8% became inpatients with a mean hospital stay of 5.2 ± 3.8 days. Overall DRG-related reimbursement premiums approximately covered the total costs. Despite warnings regarding associated risks, cosmetic surgery tourism has become increasingly popular. Efficient patients' referral to secondary/tertiary care centers with standardized evaluation and treatment can limit arising costs without imposing a too large burden on the social healthcare system. 4. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: firstname.lastname@example.org
Ng, Alison; Evans, Katharine; North, Rachel; Purslow, Christine
Eye cosmetics usage is commonplace and whilst some products such as eyeliner are applied with close proximity to the ocular surface, there is little knowledge of the short- and long-term ocular effects of eye cosmetic formulations. This study aimed to investigate the use of eye cosmetics and identify any relationships between ocular comfort and cosmetic usage. Results were collated from an online survey comprising 23 questions that recorded demographics, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) score, extent and range of eye cosmetic use and perceived comfort differences with and without eye cosmetics. The 1360 female respondents (median age 25, interquartile range 20-34 years) completed the survey; 83% reported using eye cosmetics regularly (≥ 3 times per week) with mascara being most commonly used. Fifty three per cent used at least three different eye cosmetics products regularly. OSDI scores of cosmetics users were similar to non-users (p = 0.083), but perceived comfort was greater when cosmetics were not used (p cosmetics users (use of products cosmetics were used. Median OSDI scores suggested a trend towards reduced comfort amongst eyeliner users (p = 0.07) although frequency and type of cosmetic products used did not appear to influence OSDI scores. This study shows the use of multiple eye cosmetics is extensive and associated with the perception of ocular discomfort. With such widespread use of these products, more research is required to assess the effect on the ocular surface and tear film, which may be underestimated. Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2012 The College of Optometrists.
Diana L. Eubanks
Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.
Computers have been used to automate complex and repetitive tasks in veterinary hospitals since the 1960s. Early systems were expensive, but their use was justified because they performed jobs which would have been impossible or which would have required greater resources in terms of time and personnel had they been performed by other methods. Systems found in most veterinary hospitals today are less costly, magnitudes more capable, and often underused. Modern multitasking operating systems and graphical interfaces bring many opportunities for automation. Commercial and custom programs developed and used in a typical multidoctor mixed species veterinary practice are described.
Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Zarei, Samira; Taheri, Mohammad; Tajbakhsh, Saeed; Mortazavi, Seyed Alireza; Ranjbar, Sahar; Momeni, Fatemeh; Masoomi, Samaneh; Ansari, Leila; Movahedi, Mohammad Mehdi; Taeb, Shahram; Zarei, Sina; Haghani, Masood
Over the past several years our laboratories have investigated different aspects of the challenging issue of the alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics induced by physical stresses. To explore the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in samples of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium ( S. typhimurium ), Staphylococcus aureus , and Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to gamma radiation emitted from the soil samples taken from the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, northern Iran. Standard Kirby-Bauer test, which evaluates the size of the zone of inhibition as an indicator of the susceptibility of different bacteria to antibiotics, was used in this study. The maximum alteration of the diameter of inhibition zone was found for K. pneumoniae when tested for ciprofloxacin. In this case, the mean diameter of no growth zone in non-irradiated control samples of K. pneumoniae was 20.3 (SD 0.6) mm; it was 14.7 (SD 0.6) mm in irradiated samples. On the other hand, the minimum changes in the diameter of inhibition zone were found for S. typhimurium and S. aureus when these bacteria were tested for nitrofurantoin and cephalexin, respectively. Gamma rays were capable of making significant alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. It can be hypothesized that high levels of natural background radiation can induce adaptive phenomena that help microorganisms better cope with lethal effects of antibiotics.
Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi
Full Text Available Background: Over the past several years our laboratories have investigated different aspects of the challenging issue of the alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics induced by physical stresses. Objective: To explore the bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics in samples of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae after exposure to gamma radiation emitted from the soil samples taken from the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, northern Iran. Methods: Standard Kirby-Bauer test, which evaluates the size of the zone of inhibition as an indicator of the susceptibility of different bacteria to antibiotics, was used in this study. Results: The maximum alteration of the diameter of inhibition zone was found for K. pneumoniae when tested for ciprofloxacin. In this case, the mean diameter of no growth zone in non-irradiated control samples of K. pneumoniae was 20.3 (SD 0.6 mm; it was 14.7 (SD 0.6 mm in irradiated samples. On the other hand, the minimum changes in the diameter of inhibition zone were found for S. typhimurium and S. aureus when these bacteria were tested for nitrofurantoin and cephalexin, respectively. Conclusion: Gamma rays were capable of making significant alterations in bacterial susceptibility to antibiotics. It can be hypothesized that high levels of natural background radiation can induce adaptive phenomena that help microorganisms better cope with lethal effects of antibiotics.
Mortazavi S. M. J.
Full Text Available Background: The rapid development of wireless telecommunication technologies over the past decades, has led to significant changes in the exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields. Nowadays, people are continuously exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, cordless phones, Wi-Fi routers, and power lines. Therefore, the last decade witnessed a rapidly growing concern about the possible health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by these sources. Materials and Methods: In this study that was aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted by a GSM mobile phone on the pattern of contraction in frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz, pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period were measured. Results: Our findings showed that the pulse height of contractions muscle could be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. Especially, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion: These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions
Mortazavi, S M J; Rahimi, S; Talebi, A; Soleimani, A; Rafati, A
The rapid development of wireless telecommunication technologies over the past decades, has led to significant changes in the exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields. Nowadays, people are continuously exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, cordless phones, Wi-Fi routers, and power lines. Therefore, the last decade witnessed a rapidly growing concern about the possible health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by these sources. In this study that was aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted by a GSM mobile phone on the pattern of contraction in frog's isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz), pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period were measured. Our findings showed that the pulse height of contractions muscle could be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. Especially, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions.
Full Text Available A dual band mobile phone model was used to check the shielding properties of an amorphous ferromagnetic textile against the radiation emitted by the handset. Two frequencies belonging to the 2nd and 3rd generation of mobile emission technologies were used, 897 MHz and 1950 MHz. The specific absorption rate (SAR of energy deposition in a human head phantom was measured in standardized conditions. The textile contained micrometric-diameter wires of a ferromagnetic mixture embedded in a thin glass coat and weaved in a specific way. A set of fabric orientations and configurations (layering were provided in the experiment in order to achieve a better shielding to the phone’s radiation. Compared with the non-shielded handset, SAR deposited in the head while using the fabric-covered phone could be decreased up to 30 % of its initial value – in case of 2G technology and up to 24 % – in case of 3G technology. This type of material shows one of the highest shielding efficiencies of the electric-field component in near-field exposure conditions reported until now. A cubic curve of SAR decrease in depth of the head was revealed in both uncovered and covered handset, the effect of shielding being larger at the higher frequency.
Cosmetic surgery is increasing in popularity in Australia and New Zealand, as it is across other Western countries. However, there is no systematic mechanism for gathering data about cosmetic surgery, nor about the outcomes of that surgery. This column argues that the business of cosmetic surgery in Australia has questionable marketing standards, is conducted with little scrutiny or accountability and offers patients imperfect knowledge about cosmetic procedures. It also argues that while medical practitioners debate among themselves over who should carry out cosmetic procedures, little attention has been paid to questionable advertising in the industry and even less to highlighting the real risks of undergoing cosmetic surgery. While consumers are led to believe that cosmetic surgery is accessible, affordable and safe, they are sheltered from the reality of invasive and risky surgery and from the ability to clearly discern that all cosmetic procedures carry risk. While doctors continue to undertake advertising and engage in a territorial war, they fail to address the really important issues in cosmetic surgery. These are: providing real evidence about what happens in the industry, developing stringent regulations under which the industry should operate and ensuring that all patients considering cosmetic surgery are fully informed as to the risks of that surgery.
Bunyavaree, Monthathip; Kasemsarn, Pranee; Boonchai, Waranya
Preservatives are added to cosmetics and other consumer products to prevent microbial growth and product degradation. Many cosmetic preservatives are skin sensitizers and frequent causes of contact dermatitis. The use of preservatives may vary by country and/or region, according to legislation, and may be reflected in differences in the prevalence rates of preservative allergy worldwide. To examine the type and frequency of preservative use in cosmetics sold in Thai markets in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. Preservatives contained in 1000 different cosmetics sold in Thai markets were documented and analysed, based on the labelling of ingredients. Most of the cosmetic and skincare products sold in Thai markets were international brands, with only a small proportion of cosmetic products being produced in Thailand. International brand cosmetics were more likely to contain non-formaldehyde-releasing preservatives than domestically produced brands. Isothiazolinone-based preservatives, which are responsible for the current increase in the prevalence of contact allergy, were found at a significant frequency in domestically produced, leave-on cosmetic products. Preservatives in cosmetics were significantly different according to source of production and type of cosmetics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nault, Andre J.
Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…
Weese, J Scott; Jack, Douglas C
Needlestick injuries are an inherent risk of handling needles during the course of veterinary practice. While significant effort has been expended to reduce needlestick injuries in human medicine, a relatively lax approach seems to be prevalent in veterinary medicine. It appears that needlestick injuries are very common among veterinary personnel and that serious adverse effects, while uncommon, do occur. Clients may also receive injuries in clinics during the course of animal restraint, and at home following prescription of injectable medications or fluids. Because of occupational health, personal health, and liability concerns, veterinary practices should review the measures they are taking to reduce the likelihood of needlestick injuries and develop written needlestick injury avoidance protocols.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...
Koyama, Shigeto; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Sagehashi, Yoshinori; Sasaki, Keiichi; Sato, Naoko
Patients treated with maxillofacial prosthetics often experience emotional problems because of the remaining facial skin concavity such as a surgical scar. In such cases, cosmetic treatment can potentially correct their skin tone imperfections and deformities. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical availability of novel cosmetics-based material for craniofacial small concavity by initiating a cosmetic treatment in a preliminary case. Eighteen patients with aesthetic problems such as craniofacial deformities, small defects, and concavities on their faces underwent cosmetic treatment that was performed by makeup practitioners. Data were collected from the patient's charts and a survey questionnaire. A visual analog scale was used to conduct a survey regarding the satisfaction levels of the patients following cosmetic treatment with a novel cosmetics-based material. The cosmetic treatment was performed for a concavity on the left midface of a 67-year-old woman with partial maxillectomy. The novel cosmetics-based material was manufactured from a semi-translucent oil base. The satisfaction level of the patient increased after undergoing the cosmetic treatment. Regarding clinical applications, the novel cosmetics-based material can help reduce their cosmetic disturbance and restore the small deformity. These results suggest that the cosmetic treatment with the novel cosmetics-based material can be used as a subsidiary method for facial prostheses or an independent new method for correcting patients' small craniofacial concavity and for reducing visible deformity. Copyright © 2018 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Becoming familiar with consumers’ choice criteria towards a certain kind of product can help marketers tailor more efficient market strategies. Cosmetics play a very important part in the lives of women. Plautus asserted, “A woman without paint is like food without salt”. In recent years, the Chinese cosmetic market has flourished. The aim of this dissertation is to understand the choice criteria of cosmetics in the context of the Chinese market. Country-of-origin, brand image and quality are...
Full Text Available Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.
Carey, J S
Philosophers know that modern philosophy owes a great debt to the intellectual contributions of the 18th century philosopher Immanuel Kant. This essay attempts to show how cosmetic surgeons, and all surgeons at that, could learn much from his work. Not only did Kant write about the structure of human reasoning and how it relates to appearances but he also wrote about the nature of duties and other obligations. His work has strongly influenced medical ethics. In a more particular way, Kant wrote the most important work on aesthetics. His theory still influences how philosophers understand the meaning of the beautiful and how it pertains to the human figure. This essay presents an exercise in trying to apply Kantian philosophy to aesthetic plastic surgery. Its intention is to show cosmetic surgeons some of the implicit and explicit philosophical principles and potential arguments undergirding their potential surgical evaluations. It is meant to challenge the surgeon to reconsider how decisions are made using philosophical reasoning instead of some of the more usual justifications based on psychology or sociology.
Lewicka, Małgorzata; Henrykowska, Gabriela; Zawadzka, Magdalena; Rutkowski, Maciej; Pacholski, Krzysztof; Buczyński, Andrzej
The increasing number of devices emitting electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in people's everyday life attracted the attention of researchers because of possible adverse effects of this factor on living organisms. One of the EMR effect may be peroxidation of lipid membranes formed as a result of free radical process. The article presents the results of in vitro studies aimed at identifying changes in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration - a marker of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant role of vitamin A during the exposure of blood platelets to electromagnetic radiation generated by liquid-crystal-display (LCD) monitors. Electromagnetic radiation emitted by LCD monitors is characterized by parameters: 1 kHz frequency and 220 V/m intensity (15 cm from display screen). The time of exposure was 30 and 60 min. The study was conducted on porcine blood platelets. The samples were divided into 6 groups: unexposed to radiation, unexposed + vitamin A, exposed for 30 min, exposed for 30 min + vitamin A, exposed for 60 min, exposed for 60 min + vitamin A. The MDA concentration in blood platelets increases significantly as compared to control values after 60 min of exposure to EMR. A significant decrease in MDA concentration after the addition of vitamin A was noticed. In the blood samples exposed to EMR for 30 and 60 min the MDA concentration was significantly increased by addition of vitamin A. The results show the possibly negative effect of electromagnetic radiation on the cellular membrane structure manifested by changes in malondialdehyde concentration and indicate a possible protective role of vitamin A in this process. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5):695-703. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the correlation between wound cosmesis and pet owner satisfaction, to determine the agreement among vet surgeons, and pet owners evaluating a surgical wound with a visual assessment score (VAS, and to determine the agreement between the VAS, a semi-quantitative score of wound inflammation, and wound width.Background: Perception of post-surgical cosmesis by human patients has been found to influence their satisfaction and perceived adequacy of vet surgeons. Due to the trend of owners anthropomorphising pets, this logic can be extended to veterinary patients. Also, there is a lack of consistent, reliable methods to evaluate cosmesis have been developed, creating the need for a scoring system that is accurate and reproducible.Evidentiary value: This was a prospective cohort study with one hundred and seven patients. This study may not change day-to-day practices, but it will bring to light for practitioners the discordance between pet owners and vet surgeons concerning attractiveness of an incision as well as overall satisfaction with a procedure.Methods: Photographs of surgical wounds were taken immediately, 2 weeks, and 8 weeks after surgery in dogs. Owners were asked to evaluate satisfaction with the procedure and attractiveness of the incision using the VAS. Photos were evaluated for cosmetic outcome by pet owner and vet surgeon evaluators with different scoring systems. The reliability of the scoring systems was evaluated using intraclass correlations and kappa statistics as appropriate.Results: Owners’ evaluation of cosmetic outcome correlated with their overall satisfaction. (r2=0.37, where r2 is the coefficient of determination, and can be used to determine what proportion of variance in one variable is predictable from the other variableThere was generally poor reliability of the subjective scoring between both vet surgeons and pet owners, and the less subjective scoring systems.Conclusion: The cosmetic outcome
Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. PMID:28801498
Larsen, Rikke Hundal; Tambo, Torben
The purpose of this paper is to operationalize theoretical and empirical tools suggested for the private label cosmetics manufacturer. The approach is to enable manufacturers to start designing theoretical tools in order to manage technologies and navigate in the cosmetic industry to maintain or ...
... of cosmetics? The shelf life for eye-area cosmetics is more limited than for other products. Because of repeated microbial exposure during use by the consumer and the risk of eye infections, some industry experts recommend replacing mascara 3 months after purchase. ...
... Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? A A A | Print | Share Cosmetic Foot Surgery: Fashion’s Pandora’s Box? Foot and ankle ... extreme and imprudent as it may sound, the cosmetic surgery craze is not just for faces anymore— ...
Malec-Czechowska, K; Bryl-Sandelewska, T [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland)
The Polish regulations connected with trade turnover of cosmetics have been described and discussed. The contamination by microbial flora is very limited and regulated in suitable Polish norm. The possibility of application of radiation technique for pasteurization of different kinds of cosmetics has been discussed. 9 refs, 7 tabs.
Park, Sung-Yeon; Park, SangHee
This study analyzed the homepages of 250 cosmetic surgeons' websites by focusing on the representation of cosmetic surgery providers, cosmetic surgery recipients, and cosmetic surgery practice itself. Based on a literature review, some common elements of the webpages were preidentified as the indicators of professionalism or commercialism. Subsequently, each homepage was scrutinized for their presence and salience. Overall, cosmetic surgeons' websites were high in professionalism and low in commercialism in their representation of the service providers. In depicting the recipients, the websites were moderate in both professionalism and commercialism. The representation of practice was low in professionalism and moderate in commercialism. Implications of these findings for doctors, regulators, and consumer advocates are discussed and directions for future research are proposed.
Pouillot, Anne; Polla, Barbara; Polla, Ada
The Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and restriction of Chemicals (REACH) is a recent European regulation on chemical substances meant to protect human health and the environment. REACH imposes the "precautionary principle" where additional data and definitive action are required when uncertainty is identified. The cosmetics industry is only partially concerned by REACH: while the stages of registration and evaluation apply to cosmetics, those of authorization and restriction most likely will not, as cosmetic ingredients are already subject to regulation by various agencies and directives. REACH has potential benefits to the industry including the possibility of reassuring consumers and improving their image of chemicals and cosmetics. However, REACH also has potential disadvantages, mainly with regard to impeding innovation. The American cosmetics industry will be affected by REACH, because all US manufacturers who export substances to Europe will have to fully comply with REACH.
González-Muñoz, P; Conde-Salazar, L; Vañó-Galván, S
Contact dermatitis due to cosmetic products is a common dermatologic complaint that considerably affects the patient's quality of life. Diagnosis, treatment, and preventive strategies represent a substantial cost. This condition accounts for 2% to 4% of all visits to the dermatologist, and approximately 60% of cases are allergic in origin. Most cases are caused by skin hygiene and moisturizing products, followed by cosmetic hair and nail products. Fragrances are the most common cause of allergy to cosmetics, followed by preservatives and hair dyes; however, all components, including natural ingredients, should be considered potential sensitizers. We provide relevant information on the most frequent allergens in cosmetic products, namely, fragrances, preservatives, antioxidants, excipients, surfactants, humectants, emulsifiers, natural ingredients, hair dyes, sunscreens, and nail cosmetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Lu, Kaihua; Pan, Baohua; Xia, Wei
To review and summarize the development during the last 20 years and the current status of cosmetic medicine, i.e., cosmetic surgery, in China, for the healthier development of this specialty in the future. Literature concerned was reviewed, including conference abstracts, papers, and publications, and the present status and problems were analyzed. Cosmetic medicine was recognized as an independent specialty and gained its clear definition. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the changing medical modules and the developing science and civilization. This trend fulfilled the need of the people. The related problems consisted of a high complication rate, confusion of management, and insufficient specific knowledge in part of the providers. The development of cosmetic medicine is an inevitable trend of the civilization development. For the healthy development of this specialty, scientific management and systemic education for the providers are crucial. Only those who have the plastic surgery background are able to participate in this practice.
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff
The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination...... and 28 students from 2010). Our results show that anxiety levels in veterinary students are significantly higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course (p...
Rastogi, S C; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, T
was present in a maximum concentration of 0.07%. In one cosmetic-toy, cinnamic alcohol was present at 3.7% which exceeds the current industry guideline for safe products by a factor of 5. In all types of products other fragrance allergens were frequently found. In conclusion, children are already exposed......Fragrances are one of the major causes of allergic contact dermatitis from use of cosmetics. The aim of the current study was to assess the possible exposure of infants and children to fragrance allergens from cosmetic products and "toy-cosmetics". 25 children's cosmetics or toy-cosmetic products...... at an early age to well-known allergens, sometimes at concentrations which are considered to be unsafe. As contact allergy usually persists for life, manufacturers of children's cosmetics should be aware of their special responsibility and apply the highest possible safety standards....
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Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard
A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...
Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.
Boxall, A B A; Fogg, L A; Blackwell, P A; Kay, P; Pemberton, E J; Croxford, A
The impact of veterinary medicines on the environment will depend on a number of factors including physicochemical properties, amount used and method of administration, treatment type and dose, animal husbandry practices, manure storage and handling practices, metabolism within the animal, and degradation rates in manure and slurry. Once released to the environment, other factors such as soil type, climate, and ecotoxicity also determine the environmental impact of the compound. The importance of individual routes into the environment for different types of veterinary medicines varies according to the type of treatment and livestock category. Treatments used in aquaculture have a high potential to reach the aquatic environment. The main routes of entry to the terrestrial environment are from the use of veterinary medicines in intensively reared livestock, via the application of slurry and manure to land, and by the use of veterinary medicines in pasture-reared animals where pharmaceutical residues are excreted directly into the environment. Veterinary medicines applied to land via spreading of slurry may also enter the aquatic environment indirectly via surface runoff or leaching to groundwater. It is likely that topical treatments have greater potential to be released to the environment than treatments administered orally or by injection. Inputs from the manufacturing process, companion animal treatments, and disposal are likely to be minimal in comparison. Monitoring studies demonstrate that veterinary medicines do enter the environment, with sheep dip chemicals, antibiotics, sealice treatments, and anthelmintics being measured in soils, groundwater, surface waters, sediment, or biota. Maximum concentrations vary across chemical classes, with very high concentrations being reported for the sheep dip chemicals. The degree to which veterinary medicines may adsorb to particulates varies widely. Partition coefficients (K(d)) range from low (0.61 L kg(-1)) to high
The spectrum of therapeutic need in veterinary medicine is large, and the availability of approved drug products for all veterinary species and indications is relatively small. For this reason, extemporaneous preparation, or compounding, of drugs is commonly employed to provide veterinary medical therapies. The scope of veterinary compounding is broad and focused primarily on meeting the therapeutic needs of companion animals and not food-producing animals in order to avoid human exposure to ...
Full Text Available Nanotechnology is the science of manipulating atoms and molecules in the nanoscale - 80,000 times smaller than the width of a human hair. The world market for products that contain nanomaterials is expected to reach $2.6 trillion by 2015. The use of nanotechnology has stretched across various streams of science, from electronics to medicine and has now found applications in the field of cosmetics by taking the name of nanocosmetics. This widespread influence of nanotechnology in the cosmetic industries is due to the enhanced properties attained by the particles at the nano level including color, transparency, solubility etc. The different types of nanomaterials employed in cosmetics include nanosomes, liposomes, fullerenes, solid lipid nanoparticles etc. Recently, concerns over the safety of such nanocosmetics are raised and have forced the cosmetic industries to limit the use of nanotechnology in cosmetics and for enforcing laws to undergo a full-fledged safety assessment before they enter into the market. In this review, emphasis is made on the types of nanomaterials used in cosmetics by the various cosmetic brands, the potential risks caused by them both to human life and also to the environment and what all regulations have been undertaken or can be taken to overcome them.
Vecino, X; Cruz, J M; Moldes, A B; Rodrigues, L R
Cosmetic products play an essential role in everyone's life. People everyday use a large variety of cosmetic products such as soap, shampoo, toothpaste, deodorant, skin care, perfume, make-up, among others. The cosmetic industry encompasses several environmental, social and economic impacts that are being addressed through the search for more efficient manufacturing techniques, the reduction of waste and emissions and the promotion of personal hygiene, contributing to an improvement of public health and at the same time providing employment opportunities. The current trend among consumers is the pursuit for natural ingredients in cosmetic products, as many of these products exhibit equal, better or additional benefits in comparison with the chemical-based products. In this sense, biosurfactants are natural compounds with great potential in the formulation of cosmetic products given by their biodegradability and impact in health. Indeed, many of these biosurfactants could exhibit a "prebiotic" character. This review covers the current state-of-the-art of biosurfactant research for cosmetic purposes and further discusses the future challenges for cosmetic applications.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in March and April of 2015. Various statistical analyses were used such as binary logistic regression and correlation analysis. Binary logistic regression results show that gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food and consumers’ purchase tendency towards new natural cosmetics brands have an influence on consumer purchase intentions. However, consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness has no influence on consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Results of the correlation analysis indicate that there is a strong positive correlation between purchase intentions towards natural cosmetics and consumer references of natural cosmetics. The findings may be useful to online retailers, as well as marketers and practitioners to recognize and better understand the new trends that occur in the industry of natural cosmetics.
Paulsen, Lynn Mulcahy
A one-semester, two-credit course is described that was developed cooperatively by the colleges of pharmacy and veterinary medicine at Washington State University to help resolve an acute shortage of clinical pharmacologists in veterinary medicine and veterinary medical education. Course procedures, content, and evaluation are outlined (MSE)
... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary Services. 371.4 Section 371.4 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND DELEGATIONS OF AUTHORITY § 371.4 Veterinary Services. (a) General statement. Veterinary Services (VS) protects and safeguards the Nation's livestock and...
Pearson, Caroline Elizabeth; Butler, Allan J; Murray, Yaqub Paul
The Vet Futures Report has identified 'exceptional leadership' as a key ambition for the long-term sustainability of the industry. This research investigates what it is like to be a veterinary surgeon in an in-practice leadership position, applying the qualitative methodology of interpretative phenomenological analysis. Through the researchers' interpretation of the seven participants' stories of their leadership experiences, the study advances understanding of the work environment, underlying motivations and the perceived responsibilities of veterinary leaders. Findings suggest, for many, a struggle in transition to leader positions, improving with time. The increase in pace of work is relayed by participants, with an ongoing, and unchallenged, work-life imbalance. The vets involved are highly motivated, driven by enjoyment of their jobs, a desire for self-determination and a need to make a difference. Relationships form the core of the perceived responsibilities, and yet are identified as the greatest day-to-day challenge of leadership. This study offers a valuable insight for veterinary surgeons, suggesting the industry could benefit from pausing and reflecting on behaviours. With a greater understanding of the complexity of leadership and followership, progress can be made to enact positive changes for the future. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...
Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... African Journals Online: Veterinary Science ... Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ... Life Sciences, Chemistry, Mathematics & Physics, Earth Sciences ... The Nigerian Journal of Animal Science (NJAS) is an official ...
Diagnostic radiology is an essential part of present-day veterinary practice. The need for radiation protection exists because occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can result in deleterious effects that may manifest themselves not only in exposed individuals but in their descendants as well. These are respectively called somatic and genetic effects. Somatic effects are characterized by observable changes occurring in the body organs of the exposed individual. These changes may appear from within a few hours to many years later, depending on the amount and duration of exposure of the individual. In veterinary medicine, the possibility that anyone may be exposed to enough radiation to create somatic effect is extremely remote. Genetic effects are more a cause for concern at the lower doses used in veterinary radiology. Although the radiation doses may be small and appear to cause no observable damage, the probability of chromosomal damage in the germ cells, with the consequence of mutations, does exist. These mutations may give rise to genetic defects and therefore make these doses significant when applied to a large number of individuals. There are two main aspects of the problem to be considered. First, personnel working with X-ray equipment must be protected from excessive exposure to radiation during their work. Secondly, personnel in the vicinity of veterinary X-ray facilities and the general public require adequate protection
Focus and Scope. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. Section Policies. Articles. Checked Open Submissions, Checked Indexed, Checked Peer Reviewed. Publication Frequency.
Agrawal, Hemendra Kumar; Singh, Balvinder; Garg, Mohit; Khatkar, Vipin; Batra, Sumit; Sharma, Vinod Kumar
Upper limb length discrepancy is a rare occurrence. Humerus shortening may need specialized treatment to restore the functional and cosmetic status of upper limb. We report a case of humerus lengthening of 9 cm with a monorail external fixator and the result was observed during a 2-year follow-up. Humerus lengthening needs specialized focus as it is not only a cosmetic issue but also a functional demand. The monorail unilateral fixator is more functional and cosmetically acceptable, and thus becomes an effective treatment option.
Coulter, Dwight B.
The history of veterinary homeopathy, its future and implications are discussed. The need for investigation into the validity of both allopathic and homeopathic claims is stressed and it is suggested that maintenance of quality is the key factor in any approach. (BH)
Alani, Jennifer I; Davis, Mark Denis P; Yiannias, James A
The term cosmetic has a broad definition and includes personal care products, hair care products, nail care products, and sunscreens. Modern cosmetics are safe for most users, and adverse reactions are very rare because the manufacturers invest heavily in safety, quality control, and product testing before releasing the product to the market. Despite these efforts, adverse reactions occur. Skin care products are major contributors to cosmetic allergic contact dermatitis (ACD), followed by hair care and nail care products. The most common allergens are fragrances and preservatives. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy is established by reviewing the patient's clinical history and physical examination findings and confirmed with skin patch testing. Patch testing is the standard method for detecting allergens responsible for eliciting ACD. The purpose of this article was to review the prevalence, legislative laws, and role of patch testing in ACD.
ISSN 1597-6343. Spectrophotometric Determination Of Heavy Metals In Cosmetics ... analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer – coupled with a hydride ... presence of arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd) and lead. (Pb) in ...
L'Haridon, J; Martz, P; Chenéble, J-C; Campion, J-F; Colombe, L
This article describes an easy-to-use ecodesign methodology developed and applied since 2014 by the L'Oréal Group to improve the sustainable performance of its new products without any compromise on their cosmetic efficacy. Cosmetic products, after being used, are often discharged into the sewers and the aquatic compartment. This discharge is considered as dispersive and continuous. A consistent progress in reducing the environmental impact of cosmetic products can be achieved through focusing upon three strategic indicators: biodegradability, grey water footprint adapted for ecodesign (GWFE) and a global indicator, complementary to these two endpoints. Biodegradability represents the key process in the removal of organic ingredients from the environment. GWFE is defined herein as the theoretical volume of natural freshwater required to dilute a cosmetic formula after being used by the consumer, down to a concentration without any foreseeable toxic effects upon aquatic species. Finally, the complementary indicator highlights a possible alert on formula ingredients due to an unfavourable environmental profile based on hazard properties: for example Global Harmonization System/Classification, Labelling and Packaging (GHS/CLP) H410 classification or potential very persistent and very bioaccumulative (vPvB) classification. The ecodesign of a new cosmetic product can be a challenge as the cosmetic properties and quality of this new product should at least match the benchmark reference. As shown in the case studies described herein, new methodologies have been developed to maximize the biodegradability of cosmetic formulae, to minimize their GWFE and to limit the use of ingredients that present an unfavourable environmental profile, while reaching the highest standards in terms of cosmetic efficacy. By applying these methodologies, highly biodegradable products (≥ 95% based on ingredient composition) have been developed and marketed, with a low GWFE. This new
Matić, Matea; Puh, Barbara
The purpose of this paper is to determine which variables influence consumers’ intentions towards purchasing natural cosmetics. Several variables are included in the regression analysis such as age, gender, consumers’ purchase tendency towards organic food, consumers’ new natural cosmetics brands and consumers’ tendency towards health consciousness. The data was collected through an online survey questionnaire using the purposive sample of 204 consumers from the Dubrovnik-Neretva County in Ma...
Draelos, Zoe Diana
Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Today, in the context of globalization and Chinese "open door" policy, many different international cosmetics companies are going to the Chinese market and existing companies are trying to enlarge their appearance to earn more profit margins.The main aim for writing this thesis on this topic was to analyze Chinese cosmetics industry environment via PEST analysis and the development of the industry. It's important to select a marketing strategy when doing business in China because of the huge ...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information requested about cosmetic products. 720... (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.4 Information requested about cosmetic products. (a) Form FDA-2512 requests information on: (1) The name and...
Elisabeth A Innes
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.
Boyer, Ivan J; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Heldreth, Bart; Fiume, Monice M; Gill, Lillian J
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) is a nonprofit program to assess the safety of ingredients in personal care products in an open, unbiased, and expert manner. Cosmetic Ingredient Review was established in 1976 by the Personal Care Products Council (PCPC), with the support of the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and the Consumer Federation of America (CFA). Cosmetic Ingredient Review remains the only scientific program in the world committed to the systematic, independent review of cosmetic ingredient safety in a public forum. Cosmetic Ingredient Review operates in accordance with procedures modeled after the USFDA process for reviewing over-the-counter drugs. Nine voting panel members are distinguished, such as medical professionals, scientists, and professors. Three nonvoting liaisons are designated by the USFDA, CFA, and PCPC to represent government, consumer, and industry, respectively. The annual rate of completing safety assessments accelerated from about 100 to more than 400 ingredients by implementing grouping and read-across strategies and other approaches. As of March 2017, CIR had reviewed 4,740 individual cosmetic ingredients, including 4,611 determined to be safe as used or safe with qualifications, 12 determined to be unsafe, and 117 ingredients for which the information is insufficient to determine safety. Examples of especially challenging safety assessments and issues are presented here, including botanicals. Cosmetic Ingredient Review continues to strengthen its program with the ongoing cooperation of the USFDA, CFA, the cosmetics industry, and everyone else interested in contributing to the process.
Black, R E; Hurley, F J; Havery, D C
Surveys of cosmetic raw materials and finished products for the presence of the carcinogen 1,4-dioxane have been conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration since 1979. Analytical methods are described for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in ethoxylated cosmetic raw materials and cosmetic finished products. 1,4-Dioxane was isolated by azeotropic atmospheric distillation and determined by gas chromatography using n-butanol as an internal standard. A solid-phase extraction procedure based on a previously published method for the determination of 1,4-dioxane in cosmetic finished products was also used. 1,4-Dioxane was found in ethoxylated raw materials at levels up to 1410 ppm, and at levels up to 279 ppm in cosmetic finished products. Levels of 1,4-dioxane in excess of 85 ppm in children's shampoos indicate that continued monitoring of raw materials and finished products is warranted.
Lees, P.; Pelligand, L.; Whiting, M.; Chambers, D.; Toutain, P-L.; Whitehead, M. L.
Part 2 of this narrative review outlines the theoretical and practical bases for assessing the efficacy and effectiveness of conventional medicines and homeopathic products. Known and postulated mechanisms of action are critically reviewed. The evidence for clinical efficacy of products in both categories, in the form of practitioner experience, meta-analysis and systematic reviews of clinical trial results, is discussed. The review also addresses problems and pitfalls in assessing data, and the ethical and negative aspects of pharmacology and homeopathy in veterinary medicine. PMID:28821700
Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M
Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.
Bouman, Theo K; Mulkens, Sandra; van der Lei, Berend
Preoccupation with a perceived appearance flaw is the main feature of body dysmorphic disorder. The majority of these patients seek and often receive some sort of cosmetic procedure, although this condition is considered to be a contraindication. This study evaluates cosmetic professionals' recognition of body dysmorphic disorder and the way they act on this. Members of Dutch professional associations for aesthetic plastic surgery, dermatology, and cosmetic medicine received an online survey by means of their association's digital mailing lists; the survey was completed by 173 respondents. Most participants indicated being more or less familiar with the diagnostic criteria and clinical picture of body dysmorphic disorder. Approximately two-thirds of the participants reported that they had encountered between one and five of these patients in their practice over the past year, a percentage that is significantly lower than the estimated prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder. The majority of professionals sometimes or often address body image problems during consultation, most of them collaborate with psychologists or psychiatrists when encountering a patient with body dysmorphic disorder, and approximately 70 percent had refused to perform a procedure in such a patient. Our results converge with those of previous studies, showing that most cosmetic professionals have some degree of awareness of body dysmorphic disorder, although the number they report encountering in clinical practice departs from prevalence figures. When a patient is identified as having body dysmorphic disorder, the professionals use this knowledge to guide their decision to perform a cosmetic procedure.
Full Text Available Background. It seems that patients may ask general practitioners about natural cosmetics applied on the skin regarding their safety and suitability. Objectives. The aim of the study was to analyze natural cold pressed oils as potential cosmetic products. Material and methods. Cold pressed oils obtained from selected seeds and fruit stones were analyzed, including: chokeberry seed oil, blackcurrant seed oil, elderberry seed oil, raspberry seed oil, apricot seed oil, tomato seed oil, strawberry seed oil, broccoli seed oil, Nigella sativa seed oil, hemp oil, safflower seed oil, Silybum marianum seed oil and coconut oil. 80 adult volunteers assessed the cosmetic properties of the analyzed oils. Each of the volunteers tested 2 to 4 different oils, by applying them on the skin. In addition, patch tests with all analyzed oils were performed on 23 individuals. Results. The majority of tested oils were positively evaluated by the participants: in the opinion of the participants, oil extracted from safflower had the best appearance (100% positive opinions, coconut oil had the best smell (70% positive opinions, while black currant seed oil showed the best absorbency (85% positive opinions. No irritation was observed within the analyzed product group, albeit one allergic reaction to apricot seed oil was observed with patch testing. Conclusions . Based on the achieved results, it could be suggested that natural cold pressed oils can be applied to the skin as cosmetics. Our observations may be helpful for general practitioners when choosing natural cosmetics.
Douglas, Jeffrey S.
Spiraling veterinary student debt and the lack of a sustainable and profitable business model for many private practices in the modern business environment threaten the future growth and stability of the veterinary profession.
Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.
A. A. Deltsov
Full Text Available Nowadays there is an active growth of veterinary pharmacy organizations and consumed medicinal drugs for veterinary use. Content-analysis showed that there was an insufficient number of studies devoted to the activity of veterinary pharmacies. The purpose of our work was the analysis of correspondence of range fullness of veterinary pharmacies to the contemporary state of pharmaceutical market of drugs for veterinary use. Veterinary clinics and pharmacies of Moscow and Moscow oblast were the object of our study. We have applied sociological methods (questionnaire, interview, marketing and statistic analysis methods. We have established that liquid dosage forms (53% occupy the biggest part of drugs in the State Registry of Veterinary Drugs. Solutions occupy 68% of this amount. Antimicrobial drugs for systematic use (40% are the most numerous drugs from pharmacotheraperutic group represented in the State Registry. Assortment of veterinary drugs is targeted mainly on a farm livestock (more than 50%. 58% of the market share is domestic drugs. Principal commodity groups which are released by veterinary pharmacies are feed-stuff (31% and drugs (30%. Pharmacy organizations does not have sufficient number of drugs in their assortment (fullness coefficient 7.9% which speaks about nonconformity of the assortment fullness.
Ansorge-Schumacher, Marion B; Thum, Oliver
Commercial products for personal care, generally perceived as cosmetics, have an important impact on everyday life worldwide. Accordingly, the market for both consumer products and specialty chemicals comprising their ingredients is considerable. Lipases have started to play a minor role as active ingredients in so-called 'functional cosmetics' as well as a major role as catalysts for the industrial production of various specialty esters, aroma compounds and active agents. Interestingly, both applications almost always require preparation by appropriate immobilisation techniques. In addition, for catalytic use special reactor concepts often have to be employed due to the mostly limited stability of these preparations. Nevertheless, these processes show distinct advantages based on process simplification, product quality and environmental footprint and are therefore apt to more and more replace traditional chemical processes. Here, for the first time a review on the various aspects of using immobilised lipases in the cosmetics industry is given.
Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C
Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives...... of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C....... albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well...
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute... information collection for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP). This notice initiates a 30...
Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.
Morgan, Carol A; McDonald, Michael
Veterinarians frequently encounter situations that are morally charged and potentially difficult to manage. Situation involving euthanasia, end-of-life care, economics, and inadequate provision of care create practical and moral dilemmas. Ethical tension may be attributable to differences in beliefs regarding the moral value of animals, client and veterinary responsibilities, and deciding what is best for an animal. Veterinarians can employ communication skills used in medical situations to explore the reasons underpinning ethical dilemmas and to search for solutions with clients, staff, and colleagues.
The topic of the thesis is “How packaging designs of cosmetics affect female consumers’ purchasing behavior?” Its aim is to identify whether female consumers are attracted by packaging designs of cosmetics, and how packaging designs of cosmetics affect different female consumer groups. Research question is: “If packaging of cosmetics affects which cosmetics females prefer when they buy cosmetics? And if so, is this preferences related to age and income?” To answer this question, the author us...
Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan
This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it. © The Author(s) 2014.
Verallo-Rowell, Vermén M
The validated hypoallergenic (vh) rating system was initiated in 1988 to try to objectively validate the "hypoallergenic" claim in cosmetics. To show how the system rates cosmetic hypoallergenicity and to compare the prevalence of cosmetic contact dermatitis (CCD) among users of regular cosmetics versus cosmetics with high VH numbers. (1) Made a VH list based on top allergens from patch-test results published by the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) and the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA); (2) reviewed global regulatory, cosmetic, drug, packaging, and manufacturing practices to show how allergens may contaminate products; (3) compared cosmetic ingredients lists against the VH list to obtain the VH rating (the more allergens absent, the higher the VH rating); and (4) obtained CCD prevalence among users of regular cosmetics versus users of cosmetics with high VH ratings. (1) Two VH lists (1988, 2003) included only cosmetic allergens in the NACDG surveys, the third (2007) included cosmetic and potential contaminant noncosmetic allergens, and the fourth (2010) adds ESSCA patch-test surveys. (2) CCD prevalence is 0.05 to 0.12% (average, 0.08%) among users of cosmetics with high VH ratings versus 2.4 to 36.3% among users of regular cosmetics. The VH rating system is shown to objectively validate the hypoallergenic cosmetics claim.
The wish for an attractive appearance is evident in many people. Aesthetic, cosmetic and surgical treatment is willingly made use of in order to fit into the current beauty ideal. A considerable portion of people who decide to follow this path show signs of psychological problems. One has to recognize and evaluate these for the planning or, if necessary, refusal of further treatment. In this article, the most common psychological problems in the cosmetic and aesthetic field of work are presented. A guideline for handling these patients is explained. Thus, a productive and relaxed cooperation will be possible which enables psychological and physical satisfaction for the medical team and the patients.
Ayob, Ain; Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Jafri, Juliana; Jamshed, Shazia; Ahmad, Hawa Mas Azmar; Hadi, Hazrina
Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. To explore consumers' perspectives toward cosmetic products. An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products' quality. Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem.
Hubbert, William T.
The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to the...
Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.
The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of
This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...
McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J
Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.
More than 100 people gathered in Birmingham on April 23 for the third joint conference of the Veterinary Public Health Association and the Association of Government Vets. With the theme of 'VPH hands on - making a difference together', the meeting considered the role vets play in society through their work on public health and sustainability. Kathryn Clark reports. British Veterinary Association.
Kalymbek, Bakytzhan; Shulanbekova, Gulmira K.; Madiyarova, Ainur S.; Mirambaeva, Gulnaz Zh.
This article is devoted to the problem of veterinary safety of the countries under the Eurasian Economic Union. Animal health's measures are provided in order to prevent the entry and spread of infectious animal diseases, including common to humans and animals, as well as goods not conforming to the common veterinary and sanitary requirements.…
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary records...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL... Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine mammals...
Veterinary admission committees are asked to create and implement a fair, reliable, and valid system to select the candidates most likely to succeed in veterinary school from a large pool of applicants. Although numerous studies have explored grade point average (GPA) as a predictive value of later academic success, ...
Gunn, Eilidh G M; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Athanassopoulos, Thanassi
The provision of cosmetic interventions and their advertising have recently come under intense scrutiny in the wake of the PIP scandal and Keogh report. A study of Scottish websites offering esthetic procedures was conducted to determine adherence to the advertising standards and regulations currently in place. Regulations are provided by the Advertising Standards Authority, Committee on Advertising Practice, Independent Healthcare Advisory Services and General Medical Council. An Internet search was then conducted to search for providers of non-surgical and surgical cosmetic procedures. Overall 125 websites were reviewed. 109 local and 16 national with 17 websites associated with cosmetic surgeons. 26 websites failed to adhere to regulations. Failure was related to advertising of POM on the homepage or dropdown menu (20), offering enticements inappropriately (6). 26.6% of websites did not display qualifications of the practitioners. Only 16.6% of websites described the specific and the non-specific side effects of "anti-wrinkle injections" and only 12.5% mentioned alternative treatments. The majority of websites reviewed adhered to current advertising standards. Plastic surgeons provide a small percentage of cosmetic procedures. Greater regulation at the point of product entry and of all esthetic practitioners is required. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Social, economic, and popular scientific trends converged in the early twentieth century to support the mass popularity of cosmetics. Twentieth-century magazine ads for personal care and beauty products reflected the contemporary belief that "science" was on the verge of being able to cure almost anything, including physical flaws and…
A semi-quantitative X-ray diffractometric study, compared to CaO analysis, for the evaluation of the percentage of amphibole present in cosmetic talcs is presented. Scanning electron images show these needle-like minerals togheter with talc; these minerals can cause from simple allergies to serious health problems to the human being. (Author) [pt
Colton H. L. McNichols, MD
Conclusions:. There is an increase in dedicated cosmetic surgery rotations and fewer residents believe they need a fellowship to practice cosmetic surgery. However, the comfort level of performing facial aesthetic and body contouring procedures remains low particularly among independent residents.
Kadowaki, Kazuo; Watanabe, Chiharu; Minami, Hidetoshi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Takanari; Klemm, Richard
Terahertz (THz) electromagnetic radiation emitted from high-Tc superconducting Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ mesa structures in the case of single mesa and series-connected mesas is investigated by the FTIR spectroscopic technique while observing its temperature distribution simultaneously by a SiC photoluminescence technique. Changing the bias level, sudden jumps of the hot-spot position were clearly observed. Although the radiation intensity changes drastically associated with the jump of the hot spot position, the frequency is unaffected as long as the voltage per junction is kept constant. Since the frequency of the intense radiation satisfies the cavity resonance condition, we confirmed that the cavity resonance is of primarily importance for the synchronization of whole intrinsic Josephson junctions in the mesa for high power radiation. This work was supported in part by the Grant-in-Aid for challenging Exploratory Research, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science & Technology (MEXT).
This paper examines cosmetic surgery tourism, arguing that it can be meaningfully analysed as part of makeover culture. It shows that while cosmetic surgery tourism sits at a junction of cosmetic surgery and medical tourism, it also has much in common with contemporary tourism practices. The paper posits cosmetic surgery tourism not only as an economic and globalised phenomenon but also as a set of practices that are experienced, and that take place on the body (see also Cook, 2010; Bell et a...
Grigore Ana - Maria
Full Text Available Most organizations are going through massive changes. Their customers are changing, their competition is changing, their customer’s needs are changing and their resources availability is changing - the cosmetics companies are no different. Organizational survival and success depends on the ability of the managers to detect and adapt to critical changes in the environment, which may impact the company. The paper has two main purposes. First to underline the importance performance measurement has in today’s business and second to present a few key elements regarding the performance of the cosmetics sector in Romania. For this we have tried to answer the following question: Are the cosmetics companies competitive? This paper is based on exploratory literature review of different approaches regarding organizational performances in organizations in general. Despite the global economic crisis and the general slowdown of many markets, the Romanian beauty and personal care market continued to grow in 2009. Consumer awareness and product knowledge is growing rapidly and the development of retailing chains and their widening product offer have also helped to further the development of the beauty and personal care market. The paper also presents the results of section three of an online survey conducted at 10 cosmetic companies from Romania. The results have shown that multinationals have both the economic and managerial power to succeed in obtaining their goals. Even though the sample of 72 respondents was rather small, we managed to conclude from the received answers that the majority of companies focus on economic and managerial performance rather than on social and ecological performance indicators. This paper aimed to contribute to the literature review development in the field of performance management. The results of this study can be of use for managers from the analyzed domain or for other researchers in the economic field. The authors have
Ashikali, E.-M.; Dittmar, H.; Ayers, S.
International concern has been expressed about advertising for cosmetic surgery (British Association of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons [BAAPS], 2005, 2008). A recent study showed that exposure to such advertising resulted in a more negative body image and attitudes toward surgery among women living in the UK (Ashikali, Dittmar, & Ayers, 2015). This study investigates the impact of cosmetic surgery advertising on women living in Switzerland, a country with relatively little advertising for cosmeti...
Although cosmetic surgeries are increasing in frequency, only few studies have investigated cosmetic surgery attitudes in Asia. The aim of the study was to investigate male and female university students' experiences and attitudes about cosmetic surgery in five ASEAN countries. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey and ...
... 1545-BJ40 Indoor Tanning Services; Cosmetic Services; Excise Taxes AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service.... 7805. * * * Par. 5. Section 49.0-3 is added to read as follows: Sec. 49.0-3 Introduction; cosmetic...--Cosmetic Services Sec. 49.5000B-1 Indoor tanning services. [The text of this proposed Sec. 49.5000B-1 is...
...] Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA) is announcing a public meeting entitled ``Cosmetic Microbiological Safety Issues.'' The... cosmetic microbiological safety and to suggest areas for the possible development of FDA guidance documents...
Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K
Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.
Veterinary specialist diplomas were available in many European countries during the second half of the 20th century. However, such an early recognition of the importance of veterinary specialization actually delayed the concept of the European veterinary specialist in Europe, compared with the United States, where the first specialist colleges were established in the 1960s, because it was felt that the national system was functioning properly and there was therefore no need for a new structure in the European countries. The European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS) was established in 1996, and currently there are 23 specialist colleges with more than 2,600 veterinarians officially listed in the EBVS register as European specialists. The Advisory Committee on Veterinary Training (ACVT) approved the establishment of EBVS but never implemented a supervising body (with ACVT representation). Such a body, the European Coordinating Committee on Veterinary Training, was later implemented by the profession itself, although it still lacked a political component. Each college depends on the EBVS, which has the function to define standards and criteria for monitoring the quality of college diplomates. To become a European Diplomate, veterinarians must have gone through an intensive period of training supervised by a diplomate, after which candidates must pass an examination. Although the term European veterinary specialist still does not have any legal recognition, national specialist qualifications are being phased out in many countries because of the inherent higher quality of EBVS specialist qualifications.
Funmilayo A. Okanlawon, RN, PhD, FWACN
Full Text Available Traditionally, nursing care has been identified as an integral part of human medicine but is not well recognised in veterinary medicine as practised in Nigeria. In caring for human beings, a nurse is expected to have the fundamental understanding of disease aetiology, manifestations, diagnosis, manage-ment, rehabilitation, prevention and control. This is equally applicable to the care of animals. The role of veterinary nursing in veterinary medicine is significant considering the multitude of issues involved in the care of animals. The keeping of domestic animals is becoming popular and consequently the spread of infectious diseases from animals to human beings is on the increase. It is vital for human beings and animals to coexist in a healthy environment. The authors examine the importance of nursing care in veterinary medicine, the current situation in Nigeria, the role of veterinary nurses, the inter-professional approach to veterinary medicine, preparedness for the emergence of infectious diseases and career opportunities for veterinary nurses. This premise falls within the context of the ‘One Health’ concept.
Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.
Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009
Blach, Edward L
This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.
In Sweden 300 veterinary clinics have a license for x-ray diagnostics. Six of them also have a license for nuclear medicine. During 2005 eight clinics were inspected and the results show that the radiation protection in veterinary medicine can be improved. No clinic fulfilled the regulations of categorization of workplaces and workers (SSI FS 1998:3). Half of the clinics had no Swedish manual to the x-ray equipment and just as many had not performed the annual function check. Obviously, there is a need for more information to staff in veterinary medicine.
This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).
Cosmetic emulsions exist today in many forms for a wide variety of applications, including face and hand creams for normal, dry or oily skin, body milks and lotions, as well as sun-block products. Keeping track of them and their properties is not always easy despite informative product names or partial names (e.g. hand or face cream) that clearly indicate their use and properties. This practical manual provides a detailed overview that describes the key properties and explains how to measure them using modern techniques. Written by an expert in flows and flow properties, it focuses on the application of rheological (flow) measurements to cosmetic and food emulsions and the correlation of these results with findings from other tests. Beginning with a brief history of rheology and some fundamental principles, the manual describes in detail the use of modern viscometers and rheometers, including concise explanations of the different available instruments. But the focus remains on practical everyday lab procedure...
Holliday, Ruth; Bell, David; Cheung, Olive; Jones, Meredith; Probyn, Elspeth
This paper reports findings from a large-scale, multi-disciplinary, mixed methods project which explores empirically and theoretically the rapidly growing but poorly understood (and barely regulated) phenomenon of cosmetic surgery tourism (CST). We explore CST by drawing on theories of flows, networks and assemblages, aiming to produce a fuller and more nuanced account of - and accounting for - CST. This enables us to conceptualise CST as an interplay of places, people, things, ideas and practices. Through specific instances of assembling cosmetic surgery that we encountered in the field, and that we illustrate with material from interviews with patients, facilitators and surgeons, our analysis advances understandings and theorisations of medical mobilities, globalisation and assemblage thinking. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The demand of natural skin care products is steadily growing since consumers perceive them as safe. Currently, cosmetic manufacturers are focusing their efforts on developing innovative natural products to address skin-aging signs, thus meeting consumers’ needs of healthy appearance and well-being. To prevent or treat skin aging, topical supplementation with antioxidant is regarded as one of the most promising strategies. However, most antioxidants presently used in skin care formulations show unfavorable physicochemical properties such as excessive lipophilicity or hydrophilicity, chemical instability and poor skin penetration that actively limit their effectiveness after topical application. Therefore, nanocarriers such as liposomes, niosomes, microemulsions and nanoparticles have been widely investigated as delivery systems for antioxidants to improve their beneficial effects in the treatment of skin aging. In this article, the antioxidants most commonly used in anti-aging cosmetic products will be reviewed along with the nanocarriers designed to improve their safety and effectiveness.
Morand, J J; Ly, F; Lightburn, E; Mahé, A
Use of cosmetic products to bleach or lighten the skin is common among dark-skinned women in some sub-Saharan African countries. Long-term use of some pharmacologic compounds (e.g. hydroquinone, glucocorticoids and mercury) can cause adverse effects including dermatologic disorders such as dyschromia, exogenous ochronosis, acne and hypertrichosis, prominent striae, tinea corporis, pyoderma, erysipelas, scabies, and contact dermatitis and systemic complications such as hypertension, hypercorticism or surrenal deficiency, and mercurial nephropathy.
Çot, Duygu Ayabakan; Yener, Emine; Akbaba, Muhsin
Theskin is the largest organ of the body that protects internal tissues fromchemical, physical, and microbial damage. A cosmetic product is any substanceintended to be placed in contact with the external part of the human body forcleaning, perfuming, changing the appearance, protecting or keeping theepidermis, hair, nails, lips or mucous membranes in good condition. Opstrup andfriends says it is well known that chlorhexidine is widely used as adisinfectant in the healthcare setting. Less well...
Orton, David I; Wilkinson, John D
A recent epidemiologic survey in the UK revealed that 23% of women and 13.8% of men experience some sort of adverse reaction to a personal care product over the course of a year. Although most of these reactions may be due to subjective sensory irritation, various studies reveal that up to 10% of dermatologic patients who are patch tested are allergic to cosmetic products or their constituent ingredients. Causative products include deodorants and perfumes, skin care products, hair care products, and nail cosmetics. Allergic contact dermatitis mainly results from fragrance chemicals and preservatives. Recent work has suggested that additional fragrance chemicals may need to be tested in order to identify those patients 'missed' by the current fragrance mix; in particular, hydroxy-isohexyl-3-cyclohexene carboxaldehyde (HMPPC Lyral) has been singled out as an important sensitizing agent. The increased usage of natural fragrances and botanic extracts can also cause problems in their own right or through co-reactivity. The preservative methyldibromo glutaronitrile has also been recognized as an increasingly important sensitizer in Europe, which has led to the recent recommendation that it should be prohibited from 'leave-on' products until information on 'safe' consumer levels becomes available. Other emerging allergens include UV filters, tosylamide/formaldehyde resin, and nail acrylates. The diagnosis of cosmetic allergy should be confirmed with patch testing, including testing of 'whole' products, when necessary, and repeat open application tests can be used to confirm the relevance of reactions in cases of doubt.
Full Text Available Objective: The main aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between cosmetic surgery and psychological variables such as self-esteem and marital satisfaction along with its components in Iran. Methods: The study had an ex-post facto, pre-post-test design. Using purposive sampling method, a total of 30 married women, who had referred for cosmetic surgery to clinics in Tehran, were incorporated during a six-month period. Data collection instruments included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale and Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. The obtained data were analyzed using inferential statistics (analysis of variance for repeated measures, related sample test, and Pearson correlation coefficient. Results: According to the results of this study, some components of marital satisfaction (such as marital relations, financial management, leisure, and sex and self-esteem of women before and after cosmetic surgery is statistically significant also there is a relationship betwean marital satisfaction and self-esteem, as self-esteem increases, marital satisfaction rises too. Conclusion: Performance of such surgeries always presents risks, and advice should be sought before making any decision about the surgery.
Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F
Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...
Royal, Kenneth D; Hunt, Suzanne A; Borst, Luke B; Gerard, Mathew
The objective of this study was to better understand veterinary medical students' sleep hygiene and identify the extent to which sleep hygiene behaviors may result in consequences (either positive or negative) for students. A total of 187 doctor of veterinary medicine (DVM) program students at a large College of Veterinary Medicine in the United States. The Epworth Sleep Scale and Daytime Sleepiness Scale were administered to 393 students enrolled in the DVM program. About 55.1% of students reported sleep per night, 28.9% reported having trouble sleeping, and 50.3% reported feeling sleepy all day. With respect to sleep quality, 5.3% described it as excellent, 52.4% as good, 34.2% as fair, and 8.0% as poor. A significant percentage of veterinary medical students exhibit poor sleep hygiene habits that may be detrimental to both their health and academic endeavors.
Msellati, L; Commault, J; Dehove, A
Good veterinary governance assumes the provision of veterinary services that are sustainably financed, universally available, and provided efficiently without waste or duplication, in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption. Good veterinary governance is a necessary condition for sustainable economic development insomuch as it promotes the effective delivery of services and improves the overall performance of animal health systems. This article defines governance in Veterinary Services and proposes a framework for its measurement. It also discusses the role of Veterinary Services and analyses the governance dimensions of the performance-assessment tools developed by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). These tools (OIE PVS Tool and PVS Gap Analysis) track the performance of Veterinary Services across countries (a harmonised tool) and over time (the PVS Pathway). The article shows the usefulness of the OIE PVS Tool for measuring governance, but also points to two shortcomings, namely (i) the lack of clear outcome indicators, which is an impediment to a comprehensive assessment of the performance of Veterinary Services, and (ii) the lack of specific measures for assessing the extent of corruption within Veterinary Services and the extent to which demand for better governance is being strengthened within the animal health system. A discussion follows on the drivers of corruption and instruments for perception-based assessments of country governance and corruption. Similarly, the article introduces the concept of social accountability, which is an approach to enhancing government transparency and accountability, and shows how supply-side and demand-side mechanisms complement each other in improving the governance of service delivery. It further elaborates on two instruments--citizen report card surveys and grievance redress mechanisms--because of their wider relevance and their possible applications in many settings, including Veterinary
Aim The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the factors which influence veterinary surgeons’ clinical decision making during routine consultations. Methods The research takes a qualitative approach using video-cued interviews, in which one of the veterinary surgeon’s own consultations is used as the basis of a semi-structured interview exploring decision making in real cases. The research focuses primarily on small animal consultations in first opinion practice, how...
Kerby, Erin E
The study investigated veterinary medicine librarians' experience with and perceptions of research data services. Many academic libraries have begun to offer research data services in response to researchers' increased need for data management support. To date, such services have typically been generic, rather than discipline-specific, to appeal to a wide variety of researchers. An online survey was deployed to identify trends regarding research data services in veterinary medicine libraries. Participants were identified from a list of contacts from the MLA Veterinary Medical Libraries Section. Although many respondents indicated that they have a professional interest in research data services, the majority of veterinary medicine librarians only rarely or occasionally provide data management support as part of their regular job responsibilities. There was little consensus as to whether research data services should be core to a library's mission despite their perceived importance to the advancement of veterinary research. Furthermore, most respondents stated that research data services are just as or somewhat less important than the other services that they provide and feel only slightly or somewhat prepared to offer such services. Lacking a standard definition of "research data" and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.
Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded, and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.
Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida
Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.
Full Text Available Backgrounds: Variety of cosmetic products was used in our daily life, yet the amount and types of the cosmetic products used by the consumers were varied, which may be due to the different perspectives held by each of the consumers. Objectives: To explore consumers' perspectives toward cosmetic products. Methods: An interview guide was developed with a set of 12 semistructured questions. Participants in Kuantan, Pahang were recruited via the purposive sampling, and they undergo in-depth face-to-face interviews. All of the interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and were analyzed via thematic content analysis. Results: For the awareness of cosmetic products, less aware about the cosmetic products in Malaysia were noted among the participants. In terms of perceptions about the cosmetic products, participants expressed positive perceptions toward natural cosmetic products, quality were seen as synonymous with branded products and halal certification. Next, for the attitude toward the use of cosmetic products, participants were influenced by ingredients, product brand, and halal certification. Based on personal experiences, they provide complaints and suggestions for the enhancement of cosmetic products' quality. Conclusions: Participants were found to have less awareness about the cosmetic products in Malaysia. Besides, they realized about the chemical ingredients and halal certification for the cosmetic products. Therefore, they held positive perceptions and practiced positive attitudes toward natural and halal cosmetic products. Finally, adverse reactions from the use of cosmetic products were commonly experienced by the participants, which contributed mainly by the ingredients. Thus, they hoped for serious approached to be enacted to solve this problem.
This is the Special Issue of Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. that summarizes the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto, Brazil. The 8 th IVIS highlighted the importance of veterinary immunology for animal health, vaccinology, reproducti...
Lazzeri, Davide; Agostini, Tommaso; Figus, Michele; Nardi, Marco; Pantaloni, Marcello; Lazzeri, Stefano
Complications following facial cosmetic injections have recently heightened awareness of the possibility of iatrogenic blindness. The authors conducted a systematic review of the available literature to provide the best evidence for the prevention and treatment of this serious eye injury. The authors included in the study only the cases in which blindness was a direct consequence of a cosmetic injection procedure of the face. Twenty-nine articles describing 32 patients were identified. In 15 patients, blindness occurred after injections of adipose tissue; in the other 17, it followed injections of various materials, including corticosteroids, paraffin, silicone oil, bovine collagen, polymethylmethacrylate, hyaluronic acid, and calcium hydroxyapatite. Some precautions may minimize the risk of embolization of filler into the ophthalmic artery following facial cosmetic injections. Intravascular placement of the needle or cannula should be demonstrated by aspiration before injection and should be further prevented by application of local vasoconstrictor. Needles, syringes, and cannulas of small size should be preferred to larger ones and be replaced with blunt flexible needles and microcannulas when possible. Low-pressure injections with the release of the least amount of substance possible should be considered safer than bolus injections. The total volume of filler injected during the entire treatment session should be limited, and injections into pretraumatized tissues should be avoided. Actually, no safe, feasible, and reliable treatment exists for iatrogenic retinal embolism. Nonetheless, therapy should theoretically be directed to lowering intraocular pressure to dislodge the embolus into more peripheral vessels of the retinal circulation, increasing retinal perfusion and oxygen delivery to hypoxic tissues. Risk, V.
Camilla Kirketerp Nielsen
Full Text Available The overall objective of this project is research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based learning concept to be used in the veterinary education. Herd visits and animal contact are essential for the development of veterinary competences and skills during education. Yet veterinary students have little occasion to reach/attain a proper level of confidence in their own skills/abilities, as they have limited “training-facilities” (Kneebone & Baillie, 2008. One possible solution mightbe to provide a safe, virtual environment (game-based where students could practise interdisciplinary clinical skills in an easily-accessible, interactive setting. A playable demo using Classical Swine Fever in a pig herd as an example has been produced for this purpose. In order totailor the game concept to the specific veterinary learning environment and to ensure compliance with both learning objectives and the actual learning processes/procedures of the veterinary students, the project contains both a developmental aspect (game development and an exploration of the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context. The initial phase of the project was a preliminary exploration of the actual learning context, providing an important starting point for the upcoming phase in which I will concentrate on research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based virtual environment in this course context. In the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context of a veterinary course in Herd Health Management (Pig module,ethnographic studies have been conducted by using multiple data collection methods; participant observation, spontaneous dialogues and interviews (Borgnakke, 1996; Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007. All courserelated activities in the different learning spaces (commercial pig herds, auditoriums, post-mortem examinations, independent group work were followed.This paper will
González Rodríguez, María Luisa
Full Text Available In this paper, a review of the applications of lipids in the pharmaceutical field has been reported. In a first stage, different lipids used as excipients in cosmetics and medicines have been described. Many vegetable oils are used in this sense: almond oil, apricot oil, avocado oil, borage oil, coffee oil, safflower oil, etc.; from de animal source, fish oil and bird oil can be employed as excipients in cosmetical formulations. Fats and waxes may be also used for this purpose. A broad range of phospholipids are suitable for use in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and diagnosis. These substances are used as vehicle for therapeutic substances, such as liposomes. Finally, a study of lipids, as a function of their biological activity, as active substances for the elaboration of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics or nutritional supplements, was carried out. Carotenoids, retinoids, tocopherols are used for their antioxidant properties, that are important to health and diagnostic medicine.En el presente trabajo se ha llevado a cabo una revisión sobre las aplicaciones de los lípidos en el campo famacéutico. En un primer apartado, se describieron los diferentes lípidos utilizados como excipientes en cosmética y medicina. En este sentido, se utilizan muchos aceites vegetales, como el aceite de almendra, albaricoque, aguacate, borraja, café, cártamo, etc.; a partir de fuente animal, pueden emplearse como excipientes en formulaciones cosméticas los aceites de pescados y de aves. También se utilizan con este propósito las grasas y las ceras. Así mismo se revisan los fosfolípidos empleados en cosmética y en diagnosis, que actúan como vehículos transportadores de sustancias activas, como los liposomas. Finalmente, se llevó a cabo un estudio de los lípidos, en función de su actividad biológica, como sustancias activas que forman parte de la elaboración de formulaciones cosméticas, farmacéuticas o suplementos nutricionales. Los carotenoides, retinoides
Draelos , Z D
Over the past century, tanned skin shifted from being unpopular to becoming the height of fashion. However, the past decade has again seen white skin become fashionable as more and more people become aware of the dangers of spending too much time in the sun. Even so, having tanned skin is still popular and probably will be for some time to come. This article will focus on cosmetic products that are designed to simulate tanning of the skin by coloring or staining the skin without sun exposure.
Cadau, Sebastien; Rival, Delphine; Andre-Frei, Valerie; Chavan M, Manasi; Fayol, Delphine; Salducci, Marine; Brisson, Bruno; Guillemot, Fabien
We developed a new evolution of three-dimensional skin equivalent due to the optimization of four-dimensional laser-assisted bioprinting and skin equivalent culture protocols. This allowed us to produce fully bioprinted skin equivalents that are closed to current skin equivalents and suitable to test cosmetic ingredients. Particularly, we performed preliminary evaluation of maturogens to improve the dermis maturation before the epidermal seeding and we designed a specific "micropattern" to reproduce the nonlinear aspect of the dermal-epidermal junction. Finally an active ingredient was applied during the production of the bioprinted skin equivalent.
Amreen Fatima*, Shashi Alok, Parul Agarwal, Prem Prakash Singh and Amita Verma
Herbal extracts are primarily added to the cosmetic formulations due to several associated properties such as antioxidant, anti inflammatory, antiseptic and antimicrobial properties. Even today, people in rural and urban areas depend upon herbs for traditional cosmetics. Information on the herbal cosmetics was collected via electronic search (using pub med, scifinder, Google Scholar and web of science) and library search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals. Furthermore, informati...
Leung, Theresa G; Dunn, James P; Akpek, Esen K; Thorne, Jennifer E
Background We report necrotizing scleritis as a serious complication of a cosmetic eye whitening procedure that involves the use of intraoperative and postoperative topical mitomycin C. Findings This is a single case report. A 59-year-old Caucasian male with a history of blepharitis status post uncomplicated LASIK refractive surgery reported chronic conjunctival hyperemia for 15 years prior to undergoing a cosmetic eye whitening procedure. He presented to our clinic 12 months after the cosmet...
Nye, Marisa B.
In the 1980â€™s, animal rights activists successfully motivated the cosmetic industry to begin researching alternatives to animal tests. The European Union has taken action to stimulate development and validation of alternatives to animal testing through the Sixth and Seventh Amendments to the Cosmetics Directive. In this paper, I will briefly describe the history of the search for alternatives to animal testing for cosmetics. I will then discuss the progress that has been ma...
Medhat Moustafa E.
Full Text Available In the proposed work, an investigation on hazard assessment by lead element and natural radioactivity in cosmetic samples collected from various countries is presented. These samples were face powder, eyebrow paint and henna. The lead element in cosmetic samples was determined using particle-induced X-ray emission. Maximum natural radioactivity concentrations of 226Ra and 40K were found in khol and make-up cosmetic samples, respectively. The qualitative analysis of cosmetic samples showed that lead is the most toxic element found in eyebrow paint samples.
Furuta, E.; Nakahara, H.; Hatsukawa, Y.; Matsue, H.; Sakane, H.
In Japan, cosmetics claiming hormesis effect are available through Internet. Although these cosmetics show the contents, they never mention the minor elements and radioactive sources. The existence of radioisotopes, however, was observed by measurements of the gamma-rays with a HPGe detector. In this study, in order to clarify the contents of trace elements, the hormesis cosmetics including radioactive sources were analyzed using INAA, PGAA and NAA with multiple gamma-ray detection (NAAMG). Nineteen elements were analyzed quantitatively in hormesis cosmetics by INAA, PGAA and NAAMG and 16 elements were detected qualitatively by SEM-EPMA. (author)
Smith, Donald F
The future of veterinary medicine is best understood in the context of history. What began as a profession rooted in urban centers in proximity to horses, physicians, and medical schools, was transformed into a land grant-based agricultural profession with the arrival of the internal combustion engine in the early twentieth century. Most of the United States' current veterinary colleges are still located in towns or small cities in the middle section of the country, outside the largest metropolitan areas where most veterinarians practice companion-animal medicine. Throughout veterinarian history, substantial numbers of US students have been educated in foreign colleges and this continues today, creating an even greater geographic imbalance between the veterinary educational process and US population centers and major medical schools. Three themes deserve special attention as we celebrate the profession's 150th anniversary. We must first move beyond the land-grant culture and develop a more geographically balanced approach to establishing new veterinary colleges that are also in closer association with schools of medicine and public health. We must also facilitate more opportunities for women leadership in organized veterinary medicine, in practice ownership, in academia, and in the corporate structures that educate, hire, and interface with veterinarians. Finally, we need to expand our understanding of One Health to include the concept of zooeyia (the role of animals in promoting human health), as well as continue to emphasize veterinarians' special roles in the control and management of zoonotic diseases and in advancing comparative medicine in the age of the genome.
Page-Jones, S; Abbey, G
This research investigates vet and vet nurse career identity through the qualitative methodology of narrative enquiry. It derives learning and understanding from these empirical data to assist the veterinary profession to adjust to the changing industry landscape. Through a case series of 20 vets and vet nurses' career stories, this paper seeks understanding about career identity and its impact on individuals and organisations in the light of industry consolidation. Findings suggest that career is central to identity for many veterinary professionals who tend to have a strong sense of self; this is particularly evident around self as learner and technically competent, teacher and educator, ethical and moral and dedicated and resilient. Consequently, mismatches between 'who I am' and 'what I do' tend not to lead to identity customisation (to fit self into role or organisation) but to the search for alternative, more identity-compatible employment. This study offers a valuable insight for employers, veterinary professionals and universities. It suggests that businesses can gain competitive advantage and employees achieve validation and enrichment by working towards organisational and individual identity congruence and that teaching veterinary professionals with contemporary business in mind may develop graduates with a more sustainable identity. British Veterinary Association.
Ana L. Alves
Full Text Available Many cosmetic formulations have collagen as a major component because of its significant benefits as a natural humectant and moisturizer. This industry is constantly looking for innovative, sustainable, and truly efficacious products, so marine collagen based formulations are arising as promising alternatives. A solid description and characterization of this protein is fundamental to guarantee the highest quality of each batch. In the present study, we present an extensive characterization of marine-derived collagen extracted from salmon and codfish skins, targeting its inclusion as component in cosmetic formulations. Chemical and physical characterizations were performed using several techniques such as sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE, Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR spectroscopy rheology, circular dichroism, X-ray diffraction, humidity uptake, and a biological assessment of the extracts regarding their irritant potential. The results showed an isolation of type I collagen with high purity but with some structural and chemical differences between sources. Collagen demonstrated a good capacity to retain water, thus being suitable for dermal applications as a moisturizer. A topical exposure of collagen in a human reconstructed dermis, as well as the analysis of molecular markers for irritation and inflammation, exhibited no irritant potential. Thus, the isolation of collagen from fish skins for inclusion in dermocosmetic applications may constitute a sustainable and low-cost platform for the biotechnological valorization of fish by-products.
Full Text Available Chemical allergy is of considerable importance to the toxicologist, who, amongst other things, has the responsibility of identifying and characterizing the skin (and respiratory sensitizing potential of chemicals, and estimating the risk they pose to human health. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD is to a large extent a preventable disease. Although quantitative risk assessment (QRA for contact allergy can be performed, it is reasonable to ask why the burden of the skin disease ACD appears to remain stubbornly high, and in particular, that the general level of ACD to sensitizing ingredients found in cosmetics has not fallen noticeably over recent decades; some could argue that it has increased. In this review, this conundrum is addressed, considering whether and to what extent the prevalence of cosmetic allergy is truly unchanged, whether the predicted test methods and potency estimations are sufficiently precise and how proposed changes to the QRA process (i.e., cumulative exposure may ameliorate the situation. Improved and more widespread use of risk assessment, better education of risk assessors, better post-marketing surveillance and monitoring of dermatology clinic feedback to improve QRA, all together could help to “make contact allergy history”.
Funk, Joanna M; Verheyden, Charles N; Mahabir, Raman C
The demand for cosmetic surgery and services has diminished with recent fluctuations in the economy. To stay ahead, surgeons must appreciate and attend to the fiscal challenges of private practice. A key component of practice economics is knowledge of the common methods of payment. To review methods of payment in a five-surgeon group practice in central Texas, USA. A retrospective chart review of the financial records of a cosmetic surgery centre in Texas was conducted. Data were collected for the five-year period from 2003 to 2008, and included the method of payment, the item purchased (product, service or surgery) and the dollar amount. More than 11,000 transactions were reviewed. The most common method of payment used for products and services was credit card, followed by check and cash. For procedures, the most common form of payment was personal check, followed by credit card and financing. Of the credit card purchases for both products and procedures, an overwhelming majority of patients (more than 75%) used either Visa (Visa Inc, USA) or MasterCard (MasterCard Worldwide, USA). If the amount of the individual transaction surpassed US$1,000, the most common method of payment transitioned from credit card to personal check. In an effort to maximize revenue, surgeons should consider limiting the credit cards accepted by the practice and encourage payment through personal check.
... cosmetic products. 700.25 Section 700.25 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.25 Tamper-resistant packaging requirements for cosmetic products. (a) General. Because most cosmetic liquid...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in cosmetic...
Langebaek, Rikke; Tanggaard, Lene; Berendt, Mette
When veterinary students face their first live animal surgeries, their level of anxiety is generally high and this can affect their ability to recall the procedure they are about to undertake. Multimodal teaching methods have previously been shown to enhance learning and facilitate recall; however......, student preferences for recollection methods when translating theory into practice have not been documented. The aim of this study was to investigate veterinary students' experience with recollection of a surgical procedure they were about to perform after using multiple methods for preparation. From...... a group of 171 veterinary students enrolled in a basic surgery course, 26 students were randomly selected to participate in semi-structured interviews. Results showed that 58% of the students used a visual, dynamic method of recollection, mentally visualizing the video they had watched as part...
Hernández-Ruiz, L.; Jimenez-Flores, Y.; Rivera-Montalvo, T.; Arias-Cisneros, L.; Méndez-Aguilar, R.E.; Uribe-Izquierdo, P.
This paper presents the results of Environmental and Personnel Dosimetry made in a radiology area of a veterinary hospital. Dosimetry was realized using thermoluminescent (TL) materials. Environmental Dosimetry results show that areas closer to the X-ray equipment are safe. Personnel Dosimetry shows important measurements of daily workday in some persons near to the limit established by ICRP. TL results of radiation measurement suggest TLDs are good candidates as a dosimeter to radiation dosimetry in veterinary radiology. - Highlights: ► Personnel dosimetry in laboratory veterinary diagnostic was determined. ► Student workplaces are safe against radiation. ► Efficiency value of apron lead was determined. ► X-ray beams distribution into veterinarian laboratory was measured.
Clausen, Jürgen; Albrecht, Henning
The aim of the present report is to provide an overview of the first database on clinical research in veterinary homeopathy. Detailed searches in the database 'Veterinary Clinical Research-Database in Homeopathy' (http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/clinresvet/index.php). The database contains about 200 entries of randomised clinical trials, non-randomised clinical trials, observational studies, drug provings, case reports and case series. Twenty-two clinical fields are covered and eight different groups of species are included. The database is free of charge and open to all interested veterinarians and researchers. The database enables researchers and veterinarians, sceptics and supporters to get a quick overview of the status of veterinary clinical research in homeopathy and alleviates the preparation of systematical reviews or may stimulate reproductions or even new studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Baars, J C
Veterinary medicines constitute an unescapable element in the scheme of animal health and welfare. Nowadays, they are used more and more to improve health and productivity in farm animals. When a veterinary medicine is prescribed it must not only be effective but must also be safe for both animals and humans. Due to ever changing regulations and constant improvements in residue detection techniques it is necessary to conduct new investigations with existing products. It therefore costs a great deal of time and money to introduce, and maintain, a product in the market. In future, therefore, fewer medicines with more limited indications will be introduced and these will be to combat important production disorders in the more significant species only. In view of the above, research and production will be restricted to large, international, concerns. Due to our well structured agricultural industry and the existence of well organized and equipped veterinary research institutions, and practitioners, Holland is able to play an important role in the development of veterinary medicines. Close co-operation between all involved parties coupled with an efficient registration procedure is not ony of benefit to the veterinary pharmaceutical industry but also for international recognition of our national animal husbandry industry, ancillary industries and veterinary and other consultants. In this scheme of things the accent is not upon qualifications but upon the skills of veterinarians - wherever placed - who are involved in the administration of veterinary medicines.
Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Muñana, Karen
with the initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug...... treatment protocols, 1) is based on current published evidence-based literature, 2) considers the current legal framework of the cascade regulation for the prescription of veterinary drugs in Europe, and 3) reflects the authors' experience. With this paper it is aimed to provide a consensus...
Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter
Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only...... clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical...
..., pedicures and other cosmetic or spa treatments; and access to sport or exercise facilities) in addition to..., and tanning lotions; manicures, pedicures and other cosmetic or spa treatments; and access to sport or...); (ii) Sleep disorders; (iii) Seasonal affective disorder or other psychiatric disorder; (iv) Neonatal...
Terence Pereira, Ryan; Malone, Carmel M; Flaherty, Gerard T
Medical tourism has witnessed significant growth in recent years. The emerging trend towards international travel for cosmetic surgical interventions has not previously been reviewed. The current review aims to critically address the scale and impact of cosmetic surgical tourism and to delineate the complication profile of this form of medical tourism. Articles published in the English language on the PubMed database that were relevant to surgical tourism and the complications of elective surgical procedures abroad were examined. Reference lists of articles identified were further scrutinized. The search terms used included combinations of 'surgery abroad', 'cosmetic surgery abroad', 'cosmetic surgery tourism', 'cosmetic surgery complications' and 'aesthetic tourism'. This article critically reviews the epidemiology of cosmetic surgical tourism and its associated economic factors. Surgical complications of selected procedures, including perioperative complications, are described. The implications for travel medicine practice are considered and recommendations for further research are proposed. This narrative literature review focuses on the issues affecting travellers who obtain cosmetic surgical treatment overseas. There is a lack of focus in the travel medicine literature on the non-surgery-related morbidity of this special group of travellers. Original research exploring the motivation and pre-travel preparation, including the psychological counselling, of cosmetic surgical tourists is indicated.
Cosmetics are consumer products intended to contribute to increasing quality of life and designed for long-term daily use. Due to such features of cosmetics, they are required to ensure quality and safety at a high level, as well as to perform well, in response to consumers' demands. Recently, the technology associated with nanomaterials has progressed rapidly and has been applied to various products, including cosmetics. For example, nano-sized titanium dioxide has been formulated in sunscreen products in pursuit of improving its performance. As some researchers and media have expressed concerns about the safety of nanomaterials, a vague feeling of anxiety has been raised in society. In response to this concern, the Japan Cosmetic Industry Association (JCIA) has begun original research related to the safety assurance of nanomaterials formulated in cosmetics, to allow consumers to use cosmetics without such concerns. This paper describes the activities of the JCIA regarding safety research on nanomaterials, including a survey of the actual usage of nanomaterials in cosmetics, analysis of the existence of nanomaterials on the skin, and assessment of skin carcinogenicity of nano-sized titanium dioxide. It also describes the international status of safety assurance and regulation regarding nanomaterials in cosmetics.
Lipworth, Loren; Kjøller, Kim; Hölmich, Lisbet R
An excess of suicide among women with cosmetic breast implants compared with controls has consistently been reported in epidemiologic studies. We have evaluated psychological characteristics among 423 Danish women with cosmetic breast implants, compared with 414 controls. Odds ratios (OR) with 95...
Herder, J.L.; Cool, J.C.; Plettenburg, D.H.
For cosmetic reasons, hand prostheses are provided with cosmetic gloves. Their pleasing appearance, however, is accompanied by poor mechanical behavior, resulting in a negative influence on prosthesis operation. Glove stiffness is high and nonlinear, and internal friction in the glove material
When graduating from veterinary school, veterinary professionals must be ready to enter the complex veterinary profession. Therefore, one of the major responsibilities of any veterinary school is to develop training programmes that support students’ competency development on the trajectory from
A well-attended session at this year's joint SPVS/VPMA congress considered what lessons the medical and veterinary professions might learn from one another. Laura Honey reports. British Veterinary Association.
Full Text Available More than 155 participants from 25 countries attended the 30th Annual IVAS Congress, September 8–11, 2004 in Oostende, Belgium. The focus was on veterinary acupuncture (AP and immunology, and the event was sponsored by the International Veterinary Acupuncture Society (IVAS. IVAS is a non-profit organization dedicated to promoting excellence in the practice of veterinary AP as an integral part of the total veterinary health care delivery system. The Society endeavors to establish uniformly high standards of veterinary AP through its educational programs and accreditation examination. IVAS seeks to integrate veterinary AP and the practice of Western veterinary science, while also noting that the science of veterinary AP does not overlook allied health systems, such as homeopathy, herbology, nutrition, chiropractic, kinesiology, etc. (www.ivas.org.
services, and black-market drug dealers were found to be challengers associated .... veterinary service, private veterinarians, traditional healers and NGOs mainly ... timeliness, effectiveness and affordability of the veterinary service providers.
In recent years, there has been increasing awareness of the widespread distribution of low concentrations of veterinary medicine products and other pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment. While aquatic hazard for a select group of veterinary medicines has received previous s...
Hansen, Torben; Risborg, Marie Søndergaard; Steen, Christina Donslund
consumers' personal values and their attitude and behaviour associated with purchasing free-of cosmetics. A quantitative online survey of 250 Danish female consumers was conducted using self-administering questionnaires. The findings indicate that consumers' willingness to purchase free-of cosmetics (R......This study concerns the free-of trend on the cosmetics market as expressed by a tendency among consumers to prefer cosmetics that are free of certain ingredients. Combining the Theory of Reasoned Action with a value-driven approach, this study empirically investigates the association between......² = .48) is both influenced by attitude (β = .65) and perceived subjective norm (β = .21) with attitude having the largest predictive power. Moreover, consumers' attitude towards willingness to purchase free-of cosmetics seems to be value driven. Our results indicate that two values, self-transcendence (β...
Leung, Theresa G; Dunn, James P; Akpek, Esen K; Thorne, Jennifer E
We report necrotizing scleritis as a serious complication of a cosmetic eye whitening procedure that involves the use of intraoperative and postoperative topical mitomycin C. This is a single case report. A 59-year-old Caucasian male with a history of blepharitis status post uncomplicated LASIK refractive surgery reported chronic conjunctival hyperemia for 15 years prior to undergoing a cosmetic eye whitening procedure. He presented to our clinic 12 months after the cosmetic eye whitening procedure with progressive bilateral necrotizing scleritis and scleral calcification. Chronic conjunctival hyperemia may prompt patients to seek surgical correction with cosmetic eye whitening procedures. However, conjunctival hyperemia secondary to tear deficiency and evaporative dry eye may predispose to poor wound healing. Serious complications including necrotizing scleritis may result from cosmetic eye whitening procedures and the use of topical mitomycin C.
Fiume, Monice M; Boyer, Ivan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of talc for use in cosmetics. The safety of talc has been the subject of much debate through the years, partly because the relationship between talc and asbestos is commonly misunderstood. Industry specifications state that cosmetic-grade talc must contain no detectable fibrous, asbestos minerals. Therefore, the large amount of available animal and clinical data the Panel relied on in assessing the safety of talc only included those studies on talc that did not contain asbestos. The Panel concluded that talc is safe for use in cosmetics in the present practices of use and concentration (some cosmetic products are entirely composed of talc). Talc should not be applied to the skin when the epidermal barrier is missing or significantly disrupted. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD refers to a preoccupation with an imagined or grossly exaggerated minor physical defect. Those with BDD might seek medical help (cosmetic surgery rather than attend a psychiatric clinic. Therefore, it is often underdiagnosed. To investigate the prevalence of BDD, we reviewed the medical records of 817 individuals who sought cosmetic surgery during a 3-year period. The outcome after surgery was described for those with BDD. Our results showed that 63 (7.7% patients had BDD, of which 54 (85.7% were diagnosed at preoperative evaluation. However, nine (14.3% patients went undiagnosed and all had a bad outcome after cosmetic surgery. BDD was not uncommon at the cosmetic surgery clinic. Our results support the idea that cosmetic surgery should be avoided for patients with BDD. The development of a more effective diagnostic procedure could help address this issue.
Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter
Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective...... of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods...... (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges....
... cosmetics' industry trade associations. Currently, the ICCR members are Health Canada; the European... for International Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public meeting entitled ``International Cooperation on Cosmetic Regulations (ICCR)--Preparation for ICCR...
... authority members will enter into constructive dialogue with their relevant cosmetics industry trade...] Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulation; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... public meeting entitled, ``International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulation (ICCR)--Preparation for ICCR...
... cosmetics' industry trade associations. Currently, the ICCR members are Health Canada; the European...] Preparation for International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations; Public Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug... announcing a public meeting entitled ``International Cooperation on Cosmetics Regulations (ICCR)--Preparation...
...] Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Cosmetic Labeling... FDA's cosmetic labeling regulations. DATES: Submit written or electronic comments on the collection of... of information technology. Cosmetic Labeling Regulations--21 CFR Part 701 (OMB Control Number 0910...
Full Text Available Abstract: The marine environment is a rich source of both biological and chemical diversity. This diversity has been the source of unique chemical compounds with the potential for industrial development as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, nutritional supplements, molecular probes, fine chemicals and agrochemicals. In recent years, a significant number of novel metabolites with potent pharmacological properties has been discovered from the marine organisms. Although there are only a few marine-derived products currently on the market, several robust new compounds derived from marine natural products are now in the clinical pipeline, with more clinical development. While the marine world offers an extremely rich resource for novel compounds, it also represents a great challenge that requires inputs from various scientific areas to bring the marine chemical diversity up to its therapeutic potential.
Full Text Available The effect of deodorant use on breast cancer development has generated considerable interest in both the scientific community and the mainstream media. Primary observational studies and numerous reviews investigating the effect of regular deodorant use on breast cancer development have been undertaken. There is no consensus in this regard. Some epidemiological studies have attempted to directly address the issue of underarm cosmetic use and breast cancer. On the other hand, many studies found no association between antiperspirant use and the risk of breast cancer. There is no difference in the current use of antiperspirant/deodorant products between breast cancer patients and nonaffected matched controls. There is no scientific evidence or research data that ingredients in underarm antiperspirants or deodorants cause cancer.
de Paula Pereira, Neila
The most recent research in the area of cosmetics to sustainability has focused on obtaining formulations rich in nontraditional oils and butters from seeds and fruits native to Brazilian tropical flora. These have contributed to aggregate value for the raw materials and involvement of small farms forming rural production in Brazil, since the plants are cultivated in preservation areas sponsored by companies who are partners in the Government Program for Brazilian Sustainability. Given that the oils extracted from seeds have the potential to replace these cutaneous constituents, it has been verified that new products of strong commercial impact show an increasing tendency to incorporate in their formulas the oils of plants grown in Brazilian soil.
Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this research is to know the brand loyalty and contribute to the knowledge that how brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, and product knowledge is important to build brand loyalty. Method: Data were collected from the female's students of department from the university of Sargodha Final analysis was performed on 125 valid respondents. Cronbach's Alpha statistic was used in order to check the reliability of the scale. Regression was used in order to test the hypothesis. Correlation analysis was used to study the relationship between the variables such that this analysis studied the positive relation of all the independent variables (brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality and product knowledge with the dependent variable (brand loyalty. Results and Conclusion: The results indicate the positive relationships between brand credibility, brand awareness, brand association, perceived quality, product knowledge (independent variables and brand loyalty (dependent variables. Further among all the variables studied brand awareness has the highest impact on brand loyalty and according to this research L'Oreal consumer is more as compare to other brands. Although this research specifically studies the Brand Loyalty in University of Sargodha. However more importantly, the purpose of this study is that cosmetic industry must focus on brand association, perceived quality, product knowledge, brand credibility in order to build Brand Loyalty. To the best of researcher's knowledge, this research is first of its kind in the University of Sargodha which studies student's credibility, awareness, association, perceived quality, product knowledge and loyalty toward their favorite cosmetics brand. The results of this study are limited by the specificity of the geographic context by taking a sample of 125 students of one department from total population of University of
Chevallier, D; Haertig, A; Faix, A; Droupy, S
To describe the indications and results of techniques to change the appearance of the penis for aesthetic reasons. Provide recommendations concerning cosmetic surgery of the male genitalia. We have selected from Medline Database, articles published between 1990 and 2011. Forty articles have been selected excluding papers reporting populations less than five cases per type of procedure. There is no consensus on the size below which it is justifiable to accept or attempt to modify the size of the penis. Length of the penis in maximal tension less than 9.5 cm or 10 cm in erection can be considered as an acceptable limit, in a patient who suffers from it. The assessment of men asking for penile enlargement must include a psychosexological or psychiatric evaluation, looking for a dysmorphophobia or another psychiatric condition. Penile extenders under medical control must be the first-line treatment option for patient seeking penile lenghtening procedure when justified. In case of failure, three techniques can be used alone or in combination: penile lengthening by section of the suspensory ligaments and suprapubic skin advancement, lipectomy of Mons pubis and scrotal webbing section. The results are modest, the rate of complications significant and satisfaction low. Girth enlargement techniques by injection of autologous fat give inconsistent aesthetic results and satisfaction rates are low. All other techniques remain experimental. Cosmetic surgery of the penis is associated with a high risk of forensic exposure and surgery should be only proposed after a multidisciplinary consensus, followed by a time of reflection given to the patient after full disclosure. Applications for the purpose of reconstruction surgery after trauma or consequences of cancer treatment are justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
The microbiological quality of cosmetic products (skin creams, massage gels and hair lotion) and the effect of gamma irradiation on this quality were investigated.The effectiveness of these cosmetic products with the tested pathogenic microorganisms was also examined. Total bacterial counts (TBC) of examined cosmetic products ranged between 5 cfu/g or ml. Most cosmetic products evaluated were free from mold and yeast. Spore forming bacteria (SFB) were low and ranged between 2 cfu/g or ml. The enterobacteriaceae (Ent) group was generally absent from the examined cosmetic products except for one sample (varic, skin cream) which contained 7x10 3 cfu/g. All cosmetic products studied were free from Pseudomonas species, Aeromonas hydrophila; Bacillus cereus; Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella species. Only one sample (varic, skin cream) contained E. coli (2x10 2 cfu/g). Enterococcus faecalis was found in three samples of cosmetic products tested (maxi care, panol and varic creams) and the counts were 7x10 2 , 2x10 2 and 5x10 4 cfu/g, respectively. Also Staphylococcus aureus was found in the same three samples and the counts were in the range of 2-3x10 2 cfu/g. The effectiveness of cosmetic products with the tested pathogenic bacteria differs according to the type of cosmetic products examined . The irradiation dose of 6 kGy was very effective in microbial decontamination and elimination of pathogenic bacteria in cosmetic products for enhancing health quality and ensuring safety of these products.
Gunia-Krzyżak, Agnieszka; Słoczyńska, Karolina; Popiół, Justyna; Koczurkiewicz, Paulina; Marona, Henryk; Pękala, Elżbieta
Cinnamic acid derivatives are widely used in cosmetics and possess various functions. This group of compounds includes both naturally occurring as well as synthetic substances. On the basis of the Cosmetic Ingredient Database (CosIng) and available literature, this review summarizes their functions in cosmetics, including their physicochemical and biological properties as well as reported adverse effects. A perfuming function is typical of many derivatives of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, dihydrocinnamyl alcohol, and cinnamic acid itself; these substances are commonly used in cosmetics all over the world. Some of them show allergic and photoallergic potential, resulting in restrictions in maximum concentrations and/or a requirement to indicate the presence of some substances in the list of ingredients when their concentrations exceed certain fixed values in a cosmetic product. Another important function of cinnamic acid derivatives in cosmetics is UV protection. Ester derivatives such as ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (octinoxate), isoamyl p-methoxycinnamte (amiloxiate), octocrylene, and cinoxate are used in cosmetics all over the world as UV filters. However, their maximum concentrations in cosmetic products are restricted due to their adverse effects, which include contact and a photocontact allergies, phototoxic contact dermatitis, contact dermatitis, estrogenic modulation, and generation of reactive oxygen species. Other rarely utilized functions of cinnamic acid derivatives are as an antioxidant, in skin conditioning, hair conditioning, as a tonic, and in antimicrobial activities. Moreover, some currently investigated natural and synthetic derivatives of cinnamic acid have shown skin lightening and anti-aging properties. Some of them may become new cosmetic ingredients in the future. In particular, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, which is currently indexed as a skin-conditioning cosmetics ingredient, has been widely tested in vitro and in vivo as a new drug candidate
Evaluation of the Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted From Wi-Fi Router and Mobile Phone Simulator on the Antibacterial Susceptibility of Pathogenic Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli.
Taheri, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Moradi, M; Mansouri, S; Hatam, G R; Nouri, F
Mobile phones and Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation are among the main sources of the exposure of the general population to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Previous studies have shown that exposure of microorganisms to RF-EMFs can be associated with a wide spectrum of changes ranged from the modified bacterial growth to the alterations of the pattern of antibiotic resistance. Our laboratory at the nonionizing department of the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center has performed experiments on the health effects of exposure to animal models and humans to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons, magnetic resonance imaging, and Helmholtz coils. On the other hand, we have previously studied different aspects of the challenging issue of the ionizing or nonionizing radiation-induced alterations in the susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics. In this study, we assessed if the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation and 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from common Wi-Fi routers alters the susceptibility of microorganisms to different antibiotics. The pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were exposed to RF-EMFs generated either by a GSM 900 MHz mobile phone simulator and a common 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi router. It is also shown that exposure to RF-EMFs within a narrow level of irradiation (an exposure window) makes microorganisms resistant to antibiotics. This adaptive phenomenon and its potential threats to human health should be further investigated in future experiments. Altogether, the findings of this study showed that exposure to Wi-Fi and RF simulator radiation can significantly alter the inhibition zone diameters and growth rate for L monocytogenes and E coli. These findings may have implications for the management of serious infectious diseases.
...-containing cosmetic preparations have been represented for many years as skin-bleaching agents or as preparations to remove or prevent freckles and/or brown spots (so-called age spots). Preparations intended for such use are regarded as drugs as well as cosmetics. In addition to such use as skin-bleaching agents...
Nabi, Robin L.
The recent proliferation of reality-based television programs highlighting cosmetic surgery has raised concerns that such programming promotes unrealistic expectations of plastic surgery and increases the desire of viewers to undergo such procedures. In Study 1, a survey of 170 young adults indicated little relationship between cosmetic surgery…
Renda-Francis, Lori A.
Program directors of American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) accredited veterinary technician programs may have little or no training in leadership. The need for program directors of AVMA-accredited veterinary technician programs to understand how leadership traits may have an impact on student success is often overlooked. The purpose of…
Swan, G E; Kriek, N P J
Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa. Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and agricultural economies of countries worldwide. Veterinary education, postgraduate training, and research, and adequate numbers of veterinarians, are essential to satisfy the millennium development goals, the objectives of NEPAD and the African Union, and the agreements regulating international trade. The relevance of the veterinary profession internationally is currently subject to profound scrutiny. Its contributions are assessed against major environmental, demographic, political, disease, technological and economic needs. The scope of veterinary training in future will have to emphasise veterinary public health, food safety, emerging diseases, international trade, bioterrorism, and biomedical research, within the context of a one-health system focusing on the interface between wildlife, domesticated animals, humans, and their environment. Within the context of time available, it would mean reducing the time allocated to training in the field of companion animals. A brief history and scope of veterinary education; current international trends in veterinary education and provisioning; and some perspectives on future veterinary training and initiatives applicable to Africa are provided.
... the veterinary profession: A study of Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria – Nigeria. ... the university, however only 33.7% believed that they obtain veterinary services ... of the opinion that both veterinary and medical students study similar courses. ... that veterinarians, pharmacists and physicians can work together in the Food ...
Bushby, Philip; Woodruff, Kimberly; Shivley, Jake
Simple Summary First initiated in 1995 to provide veterinary students with spay/neuter experience, the shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine has grown to be comprehensive in nature incorporating spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Junior veterinary students spend five days in shelters; senior veterinary students spend 2-weeks visiting shelters in mobile veterinary units. The program has three primary components: spay/neuter, shelter medical days and Animals in Focus. Student gain significant hands-on experience and evaluations of the program by students are overwhelmingly positive. Abstract The shelter program at the Mississippi State University College of Veterinary Medicine provides veterinary students with extensive experience in shelter animal care including spay/neuter, basic wellness care, diagnostics, medical management, disease control, shelter management and biosecurity. Students spend five days at shelters in the junior year of the curriculum and two weeks working on mobile veterinary units in their senior year. The program helps meet accreditation standards of the American Veterinary Medical Association’s Council on Education that require students to have hands-on experience and is in keeping with recommendations from the North American Veterinary Medical Education Consortium. The program responds, in part, to the challenge from the Pew Study on Future Directions for Veterinary Medicine that argued that veterinary students do not graduate with the level of knowledge and skills that is commensurate with the number of years of professional education. PMID:26479234
.... FDA-2013-N-1380] Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Termination AGENCY: Food... announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. This document removes the Veterinary Advisory Committee from the Agency's list of standing advisory committees. DATES: This rule is...
... 558 [Docket No. FDA-2010-N-0155] Veterinary Feed Directive; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food... veterinary feed directive (VFD) regulation. The agency is taking this action in response to requests for an... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration, 7500...
... [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0093] RIN 0579-AC04 National Veterinary Accreditation Program; Correcting Amendment..., Docket No. APHIS-2006-0093), and effective on February 1, 2010, we amended the National Veterinary... Veterinary Accreditation Program, VS, APHIS, 4700 River Road Unit 200, Riverdale, MD 20737; (301) 851-3401...
...] Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory... Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3), Food and Drug Administration, 7519 Standish Pl...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary practitioners and animal... FROM PREPARATION PURSUANT TO AN UNSUSPENDED AND UNREVOKED LICENSE § 107.1 Veterinary practitioners and...)(1) Products prepared by a veterinary practitioner (veterinarian) solely for administration to...
...] Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... Administration (FDA). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory..., Rockville, MD 20852, 301-468-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3...
Henry, Colette; Treanor, Lorna
Purpose: This paper has the purpose of exploring the potential for entrepreneurship education within veterinary medicine. It aims to examine some of the key themes in the entrepreneurship education literature, discuss the make-up of the UK veterinary sector, consider veterinary curricula requirements and illustrate how entrepreneurship education…
Horzinek, M.C.; Venker-van Haagen, Anjop
On November 19, the Federation of Veterinarians in Europe (FVE) issued a policy statement urging its 200,000 members "to work only on the basis of scientifically proven and evidence-based methods and to stay away from non-evidence-based methods." The Swedish Veterinary Association banned its members
Ducrot, C.; Calavas, D.; Legay, J.-M.
One of the main goals of veterinary epidemiology is to analyse the determinants of disease, commonly called risk factors. The analysis of such systems is usually based on a pluridisciplinary approach, a planned observation of the natural state, and a judicious use of various methods to analyse...
Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth; Jackson, Elizabeth
Improving Student Engagement in Veterinary Business StudiesIn a densely packed veterinary curriculum, students may find it particularly challenging to engage in the less overtly clinical subjects, yet pressure from industry and an increasingly competitive employment market necessitate improved veterinary student education in business and management skills. We describe a curriculum intervention (formative reflective assignment) that optimizes workplace learning opportunities and aims to provide better student scaffolding for their in-context business learning. Students were asked to analyze a business practice they experienced during a period of extra-mural studies (external work placement). Following return to the college, they were then instructed to discuss their findings in their study group, and produce a group reflection on their learning. To better understand student engagement in this area, we analyzed individual and group components of the assignment. Thematic analysis revealed evidence of various depths of student engagement, and provided indications of the behaviors they used when engaging at different levels. Interactive and social practices (discussing business strategies with veterinary employees and student peers) appeared to facilitate student engagement, assist the perception of relevance of these skills, and encourage integration with other curriculum elements such as communication skills and clinical problem solving.
Jackman, Brad R; McCafferty, Owen E
This article discusses mergers and acquisitions involving equine veterinary practices. Combining practices can be professionally and economically advantageous but requires a great deal of thought, planning, and implementation. If due diligence is performed and true business teamwork is undertaken, the benefits can be enormous and rewarding.
Harkness, John E.
A prose text in veterinary medicine can be arranged and supplemented to facilitate efficient and effective acquisition into short-term memory. Methods include: variation in textual format; relating new information to previous knowledge and future goals; providing specific, test-relevant objectives or introductions, describing mnemonic devices; and…
New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of the Professions.
The laws, rules, and regulations of the New York State Education Department that govern professional veterinary medicine and animal health technology practice in the state are presented. Licensure requirements are described, and complete application forms and instructions for obtaining license and first registration as a licensed veterinarian and…
Author Guidelines. The Editorial Board of the Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (SJVS) wishes to invite research articles, case reports and review articles for ... be accompanied by a cover letter verifying that the final manuscript has been seen and approved by all authors and transferring copyright ownership to SJVS.
Erin E. Kerby, MSI
Conclusions: Lacking a standard definition of ‘‘research data’’ and a common understanding of precisely what research data services encompass, it is difficult for veterinary medicine librarians and libraries to define and understand their roles in research data services. Nonetheless, they appear to have an interest in learning more about and providing research data services.
Multilocus DNA sequence data was used to retrospectively assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically dist...
at Veterinary anatomy education. The objective was to assess the importance of student participation in skeletal preparation. The hypothesis that the students would be more interested in the discipline if the teaching methodology used is based on creative and constructivist methods. Thirteen animal skeletons were ...
Cancer constitutes the major health problem both in human and veterinary medicine. Comparative oncology as an integrative approach offers to learn more about naturally occurring cancers across different species. Canine models have many advantages as they experience spontaneous disease, have many genes similar ...
Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, ...
van Thielen, B.; Siguenza, F.; Hassan, B.
The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) in imaging dogs and cats for diagnostic dental veterinary applications. CBCT scans of heads of six dogs and two cats were made. Dental panoramic and multi-planar reformatted (MPR) para-sagittal
Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials...... sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification...... of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can...
Backues, Kay; Clyde, Vickie; Denver, Mary; Fiorello, Christine; Hilsenroth, Rob; Lamberski, Nadine; Larson, Scott; Meehan, Tom; Murray, Mike; Ramer, Jan; Ramsay, Ed; Suedmeyer, Kirk; Whiteside, Doug
These guidelines for veterinary medical care and veterinary hospitals are written to conform with the requirements of the Animal Welfare Act, which states that programs of disease prevention and parasite control, euthanasia, and adequate veterinary care shall be established and maintained under the supervision of a veterinarian. Ideally the zoo and aquarium should be providing the best possible veterinary medical care for the animals in their collections. Many of these animals are rare and endangered and the institutions should endeavor both to provide for the long term health and well being of these animals and to advance the field of non-domestic animal medicine. It is hoped that this publication will aid in this process.
... clients can reasonably be expected to pay for professional veterinary services and where food animal... the event of a discrepancy between the primary reviewer's scoring and the panel poll results, the...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This database contains product names and associated information developed by the Center for all products, both medical and non-medical, which emit radiation. It...
... Ultrasonography • Doppler ultrasound • Color doppler ultrasound • Hyperthermia • Diathermy/physical therapy • Bone healing • Lithotripsy • Phacoemulsifier • Needle guide • Bone density measuring • Geriatric bath (ultrasound) • Hearing aid • Many scientific uses • Nondestructive ...
O'Donnell, Kerry; Sutton, Deanna A; Wiederhold, Nathan; Robert, Vincent A R G; Crous, Pedro W; Geiser, David M
Multilocus DNA sequence data were used to assess the genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships of 67 Fusarium strains from veterinary sources, most of which were from the United States. Molecular phylogenetic analyses revealed that the strains comprised 23 phylogenetically distinct species, all but two of which were previously known to infect humans, distributed among eight species complexes. The majority of the veterinary isolates (47/67 = 70.1%) were nested within the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC), and these included 8 phylospecies and 33 unique 3-locus sequence types (STs). Three of the FSSC species (Fusarium falciforme, Fusarium keratoplasticum, and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12) accounted for four-fifths of the veterinary strains (38/47) and STs (27/33) within this clade. Most of the F. falciforme strains (12/15) were recovered from equine keratitis infections; however, strains of F. keratoplasticum and Fusarium sp. FSSC 12 were mostly (25/27) isolated from marine vertebrates and invertebrates. Our sampling suggests that the Fusarium incarnatum-equiseti species complex (FIESC), with eight mycoses-associated species, may represent the second most important clade of veterinary relevance within Fusarium Six of the multilocus STs within the FSSC (3+4-eee, 1-b, 12-a, 12-b, 12-f, and 12-h) and one each within the FIESC (1-a) and the Fusarium oxysporum species complex (ST-33) were widespread geographically, including three STs with transoceanic disjunctions. In conclusion, fusaria associated with veterinary mycoses are phylogenetically diverse and typically can only be identified to the species level using DNA sequence data from portions of one or more informative genes. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Full Text Available Including current published evidence is vital as part of evidence-based decision making in veterinary practice. Sometimes there is no published evidence which is relevant or applicable to the clinical situation.This can be either because it refers to patients with experimentally induced conditions, from a referral population or who lack the co-morbities often seen outside of the experimental context. The Veterinary Clinical Trials Network is unique. It is a rapidly expanding network of veterinary practices, with whom we are working to establish methods for running prospective, pragmatic, practical clinical trials in veterinary practice.Data is extracted from the patient record using an XML Schema. The data extracted is already captured by the Practice Management Software (PMS system as part of the consultation, no extra information is required, and the extraction method is automated. This improves participation as it minimises the time input required from vets and vet nurses. Other data is obtained directly from owners of the animals involved.By working with a large number of first opinion veterinary practices we are able to include enough patients to ensure that our trials are suitably powered, and the participants will be representative of the wider vet-visiting pet population. The research generated from this clinical trials network will help strengthen the evidence base to aid decision making by veterinary practitioners.
Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate M; Sandøe, Peter; Olsson, I Anna S
Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010-2011). The content of the interview transcripts were analyzed using Toulmin's argumentative model. Ten objectives in teaching veterinary ethics were identified, which can be grouped into four overarching themes: ethical awareness, ethical knowledge, ethical skills, and individual and professional qualities. These objectives include recognizing values and ethical viewpoints, identifying norms and regulations, developing skills of communication and decision making, and contributing to a professional identity. Whereas many of the objectives complement each other, there is tension between the view that ethics teaching should promote knowledge of professional rules and the view that ethics teaching should emphasize critical reasoning skills. The wide range of objectives and the possible tensions between them highlight the challenges faced by educators as they attempt to prioritize among these goals of ethics teaching within a crowded veterinary curriculum.
Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R
Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.
Kinnison, T; Guile, D; May, S A
Case studies in two typical UK veterinary practices were undertaken to explore teamwork, including interprofessional working. Each study involved one week of whole team observation based on practice locations (reception, operating theatre), one week of shadowing six focus individuals (veterinary surgeons, veterinary nurses and administrators) and a final week consisting of semistructured interviews regarding teamwork. Errors emerged as a finding of the study. The definition of errors was inclusive, pertaining to inputs or omitted actions with potential adverse outcomes for patients, clients or the practice. The 40 identified instances could be grouped into clinical errors (dosing/drugs, surgical preparation, lack of follow-up), lost item errors, and most frequently, communication errors (records, procedures, missing face-to-face communication, mistakes within face-to-face communication). The qualitative nature of the study allowed the underlying cause of the errors to be explored. In addition to some individual mistakes, system faults were identified as a major cause of errors. Observed examples and interviews demonstrated several challenges to interprofessional teamworking which may cause errors, including: lack of time, part-time staff leading to frequent handovers, branch differences and individual veterinary surgeon work preferences. Lessons are drawn for building better veterinary teams and implications for Disciplinary Proceedings considered. British Veterinary Association.
Moore, Irene C; Coe, Jason B; Adams, Cindy L; Conlon, Peter D; Sargeant, Jan M
To determine the role of veterinary team effectiveness regarding job satisfaction and burnout in companion animal veterinary practice. Cross-sectional observational study. 48 companion animal veterinary health-care teams. 274 team members participated in an online survey. Overall job satisfaction was evaluated with a 1-item measure, and the 3 dimensions of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and professional efficacy) were measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory-General Survey. Team effectiveness was assessed with a survey developed for this study. Demographic and team effectiveness factors (coordinated team environment, toxic team environment, team engagement, and individual engagement) associated with job satisfaction and burnout were evaluated. Overall mean job satisfaction score was 5.46 of 7 (median, 6.00); veterinary technicians and kennel attendants had the lowest scores. According to the Maslach survey results, 22.4% of participants were in the high-risk category for exhaustion, 23.2% were in the high-risk category for cynicism, and 9.3% were in the high-risk category for professional efficacy. A coordinated team environment was associated with increased professional efficacy and decreased cynicism. A toxic team environment was negatively associated with job satisfaction and positively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Individual engagement was positively associated with job satisfaction and professional efficacy and negatively associated with exhaustion and cynicism. Results suggested the effectiveness of a veterinary team can significantly influence individual team members' job satisfaction and burnout. Practices should pay specific attention to the effectiveness with which their veterinary team operates.
Malec-Czechowska, K.; Migdal, W.; Owczarczyk, H.B.
Microbiological purity of cosmetics is a problem of today because of growing hygienic requirements to these products. The demand for high hygienic purity from one side and the limitation in the use of conservants to cosmetics from the other side stimulate the research activity, the aim of which is to satisfy present requirements in this field. The application of radiation decontamination (hygienisation) seems to be one of solutions. In present report were present the results of the study on the effect of electron beam irradiation on microbial contamination of selected cosmetics and some raw materials used in cosmetic industry. Radiation doses applied were not higher than 6.0 kGy. The level of microbial contamination in both unirradiated and irradiated samples was determined by applying the standard microbiological methods. In addition, the quality and usefulness of irradiated cosmetics were examined by methods used in cosmetic industry. The results obtained show conclusively that radiation treatment can be successfully used for the decontamination (hygienisation) of cosmetics and some raw materials used in their production, without changing the quality and the usefulness of the product released. (author)
Bocca, Beatrice; Pino, Anna; Alimonti, Alessandro; Forte, Giovanni
The persistence of metals in the environment and their natural occurrence in rocks, soil and water cause them to be present in the manufacture of pigments and other raw materials used in the cosmetic industry. Thus, people can be exposed to metals as trace contaminants in cosmetic products they daily use. Cosmetics may have multiple forms, uses and exposure scenarios, and metals contained in them can cause skin local problems but also systemic effects after their absorption via the skin or ingestion. Even this, cosmetics companies are not obliged to report on this kind of impurities and so consumers have no way of knowing about their own risk. This paper reviewed both the concentration of metals in different types of cosmetics manufactured and sold worldwide and the data on metals' dermal penetration and systemic toxicology. The eight metals of concern for this review were antimony (Sb), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), cobalt (Co), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb). This was because they are banned as intentional ingredients in cosmetics, have draft limits as potential impurities in cosmetics and are known as toxic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Bo Kyoung; Shin, Seong Soo; Kim, Seong Deok; Ha, Sung Whan; Noh, Dong Young
This study was performed to evaluate the cosmetic outcome of conservative treatment for early breast cancer and to analyze the factors influencing cosmetic outcome. From February 1992 through January 1997, 120 patients with early breast cancer were treated with conservative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. The types of conservative surgery were quadrantectomy and axillary node dissection for 108 patients (90%) and lumpectomy or excisional biopsy for 10 patients (8.3%). Forty six patients (38%) received adjuvant chemotherapy (CMF or CAF). Cosmetic result evaluation was carried out between 16 and 74 months (median, 33 months) after surgery. The cosmetic results were classified into four categories, i.e., excellent, good, fair, and poor. The appearances of the patients' breasts were also analyzed for symmetry using the differences in distances from the stemal notch to right and left nipples. A logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent variables influencing the cosmetic outcome. Cosmetic score was excellent or good in 76% (91/120), fair in 19% (23/120) and poor in 5% (6/ 120) of the patients. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size (T1 versus T2) (p=0.04), axillary node status (NO versus N1) (p=0.0002), extent of surgery (quadrantectomy versus lumpectomy or excisional biopsy) (p=0.02), axillary node irradiation (p=0.0005) and chemotherapy (p=0,0001) affected cosmetic score. Multivariate analysis revealed that extent of surgery (p=0.04) and chemotherapy (p=0.0002) were significant factors. For breast symmetry, univariate analysis confirmed exactly the same factors as above. Multivariate analysis revealed that tumor size (p=0.003) and lymph node status (p=0.007) affected breast symmetry. Conservative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy resulted in excellent or good cosmetic outcome in a large portion of the patients. Better cosmetic results were achieved generally in the group of patients with smaller tumor size, without axillary
Full Text Available Cosmetic lateral canthoplasty, in which the size of the eye is increased by extending the palpebral fissure and decreasing the degree of the eye slant, has become a prevalent procedure for East Asians. However, it is not uncommon for there to be complications or unfavorable results after the surgery. With this in mind, the authors have designed a surgical method to reduce complications in cosmetic lateral canthoplasty by preserving the lateral canthal angle. We discuss here the anatomy required for surgery, the surgical methods, and methods for reducing complications during cosmetic lateral canthoplasty.
Full Text Available Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low critical micelle concentration (CMC and antimicrobial activity, higher solubilization etc. Dimerics enhance the performances of cosmetics in an extraordinary manner and provide eco-friendly preparations for human epidermis.
Webb, L G; Egan, S E; Turbett, G R
To obtain a reference DNA profile from a missing person, we analyzed a variety of personal effects, including two lip cosmetics, both of which gave full DNA profiles. Further investigations were undertaken to explore this previously unreported source of DNA. We have tested a range of brands and types of lip cosmetics. Our studies have revealed that lip cosmetics are an excellent source of DNA, with almost 80% of samples giving a result. However, artifacts are frequently observed in the DNA profiles when Chelex is used for the DNA extraction and additional DNA purification procedures are required to ensure that an accurate DNA profile is obtained.
Full Text Available Introduction Henna-based cosmetic products are becoming increasingly popular. They can be used during pregnancy, lactation as well as for temporary children’s tattoo. The aim of this work is to develop quality control methods, allowing determining the naturalness of the composition of hair coloring cosmetic products, as well as the presence of lawsone and its quantitative content. Material & methods The researched objects were eight hair coloring cosmetic products. The spectrophotometer UV-vis Evolution 60S was used in our phytochemical studies. The quantitative content of chlorophyll a and b was determined in methanolic extracts by spectrophotometric method, using the methodology proposed by K. Miazek. By using well-known methods, methanolic and aqueous extracts were obtained from the studied objects. The extracts, then, were purified to obtain dry residues containing lawsone. Hair color pastes were obtained according to the instructions on the packages of researched products, and finally chloroform extracts were obtained from these pastes.Quantitative content of lawsone in methanolic and aqueous extracts and dry residues after cleaning of the extracts were determined by the spectrophotometric method. The wavelengths at which the solution of lawsone gives absorption maxima were determined experimentally on the basis of the spectra of the standard sample of lawsone dissolved in methanol (methanolic extracts and in water with the addition of aqueous NaHCO3 (aqueous extracts.The quantitative content of polyphenolic compounds in methanolic and aqueous extracts of the researched objects in terms of gallic acid was performed by the spectrophotometric method at the wavelength of 765 nm using the technique of Folin - Ciocalteau. The gallic acid (by virtue of absorbance dependence on concentration was used as a standard sample to construct the calibration graph. Results & discussion The total content of chlorophyll in the samples was determined by
de Melo, Elisa Dias; Mounteer, Ann H; Leão, Lucas Henrique de Souza; Bahia, Renata Cibele Barros; Campos, Izabella Maria Ferreira
The cosmetics industry has shown steady growth in many developing countries over the past several years, yet little research exists on toxicity of wastewaters it generates. This study describes a toxicity identification evaluation conducted on wastewater from a small Brazilian hair care products manufacturing plant. Physicochemical and ecotoxicological analyses of three wastewater treatment plant inlet and outlet samples collected over a six month period revealed inefficient operation of the treatment system and thus treated wastewater organic matter, suspended solids and surfactants contents consistently exceeded discharge limits. Treated wastewater also presented high acute toxicity to Daphnia similis and chronic toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata. This toxicity was associated with suspended solids, volatile or sublatable and non-polar to moderately polar organic compounds that could be recovered in filtration and aeration residues. Seven surfactants used in the largest quantities in the production process were highly toxic to P. subcapitata and D. similis. These results indicated that surfactants, important production raw materials, are a probable source of toxicity, although other possible sources, such as fragrances, should not be discarded. Improved treatment plant operational control may reduce toxicity and lower impact of wastewater discharge to receiving waters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Branco, Freitas Maia L M
Quality assurance of services provided by veterinary diagnostics laboratories is a fundamental element promoted by international animal health organizations to establish trust, confidence and transparency needed for the trade of animals and their products at domestic and international levels. It requires, among other things, trained personnel, consistent and rigorous methodology, choice of suitable methods as well as appropriate calibration and traceability procedures. An important part of laboratory quality management is addressed by ISO/IEC 17025, which aims to facilitate cooperation among laboratories and their associated parties by assuring the generation of credible and consistent information derived from analytical results. Currently, according to OIE recommendation, veterinary diagnostics laboratories are only subject to voluntary compliance with standard ISO/IEC 17025; however, it is proposed here that OIE reference laboratories and collaboration centres strongly consider its adoption.
Full Text Available The Internet has become a major source of health information and has the potential to offer many benefits for both human and animal health. In order for impact to be positive, however, it is critical that users be able to access reliable, trustworthy information. Although more pet owners are using the Internet to research animal health information than ever before, there remains limited research surrounding their online activities or the ability to influence owners’ online search behaviors. The current study was designed to assess the online behaviors and perceptions of pet owners after receiving either general or topic-specific information prescriptions as part of their veterinary appointment. Results indicate that nearly 60% of clients accessed the suggested websites and nearly all of these clients reported positive feelings about this addition to their veterinary services. These results suggest that offering information prescriptions to clients can facilitate better online searches by clients and positively impact both animal health and client satisfaction.
Gallacher, M; Barcos, L
This paper analyses the different ways of financing official Veterinary Services (VS) and the effects of these choices on the performance of such Services. The links between governance, organisational effectiveness and financing arrangements are seen as particularly important. The paper comments on some of the advantages and disadvantages of financing VS with service fees, as compared to budget transfers from general government revenues. Evidence is presented on the considerable heterogeneity in the size of VS and on the impact of this heterogeneity on organisation and financing. The paper concludes with a stylised case study, which emphasises the importance of collaboration and the division of labour between the official and the private sector of the veterinary profession.
Veterinarians have been radiographing animal skulls for many years, but sophisticated dentistry was not widely used until the 1970s. Elevated awareness of veterinary dental techniques has led to the need for producing accurate radiographic images of the teeth and periodontal structures. Many problems arise for the clinician who treats small animals who has, before this time, radiographed the skull of dogs and cats solely for the purpose of assessing neoplastic, infectious, or traumatic disease of the mandible, maxilla, or calvarium and now desires to perform dental radiography. This chapter will describe the advantages and disadvantages of some of the more common types of radiographic equipment and supplies, discuss extraoral and intraoral radiographic positioning and technique, identify anatomic landmarks and diagnostic features of intraoral radiography, and offer suggestions concerning the art of using dental radiography in veterinary practice
Those chemical pollutants that are regulated under various international, federal, and state programs represent but a small fraction of the universe of chemicals that occur in the environment as a result of both natural processses and human influence. Although this galaxy of targeted chemicals might be miniuscule compared with the universe of both known and yet-to-be identified chemicals, an implicit assumption is that these selective lists of chemicals are responsible for the most significant share of risk with respect to environmental or economic impairment or to human health.Pharmaceuticals and person care products (PPCPs) comprise a particularly large and diverse array of unregulated pollutants that occur in the environment from the combined activities and actions of multitudes of individuals as well as from veterinary and agricultural use. Although the concentration of any individual PPCP are generally less than ppt-ppb), evidence is accumulateing that these trace-level pollutants are ubiquitous, they can have a continuous presence regardless of environment half-lives (especially where sanitary wastewaters enter the environment), and the numbers of distinct and varied chemical entities could be extremely large (given that thousands are in commerical use). The research focused on in the subtasks is the development and application of state-of the-art technologies to meet the needs of the public, Office of Water, and ORD in the area of Water Quality. Locat
Fernandes, Marco A.R.; Andrade, Alexandre L.; Luvizoto, Maria C.R.; Piero, Juliana R.; Ciarlini, Luciana D.R.P.
This work presents a brief historical about the use of ionizing radiations in Veterinary Medicine, instructing the physical beginnings and techniques wrapped in the realization of the proceedings of radiotherapy in animals, illustrating some treated cases, highlighting the difficulties and pointing to the perspectives and importance of the acting of the medical physics in this kind of therapeutic still little used in the national scenery. (author)
Full Text Available Given that: (1 the worldwide consumption of antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in food-producing animals will increase over the coming decades; (2 the prudent use of AMDs will not suffice to stem the rise in human antimicrobial resistance (AMR of animal origin; (3 alternatives to AMD use are not available or not implementable, there is an urgent need to develop novel AMDs for food-producing animals. This is not for animal health reasons, but to break the link between human and animal resistomes. In this review we establish the feasibility of developing for veterinary medicine new AMDs, termed green antibiotics, having minimal ecological impact on the animal commensal and environmental microbiomes.We first explain why animal and human commensal microbiota comprise a turnstile exchange, between the human and animal resistomes. We then outline the ideal physico-chemical, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of a veterinary green antibiotic and conclude that they can be developed through a rational screening of currently used AMD classes. The ideal drug will be hydrophilic, of relatively low potency, slow clearance and small volume of distribution. It should be eliminated principally by the kidney as inactive metabolite(s. For oral administration, bioavailability can be enhanced by developing lipophilic pro-drugs. For parenteral administration, slow-release formulations of existing eco-friendly AMDs with a short elimination half-life can be developed. These new eco-friendly veterinary AMDs can be developed from currently used drug classes to provide alternative agents to those currently used in veterinary medicine and mitigate animal contributions to the human AMR problem.
Castle, David J.; Molton, Michael; Hoffman, Keturah; Preston, Neil J.; Phillips, Katharine A.
Objective To determine the clinical correlates of dysmorphic concern in persons seeking cosmetic enhancement from cosmetic physicians. Method A questionnaire survey of 137 patients attending the practices of two cosmetic physicians. Results Four subjects (2.9%; 95% CI = 0.8%–7.3%) had a diagnosis of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), but many more expressed overconcern with physical appearance (‘dysmorphic concern’). Dysmorphic concern accounted for a substantial amount of the variance for mood, social anxiety, and impairment in work and social functioning, while concerns related to how self or others perceive the putative flaw in appearance, impacted significantly on work and leisure activities, but did not apparently influence mood and social anxiety to any significant degree. Conclusions Dysmorphic concern is a broad dimensional construct that is related to both inter- and intrapsychic distress and disablement associated with people seeking cosmetic enhancement PMID:15209836
Zhong, Zhixiong; Li, Gongke
The widespread applications of cosmetics in modern life make their analysis particularly important from a safety point of view. There is a wide variety of restricted ingredients and prohibited substances that primarily influence the safety of cosmetics. Sample preparation for cosmetic analysis is a crucial step as the complex matrices may seriously interfere with the determination of target analytes. In this review, some new developments (2010-2016) in sample preparation techniques for cosmetic analysis, including liquid-phase microextraction, solid-phase microextraction, matrix solid-phase dispersion, pressurized liquid extraction, cloud point extraction, ultrasound-assisted extraction, and microwave digestion, are presented. Furthermore, the research and progress in sample preparation techniques and their applications in the separation and purification of allowed ingredients and prohibited substances are reviewed. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Bhatti, Nina; Baker, Harlyn; Chao, Hui; Clearwater, Scott; Harville, Mike; Jain, Jhilmil; Lyons, Nic; Marguier, Joanna; Schettino, John; Süsstrunk, Sabine
Selecting cosmetics requires visual information and often benefits from the assessments of a cosmetics expert. In this paper we present a unique mobile imaging application that enables women to use their cell phones to get immediate expert advice when selecting personal cosmetic products. We derive the visual information from analysis of camera phone images, and provide the judgment of the cosmetics specialist through use of an expert system. The result is a new paradigm for mobile interactions-image-based information services exploiting the ubiquity of camera phones. The application is designed to work with any handset over any cellular carrier using commonly available MMS and SMS features. Targeted at the unsophisticated consumer, it must be quick and easy to use, not requiring download capabilities or preplanning. Thus, all application processing occurs in the back-end system and not on the handset itself. We present the imaging pipeline technology and a comparison of the services' accuracy with respect to human experts.
Casale, T; Caciari, T; Rosati, M V; Biagi, M; De Sio, S; Andreozzi, G; Schifano, M P; Capozzella, A; Pimpinella, B; Tomei, G; Tomei, F
The purpose of this study is to assess whether occupational exposure to substances used in the cosmetic factories may cause effects on the liver and blood counts in exposed workers. The study included 48 exposed workers and 86 unexposed controls. All workers included in the study underwent blood count, white blood count, total, direct and indirect bilirubin, transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and cholinesterase. The differences between the means and frequencies were compared using the Student's t-test and chi-square test with Yates correction and were considered significant when the p value was cosmetics industry had liver test values above the range. We noted a statistically significant higher prevalence of GPT (p cosmetics industry compared with the control group. The results obtained suggest that occupational exposure to low doses of substances used in the cosmetic industry is able to influence some liver parameters in occupationally exposed workers.
Full Text Available Based on some results of a research organized in the county of Bacau on consumers of cosmetics, using the questionnaire, this article analyses a number of issues with regard to consumer behavior, namely: cosmetics brand most commonly purchased by consumers, cosmetics category to which are allocated the largest sums of money, the amounts of money that consumers are willing to spend per month to purchase these types of products, the importance of some of the main criteria considered when buying cosmetic products and differences manifested in categories of respondents by a number of variables such as age, sex, marital status, income and living environment. The research was conducted using a sample of 500 respondents non-randomly selected, so that the results presented refer only to the studied sample, being a guide to community from which it was extracted.
Halliwell, R E W
It is an unfortunate fact that not only has veterinary education failed to adapt in the face of likely future needs, but it has also failed to respond to societal changes that have already taken place and that have affected the requirements for veterinary services and veterinary capability. The responsibility is primarily that of educators, although vision and foresight require a co-ordinated approach involving national and international veterinary organisations. Once it is accepted by all parties that change is essential, the implementation will fail unless there is a unified programme involving the schools and colleges, the accrediting agencies, the licensing authorities, governments, the professional organisations and corporate veterinary medicine. All have a role to play, and any one can readily block progress. A unified approach is an absolute requirement. The developed countries must take a leading role, but the issues are global, and ways must be found to facilitate change in all parts of the world. Disease knows no boundaries, and any strategy is only as strong as its weakest link.
Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena; Milne, Marjorie; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Farqhuar, Robyn G; Fischer, Andrea; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Pakozdy, Akos; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials for seizures, the parameters for MRI examination should allow the detection of subtle lesions which may not be obvious with existing techniques. In addition, there are several differentials for idiopathic epilepsy in humans, for example some focal cortical dysplasias, which may only apparent with special sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can be adapted for both low and high field scanners. Standardisation of imaging will improve clinical communication and uniformity of case definition between research studies. A 6-7 sequence epilepsy-specific MRI protocol for veterinary patients is proposed and further advanced MR and functional imaging is reviewed.
Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.
All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects.
Ferreira, T B; Alves, P M; Aunins, J G; Carrondo, M J T
Vaccines are the most effective and inexpensive prophylactic tool in veterinary medicine. Ideally, vaccines should induce a lifelong protective immunity against the target pathogen while not causing clinical or pathological signs of diseases in the vaccinated animals. However, such ideal vaccines are rare in the veterinary field. Many vaccines are either of limited effectiveness or have harmful side effects. In addition, there are still severe diseases with no effective vaccines. A very important criterion for an ideal vaccine in veterinary medicine is low cost; this is especially important in developing countries and even more so for poultry vaccination, where vaccines must sell for a few cents a dose. Traditional approaches include inactivated vaccines, attenuated live vaccines and subunit vaccines. Recently, genetic engineering has been applied to design new, improved vaccines. Adenovirus vectors are highly efficient for gene transfer in a broad spectrum of cell types and species. Moreover, adenoviruses often induce humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted foreign genes. Thus, adenoviruses have become a vector of choice for delivery and expression of foreign proteins for vaccination. Consequently, the market requirements for adenovirus vaccines are increasing, creating a need for production methodologies of concentrated vectors with warranted purity and efficacy. This review summarizes recent developments and approaches of adenovirus production and purification as the application of these vectors, including successes and failures in clinical applications to date.
Wiggins, P.; Schenker, M.B.; Green, R.; Samuels, S.
All female graduates of a major U.S. veterinary school were surveyed by mailed questionnaire to obtain details of work practice and hazard exposure during the most recent year worked and during all pregnancies. Exposure questions were based on previously implicated occupational hazards which included anesthetic gases, radiation, zoonoses, prostaglandins, vaccines, physical trauma, and pesticides. The response rate was 86% (462/537). We found that practice type and pregnancy status were major determinants of hazard exposure within the veterinary profession. Small-animal practitioners reported the highest rates of exposure to anesthetic gas (94%), X-ray (90%), and pesticides (57%). Large-animal practitioners reported greater rates of trauma (64%) and potential exposure to prostaglandins (92%), Brucella abortus vaccine (23%), and carbon monoxide (18%). Potentially hazardous workplace practices or equipment were common. Forty-one percent of respondents who reported taking X-rays did not wear film badges, and 76% reported physically restraining animals for X-ray procedures. Twenty-seven percent of the respondents exposed to anesthetic gases worked at facilities which did not have waste anesthetic gas scavenging systems. Women who worked as veterinarians during a pregnancy attempted to reduce exposures to X-rays, insecticides, and other potentially hazardous exposures. Some potentially hazardous workplace exposures are common in veterinary practice, and measures to educate workers and to reduce these exposures should not await demonstration of adverse health effects
Schuurmans, A J; Smidts, A
An increase in the number of veterinarians, while at the same time the number of animals has remained constant, has resulted in growing competition. By extending the range of products and by enlarging the veterinarians' scope of activities this competition can be decreased. A marketing-orientation will be helpful in this respect. This article indicates in which way marketing concepts can be used in a veterinary practice. The services of the veterinarian will be looked at by means of the Abell approach. This focuses on the functions performed by the services and examines, per function performed, for whom this might be interesting and which alternatives there might be. Next the concept of market segmentation is filled in for a veterinary practice by means of a hypothetical example. The marketing mix (product, place, price, promotion and personnel) is given considerable attention. The last element of marketing in a veterinary practice that is discussed here is the marketing information system. In a next article the question will be answered how marketing-directed the Dutch veterinarian works nowadays. To find this out research has been done; 166 vets were interviewed by telephone for approximately 40 minutes each.
Chaney, Kristin P; Macik, Maria L; Turner, Jacqueline S; Korich, Jodi A; Rogers, Kenita S; Fowler, Debra; Scallan, Elizabeth M; Keefe, Lisa M
Curricular review is considered a necessary component for growth and enhancement of academic programs and requires time, energy, creativity, and persistence from both faculty and administration. At Texas A&M College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences (TAMU), the faculty and administration partnered with the university's Center for Teaching Excellence to create a faculty-driven, data-enhanced curricular redesign process. The 8-step process begins with the formation of a dedicated faculty curriculum design team to drive the redesign process and to support the college curriculum committee. The next steps include defining graduate outcomes and mapping the current curriculum to identify gaps and redundancies across the curriculum. Data are collected from internal and external stakeholders including veterinary students, faculty, alumni, and employers of graduates. Data collected through curriculum mapping and stakeholder engagement substantiate the curriculum redesign. The guidelines, supporting documents, and 8-step process developed at TAMU are provided to assist other veterinary schools in successful curricular redesign. This is the first of a two-part report that provides the background, context, and description of the process for charting the course for curricular change. The process involves defining expected learning outcomes for new graduates, conducting a curriculum mapping exercise, and collecting stakeholder data for curricular evaluation (steps 1-4). The second part of the report describes the development of rubrics that were applied to the graduate learning outcomes (steps 5-8) and engagement of faculty during the implementation phases of data-driven curriculum change.
Benedetta Briasco; Priscilla Capra; Arianna Cecilia Cozzi; Barbara Mannucci; Paola Perugini
In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packag...
Novak, Alessandra Cristine
Abstract: Toiletry, Perfumery and Cosmetics Sector (TPCS) occupies a prominent place in modern society. The search for beauty and wellness, combined with increased life expectancy of the population, causes the intensive search to products that improve appearance, hygiene and health. Thus, the development of cosmetics is very stimulated. Another important feature is the continuously pressure from consumers and companies to this development of new and innovative products, raising competitivenes...
Full Text Available People can accurately assess various personality traits of others based on body odor alone. Previous studies have shown that correlations between odor ratings and self-assessed personality dimensions are evident for assessments of neuroticism and dominance. Here, we tested differences between assessments based on natural body odor alone, without the use of cosmetics and assessments based on the body odor of people who were allowed to use cosmetics following their daily routine. Sixty-seven female observers assessed samples of odors from 113 odor donors (each odor donor provided two samples – one with and one without cosmetic use; the donors provided their personality ratings, and the raters judged personality characteristics of the donors based on the provided odor samples. Correlations between observers’ ratings and self-rated neuroticism were stronger when raters assessed body odor in the natural body odor condition (natural BO condition; rs = .20 than in the cosmetics use condition (BO+cosmetics condition; rs = .15. Ratings of dominance significantly predicted self-assessed dominance in both conditions (rs = .34 for natural BO and rs = .21 for BO+cosmetics, whereas ratings of extraversion did not predict self-assessed extraversion in either condition. In addition, ratings of body odor attractiveness and pleasantness were significantly lower in natural BO condition than in BO+cosmetics condition, although the intensity of donors’ body odors was similar under both conditions. Our findings suggest that although olfaction seems to contribute to accurate first impression judgments of certain personality traits, cosmetic use can affect assessments of others based on body odor.
Holliday, R; Bell, D; Jones, M; Probyn, E; Sanchez Taylor, J
This multi-site, mixed methods project charted the experiences of British, Chinese and Australian patients travelling abroad for cosmetic surgery. Cosmetic surgery tourism is a fast developing industry that incorporates novel forms of labour and organisational structures that cross national boundaries, as well as drawing together pre-existing medical and tourism infrastructure. While medical tourism has often been characterised as wealthy patients from the global south travelling to the globa...
Chang Hoon Oh; Alan M. Rugman
This paper analyzes the regional characteristics and strategies of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in the world cosmetics and toiletries industry, based on the new work by Rugman on regional strategy. We test the proposition that MNEs may asymmetrically develop their upstream and downstream firm specific advantages (FSAs). We find that the upstream activities of the MNEs in cosmetics are home region based but that downstream activities are less so. Further, the asymmetry of FSAs in the world...
... ingredients in cosmetic products. 700.15 Section 700.15 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.15 Use of certain halogenated salicylanilides as ingredients in cosmetic products. (a...
... cosmetic products. 250.250 Section 250.250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Requirements for Drugs and Cosmetics § 250.250 Hexachlorophene, as a component of drug and cosmetic products... cosmetic products has expanded widely in recent years. It is used in such products because of its...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of registrant; cosmetic product... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY REGISTRATION OF COSMETIC PRODUCT ESTABLISHMENTS § 710.6 Notification of registrant; cosmetic product establishment registration number. The...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notification of person submitting cosmetic product... AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS VOLUNTARY FILING OF COSMETIC PRODUCT INGREDIENT COMPOSITION STATEMENTS § 720.7 Notification of person submitting cosmetic product ingredient statement. When Form FDA...
... cosmetic products. 700.19 Section 700.19 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.19 Use of methylene chloride as an ingredient of cosmetic products. (a) Methylene chloride has been used...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of prohibited cattle materials in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.27 Use of prohibited cattle materials in cosmetic products. (a) Definitions. The definitions and interpretations of...
Henderson-King, Donna; Brooks, Kelly D.
Rates of cosmetic surgery procedures have increased dramatically over the past several decades, but only recently have studies of cosmetic surgery attitudes among the general population begun to appear in the literature. The vast majority of those who undergo cosmetic surgery are women. We examined cosmetic surgery attitudes among 218…
Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus
cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...
Chen, Tzer-Shyong; Chen, Tzer-Long; Chung, Yu-Fang; Huang, Yao-Min; Chen, Tao-Chieh; Wang, Huihui; Wei, Wei
Pet markets involve in great commercial possibilities, which boost thriving development of veterinary hospital businesses. The service tends to intensive competition and diversified channel environment. Information technology is integrated for developing the veterinary hospital cloud service platform. The platform contains not only pet medical services but veterinary hospital management and services. In the study, QR Code andcloud technology are applied to establish the veterinary hospital cloud service platform for pet search by labeling a pet's identification with QR Code. This technology can break the restriction on veterinary hospital inspection in different areas and allows veterinary hospitals receiving the medical records and information through the exclusive QR Code for more effective inspection. As an interactive platform, the veterinary hospital cloud service platform allows pet owners gaining the knowledge of pet diseases and healthcare. Moreover, pet owners can enquire and communicate with veterinarians through the platform. Also, veterinary hospitals can periodically send reminders of relevant points and introduce exclusive marketing information with the platform for promoting the service items and establishing individualized marketing. Consequently, veterinary hospitals can increase the profits by information share and create the best solution in such a competitive veterinary market with industry alliance.
Full Text Available Objective: Himalayan mountain populations have been dependent upon indigenous plant resources for their health care for many years. Tribal women are interested in use of local herbs for cosmetic purposes. The present work is based on the results of research conducted on cosmetic uses of some important plants by the tribal women in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Materials and Methods: An ethno botanical survey was carried out during summer 2012. The data were collected from 310 female informants from 16 villages using questionnaire method and semi structured interviews. Results: A total of 39 plants species belonging to 20 families, being used for various cosmetic purposes were recorded. Indigenous species are traditionally used by the locals for problems including acne (16%, hair growth (11%, bad breath (12%, facial spots (9%, allergy, (9%, fairness (8%, wrinkles (8%, eye and lip care (9%. Seventy different recipes were recorded to be practiced by locals using herbal parts. The major plant parts utilized in herbal recipes included fruit (32.8%, Leaves (25.2%, seeds (13.4% and roots (8.9%. Women of older (>30 years age group showed greater (67% response regarding knowledge and practice of cosmetic herbs. Conclusion: This study was the 1st ever project focusing on cosmetic perspectives of ethno-botany in the area. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of ignored aspect of cosmetic ethnobotany among the local women. Further detailed investigations are recommended to record and preserve precious ethno-botanical knowledge of the area.
Shaheen, Hamayun; Nazir, Jaweria; Firdous, Syeda Sadiqa; Khalid, Abd-Ur-Rehman
Objective: Himalayan mountain populations have been dependent upon indigenous plant resources for their health care for many years. Tribal women are interested in use of local herbs for cosmetic purposes. The present work is based on the results of research conducted on cosmetic uses of some important plants by the tribal women in District Poonch, Azad Kashmir Pakistan. Materials and Methods: An ethno botanical survey was carried out during summer 2012. The data were collected from 310 female informants from 16 villages using questionnaire method and semi structured interviews. Results: A total of 39 plants species belonging to 20 families, being used for various cosmetic purposes were recorded. Indigenous species are traditionally used by the locals for problems including acne (16%), hair growth (11%), bad breath (12%), facial spots (9%), allergy, (9%), fairness (8%), wrinkles (8%), eye and lip care (9%). Seventy different recipes were recorded to be practiced by locals using herbal parts. The major plant parts utilized in herbal recipes included fruit (32.8%), Leaves (25.2%), seeds (13.4%) and roots (8.9%). Women of older (>30 years) age group showed greater (67%) response regarding knowledge and practice of cosmetic herbs. Conclusion: This study was the 1st ever project focusing on cosmetic perspectives of ethno-botany in the area. Our study contributes to an improved understanding of ignored aspect of cosmetic ethnobotany among the local women. Further detailed investigations are recommended to record and preserve precious ethno-botanical knowledge of the area. PMID:25068138
Full Text Available This paper examines cosmetic surgery tourism, arguing that it can be meaningfully analysed as part of makeover culture. It shows that while cosmetic surgery tourism sits at a junction of cosmetic surgery and medical tourism, it also has much in common with contemporary tourism practices. The paper posits cosmetic surgery tourism not only as an economic and globalised phenomenon but also as a set of practices that are experienced, and that take place on the body (see also Cook, 2010; Bell et al. 2011. Chris Rojek’s work on contemporary tourist practices is deployed in order to argue that the cosmetic surgery tourist’s body is itself the ‘site’ to be visited and discovered; it is also the souvenir that is brought home. When body and site are brought together in cosmetic surgery tourism, they form a potent nexus that is unique to a contemporary moment tied up with globalisation and consumption, where both identity and self-transformation are managed through the body.
Pauwels, Marleen; Rogiers, Vera
With the introduction of the 6th and 7th Amendments (OJ L151, 32-37, 23 June 1993; OJ L066, 26-35, 11 March 2003) to the Cosmetic Products Directive (OJ L262, 169-200, 27 September 1976), imposing a testing and marketing ban on cosmetic products tested on animals, the retrieval of toxicological data on individual ingredients became of greater need. Since the majority of cosmetic ingredients are used for many other purposes than their cosmetic function, they fall under the scope of more than one EU Directive. An overview is given of EU legislation that could potentially affect the availability and interpretation of cosmetic safety data. It will become clear that, although cosmetics are regulated by a specific so-called "vertical" legislation, "horizontal" influences from other products' legislations play a role since they determine the type and amount of data that theoretically could be found on the specific substances they regulate. This knowledge is necessary while performing extended searches in databases and becomes indispensable when initiating negotiations with manufacturers or suppliers for obtaining the safety data required.
Full Text Available Cosmetics pose challenges to the recognition performance of face and iris biometric systems due to its ability to alter natural facial and iris patterns. Facial makeup and iris contact lens are considered to be commonly applied cosmetics for the face and iris in this study. The present work aims to present a novel solution for the detection of cosmetics in both face and iris biometrics by the fusion of texture, shape and color descriptors of images. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme combines the microtexton information from the local primitives of texture descriptors with the color spaces achieved from overlapped blocks in order to achieve better detection of spots, flat areas, edges, edge ends, curves, appearance and colors. The proposed cosmetic detection scheme was applied to the YMU YouTube makeup database (YMD facial makeup database and IIIT-Delhi Contact Lens iris database. The results demonstrate that the proposed cosmetic detection scheme is significantly improved compared to the other schemes implemented in this study.
Chan, Ka Yin; Cho, Pauline; Boost, Maureen
To investigate whether cosmetic contact lenses (CCL) with surface pigments affect microbial adherence. Fifteen brands of CCL were purchased from optical, non-optical retail outlets, and via the Internet. A standardized rub-off test was performed on each CCL (five lenses per brand) to confirm the location of the pigments. The rub-off test comprised gentle rubbing on the surfaces of each CCL with wetted cotton buds for a maximum of 20 rubs per surface. A new set of CCL (five lenses per brand) were incubated in Pseudomonas aeruginosa overnight. Viable counts of adhered bacteria were determined by the number of colony-forming units (CFU) on agar media on each lens. The adherence of P. aeruginosa as well as Staphylococcus aureus and Serratia marcescens to three brands of CCL (A-C) (five lenses per brand) were also compared to their adherences on their clear counterparts. Only two of the 15 brands of CCL tested (brands B and C) had pigments that did not detach with the rub-off test. The remaining 13 brands of CCL all failed the rub-off test and these lenses showed higher P. aeruginosa adherence (8.7 × 10(5)-1.9 × 10(6) CFU/lens). Brands B and C lenses showed at least six times less bacterial adhesion than the other 13 brands. Compared to their clear counterparts, bacterial adherence to brands B and C lenses did not differ significantly, whereas brand A lenses showed significantly higher adherence. Surface pigments on CCL resulted in significantly higher bacterial adherence. Copyright © 2013 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Degeling, C; Fawcett, A; Collins, T; Hazel, S; Johnson, J; Lloyd, J; Phillips, Cjc; Stafford, K; Tzioumis, V; McGreevy, P
To determine what veterinary students in Australia and New Zealand consider important competences in companion animal welfare and ethics (AWE) required on their first day of practice, and to explore how their priorities relate to gender and stage of study. Undergraduate students at all veterinary schools in Australia and New Zealand were sent an online survey. A subset of questions required participants to rank the importance of preselected AWE topics pertaining to companion animals. Data were analysed to determine differences in the way students of different gender or academic stage prioritised each of these AWE topics. Of 3220 currently enrolled students, 851 participated in the survey: 79% were female, 17% male, 4% unspecified. Ranking of the AWE topics, from highest to lowest importance, was: neutering, companion animal husbandry, euthanasia, behaviour and training, animal breeding, over-servicing in relation to animal needs and cosmetic surgery. Female students consistently ranked competency in AWE issues surrounding neutering more highly than male students (P = 0.006). Students in senior years of study ranked the importance of competency in animal abuse/hoarding (P = 0.048), shelter medicine (P = 0.012) and animal breeding (P = 0.002) less highly than those in junior years. Australasian veterinary students placed more importance on competency in AWE issues associated with clinical practice (such as neutering and euthanasia) than on professional behaviours (such as over-servicing and animal breeding). However, we consider that emphasis should still be placed on developing graduate competency in the latter categories to reflect growing societal concerns about companion animal over-supply and inappropriate professional conduct. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.
Heisterberg, Maria V; Menné, Torkil; Johansen, Jeanne D
Background. Fragrance ingredients are a frequent cause of allergic contact dermatitis. The EU Cosmetics Directive states that 26 specific fragrance ingredients, known to cause allergic contact dermatitis, must be declared on the ingredient lists of cosmetic products. Objectives. To investigate...
Bisson, J L; Argyle, D J; Argyle, S A
Bacterial infection following cancer chemotherapy-induced neutropenia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in human and veterinary patients. Antimicrobial prophylaxis is controversial in the human oncology field, as any decreased incidence in bacterial infections is countered by patient adverse effects and increased antimicrobial resistance. Comprehensive guidelines exist to aid human oncologists in prescribing antimicrobial prophylaxis but similar recommendations are not available in veterinary literature. As the veterinarian's role in antimicrobial stewardship is increasingly emphasized, it is vital that veterinary oncologists implement appropriate antimicrobial use. By considering the available human and veterinary literature we present an overview of current clinical practices and are able to suggest recommendations for prophylactic antimicrobial use in veterinary cancer chemotherapy patients. © 2018 The Authors. Veterinary and Comparative Oncology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Djuric, G.; Popovic, D.
The education of radiation protection for veterinary medicine specialists on the University of Belgrade is integrated both in regular graduate studies and in postgraduate studies. Within the graduate studies, students attend courses in physics and biophysics and in radiation hygiene. During postgraduate or specialistic veterinary medicine studies, veterinary medicine specialists expand their knowledge in radiation protection through a number of courses on radiation biophysics, radioecology, nuclear instrumentation and environmental protection. (author)
A. SICEANU; AGRIPINA SAPCALIU; I. RADOI; D. CONDUR; ELIZA CAUIA; CRENGUTA PAVEL
The main objective of this clinical study consisted in evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the propolis extract used in different disorders at company animals, thus being improved the palette of the apitherapeutical products used in veterinary purposes. The experiments were carried out on company animals (two experimental groups) during the 2007-2008 period, in the frame of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty – Bucharest and the University - Spiru Haret, at the veterinary departments: Parasi...
Nerini, Amanda; Matera, Camilla; Stefanile, Cristina
This study aimed to analyze the influence of psychosocial factors on the consideration of cosmetic surgery. The authors hypothesized that the internalization of thin ideals and social comparisons mediate the relationship between media pressure, family and peer influence (appearance conversations, perception of teasing, and peer attributions), and the desire to pursue cosmetic surgery. The study participants were 429 Italian women (mean age, 33 years). They completed a questionnaire containing the Appearance Conversations With Friends Scale, the Perception of Teasing Scale for Friends, the Peer Attribution Scale, the "Pressure and Internalization-General" subscales of the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Questionnaire-3, the Feedback on Physical Appearance Scale, the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale, and the "Consider" subscale of the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale. Hierarchical linear regression was performed. The results indicated that media pressure and appearance conversations with peers predicted the outcome variable through the full mediation of internalization of thin ideals. The relation between peer attributions and interest in cosmetic surgery was partially mediated by internalization of thin ideals. Although social comparison was significantly related to both sociocultural variables and consideration of cosmetic procedures, it was not a significant mediator of this relationship. Neither family influence nor perception of teasing predicted the outcome variable. Overall, these results provide important information about the factors implicated in the consideration of cosmetic surgery by women. This research confirms that cosmetic surgeons need to adopt a base psychological approach. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Sipahi, Hande; Charehsaz, Mohammad; Güngör, Zerrin; Erdem, Onur; Soykut, Buğra; Akay, Cemal; Aydin, Ahmet
Cosmetics are one of the most common reasons for hospital referrals with allergic contact dermatitis. Because of the increased use of cosmetics within the population and an increase in allergy cases, monitoring of heavy metals, especially allergen metals, is crucial. The aim of this study was to investigate the concentration of allergen metals, nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), and chromium (Cr), in the most commonly used cosmetic products including mascara, eyeliner, eye shadow, lipstick, and nail polish. In addition, for safety assessment of cosmetic products, margin of safety of the metals was evaluated. Forty-eight makeup products were purchased randomly from local markets and large cosmetic stores in Istanbul, Turkey, and an atomic absorption spectrometer was used for metal content determination. Risk assessment of the investigated cosmetic products was performed by calculating the systemic exposure dosage (SED) using Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety guideline. According to the results of this investigation in all the samples tested, at least two of the allergen metals, Ni and/or Co and/or Cr were detected. Moreover, 97% of the Ni-detected products, 96% of Cr- and 54% of Co-detected products, contained over 1 μg/g of this metals, which is the suggested ultimate target value for sensitive population and thereby can be considered as the possible allergen. On the basis of the results of this study, SED of the metals was negligible; however, contact dermatitis caused by cosmetics is most probably due to the allergen metal content of the products. In conclusion, to assess the safety of the finished products, postmarketing vigilance and routine monitoring of allergen metals are very important to protect public health.
Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W
Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc.
McDowell, Arlene; Beard, Rebekah; Brightmore, Anna; Lu, Lisa W; McKay, Amelia; Mistry, Maadhuri; Owen, Kate; Swan, Emma; Young, Jessica
Globally pharmacists are becoming increasingly involved in veterinary medicine; however, little is known about the level of interest for pharmacists playing a larger role in animal treatment in New Zealand. A key stakeholder in any progression of pharmacists becoming more involved in the practice of veterinary pharmacy is the veterinary profession. The aim of this study was to investigate views of veterinarians and veterinary students on the role of pharmacists supporting veterinarians with advice on animal medicines. Open interviews were conducted with veterinarians in Dunedin, New Zealand. Veterinary students at Massey University completed an online survey. Most veterinarians do not have regular communication with pharmacists regarding animal care, but believe it may be beneficial. In order to support veterinarians, pharmacists would need further education in veterinary medicine. Veterinary students believe there is opportunity for collaboration between professions provided that pharmacists have a better working knowledge of animal treatment. Most of the veterinary students surveyed perceive a gap in their knowledge concerning animal medicines, specifically pharmacology and compounding. While there is support for pharmacists contributing to veterinary medicine, particularly in the area of pharmaceutics, this is currently limited in New Zealand due to a lack of specialized education opportunities.
Harrysson, Ola L. A.; Marcellin-Little, Denis J.; Horn, Timothy J.
Veterinary medicine has undergone a rapid increase in specialization over the last three decades. Veterinarians now routinely perform joint replacement, neurosurgery, limb-sparing surgery, interventional radiology, radiation therapy, and other complex medical procedures. Many procedures involve advanced imaging and surgical planning. Evidence-based medicine has also become part of the modus operandi of veterinary clinicians. Modeling and additive manufacturing can provide individualized or customized therapeutic solutions to support the management of companion animals with complex medical problems. The use of metal additive manufacturing is increasing in veterinary orthopedic surgery. This review describes and discusses current and potential applications of metal additive manufacturing in veterinary orthopedic surgery.
Yeates, J W
To present insights to aid decision-making about novel veterinary treatments from regulations concerning animal experimentation and human clinical medical trials. EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes and EU Regulation 536/2014 on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use were analysed, evaluated and "translated" into relevant principles for veterinary surgeons. A number of principles are relevant, relating to treatment expectations, thresholds and objectives; client consent; minimising harms; personnel; review committees; assessment and publication. These principles should assist veterinary surgeons to make good ethical decisions about novel treatments. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Fogel, Joshua; King, Kahlil
Reality television programming is a popular type of television programming, and features shows about cosmetic surgery. Social media such as Facebook and Twitter are increasingly popular methods of sharing information. The authors surveyed college students to determine among those watching reality television cosmetic surgery programs whether perceived realism or social media use was associated with attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Participants (n=126) were surveyed about their reality television cosmetic surgery program viewing habits, their perception of the realism of reality television programming, and social media topics of Twitter and Facebook. Outcome variables were the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scales of social, intrapersonal, and consider. Perceived realism was significantly associated with increased scores on the Acceptance of Cosmetic Surgery Scale subscales of social (p=0.004), intrapersonal (p=0.03), and consider (p=0.03). Following a character from a reality television program on Twitter was significantly associated with increased social scores (p=0.04). There was no significant association of Facebook behavior with attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Cosmetic plastic surgeons may benefit by advertising their services on cosmetic surgery reality television programs. These reality television programs portray cosmetic surgery in a positive manner, and viewers with increased perceived realism will be a potential receptive audience toward such advertising. Also, advertising cosmetic surgery services on Twitter feeds that discuss cosmetic surgery reality television programs would be potentially beneficial.
Full Text Available Spatial references are required when geographical information systems (GIS are used for the collection, storage and management of data. In the veterinary domain, the spatial component of a holding (of animals is usually defined by coordinates, and no other relevant information needs to be interpreted or used for manipulation of the data in the GIS environment provided. Users trying to integrate or reuse spatial data organised in such a way, frequently face the problem of data incompatibility and inconsistency. The root of the problem lies in differences with respect to syntax as well as variations in the semantic, spatial and temporal representations of the geographic features. To overcome these problems and to facilitate the inter-operability of different GIS, spatial data must be defined according to a “schema” that includes the definition, acquisition, analysis, access, presentation and transfer of such data between different users and systems. We propose an application “schema” of holdings for GIS applications in the veterinary domain according to the European directive framework (directive 2007/2/EC - INSPIRE. The conceptual model put forward has been developed at two specific levels to produce the essential and the abstract model, respectively. The former establishes the conceptual linkage of the system design to the real world, while the latter describes how the system or software works. The result is an application “schema” that formalises and unifies the information-theoretic foundations of how to spatially represent a holding in order to ensure straightforward information-sharing within the veterinary community.
Bulkhanov, R.U.; Butaev, M.K.; Mirzaev, B.Sh.; Ryasnyanskiy, I.V.; Yuldashev, R.Yu.
Full text: The process based on stimulated action of ionized radiation, change of quality of agricultural goods and row materials, biocides including bactericide action of ionized radiation are among the methods of radiation biotechnology, which can be applied in agriculture. We used the bactericide action of ionized radiation in technological process for creation of fundamentally new preparation possessed by by immunogenic properties and named as 'radio vaccine'. This term is well known and frequently used in scientific papers in the field of applied radiobiology. It is well known that physical (thermal) and chemical actions are used for preparation of vaccine for veterinary. It was noted that this process resulted in destruction of antigenic structure of bacteria cells, with are responsible for immunity creation. The possibility of virulence reduction at constant immunogenic properties of microorganism and keeping its antigenic structure can be achieved by using ionized radiation as one of the factor, which influences on bacteria. Taking into account the necessity of vaccine improvement and increase of quantity of associated vaccine one of the most important problems of veterinary science and particle is creation of vaccines of new generation which are characterized by the ability to form immunity against several diseases of agricultural animals. As a result of many-years investigations using gamma rays radiations in UzSRIV (laboratory of radiobiology) the radiation biotechnology of vaccine preparation was developed. These vaccines are necessary for practical application. Radiation biotechnology allows to prepare high-effective mono-, associated and polyvalent radio vaccines against widespread infection diseases of agricultural animals especially cubs (calves, lambs, young pigs). On the basis of developed radiation biotechnology there were prepared the following vaccines: 'Associated radio vaccine against colibacteriosis and salmonellosis of small horned cattle
-electrophoresis and single-locus sequencing has been widely used to characterize such types of veterinary pathogens. However, DNA sequencing techniques have become fast and cost effective in recent years and whole-genome sequencing data provide a much higher discriminative power and reproducibility than any...... genetic background. This indicates that dairy cows can be natural carriers of S. aureus subtypes that in certain cases lead to CM. A group of isolates that mostly belonged to ST151 carried three pathogenicity islands that were primarily found in this group. The prevalence of resistance genes was generally...
... INFORMATION CONTACT: Gary Sherman; National Program Leader, Veterinary Science; National Institute of Food and... of Consultation 3. Rationale for Capping Nominations and State Allocation Method 4. State Allocation... adding section 1415A to the National Agricultural Research, Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1997...
... Science; National Institute of Food and Agriculture; U.S. Department of Agriculture; STOP 2220; 1400... and State Allocation Method 4. State Allocation of Nominations 5. FY 2011 Shortage Situation..., Extension, and Teaching Policy Act of 1997 (NARETPA). This law established a new Veterinary Medicine Loan...
... plant and plant product export certification program operations, contact Mr. William E. Thomas, Director...; Birds or poultry, including zoo birds or poultry, receiving nonstandard housing, care, or handling to... diseases of livestock and poultry within the United States. Veterinary diagnostics is the work performed in...
Full Text Available Background: Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD is characterized by a preoccupation with an imagined defect in ones appearance or an exaggeration of a slight physical anomaly. Any part of the appearance may be the focuse of BDD patients. Thus preoccupation with appearance leads to significant damages of social and job functioning. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of BDD in patients referred to cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital.Methods: Patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital were selected if they agreed to participate in the study. They were evaluated by Yale brown obsessive compulsive scale modified for body dysmorphic disorder (YBOCS-BDD as well as questionnaires containing demographic characteristics of patients including gender, educational status, marital status, history of reference to psychiatrist or psychologist, other medication, history of cosmetic surgery and rate of satisfaction of cosmetic surgery. YBOCS-BDD questionnaires then processed by educated specialist to determine BDD score of patie-nts. Demographic questionnaires, also analysed to evaluate epidemiologic properties of patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi hospital.Results: The prevalence of BDD in current sample was 33.3%. 70.7% of BDD patients were female while 29.3% were male. The commonest age range was 21-50 years (82.8%. 65.5% were educated to level of diploma or lower, while 34.5% had academic degrees. 51.7% were married. 20.7% had history of reference to psychiatrist or psycholo-gist. 17/2% had history of cosmetic surgery with satisfaction ranging from unsatisfied (20% to relative satisfaction (80%. None were fully satisfied.Conclusion: BDD had high prevalence in patients visiting cosmetic clinic of Razi skin hospital. This high rate of prevalence show the necessity of diagnosis of BDD in skin patients and it is critical for them to refer to psychiatrists or psychologists.
Jacobsen, Poul Harboe; Hölmich, Lisbet R; McLaughlin, Joseph K
disorders as measured by admission to a psychiatric hospital among women seeking cosmetic surgery. METHODS: Cohort study of 2761 women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery at private clinics of plastic surgery or public hospitals, 7071 women who underwent breast reduction surgery at public.......7-5.2). Women who underwent breast reduction exhibited low SMRs for death overall (0.7; 95% CI, 0.7-0.8) and several specific causes, including breast cancer (0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.6), whereas death from suicide was moderately above expectation (SMR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.0-2.5). The prevalence of psychiatric admission...... prior to cosmetic surgery was higher among women who underwent cosmetic breast implant surgery (8.0%; 95% CI, 7.0%-9.0%) than among women who underwent breast reduction (4.7%; 95% CI, 4.2%-5.2%) or other cosmetic procedures (5.5%; 95% CI, 4.5%-6.7%). When compared with all control groups, women...
Deniz Aksu Arica
Full Text Available Objective:Personal care products and cosmetics are substances that have various chemical contents whose reliability is not exactly known. There is not enough study to demonstrate the safety of their use in pregnancy. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the usage frequency of personal care products and cosmetics. Methods:In this cross-sectional study, a pre-prepared questionnaire was filled out by 179 pregnant women. In this questionnaire, the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants and the usage frequency of cosmetics/personal care products were evaluated in 26 different categories. Results:In our study, the most frequently used products in pregnancy were general hygiene products such as toothpaste, shampoo, and soap. Hand cream, wet wipes, shower gel, hair conditioner, and moisturizer use were following these products, respectively. When evaluated according to the education levels, it was found that the usage of hair dye, powder and foundation in primary school graduates were significantly higher than university graduates. The use of sun protection products in fair skin types was found significantly higher than in dark ones. Conclusion:Our study reveals which personal care products and cosmetics are used more often during pregnancy. Our data will provide the exposure studies associated with cosmetic use in pregnancy to be planned more accurately.
Gomez-Berrada, M P; Ficheux, A S; Galonnier, M; Rolfo, J E; Rielland, A; Guillou, S; De Javel, D; Roudot, A C; Ferret, P J
The container, also known as primary package or inner package, could be defined as the packaging designed to come into direct contact with the cosmetic product. To author's knowledge, no study was available regarding the effect of the primary package on the consumption of cosmetic products. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the container on the consumption of three cosmetic products widely used, i.e. shampoo, shower gel and emollient cream. The three products were contained in a tube with a flip top cap and in a bottle with a pump. The study was conducted on 221 French adults: 108 women and 113 men. Results showed that the consumption of each cosmetic product was slightly higher when the product was packaged in tube with a flip top cap than in bottle with a pump. The difference of consumption could vary from 5 % to 23 % when calculated with mean values. This information could be interesting for safety evaluators, safety agencies and commercial services of cosmetic manufacturers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Griffiths, Danielle; Mullock, Alex
The market for cosmetic surgery tourism is growing with an increase in people travelling abroad for cosmetic surgery. While the reasons for seeking cosmetic surgery abroad may vary the most common reason is financial, but does cheaper surgery abroad carry greater risks? We explore the risks of poorly regulated cosmetic surgery to society generally before discussing how harm might be magnified in the context of cosmetic tourism, where the demand for cheaper surgery drives the market and makes surgery accessible for increasing numbers of people. This contributes to the normalisation of surgical enhancement, creating unhealthy cultural pressure to undergo invasive and risky procedures in the name of beauty. In addressing the harms of poorly regulated surgery, a number of organisations purport to provide a register of safe and ethical plastic surgeons, yet this arguably achieves little and in the absence of improved regulation the risks are likely to grow as the global market expands to meet demand. While the evidence suggests that global regulation is needed, the paper concludes that since a global regulatory response is unlikely, more robust domestic regulation may be the best approach. While domestic regulation may increase the drive towards foreign providers it may also have a symbolic effect which will reduce this drive by making people more aware of the dangers of surgery, both to society and individual physical wellbeing.
Brightman, Louise; Ng, Sze; Ahern, Susannah; Cooter, Rodney; Hopper, Ingrid
The medical tourism industry, and in particular cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation, is becoming an increasingly popular global phenomenon. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of medical literature and the patient risk profiles associated with cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation both locally and abroad. OVID MEDLINE, OVID Embase, Cochrane Central and Proquest electronic databases. The search was conducted through to April 2017. Studies pertaining entirely or partly to cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation were considered for inclusion. Exclusion criteria included non-English articles, studies relating to non-cosmetic or non-implant breast augmentation, and studies that did not separately report on findings associated with breast augmentation abroad. We identified 17 observational studies. Common destinations included Europe, South America and South East Asia. Infectious complications were common. Wound dehiscence and aesthetic dissatisfaction also featured. Catastrophic outcomes such as sepsis, intubation and ventilation, radical bilateral mastectomy, irreversible hypoxic brain injury and death were also reported. There were expectations that home country health systems would treat complications and provide non-medically indicated revision procedures. The burden on home country health systems was evident from a public health perspective. Determining the extent of cosmetic tourism for breast augmentation, including outcomes and complications, will help to inform Australian patients who this seek procedure abroad. Furthermore, it will aid in better understanding the health system implications and may help to guide future research and public health interventions both locally and internationally. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Hashizume, Cary T; Woloschuk, Wayne; Hecker, Kent G
There is a paucity of research regarding veterinary students' attitudes toward the rural environment and rural veterinary practice and how these attitudes might change over the course of a veterinary medicine program that includes rural clinical experience. Using a 23-item questionnaire, attitudes toward rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, opportunities for career and skill development in rural veterinary practice, and inter-professional teamwork in the rural environment were assessed at the beginning and completion of a four-year veterinary medicine program. Eighty-six students (74.4% female) were included in this Canadian study over a six-year period. Thirty-one participants (36.1%) were rural students. Overall, students' attitudes toward the rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, and inter-professional teamwork in rural veterinary practice all significantly decreased (pstudents, rural students had significantly higher rural lifestyle scores at both the beginning (pworking in a rural environment could influence students to exclude rural veterinary practice as a career choice. Rural clinical experiences designed to sustain or increase veterinary student interest in rural practice may not be sufficient to support positive rural attitudes. Given the demand for rural veterinary services in developed countries, the implications of this study may extend beyond Canada.
Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Johansen, Maria Vang; Nejsum, Peter; Williams, Andrew R; Mejer, Helena
Veterinary parasitology has always been considered to be relevant and interesting by the Danish veterinary students. Students have to acquaint themselves with many new, small creatures with complicated and varied life cycles and with intricate Latin names that are difficult to pronounce, as only a few parasites have Danish names. In our veterinary curriculum, zoology has disappeared as a discipline, and parasitology has gradually moved from the third year to the beginning of the second year, which implies that, for example, pathology and pharmacology are "unknown fields". The number of contact hours in veterinary parasitology has been gradually cut to 24 lectures (35 min each) and practical exercises (24 h), including 9 h on coprology. The course is taught and examined jointly with bacteriology and virology in a 8-week course. As a comprehensive course, it has become increasingly difficult to get students to acquire enough active knowledge of the most common parasites and an understanding of the basic principles in relation to, for example, transmission and control. Even though information is readily accessible through books and on-line resources, we still believe that a competent clinician should know a range of parasites by heart as an active resource for their work. The dilemma has been tackled (partly) by introducing a veterinary paraclinical refresher course of 18 h (half practicals and half lectures) in the fourth study year. The focus here is on host(herd)-oriented clinical and diagnostic parasitology. The students can also now select a One Health track for six months in which zoonotic parasites are obviously a relevant topic. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Campanella, Michelangelo; Lygo-Baker, Simon
Those teaching in the higher-education environment are now increasingly meeting with larger cohorts of students. The result is additional pressure on the resources available and on the teacher and learners. Against this backdrop, discussions and reflections took place between a practitioner, within a UK veterinary school, and an educational researcher with extensive experience in observing teaching in veterinary medicine. The result was an examination of the lecture as a method of teaching to consider how to resolve identified challenges. The focus of much of the literature is on technical aspects of teaching and learning, reverting to a range of tips to resolve particular issues recognized in large-group settings. We suggest that while these tips are useful, they will only take a practitioner so far. To be able to make a genuine connection to learners and help them connect directly to the discipline, we need to take account of the emotional aspects of our role as teachers, without which, delivery of knowledge may be undermined.
Braun, Jean-Pierre; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Trumel, Cathy
This article presents the general causes of preanalytic variability with a few examples showing specialists and practitioners that special and improved care should be given to this too often neglected phase. The preanalytic phase of clinical pathology includes all the steps from specimen collection to analysis. It is the phase where most laboratory errors occur in human, and probably also in veterinary clinical pathology. Numerous causes may affect the validity of the results, including technical factors, such as the choice of anticoagulant, the blood vessel sampled, and the duration and conditions of specimen handling. While the latter factors can be defined, influence of biologic and physiologic factors such as feeding and fasting, stress, and biologic and endocrine rhythms can often not be controlled. Nevertheless, as many factors as possible should at least be documented. The importance of the preanalytic phase is often not given the necessary attention, although the validity of the results and consequent clinical decision making and medical management of animal patients would likely be improved if the quality of specimens submitted to the laboratory was optimized. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Full Text Available In parasitological surveillance of livestock, prevalence surveys are conducted on a sample of farms using several sampling designs. For example, opportunistic surveys or informative sampling designs are very common. Preferential sampling refers to any situation in which the spatial process and the sampling locations are not independent. Most examples of preferential sampling in the spatial statistics literature are in environmental statistics with focus on pollutant monitors, and it has been shown that, if preferential sampling is present and is not accounted for in the statistical modelling and data analysis, statistical inference can be misleading. In this paper, working in the context of veterinary parasitology, we propose and use geostatistical models to predict the continuous and spatially-varying risk of a parasite infection. Specifically, breaking with the common practice in veterinary parasitological surveillance to ignore preferential sampling even though informative or opportunistic samples are very common, we specify a two-stage hierarchical Bayesian model that adjusts for preferential sampling and we apply it to data on Fasciola hepatica infection in sheep farms in Campania region (Southern Italy in the years 2013-2014.
Finley, Melissa R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Astuto-Gribble, Lisa M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brass, Van Hildren [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Here, with recent outbreaks of MERS-Cov, Anthrax, Nipah, and Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, much emphasis has been placed on rapid identification of infectious agents globally. As a result, laboratories are building capacity, conducting more advanced and sophisticated research, increasing laboratory staff, and establishing collections of dangerous pathogens in an attempt to reduce the impact of infectious disease outbreaks and characterize disease causing agents. With this expansion, the global laboratory community has started to focus on laboratory biosafety and biosecurity to prevent the accidental and/or intent ional release o f these agents. Laboratory biosafety and biosecurity systems are used around the world to help mit igate the risks posed by dangerous pathogens in the laboratory. Veterinary laboratories carry unique responsibilities to workers and communities to safely and securely handle disease causing microorganisms. Many microorganisms studied in veterinary laboratories not only infect animals, but also have the potential to infect humans. This paper will discuss the fundamentals of laboratory biosafety and biosecurity.
Roder, C; Whittlestone, K; May, S A
In many western countries, there has been a marked change in the demographic profile of those entering the veterinary profession, with a shift from a predominantly male to a predominantly female intake. There have been parallel changes in society, with greater emphasis on human rights and work-life balance. It is, therefore, timely to consider what constitutes correct professional conduct for the profession, as there is the potential for problems to arise over the interpretation of 'professionalism' due to cultural and generational differences. A cross-section of staff and students within one veterinary institution were invited to take part in a survey exploring their prioritisation of 10 aspects of the professional role. A cluster analysis was performed, and four distinctly different profiles were established according to the views held by the cluster members. Cluster membership was found to significantly correlate to career stage, with altruism and social justice progressively giving way to professional autonomy and dominance. All four clusters in this educational environment prioritised technical and interpersonal competences above all other aspects of the professional role.
...] Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services Laboratories... collection associated with the National Veterinary Services Laboratories animal health diagnostic system...: For information on request forms associated with the National Veterinary Services Laboratories animal...
...] Notice of Request for Approval of an Information Collection; National Veterinary Services Laboratories... Service's intention to request approval of an information collection associated with National Veterinary...' Information Collection Coordinator, at (301) 851-2908. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: National Veterinary...
...] Data Standards for Electronic Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection AGENCY: Animal and Plant... data standards required to generate an official interstate certificate of veterinary inspection (ICVI... interstate certificate of veterinary inspection (ICVI). The standards were developed with the National...
...] Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for... Requirements for the Registration of Veterinary Medicinal Products (VICH) has developed a draft guideline titled ``Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for Transfer of Data...
Taylor, Marie E.; Perez, Carlos A.; Halverson, Karen J.; Kuske, Robert R.; Philpott, Gordon W.; Garcia, Delia M.; Mortimer, Joanne E.; Myerson, Robert J.; Radford, Diane; Rush, Carol
Purpose: Host, tumor, and treatment-related factors influencing cosmetic outcome are analyzed for patients receiving breast conservation treatment. Methods and Materials: Four-hundred and fifty-eight patients with evaluable records for cosmesis evaluation, a subset of 701 patients treated for invasive breast cancer with conservation technique between 1969 and 1990, were prospectively analyzed. In 243 patients, cosmetic evaluation was not adequately recorded. Cosmesis evaluation was carried out from 3.7 months to 22.3 years, median of 4.4 years. By pathologic stage, tumors were 62% T1N0, 14% T1N1, 15% T2N0, and 9% T2N1. The majority of patients were treated with 4-6 MV photons. Cosmetic evaluation was rated by both patient and physician every 4-6 months. A logistic regression analysis was completed using a stepwise logistic regression. P-values of 0.05 or less were considered significant. Excellent cosmetic scores were used in all statistical analyses unless otherwise specified. Results: At most recent follow-up, 87% of patients and 81% of physicians scored their cosmetic outcome as excellent or good. Eighty-two percent of physician and patient evaluations agreed with excellent-good vs. fair-poor rating categories. Analysis demonstrated a lower proportion of excellent cosmetic scores when related to patient age > 60 years (p = 0.001), postmenopausal status (p = 0.02), black race (p = 0.0034), and T2 tumor size (p = 0.05). Surgical factors of importance were: volume of resection > 100 cm 3 (p = 0.0001), scar orientation compliance with the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast Project (NSABP) guidelines (p = 0.0034), and > 20 cm 2 skin resected (p = 0.0452). Extent of axillary surgery did not significantly affect breast cosmesis. Radiation factors affecting cosmesis included treatment volume (tangential breast fields only vs. three or more fields) (p = 0.034), whole breast dose in excess of 50 Gy (p = 0.0243), and total dose to tumor site > 65 Gy (p = 0.06), as well as
Napper, Imogen E; Bakir, Adil; Rowland, Steven J; Thompson, Richard C
Cosmetic products, such as facial scrubs, have been identified as potentially important primary sources of microplastics to the marine environment. This study characterises, quantifies and then investigates the sorptive properties of plastic microbeads that are used as exfoliants in cosmetics. Polyethylene microbeads were extracted from several products, and shown to have a wide size range (mean diameters between 164 and 327 μm). We estimated that between 4594 and 94,500 microbeads could be released in a single use. To examine the potential for microbeads to accumulate and transport chemicals they were exposed to a binary mixture of (3)H-phenanthrene and (14)C-DDT in seawater. The potential for transport of sorbed chemicals by microbeads was broadly similar to that of polythene (PE) particles used in previous sorption studies. In conclusion, cosmetic exfoliants are a potentially important, yet preventable source of microplastic contamination in the marine environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wortsman, X.; Wortsman, J.; Orlandi, C.
Background While the incidence of cosmetic filler injections is rising world-wide, neither exact details of the procedure nor the agent used are always reported or remembered by the patients. Thus, although complications are reportedly rare, availability of a precise diagnostic tool to detect...... cutaneous filler deposits could help clarify the association between the procedure and the underlying pathology. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate cutaneous sonography in the detection and identification of cosmetic fillers deposits and, describe dermatological abnormalities found associated...... with the presence of those agents. Methods We used ultrasound in a porcine skin model to determine the sonographic characteristics of commonly available filler agents, and subsequently applied the analysis to detect and identify cosmetic fillers among patients referred for skin disorders. Results Fillers...
Full Text Available Body dysmorphic disorder is an obsessive-compulsive related psychiatric disorder characterized by excessive preoccupation about an imagined or slight defect in appearance. Preoccupation of the appearance with the skin, hair and nose are most common. Impairment of the quality of life, comorbidity of the psychiatric and personality disorder are related with body dysmorphic disorder. Nowadays, cosmetic procedure has become increasingly popular especially among women. The prevalence of body dysmorphic disorder among patients seeking cosmetic treatment in surgery or dermatology clinics is higher than general population. As postoperatively some patients dissatisfied with the surgery, dermatologists and surgeons should be informed about body dysmorphic disorder. This aim of this review was to assess prevalance, clinical features, motivational factors of patients with body dysmorphic disorder presenting for cosmetic medical treatments. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 324-338
Full Text Available In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical.
Livingston, Ryan; Berlund, Paul; Eccles-Smith, Jade; Sawhney, Raja
"Cosmetic Tourism," the process of traveling overseas for cosmetic procedures, is an expanding global phenomenon. The model of care by which these services are delivered can limit perioperative assessment and postoperative follow-up. Our aim was to establish the number and type of complications being treated by a secondary referral hospital resulting from "cosmetic tourism" and the cost that has been incurred by the hospital in a 1-year period. Retrospective cost analysis and chart review of patients admitted to the hospital between the financial year of 2012 and 2013 were performed. Twelve "cosmetic tourism" patients presented to the hospital, requiring admission during the study period. Breast augmentation was the most common procedure and infected prosthesis was the most common complication (n = 4). Complications ranged from infection, pulmonary embolism to penile necrosis. The average cost of treating these patients was $AUD 12 597.71. The overall financial burden of the complication to the hospital was AUD$151 172.52. The "cosmetic tourism" model of care appears to be, in some cases, suboptimal for patients and their regional hospitals. In the cases presented in this study, it appears that care falls on the patient local hospital and home country to deal with the complications from their surgery abroad. This incurs a financial cost to that hospital in addition to redirecting medical resources that would otherwise be utilized for treating noncosmetic complications, without any remuneration to the local provider.
Full Text Available Pierfrancesco MorgantiDepartment of Dermatology and Venereal Diseases, II University of Naples, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Biotechnology and nanotechnology are the key technologies of the twenty-first century, having enormous potential for innovation and growth. The academic and industrial goals for these technologies are the development of nanoscale biomolecular substances and analytical instruments for investigating cell biology at the cellular and molecular levels. Developments in nanotechnology will provide opportunities for cosmetic dermatology to develop new biocompatible and biodegradable therapeutics, delivery systems and more active compounds. Cosmetics have the primary function of keeping up a good appearance, changing the appearance, or correcting body odors, while maintaining the skin and its surroundings in good conditions. Thus cosmetic dermatology, recognizing the new realities of skin care products, has to emphasize the functional aspects of cosmetics through an understanding of their efficacy and safety in promoting good health. Nanoscience may help the scientific community to find more innovative and efficacious cosmetics. Understanding the physical model of the cell as a machine is essential to understand how all the cell components work together to accomplish a task. The efficacy and safety of new nanomaterials has to be deeply studied by ex vivo tests and innovative laboratory techniques. New delivery systems and natural nanocompounds, such as chitin nanofibrils for wound healing, are being used in cosmetic dermatology with good results, as are nanostructured TiO2 and ZnO sunscreens. The challenge is open.Keywords: nanotechnology, nanobiotechnology, delivery systems, chitin nanofibrils, TiO2, ZnO
Department of Veterinary Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, ... control ticks by regular use of acaricide and timely treatment of affected horses in ... enlarged spleen and liver, pale kidney and oedema in lungs. Babesiosis is usually diagnosed by .... Journal of Animal and Plant.
Hancock, Jason; Hammond, Jennifer A; Roberts, Martin; Mattick, Karen
Current guidelines suggest that educators in both medical and veterinary professions should do more to ensure that students can tolerate ambiguity. Designing curricula to achieve this requires the ability to measure and understand differences in ambiguity tolerance among and within professional groups. Although scales have been developed to measure tolerance of ambiguity in both medical and veterinary professions, no comparative studies have been reported. We compared the tolerance of ambiguity of medical and veterinary students, hypothesizing that veterinary students would have higher tolerance of ambiguity, given the greater patient diversity and less well-established evidence base underpinning practice. We conducted a secondary analysis of questionnaire data from first- to fourth-year medical and veterinary students. Tolerance of ambiguity scores were calculated and compared using the TAMSAD scale (29 items validated for the medical student population), the TAVS scale (27 items validated for the veterinary student population), and a scale comprising the 22 items common to both scales. Using the TAMSAD and TAVS scales, medical students had a significantly higher mean tolerance of ambiguity score than veterinary students (56.1 vs. 54.1, pambiguity than veterinary students, although this depends on the scale used.
Dinkelman, Andrea L; Viera, Ann R; Bickett-Weddle, Danelle A
This qualitative study seeks to determine the nature of the instruction librarians provide to veterinary medical students at all 28 United States veterinary colleges. A secondary goal of the study was to determine in what ways and to what extent librarians participated in other instructional activities at their colleges. Over half of the librarians formally taught in one or more courses, predominantly in the first two years of the veterinary curriculum. One presentation per course was most common. Over half of the librarians interviewed stated that evidence-based veterinary medicine was taught at their colleges, and about half of these librarians collaborated with veterinary faculty in this instruction. Many librarians participated in orientation for first-year veterinary students. The librarians also taught instructional sessions for residents, interns, faculty, graduate students, and practicing veterinarians. This study found that librarians teach information literacy skills both formally and informally, but, in general, instruction by librarians was not well integrated into the curriculum. This study advances several recommendations to help veterinary students develop information literacy skills. These include: encourage veterinary faculty and administrators to collaborate more closely with librarians, incorporate a broader array of information literacy skills into assignments, and add a literature evaluation course to the curriculum.
The Third Veterinary Immunology Committee (VIC) Toolkit Workshop took place at the Ninth International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (IVIS) in Tokyo, Japan on August 18, 2020. The Workshop built on previous Toolkit Workshops and covered various aspects of reagent development, commercialisation an...
Veterinary immunologists have expanded understanding of the immune systems for our companion animals and developed new vaccines and therapeutics. This manuscript summarizes the highlights of the 8th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (8 th IVIS) held August 15th-19th, 2007, in Ouro Preto,...
In this presentation history of radiobiology in University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice from 1949 is presented. Scientific and pedagogic programs, role of veterinary physician as well as concept of radiobiology and cooperation are reviewed. Changes in Poecilia reticulata and Artemia franciscana after gamma radiation are presented.
In this presentation author deals with history of the University of Veterinary Medicine in Kosice as well as with the status and role of radiobiology in veterinary medicine. Some results of gamma irradiation of Pecilia reticulata are presented. Activity levels of cesium-137 in contaminated mushrooms gathered in Slovakia in 2001 are presented.
Stolker, A.A.M.; Zuidema, T.; Nielen, M.W.F.
Two major trends are observed in the analysis of veterinary drugs and growth-promoting agents. First is the selection of sample material for monitoring the use of registered veterinary drugs. Traditionally meat, kidney and liver were analyzed but, due to the food scandals in which meat was very
In their practice, physicians and veterinarians need to resort to an array of ethical competences. As a teaching topic, however, there is no accepted gold standard for human medical ethics, and veterinary medical ethics is not yet well established. This paper provides a reflection on the underlying aims of human and veterinary medical ethics…
Sacchini, Federico; Freeman, Kathleen P
An increasing number of veterinary laboratories worldwide have obtained or are seeking certification based on international standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission 17025. Compliance with any certification standard or quality management system requires quality documentation, an activity that may present several unique challenges in the case of veterinary laboratories. Research specifically addressing quality documentation is conspicuously absent in the veterinary literature. This article provides an overview of the quality system documentation needed to comply with a quality management system with an emphasis on preparing written standard operating procedures specific for veterinary laboratories. In addition, the quality documentation challenges that are unique to veterinary clinical pathology laboratories are critically evaluated against the existing quality standards and discussed with respect to possible solutions and/or recommended courses of action. Documentation challenges include the establishment of quality requirements for veterinary tests, the use or modification of human analytic methods for animal samples, the limited availability of quality control materials satisfactory for veterinary clinical pathology laboratories, the limited availability of veterinary proficiency programs, and the complications in establishing species-specific reference intervals.
Whittick, William G.
The undergraduate surgery course of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Universiti Pertanian Malaysia, is described with focus on its experential method of teaching surgical techniques. Also discussed are the benefits of veterinary school cooperation with a large city Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA). (JMD)
Ramezanpour, Bahar; Foucauld, de Jean; Kortekaas, Jeroen
On the 9th of November 2015, preceding the World Veterinary Vaccine Congress, a workshop was held to discuss how veterinary vaccines can be deployed more rapidly to appropriately respond to future epizootics in Europe. Considering their potential and unprecedented suitability for surge
Although the intervention of conventional veterinary medicine is pervasive in Toteng, and many livestock owners are resorting to it, there is evidence, however, of generalized ethno-veterinary knowledge used to treat and prevent livestock diseases. Local farmers and their herders in Ngamiland are not only knowledgeable ...
Nigeria. 2. Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Usmanu Danfodiyo University. Sokoto, Nigeria ... from three different small ruminant farms with birth record within Sokoto metropolis,. Nigeria. They were ... animals, one of which is the use of epiphyseal plate closure (Choi et al., ...
Javier Arturo Orjuela-Castro
Full Text Available The sector of cosmetics and toiletries is a world class sector, consolidated in Colombia with 690 companies of which 420 are in Bogotá D.C. Taking into account that logistics management generates competitive advantage in organizations as factor of success in a global economy, this paper proposes a logistics analysis applied to the case of cosmetics and toiletries supply chain. The results include the diagnosis of logistics processes and resources, which they were studied with an own methodology proposal. The methodology allowed study the logistics factors and variables, elements that recognized the logistical behaviour in the different links of the supply chain.
Krieger, Lloyd M
Discount cosmetic surgery is a topic of interest to plastic surgeons. To understand this trend and its effects on plastic surgeons, it is necessary to review the economics of cosmetic surgery, plastic surgery's practice environment, and the broader business principles of service industries. Recent work looked at the economics of the plastic surgery market. This analysis demonstrated that increased local density of plastic surgeons was associated with lower adjusted fees for cosmetic procedures. A survey of plastic surgeons about their practice environment revealed that 93 percent categorized the majority of their patients as very or moderately price-sensitive. Fully 98 percent described their business climate as very or moderately competitive and most plastic surgeons thought they lost a sizable number of cosmetic patients within the last year for reasons of price.A standard industry analysis, when applied to cosmetic surgery, reveals the following: an increased number of surgeons leads to lower fees (reducing their bargaining power as suppliers), patients are price-sensitive (increasing their bargaining power as buyers), and there are few barriers to entry among providers (allowing potential new entrants into the market). Such a situation is conducive to discounting taking hold-and even becoming the industry norm. In this environment, business strategy dictates there are three protocols for success: discounting, differentiation, and focus. Discounting joins the trend toward cutting fees. Success comes from increasing volume and efficiency and thus preserving profits. Differentiation creates an industrywide perception of uniqueness; this requires broadly positioning plastic surgeons as holders of a distinct brand identity separate from other "cosmetic surgeons." The final strategy is to focus on a particular buyer group to develop a market niche, such as establishing a "Park Avenue" practice catering to patients who demand a prestigious surgeon, although this is
Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan; Heldreth, Bart
The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel (Panel) assessed the safety of 39 polyether lanolin ingredients as used in cosmetics. These ingredients function mostly as hair conditioning agents, skin conditioning agent-emollients, and surfactant-emulsifying agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and clinical data, from previous CIR safety assessments of related ingredients and components. The similar structure, properties, functions, and uses of these ingredients enabled grouping them and using the available toxicological data to assess the safety of the entire group. The Panel concluded that these polyether lanolin ingredients are safe in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.
Cosmetic industry is a fast growing industry with the continuous development of new active ingredients for skin care products. Fullerene C(60) and its derivates have been subject of intensive research in the last few years. Fullerenes display a wide range of different biological activities. Strong antioxidant capacities and effective quenching radical oxygen species (ROS) made fullerenes suitable active compounds in the formulation of skin care products. Published evidence on biological activities of fullerenes relevant for their application in cosmetics use and examples of published patents are presented. Recent trends in the use of fullerenes in topical formulations and patents are reviewed. Future investigations covering application of fullerenes in skin care are discussed.
Johnson, Wilbur; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan
Chlorphenesin functions as a biocide in cosmetics and is used at concentrations up to 0.32% in rinse-off products and up to 0.3% in leave-on products. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) noted that chlorphenesin was well absorbed when applied to the skin of rats; however, any safety concern was minimized because available data demonstrated an absence of toxicity. The Panel concluded that chlorphenesin is safe in the present practices of use and concentration. © The Author(s) 2014.
Magalhães-Sant’Ana, Manuel; Lassen, Jesper; Millar, Kate
Although it is widely agreed that veterinary students need to be introduced to ethics, there is limited empirical research investigating the reasons why veterinary ethics is being taught. This study presents the first extensive investigation into the reasons for teaching veterinary ethics...... and reports data collected in semi-structured interviews with educators involved in teaching undergraduate veterinary ethics at three European schools: the University of Copenhagen, the University of Nottingham, and the Technical University of Lisbon (curricular year 2010–2011). The content of the interview...... transcripts were analyzed using Toulmin's argumentative model. Ten objectives in teaching veterinary ethics were identified, which can be grouped into four overarching themes: ethical awareness, ethical knowledge, ethical skills, and individual and professional qualities. These objectives include recognizing...
McDermott, M P; Cobb, M A; Tischler, V A; Robbé, I J; Dean, R S
A survey was conducted among veterinary practitioners in the UK and the USA in 2012/2013. Thematic analysis was used to identify underlying reasons behind answers to questions about the importance of communication skills and the desire to participate in postgraduate communication skills training. Lack of training among more experienced veterinary surgeons, incomplete preparation of younger practitioners and differences in ability to communicate all contribute to gaps in communication competency. Barriers to participating in further communication training include time, cost and doubts in the ability of training to provide value. To help enhance communication ability, communication skills should be assessed in veterinary school applicants, and communication skills training should be more thoroughly integrated into veterinary curricula. Continuing education/professional development in communication should be part of all postgraduate education and should be targeted to learning style preferences and communication needs and challenges through an entire career in practice. British Veterinary Association.
Andersen, F Alan; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W
Calendula officinalis extract, C officinalis flower, C officinalis flower extract, C officinalis flower oil, and C officinalis seed oil are cosmetic ingredients derived from C officinalis. These ingredients may contain minerals, carbohydrates, lipids, phenolic acids, flavonoids, tannins, coumarins, sterols and steroids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, tocopherols, quinones, amino acids, and resins. These ingredients were not significantly toxic in single-dose oral studies using animals. The absence of reproductive/developmental toxicity was inferred from repeat-dose studies of coriander oil, with a similar composition. Overall, these ingredients were not genotoxic. They also were not irritating, sensitizing, or photosensitizing in animal or clinical tests but may be mild ocular irritants. The Cosmetic Ingredient Review (CIR) Expert Panel concluded that these ingredients are safe for use in cosmetics in the practices of use and concentration given in this amended safety assessment.