Schultze, A Eric; Bounous, Denise I; Bolliger, Anne Provencher
There is an international shortage of veterinary clinical pathologists in the workplace. Current trainees in veterinary clinical pathology may choose to pursue careers in academe, diagnostic laboratories, government health services, biopharmaceutical companies, or private practice. Academic training programs attempt to provide trainees with an exposure to several career choices. However, due to the proprietary nature of much of the work in the biopharmaceutical industry, trainees may not be fully informed regarding the nature of work for veterinary clinical pathologists and the myriad opportunities that await employment in the biopharmaceutical industry. The goals of this report are to provide trainees in veterinary clinical pathology and other laboratory personnel with an overview of the work-life of veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry, and to raise the profile of this career choice for those seeking to enter the workforce. Biographical sketches, job descriptions, and motivation for 3 successful veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are provided. Current and past statistics for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are reviewed. An overview of the drug development process and involvement of veterinary clinical pathologists in the areas of discovery, lead optimization, and candidate evaluation are discussed. Additional duties for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry include development of biomarkers and new technologies, service as scientific resources, diagnostic support services, and laboratory management responsibilities. There are numerous opportunities available for trainees in veterinary clinical pathology to pursue employment in the biopharmaceutical industry and enjoy challenging and rewarding careers.
McEwen, B J; McDonough, S P
An electronic survey was conducted to determine the attitudes of veterinary pathologists toward forensic pathology and the adequacy of their training in the discipline. The survey was sent to 1933 diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and 311 completed responses were analyzed. Of respondents, 80% report receiving at least 1 type of medicolegal case, with cases from law enforcement received most frequently. Most (74%) of the respondents indicated that their previous training did not prepare them adequately to handle forensic cases and almost half of the respondents (48%) indicated that they needed more training on serving as an expert witness. Relative risk ratios (RRR) and odds ratios (OR) were generated to determine the strength of a statistically significant association. Responses from a free-text entry question determining additional training needs could be grouped into 3 main categories: (1) veterinary forensic pathology science and procedures, (2) documentation, evidence collection and handling, and (3) knowledge of the medicolegal system. Last, a field for additional comments or suggestions regarding veterinary forensic pathology was completed by 107 respondents and many reinforced the need for training in the categories previously described. The survey highlights that a significant proportion of diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists are currently engaged in veterinary forensic pathology but feel their training has not adequately prepared them for these cases. Hopefully, the survey results will inform the college and residency training coordinators as they address the training requirements for an important emerging discipline. © The Author(s) 2016.
Jaarsma, Thomas; Jarodzka, Halszka; Nap, Marius; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Boshuizen, Els
Jaarsma, T., Jarodzka, H., Nap, M., Van Merriënboer, J. J. G., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, 23 August). Visual expertise development among clinical pathologists. Paper presented at the EARLI Special Interest Group 14, Antwerp, Belgium.
Raddatz, Barbara B; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Matheis, Katja A; Kalkuhl, Arno; Deschl, Ulrich; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner
High-throughput, genome-wide transcriptome analysis is now commonly used in all fields of life science research and is on the cusp of medical and veterinary diagnostic application. Transcriptomic methods such as microarrays and next-generation sequencing generate enormous amounts of data. The pathogenetic expertise acquired from understanding of general pathology provides veterinary pathologists with a profound background, which is essential in translating transcriptomic data into meaningful biological knowledge, thereby leading to a better understanding of underlying disease mechanisms. The scientific literature concerning high-throughput data-mining techniques usually addresses mathematicians or computer scientists as the target audience. In contrast, the present review provides the reader with a clear and systematic basis from a veterinary pathologist's perspective. Therefore, the aims are (1) to introduce the reader to the necessary methodological background; (2) to introduce the sequential steps commonly performed in a microarray analysis including quality control, annotation, normalization, selection of differentially expressed genes, clustering, gene ontology and pathway analysis, analysis of manually selected genes, and biomarker discovery; and (3) to provide references to publically available and user-friendly software suites. In summary, the data analysis methods presented within this review will enable veterinary pathologists to analyze high-throughput transcriptome data obtained from their own experiments, supplemental data that accompany scientific publications, or public repositories in order to obtain a more in-depth insight into underlying disease mechanisms.
Bertram, Christof A; Klopfleisch, Robert
Using light microscopy to describe the microarchitecture of normal and diseased tissues has changed very little since the middle of the 19th century. While the premise of histologic analysis remains intact, our relationship with the microscope is changing dramatically. Digital pathology offers new forms of visualization, and delivery of images is facilitated in unprecedented ways. This new technology can untether us entirely from our light microscopes, with many pathologists already performing their jobs using virtual microscopy. Several veterinary colleges have integrated virtual microscopy in their curriculum, and some diagnostic histopathology labs are switching to virtual microscopy as their main tool for the assessment of histologic specimens. Considering recent technical advancements of slide scanner and viewing software, digital pathology should now be considered a serious alternative to traditional light microscopy. This review therefore intends to give an overview of the current digital pathology technologies and their potential in all fields of veterinary pathology (ie, research, diagnostic service, and education). A future integration of digital pathology in the veterinary pathologist's workflow seems to be inevitable, and therefore it is proposed that trainees should be taught in digital pathology to keep up with the unavoidable digitization of the profession.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to depict the current research directions in veterinary pathology in Europe. The analysis was carried out based on the abstracts and agendas of the annual European Society of Veterinary Pathology (ESVP congresses organised together with the European College of Veterinary Pathologists (ECVP in 2010-2016. In total, 1444 presentations were evaluated, including 41 plenary lectures, 319 short oral presentations, and 1081 posters, and in 2016 also three science slams. It was found that infectious and parasitic diseases (467 presentations, 32.34% and oncology (450 presentations, 31.16% were the most commonly discussed topics. Organ pathology was also addressed (327 presentations, 22.65%, with the subsequent places taken by research on different topics (140 presentations, 9.70% and toxicopathology (67 presentations, 4.64%. Among the most commonly presented issues, there was a substantial number of presentations on neurology (129 speeches, 8.93% and mammary gland diseases (101 presentations, 6.99%. A downward trend was revealed for infectious and parasitic diseases and for oncology, and a positive trend for organ pathology, the first and the third being statistically significant.
Dzikowski, Andrzej; Szarek, Józef; Babińska, Izabella; Felsmann, Mariusz Zbigniew; Popławski, Krystian; Gulda, Dominika; Wąsowicz, Krzysztof; Wiśniewska, Anna
The objective of this paper is to depict the current research directions in veterinary pathology in Europe. The analysis was carried out based on the abstracts and agendas of the annual European Society of Veterinary Pathology (ESVP) congresses organised together with the European College of Veterinary Pathologists (ECVP) in 2010-2016. In total, 1444 presentations were evaluated, including 41 plenary lectures, 319 short oral presentations, and 1081 posters, and in 2016 also three science slams. It was found that infectious and parasitic diseases (467 presentations, 32.34%) and oncology (450 presentations, 31.16%) were the most commonly discussed topics. Organ pathology was also addressed (327 presentations, 22.65%), with the subsequent places taken by research on different topics (140 presentations, 9.70%) and toxicopathology (67 presentations, 4.64%). Among the most commonly presented issues, there was a substantial number of presentations on neurology (129 speeches, 8.93%) and mammary gland diseases (101 presentations, 6.99%). A downward trend was revealed for infectious and parasitic diseases and for oncology, and a positive trend for organ pathology, the first and the third being statistically significant.
When veterinary pathologists testify as expert witnesses in animal cruelty trials, they may find themselves in an intimidating and unfamiliar environment. The legal rules are clouded in mystery, the lawyers dwell on mundane details, and the witness's words are extracted with precision by a verbal scalpel. An unprepared expert witness can feel ungrounded and stripped of confidence. The goal of this article is to lift the veil of mystery and give the veterinary pathologist the tools to be a knowledgeable and confident expert witness before and during testimony. This article discusses the types of expert witnesses, disclosure requirements and the importance of a good report, the legal basics of expert testimony, and how to be an effective expert witness. The article references Minnesota law; however, the laws are similar in most jurisdictions and based on the same constitutional requirements, and the concepts presented are applicable in nearly every courtroom.(1). © The Author(s) 2016.
Jaarsma, Thomas; Jarodzka, Halszka; Nap, Marius; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen; Boshuizen, Els
Jaarsma, T., Jarodzka, H., Nap, M., Van Merriënboer, J., & Boshuizen, H. P. A. (2012, 22 October). Restricted time diagnoses: expertise differences among clinical pathologists. Paper presented at the workshop 'New tools and practices for learning and seeing in medicine', University of Turku, Turku,
Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.
Horne, R. D.
Graduate training in clinical veterinary medicine is discussed. The options available to the student and problems that must be dealt with are presented, along with the requirements to accomplish a finely structured program that satisfies the needs of both the trainee and clinical veterinary medicine. (Author/MLW)
Tomlinson, Lindsay; Boone, Laura I; Ramaiah, Lila; Penraat, Kelley A; von Beust, Barbara R; Ameri, Mehrdad; Poitout-Belissent, Florence M; Weingand, Kurt; Workman, Heather C; Aulbach, Adam D; Meyer, Dennis J; Brown, Diane E; MacNeill, Amy L; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Bounous, Denise I
The purpose of this paper by the Regulatory Affairs Committee (RAC) of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) is to review the current regulatory guidances (eg, guidelines) and published recommendations for best practices in veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, and to utilize the combined experience of ASVCP RAC to provide updated recommendations. Discussion points include (1) instrumentation, validation, and sample collection, (2) routine laboratory variables, (3) cytologic laboratory variables, (4) data interpretation and reporting (including peer review, reference intervals and statistics), and (5) roles and responsibilities of clinical pathologists and laboratory personnel. Revision and improvement of current practices should be in alignment with evolving regulatory guidance documents, new technology, and expanding understanding and utility of clinical pathology. These recommendations provide a contemporary guide for the refinement of veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology best practices. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.
Exposure to chemotherapy is a health hazard for all personnel in facilities that store, prepare, or administer antineoplastic agents. Contamination levels have been measured as much as 15 times higher in the veterinary medicine sector than in human facilities. Recent publications in human and veterinary medicine indicate that exposure extends beyond the clinic walls to affect the patient's home and family. This article provides an update on the advances in chemotherapy safety, the current issues, and the impact on cancer management in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clausen, Jürgen; Albrecht, Henning
The aim of the present report is to provide an overview of the first database on clinical research in veterinary homeopathy. Detailed searches in the database 'Veterinary Clinical Research-Database in Homeopathy' (http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/clinresvet/index.php). The database contains about 200 entries of randomised clinical trials, non-randomised clinical trials, observational studies, drug provings, case reports and case series. Twenty-two clinical fields are covered and eight different groups of species are included. The database is free of charge and open to all interested veterinarians and researchers. The database enables researchers and veterinarians, sceptics and supporters to get a quick overview of the status of veterinary clinical research in homeopathy and alleviates the preparation of systematical reviews or may stimulate reproductions or even new studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Introduction Providing clinical teachers with student feedback is an important part of faculty development. The current literature provides a range of instruments developed to generate student rating feedback. However, these instruments often lack a theoretical framework and evidence concerning
Braun, Jean-Pierre; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Trumel, Cathy
This article presents the general causes of preanalytic variability with a few examples showing specialists and practitioners that special and improved care should be given to this too often neglected phase. The preanalytic phase of clinical pathology includes all the steps from specimen collection to analysis. It is the phase where most laboratory errors occur in human, and probably also in veterinary clinical pathology. Numerous causes may affect the validity of the results, including technical factors, such as the choice of anticoagulant, the blood vessel sampled, and the duration and conditions of specimen handling. While the latter factors can be defined, influence of biologic and physiologic factors such as feeding and fasting, stress, and biologic and endocrine rhythms can often not be controlled. Nevertheless, as many factors as possible should at least be documented. The importance of the preanalytic phase is often not given the necessary attention, although the validity of the results and consequent clinical decision making and medical management of animal patients would likely be improved if the quality of specimens submitted to the laboratory was optimized. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Male infertility is receiving increasing attention in Africa as up to 50% of cases of infertility are ascribed to it. In the management of this condition, the clinical laboratory plays a crucial role especially in the proper identification of causes of infertility. The role of the pathologists in this respect stems from the choice of laboratory ...
Background: Negative attitudes toward stuttering and people who stutter (PWS) are found in various groups of people in many regions. However the results of previous studies examining the influence of fluency coursework and clinical certification on the attitudes of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) toward PWS are equivocal. Furthermore, there…
In this overview of success stories in veterinary clinical nutrition topics in cats and dogs reviewed include the dietary management of chronic kidney disease, dissolution of urinary tract uroliths by dietary modification, the recognition that taurine and L-carnitine deficiencies can cause dilated cardiomyopathy; that clinical signs associated with feline hyperthyroidism (caused by a benign adenoma) can be controlled by a low-iodine diet alone; that dietary management of canine osteoarthritis can also reduce non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug doses; and that disease-free intervals and survival times can be statistically longer in dogs with Stage III lymphoma managed with diet. As we discover more about nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, and as we expand our basic understanding of idiopathic diseases we are bound to identify more nutritionally related causes, and be able to develop novel dietary strategies to manage disease processes, including the formulation of diets designed to alter gene expression to obtain beneficial clinical outcomes.
Anderson, Maureen E C
Hand hygiene, contact precautions, and other basic infection control measures are crucial in veterinary clinics, because these facilities can be community mixing pots of animals and people with a wide range of health and disease-carrier states. Veterinary staff must be knowledgeable and well trained regarding when and how to apply situation-appropriate contact precautions and to properly perform hand hygiene. The limited information on the use of contact precautions and hand hygiene practices among veterinary staff suggests that compliance is low. Improving the infection control culture in clinics and in veterinary medicine is critical to achieving better compliance with these practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W
Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Lairmore, Michael D.; Oglesbee, Michael; Weisbrode, Steve E.; Wellman, Maxey; Rosol, Thomas; Stromberg, Paul
Recent reports project a deficiency of veterinary pathologists, indicating a need to train highly qualified veterinary pathologists, particularly in academic veterinary medicine. The need to provide high-quality research training for veterinary pathologists has been recognized by the veterinary pathology training program of the Ohio State University (OSU) since its inception. The OSU program incorporates elements of both residency training and graduate education into a unified program. This review illustrates the components and structure of the training program and reflects on future challenges in training veterinary pathologists. Key elements of the OSU program include an experienced faculty, dedicated staff, and high-quality students who have a sense of common mission. The program is supported through cultural and infrastructure support. Financial compensation, limited research funding, and attractive work environments, including work–life balance, will undoubtedly continue to be forces in the marketplace for veterinary pathologists. To remain competitive and to expand the ability to train veterinary pathologists with research skills, programs must support strong faculty members, provide appropriate infrastructure support, and seek active partnerships with private industry to expand program opportunities. Shortages of trained faculty may be partially resolved by regional cooperation to share faculty expertise or through the use of communications technology to bridge distances between programs. To foster continued interest in academic careers, training programs will need to continue to evolve and respond to trainees' needs while maintaining strong allegiances to high-quality pathology training. Work–life balance, collegial environments that foster a culture of respect for veterinary pathology, and continued efforts to reach out to veterinary students to provide opportunities to learn about the diverse careers offered in veterinary pathology will pay long
Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R
Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.
Sacchini, Federico; Freeman, Kathleen P
An increasing number of veterinary laboratories worldwide have obtained or are seeking certification based on international standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission 17025. Compliance with any certification standard or quality management system requires quality documentation, an activity that may present several unique challenges in the case of veterinary laboratories. Research specifically addressing quality documentation is conspicuously absent in the veterinary literature. This article provides an overview of the quality system documentation needed to comply with a quality management system with an emphasis on preparing written standard operating procedures specific for veterinary laboratories. In addition, the quality documentation challenges that are unique to veterinary clinical pathology laboratories are critically evaluated against the existing quality standards and discussed with respect to possible solutions and/or recommended courses of action. Documentation challenges include the establishment of quality requirements for veterinary tests, the use or modification of human analytic methods for animal samples, the limited availability of quality control materials satisfactory for veterinary clinical pathology laboratories, the limited availability of veterinary proficiency programs, and the complications in establishing species-specific reference intervals.
O'Brien, P.J.; Fournel-Fleury, C.; Bolliger, Adrian Marc
After 5 years of development, the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP)was formally recognized and approved on July 4, 2007 by the European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS), the European regulatory body that oversees specialization in veterinary medicine and which has...... approved 23 colleges. The objectives, committees, basis for membership, constitution, bylaws, information brochure and certifying examination of the ECVCP have remained unchanged during this time except as directed by EBVS. The ECVCP declared full functionality based on the following criteria: 1...... congresses and a joint journal (with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology) for communication of scientific research and information; the College also maintains a website, a joint listserv, and a newsletter; 6) collaboration in training and continuing education with relevant colleges...
Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D
A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments. Suitability for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Evaluation of 10 veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers showed that these instruments often fail to meet quality requirements. At least 60% of analyzers reasonably determined RBC, WBC, HCT, and HGB, when assessed by most quality goal criteria; platelets were less reliably measured, with 80% deemed suitable for low platelet counts, but only 30% for high platelet counts, and automated differential leukocyte counts were generally considered unsuitable for clinical use with fewer than 40% of analyzers meeting the least stringent quality goal requirements. Fewer than 50% of analyzers were able to meet requirements for statistical quality control for any measurand. These findings reflect the current status of in-clinic hematology analyzer performance and provide a basis for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Clausen, J; Albrecht, H; Mathie, R T
Veterinary homeopathy has led a somewhat shadowy existence since its first introduction. Only in the last three decades has the number of clinical trials increased considerably. This literature is generally not well perceived, which may be partly a consequence of the diffuse and somewhat inaccessible nature of some of the relevant research publications. The Veterinary Clinical Research Database for Homeopathy (VetCR) was launched in 2006 to provide information on existing clinical research in veterinary homeopathy and to facilitate the preparation of systematic reviews. The aim of the present report is to provide an overview of this first database on clinical research in veterinary homeopathy, with a special focus on its content of placebo controlled clinical trials and summarising what is known about placebo effects in animals. In April 2012, the VetCR database contained 302 data records. Among these, 203 controlled trials were identified: 146 randomised and 57 non-randomised. In 97 of those 203 trials, the homeopathic medical intervention was compared to placebo. A program of formal systematic reviews of peer-reviewed randomised controlled trials in veterinary homeopathy is now underway; detailed findings from the program's data extraction and appraisal approach, including the assessment of trial quality (risk of bias), will be reported in due course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Decision making in clinical veterinary practice. BM Anene. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...
Dahal, Rohini; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Mishra, Deependra; Lama, Norsang; Alvandipour, Mehrdad; Umbaugh, David; Marino, Dominic J.; Sackman, Joseph
Under development is a clinical software tool which can be used in the veterinary clinics as a prescreening tool for these pathologies: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disease, bone cancer and feline hyperthyroidism. Currently, veterinary clinical practice uses several imaging techniques including radiology, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). But, harmful radiation involved during imaging, expensive equipment setup, excessive time consumption and the need for a cooperative patient during imaging, are major drawbacks of these techniques. In veterinary procedures, it is very difficult for animals to remain still for the time periods necessary for standard imaging without resorting to sedation - which creates another set of complexities. Therefore, clinical application software integrated with a thermal imaging system and the algorithms with high sensitivity and specificity for these pathologies, can address the major drawbacks of the existing imaging techniques. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been created to allow ease of use for the clinical technician. The technician inputs an image, enters patient information, and selects the camera view associated with the image and the pathology to be diagnosed. The software will classify the image using an optimized classification algorithm that has been developed through thousands of experiments. Optimal image features are extracted and the feature vector is then used in conjunction with the stored image database for classification. Classification success rates as high as 88% for bone cancer, 75% for ACL and 90% for feline hyperthyroidism have been achieved. The software is currently undergoing preliminary clinical testing.
Metzger, Fred L; Rebar, Alan H
Routine monitoring of clinicopathologic data is a critical component in the management of older patients because blood and urine testing allows the veterinarian to monitor trends in laboratory parameters, which may be the early indicators of disease. Laboratory profiling often provides an objective and sensitive indicator of developing disease before obvious clinical signs or physical examination abnormalities are observed. The primary key to the power of this evaluation is that the data are collected year after year during wellness checks and are examined serially. Chronic renal failure, chronic active hepatitis, canine hyperadrenocorticism, diabetes mellitus, and feline hyperthyroidism were reviewed and expected laboratory findings are summarized.
Full Text Available Veterinary pharmaceutical products intended for use in fish should comply with all usual requirements regarding approval for marketing, according to the Order of the President of the National Sanitary Veterinary Agency and for Food Safety No.187/2007, with subsequent amendments and additions. According to the legislation the technical file should containe documentation of quality, safety of animals, consumer, user and environment and demonstration of efficacy and tolerance in the target species. This paper provides the important information on requirements for demonstration on efficacy of pharmaceutical products indended for use in fish. The principal aim of the efficacy data is to prove the therapeutic value of pharmaceutical products and to establish an optimal dose and period of dose administration. In efficacity clinical trial is needed, also, to take into account, the various conditions such as climatic aspects, disease situation, water temperature and salinity, because these may influence the outcome and veracity of the studies.
Berg, Karianne; Rise, Marit By; Balandin, Susan; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Askim, Torunn
Although client participation has been part of legislation and clinical guidelines for several years, the evidence of these recommendations being implemented into clinical practice is scarce, especially for people with communication disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate how speech pathologists experienced client participation during the process of goal-setting and clinical decision making for people with aphasia. Twenty speech pathologists participated in four focus group interviews. A qualitative analysis using Systematic Text Condensation was undertaken. Analysis revealed three different approaches to client participation: (1) client-oriented, (2) next of kin-oriented and (3) professional-oriented participation. Participants perceived client-oriented participation as the gold standard. The three approaches were described as overlapping, with each having individual characteristics incorporating different facilitators and barriers. There is a need for greater emphasis on how to involve people with severe aphasia in goal setting and treatment planning, and frameworks made to enhance collaboration could preferably be used. Participants reported use of next of kin as proxies in goal-setting and clinical decision making for people with moderate-to-severe aphasia, indicating the need for awareness towards maintaining the clients' autonomy and addressing the goals of next of kin. Speech pathologists, and most likely other professionals, should place greater emphasis on client participation to ensure active involvement of people with severe aphasia. To achieve this, existing tools and techniques made to enhance collaborative goal setting and clinical decision making have to be better incorporated into clinical rehabilitation practice. To ensure the autonomy of the person with aphasia, as well as to respect next of kin's own goals, professionals need to make ethical considerations when next of kin are used as proxies in collaborative goal setting and clinical
Lane, India F; Strand, Elizabeth
Missing in the recent calls for accountability and assurance of veterinary students' clinical competence are similar calls for competence in clinical teaching. Most clinician educators have no formal training in teaching theory or method. At the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM), we have initiated multiple strategies to enhance the quality of teaching in our curriculum and in clinical settings. An interview study of veterinary faculty was completed to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of clinical education; findings were used in part to prepare a professional development program in clinical teaching. Centered on principles of effective feedback, the program prepares participants to organize clinical rotation structure and orientation, maximize teaching moments, improve teaching and participation during formal rounds, and provide clearer summative feedback to students at the end of a rotation. The program benefits from being situated within a larger college-wide focus on teaching improvement. We expect the program's audience and scope to continue to expand.
Barbara S. Ducatman MD
Full Text Available The most common benchmarks for faculty productivity are derived from Medical Group Management Association (MGMA or Vizient-AAMC Faculty Practice Solutions Center ® (FPSC databases. The Association of Pathology Chairs has also collected similar survey data for several years. We examined the Association of Pathology Chairs annual faculty productivity data and compared it with MGMA and FPSC data to understand the value, inherent flaws, and limitations of benchmarking data. We hypothesized that the variability in calculated faculty productivity is due to the type of practice model and clinical effort allocation. Data from the Association of Pathology Chairs survey on 629 surgical pathologists and/or anatomic pathologists from 51 programs were analyzed. From review of service assignments, we were able to assign each pathologist to a specific practice model: general anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists, 1 or more subspecialties, or a hybrid of the 2 models. There were statistically significant differences among academic ranks and practice types. When we analyzed our data using each organization’s methods, the median results for the anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists general practice model compared to MGMA and FPSC results for anatomic and/or surgical pathology were quite close. Both MGMA and FPSC data exclude a significant proportion of academic pathologists with clinical duties. We used the more inclusive FPSC definition of clinical “full-time faculty” (0.60 clinical full-time equivalent and above. The correlation between clinical full-time equivalent effort allocation, annual days on service, and annual work relative value unit productivity was poor. This study demonstrates that effort allocations are variable across academic departments of pathology and do not correlate well with either work relative value unit effort or reported days on service. Although the Association of Pathology Chairs–reported median work relative
The most common benchmarks for faculty productivity are derived from Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) or Vizient-AAMC Faculty Practice Solutions Center® (FPSC) databases. The Association of Pathology Chairs has also collected similar survey data for several years. We examined the Association of Pathology Chairs annual faculty productivity data and compared it with MGMA and FPSC data to understand the value, inherent flaws, and limitations of benchmarking data. We hypothesized that the variability in calculated faculty productivity is due to the type of practice model and clinical effort allocation. Data from the Association of Pathology Chairs survey on 629 surgical pathologists and/or anatomic pathologists from 51 programs were analyzed. From review of service assignments, we were able to assign each pathologist to a specific practice model: general anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists, 1 or more subspecialties, or a hybrid of the 2 models. There were statistically significant differences among academic ranks and practice types. When we analyzed our data using each organization’s methods, the median results for the anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists general practice model compared to MGMA and FPSC results for anatomic and/or surgical pathology were quite close. Both MGMA and FPSC data exclude a significant proportion of academic pathologists with clinical duties. We used the more inclusive FPSC definition of clinical “full-time faculty” (0.60 clinical full-time equivalent and above). The correlation between clinical full-time equivalent effort allocation, annual days on service, and annual work relative value unit productivity was poor. This study demonstrates that effort allocations are variable across academic departments of pathology and do not correlate well with either work relative value unit effort or reported days on service. Although the Association of Pathology Chairs–reported median work relative value unit
Laboratory compliance with the American Society of Clinical Oncology/college of American Pathologists guidelines for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 testing: a College of American Pathologists survey of 757 laboratories.
Nakhleh, Raouf E; Grimm, Erin E; Idowu, Michael O; Souers, Rhona J; Fitzgibbons, Patrick L
To ensure quality human epidermal growth receptor 2 (HER2) testing in breast cancer, the American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guidelines were introduced with expected compliance by 2008. To assess the effect these guidelines have had on pathology laboratories and their ability to address key components. In late 2008, a survey was distributed with the HER2 immunohistochemistry (IHC) proficiency testing program. It included questions regarding pathology practice characteristics and assay validation using fluorescence in situ hybridization or another IHC laboratory assay and assessed pathologist HER2 scoring competency. Of the 907 surveys sent, 757 (83.5%) were returned. The median laboratory accessioned 15 000 cases and performed 190 HER2 tests annually. Quantitative computer image analysis was used by 33% of laboratories. In-house fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed in 23% of laboratories, and 60% of laboratories addressed the 6- to 48-hour tissue fixation requirement by embedding tissue on the weekend. HER2 testing was performed on the initial biopsy in 40%, on the resection specimen in 6%, and on either in 56% of laboratories. Testing was validated with only fluorescence in situ hybridization in 47% of laboratories, whereas 10% of laboratories used another IHC assay only; 13% used both assays, and 12% and 15% of laboratories had not validated their assays or chose "not applicable" on the survey question, respectively. The 90% concordance rate with fluorescence in situ hybridization results was achieved by 88% of laboratories for IHC-negative findings and by 81% of laboratories for IHC-positive cases. The 90% concordance rate for laboratories using another IHC assay was achieved by 80% for negative findings and 75% for positive cases. About 91% of laboratories had a pathologist competency assessment program. This survey demonstrates the extent and characteristics of HER2 testing. Although some American Society of
Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A.; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T.; Lees, Peter
VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve
Van der Merwe, Anita; le Roux, Mia
The objective of this article is to create awareness amongst speech-language pathologists and audiologists in South Africa regarding the difference between the sound systems of Germanic languages and the sound systems of South African Bantu languages. A brief overview of the sound systems of two Bantu languages, namely isiZulu and Setswana, is provided. These two languages are representative of the Nguni language group and the Sotho group respectively.Consideration is given to the notion of language-specific symptoms of speech, language and hearing disorders in addition to universal symptoms. The possible impact of speech production, language and hearing disorders on the ability to produce and perceive speech in these languages, and the challenges that this holds for research and clinical practice, are pointed out.
Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jensen, Asger L
The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review and selection of publications as standard references. The following recommendations are provided in the format and order commonly found in veterinary publications. A checklist is provided to aid in planning, implementing, and evaluating veterinary studies on biologic variation (Appendix S1). These recommendations provide a valuable resource for clinicians, laboratorians, and researchers interested in conducting studies of biologic variation and in determining the quality of studies of biologic variation in veterinary laboratory testing. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Kamstock, D A; Ehrhart, E J; Getzy, D M; Bacon, N J; Rassnick, K M; Moroff, S D; Liu, S M; Straw, R C; McKnight, C A; Amorim, R L; Bienzle, D; Cassali, G D; Cullen, J M; Dennis, M M; Esplin, D G; Foster, R A; Goldschmidt, M H; Gruber, A D; Hellmén, E; Howerth, E W; Labelle, P; Lenz, S D; Lipscomb, T P; Locke, E; McGill, L D; Miller, M A; Mouser, P J; O'Toole, D; Pool, R R; Powers, B E; Ramos-Vara, J A; Roccabianca, P; Ross, A D; Sailasuta, A; Sarli, G; Scase, T J; Schulman, F Y; Shoieb, A M; Singh, K; Sledge, D; Smedley, R C; Smith, K C; Spangler, W L; Steficek, B; Stromberg, P C; Valli, V E; Yager, J; Kiupel, M
Neoplastic diseases are typically diagnosed by biopsy and histopathological evaluation. The pathology report is key in determining prognosis, therapeutic decisions, and overall case management and therefore requires diagnostic accuracy, completeness, and clarity. Successful management relies on collaboration between clinical veterinarians, oncologists, and pathologists. To date there has been no standardized approach or guideline for the submission, trimming, margin evaluation, or reporting of neoplastic biopsy specimens in veterinary medicine. To address this issue, a committee consisting of veterinary pathologists and oncologists was established under the auspices of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists Oncology Committee. These consensus guidelines were subsequently reviewed and endorsed by a large international group of veterinary pathologists. These recommended guidelines are not mandated but rather exist to help clinicians and veterinary pathologists optimally handle neoplastic biopsy samples. Many of these guidelines represent the collective experience of the committee members and consensus group when assessing neoplastic lesions from veterinary patients but have not met the rigors of definitive scientific study and investigation. These questions of technique, analysis, and evaluation should be put through formal scrutiny in rigorous clinical studies in the near future so that more definitive guidelines can be derived.
Barnes, Michael; Srinivas, Chukka; Bai, Isaac; Frederick, Judith; Liu, Wendy; Sarkar, Anindya; Wang, Xiuzhong; Nie, Yao; Portier, Bryce; Kapadia, Monesh; Sertel, Olcay; Little, Elizabeth; Sabata, Bikash; Ranger-Moore, Jim
Pathologists have had increasing responsibility for quantitating immunohistochemistry (IHC) biomarkers with the expectation of high between-reader reproducibility due to clinical decision-making especially for patient therapy. Digital imaging-based quantitation of IHC clinical slides offers a potential aid for improvement; however, its clinical adoption is limited potentially due to a conventional field-of-view annotation approach. In this study, we implemented a novel solely morphology-based whole tumor section annotation strategy to maximize image analysis quantitation results between readers. We first compare the field-of-view image analysis annotation approach to digital and manual-based modalities across multiple clinical studies (~120 cases per study) and biomarkers (ER, PR, HER2, Ki-67, and p53 IHC) and then compare a subset of the same cases (~40 cases each from the ER, PR, HER2, and Ki-67 studies) using whole tumor section annotation approach to understand incremental value of all modalities. Between-reader results for each biomarker in relation to conventional scoring modalities showed similar concordance as manual read: ER field-of-view image analysis: 95.3% (95% CI 92.0-98.2%) vs digital read: 92.0% (87.8-95.8%) vs manual read: 94.9% (91.4-97.8%); PR field-of-view image analysis: 94.1% (90.3-97.2%) vs digital read: 94.0% (90.2-97.1%) vs manual read: 94.4% (90.9-97.2%); Ki-67 field-of-view image analysis: 86.8% (82.1-91.4%) vs digital read: 76.6% (70.9-82.2%) vs manual read: 85.6% (80.4-90.4%); p53 field-of-view image analysis: 81.7% (76.4-86.8%) vs digital read: 80.6% (75.0-86.0%) vs manual read: 78.8% (72.2-83.3%); and HER2 field-of-view image analysis: 93.8% (90.0-97.2%) vs digital read: 91.0 (86.6-94.9%) vs manual read: 87.2% (82.1-91.9%). Subset implementation and analysis on the same cases using whole tumor section image analysis approach showed significant improvement between pathologists over field-of-view image analysis and manual read (HER2 100
Lind, Ann-Kristina; Hydbring-Sandberg, Eva; Forkman, Björn
and to evaluate, overall, how the dog experienced the visit. Three behavior tests were also carried out to describe the dog's reaction in the veterinary clinic: a “social contact” test, a “play” test, and a “treat” test. The play and treat tests were carried out both inside and outside the veterinary clinic...... to see if the dogs reacted differently in the 2 situations. Agreement between observers was good to excellent but generally better when assessing pain than stress. Dogs rated as more stressed were significantly less likely to engage in social contact with an unfamiliar person (P ...A visit to a veterinary clinic can be very stressful for the dog, and stress may interact with pain. The aim of this study was to observe the behavior of dogs in a veterinary clinic and to correlate it with subjective stress assessments by different persons. Systems have already been developed...
Geller, Elaine; Foley, Gilbert M
To outline an expanded framework for clinical practice in speech-language pathology. This framework broadens the focus on discipline-specific knowledge and infuses mental health constructs within the study of communication sciences and disorders, with the objective of expanding the potential "ports or points of entry" (D. Stern, 1995) for clinical intervention with young children who are language impaired. Specific mental health constructs are highlighted in this article. These include relationship-based learning, attachment theory, working dyadically (the client is the child and parent), reflective practice, transference-countertransference, and the use of self. Each construct is explored as to the way it has been applied in traditional and contemporary models of clinical practice. The underlying premise in this framework is that working from a relationally based and reflective perspective augments change and growth in both client and parent(s). The challenge is for speech-language pathologists to embed mental health constructs within their discipline-specific expertise. This leads to paying attention to both observable aspects of clients' behaviors as well as their internal affective states.
Fung, V; Seneviratne, M
Veterinarians are increasingly being asked to provide chemotherapy for veterinary patients. However, chemotherapy agents have cytotoxic effects that can pose a health risk to workers from exposure. There are no published studies examining cytotoxic drug (CTD) contamination in veterinary practices in Australia. CTD use at 13 veterinary clinics and animal hospitals across New South Wales (NSW) was verified for compliance with Work, Health and Safety (WHS) legislation on the effectiveness of exposure control measures. Surface swab sampling was performed to detect the restricted carcinogen cyclophosphamide and seven other CTD. A total of 73 surface swab samples were collected from nine locations associated with CTD delivery, storage, treatment and waste disposal at four veterinary practices, with repeat sampling at two veterinary practices. Compliance with WHS legislation for systematic chemical management, including procedures for safe use of carcinogens, in veterinary practices was high: 4 of the 10 key clauses in WHS chemical management were complied with at all 13 verified workplaces. Surface contamination was detected in three locations, with levels of CTD contaminants ranging from 3.54 to 89 ng per sample. Results showed that, in general, there were safe systems in place to work with CTD in the veterinary practices that were verified in NSW. Areas for improvement were mainly in administrative measures related to hazardous chemical management. Particular attention should be given to raising awareness of the intrinsic hazards of CTD, through training and hazard information provision to staff. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.
Dalley, Jessica S; Creary, Patricia R; Durzi, Tiffany; McMurtry, C Meghan
Although there are existing guidelines for teaching and learning skillful client communication, there remains a need to integrate a developmental focus into veterinary medical curricula to prepare students for interactions with children who accompany their companion animals. The objectives of this teaching tip are (1) to describe the use of a Teddy Bear Clinic Tour as an innovative, applied practice method for teaching veterinary students about clinical communication with children, and (2) to provide accompanying resources to enable use of this method to teach clinical communication at other facilities. This paper includes practical guidelines for organizing a Teddy Bear Clinic Tour at training clinics or colleges of veterinary medicine; an anecdotal description of a pilot study at the Ontario Veterinary College Smith Lane Animal Hospital; and printable resources, including a list of specific clinical communication skills, a sample evaluation sheet for supervisors and students, recommendations for creating a child-friendly environment, examples of child-friendly veterinary vocabulary, and a sample script for a Teddy Bear Clinic Tour. Informed by the resources provided in this teaching tip paper, the Teddy Bear Clinic Tour can be used at your facility as a unique teaching method for clinical communication with children and as a community outreach program to advertise the services at the facility.
McAllister, Sue; Kruger, Samantha; Doeltgen, Sebastian; Tyler-Boltrek, Emma
Speech language pathology (SLP) clinical bedside swallowing assessments (CBSA) are a cornerstone of quality care for patients in acute hospitals who have dysphagia. The CBSA informs clinical diagnosis and decisions regarding further instrumental assessment, and is used to develop a management plan and monitor progress. However, self-report and retrospective research shows that SLPs are highly variable in their use of assessment components considered by experts to be important for quality CBSA, casting doubt on the validity and reliability of CBSA. This prospective study describes the components included by SLPs when designing a standardised evidence based dysphagia assessment protocol for acute care patients and observed patterns of component use. The findings confirm that SLPs use the CBSA for multiple purposes beyond diagnosis of aspiration risk and dysphagia presence/severity. They are highly variable in their use of certain components, but also demonstrate consistent use of a core set. It is apparent that SLPs prioritise the application of clinical reasoning to tailor their CBSA to the patient over following a highly structured item-based protocol. The variability in component use likely reflects a complex clinical reasoning process that draws on a wide variety of information combined with expert knowledge as is also observed in many other medical specialties. Rather than promoting the standardisation of CBSA protocols that constrain SLP practice to strict item-based assessment protocols, consideration should be given to promoting the value and facilitating the clinical reasoning process that supports the utility of the CBSA for diagnosis, patient centred management and treatment planning.
Zeck, Steven; Wall, Judy A; Smith, Bradford P; Wilson, W David; Walsh, Donal A
This article describes an extensive online criterion-referenced evaluation system for the assessment of veterinary students' achievement during their final year's Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (or equivalent) clinical education. Data are reported for the 2001 to 2009 University of California at Davis veterinary graduates, for a total of more than 1,100 students. These criterion-referenced evaluations extensively document the level of clinical skills attained and demonstrated during the individual clinical rotations that comprise the fourth-year curriculum. On average, in each of the 17,500 clinical rotations undertaken during this time period, student performance was assessed in at least 11 separate areas of skills, knowledge, and professional attributes. This provided more than 200,000 criterion-referenced judgments of the individual clinical attributes of graduates over nine years. The system is based on a previously detailed and validated definition of the skills, knowledge, and professional attributes that students should have demonstrated before graduation. The extensive database that this system has provided has established that this system, termed VOLES (VMTH [Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital] On-Line Evaluation System), is an effective tool to assess the clinical capabilities of veterinary students and their achievement of the "Day One" skills required for entering clinical practice. These expected proficiencies are balanced according to the differing expectations that each area of veterinary clinical practice demands.
Friderike Schmidt von Wûhlisch
Full Text Available Limited research has been carried out in the field of speech-language pathology with regard to ways of maximising health literacy and client recall. However, speech-language pathologists (SLPs frequently provide vast amounts of information that clients need to understand, apply and review in order to manage their (or their child’s health. This exploratory study aimed to contribute information about ways in which SLPs can overcome low health literacy and poor client recall so that treatment effectiveness is improved. A case-study design was used with specific focus on four clients receiving treatment for dysphagia, voice disorders (including laryngectomies and cleft lip and/or palate management in Cape Town. Strategies which may be able to maximise health literacy and client recall of clinical information were trialled and evaluated by clients and their SLPs, using semi-structured interviews. The researchers proposed a combination of high-tech strategies which assisted in all the cases. No single solution or universal tool was found that would be appropriate for all. There is a need to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of the combined strategies across a wider population, at different stages of rehabilitation and in diverse contexts. Implications and suggestions for future related research are presented.
Davies, R; London, C; Lascelles, B; Conzemius, M
Veterinary clinical trials generate data that advance the transfer of knowledge from clinical research to clinical practice in human and veterinary settings. The translational success of non-regulated and regulated veterinary clinical studies is dependent upon the reliability and reproducibility of the data generated. Clinician-scientists that conduct veterinary clinical studies would benefit from a commitment to research quality assurance and best practices throughout all non-regulated and regulated research environments. Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidance documents from the FDA provides principles and procedures designed to safeguard data integrity, reliability and reproducibility. While these documents maybe excessive for clinical studies not intended for regulatory oversight it is important to remember that research builds on research. Thus, the quality and accuracy of all data and inference generated throughout the research enterprise remains vulnerable to the impact of potentially unreliable data generated by the lowest performing contributors. The purpose of this first of a series of statement papers is to outline and reference specific quality control and quality assurance procedures that should, at least in part, be incorporated into all veterinary clinical studies.
Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K
The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review......). These recommendations provide a valuable resource for clinicians, laboratorians, and researchers interested in conducting studies of biologic variation and in determining the quality of studies of biologic variation in veterinary laboratory testing....
Oyama, M A; Ellenberg, S S; Shaw, P A
Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are among the most rigorous ways to determine the causal relationship between an intervention and important clinical outcome. Their use in veterinary medicine has become increasingly common, and as is often the case, with progress comes new challenges. Randomized clinical trials yield important answers, but results from these studies can be unhelpful or even misleading unless the study design and reporting are carried out with care. Herein, we offer some perspective on several emerging challenges associated with RCTs, including use of composite endpoints, the reporting of different forms of risk, analysis in the presence of missing data, and issues of reporting and safety assessment. These topics are explored in the context of previously reported veterinary internal medicine studies as well as through illustrative examples with hypothetical data sets. Moreover, many insights germane to RCTs in veterinary internal medicine can be drawn from the wealth of experience with RCTs in the human medical field. A better understanding of the issues presented here can help improve the design, interpretation, and reporting of veterinary RCTs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Humphrey, Sarah; Kirby, Rebecca; Rudloff, Elke
To review magnesium physiology including absorption, excretion, and function within the body, causes of magnesium abnormalities, and the current applications of magnesium monitoring and therapy in people and animals. Magnesium plays a pivotal role in energy production and specific functions in every cell in the body. Disorders of magnesium can be correlated with severity of disease, length of hospital stay, and recovery of the septic patient. Hypermagnesemia is seen infrequently in people and animals with significant consequences reported. Hypomagnesemia is more common in critically ill people and animals, and can be associated with platelet, immune system, neurological, and cardiovascular dysfunction as well as alterations in insulin responsiveness and electrolyte imbalance. Measurement of serum ionized magnesium in critically or chronically ill veterinary patients is practical and provides information necessary for stabilization and treatment. Tissue magnesium concentrations may be assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as through the application of fluorescent dye techniques. Magnesium infusions may play a therapeutic role in reperfusion injury, myocardial ischemia, cerebral infarcts, systemic inflammatory response syndromes, tetanus, digitalis toxicity, bronchospasms, hypercoagulable states, and as an adjunct to specific anesthetic or analgesic protocols. Further veterinary studies are needed to establish the frequency and importance of magnesium disorders in animals and the potential benefit of magnesium infusions as a therapeutic adjunct to specific diseases. The prognosis for most patients with magnesium disorders is variable and largely dependent on the underlying cause of the disorder. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.
... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for speech-language pathologists. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of speech-language pathologists ...
Gruen, Margaret E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Caney, Sarah M. A.; Rishniw, Mark; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.
OBJECTIVE To determine attitudes of small animal practitioners toward veterinary clinical trials and variables influencing their likelihood of participating in such trials. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE Small animal practitioners with membership in 1 of 2 online veterinary communities (n = 163 and 652). PROCEDURES An online survey was developed for each of 2 veterinary communities, and invitations to participate were sent via email. Each survey included questions designed to collect information on the respondents’ willingness to enroll their patients in clinical trials and to recommend participation to clients for their pets. RESULTS More than 80% of respondents to each survey indicated that they spend no time in clinical research. A high proportion of respondents were likely or extremely likely to recommend clinical trial participation to clients for their pets when those trials involved treatments licensed in other countries, novel treatments, respected investigators, or sponsoring by academic institutions, among other reasons. Reasons for not recommending participation included distance, time restrictions, and lack of awareness of ongoing clinical trials; 28% of respondents indicated that they did not usually learn about such clinical trials. Most respondents (79% to 92%) rated their recommendation of a trial as important to their client’s willingness to participate. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Participation in veterinary clinical trials by small animal practitioners and their clients and patients appeared low. Efforts should be increased to raise practitioner awareness of clinical trials for which patients might qualify. Specific elements of trial design were identified that could be modified to increase participation. PMID:28001115
Rose, Nicole; Toews, Lorraine; Pang, Daniel S J
Clinical audit is a quality improvement process with the goal of continuously improving quality of patient care as assessed by explicit criteria. In human medicine clinical audit has become an integral and required component of the standard of care. In contrast, in veterinary medicine there appear to have been a limited number of clinical audits published, indicating that while clinical audit is recognised, its adoption in veterinary medicine is still in its infancy. A systematic review was designed to report and evaluate the veterinary literature on clinical audit in companion animal species (dog, cat, horse). A systematic search of English and French articles using Proquest Dissertations and Theses database (February 6, 2014), CAB Abstracts (March 21, 2014 and April 4, 2014), Scopus (March 21, 2014), Web of Science Citation index (March 21, 2014) and OVID Medline (March 21, 2014) was performed. Included articles were those either discussing clinical audit (such as review articles and editorials) or reporting parts of, or complete, audit cycles. The majority of articles describing clinical audit were reviews. From 89 articles identified, twenty-one articles were included and available for review. Twelve articles were reviews of clinical audit in veterinary medicine, five articles included at least one veterinary clinical audit, one thesis was identified, one report was of a veterinary clinical audit website and two articles reported incomplete clinical audits. There was no indication of an increase in the number of published clinical audits since the first report in 1998. However, there was evidence of article misclassification, with studies fulfilling the criteria of clinical audit not appropriately recognised. Quality of study design and reporting of findings varied considerably, with information missing on key components, including duration of study, changes in practice implemented between audits, development of explicit criteria and appropriate statistical
Matthew, Susan M.; Taylor, Rosanne M.; Ellis, Robert A.
This study investigated veterinary students' experiences of clinic-based learning (CBL) during a comprehensive final year internship programme. Open-ended surveys (n = 93) were used to gather qualitative data about students' conceptions of what is learned during CBL and their approaches to learning in clinics. Phenomenography was used for detailed…
Nielsen, Lindsey K; Whelan, Megan
To review the human and veterinary literature pertaining to all forms of compartment syndrome (CS). Data sources included scientific reviews and original research publications from the human and veterinary literature. While CS affecting the extremities has been recognized in people for decades, other forms of CS in the abdominal and thoracic cavities are recently gaining more attention. The role of CS in critically ill people is a rapidly growing area of interest. More research on prevention and treatment of CS is being conducted in people because some studies have found mortality rates as high as 80% for those suffering from these conditions. While a significant amount of experimental studies of CS have been performed on small animals, there is a marked lack of primary veterinary studies. The majority of the veterinary literature includes case reports and series, and many of these studies were published over a decade ago. However, the increased recognition of CS in people has sparked an interest in veterinary critical care medicine and this has been demonstrated by the recent increased evaluation of compartment pressures in veterinary patients. CS is a complex clinical condition where increased pressure within a compartment can cause significant adverse effects within the compartment as well as throughout the body. Systemic inflammatory responses and local ischemia-reperfusion elements can contribute to the detrimental effects seen in CS. This cascade of events results in increased mortality rates and contributes to the development of CS elsewhere. A better understanding of CS will help veterinarians improve patient care and outcome. Future studies on incidence, prevention, and treatment of CSs in the critical care patient are needed in veterinary medicine. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.
Mariti, Chiara; Pierantoni, Ludovica; Sighieri, Claudio; Gazzano, Angelo
A large survey of Italian dog guardians (n = 906) was conducted to assess dog behavior and welfare at the veterinary clinic and to investigate how guardians and veterinarians affect them. This study confirmed that the veterinary clinic is a source of stress for most dogs, who showed impaired welfare in all phases: in the waiting room, entering the examination room, on the examination table, and when approached by the vet. This study also characterizes some factors related to the guardians' and veterinarians' behavior that affect the dogs' behavior and welfare during the veterinary examination. If dogs had not been examined by a vet since puppyhood, if they did not accept treatments by their guardians, and if they were scolded when refusing a treatment, the risk for having problems with dog welfare and behavior at the veterinary clinic increased. The attention paid by the vet to the dog was found to be positively related with a good response of the dog to the vet. Prevention seems to be the key for the protection of dog welfare related to veterinary care.
McCobb, Emily; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Malcolm, Elizabeth A; Wolfus, Gregory; Rush, John E
Providing veterinary students with opportunities to develop clinical skills in a realistic, hands-on environment remains a challenge for veterinary education. We have developed a novel approach to teaching clinical medicine to fourth-year veterinary students and technical high school students via development of a primary care clinic embedded within a technical high school. The primary care clinic targets an underserved area of the community, which includes many of the participating high school students. Support from the veterinary community for the project has been strong as a result of communication, the opportunity for veterinarians to volunteer in the clinic, and the careful targeting of services. Benefits to veterinary students include the opportunity to build clinical competencies and confidence, as well as the exposure to a diverse client population. The financial model of the clinic is described and initial data on outcomes for case load, clinic income, veterinary student evaluations, and high school students' success in passing the veterinary assisting examination are reported. This clinical model, involving a partnership between a veterinary school and a technical high school, may be adoptable to other clinical teaching situations.
When graduating from veterinary school, veterinary professionals must be ready to enter the complex veterinary profession. Therefore, one of the major responsibilities of any veterinary school is to develop training programmes that support students’ competency development on the trajectory from
Ghodasara, P; Sadowski, P; Satake, N; Kopp, S; Mills, P C
Over the last two decades, technological advancements in the field of proteomics have advanced our understanding of the complex biological systems of living organisms. Techniques based on mass spectrometry (MS) have emerged as powerful tools to contextualise existing genomic information and to create quantitative protein profiles from plasma, tissues or cell lines of various species. Proteomic approaches have been used increasingly in veterinary science to investigate biological processes responsible for growth, reproduction and pathological events. However, the adoption of proteomic approaches by veterinary investigators lags behind that of researchers in the human medical field. Furthermore, in contrast to human proteomics studies, interpretation of veterinary proteomic data is difficult due to the limited protein databases available for many animal species. This review article examines the current use of advanced proteomics techniques for evaluation of animal health and welfare and covers the current status of clinical veterinary proteomics research, including successful protein identification and data interpretation studies. It includes a description of an emerging tool, sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion mass spectra (SWATH-MS), available on selected mass spectrometry instruments. This newly developed data acquisition technique combines advantages of discovery and targeted proteomics approaches, and thus has the potential to advance the veterinary proteomics field by enhancing identification and reproducibility of proteomics data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P
In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Khongsomboon, Khamphong; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Shozo
3D reconstruction from ordinary X-ray equipment which is not CT or MRI is required in clinical veterinary medicine. Authors have already proposed a 3D reconstruction technique from X-ray photograph to present bone structure. Although the reconstruction is useful for veterinary medicine, the thechnique has two problems. One is about exposure of X-ray and the other is about data acquisition process. An x-ray equipment which is not special one but can solve the problems is X-ray fluoroscopy. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for 3D-reconstruction from X-ray fluoroscopy for clinical veterinary medicine. Fluoroscopy is usually used to observe a movement of organ or to identify a position of organ for surgery by weak X-ray intensity. Since fluoroscopy can output a observed result as movie, the previous two problems which are caused by use of X-ray photograph can be solved. However, a new problem arises due to weak X-ray intensity. Although fluoroscopy can present information of not only bone structure but soft tissues, the contrast is very low and it is very difficult to recognize some soft tissues. It is very useful to be able to observe not only bone structure but soft tissues clearly by ordinary X-ray equipment in the field of clinical veterinary medicine. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new method to determine opacity in volume rendering process. The opacity is determined according to 3D differential coefficient of 3D reconstruction. This differential volume rendering can present a 3D structure image of multiple organs volumetrically and clearly for clinical veterinary medicine. This paper shows results of simulation and experimental investigation of small dog and evaluation by veterinarians.
Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter
VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve...... challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation......-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC)] and (iii) when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical...
Smith, Donald F; Hagstrom, Melena R
This paper provides a 50-year overview of research and clinical advances in AAVMC member colleges in four representative fields of veterinary medicine: oncology, vaccine development, production medicine, and public health. Though emphasis is on the progress since the mid-1960s, the salient background and associated personnel in each field are also identified to the extent that their description informs more recent events. Advances in board certification and post-graduate clinical and research educational opportunities are also described.
Weijs, Cynthia A; Coe, Jason B; Hecker, Kent G
Final-year veterinary students must meet baseline clinical competency upon completion of their training for entry to practice. Workplace-based assessments (WBAs), widely used in human medical training to assess post-graduate students' professionalism and clinical performance, have recently been adopted in undergraduate veterinary clinical teaching environments. WBAs should support veterinary trainees' learning in a clinical teaching environment, though utility of WBAs within veterinary education may differ from that in medical training due to differences in context and in learners' stage of clinical development. We conducted focus groups with final-year veterinary students and clinical instructors following the implementation of three WBAs (Direct Observation of Procedural Skills [DOPS], the Mini-Clinical evaluation exercise [Mini-CEX], and the In-Training Evaluation Report [ITER]) during a small-animal primary-veterinary-care rotation. Students and clinical instructors viewed the DOPS and Mini-CEX as feasible and valuable learning and assessment tools that offered an overall opportunity for timely in-the-moment feedback. Instructors viewed the ITER as less feasible in the context of a service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environment. Students believed the ITER had potential to be informative, although in its existing application the ITER had limited utility due to time constraints on instructors that prevented them from providing students with individualized and specific feedback. In service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environments, successful implementation of WBAs requires balancing provision of feedback to students, time demands on clinical instructors, and flexibility of assessment tools.
Norman, E J
This qualitative study investigated the qualities of veterinary student performance that inform a supervisor's impression of their competency. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 supervisors from different veterinary subdisciplines, to elicit descriptions of excellent, weak and marginal students. Thematic analysis of transcriptions revealed 12 themes, of which engagement was frequently discussed and of stated importance, and trustworthiness was a differentiator of weak and marginal students from excellent students. Other themes were knowledge, application of knowledge, technical and animal handling skills, communication, social interaction, personal functioning, caring for animals, impact, prospects and the difficulty in judging competency. Patterns of association of themes were found, however themes were also used independently in unique combinations for most students described. The findings show the range of abilities, behaviours, attitudes and personal characteristics of students that are considered by supervisors and how these are weighted and balanced. The key contribution of engagement and trustworthiness to the overall impression aligns with research indicating their importance for success in clinical practice, as both contributors to competency and indicators of it. The findings may inform future design and investigation of workplace-based learning and in-training evaluation, as well as conceptions of veterinary competency. British Veterinary Association.
Freise, K J; Lin, T-L; Fan, T M; Recta, V; Clark, T P
Noninferiority trials are clinical studies designed to demonstrate that an investigational drug is at least as effective as an established treatment within a predetermined margin. They are conducted, in part, because of ethical concerns of administering a placebo to veterinary patients when an established effective treatment exists. The use of noninferiority trial designs has become more common in veterinary medicine with the increasing number of established veterinary therapeutics and the desire to eliminate potential pain or distress in a placebo-controlled study. Selecting the appropriate active control and an a priori noninferiority margin between the investigational and active control drug are unique and critical design factors for noninferiority studies. Without reliable historical knowledge of the disease response in the absence of treatment and of the response to the selected active control drug, proper design and interpretation of a noninferiority trial is not possible. Despite the appeal of conducting noninferiority trials to eliminate ethical concerns of placebo-controlled studies, there are real limitations and possible ethical conundrums associated with noninferiority trials. The consequences of incorrect study conclusions because of poor noninferiority trial design need careful attention. Alternative trial designs to typical noninferiority studies exist, but these too have limitations and must also be carefully considered. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
The objectives of this study were to assess the adherence of animal health workers to rational antimicrobial prescription guidelines. Data were collected from personnel working in 25 clinics by using structured questionnaires. The data included the methods of diagnosis and drug selection, the frequently prescribed ...
Kidney, Beverly A; Dial, Sharon M; Christopher, Mary M
The Education Committee of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology has identified a need for improved structure and guidance of training residents in clinical pathology. This article is the third in a series of articles that address this need. The goals of this article are to describe learning objectives and competencies in knowledge, abilities, and skills in cytopathology and surgical pathology (CSP); provide options and ideas for training activities; and identify resources in veterinary CSP for faculty, training program coordinators, and residents. Guidelines were developed in consultation with Education Committee members and peer experts and with evaluation of the literature. The primary objectives of training in CSP are: (1) to develop a thorough, extensive, and relevant knowledge base of biomedical and clinical sciences applicable to the practice of CSP in domestic animals, laboratory animals, and other nondomestic animal species; (2) to be able to reason, think critically, investigate, use scientific evidence, and communicate effectively when making diagnoses and consulting and to improve and advance the practice of pathology; and (3) to acquire selected technical skills used in CSP and pathology laboratory management. These guidelines define expected competencies that will help ensure proficiency, leadership, and the advancement of knowledge in veterinary CSP and will provide a useful framework for didactic and clinical activities in resident-training programs.
Clinical features and management of equine post operative ileus (POI): Survey of Diplomates of the American Colleges of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM), Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) and Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (ACVECC).
Lefebvre, D; Hudson, N P H; Elce, Y A; Blikslager, A; Divers, T J; Handel, I G; Tremaine, W H; Pirie, R S
A recent survey of European Colleges (European College of Equine Internal Medicine [ECEIM] and European College of Veterinary Surgeons [ECVS]) revealed the different strategies implemented by, and some of the challenges facing, European clinicians presented with cases of post operative ileus (POI). It was concluded that further comparative analysis of opinions, canvassed from additional colleges of equine veterinary specialism worldwide, would provide valuable additional insight into current POI knowledge on a more global scale. To report and compare the current strategies favoured by American veterinary specialists when managing POI in horses that underwent emergency colic surgery. Cross-sectional survey. Electronic invitations were sent to 814 Large Animal specialists, including 3 colleges: the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM), American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) and the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (ACVECC). The response rate was 14% (115/814). The majority of respondents (68%) reported an estimated prevalence range of POI of 0-20%. The presence of reflux on nasogastric intubation was the main criterion used to define POI. A lesion involving the small intestine was considered the main risk factor for POI. Anti-inflammatory drugs, intravenous (i.v.) fluids and antimicrobial drugs were the primary strategies used when managing POI. Flunixin meglumine and i.v. lidocaine were the drugs most commonly used in the treatment of horses with POI. Supplementary management strategies targeted mainly the prevention of post operative adhesions, infection and inflammation. There is a lack of consensus on the clinical definition of POI. Prospective and objective clinical assessment of the effectiveness of the different strategies contained within this and the European survey is necessary in order to identify a standardised approach to the management of equine POI. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.
Englar, Ryane E
Experiential learning through the use of standardized patients (SPs) is the primary way by which human medical schools teach clinical communication. The profession of veterinary medicine has followed suit in response to new graduates' and their employers' concerns that veterinary interpersonal skills are weak and unsatisfactory. As a result, standardized clients (SCs) are increasingly relied upon as invaluable teaching tools within veterinary curricula to advance relationship-centered care in the context of a clinical scenario. However, there is little to no uniformity in the approach that various colleges of veterinary medicine take when designing simulation-based education (SBE). A further complication is that programs with pre-conceived curricula must now make room for training in clinical communication. Curricular time constraints challenge veterinary colleges to individually decide how best to utilize SCs in what time is available. Because it is a new program, Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) has had the flexibility and the freedom to prioritize an innovative approach to SBE. The author discusses the SBE that is currently underway at MWU CVM, which incorporates 27 standardized client encounters over eight consecutive pre-clinical quarters. Prior to entering clinical rotations, MWU CVM students are exposed to a variety of simulation formats, species, clients, settings, presenting complaints, and communication tasks. These represent key learning opportunities for students to practice clinical communication, develop self-awareness, and strategize their approach to future clinical experiences.
Quinn, P. J
"Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...
Koskinen, Heli I
In this study, the social interactions between students and their teachers in an ambulatory clinic setting were investigated using Bales's interaction process analysis framework. Observational data were collected during five small-group sessions. The observations were quantified, and the behaviors of students and teachers were compared statistically. This study demonstrated that the interaction between students and their teachers was for the most part equal and could be characterized as "positively task oriented." The study has implications for veterinary educators wishing to use social psychology frameworks to assess the quality of learning in small-group clinical setting.
Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt
Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned.
... and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. Keywords: Complementary and alternative veterinary medicine, Integrative veterinary course, Integrative veterinary curriculum, Integrative veterinary medicine, ...
Dingman, P A; Levy, J K; Rockey, L E; Crandall, M M
It is estimated that more than 5 million stray dogs and cats enter animal shelters in the USA each year, but less than half are ever reunited with their owners. Lost pets with identification microchips are up to 21 times more likely to be reunited than those without. Finders of lost pets are more likely to consult veterinarians than shelters for assistance, and pet owners look first to veterinarians for advice regarding pet health, protection, and welfare. An online survey of 1086 veterinary clinics in the South-Eastern USA was conducted to evaluate how veterinary clinics functioned as a part of the pet identification network. Scanning and microchip implants were offered by 91% of surveyed clinics and 41% used 'global' scanners capable of detecting all currently used microchip brands. Clinics more frequently relied on pet owners to register contact information rather than providing this service for clients (52% vs. 43%, respectively). Even though lost dogs are more likely to be reunited with owners than lost cats, microchips and collars were more likely to be recommended for all dogs (85% and 93%, respectively) than for all cats (67% and 61%, respectively). Only half of clinics that recommended identification collars made them available to their clients. Veterinarians can protect animals, pet owners and the human-animal bond by integrating pet identification into preventive health care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McDonough, S P; McEwen, B J
Veterinary forensic pathology is emerging as a distinct discipline, and this special issue is a major step forward in establishing the scientific basis of the discipline. A forensic necropsy uses the same skill set needed for investigations of natural disease, but the analytical framework and purpose of forensic pathology differ significantly. The requirement of legal credibility and all that it entails distinguishes the forensic from routine diagnostic cases. Despite the extraordinary depth and breadth of knowledge afforded by their training, almost 75% of veterinary pathologists report that their training has not adequately prepared them to handle forensic cases. Many veterinary pathologists, however, are interested and willing to develop expertise in the discipline. Lessons learned from tragic examples of wrongful convictions in medical forensic pathology indicate that a solid foundation for the evolving discipline of veterinary forensic pathology requires a commitment to education, training, and certification. The overarching theme of this issue is that the forensic necropsy is just one aspect in the investigation of a case of suspected animal abuse or neglect. As veterinary pathologists, we must be aware of the roles filled by other veterinary forensic experts involved in these cases and how our findings are an integral part of an investigation. We hope that the outcome of this special issue of the journal is that veterinary pathologists begin to familiarize themselves with not only forensic pathology but also all aspects of veterinary forensic science. © The Author(s) 2016.
Pusterla, Nicola; Mapes, Samantha; Leutenegger, Christian M
A questionnaire was developed to document the knowledge base of large-animal diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) regarding polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology and to identify the common use of this technology in equine practice. Ninety-three of the 278 mailed questionnaires were returned, for an overall response rate of 33.4%. Ninety respondents (99%) reported being familiar with the general principles of nucleic acid probe technology; however, only 52 (57%) knew the difference between conventional (traditional) and real-time (second-generation) PCR. The majority of the respondents (88%) emphasized the need for continuing education on molecular diagnostics. Eighty-four (92%) of the respondents regularly use PCR (conventional and/or real-time) for the detection of equine pathogens, and 80 (88%) commonly submit their samples to university/state veterinary laboratories. Blood, nasal swabs, and feces are the three equine specimens most commonly submitted for PCR analysis of Streptococcus equi, Lawsonia intracellularis, Neorickettsia risticii, equine herpesvirus 1/4, Rhodococcus equi, Sarcocystis neurona, and equine influenza virus. Diplomates reported costs associated with molecular diagnostics and unreliability of PCR as the most common limitations of PCR. Didactic training in veterinary curricula and during continuing-education opportunities continues to be necessary to produce veterinarians who have an understanding of the clinical applications of molecular diagnostics.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(3). 2017. Gberindyer et al. 250. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2017. Vol 38 (3): 250-259. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Drugs Prescription Pattern in Dogs Diagnosed with Parvovirus Enteritis in Some Veterinary Clinics in Nigeria. Gberindyer, F. A.. 1.
Ryan, Marion T; Irwin, Jane A; Bannon, Finian J; Mulholland, Clive W; Baird, Alan W
This study has two purposes. The first is to explore an instrument of evaluation of the approaches to study (deep, strategic, and surface) adopted by students in the pre-clinical years of their veterinary degree program. The second is to examine relationships between these approaches and a broad range of further factors deemed relevant to the veterinary medicine context. We envisage that a greater knowledge of how these students learn will aid curriculum reform in a way that will enrich the learning experience of veterinary students. A questionnaire consisting of the 52-question Approaches to Study Inventory (ASI) and an additional 49 questions relating mainly to teaching, assessment, and study skills was distributed to 215 veterinary medicine (MVB) students in their pre-clinical years of study. Factor analysis was used to ensure that the ASI section of the questionnaire maintained previously reported structure. The internal reliability of the approaches measured was tested using Cronbach alpha analysis. The approaches were described as frequency distributions. Associations between the parameters (deep, strategic, and surface) and 49 additional context-specific factors were investigated using loglinear analysis. (1) Factor analysis revealed that the integrity and structure of the instrument in this context was generally comparable to previous studies. (2) The impact of a high workload was evident in the surface approach, with fear of failure becoming a strong motivating factor and syllabus boundness a widely used strategy. (3) Associations made between the approaches and 49 context-specific factors showed strong associations between both workload and lack of prior knowledge with the surface approach. (4) Grades were associated positively with both the deep and strategic approaches but negatively with the surface approach. (5) A range of learning and study skills were associated positively with the deep and strategic approaches and negatively with the surface
Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G
This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.
Higgins, Helen M; Ferguson, Eamonn; Smith, Robert F; Green, Martin J
In the face of a steady decline in dairy cow fertility over several decades, using hormones to assist reproduction has become common. In the European Union, hormones are prescription-only medicines, giving veterinary practitioners a central role in their deployment. This study explored the clinical and ethical beliefs of practitioners, and provides data on their current prescribing practices. During 2011, 93 practitioners working in England completed a questionnaire (95% response rate). Of the 714 non-organic farms they attended, only 4 farms (0.6%) never used hormones to assist the insemination of lactating dairy cows. Practitioners agreed (>80%) that hormones improve fertility and farm businesses profitability. They also agreed (>80%) that if farmers are able to tackle management issues contributing to poor oestrus expression, then over a five year period these outcomes would both improve, relative to using hormones instead. If management issues are addressed instead of prescribing hormones, practitioners envisaged a less favourable outcome for veterinary practices profitability (p<0.01), but an improvement in genetic selection for fertility (p<0.01) and overall cow welfare (p<0.01). On farms making no efforts to address underlying management problems, long-term routine use at the start of breeding for timing artificial insemination or inducing oestrus was judged "unacceptable" by 69% and 48% of practitioners, respectively. In contrast, practitioners agreed (≥ 90%) that both these types of use are acceptable, provided a period of time has been allowed to elapse during which the cow is observed for natural oestrus. Issues discussed include: weighing quality versus length of cow life, fiscal factors, legal obligations, and balancing the interests of all stakeholders, including the increasing societal demand for food. This research fosters debate and critical appraisal, contributes to veterinary ethics, and encourages the pro-active development of professional
Thiam, Ibou; Doh, Kwame; Hassan-Farah, Samatar; Tagba, Essolam; Leloua, Adolph; Woto-Gaye, Gisèle
Intra-thyroid metastases (ITM) are rarely observed clinically. The high blood flow of the thyroid and its high content of iodine explain this rarity. The clinical and radiological criteria of ITM are not very specific. The pathologist is the principal actor of ITM diagnosis. Cytology, intraoperative examination and histological techniques are the means available. The microscopic aspects of ITM are varied. Art is to differentiate ITM to undifferentiated primary tumor. We report two cases of ITM in patients aged 49 and 52 years, respectively. We discuss diagnostic methods and challenges for pathologists in identifying such lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Molecular Biomarkers for the Evaluation of Colorectal Cancer: Guideline From the American Society for Clinical Pathology, College of American Pathologists, Association for Molecular Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Sepulveda, Antonia R; Hamilton, Stanley R; Allegra, Carmen J; Grody, Wayne; Cushman-Vokoun, Allison M; Funkhouser, William K; Kopetz, Scott E; Lieu, Christopher; Lindor, Noralane M; Minsky, Bruce D; Monzon, Federico A; Sargent, Daniel J; Singh, Veena M; Willis, Joseph; Clark, Jennifer; Colasacco, Carol; Rumble, R Bryan; Temple-Smolkin, Robyn; Ventura, Christina B; Nowak, Jan A
To develop evidence-based guideline recommendations through a systematic review of the literature to establish standard molecular biomarker testing of colorectal cancer (CRC) tissues to guide epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapies and conventional chemotherapy regimens. The American Society for Clinical Pathology, College of American Pathologists, Association for Molecular Pathology, and American Society of Clinical Oncology convened an expert panel to develop an evidence-based guideline to establish standard molecular biomarker testing and guide therapies for patients with CRC. A comprehensive literature search that included more than 4,000 articles was conducted. Twenty-one guideline statements were established. Evidence supports mutational testing for EGFR signaling pathway genes, since they provide clinically actionable information as negative predictors of benefit to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapies for targeted therapy of CRC. Mutations in several of the biomarkers have clear prognostic value. Laboratory approaches to operationalize CRC molecular testing are presented. Key Words: Molecular diagnostics; Gastrointestinal; Histology; Genetics; Oncology. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Clinical Pathology, College of American Pathologists, Association for Molecular Pathology, American Society for Clinical Oncology, and American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Scrivani, Peter V; Erb, Hollis N
High quality clinical research is essential for advancing knowledge in the areas of veterinary radiology and radiation oncology. Types of clinical research studies may include experimental studies, method-comparison studies, and patient-based studies. Experimental studies explore issues relative to pathophysiology, patient safety, and treatment efficacy. Method-comparison studies evaluate agreement between techniques or between observers. Patient-based studies investigate naturally acquired disease and focus on questions asked in clinical practice that relate to individuals or populations (e.g., risk, accuracy, or prognosis). Careful preplanning and study design are essential in order to achieve valid results. A key point to planning studies is ensuring that the design is tailored to the study objectives. Good design includes a comprehensive literature review, asking suitable questions, selecting the proper sample population, collecting the appropriate data, performing the correct statistical analyses, and drawing conclusions supported by the available evidence. Most study designs are classified by whether they are experimental or observational, longitudinal or cross-sectional, and prospective or retrospective. Additional features (e.g., controlled, randomized, or blinded) may be described that address bias. Two related challenging aspects of study design are defining an important research question and selecting an appropriate sample population. The sample population should represent the target population as much as possible. Furthermore, when comparing groups, it is important that the groups are as alike to each other as possible except for the variables of interest. Medical images are well suited for clinical research because imaging signs are categorical or numerical variables that might be predictors or outcomes of diseases or treatments. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.
Siska, William; Gupta, Aradhana; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Tripathi, Niraj; von Beust, Barbara
Clinical pathology testing is routinely performed in target animal safety studies in order to identify potential toxicity associated with administration of an investigational veterinary pharmaceutical product. Regulatory and other testing guidelines that address such studies provide recommendations for clinical pathology testing but occasionally contain outdated analytes and do not take into account interspecies physiologic differences that affect the practical selection of appropriate clinical pathology tests. Additionally, strong emphasis is often placed on statistical analysis and use of reference intervals for interpretation of test article-related clinical pathology changes, with limited attention given to the critical scientific review of clinically, toxicologically, or biologically relevant changes. The purpose of this communication from the Regulatory Affairs Committee of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology is to provide current recommendations for clinical pathology testing and data interpretation in target animal safety studies and thereby enhance the value of clinical pathology testing in these studies.
Geller, Elaine; Foley, Gilbert M.
Purpose: To offer a framework for clinical supervision in speech-language pathology that embeds a mental health perspective within the study of communication sciences and disorders. Method: Key mental health constructs are examined as to how they are applied in traditional versus relational and reflective supervision models. Comparisons between…
Geller, Elaine; Foley, Gilbert M.
Purpose: To outline an expanded framework for clinical practice in speech-language pathology. This framework broadens the focus on discipline-specific knowledge and infuses mental health constructs within the study of communication sciences and disorders, with the objective of expanding the potential "ports or points of entry" (D. Stern, 1995) for…
Freeman, Kathleen P; Bauer, Natali; Jensen, Asger L; Thoresen, Stein
A trend in human and veterinary medical laboratory management is to achieve accreditation based on international standards. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15189 standard is the first developed especially for accreditation of medical laboratories, and emphasizes the laboratory-client interface. European veterinary laboratories seeking to train candidates for the certification examination of the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP) require approval by the ECVCP Laboratory Standards Committee, which bases its evaluation in part on adherence to quality systems described in the ISO 15189 standards. The purpose of this article was to introduce the latest ISO quality standard and describe its application to veterinary laboratories in Europe, specifically as pertains to accreditation of laboratories involved in training veterinary clinical pathologists. Between 2003 and 2006, the Laboratory Standards Committee reviewed 12 applications from laboratories (3 commercial and 9 university) involved in training veterinary clinical pathologists. Applicants were asked to provide a description of the facilities for training and testing, current methodology and technology, health and safety policy, quality assurance policy (including internal quality control and participation in an external quality assurance program), written standard operating procedures (SOPs) and policies, a description of the laboratory information system, and personnel and training. Also during this time period multiple informal and formal discussions among ECVCP diplomates took place as to current practices and perceived areas of concern with regard to laboratory accreditation requirements. Areas in which improvement most often was needed in veterinary laboratories applying for ECVCP accreditation were the written quality plan, defined quality requirements for the tests performed, written SOPs and policies, training records, ongoing audits and competency
Gwaltney-Brant, S M
Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available Mycoses affecting dogs are widely distributed worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of fungi isolated from dogs. A retrospective study was performed to determine the main mycoses that affected dogs at a private veterinary clinic in Callao, Peru. Isolates were collected from skin and ear from 2003 to 2012. Fungi species were identified by standard microbiological techniques. A total of 54 fungi were isolated from 124 mycological studies; the most prevalent fungal species were Malassezia pachydermatis (51.86 % and Microsporum canis (27.78 %. The principal breeds affected were mongrel (31.52 %, boxer (11.1% and shih tzu (11.1 %. M. pachydermatis represented 58.8 % and 43.2 % of isolates in mongrel breed and in skin samples respectively. M. pachydermatis was the most frequent fungus getting >50 % of all isolates. Microsporum canis and Aspergillus spp. had >40 % presence.
Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Sato, Motoyoshi
3D imaging technique is very important and indispensable in diagnosis. The main stream of the technique is one in which 3D image is reconstructed from a set of slice images, such as X-ray CT and MRI. However, these systems require large space and high costs. On the other hand, a low cost and small size 3D imaging system is needed in clinical veterinary medicine, for example, in the case of diagnosis in X-ray car or pasture area. We propose a novel 3D imaging technique using 2-D X-ray radiographic images. This system can be realized by cheaper system than X-ray CT and enables to get 3D image in X-ray car or portable X-ray equipment. In this paper, a 3D visualization technique from 2-D radiographic images is proposed and several reconstructions are shown. These reconstructions are evaluated by veterinarians.
Haider, Najmul; Khan, S. U.; Islam, A.
As in most low-income countries, adequate laboratory facilities are not available in Bangladesh to assist veterinarians in diagnosing animal diseases. We aimed to determine the efficiency of veterinary diagnoses for two common ruminant diseases in Bangladesh: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR......) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). We conducted the study from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals where veterinarians collected samples from sick livestock and recorded the presumptive diagnosis on the basis of clinical presentations. Samples were tested for PPR and FMD using...
Rondon, F. C. M.; Bevilaqua, C.M.L.; Franke,C.R.; Barros, R. S.; Oliveira,F.R.; Alcântara, Adriano Costa de; Diniz, A. T.
Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 24-31 Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important reemerging parasitic disease in the world. The domestic dog is the main reservoir in urban environments. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge on canine Leishmania infection in the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil, identifying the risk factors inherent in dog susceptibility to the infection. Two populations were analyzed, domestic dogs from clinics and the Veterinary ...
Jacob, Megan E; Hoppin, Jane A; Steers, Nicola; Davis, Jennifer L; Davidson, Gigi; Hansen, Bernie; Lunn, Katharine F; Murphy, K Marcia; Papich, Mark G
To determine opinions of faculty members with clinical appointments, clinical veterinarians, residents, and interns at a US veterinary teaching hospital regarding antimicrobial use and antimicrobial-resistant infections. Cross-sectional survey. 71 veterinarians. An online questionnaire was sent to all veterinarians with clinical service responsibilities at the North Carolina State University veterinary teaching hospital (n = 167). The survey included 23 questions regarding demographic information, educational experiences, current prescribing practices, and personal opinions related to antimicrobial selection, antimicrobial use, restrictions on antimicrobial use, and antimicrobial resistance. Of the 167 veterinarians eligible to participate, 71 (43%) responded. When respondents were asked to rate their level of concern (very concerned = 1; not concerned = 5) about antimicrobial-resistant infections, most (41/70 [59%]) assigned a score of 1, with mean score for all respondents being 1.5. Most survey participants rated their immediate colleagues (mean score, 1.9) as more concerned than other veterinary medical professionals (mean score, 2.3) and their clients (mean score, 3.4). Fifty-nine of 67 (88%) respondents felt that antimicrobials were overprescribed at the hospital, and 32 of 69 (46%) respondents felt uncomfortable prescribing at least one class of antimicrobials (eg, carbapenems or glycopeptides) because of public health concerns. Findings indicated that veterinarians at this teaching hospital were concerned about antimicrobial resistance, thought antimicrobials were overprescribed, and supported restricting use of certain antimicrobial classes in companion animals. Findings may be useful in educating future veterinarians and altering prescribing habits and antimicrobial distribution systems in veterinary hospitals.
Wobeser, B K; Kidney, B A; Powers, B E; Withrow, S J; Mayer, M N; Spinato, M T; Allen, A L
Amputation is commonly performed in an attempt to both treat and diagnose conditions affecting the digits of cats. The records of multiple veterinary diagnostic laboratories were searched to identify submissions of amputated digits from cats. Eighty-five separate submissions were reviewed for diagnosis, age, sex, limb of origin, and digits affected; and the original submitting clinics were surveyed to determine clinical outcome. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to determine the disease-free interval and survival time. Neoplastic disease was identified in 63 of 85 submissions, with exclusively inflammatory lesions composing the other 22 cases. In 60 (95.2%) of the neoplastic cases, a malignant tumor was identified. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most commonly identified malignant tumor (n = 15; 23.8%) and was associated with a median survival time of 73 days. Other diagnoses included fibrosarcoma (n = 14; 22.2%); adenocarcinoma, likely metastases of a primary pulmonary neoplasm (n = 13; 20.6%); osteosarcoma (n = 5; 7.9%); mast cell tumor (n = 4; 6.3%); hemangiosarcoma (n = 5; 7.9%); malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n = 2; 3.2%); giant cell tumor of bone (n = 2; 3.2%); and hemangioma (n = 2; 3.2%). Giant cell tumor of bone has not been previously described in the digits of cats. Various neoplasms can occur in the digits of cats, and submission of the amputated digit for histopathologic diagnosis is essential to determine the histogenesis and predict the clinical outcome.
Hammersley, E; Duz, M; Marshall, J F
Triamcinolone is commonly used in equine practice for the treatment of orthopaedic conditions. A serious potential adverse effect of triamcinolone is laminitis. However, evidence for the risk of laminitis associated with triamcinolone use is limited. To determine the risk of laminitis within 90 days of triamcinolone administration and compare with the risk of laminitis in a veterinary-attended horse population. Retrospective study of clinical records. Text mining and data extraction was performed using content analysis software (SimStat-WordStat v.6) on a database of anonymous digital clinical records from a convenience sample of North American equine practices (n = 9). Medical records were retrieved using a dictionary of keywords for 3 groups of horses: 1) treated with triamcinolone, 2) age and practice matched control population (no triamcinolone) and 3) all laminitic horses. Records of horses within Groups 1 and 2 were mined for evidence of laminitis within a 90-day period of treatment or a random date respectively. Data manipulation and analysis was performed using R v3.0.0 (R Development Core Team). The prevalence of laminitis within all groups was determined and relative risk of developing laminitis determined by single logistic regression. The clinical records of 225,777 horses were examined. Overall prevalence of laminitis within the database was 1.1% (n = 2533). Triamcinolone was administered to 12.4% (n = 27,898) horses and 0.07% of treated horses (n = 20) developed laminitis. In the control population (n = 56,695), 0.2% of horses (n = 134) developed laminitis. The risk of developing laminitis was significantly lower in the triamcinolone treatment group than the control population (OR 0.3 95%CI, 0.18-0.48 PVeterinary Medicine at the University of Glasgow. Owners gave informed consent for their horses' inclusion in the study. Sources of funding: John Crawford Endowment Fund, University of Glasgow. Competing interests
Melissa Medeiros Markoski
Full Text Available Today, several veterinary diseases may be treated with the administration of stem cells. This is possible because these cells present a high therapeutic potential and may be injected as autologous or allogenic, freshly isolated, or previously cultured. The literature supports that the process is safe and brings considerable benefits to animal health. Knowledge about how adult stem cells modulate the molecular signals to activate cell homing has also been increasingly determined, evidencing the mechanisms which enable cells to repair and regenerate injured tissues. Preclinical studies were designed for many animal models and they have contributed to the translation to the human clinic. This review shows the most commonly used stem cell types, with emphasis on mesenchymal stem cells and their mechanistic potential to repair, as well as the experimental protocols, studied diseases, and species with the highest amount of studies and applications. The relationship between stem cell protocols utilized on clinics, molecular mechanisms, and the physiological responses may offer subsidies to new studies and therefore improve the therapeutic outcome for both humans and animals.
Markoski, Melissa Medeiros
Today, several veterinary diseases may be treated with the administration of stem cells. This is possible because these cells present a high therapeutic potential and may be injected as autologous or allogenic, freshly isolated, or previously cultured. The literature supports that the process is safe and brings considerable benefits to animal health. Knowledge about how adult stem cells modulate the molecular signals to activate cell homing has also been increasingly determined, evidencing the mechanisms which enable cells to repair and regenerate injured tissues. Preclinical studies were designed for many animal models and they have contributed to the translation to the human clinic. This review shows the most commonly used stem cell types, with emphasis on mesenchymal stem cells and their mechanistic potential to repair, as well as the experimental protocols, studied diseases, and species with the highest amount of studies and applications. The relationship between stem cell protocols utilized on clinics, molecular mechanisms, and the physiological responses may offer subsidies to new studies and therefore improve the therapeutic outcome for both humans and animals.
Ferguson, Duncan C; McNeil, Leslie Klis; Schaeffe, David J; Mills, Eric M
First-year didactic course instructors at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine leverage earlier clinical rotation experiences with weekly "Clinical Correlations" exercises to provide early exposure to critical clinical thinking (CCT). This study evaluated the efficacy of individual and paired group exercises on CCT development. Before and after instruction, the Cornell Critical Thinking Test (Level Z) (CCTTZ) was administered. Based on the hypothesis that students with higher scores would coach lower-scoring colleagues during group exercises, heterogeneous groups with similar mean scores were established for the year. Students completed 14 individual and paired group exercises over 6 months. Exercises were designed to increase in complexity and decline in scaffolding. Seven of the exercises were cases using the Applied Learning Platform (ALP) at http://www.whenknowingmatters.com . Student analyses were scored according to a six-category critical-thinking rubric using a 5-point scale. Consistent with our hypothesis, individual and group rubric scores increased significantly, plateauing near the end of the year. Contrary to our hypothesis, mean overall CCTTZ scores did not change, but there was a small statistically significant increase in the ability to assess the validity of an argument. Student attitudes were mixed. Positive comments focused on reinforcement of prior didactic instruction, while negative comments focused on preparation time needed to conduct research on clinical concepts, and on a lack of explicit evaluation by summative examinations. Nonetheless, end-of-year GPAs correlated linearly with cumulative individual rubric scores. In summary, the value of early curriculum CCT training was confirmed when discipline-specific criteria were applied.
Ribitsch, I.; Burk, J.; Delling, U.; Geißler, C.; Gittel, C.; Jülke, H.; Brehm, W.
Stem cells play an important role in veterinary medicine in different ways. Currently several stem cell therapies for animal patients are being developed and some, like the treatment of equine tendinopathies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have already successfully entered the market. Moreover, animal models are widely used to study the properties and potential of stem cells for possible future applications in human medicine. Therefore, in the young and emerging field of stem cell research, human and veterinary medicine are intrinsically tied to one another. Many of the pioneering innovations in the field of stem cell research are achieved by cooperating teams of human and veterinary medical scientists.
Newbery, S G; Cooke, S W; Martineau, H M
Internationally, forensic medicine and pathology are increasingly recognized as an important aspect of work done by veterinary clinicians and veterinary pathologists. In this article, a forensic veterinary clinician, a forensic veterinary pathologist in private practice, and a forensic veterinary pathologist at a veterinary school discuss the interactions among veterinary clinicians, veterinary pathologists, and law enforcement agencies and how future interactions can be improved. The focus is on the United Kingdom, but many of the principles, challenges, and suggestions are applicable to other jurisdictions. Clinicians and pathologists require forensic training to enable them to apply their veterinary knowledge to suspected cases of animal abuse and to subsequently present their findings and conclusions to a court of law in a concise, professional, and unbiased manner, and some opportunities for such advanced training in the United Kingdom are indicated. It is important that forensic veterinary clinicians and pathologists interact in an unbiased and collegial manner to answer the questions posed by courts of law. Opportunities for improved training, communication, and interaction among forensic veterinarians, forensic scientists, and law enforcement are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
Maluping, R P; Paul, N C; Moodley, A
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a leading aetiologic agent of pyoderma and other body tissue infections in dogs and cats. In recent years, an increased prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has been reported. Isolation of MRSP in serious infections poses a major therapeutic challenge as strains are often resistant to all forms of systemic antibiotic used to treat S. pseudintermedius -related infections. This study investigates the occurrence of MRSP from a total of 7183 clinical samples submitted to the authors' laboratories over a 15-month period. Identification was based on standard microbiological identification methods, and by S. pseudintermedius-specific nuc polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methicillin resistance was confirmed by PBP2a latex agglutination and mecA PCR. Susceptibility against non-beta-lactam antibiotics was carried out using a disc-diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. In addition, susceptibility to pradofloxacin--a new veterinary fluoroquinolone--was also investigated. SCCmec types were determined by multiplex PCR. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was isolated from 391 (5%) samples and 20 were confirmed as MRSP from cases of pyoderma, otitis, wound infections, urinary tract infection and mastitis in dogs only. All 20 isolates were resistant to clindamycin and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Nineteen were resistant to chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, marbofloxacin and pradofloxacin; additionally, seven isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Fifteen isolates carried SCCmec type II-III, four isolates had type V and one harboured type IV. To date, only a few scientific papers on clinical MRSP strains isolated from the UK have been published, thus the results from this study would provide additional baseline data for further investigations.
Zaninelli, M; Campagnoli, A; Reyes, M; Rojas, V
In order to improve the hospital information system of the Chilean University Hospital, the Veterinary Medicine School of Universidad de Chile made a research cooperation with Università San Raffaele Roma to develop and test a new release of the O3-Vet software application. O3-Vet was selected by the Chilean University mainly for two reasons: (1) it uses human medicine standardized technologies such as "Health Level 7" (HL7) and "Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise" (IHE), which allow a good level of data sharing and hospital management; (2) it is open source, which means it can be adapted to specific hospital needs. In the new release, a subset of diagnostic terms was added from the "Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms" (SNOMED CT), selected by the "American Animal Hospital Association" (AAHA) to standardize the filing of clinical data and its retrieval. Results from a limited survey of veterinarians of the University (n=9) show that the new release improved the management of the Chilean University Hospital and the ability to retrieve useful clinical data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khosa, Deep K; Volet, Simone E; Bolton, John R
The value of collaborative concept mapping in assisting students to develop an understanding of complex concepts across a broad range of basic and applied science subjects is well documented. Less is known about students' learning processes that occur during the construction of a concept map, especially in the context of clinical cases in veterinary medicine. This study investigated the unfolding collaborative learning processes that took place in real-time concept mapping of a clinical case by veterinary medical students and explored students' and their teacher's reflections on the value of this activity. This study had two parts. The first part investigated the cognitive and metacognitive learning processes of two groups of students who displayed divergent learning outcomes in a concept mapping task. Meaningful group differences were found in their level of learning engagement in terms of the extent to which they spent time understanding and co-constructing knowledge along with completing the task at hand. The second part explored students' and their teacher's views on the value of concept mapping as a learning and teaching tool. The students' and their teacher's perceptions revealed congruent and contrasting notions about the usefulness of concept mapping. The relevance of concept mapping to clinical case-based learning in veterinary medicine is discussed, along with directions for future research.
SCOPE The Editorial Board of the Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) welcomes contributions in the form of original research papers, review articles, clinical case reports, and short communications on all aspects of Veterinary Medicine, Surgery and Animal Production. Submissions are accepted on the understanding that ...
Pavlovic, Melanie; Wudy, Corinna; Zeller-Peronnet, Veronique; Maggipinto, Marzena; Zimmermann, Pia; Straubinger, Alix; Iwobi, Azuka; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Busch, Ulrich; Huber, Ingrid
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently emerged as a rapid and accurate identification method for bacterial species. Although it has been successfully applied for the identification of human pathogens, it has so far not been well evaluated for routine identification of veterinary bacterial isolates. This study was performed to compare and evaluate the performance of MALDI-TOF MS based identification of veterinary bacterial isolates with commercially available conventional test systems. Discrepancies of both methods were resolved by sequencing 16S rDNA and, if necessary, the infB gene for Actinobacillus isolates. A total of 375 consecutively isolated veterinary samples were collected. Among the 357 isolates (95.2%) correctly identified at the genus level by MALDI-TOF MS, 338 of them (90.1% of the total isolates) were also correctly identified at the species level. Conventional methods offered correct species identification for 319 isolates (85.1%). MALDI-TOF identification therefore offered more accurate identification of veterinary bacterial isolates. An update of the in-house mass spectra database with additional reference spectra clearly improved the identification results. In conclusion, the presented data suggest that MALDI-TOF MS is an appropriate platform for classification and identification of veterinary bacterial isolates.
Ward, Billy, C.
Results of a study by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists to investigate mechanisms to facilitate sharing of audiovisual programs include a content analysis in veterinary pathology, a guidebook for the preparation of instruction, 20 instructional programs, a lesson evaluation mechanism, and a proposal for sharing programs. (JMD)
Ober, Christopher P
When confronted with various findings on thoracic radiographs, fourth-year veterinary students often have difficulty generating appropriate lists of differential diagnoses. The purpose of this one-group, pretest, posttest experimental study was to determine if a game could be used as an adjunct teaching method to improve students' understanding of connections between imaging findings and differential diagnoses. A novel board game focusing on differential diagnoses in thoracic radiography was developed. One hundred fourth-year veterinary students took a brief pretest, played the board game, and took a brief posttest as a part of their respective clinical radiology rotations. Pretest results were compared to posttest results using a paired t-test to determine if playing the game impacted student understanding. Students' mean scores on the posttest were significantly higher than mean pretest scores (P board game resulted in improved short-term understanding of thoracic differential diagnoses by fourth-year students, and use of the board game on a clinical rotation seems to be a beneficial part of the learning process. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Dooley, Laura M; Frankland, Sarah; Boller, Elise; Tudor, Elizabeth
There has been a recent move toward active learning pedagogies in veterinary education, with increasing use of a blended approach that incorporates both online resources and live classroom sessions. In this study, an established veterinary pre-clinical course in introductory animal health was transitioned from a traditional didactic lecture delivery mode to a flipped classroom approach with core content delivered online. This study compared the experiences of two cohorts of students who studied the same course in the different formats in consecutive years. Online learning resources included short video segments and a variety of short problems and activities. Online materials were complemented with weekly small- group case-based learning classes facilitated by academic staff. A mixed methods evaluation strategy was applied using student grades, surveys, and focus groups to compare student academic performance, satisfaction and engagement between the two cohorts. The flipped classroom cohort achieved significantly higher grades in the written answer section of the final examination. Student satisfaction with learning resources was also higher in this cohort. However, satisfaction with other aspects of the course were largely the same for both cohorts. This study revealed some of the challenges associated with achieving adequate student preparation for class using online resources. The outcomes of this study have implications for veterinary educators considering the design and development of new online learning resources.
Vergnano, D; Bergero, D; Valle, E
Nutrition plays a very important role in the healthy and in the ill horse. Although research in this field clearly shows that incorrect nutritional practices may lead to severe pathologies, inappropriate feeding plans often continue to be used. A clinical nutrition counselling (CNC) service could thus be of great use to both horse owners and veterinarians. The aim of this study was to provide information on equine patients referred to the CNC service of the University of Turin and to provide standard dietary protocols as used in our Veterinary Teaching Hospital for the most common nutrition-related pathologies. The data were obtained by retrospective analysis of the nutritional records of referred equine patients. The data collected included information about anamnesis, nutritional assessment, current diet, referring person and follow-up of each patient. Sixty-one horses were included in the study. The majority were adult males. The most common breeds were the Italian Saddle Horse and the Friesian Horse. Old horses (>19 years) had a statistically lower BCS than brood mares or other adult horses (p < 0.01). The most common nutritional pathologies were chronic weight loss (CWL), chronic diarrhoea (CD) and equine gastric ulcer syndrome. All horses received first-cut meadow hay; 85% also ate concentrates. Young horses (<2 years) received more hay as a percentage of body weight (BW) than old horses or adults. The hay percentage of BW per day given to animals with CWL was statistically higher than those with CD (p < 0.01). The concentrate percentage of BW given to old horses was statistically lower compared to that given to young horses (p < 0.05). The concentrate percentage of BW per day given to horses with colic was statistically higher than that given to horses with CD (p < 0.05). 28% of cases were referred by the owner and 72% by a veterinarian. Follow-up evaluation was deemed to be 'good' in 92% cases and 'poor' in 8%. In summary, the CNC service could
Sharkey, Leslie C; Seelig, Davis M; Overmann, Jed
Cytopathology is a minimally invasive, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic modality with broad utilization in veterinary medicine. Primary care clinicians often screen common cutaneous and subcutaneous aspirates, with other samples most frequently evaluated by board certified veterinary clinical pathologists in reference laboratories. Wright-Giemsa stains are frequently utilized with the application of ancillary diagnostics such as cytochemistry, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry, and molecular diagnostic techniques complicated by the need to develop and validate species specific reagents and protocols. The interpretation of veterinary cytology samples must be undertaken with extensive knowledge of the breadth of animal species, which includes familiarity with the frequency and biological behavior of inflammatory, infectious, and neoplastic lesions that are influenced by species, breed, and husbandry conditions. This review is the first of two parts that focus on the most common domestic companion animal species (dog, cat, and horse), taking an organ system approach to survey important lesions that may be unique to veterinary species or have interesting correlates in human medicine. The first of the two-part series covers skin and subcutaneous tissue, the musculoskeletal system, and lymphoid organs. The cytologic features and biological behavior of similar lesions are compared, and selected molecular mechanisms of disease and ancillary diagnostics are reviewed when characterized. Supporting figures illustrate a subset of lesions. While not a comprehensive catalog of veterinary cytology, the goal is to give cytopathologists working in human medicine a general impression of correlates in veterinary practice. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Molecular Biomarkers for the Evaluation of Colorectal Cancer: Guideline From the American Society for Clinical Pathology, College of American Pathologists, Association for Molecular Pathology, and the American Society of Clinical Oncology.
Sepulveda, Antonia R; Hamilton, Stanley R; Allegra, Carmen J; Grody, Wayne; Cushman-Vokoun, Allison M; Funkhouser, William K; Kopetz, Scott E; Lieu, Christopher; Lindor, Noralane M; Minsky, Bruce D; Monzon, Federico A; Sargent, Daniel J; Singh, Veena M; Willis, Joseph; Clark, Jennifer; Colasacco, Carol; Rumble, R Bryan; Temple-Smolkin, Robyn; Ventura, Christina B; Nowak, Jan A
Purpose Molecular testing of colorectal cancers (CRCs) to improve patient care and outcomes of targeted and conventional therapies has been the center of many recent studies, including clinical trials. Evidence-based recommendations for the molecular testing of CRC tissues to guide epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) -targeted therapies and conventional chemotherapy regimens are warranted in clinical practice. The purpose of this guideline is to develop evidence-based recommendations to help establish standard molecular biomarker testing for CRC through a systematic review of the literature. Methods The American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP), College of American Pathologists (CAP), Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP), and the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) convened an Expert Panel to develop an evidence-based guideline to help establish standard molecular biomarker testing, guide targeted therapies, and advance personalized care for patients with CRC. A comprehensive literature search that included over 4,000 articles was conducted to gather data to inform this guideline. Results Twenty-one guideline statements (eight recommendations, 10 expert consensus opinions and three no recommendations) were established. Recommendations Evidence supports mutational testing for genes in the EGFR signaling pathway, since they provide clinically actionable information as negative predictors of benefit to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody therapies for targeted therapy of CRC. Mutations in several of the biomarkers have clear prognostic value. Laboratory approaches to operationalize molecular testing for predictive and prognostic molecular biomarkers involve selection of assays, type of specimens to be tested, timing of ordering of tests and turnaround time for testing results. Additional information is available at: www.asco.org/CRC-markers-guideline and www.asco.org/guidelineswiki.
Laudadio, Jennifer; McNeal, Jeffrey L; Boyd, Scott D; Le, Long Phi; Lockwood, Christina; McCloskey, Cindy B; Sharma, Gaurav; Voelkerding, Karl V; Haspel, Richard L
The field of genomics is rapidly impacting medical care across specialties. To help guide test utilization and interpretation, pathologists must be knowledgeable about genomic techniques and their clinical utility. The technology allowing timely generation of genomic data is relatively new to patient care and the clinical laboratory, and therefore, many currently practicing pathologists have been trained without any molecular or genomics exposure. Furthermore, the exposure that current and recent trainees receive in this field remains inconsistent. To assess pathologists' learning needs in genomics and to develop a curriculum to address these educational needs. A working group formed by the College of American Pathologists developed an initial list of genomics competencies (knowledge and skills statements) that a practicing pathologist needs to be successful. Experts in genomics were then surveyed to rate the importance of each competency. These data were used to create a final list of prioritized competencies. A subset of the working group defined subtopics and tasks for each competency. Appropriate delivery methods for the educational material were also proposed. A final list of 32 genomics competency statements was developed. A prioritized curriculum was created with designated subtopics and tasks associated with each competency. We present a genomics curriculum designed as a first step toward providing practicing pathologists with the competencies needed to practice successfully.
Prasse, Keith W
Dr. Keith Prasse is a very distinguished leader in veterinary education. He started his career achieving his BS and DVM degrees from Iowa State University (ISU). He returned to ISU after a brief period in private practice in Illinois. His well-recognized career in veterinary pathology began with his MS and PhD degrees, followed by a five-year period of teaching at ISU. Dr. Prasse joined the faculty of the University of Georgia in 1972, and thus began a long-term partnership with Dr. Bob Duncan that is arguably the foundation of veterinary clinical pathology. The textbook they authored, Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, or "Duncan and Prasse" as it is known, remains the standard today, with later participation from Dr. Ed Mahaffey and most recently Dr. Ken Latimer. Dr. Prasse has mentored numerous graduate students and received many awards over his 23-year career in teaching, including the Norden Distinguished Teaching award twice, once at ISU and once at Georgia. His leadership as President of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists was greatly acknowledged and appreciated. Dr. Prasse's administrative service at the University of Georgia spanned 14 years, first as Associate Dean for Public Service and Outreach and later as Dean for eight years, during which time he served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC). The growth of the College of Veterinary Medicine under Dean Prasse's visionary leadership was extraordinary. He led through difficult economic and political times, yet the college and its community continued to prosper. His legacy at the University of Georgia is indelible and perpetual. His outstanding leadership of the college was recognized by the Georgia Veterinary Medical Association in 2004, when he was given the Georgia Veterinarian of the Year award. Since his retirement from Georgia, Dr. Prasse has contributed greatly to the profession and to the AAVMC by leading the Foresight project
Hafen, McArthur; Siqueira Drake, Adryanna A; Rush, Bonnie R; Sibley, D Scott
The present study evaluated third-year veterinary medical students' perceptions of a communication lab protocol. The protocol used clips of fourth-year veterinary medical students working with authentic clients. These clips supplemented course material. Clips showed examples of proficient communication as well as times of struggle for fourth-year students. Third-year students were asked to critique interactions during class. One hundred and eight third-year students provided feedback about the communication lab. While initial interest in communication proved low, interest in communication training at the end of the course increased substantially. The majority of students cited watching videos clips of authentic client interactions as being an important teaching tool.
Li, Jiakui; Guo, Dingzong; Zhou, Donghai; Wu, Xiaoxiong
Veterinary internal medicine (VIM) is a core subject and important clinical discipline for undergraduate students of veterinary science. The present paper reviews current information about the teaching of VIM, presents a description of the veterinary science curriculum, suggests methods to improve the quality of VIM teaching in China, and describes difficulties, problems, and trends in veterinary education in China.
Ragazzi, Moira; Piana, Simonetta; Longo, Caterina; Castagnetti, Fabio; Foroni, Monica; Ferrari, Guglielmo; Gardini, Giorgio; Pellacani, Giovanni
Confocal microscopy is a non-invasive method of optical imaging that may provide microscopic images of untreated tissue that correspond almost perfectly to hematoxylin- and eosin-stained slides. Nowadays, following two confocal imaging systems are available: (1) reflectance confocal microscopy, based on the natural differences in refractive indices of subcellular structures within the tissues; (2) fluorescence confocal microscopy, based on the use of fluorochromes, such as acridine orange, to increase the contrast epithelium-stroma. In clinical practice to date, confocal microscopy has been used with the goal of obviating the need for excision biopsies, thereby reducing the need for pathological examination. The aim of our study was to test fluorescence confocal microscopy on different types of surgical specimens, specifically breast, lymph node, thyroid, and colon. The confocal images were correlated to the corresponding histological sections in order to provide a morphologic parallel and to highlight current limitations and possible applications of this technology for surgical pathology practice. As a result, neoplastic tissues were easily distinguishable from normal structures and reactive processes such as fibrosis; the use of fluorescence enhanced contrast and image quality in confocal microscopy without compromising final histologic evaluation. Finally, the fluorescence confocal microscopy images of the adipose tissue were as accurate as those of conventional histology and were devoid of the frozen-section-related artefacts that can compromise intraoperative evaluation. Despite some limitations mainly related to black/white images, which require training in imaging interpretation, this study confirms that fluorescence confocal microscopy may represent an alternative to frozen sections in the assessment of margin status in selected settings or when the conservation of the specimen is crucial. This is the first study to employ fluorescent confocal microscopy on
Anderson, Maureen E.C.; Weese, J. Scott
The objective of this study was to describe the perceived importance of and barriers to hand hygiene among companion animal clinic staff. An anonymous, voluntary written questionnaire was completed by 356 of approximately 578 individuals (62%) from 49/51 clinics. On a scale of 1 (not important) to 7 (very important), the percentage of respondents who rated hand hygiene as a 5 or higher was at least 82% in all clinical scenarios queried. The most frequently reported reason for not performing hand hygiene was forgetting to do so (40%, 141/353). Specific discussion of hand hygiene practices at work was recalled by 32% (114/354) of respondents. Although veterinary staff seem to recognize the importance of hand hygiene, it should be emphasized more during staff training. Other barriers including time constraints and skin irritation should also be addressed, possibly through increased access to and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. PMID:26933265
Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse
Materials and methods: The Jamnapari cross goat aged two years and weighing 40 Kg was presented to the Universiti Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia with the history of diarrhea and depression. The goat was examined physically. Blood and fecal samples were collected for complete blood count, serum biochemistry analysis and parasitological examination. Standard treatment plan was applied for the correction of the the problem. Results: Physical examination findings revealed the goat was in poor body condition, dull and depressed. Wet and dry fecal traces were observed around the groin region. The temperature was slightly elevated (39.5°C, the heart rate was increased (160 b/min while other parameters were within normal range. Upon auscultation of the thoracic region, moderate crackle lung sound was determined. Visual observation of the nasal cavity indicated a bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge. The hemogram result revealed evidence of a normocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia with left shift and monocytosis. Serum biochemistry revealed increases in gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, sodium, chloride, creatine kinase (CK, and hyperglobulinemia. Fecal examination revealed increased in Strongyle egg count of about 2,700 eggs per gram of feces using the Modified Mcmaster technique. From the history, physical examination and laboratory findings the goat was diagnosed with clinical parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE concurrent with moderate pneumonia infection. The therapeutic plan for this case were 45 mL of kaolin-pectin (30 mL/Kg body weight orally SID for 3 days as anti-diarrhea, 12 mL Levamisole (12 mg/Kg bwt was administered orally once as anthelminthic, fluid therapy was instituted using 1.5 L of Lactated Ringers solution once via intravenously. Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (1 mL/16 Kg bwt was administered intramuscularly SID for 3 days. Conclusion: Follow up examination of the goat a week post treatment indicated a good prognosis
Full Text Available VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation. The principal challenges anticipated by VetCAST are those associated with the differing modalities of AMD administration, including mass medication, specific long-acting product formulations or local administration. Specific challenges comprise mastitis treatment in dairy cattle, the range of species and within species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF – the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC] and (iii when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. VetCAST will ensure freely available dissemination of information, concerning standards, guidelines, ECOFF, PK/PD breakpoints, CBPs and other relevant information
Jones, Olivia; Cartwright, Jade; Whitworth, Anne; Cocks, Naomi
A variety of dysphagia management options are available for the treatment of dysphagia following a stroke, however, it is unknown which of these approaches are most commonly utilised by Australian speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and whether particular factors influence decision-making. The aim of this study was to investigate, through an online survey, the treatment practices of SLPs in Australia for the treatment of dysphagia post-stroke and identify the factors influencing treatment decisions. A total of 118 SLPs completed the online survey. Descriptive statistics identified large variability in the dysphagia treatments utilised, with all 24 therapies listed in the online survey reported as being routinely used. Compensatory therapies were ranked as being utilised more frequently than rehabilitative approaches, with six of the seven highly utilised therapies being compensatory in nature. A client's cognitive capacity was the most prominent factor influencing SLPs' treatment decisions. This study provides insight into the practices of SLPs in Australia for the treatment of dysphagia following stroke and discusses potential for shifts in practice. It highlights the complexity involved in the decision-making process and that clinicians consider evidence, as well as client, clinician and service factors, when selecting between the range of options available.
Touroo, R; Fitch, A
Although it is the obligation of the veterinary forensic pathologist to be competent in identifying, collecting, and preserving evidence from the body, it is also necessary for them to understand the relevance of conditions on the crime scene. The body is just one piece of the puzzle that needs to be considered when determining the cause of death. The information required for a complete postmortem analysis should also include details of the animal's environment and items of evidence present on the crime scene. These factors will assist the veterinary forensic pathologist in the interpretation of necropsy findings. Therefore, the veterinary forensic pathologist needs to have a basic understanding of how the crime scene is processed, as well as the role of the forensic veterinarian on scene. In addition, the veterinary forensic pathologist must remain unbiased, necessitating an understanding of evidence maintenance and authentication. © The Author(s) 2016.
A. William, S.U.R. Chaudhari1 and N.N. Atsandac2
Full Text Available A 3-year (retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of diseases; clinical conditions of dogs and cats presented at the Government Veterinary Clinic, Maiduguri from January 1995 to December 1997. The prevalent diseases; conditions of dogs included helminthosis (19.19%, accidental injury (18.18%, tick infestation ( 15.15% , canine distemper (8.42% , diarrhoea ( 6.73%, mange ( 7.41%, rabies (5.05% and babesiosis (4.71%, Prevalent diseases/conditions of cats included helminthosis (26.67%. tick infestation ( 8.89%. diarrhea ( 16.67%, nutritional deficiencies ( 15.56% and respiratory infections ( 12.22%. Of highest prevalence in both dogs and cats was helminthosis (20.93%, followed by tick infestation (13. 70% and diarrhea (9.04% suggesting a poor husbandy of these pets in Maiduguri area. Cases of automobile accidental injury of dogs were also high, probably due to the same factors of poor husbandry.
Jones, Jana L; Rinehart, Jim; Spiegel, Jacqueline Jordan; Englar, Ryane E; Sidaway, Brian K; Rowles, Joie
Anesthesia simulations have been used in pre-clinical medical training for decades to help learners gain confidence and expertise in an operating room environment without danger to a live patient. The authors describe a veterinary anesthesia simulation environment (VASE) with anesthesia scenarios developed to provide a re-creation of a veterinarian's task environment while performing anesthesia. The VASE uses advanced computer technology with simulator inputs provided from standard monitoring equipment in common use during veterinary anesthesia and a commercial canine training mannequin that allows intubation, ventilation, and venous access. The simulation outputs are determined by a script that outlines routine anesthesia scenarios and describes the consequences of students' hands-on actions and interventions during preestablished anesthetic tasks and critical incidents. Patients' monitored physiologic parameters may be changed according to predetermined learner events and students' interventions to provide immediate learner feedback and clinical realism. A total of 96 students from the pre-clinical anesthesia course participated in the simulations and the pre- and post-simulation surveys evaluating students' perspectives. Results of the surveys and comparisons of overall categorical cumulative responses in the pre- and post-simulation surveys indicated improvement in learners' perceived preparedness and confidence as a result of the simulated anesthesia experience, with significant improvement in the strongly agree, moderately agree, and agree categories (p<.05 at a 95% CI). These results suggest that anesthesia simulations in the VASE may complement traditional teaching methods through experiential learning and may help foster classroom-to-clinic transference of knowledge and skills without harm to an animal.
Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E
Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.
Coati, Irene; Fassan, Matteo; Farinati, Fabio; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M; Rugge, Massimo
Western countries are seeing a constant decline in the incidence of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastritis, coupled with a rising epidemiological and clinical impact of autoimmune gastritis. This latter gastropathy is due to autoimmune aggression targeting parietal cells through a complex interaction of auto-antibodies against the parietal cell proton pump and intrinsic factor, and sensitized T cells. Given the specific target of this aggression, autoimmune gastritis is typically restricted to the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa. In advanced cases, the oxyntic epithelia are replaced by atrophic (and metaplastic) mucosa, creating the phenotypic background in which both gastric neuroendocrine tumors and (intestinal-type) adenocarcinomas may develop. Despite improvements in our understanding of the phenotypic changes or cascades occurring in this autoimmune setting, no reliable biomarkers are available for identifying patients at higher risk of developing a gastric neoplasm. The standardization of autoimmune gastritis histology reports and classifications in diagnostic practice is a prerequisite for implementing definitive secondary prevention strategies based on multidisciplinary diagnostic approaches integrating endoscopy, serology, histology and molecular profiling.
Priest, H L; Hume, K R; Killick, D; Kozicki, A; Rizzo, V L; Seelig, D; Snyder, L A; Springer, N L; Wright, Z M; Robat, C
One of the primary objectives of the Oncology Pathology Working Group (OPWG), a joint initiative of the Veterinary Cancer Society and the American College of Veterinary Pathologists, is for oncologists and pathologists to collaboratively generate consensus documents to standardize aspects of and provide guidelines for oncologic pathology. Consensus is established through review of relevant peer-reviewed literature relative to a subgroup's particular focus. In this document, the authors provide descriptions of the literature reviewed, the review process, and a summary of the information gathered on immunocytochemistry. The intent of this publication is to help educate practitioners and pathologists on the process of immunocytochemistry and to provide a guide for the use of this technique in veterinary medicine. This document represents the opinions of the working group and the authors and does not constitute a formal endorsement by the American College of Veterinary Pathologists or the Veterinary Cancer Society. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Diseases related to copper, selenium or iron overload or deficiency are common and well-described in large animal veterinary medicine. Some of them certainly have the potential to serve as useful animal models for ongoing research in the field of trace elements. Obvious advantages of large animal models compared to laboratory animal models like rats and mice are the option of long-term, consecutive examinations of progressive deficient or toxic stages and the opportunity to collect various, high volume samples for repeated measurements. Nevertheless, close cooperation between scientific disciplines is necessary as scientists using high sophisticated analytical methods and equipment are not regularly in touch with scientists working with large animal diseases. This review will give an introduction into some typical animal diseases related to trace elements and will present approaches where the animal diseases were used already as a model for interdisciplinary research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Travers, E M
Whether or not it is generally accepted by medical care personnel within the hospital or the laboratory, the laboratory is a business within a hospital. If the laboratory is free-standing, with a corporate ownership, then a laboratory is a business by itself. Even if it is a part of a nonprofit organization (more than two thirds of American hospitals are nonprofit), a laboratory must be able to generate more gains (profits, assets, contribution margin) than losses (liabilities, costs). With the growing volume and complexity of laboratory tests in the United States, the onerous surge of regulatory restrictions, decreasing capital, decreasing physician's reimbursement, increasing salary and operating costs, it is now time for the pathologist to add new tools to his/her customary "tools of the trade," such as surgical knives, microtomes, analyzers, and microscopes. These new tools are the economic tools of cost analysis, productivity analysis, ratio analysis, utilization review, and capital asset analysis. The pathologist of the future must not only provide patient care diagnostic expertise, but must also be a successful manager of human, fiscal, and operational resources to survive in an economic environment that demands knowledge of the principles of successful laboratory management. In addition to a general review of economic and financial "tools," this article describes techniques that have been developed during the past several years by the Laboratory Fiscal Management Committee of the College of American Pathologists that analyze, condense, and interpret general macro-indicators of laboratory cost and operational functions. These indicators are generic and can be quickly understood and utilized by every pathologist practicing in a private, commercial, or public laboratory setting.
Haider, N; Khan, S U; Islam, A; Osmani, M G; Rahman, M Z; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Zeidner, N S
As in most low-income countries, adequate laboratory facilities are not available in Bangladesh to assist veterinarians in diagnosing animal diseases. We aimed to determine the efficiency of veterinary diagnoses for two common ruminant diseases in Bangladesh: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). We conducted the study from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals where veterinarians collected samples from sick livestock and recorded the presumptive diagnosis on the basis of clinical presentations. Samples were tested for PPR and FMD using real-time RT-PCR. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the presumptive diagnoses when compared to laboratory tests. We tested 539 goats for PPR and 340 cattle and goats for FMD. Our results indicate that the veterinarians' presumptive diagnoses were different from laboratory findings for both PPR (P clinical diagnoses was 54% (95% CI: 47-61%) while specificity was 81% (95% CI: 78-84%) compared to real-time RT-PCR tests. The kappa value obtained in our validation process for PPR (kappa: 0.25) and FMD (kappa 0.36) indicated a poor performance of the presumptive diagnoses. Most of the animals (93%) were treated with antibiotics. Our findings indicate that veterinarians can detect animals not infected with FMD or PPR but miss the true cases. The clinical competency of these veterinarians needs to be improved and access to laboratory diagnostic facilities could help veterinarians to improve the diagnostics and outcomes. The rational use of antibiotics by veterinarians in animals must be ensured. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B
Communication skills are considered to be a core clinical skill in veterinary medicine and essential for practice success, including outcomes of care for patients and clients. While veterinary schools include communication skills training in their programs, there is minimal knowledge on how best to assess communication competence throughout the undergraduate program. The purpose of this study was to further our understanding of the reliability, utility, and suitability of a communication skills Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Specifically we wanted to (1) identify the greatest source of variability (student, rater, station, and track) within a first-year, four station OSCE using exam scores and scores from videotape review by two trained raters, and (2) determine the effect of different stations on students' communication skills performance. Reliability of the scores from both the exam data and the two expert raters was 0.50 and 0.46 respectively, with the greatest amount of variance attributable to student by station. The percentage of variance due to raters in the exam data was 16.35%, whereas the percentage of variance for the two expert raters was 0%. These results have three important implications. First, the results reinforce the need for communication educators to emphasize that use of communication skills is moderated by the context of the clinical interaction. Second, by increasing rater training the amount of error in the scores due to raters can be reduced and inter-rater reliability increases. Third, the communication assessment method (in this case the OSCE checklist) should be built purposefully, taking into consideration the context of the case.
Artemiou, Elpida; Adams, Cindy L; Toews, Lorraine; Violato, Claudio; Coe, Jason B
We determined the Web-based configurations that are applied to teach medical and veterinary communication skills, evaluated their effectiveness, and suggested future educational directions for Web-based communication teaching in veterinary education. We performed a systematic search of CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ERIC limited to articles published in English between 2000 and 2012. The review focused on medical or veterinary undergraduate to clinical- or residency-level students. We selected studies for which the study population was randomized to the Web-based learning (WBL) intervention with a post-test comparison with another WBL or non-WBL method and that reported at least one empirical outcome. Two independent reviewers completed relevancy screening, data extraction, and synthesis of results using Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's framework. The search retrieved 1,583 articles, and 10 met the final inclusion criteria. We identified no published articles on Web based communication platforms in veterinary medicine; however, publications summarized from human medicine demonstrated that WBL provides a potentially reliable and valid approach for teaching and assessing communication skills. Student feedback on the use of virtual patients for teaching clinical communication skills has been positive,though evidence has suggested that practice with virtual patients prompted lower relation-building responses.Empirical outcomes indicate that WBL is a viable method for expanding the approach to teaching history taking and possibly to additional tasks of the veterinary medical interview.
Dintzis, Suzanne M; Clennon, Emily K; Prouty, Carolyn D; Reich, Lisa M; Elmore, Joann G; Gallagher, Thomas H
- Medical errors are unfortunately common. The US Institute of Medicine proposed guidelines for mitigating and disclosing errors. Implementing these recommendations in pathology will require a better understanding of how errors occur in pathology, the relationship between pathologists and treating clinicians in reducing error, and pathologists' experiences with and attitudes toward disclosure of medical error. - To understand pathologists' attitudes toward disclosing pathology error to treating clinicians and patients. - We conducted 5 structured focus groups in Washington State and Missouri with 45 pathologists in academic and community practice. Participants were questioned about pathology errors, how clinicians respond to pathology errors, and what roles pathologists should play in error disclosure to patients. - These pathologists believe that neither treating physicians nor patients understand the subtleties and limitations of pathologic diagnoses, which complicates discussions about pathology errors. Pathologists' lack of confidence in communication skills and fear of being misrepresented or misunderstood are major barriers to their participation in disclosure discussions. Pathologists see potential for their future involvement in disclosing error to patients, but at present advocate reliance on treating clinicians to disclose pathology errors to patients. Most group members believed that going forward pathologists should offer to participate more actively in error disclosure to patients. - Pathologists lack confidence in error disclosure communication skills with both treating physicians and patients. Improved communication between pathologists and treating physicians could enhance transparency and promote disclosure of pathology errors. Consensus guidelines for best practices in pathology error disclosure may be useful.
Rafaela Alves Dias
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Dias R.A., Souza A.P. & Garino Júnior F. [Assessment of bacterial contamination in the sectors of Clinical Medicine and Surgery Small Animal Veterinary Hospital, UFCG, PB.] Avaliação da contaminação bacteriana nos setores de Clínica e Cirurgia de Pequenos Animais do Hospital Veterinário da UFCG, PB. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:173-177, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Av. Universitária, s/n, Bairro Santa Cecília, Patos, PB 58708-110, Brasil. E-mail: email@example.com With this study aimed to evaluate bacterial contamination sectors Clinic and Surgery Small Animal Veterinary Hospital UFCG, in order to prevent infections in patients attending hospital. An assessment of the environmental contamination of sectors before and after disinfection, where was collected samples of air, surfaces and hands of people who deal directly with the animals. Then the test was made of the effectiveness of disinfectants used. Of the 40 samples collected, was identified in 5 of them (12.5% Enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebisiella pneumoniae and in 22 samples (55% was identified Staphylococcus coagulase negative and positive. Was seen in the quantitative analysis that the number of cfu in some sample was above the indicated. The test showed that the disinfectant solution was effective against all micro-organisms found in the environments. The results indicate that more attention to procedures performed in the disinfection of areas evaluated, and also include measures to prevent contamination at these sites.
Ducatman, Barbara S; Parslow, Tristram
The most common benchmarks for faculty productivity are derived from Medical Group Management Association (MGMA) or Vizient-AAMC Faculty Practice Solutions Center® (FPSC) databases. The Association of Pathology Chairs has also collected similar survey data for several years. We examined the Association of Pathology Chairs annual faculty productivity data and compared it with MGMA and FPSC data to understand the value, inherent flaws, and limitations of benchmarking data. We hypothesized that the variability in calculated faculty productivity is due to the type of practice model and clinical effort allocation. Data from the Association of Pathology Chairs survey on 629 surgical pathologists and/or anatomic pathologists from 51 programs were analyzed. From review of service assignments, we were able to assign each pathologist to a specific practice model: general anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists, 1 or more subspecialties, or a hybrid of the 2 models. There were statistically significant differences among academic ranks and practice types. When we analyzed our data using each organization's methods, the median results for the anatomic pathologists/surgical pathologists general practice model compared to MGMA and FPSC results for anatomic and/or surgical pathology were quite close. Both MGMA and FPSC data exclude a significant proportion of academic pathologists with clinical duties. We used the more inclusive FPSC definition of clinical "full-time faculty" (0.60 clinical full-time equivalent and above). The correlation between clinical full-time equivalent effort allocation, annual days on service, and annual work relative value unit productivity was poor. This study demonstrates that effort allocations are variable across academic departments of pathology and do not correlate well with either work relative value unit effort or reported days on service. Although the Association of Pathology Chairs-reported median work relative value unit productivity
Getachew, M A; Innocent, G; Reid, S W J; Burden, F; Love, S
Although fasciolosis is an important livestock disease worldwide, the public health importance of human fasciolosis has increased in recent years and it is recognised as an important re-emerging zoonotic disease, its epidemiology and pathogenicity in donkeys, and the epidemiological role they may play have not been determined. To investigate the epidemiology and pathogenicity of fasciolosis in donkeys. Cross-sectional coprological and retrospective post-mortem study. Faecal samples collected from 803 randomly selected working donkeys from the central region of Ethiopia were analysed by a sedimentation-centrifugation-flotation technique. Further data on liver-flukes and associated pathologies were obtained by routine post mortem examinations of 112 donkeys, subjected to euthanasia on welfare grounds or died. Data were analysed using a generalised linear model and multivariate binary logistic regression in R statistical package with significance level of statistical tests set at Psound control strategies and prevention of fasciolosis. Ethical animal research: The research underwent ethical review and the use of animals was approved by the Directors of The Donkey Sanctuary. Consent of the owners was obtained to use their animals. The Donkey Sanctuary. Competing interests: None declared. © 2015 The Author(s). Equine Veterinary Journal © 2015 EVJ Ltd.
Interest in pathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration is increasing. Educational courses discuss clinical ultrasound and biopsy techniques but not ultrasound physics and instrumentation. To review modern ultrasound physics and instrumentation to help pathologists understand the basis of modern ultrasound. A review of recent literature and textbooks was performed. Ultrasound physics and instrumentation are the foundations of clinical ultrasound. The key physical principle is the piezoelectric effect. When stimulated by an electric current, certain crystals vibrate and produce ultrasound. A hand-held transducer converts electricity into ultrasound, transmits it into tissue, and listens for reflected ultrasound to return. The returning echoes are converted into electrical signals and used to create a 2-dimensional gray-scale image. Scanning at a high frequency improves axial resolution but has low tissue penetration. Electronic focusing moves the long-axis focus to depth of the object of interest and improves lateral resolution. The short-axis focus in 1-dimensional transducers is fixed, which results in poor elevational resolution away from the focal zone. Using multiple foci improves lateral resolution but degrades temporal resolution. The sonographer can adjust the dynamic range to change contrast and bring out subtle masses. Contrast resolution is limited by processing speed, monitor resolution, and gray-scale perception of the human eye. Ultrasound is an evolving field. New technologies include miniaturization, spatial compound imaging, tissue harmonics, and multidimensional transducers. Clinical cytopathologists who understand ultrasound physics, instrumentation, and clinical ultrasound are ready for the challenges of cytopathologist-performed ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration and core-needle biopsy in the 21st century.
Malton, R; Nagy, A
Diffusion of local anaesthetic solution after a mid-pastern ring block has not been investigated. To demonstrate potential distribution of local anaesthetic solution following injection of radiodense contrast medium as performed for a mid-pastern ring block. Experimental. Twelve mature horses were used. One and a half ml radiodense contrast medium was injected over the medial or lateral palmar digital nerve at the level of the proximal aspect of the ungular cartilages. A dorsal ring block was performed on the ipsilateral side, 1.5 cm proximal to the palpable palmar aspect of the proximal eminence of the middle phalanx, using 2 or 5 ml contrast medium. Both forelimbs were injected on 2 days (48 injections). Four standard radiographic views of the pastern were obtained immediately, 10 and 20 min after injections. Images were analysed subjectively and objectively. After dorsal injections the contrast medium was distributed in a diffuse patch over the ipsilateral half of the proximal phalanx (PP), extending proximally over the half of the length of PP in all limbs (greatest proximal extension: 89.0% of the length of PP [from distal] after 2 ml, 94.2% after 5 ml). There was significant proximal diffusion in the first 10 min after injection and significant dorsal diffusion between all time points (PFetlock region pain may be influenced by a mid-pastern ring block. Ethical animal research: Written consent had been obtained from a representative of the horses' owner prior to starting the study. None. Competing interests: None declared. © 2015 The Author(s). Equine Veterinary Journal © 2015 EVJ Ltd.
Clarke, Patricia; Schull, Daniel; Coleman, Glen; Pitt, Rachael; Manathunga, Catherine
Veterinary technology is an emerging profession within the veterinary and allied animal health fields in Australia and affords graduates the opportunity to contribute to the small but growing body of literature within this discipline. This study describes the introduction of a contextualised assessment task to develop students' research…
Cockerell, Gary; Brayton, Cory; Barger, Anne; Bolon, Brad
Since its creation in 2004, the Coalition for Veterinary Pathology Fellows, a partnership between the American College of Veterinary Pathologists and the Society of Toxicologic Pathology, has established 32 new training positions backed by US$7.4 million in financial support from private sponsors.
Valenstein, Paul N; Walsh, Molly K; Stankovic, Ana K
.... Representatives from 97 clinical laboratories provided information about the processes they use to send tests to reference facilities and their order entry and specimen routing error rates. In aggregate, 98...
Hollinger, Charlotte; Libarkin, Julie C; Stickle, Julia E; Hauptman, Joe G; Henry, Rebecca; Scott, Michael A
A mixed-methods evaluation was conducted to study learner attitudes and knowledge about clinical pathology across a curricular change that instituted a stand-alone clinical pathology course in place of content within a previously integrated pathology course structure. Groups of pre- and post-change students were assessed three times across the two semesters leading up to graduation. At each time, rank-ordered and open-ended response items probed attitudes, and multiple-choice items assessed knowledge. Data about student clinical pathology performance were also collected from clinical pathology instructors and supervising clinicians. Student rank-ordered items were evaluated by factor analysis; resulting factor-scale scores, multiple-choice scores, and rank responses from study cohorts were statistically assessed between groups and within each group over time. Intraclass correlations were calculated for the coding of student open-ended responses, and all coded responses were compared among groups. Analysis revealed that students in the revised curriculum had greater satisfaction with their training and greater confidence in data interpretation compared to students without exposure to an independent clinical pathology course. Although differences in knowledge of clinical pathology were not detected, it was also apparent that the independent clinical pathology course filled a student-perceived curricular need without raising criticisms related to diminished integration with anatomic pathology. Secondary study outcomes included formative feedback for course improvement, evidence of clerkship efficacy, and baseline data for further studies.
leptospirosis. Case report. An 1 1 year old male Alsatian dog was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the. University of lbadan (VTH-Ul) with a hist01y of anorexia, weakness and exercise intolerance of5 days duration. On clinical examination, the rectal temperature was normal andlung auscultation revealed a ...
Although the safety profile of short term dexamethasone treatment has been established, there has been ... Although low-dose dexamethasone treatment has been used in veterinary and human clinics for many years and produced no severe ..... in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PcOS) (Keay et al., 2001).
Helcileia Dias Santos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A direct search for parasites were used as the diagnostic test to determine the frequency of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris under veterinary clinical care in the city of Araguaína, Tocantins, Brazil. For this approach, lymph node cell samples were collected using needle aspiration from 649 dogs of different breeds and ages. Two hundred and sixty four (40.7% dogs tested positive for amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. Furthermore, 202 (76.5% dogs that tested positive showed some clinical sign of disease, while 62 (28.4% dogs were asymptomatic. Dogs <2 years old or those that lived alongside poultry species in peri-domicile areas had a greater chance of infection (P<0.05. Our results revealed the importance of frequently monitoring leishmaniasis in dogs, and the need to train veterinary professionals who work in high-transmission areas on the clinical diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.
Hammond, M.E.; Hayes, D.F.; Dowsett, M.; Allred, D.C.; Hagerty, K.L.; Badve, S.; Fitzgibbons, P.L.; Francis, G.; Goldstein, N.S.; Hayes, M.; Hicks, D.G.; Lester, S.; Love, R.; Mangu, P.B.; McShane, L.; Miller, K.; Osborne, C.K.; Paik, S.; Perlmutter, J.; Rhodes, A.; Sasano, H.; Schwartz, J.N.; Sweep, F.C.; Taube, S.; Torlakovic, E.E.; Valenstein, P.; Viale, G.; Visscher, D.; Wheeler, T.; Williams, R.B.; Wittliff, J.L.; Wolff, A.C.
PURPOSE: To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of
American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists guideline recommendations for immunohistochemical testing of estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer (unabridged version).
Hammond, M.E.; Hayes, D.F.; Dowsett, M.; Allred, D.C.; Hagerty, K.L.; Badve, S.; Fitzgibbons, P.L.; Francis, G.; Goldstein, N.S.; Hayes, M.; Hicks, D.G.; Lester, S.; Love, R.; Mangu, P.B.; McShane, L.; Miller, K.; Osborne, C.K.; Paik, S.; Perlmutter, J.; Rhodes, A.; Sasano, H.; Schwartz, J.N.; Sweep, F.C.; Taube, S.; Torlakovic, E.E.; Valenstein, P.; Viale, G.; Visscher, D.; Wheeler, T.; Williams, R.B.; Wittliff, J.L.; Wolff, A.C.
PURPOSE: To develop a guideline to improve the accuracy of immunohistochemical (IHC) estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) testing in breast cancer and the utility of these receptors as predictive markers. METHODS: The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the College of
Impact of 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists Guidelines on HER2 Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization Testing in Breast Cancers : Experience From a National Reference Laboratory.
Gulbahce, H Evin
We compared the impact of 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) guidelines on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) testing results on breast cancers. HER2 FISH testing performed between May 2015 and April 2016 following 2013 ASCO/CAP guidelines was included. HER2 to control probe ratios, mean HER2, and control probe copy numbers were used to reassign HER2 status using 2007 ASCO/CAP and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidelines. HER2 FISH results were available in 2,017 cases. A total of 342 (17.0%) cases were amplified, 301 (14.9%) were equivocal, and 1,374 (68.1%) were nonamplified. After additional testing with the alternate probe, amplified cases increased to 21.6%. HER2 positivity rates following the 2013 ASCO/CAP guidelines were significantly higher compared with the 2007 ASCO/CAP and FDA guidelines. The 2013 ASCO/CAP guidelines lead to a higher number of HER2 FISH positive and equivocal cases. In a reference laboratory setting where an alternative control probe was used to resolve equivocal FISH cases, 31.2% of patients with initial equivocal results became HER2 positive.
Sharkey, Leslie; Michael, Helen; LeBeau, Brandon; Center, Bruce; Wingert, Deb
Our second-year core clinical pathology course uses free-response case-based learning exercises in an otherwise traditional lecture or laboratory course format to augment the development of skills in application of knowledge and critical thinking and clinical reasoning. We previously reported increased learner confidence accompanied by perceived improvements in understanding and ability to apply information, along with enhanced feelings of preparedness for examinations that students attributed to the case-based exercises. The current study prospectively follows a cohort of students to determine the ability of traditional multiple-choice versus free-response case-based assessments to predict future academic performance and to determine if the perceived value of the case-based exercises persists through the curriculum. Our data show that after holding multiple-choice scores constant, better performance on case-based free-response exercises led to higher GPA and better class rank in the second and third years and better class rank in the fourth year. Students in clinical rotations reported that the case-based approach was superior to traditional lecture or multiple-choice exam format for learning clinical reasoning, retaining factual information, organizing information, communicating medical information clearly to colleagues in clinical situations, and preparing high quality medical records. In summary, this longitudinal study shows that case-based free-response writing assignments are efficacious above and beyond standard measures in determining students' GPAs and class rank and in students' acquisition of knowledge, skills, and clinical reasoning. Students value these assignments and overwhelmingly find them an efficient use of their time, and these opinions are maintained even two years following the course.
Full Text Available Biomarker testing has become standard of care for patients diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer. Although it can be successfully performed in circulating tu-mor cells, at present, the vast majority of investigations are carried out using di-rect tumor sampling, either through aspiration methods, which render most often isolated cells, or tissue sampling, that could range from minute biopsies to large resections. Consequently, pathologists play a central role in this process. Recent evidence suggests that refining NSCLC diagnosis might be clinically signifi-cant, particularly in cases of lung adenocarcinomas (ADC, which in turn, has prompted a new proposal for the histologic classification of such pulmonary neo-plasms. These changes, in conjunction with the mandatory incorporation of biomarker testing in routine NSCLC tissue processing, have directly affected the pathologist’s role in lung cancer work-up. This new role pathologists must play is complex and demanding, and requires a close interaction with surgeons, oncologists, radiologists and molecular pathologists. Pathologists often find themselves as the central figure in the coordination of a process, that involves assuring that the tumor samples are properly fixed, but without disruption of the DNA structure, obtaining the proper diagnosis with a minimum of tissue waste, providing pre-analytical evaluation of tumor samples selected for biomarker testing, which includes assessment of the proportion of tumor to normal tissues, as well as cell viability, and assuring that this entire pro-cess happens in a timely fashion. Therefore, it is part of the pathologist’s respon-sibilities to assure that the samples received in their laboratories, be processed in a manner that allows for optimal biomarker testing. This article goal is to discuss the essential role pathologists must play NSCLC bi-omarker testing, as well as to provide a summarized review of the main NSCLC bi-omarkers of
Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Engineering and Technology); Kusama, Tomoko
To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author).
Howanitz, Peter J; Darcy, Theresa P; Meier, Frederick A; Bashleben, Christine P
The anticoagulant warfarin has been identified as the second most frequent drug responsible for serious, disabling, and fatal adverse drug events in the United States, and its effect on blood coagulation is monitored by the laboratory test called international normalized ratio (INR). To determine the presence of INR policies and procedures, INR practices, and completeness and timeliness of reporting critical INR results in participants' clinical laboratories. Participants reviewed their INR policies and procedure requirements, identified their practices by using a questionnaire, and studied completeness of documentation and timeliness of reporting critical value INR results for outpatients and emergency department patients. In 98 participating institutions, the 5 required policies and procedures were in place in 93% to 99% of clinical laboratories. Fifteen options for the allowable variations among duplicate results from different analyzers, 12 different timeliness goals for reporting critical values, and 18 unique critical value limits were used by participants. All required documentation elements were present in 94.8% of 192 reviewed INR validation reports. Critical value INR results were reported within the time frame established by the laboratory for 93.4% of 2604 results, but 1.0% of results were not reported. Although the median laboratories successfully communicated all critical results within their established time frames and had all the required validation elements based in their 2 most recent INR calculations, those participants at the lowest 10th percentile were successful in 80.0% and 85.7% of these requirements, respectively. Significant opportunities exist for adherence to INR procedural requirements and for practice patterns and timeliness goals for INR critical results' reporting.
Fortier, Lisa A; Travis, Alexander J
The stem cell field in veterinary medicine continues to evolve rapidly both experimentally and clinically. Stem cells are most commonly used in clinical veterinary medicine in therapeutic applications for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries in horses and dogs. New technologies of assisted reproduction are being developed to apply the properties of spermatogonial stem cells to preserve endangered animal species. The same methods can be used to generate transgenic animals for production o...
Ottinger, T; Rasmusson, B; Segerstad, C H A; Merck, M; Goot, F V D; Olsén, L; Gavier-Widén, D
To investigate the current status of forensic veterinary pathology, a survey was composed directed at pathology laboratories and institutes, mostly in Europe. The questions included number of and type of cases, resources available, level of special training of the investigating pathologists and the general view on the current status and future of the discipline. The surveys were sent to 134 laboratories and were returned by 72 respondents of which 93 per cent work on forensic pathology cases. The results indicate scarcity of training opportunities and special education, and insufficient veterinary-specific reference data and information on forensic analyses. More cooperation with human forensic pathology was desired by many respondents, as was more interaction across country borders. British Veterinary Association.
HER2 Gene Amplification Testing by Fluorescent In Situ Hybridization (FISH): Comparison of the ASCO-College of American Pathologists Guidelines With FISH Scores Used for Enrollment in Breast Cancer International Research Group Clinical Trials
Sauter, Guido; Buyse, Marc; Fourmanoir, Hélène; Quinaux, Emmanuel; Tsao-Wei, Denice D.; Eiermann, Wolfgang; Robert, Nicholas; Pienkowski, Tadeusz; Crown, John; Martin, Miguel; Valero, Vicente; Mackey, John R.; Bee, Valerie; Ma, Yanling; Villalobos, Ivonne; Campeau, Anaamika; Mirlacher, Martina; Lindsay, Mary-Ann; Slamon, Dennis J.
Purpose ASCO and the College of American Pathologists (ASCO-CAP) recently recommended further changes to the evaluation of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 gene (HER2) amplification by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We retrospectively assessed the impact of these new guidelines by using annotated Breast Cancer International Research Group (BCIRG) -005, BCIRG-006, and BCIRG-007 clinical trials data for which we have detailed outcomes. Patients and Methods The HER2 FISH status of BCIRG-005/006/007 patients with breast cancers was re-evaluated according to current ASCO-CAP guidelines, which designates five different groups according to HER2 FISH ratio and average HER2 gene copy number per tumor cell: group 1 (in situ hybridization [ISH]–positive): HER2-to-chromosome 17 centromere ratio ≥ 2.0, average HER2 copies ≥ 4.0; group 2 (ISH-positive): ratio ≥ 2.0, copies HER2 protein, clinical outcomes by disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) and benefit from trastuzumab therapy (hazard ratio [HR]). Results Among 10,468 patients with breast cancers who were successfully screened for trial entry, 40.8% were in ASCO-CAP ISH group 1, 0.7% in group 2; 0.5% in group 3, 4.1% in group 4, and 53.9% in group 5. Distributions were similar in screened compared with accrued subpopulations. Among accrued patients, FISH group 1 breast cancers were strongly correlated with immunohistochemistry 3+ status (P HER2 by FISH status in BCIRG/Translational Research in Oncology trials. PMID:27573653
Muellner, Petra; Muellner, Ulrich; Gates, M Carolyn; Pearce, Trish; Ahlstrom, Christina; O'Neill, Dan; Brodbelt, Dave; Cave, Nick John
Veterinary practitioners have extensive knowledge of animal health from their day-to-day observations of clinical patients. There have been several recent initiatives to capture these data from electronic medical records for use in national surveillance systems and clinical research. In response, an approach to surveillance has been evolving that leverages existing computerized veterinary practice management systems to capture animal health data recorded by veterinarians. Work in the United Kingdom within the VetCompass program utilizes routinely recorded clinical data with the addition of further standardized fields. The current study describes a prototype system that was developed based on this approach. In a 4-week pilot study in New Zealand, clinical data on presentation reasons and diagnoses from a total of 344 patient consults were extracted from two veterinary clinics into a dedicated database and analyzed at the population level. New Zealand companion animal and equine veterinary practitioners were engaged to test the feasibility of this national practice-based health information and data system. Strategies to ensure continued engagement and submission of quality data by participating veterinarians were identified, as were important considerations for transitioning the pilot program to a sustainable large-scale and multi-species surveillance system that has the capacity to securely manage big data. The results further emphasized the need for a high degree of usability and smart interface design to make such a system work effectively in practice. The geospatial integration of data from multiple clinical practices into a common operating picture can be used to establish the baseline incidence of disease in New Zealand companion animal and equine populations, detect unusual trends that may indicate an emerging disease threat or welfare issue, improve the management of endemic and exotic infectious diseases, and support research activities. This pilot project
Muellner, Petra; Muellner, Ulrich; Gates, M. Carolyn; Pearce, Trish; Ahlstrom, Christina; O’Neill, Dan; Brodbelt, Dave; Cave, Nick John
Veterinary practitioners have extensive knowledge of animal health from their day-to-day observations of clinical patients. There have been several recent initiatives to capture these data from electronic medical records for use in national surveillance systems and clinical research. In response, an approach to surveillance has been evolving that leverages existing computerized veterinary practice management systems to capture animal health data recorded by veterinarians. Work in the United Kingdom within the VetCompass program utilizes routinely recorded clinical data with the addition of further standardized fields. The current study describes a prototype system that was developed based on this approach. In a 4-week pilot study in New Zealand, clinical data on presentation reasons and diagnoses from a total of 344 patient consults were extracted from two veterinary clinics into a dedicated database and analyzed at the population level. New Zealand companion animal and equine veterinary practitioners were engaged to test the feasibility of this national practice-based health information and data system. Strategies to ensure continued engagement and submission of quality data by participating veterinarians were identified, as were important considerations for transitioning the pilot program to a sustainable large-scale and multi-species surveillance system that has the capacity to securely manage big data. The results further emphasized the need for a high degree of usability and smart interface design to make such a system work effectively in practice. The geospatial integration of data from multiple clinical practices into a common operating picture can be used to establish the baseline incidence of disease in New Zealand companion animal and equine populations, detect unusual trends that may indicate an emerging disease threat or welfare issue, improve the management of endemic and exotic infectious diseases, and support research activities. This pilot project
Guard-Petter, J.; Parker, C.T. [Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southeast Poultry Research Lab.; Asokan, K.; Carlson, R.W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Complex Carbohydrate Research Center
Twelve human and chicken isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis belonging to phage types 4, 8, 13a, and 23 were characterized for variability in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composition. Isolates were differentiated into two groups, i.e., those that lacked immunoreactive O-chain, termed rough isolates, and those that had immunoreactive O-chain, termed smooth isolates. Isolates within these groups could be further differentiated by LPS compositional differences as detected by gel electrophoresis and gas liquid chromatography of samples extracted with water, which yielded significantly more LPS in comparison to phenol-chloroform extraction. The rough isolates were of two types, the O-antigen synthesis mutants and the O-antigen polymerization (wzy) mutants. Smooth isolates were also of two types, one producing low-molecular-weight (LMW) LPS and the other producing high-molecular-weight (HMW) LPS. To determine the genetic basis for the O-chain variability of the smooth isolates, the authors analyzed the effects of a null mutation in the O-chain length determinant gene, wzz (cld) of serovar Typhimurium. This mutation results in a loss of HMW LPS; however, the LMW LPS of this mutant was longer and more glucosylated than that from clinical isolates of serovar Enteritidis. Cluster analysis of these data and of those from two previously characterized isogenic strains of serovar Enteritidis that had different virulence attributes indicated that glucosylation of HMW LPS (via oafR function) is variable and results in two types of HMW structures, one that is highly glucosylated and one that is minimally glucosylated. These results strongly indicate that naturally occurring variability in wzy, wzz, and oafR function can be used to subtype isolates of serovar Enteritidis during epidemiological investigations.
Keller, S M; Vernau, W; Moore, P F
The accurate distinction of reactive and neoplastic lymphoid proliferations can present challenges. Given the different prognoses and treatment strategies, a correct diagnosis is crucial. Molecular clonality assays assess rearranged lymphocyte antigen receptor gene diversity and can help differentiate reactive from neoplastic lymphoid proliferations. Molecular clonality assays are commonly used to assess atypical, mixed, or mature lymphoid proliferations; small tissue fragments that lack architecture; and fluid samples. In addition, clonality testing can be utilized to track neoplastic clones over time or across anatomic sites. Molecular clonality assays are not stand-alone tests but useful adjuncts that follow clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic assessment. Even though clonality testing provides valuable information in a variety of situations, the complexities and pitfalls of this method, as well as its dependency on the experience of the interpreter, are often understated. In addition, a lack of standardized terminology, laboratory practices, and interpretational guidelines hinders the reproducibility of clonality testing across laboratories in veterinary medicine. The objectives of this review are twofold. First, the review is intended to familiarize the diagnostic pathologist or interested clinician with the concepts, potential pitfalls, and limitations of clonality testing. Second, the review strives to provide a basis for future harmonization of clonality testing in veterinary medicine by providing diagnostic guidelines. © The Author(s) 2016.
Szarek, Józef; Gesek, Michał; Babińska, Izabella; Szweda, Magdalena; Sobczak-Filipiak, Małgorzata
This paper presents the main trends in the activity of veterinary pathologists in the context of their oral presentations, short speeches and posters during annual congresses of the European Society of Veterinary Pathology (ESVP) in the years 1997-2009. During the thirteen analyzed congresses, 2668 presentations were prepared, including 72 plenary lectures, 946 short oral presentations and 1489 posters. Based on the analysis, organ pathology (779 presentations) was the most popular branch of pathology. Infectious and parasitic diseases (714 presentations) and oncology (563) were also quite popular. This paper analyzes also the role of congresses of the Society in disseminating knowledge on veterinary pathology and training pathologists in Europe as well as the trends in their scientific activity.
Tacke, S; Schimke, E; Kramer, M; Gerwing, M; Tellhelm, B
Since the introduction of excision arthoplasty in veterinary medicine the question of indication is often asked. The maximum of the patient's body weight up to which surgery should be performed is another discussed problem. A long-term study from January 1985 to July 1995 at the Veterinary Surgery Department at the Justus-Liebig-University was carried out to answer these questions (222 patients, 155 dogs and 67 cats). Trauma and Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease came first in the list of indications. In case of postoperative problems trouble with lameness after high activity, long rest or at the time of change in weather could be seen. No owner of an animal thought that the life quality of his animal was restricted by this occasional problems. At a body weight over 30 kg the occasional problems were more often seen but every patient had less clinical problems after surgery than before. In this group no deterioration was seen.
Full Text Available Homeopathy is an alternative medicine practice, which has been used for the past 200 years but, until now, scientific methods have not proven its effectiveness. The use of highly diluted natural substances based on the principal that similar heals similar is contrary to the scientific theories of the conventional medicine. In veterinary medicine homeopathic remedies are most frequently used for chronic conditions of small animals, but also their application in organic farming is increasing. Minimal number of clinical studies about the use of homeopathy in veterinary medicine has been published in scientific literature. The results of effectiveness are contradictory, which can be explained by being a consequence of different research methodologies. However, there is a significant inverse proportionality between the quality of research and results that approve of the use of homeopathy. In evidence based veterinary medicine scientific approach is fundamental for objective diagnostics and treatment prescription, and homeopathy is an excellent teaching model for possible methodological failures in scientific research. Key words: homeopathy, alternative medicine, evidence based veterinary medicine
A qualitative study comparing the assay performance characteristics between the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists HER2 scoring methods in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer.
Chen, Chi-Kuan; Lee, Ming-Yung; Lin, Wea-Lung; Wang, Yu-Ting; Han, Chih-Ping; Yu, Cheng-Ping; Chao, Wan-Ru
The remarkable success of trastuzumab and other newly developed anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) therapies in breast, gastric, or gastroesophageal junction cancer patients has supported us to investigate the HER2 status and its possible therapeutic implication in mucinous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, there is currently no standardization of HER2 scoring criteria in mucinous EOC. In this study, we aimed to compare both the assay performance characteristics of the 2007 and the 2013 American Society for Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists scoring methods. Forty-nine tissue microarray samples of mucinous EOC from Asian women were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) tests using the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively. The overall concordance between IHC and FISH by the 2007 criteria was 97.92 % (kappa = 0.921), and that by the 2013 criteria was 100% (kappa = 1.000). The percentage of Her2 FISH-amplified cases showed an increasing trend significantly through their corresponding HER2 IHC ordinals by the 2007 and the 2013 criteria, respectively (P IHC were higher under the 2013 criteria than those (sensitivity 87.5%, NPV 97.6%, and accuracy 97.9%) under the 2007 criteria. Of the total 49 cases, the number (n = 4) of HER2 IHC equivocal results under the 2013 criteria was 4-fold higher than that (n = 1) under the 2007 criteria (8.16% vs 2.04%). Conclusively, if first tested by IHC, the 2013 criteria caused more equivocal HER2 IHC cases to be referred to Her2 FISH testing than the 2007 criteria. That decreased the false-negative rate of HER2 status and increased the detection rates of HER2 positivity in mucinous EOC.
[Skills lab training in veterinary medicine. Effective preparation for clinical work at the small animal clinic of the University for Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation. Effektive Vorbereitung auf die klinische Tätigkeit am Beispiel der Kleintierklinik der Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover].
Engelskirchen, Simon; Ehlers, Jan; Kirk, Ansgar T; Tipold, Andrea; Dilly, Marc
During five and a half years of studying veterinary medicine, students should in addition to theoretical knowledge acquire sufficient practical skills. Considering animal welfare and ethical aspects, opportunities for hands-on learning on living animals are limited because of the high annual number of students. The first German veterinary clinical-skills lab, established in 2013 at the University for Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation (TiHo), offers opportunities for all students to learn, train and repeat clinical skills on simulators and models as frequently as they would like, until they feel sufficiently confident to transfer these skills to living animals. This study describes the establishment of clinical-skills lab training within the students' practical education, using the example of the small-animal clinic of the TiHo. Two groups of students were compared: without skills lab training (control group K) and with skills lab training (intervention group I). At the end of both the training and a subsequent 10-week clinical rotation in different sections of the clinic, an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was performed, testing the students' practical skills at 15 stations. An additional multiple-choice test was performed before and after the clinical rotation to evaluate the increased theoretical knowledge. Students of group I achieved significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better results in eight of the 15 tested skills. The multiple-choice test revealed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) gain of theoretical knowledge in both groups without any differences between the groups. Students displayed a high degree of acceptance of the skills lab training. Using simulators and models in veterinary education is an efficient teaching concept, and should be used continually and integrated in the curriculum.
Murakami, Manabu; Matoba, Kotaro; Hayakawa, Akira; Terazawa, Koichi
Fostering the specialists of forensic pathology has become a worldwide problem. In Japan, factors such as government budget cuts, the introduction of initial postgraduate clinical training system, as well as national policy on increasing autopsy rates, may deter young graduates from entering this specialty. The aim of this study was to look for clues to promote the training of young forensic pathologists. We selected and interviewed five forensic pathologists, with each interview lasting approximately 60 minutes, and picked up common views among them. The interviews topic, based on a prior survey, was: "What do you believe forensic pathologists require to promote the training of their successors." We selected common views on the three themes listed below; 1) standardization of minimum requirements to be independent forensic pathologists, 2) balancing forensic pathologists' time among autopsy practice, research, and education, and 3) preparing positions for younger forensic pathologists. These opinions were the same as those of previous studies conducted overseas and must be discussed at academic conferences in the future, where both junior and senior forensic pathologists participate.
Lee, Kachiu C.; Peacock, Sue; Weinstock, Martin A.; Zhao, Ge Alice; Knezevich, Stevan R.; Elder, David E.; Barnhill, Raymond L.; Piepkorn, Michael W.; Reisch, Lisa M.; Carney, Patricia A.; Onega, Tracy; Lott, Jason P.; Elmore, Joann G.
Background The extent of variability in treatment suggestions for melanocytic lesions made by pathologists is unknown. Objective We investigated how often pathologists rendered suggestions, reasons for providing suggestions, and concordance with national guidelines. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of pathologists. Data included physician characteristics, experience, treatment recommendation practices. Results Of 301 pathologists, 207 (69%) from 10 states (CA, CT, HI, IA, KY, LA, NJ, NM, UT, WA), enrolled. Fifteen percent and 7% reported never and always including suggestions, respectively. Reasons for offering suggestions included improved care (79%), clarification (68%), and legal liability (39%). Reasons for not offering suggestions included referring physician preference (48%), lack of clinical information (44%), and expertise (29%). Training and caseload were associated with offering suggestions (p<0.05). Physician suggestions were most consistent for mild/moderate dysplastic nevi and melanoma. For melanoma in-situ, 18 (9%) and 32 (15%) pathologists made suggestions that under- or over-treated lesions based on NCCN guidelines, respectively. For invasive melanoma, 14 (7%) of pathologists made treatment suggestions that under-treated lesions based on NCCN guidelines. Limitations Treatment suggestions were self-reported. Conclusions Pathologists made recommendations ranging in consistency. These findings may inform efforts to reduce treatment variability and optimize patterns of care delivery for patients. PMID:27692732
Kambouchner, Marianne; Bernaudin, Jean-François
The 1930 International Labour Office Conference on silicosis in Johannesburg was a turning point in the history of silicosis and in the recognition of the associated pathologic patterns. Since 1930, pneumoconioses such as silicosis have become much rarer in developed countries and can now be diagnosed at an early stage based on clinical and radiologic criteria. However, in spite of these advances, pathologists must remember to look for silica in tissues, particularly when clinical and radiologic findings are more uncertain. Furthermore, nowadays pathologists essentially observe silicotic lesions as incidental findings adjacent to lung cancers. In addition to identifying the characteristic lesions, pathologists must also try to identify their causative agent, in the case of crystalline silica firstly by using polarized light examination, followed as appropriate by more sophisticated devices. Finally, pathologists and clinicians must always keep in mind the various implications of exposure to silica compounds in a wide range of diseases. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Remick, Amera K; Catlin, Natasha R; Quist, Erin M; Steinbach, Thomas J; Dixon, Darlene
The Society of Toxicologic Pathology (STP) Education Committee and the STP Reproductive Special Interest Group held a North Carolina regional meeting entitled, "Juvenile Toxicology: Relevance and Challenges for Toxicologists and Pathologists" on March 13, 2015, at the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences/National Toxicology Program in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The purpose of this regional meeting was to familiarize attendees with the topic of juvenile toxicity testing and discuss its relevance to clinical pediatric medicine, regulatory perspectives, challenges of appropriate study design confronted by toxicologists, and challenges of histopathologic examination and interpretation of juvenile tissues faced by pathologists. The 1-day meeting was a success with over 60 attendees representing industry, government, research organizations, and academia. © 2015 by The Author(s).
Diana L. Eubanks
Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.
Ishikawa, Takumi; Takahashi, Junko; Kasai, Mai; Shiina, Takayuki; Iijima, Yuka; Takemura, Hiroshi; Mizoguchi, Hiroshi; Kuwata, Takeshi
In Japan, cancer is the most prevalent cause of death; the number of patients suffering from cancer is increasing. Hence, there is an increased burden on pathologists to make diagnoses. To reduce pathologists' burden, researchers have developed methods of auto-pathological diagnosis. However, virtual slides, which are created when glass slides are digitally scanned, saved in a unique format, and it is difficult for researchers to work on the virtual slides for developing their own image processing method. This paper presents the support system for pathologists and researchers who use auto-pathological diagnosis (P-SSD). Main purpose of P-SSD was to support both of pathologists and researchers. P-SSD consists of several sub-functions that make it easy not only for pathologists to screen pathological images, double-check their diagnoses, and reduce unimportant image data but also for researchers to develop and apply their original image-processing techniques to pathological images. We originally developed P-SSD to support both pathologists and researchers developing auto-pathological diagnoses systems. Current version of P-SSD consists of five main functions as follows: (i) Loading virtual slides, (ii) making a supervised database, (iii) learning image features, (iv) detecting cancerous areas, (v) displaying results of detection. P-SSD reduces computer memory size random access memory utilization and the processing time required to divide the virtual slides into the smaller-size images compared with other similar software. The maximum observed reduction in computer memory size and reduction in processing time is 97% and 99.94%, respectively. Unlike other vendor-developed software, P-SSD has interoperability and is capable of handling virtual slides in several formats. Therefore, P-SSD can support both of pathologists and researchers, and has many potential applications in both pathological diagnosis and research area.
Schoeman, J P; van Schoor, M; van der Merwe, L L; Meintjes, R A
In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small-group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem-based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.
Full Text Available In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.
Fullerton, Marjorie; Khatiwada, Janak; Johnson, Jacqueline U.; Davis, Shurrita
Abstract The use of medicinal plants as natural antimicrobial agents is gaining popularity. Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is widely used for the treatment of diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of sorrel on Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from food, veterinary, and clinical samples. Phenolics of the calyces were extracted from 10 g of ground, freeze-dried samples using 100 mL of 80% aqueous methanol. Concentrations of 10%, 5%, and 2.5% methanol extract of sorrel were investigated for its antimicrobial activity. Inhibition zones were indicated by a lack of microbial growth due to inhibitory concentrations of sorrel diffused into semisolid culture medium beneath the sorrel-impregnated disk. The results of this experiment showed that the most potent sorrel concentration was 10%, then 5%, and finally 2.5%. The overall mean zone of inhibition for the sorrel extract was 12.66 mm for 10%, 10.75 mm for 5%, and 8.9 mm for 2.5%. The highest inhibition zones (11.16 mm) were observed in veterinary samples, and the lowest (10.57 mm) in the food samples. There were significant (P<.05) differences among mean zones of inhibition found in the food, veterinary, and clinical sources. Based on the source of samples and concentration of sorrel extract, the lowest mean inhibition was 7.00±0.04 mm from clinical samples, and the highest was 15.37±0.61 mm from a food source. These findings indicated that sorrel was effective at all levels in inhibiting E. coli O157:H7; thus it possesses antimicrobial activity and hold great promise as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:21548802
Dawson, Lauren C; Dewey, Cate E; Stone, Elizabeth A; Mosley, Cornelia I; Guerin, Michele T; Niel, Lee
Successful prevention, recognition, and treatment of pain are integral to ensuring veterinary patient welfare. A canine and feline welfare assessment tool, incorporating verbal interviews with veterinarians using open-ended questions, was developed to assess pain management practices that safeguard and improve patient welfare. The tool was evaluated in 30 companion- and mixed-animal veterinary clinics in Ontario in order to assess its reliability, feasibility, and validity, while also benchmarking current practices. Responses were analyzed according to a scoring scheme developed based on published literature and expert opinion. Based on weighted kappa statistics, interview scoring had substantial inter-observer (Kw = 0.83, 0.73) and near-perfect intra-observer (Kw = 0.92) agreement, which suggests that the tool reliably collects information about pain management practices. Interviews were completed at all recruited clinics, which indicates high feasibility for the methods. Validity could not be assessed, as participants were reluctant to share information about analgesic administration from their clinical records. Descriptive results indicated areas for which many veterinarians are acting in accordance with best practices for pain management, such as pre-emptive and post-surgical analgesia for ovariohysterectomy patients, and post-surgical care instructions. Areas that offer opportunity for enhancement were also highlighted, e.g., training veterinary staff to recognize signs of pain and duration of analgesia in ovariohysterectomy patients after discharge. Overall, based on this limited sample, most veterinarians appear to be effectively managing their patients' pain, although areas with opportunity for enhancement were also identified. Further research is needed to assess trends in a broader sample of participants.
Moriello, Karen A; Coyner, Kimberly; Paterson, Susan; Mignon, Bernard
Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal skin disease of cats and dogs. The most common pathogens of small animals belong to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. It is an important skin disease because it is contagious, infectious and can be transmitted to people. The objective of this document is to review the existing literature and provide consensus recommendations for veterinary clinicians and lay people on the diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in cats and dogs. The authors served as a Guideline Panel (GP) and reviewed the literature available prior to September 2016. The GP prepared a detailed literature review and made recommendations on selected topics. The World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD) provided guidance and oversight for this process. A draft of the document was presented at the 8th World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology (May 2016) and was then made available via the World Wide Web to the member organizations of the WAVD for a period of three months. Comments were solicited and posted to the GP electronically. Responses were incorporated by the GP into the final document. No one diagnostic test was identified as the gold standard. Successful treatment requires concurrent use of systemic oral antifungals and topical disinfection of the hair coat. Wood's lamp and direct examinations have good positive and negative predictability, systemic antifungal drugs have a wide margin of safety and physical cleaning is most important for decontamination of the exposed environments. Finally, serious complications of animal-human transmission are exceedingly rare. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.
van Duijkeren, E; Kamphuis, M; van der Mije, I C; Laarhoven, L M; Duim, B; Wagenaar, J A; Houwers, D J
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in people, pets and the environment in households with a pet with a clinical MRSP-infection within the past year. Personnel and the environment at veterinary clinics were also screened. Nasal swabs (humans), nasal and perineal swabs (pets) and environmental wipes were examined using selective culturing. Twenty households were enrolled; 10/20 index cases still had clinical signs of infection at the start of the study and all were MRSP-positive. Of the remaining 10 index cases five were MRSP-positive in nasal and/or perineal samples. Five of 14 (36%) contact dogs and four of 13 (31%) contact cats were found MRSP-positive. In the households with an index case with clinical signs of infection 6/7 (86%) contact animals were MRSP-positive. MRSP was cultured from 2/45 (4%) human nasal samples. Domestic contamination was widespread as positive samples were found in 70% of the households and 44% of all environmental samples were MRSP-positive. In all but one of these MRSP-positive households the index case was still MRSP positive. Among the personnel in veterinary clinics 4/141 (3%) were MRSP-positive. MRSP was cultured from 31/200 environmental samples in 7/13 clinics at the first sampling and in 3/6 clinics the environment remained MRSP-positive after cleaning and disinfection indicating that current cleaning procedures often were unable to eliminate MRSP. These results show that transmission of MRSP between infected or colonized dogs and cats and healthy people does occur but is relatively uncommon, while transmission to contact pets occurs frequently, especially when the index case still has clinical signs of MRSP-infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prahlow, Joseph A
Hate crimes represent crimes committed against an individual or group on the basis of their race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sexual orientation, gender, gender identity, or disability. For the forensic pathologist, a death related to a hate crime should be considered a high-profile case, one in which the pathologist should expect abundant public interest and scrutiny. In this article, an overview of hate crimes is presented, stressing the different types of hate crimes and the motives of those who commit such crimes. For death investigators and forensic pathologists, an awareness of these details will help them to recognize and appropriately anticipate issues that may be important in deaths related to hate crimes.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Okorie-Kanu et al. 160. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): ... Nigeria; 3Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu state,. Nigeria. ...... (ASVCP), International Veterinary.
1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.. 2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Abeokuta, Ogun State,. Nigeria. *Corresponding Authors: .... medial and lateral canthi of each eye. Philtrum Height (PH). Measured ...
Jul 2, 2000 ... Nigerian Veterinary Journal 36(4). 2015. Owoyemi et al. 1341. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., December 2015 ... medicine, 3Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. .... in wound or burn healing, internal intake of.
Geller, Berta M; Nelson, Heidi D; Weaver, Donald L; Frederick, Paul D; Allison, Kimberly H; Onega, Tracy; Carney, Patricia A; Tosteson, Anna N A; Elmore, Joann G
Second opinions in pathology improve patient safety by reducing diagnostic errors, leading to more appropriate clinical treatment decisions. Little objective data are available regarding the factors triggering a request for second opinion despite second opinion consultations being part of the diagnostic system of pathology. Therefore we sought to assess breast biopsy cases and interpreting pathologists characteristics associated with second opinion requests. Collected pathologist surveys and their interpretations of 60 test set cases were used to explore the relationships between case characteristics, pathologist characteristics and case perceptions, and requests for second opinions. Data were evaluated by logistic regression and generalised estimating equations. 115 pathologists provided 6900 assessments; pathologists requested second opinions on 70% (4827/6900) of their assessments 36% (1731/4827) of these would not have been required by policy. All associations between case characteristics and requesting second opinions were statistically significant, including diagnostic category, breast density, biopsy type, and number of diagnoses noted per case. Exclusive of institutional policies, pathologists wanted second opinions most frequently for atypia (66%) and least frequently for invasive cancer (20%). Second opinion rates were higher when the pathologist had lower assessment confidence, in cases with higher perceived difficulty, and cases with borderline diagnoses. Pathologists request second opinions for challenging cases, particularly those with atypia, high breast density, core needle biopsies, or many co-existing diagnoses. Further studies should evaluate whether the case characteristics identified in this study could be used as clinical criteria to prompt system-level strategies for mandating second opinions. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Full Text Available Aims: In Japan, cancer is the most prevalent cause of death; the number of patients suffering from cancer is increasing. Hence, there is an increased burden on pathologists to make diagnoses. To reduce pathologists′ burden, researchers have developed methods of auto-pathological diagnosis. However, virtual slides, which are created when glass slides are digitally scanned, saved in a unique format, and it is difficult for researchers to work on the virtual slides for developing their own image processing method. This paper presents the support system for pathologists and researchers who use auto-pathological diagnosis (P-SSD. Main purpose of P-SSD was to support both of pathologists and researchers. P-SSD consists of several sub-functions that make it easy not only for pathologists to screen pathological images, double-check their diagnoses, and reduce unimportant image data but also for researchers to develop and apply their original image-processing techniques to pathological images. Methods: We originally developed P-SSD to support both pathologists and researchers developing auto-pathological diagnoses systems. Current version of P-SSD consists of five main functions as follows: (i Loading virtual slides, (ii making a supervised database, (iii learning image features, (iv detecting cancerous areas, (v displaying results of detection. Results: P-SSD reduces computer memory size random access memory utilization and the processing time required to divide the virtual slides into the smaller-size images compared with other similar software. The maximum observed reduction in computer memory size and reduction in processing time is 97% and 99.94%, respectively. Conclusions: Unlike other vendor-developed software, P-SSD has interoperability and is capable of handling virtual slides in several formats. Therefore, P-SSD can support both of pathologists and researchers, and has many potential applications in both pathological diagnosis and research
Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei
Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Although calcifications in breasts are reported with breast cancers; they can also be seen in benign conditions. They cannot be directly seen by the naked eye. Although sonomammography can demonstrate them many times; often the microcalcifications can go un-noticed. X-ray mammography is the best diagnostic tool to show them reliably; on which they appear as white specks or dots. This article puts forth a Pathologist`s purview of breast calcifications. [Cukurova Med J 2014; 39(3.000: 413-421
Flatland, Bente; Weiser, Glade
Over 30 yr of technological evolution have resulted in sophisticated instrumentation for in-clinic laboratories, yet there is no regulatory oversight of diagnostic testing quality. Long overdue, the veterinary profession must address quality assurance (QA) of diagnostic testing. Each practice must weigh the responsibility for laboratory instrumentation test results that are often a combination of in-clinic and send-out testing. Challenges faced by clinic staff maintaining in-clinic laboratories include lack of training in QA and quality control (QC), lack of emphasis placed on QA/QC by instrument suppliers, QC financial and time costs, and a general lack of laboratory QA/QC support resources in the veterinary community. Possible solutions include increased continuing education opportunities and the provision of guidelines and other resources by national veterinary organizations; specialty certification of veterinary technicians; an increasing role of veterinary clinical pathologists as QA/QC consultants; and development of external quality assessment programs aimed at veterinary practices. The potential exists for animal health companies to lead in this effort by innovating instrument design, providing QC services, and exploiting instrument connectivity to monitor performance. Veterinary laboratory QA/QC is a neglected aspect of the profession. In coming years, veterinarians will hopefully find increased support for this core practice component.
Schaufler, Katharina; Bethe, Astrid; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Ewers, Christa; Kohn, Barbara; Wieler, Lothar H; Guenther, Sebastian
To contribute to the understanding of multiresistant bacteria, a 'One Health' approach in estimating the rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and getting insights into the transmission from clinical settings to the surrounding environment was employed by collecting fecal samples of dogs in a public area. Isolates were compared to those from samples of diseased dogs from a nearby small-animal clinic. One hundred fecal samples of dogs were collected on a single day in the public area of a veterinary faculty with a small-animal clinic and adjacent residential neighborhoods. All identified ESBL-producing strains were isolated by selective plating, genotypically analyzed by DNA microarray, polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and compared to 11 clinical ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from diseased dogs treated in the small-animal clinic 2 months before and 2 months following the environmental sampling collection. Fourteen percent (14/100) of the extra-clinical samples harbored phenotypic ESBL/putative AmpC-producing E. coli with additional resistances against other antimicrobials. One ESBL-strain displayed an identical macrorestriction pattern to one clinical, another one to three clinical clonal ESBL-producing strains. The genotypic ESBL-determinants (blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15) and detection rates (10%) in dog feces collected outside of the small-animal clinic are comparable to the rates and ESBL-types in the healthy human population in Germany and to clinical and non-clinical samples of humans and companion animals in Europe. The occurrence of identical strains detected both outside and inside the clinical setting suggests a connection between the small-animal clinic and the surrounding environment. In conclusion, dog feces collected in proximity to veterinary facilities should be considered as a non-point infection source of zoonotic ESBL-producing E. coli for both animals and
Dewar, Rajan; Parkash, Vinita; Forrow, Lachlan; Truog, Robert D
How pathologists communicate an error is complicated by the absence of a direct physician-patient relationship. Using 2 examples, we elaborate on how other physician colleagues routinely play an intermediary role in our day-to-day transactions and in the communication of a pathologist error to the patient. The concept of a "dual-hybrid" mind-set in the intermediary physician and its role in representing the pathologists' viewpoint adequately is considered. In a dual-hybrid mind-set, the intermediary physician can align with the patients' philosophy and like the patient, consider the smallest deviation from norm to be an error. Alternatively, they might embrace the traditional physician philosophy and communicate only those errors that resulted in a clinically inappropriate outcome. Neither may effectively reflect the pathologists' interests. We propose that pathologists develop strategies to communicate errors that include considerations of meeting with the patients directly. Such interactions promote healing for the patient and are relieving to the well-intentioned pathologist.
In Sweden 300 veterinary clinics have a license for x-ray diagnostics. Six of them also have a license for nuclear medicine. During 2005 eight clinics were inspected and the results show that the radiation protection in veterinary medicine can be improved. No clinic fulfilled the regulations of categorization of workplaces and workers (SSI FS 1998:3). Half of the clinics had no Swedish manual to the x-ray equipment and just as many had not performed the annual function check. Obviously, there is a need for more information to staff in veterinary medicine.
... diagnostic imaging and laboratory evaluations of specimens. Computers have also crept into the field of agro-veterinary consultancy services and have been useful here for clinical consultancy; agro-veterinary project design, monitoring and implementation; preparation of presentations as resource persons or instructor; ...
Womack, James E.; Templeton, Joe W.
Areas that will influence the development of veterinary medical genetics as a clinical discipline are discussed, some critical research areas of immediate concern are suggested, and misconceptions held by many practicing veterinarians which must be corrected at the level of veterinary education are identified. (JMD)
Weeks, B.R.; Smith, R.; Snell, J.R.; Hall, S. Mark
The International Veterinary Pathology Slide Bank Videodisc is an archival resource containing more than 12,000 color video images of interest to veterinary and comparative pathologists. To increase the utility of this database, we have developed a HyperCard-based database for Macintosh computers that allows rapid searches of the information associated with the images, and automatic display of specified images. Complex searches are handled using HyperKRS™, an indexing and search utility for H...
Bergman, Philip J
The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Memon, M A; Shmalberg, J; Adair, H S; Allweiler, S; Bryan, J N; Cantwell, S; Carr, E; Chrisman, C; Egger, C M; Greene, S; Haussler, K K; Hershey, B; Holyoak, G R; Johnson, M; Jeune, S Le; Looney, A; McConnico, R S; Medina, C; Morton, A J; Munsterman, A; Nie, G J; Park, N; Parsons-Doherty, M; Perdrizet, J A; Peyton, J L; Raditic, D; Ramirez, H P; Saik, J; Robertson, S; Sleeper, M; Dyke, J Van; Wakshlag, J
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative.
Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270
Larrieu, Sophie; Cardinale, Eric; Ocquidant, Philippe; Roger, Matthieu; Lepec, Richard; Delatte, Hélène; Camuset, Guillaume; Desprès, Philippe; Brottet, Elise; Charlin, Cyril; Michault, Alain
A 58-year-old woman living in Reunion Island and returning from Madagascar was hospitalized for neuroinvasive encephalitis and died 1 month later. West Nile virus (WNV) infection was biologically confirmed by detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactive with WNV antigens in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and weak neutralizing activity was also detected. A veterinary survey performed in her traveling area showed a seroprevalence of WNV of 28.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1–36.3) in adult poultry, confirming an active circulation of the virus. Development of a severe form could be related to a weak antibody response, because the patient presented low IgM and IgG titers. This case report underlines the constant risk of emergence of West Nile in Indian Ocean territories, including Reunion Island where competent vectors are widely present during the whole year. PMID:23751400
2003; Halderman, 2005). Animals provide highly nutritious foods, and provide. Ethiop. Vet. .... providing veterinary services in the. District include veterinary drugs shops and mobile clinics providing full time ... 4) The public veterinary service was chosen as first choice for effectiveness and costliness compared to private ...
... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for veterinary technologists and technicians. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of veterinary technologists and ...
Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, ... Parasitic diseases have a debilitating impact on human and animal health worldwide particularly in developing countries. Haemoparasitism have largely been ..... exerts a major health concern in domestic.
Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...
The practices (veterinary anatomy laboratory, veterinarian physiology laboratory I, veterinarian physiology laboratory II, and veterinarian physiology chemistry laboratory) in the area of basic veterinary medicine are important subjects for acquiring knowledge and the technique by the process of shifting from the liberal arts subject to a specialized subjects for the area of applied veterinary medicine and clinical veterinary medicine. The number of equipment is insufficient to practice effec...
Background Large colon impactions are a common cause of colic in the horse. There are no scientific reports on the clinical presentation, diagnostic tests and treatments used in first opinion practice for large colon impaction cases. The aim of this study was to describe the presentation, diagnostic approach and treatment at the primary assessment of horses with large colon impactions. Methods Data were collected prospectively from veterinary practitioners on the primary assessment of equine colic cases over a 12 month period. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of primary large colon impaction and positive findings on rectal examination. Data recorded for each case included history, signalment, clinical and diagnostic findings, treatment on primary assessment and final case outcome. Case outcomes were categorised into three groups: simple medical (resolved with single treatment), complicated medical (resolved with multiple medical treatments) and critical (required surgery, were euthanased or died). Univariable analysis using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test, Kruskal Wallis with Dunn’s post-hoc test and Chi squared analysis were used to compare between different outcome categories. Results 1032 colic cases were submitted by veterinary practitioners: 120 cases met the inclusion criteria for large colon impaction. Fifty three percent of cases were categorised as simple medical, 36.6% as complicated medical, and 9.2% as critical. Most cases (42.1%) occurred during the winter. Fifty nine percent of horses had had a recent change in management, 43% of horses were not ridden, and 12.5% had a recent / current musculoskeletal injury. Mean heart rate was 43bpm (range 26-88) and most cases showed mild signs of pain (67.5%) and reduced gut sounds (76%). Heart rate was significantly increased and gut sounds significantly decreased in critical compared to simple medical cases (p<0.05). Fifty different treatment combinations were used, with NSAIDs (93%) and oral
Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. British Veterinary Association.
The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of enhancing the livestock ...
The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the Journal are the ...
1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria, 2Department of. Veterinary Anatomy ... laboratory technologists and academic staff of the departments of veterinary anatomy, pathology and public health. Design of the ... Early histology and histopathology based research was ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(2). 2017. Mustapha et al. 129 ... 1 Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta,. Abeokuta, Ogun State; 2 ..... lamina 9; IB: Internal basilar nucleus; ICI: Intercalated nucleus; ICo9: Intercostal muscle motor neurons of lamina 9; ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Thomas et al. 123 .... Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of. Agriculture Abeokuta and were ..... immunogenic Salmonella ghost confers protection against internal organ colonization and egg contamination. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology,. 162(1-2): 41–50. JOSHI ...
1288. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., December 2015. Vol. 36 (4): 1288-1298. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Anatomical Studies of ... 1Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; 2 Department of .... back, the internal organs were measured in.
Cullen, John M
Liver disease is a frequently encountered problem in small animal practice. The World Small Animal Veterinary Association has formed a group of experienced clinicians and pathologists to develop a standardized format for diagnostic terminology. This is hoped to lead to greater uniformity in diagnoses and better communication between clinicians and pathologists alike. The aim is to find a sound scientific basis of diagnostic and treatment protocols for hepatobiliary diseases. This article provides an overview of that monograph.
Shrubsole, Kirstine; Worrall, Linda; Power, Emma; O'Connor, Denise A
To explore factors influencing Australian speech pathologists' guideline recommended aphasia management practices. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with hospital-based speech pathologists (n = 20). Interviews focused on barriers and facilitators to implementing recommendations related to five practice areas: Aphasia-friendly Information; Collaborative Goal Setting; Timing of Therapy; Amount and Intensity of Therapy; and Conversation Partner Training. Speech pathologists working only in inpatient rehabilitation settings reported performing the recommended behaviours consistently, and identified few implementation barriers. However, clinicians working in the acute setting reported performing the majority of behaviours inconsistently or rarely. Seven (of 14) Theoretical Domains Framework domains were identified as key influencing factors. Three of these - "Environmental Context and Resources," "Beliefs about Consequences," and "Social Influences" - were consistently reported as influencing practice across all five behaviours. Other important domains included "Knowledge", "Beliefs about Capabilities," "Goals," and "Social/Professional Role and Identity", which each influenced at least two practice behaviours. Speech pathologists report a number of key factors influencing their practice, which differ in how they influence behaviours (i.e., a factor may be a barrier or a facilitator) depending on the behaviour and clinical setting. Future implementation interventions need to account for the strong influence of beliefs and social influences on speech pathology practice, which may facilitate successful implementation. Implications for rehabilitation Speech pathologists' aphasia management practices are often inconsistent with guideline recommendations. Environmental and contextual barriers were identified for all guideline-recommended practices that were investigated; however, these barriers did not necessarily impede implementation for speech pathologists
Kochevar, Deborah T
Veterinary clinical pharmacology encompasses all interactions between drugs and animals and applies basic and clinical knowledge to improve rational drug use and patient outcomes. Veterinary pharmacology instructors set educational goals and objectives that, when mastered by students, lead to improved animal health. The special needs of pharmacology instruction include establishing a functional interface between basic and clinical knowledge, managing a large quantity of information, and mastering quantitative skills essential to successful drug administration and analysis of drug action. In the present study, a survey was conducted to determine the extent to which veterinary pharmacology instructors utilize information technology (IT) in their teaching. Several IT categories were investigated, including Web-based instructional aids, stand-alone pharmacology software, interactive videoconferencing, databases, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and e-book applications. Currently IT plays a largely ancillary role in pharmacology instruction. IT use is being expanded primarily through the efforts of two veterinary professional pharmacology groups, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology (ACVCP) and the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT). The long-term outcome of improved IT use in pharmacology instruction should be to support the larger educational mission of active learning and problem solving. Creation of high-quality IT resources that promote this goal has the potential to improve veterinary pharmacology instruction within and across institutions.
Brownlie, H W Brooks; Munro, R
Investigation of animal-related crime, and therefore submission of forensic cases to veterinary pathology facilities, is increasing, yet many veterinary pathologists are unfamiliar and often uncomfortable with involvement in the forensic necropsy. This article discusses various aspects of the forensic necropsy without specific attention to any particular species group or crime. General advice is given on procedures, documentation, and recording of the examination, and the article indicates how these features may differ from those used in investigation of natural disease. It also discusses evidence management, including recordkeeping, identification of evidence, labeling of photographs, and use of standard operating procedures and protocols. Various written and visual methods for documentation of the forensic necropsy are covered, and adjunctive topics such as sample collection, assessment, and description of wounds and taphonomy are included. Cause, mechanism, and manner of death are defined, and guidance to the use of these terms is given. The aim of this article is to offer guidance on procedural aspects of the forensic necropsy that will help those developing their forensic services, contribute to standardization of the provision of forensic veterinary pathology, and build the confidence of the "uncomfortable" forensic veterinary pathologist. © The Author(s) 2016.
Sharkey, Leslie; Overmann, Jed; Flash, Pamela
To encourage application and critical thinking, case-based writing assignments and grading rubrics were developed for use in a second-year core clinical pathology course. Objectives were to describe how this teaching technique was adapted to a large-class setting and how student perceptions of the learning experience guided modifications of this teaching technique over two presentations of the course and plans for a third presentation. Our goal was to enhance learning by encouraging application of course material to clinical situations and thereby improve students' ability to organize and communicate information. Furthermore, we evaluated the influence of instructor feedback on the learning process. With assistance from the University of Minnesota Center for Writing, assignments and grading rubrics were developed. Students completed course evaluation surveys designed to elicit feedback on the impact of the assignments. Increased learner confidence was reflected in larger self-reported increases in understanding of the material and ability to apply information and in increased feelings of preparedness for class and examinations. A large majority of students advocated the use of such assignments in the course in future years, and modifications to make grading and evaluation of assignments more efficient are underway. Investment of faculty and student time in case-based writing assignments in the veterinary clinical pathology curriculum appears to increase student engagement with material and learner confidence. Future studies should address the impact of this type of assignment more specifically on clinical reasoning and communication skills and on long-term retention of material.
Scotney, Rebekah L; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Keates, Helen L
The study of occupational stress and compassion fatigue in personnel working in animal-related occupations has gained momentum over the last decade. However, there remains incongruence in understanding what is currently termed compassion fatigue and the associated unique contributory factors. Furthermore, there is minimal established evidence of the likely influence of these conditions on the health and well-being of individuals working in various animal-related occupations. To assess currently available evidence and terminology regarding occupational stress and compassion fatigue in personnel working in animal shelters, veterinary clinics, and biomedical research facilities. Studies were identified by searching the following electronic databases with no publication date restrictions: ProQuest Research Library, ProQuest Social Science Journals, PsycARTICLES, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, PsychINFO databases, and Google Scholar. Search terms included (euthanasia AND animals) OR (compassion fatigue AND animals) OR (occupational stress AND animals). Only articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals that included use of quantitative or qualitative techniques to investigate the incidence of occupational stress or compassion fatigue in the veterinary profession or animal-related occupations were included. On the basis of predefined criteria, 1 author extracted articles, and the data set was then independently reviewed by the other 2 authors. 12 articles met the selection criteria and included a variety of study designs and methods of data analysis. Seven studies evaluated animal shelter personnel, with the remainder evaluating veterinary nurses and technicians (2), biomedical research technicians (1), and personnel in multiple animal-related occupations (2). There was a lack of consistent terminology and agreed definitions for the articles reviewed. Personnel directly engaged in euthanasia reported significantly higher levels of work stress and lower
Mariana S.A. Silva; Uzêda,Rosângela S.; Costa, Kattyanne S.; Santos, Sara L.; Macedo, Alan C. C.; Abe Sandes, Kiyoko; Gondim, Luis Fernando Pita
Texto completo: acesso restrito. p. 156-159 Hammondia heydorni is a coccidian parasite with an obligatory two host life cycle, with dogs and foxes as definitive hosts, and a number of intermediate hosts, including goats. While infection by this parasite seems to be unassociated with any clinical signs, infection by the closely related parasites Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii can result in abortion, stillbirths and low yielding in caprine herds. The aim of this work was to investiga...
Cello, R. M.
The author suggests that attempts to strengthen clinical specialty training must begin with a coordinated effort on the part of all schools to establish graduate clinical education as a fundamental, important and independent element of their academic programs. (LBH)
Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Blanco, José L; Harmanus, Celine; Kuijper, Ed J; García, Marta E
Despite extensive research on the epidemiology of pathogenic clostridia in dogs and cats, most published studies focus on a selected animal population and/or a single veterinary medical centre. We assessed the burden of Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile shedding by small animals in 17 veterinary clinics located within the Madrid region (Spain) and differing in size, number and features of animals attended and other relevant characteristics. In addition, we studied the genetic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of recovered isolates. Selective culture of all fecal specimens collected during a single week from dogs (n = 105) and cats (n = 37) attended in participating clinics yielded C. perfringens/C. difficile from 31%, 4.8% of the dogs, and 20%, 0% of the cats analyzed, respectively, and three dogs yielded both species. Furthermore, 17 animals (15 dogs and two cats) that yielded a positive culture for either species were recruited for a follow-up survey and C. perfringens was again obtained from nine dogs. Considerable differences in prevalence were observed among participating clinics for both clostridial species. C. perfringens isolates (n = 109) belonged to toxinotypes A (97.2%) and E (three isolates from one dog), whereas C. difficile isolates (n = 18) belonged to the toxigenic ribotypes 106 (33.3%) and 154 (16.7%), a 009-like ribotype (33.3%) and an unknown non-toxigenic ribotype (16.7%). Amplified fragment length polymorphism-based fingerprinting classified C. perfringens and C. difficile isolates into 105 and 15 genotypes, respectively, and tested isolates displayed in vitro resistance to benzylpenicillin (2.8%, 88.8%), clindamycin (0%, 16.7%), erythromycin (0.9%, 16.7%), imipenem (1.8%, 100%), levofloxacin (0.9%, 100%), linezolid (5.5%, 0%), metronidazole (4.6%, 0%) and/or tetracycline (7.3%, 0%). All animals from which multiple isolates were retrieved yielded ≥2 different genotypes and/or antimicrobial susceptibility profiles
Nail-Chiwetalu, Barbara; Bernstein Ratner, Nan
Objectives: This study assessed the information-seeking practices and needs of speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Improved understanding of these needs can inform librarians and educators to better prepare students in principles and methods of evidence-based practice (EBP) and, through continuing education (CE), promote the integration of EBP into clinical practice of SLPs.
Blood, Gordon W.; Mamett, Callie; Gordon, Rebecca; Blood, Ingrid M.
Purpose: This study examined speech-language pathologists' (SLPs') perceptions of their (a) educational and clinical training in evaluating and treating written language disorders, (b) knowledge bases in this area, (c) sources of knowledge about written language disorders, (d) confidence levels, and (e) predictors of confidence in working with…
Rumbach, Anna F; Rose, Tanya A; Cheah, Mynn
To explore Australian speech-language pathologists' use of non-speech oral motor exercises, and rationales for using/not using non-speech oral motor exercises in clinical practice. A total of 124 speech-language pathologists practising in Australia, working with paediatric and/or adult clients with speech sound difficulties, completed an online survey. The majority of speech-language pathologists reported that they did not use non-speech oral motor exercises when working with paediatric or adult clients with speech sound difficulties. However, more than half of the speech-language pathologists working with adult clients who have dysarthria reported using non-speech oral motor exercises with this population. The most frequently reported rationale for using non-speech oral motor exercises in speech sound difficulty management was to improve awareness/placement of articulators. The majority of speech-language pathologists agreed there is no clear clinical or research evidence base to support non-speech oral motor exercise use with clients who have speech sound difficulties. This study provides an overview of Australian speech-language pathologists' reported use and perceptions of non-speech oral motor exercises' applicability and efficacy in treating paediatric and adult clients who have speech sound difficulties. The research findings provide speech-language pathologists with insight into how and why non-speech oral motor exercises are currently used, and adds to the knowledge base regarding Australian speech-language pathology practice of non-speech oral motor exercises in the treatment of speech sound difficulties. Implications for Rehabilitation Non-speech oral motor exercises refer to oral motor activities which do not involve speech, but involve the manipulation or stimulation of oral structures including the lips, tongue, jaw, and soft palate. Non-speech oral motor exercises are intended to improve the function (e.g., movement, strength) of oral structures. The
Impact of an alternative chromosome 17 probe and the 2013 American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists guidelines on fluorescence in situ hybridization for the determination of HER2 gene amplification in breast cancer.
Donaldson, Alana R; Shetty, Shashirekha; Wang, Zhen; Rivera, Christine L; Portier, Bryce P; Budd, G Thomas; Downs-Kelly, Erinn; Lanigan, Christopher P; Calhoun, Benjamin C
The dual-probe fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) gene amplification in breast cancer provides an HER2:CEP17 (centromere enumeration probe for chromosome 17) ratio. Copy number alteration (CNA) in CEP17 may skew this ratio. The authors analyzed the impact of the 2013 American Society of Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) guidelines and an alternative chromosome 17 probe on HER2 status in tumor specimens with CEP17 CNA. Specimens with CEP17 CNA (n = 310) were selected from 3048 tumor samples that were received from January 2013 to June 2015 for testing with the alternative chromosome 17 probe D17S122. Reclassification of HER2 status was assessed using the 2007 and 2013 ASCO/CAP guidelines. The alternative chromosome 17 probe reclassified 82 of 310 (26.5%) and 87 of 310 (28.1%) tumors using the 2007 and 2013 guidelines, respectively. Of the 41 of 310 tumors (13.2%) that were reclassified from nonamplified to amplified according to 2007 guidelines, 28 of 41 (68.3%) had an average HER2 copy number ≥4.0 and Cancer 2017;123:2230-2239. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...
Camus, Melinda S
This review, aimed primarily at general practitioners, focuses on quality assurance/quality control principles for all three phases of clinical pathology testing: preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic. Specific emphasis is placed on the preanalytic phase of diagnostic modalities for identifying neoplastic cells, specifically flow cytometry, PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement, and immunocytochemistry. Recommendations for establishing an in-clinic quality assurance system are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schmidt, Robert L; Chute, Deborah J; Colbert-Getz, Jorie M; Firpo-Betancourt, Adolfo; James, Daniel S; Karp, Julie K; Miller, Douglas C; Milner, Danny A; Smock, Kristi J; Sutton, Ann T; Walker, Brandon S; White, Kristie L; Wilson, Andrew R; Wojcik, Eva M; Yared, Marwan A; Factor, Rachel E
-Statistical literacy can be defined as understanding the statistical tests and terminology needed for the design, analysis, and conclusions of original research or laboratory testing. Little is known about the statistical literacy of clinical or anatomic pathologists. -To determine the statistical methods most commonly used in pathology studies from the literature and to assess familiarity and knowledge level of these statistical tests by pathology residents and practicing pathologists. -The most frequently used statistical methods were determined by a review of 1100 research articles published in 11 pathology journals during 2015. Familiarity with statistical methods was determined by a survey of pathology trainees and practicing pathologists at 9 academic institutions in which pathologists were asked to rate their knowledge of the methods identified by the focused review of the literature. -We identified 18 statistical tests that appear frequently in published pathology studies. On average, pathologists reported a knowledge level between "no knowledge" and "basic knowledge" of most statistical tests. Knowledge of tests was higher for more frequently used tests. Greater statistical knowledge was associated with a focus on clinical pathology versus anatomic pathology, having had a statistics course, having an advanced degree other than an MD degree, and publishing research. Statistical knowledge was not associated with length of pathology practice. -An audit of pathology literature reveals that knowledge of about 12 statistical tests would be sufficient to provide statistical literacy for pathologists. On average, most pathologists report they can interpret commonly used tests but are unable to perform them. Most pathologists indicated that they would benefit from additional statistical training.
Bartels, Kenneth E.
As in other facets of medical science, the use of lasers in veterinary medicine is a relatively new phenomenon. Economic aspects of the profession as well as questionable returns on investment have limited laser applications primarily to the academic community, research institutions, and specialty practices. As technology improves and efficacy is proven, costs should decrease and allow further introduction of laser surgical and diagnostic devices into the mainstream of clinical veterinary medicine.
The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.
Dhollander, S.; Jallow, A.; Mbodge, K.; Kora, S.; Sanneh, M.; Gaye, M.; Bos, J.F.F.P.; Leak, S.; Berkvens, D.; Geerts, S.
The objective of this,study was to provide epidemiological information of equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division (CRD) of The Gambia. Therefore, 2285 consultations records of equines, admitted in a gate-clinic at Sololo in CRD, were studied retrospectively. The data were recorded in the
Gates, M C; Hinds, H J; Dale, A
AIMS To conduct a preliminary investigation into the chronic disease conditions and clinical signs present in aging New Zealand companion animals at end-of-life and to describe the timing, circumstances, and manner of death. METHODS The medical records database of a first-opinion, companion animal, veterinary practice in Auckland, New Zealand was searched to identify all canine and feline patients ≥7 years of age that were subjected to euthanasia or cremated in the period between July 2012-June 2014. The free-text medical notes were analysed for information on the circumstances surrounding the death, previous diagnoses of chronic disease conditions, and the presence of clinical signs associated with decreased quality-of-life at the time of euthanasia. RESULTS The median age at death was 15 (max 22) years for the 130 cats and 12 (max 17) years for the 68 dogs in the study sample. Euthanasia at the clinic was carried out for 119/130 (91%) cats and 62/68 (91%) dogs, with the remainder recorded as having an unassisted death. The frequency of deaths was highest during December for both cats and dogs. Cost was mentioned as an issue in the medical records for 39/181 (21.6%) patients that were subjected to euthanasia. At the time of euthanasia, 92/119 (77.3%) cats and 43/62 (69.4%) dogs were recorded as having >1 clinical sign associated with a decreased quality-of-life. Inappetence and non-specific decline were the two most commonly recorded clinical signs for both dogs and cats. Cardiovascular disease (44/130, 34%), renal failure (40/130, 31%), and malignant neoplasia (36/130, 28%) were the most common chronic disease conditions recorded for cats. Degenerative joint disease (22/68, 32%), malignant neoplasia (14/68, 21%), and cardiovascular disease (8/68, 12%) were the most common chronic disease conditions recorded for dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These preliminary findings highlight that aging companion animals in New Zealand frequently have chronic
Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture,. Umudike, P.M.B 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: Email: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel. No:+234 8034509991. SUMMARY. This study investigated comparatively the genetic influence on the ...
Items 1 - 49 of 49 ... Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 49 of 49 Items ...
The importance of computers in all works of life need not to be overemphasized. However, in. Nigeria, the application of computers in veterinary medicine has not been fully utilized. Computer aided diagnosis is a process that has significantly improved the practice of veterinary medicine in other parts of the world. This paper ...
Items 1 - 16 of 16 ... Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Ethiopian Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 16 of 16 Items ...
Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal. Journal Home > Archives: Tanzania Veterinary Journal. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 15 of 15 Items ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Meseko et al. 155. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): 155-159. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Detection of Haemagglutination inhibition antibody to Pandemic and. Classical Swine Influenza Virus in Commercial Piggery in ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(1). 2016. Igado et al. 54. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 54-63. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cranio-facial and Ocular Morphometrics of the Male Greater Cane Rat. (Thryonomys swinderianus). Igado, O. O.. 1. *; Adebayo, A. O.. 2.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Ogunro et al. 187. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): 187-191. CASE REPORT. Management of Epitheliogenesis Imperfecta in a Piglet (Sus Scrofa domesticus) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ogunro, B. N.. 1. ; Otuh, P. I.. 1.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(2). 2017. Meseko et al. 124. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., June 2017. Vol 38 (2): 124-128. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain.
Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...
Principal Contact. Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, P. O. Box 13662, Tripoli, Libya Phone: +218 21 462 8422. Fax: +218 21 462 8421. Email: email@example.com ...
variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks from Nigeria. Ogo, N. I.. 1. ; Okubanjo, O. O.. 2. ; Inuwa, H. M.. 3 and Agbede, R. I. S.. 4. 1National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State. 2Department of Veterinary Parasitology and. Entomology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 3Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu ...
Vet. J., December 2015. Vol. 36 (4): 1272-1282. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Gross and Morphometric Anatomical Changes of the Thyroid Gland in the West African Dwarf ... Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. .... common carotid artery, internal jugular vein,.
Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 45-53. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. A Retrospective Evaluation of Intravenous Fluid Usage in Animal. Patients Treated at Veterinary Teaching Hospital Nsukka, 2005-2015 ... 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. ... they carried with them their own internal sea.
SUMMARY. The prevalence and morphological pathology of renal failure in exotic breeds of dog in Lagos and Ogun States, within Southwestern Nigeria were determined from postmortem records of the. Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of. Agriculture, Abeokuta ...
at the Maiduguri municipal abattoir and were used for this study. Thyroid glands collected were transported in ice packs to the Department of Veterinary Pathology laboratory, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria for gross examination and thereafter, fixed and sent to Department of Veterinary. Anatomy, University of Abuja, were it ...
Rizzardi Anthony E
Full Text Available Abstract Immunohistochemical (IHC assays performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE tissue sections traditionally have been semi-quantified by pathologist visual scoring of staining. IHC is useful for validating biomarkers discovered through genomics methods as large clinical repositories of FFPE specimens support the construction of tissue microarrays (TMAs for high throughput studies. Due to the ubiquitous availability of IHC techniques in clinical laboratories, validated IHC biomarkers may be translated readily into clinical use. However, the method of pathologist semi-quantification is costly, inherently subjective, and produces ordinal rather than continuous variable data. Computer-aided analysis of digitized whole slide images may overcome these limitations. Using TMAs representing 215 ovarian serous carcinoma specimens stained for S100A1, we assessed the degree to which data obtained using computer-aided methods correlated with data obtained by pathologist visual scoring. To evaluate computer-aided image classification, IHC staining within pathologist annotated and software-classified areas of carcinoma were compared for each case. Two metrics for IHC staining were used: the percentage of carcinoma with S100A1 staining (%Pos, and the product of the staining intensity (optical density [OD] of staining multiplied by the percentage of carcinoma with S100A1 staining (OD*%Pos. A comparison of the IHC staining data obtained from manual annotations and software-derived annotations showed strong agreement, indicating that software efficiently classifies carcinomatous areas within IHC slide images. Comparisons of IHC intensity data derived using pixel analysis software versus pathologist visual scoring demonstrated high Spearman correlations of 0.88 for %Pos (p Virtual slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1649068103671302
Miao, Melissa; Power, Emma; O'Halloran, Robyn
Although clinical practice guidelines can facilitate evidence-based practice and improve the health outcomes of stroke patients, they continue to be underutilised. There is limited research into the reasons for this, especially in speech pathology. This study provides the first in-depth, qualitative examination of the barriers and facilitators that speech pathologists perceive and experience when implementing guidelines. A maximum variation sample of eight speech pathologists participated in a semi-structured interview concerning the implementation of the National Stroke Foundation's Clinical Guidelines for Stroke Management 2010. Interviews were transcribed, thematically analysed and member checked before overall themes were identified. Three main themes and ten subthemes were identified. The first main theme, making implementation explicit, reflected the necessity of accessing and understanding guideline recommendations, and focussing specifically on implementation in context. In the second theme, demand versus ability to change, the size of changes required was compared with available resources and collaboration. The final theme, Speech pathologist motivation to implement guidelines, demonstrated the influence of individual perception of the guidelines and personal commitment to improved practice. Factors affecting implementation are complex, and are not exclusively barriers or facilitators. Some potential implementation strategies are suggested. Further research is recommended. In most Western nations, stroke remains the single greatest cause of disability, including communication and swallowing disabilities. Although adherence to stroke clinical practice guidelines improves stroke patient outcomes, guidelines continue to be underutilised, and the reasons for this are not well understood. This is the first in-depth qualitative study identifying the complex barriers and facilitators to guideline implementation as experienced by speech pathologists in stroke care
Harris, Stephanie Ferney; Prater, Mary Anne; Dyches, Tina Taylor; Heath, Melissa Allen
Stress and burnout contribute significantly to the shortages of school-based speech-language pathologists (SLPs). At the request of the Utah State Office of Education, the researchers measured the stress levels of 97 school-based SLPs using the "Speech-Language Pathologist Stress Inventory." Results indicated that participants' emotional-fatigue…
This paper examines the differences in the veterinary services provided by university and ministry based officers to livestock farmers in Oyo State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select veterinary clinics and livestock farmers who visited the clinics. One hundred and twenty five farmers were selected and ...
Innes, Elisabeth A; Bartley, Paul M; Maley, Stephen; Katzer, Frank; Buxton, David
Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff
in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination......The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... anxiety questionnaires (Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory and Cox and Kenardy's performance anxiety questionnaire) were used. Anxiety levels were measured before the non-surgical course (111 students from 2009) and before live-animal surgery during the surgical course (153 students from 2009...
Elisabeth A Innes
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.
H. S. Vedpathak
Full Text Available The veterinary practitioner has an ethical obligation to help alleviate animal pain. Although most veterinarians accept the fact that animals feel pain, still, postoperative pain relief is not a routine practice in all veterinary hospitals and clinics today. Nociception is a physiological process which involves transduction, transmission, modulation and perception of the noxious stimuli. Chemical mediators are important components of the nociceptive reflex and offer a target of pharmacologic modulation. Assessment of pain in animals is the most important step in the successful management of pain. Choosing appropriate method of pain control would depend upon the type of procedure followed, severity of pain and economic considerations for each individual circumstance. Our understanding of the pain in its manifestation, mechanisms, assessment and alleviation in animals is still although improving, limited. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 360-363
This report presents the proceedings of the African Pathologists Summit, held under the auspices of the African Organization for Research and Training in Cancer. To deliberate on the challenges and constraints of the practice of pathology in Sub-Saharan Africa and the avenues for addressing them. Collaborating organizations included the American Society for Clinical Pathology; Association of Pathologists of Nigeria; British Division of the International Academy of Pathology; College of Pathologists of East, Central and Southern Africa; East African Division of the International Academy of Pathology; Friends of Africa-United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology Initiative; International Academy of Pathology; International Network for Cancer Treatment and Research; National Cancer Institute; National Health and Laboratory Service of South Africa; Nigerian Postgraduate Medical College; Royal College of Pathologists; West African Division of the International Academy of Pathology; and Faculty of Laboratory Medicine of the West African College of Physicians. Information on the status of the practice of pathology was based on the experience of the participants, who are current or past practitioners of pathology or are involved in pathology education and research in Sub-Saharan Africa. The deliberations were carried out through presentations and working discussion groups. The significant lack of professional and technical personnel, inadequate infrastructure, limited training opportunities, poor funding of pathology services in Sub-Saharan Africa, and their significant impact on patient care were noted. The urgency of addressing these issues was recognized, and the recommendations that were made are contained in this report.
Brown, Kyla; Worrall, Linda; Davidson, Bronwyn; Howe, Tami
Exploring the concept of living successfully with aphasia challenges researchers and clinicians to identify positive rather than negative adaptive processes and factors that may inform clinical interventions and other community-based services for people with aphasia. Previous research on this topic has focused on the perspectives of individuals with aphasia, and identified a number of core components of living successfully with aphasia, including doing things, meaningful relationships, striving for a positive way of living, and communication. As service providers, speech-language pathologists may also contribute valuable insights regarding components of living successfully with aphasia and factors influencing individuals' abilities to achieve this goal. This research aimed to explore speech-language pathologists' perspectives about the meaning of living successfully with aphasia, and factors they perceive to influence individuals' abilities to live successfully with aphasia. Twenty-five speech-language pathologists from around Australia participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews on the topic of living successfully with aphasia. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to identify themes of relevance. Through the analysis of speech-language pathologist participant transcripts, the following themes emerged as components of living successfully with aphasia: participation and community engagement; communication; meaningful relationships; autonomy or independence; acceptance and embracement of aphasia; self-esteem; happiness; and purpose or meaningfulness. A wide variety of factors were perceived to influence individuals' abilities to live successfully with aphasia. These included support, acceptance, and understanding; personal factors; and speech-language pathology services. Further research is required to extend findings by investigating how speech-language pathologists address identified themes in
Roy, Somak; Parwani, Anil V; Dhir, Rajiv; Yousem, Samuel A; Kelly, Susan M; Pantanowitz, Liron
Communication in various medical settings is subject to misinterpretation. The frozen section (FS) diagnosis in patient care is dependent on successful communication between pathologists and surgeons. However, very few studies looking at FS errors analyzed postanalytic communication issues. A total of 300 consecutive cases, in which an FS was performed and corresponding surgical note was available, were studied. The FS diagnosis and surgeon's interpretation were recorded for all cases. Discrepancies were classified as major (clinical impact) or minor (no clinical impact). We found 8 (2.7%) miscommunications, all with only minor clinical impact. These were attributed mainly to the surgeon's misinterpretation of a deferred diagnosis. Also contributing to miscommunication was the pathologist's use of nonspecific terminology such as "favor" or "scattered." We found that the rate of miscommunicated FS diagnoses was low at our institution during the period of our study. However, the rate of miscommunication was similar to the much more widely recognized problem of sampling error.
Lefebvre, D; Pirie, R S; Handel, I G; Tremaine, W H; Hudson, N P H
There is a need for an improved understanding of equine post operative ileus (POI), in terms of both clinical definition and optimal management. Although the pharmacological strategies that are used to treat POI continue to evolve, little is known about the supplementary strategies used to prevent and manage this condition. To report the current strategies used to diagnose, prevent and manage POI following emergency abdominal surgeries. Cross-sectional survey. An electronic survey invitation was sent by email to 306 European college diplomates (European Colleges of Equine Internal Medicine, ECEIM n = 120, and Veterinary Surgeons, ECVS n = 186). The response rate was 33% (100 of 306). The median reported estimated incidence of POI was 10-20%. The presence of reflux on nasogastric intubation was the main criterion used to define POI. Lesions involving the small intestine were thought to be the leading risk factors for developing POI. Anti-inflammatory drugs, antimicrobial drugs and i.v. fluids were the primary preventative strategies when managing cases at high risk for POI. Flunixin meglumine and lidocaine were the drugs most commonly used to treat horses with POI. Supplementary preventative and treatment strategies for POI included control of endotoxaemia, fluid therapy, early ambulation and judicious timing of post operative feeding. Appreciation of the potential risk factors associated with the development of POI appeared to have an impact on the choice of management strategies that are implemented. The majority of ECEIM and ECVS Diplomates in the survey used flunixin meglumine and lidocaine, often in combination, to treat horses with POI, which is likely to reflect the contributory role of inflammation in its pathophysiology. Various supplementary strategies were used to prevent and manage POI risk factors intraoperatively and post operatively. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.
Mossop, Liz H; Cobb, Kate
The teaching and assessment of professional behaviors and attitudes are important components of veterinary curricula. This article aims to outline some important considerations and concepts which will be useful for veterinary educators reviewing or developing this topic. A definition or framework of veterinary professionalism must be decided upon before educators can develop relevant learning outcomes. The interface between ethics and professionalism should be considered, and both clinicians and ethicists should deliver professionalism teaching. The influence of the hidden curriculum on student development as professionals should also be discussed during curriculum planning because it has the potential to undermine a formal curriculum of professionalism. There are several learning theories that have relevance to the teaching and learning of professionalism; situated learning theory, social cognitive theory, adult learning theory, reflective practice and experiential learning, and social constructivism must all be considered as a curriculum is designed. Delivery methods to teach professionalism are diverse, but the teaching of reflective skills and the use of early clinical experience to deliver valid learning opportunities are essential. Curricula should be longitudinal and integrated with other aspects of teaching and learning. Professionalism should also be assessed, and a wide range of methods have the potential to do so, including multisource feedback and portfolios. Validity, reliability, and feasibility are all important considerations. The above outlined approach to the teaching and assessment of professionalism will help ensure that institutions produce graduates who are ready for the workplace.
Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida
Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.
Full Text Available Background: Although pathology informatics (PI is essential to modern pathology practice, the field is often poorly understood. Pathologists who have received little to no exposure to informatics, either in training or in practice, may not recognize the roles that informatics serves in pathology. The purpose of this study was to characterize perceptions of PI by noninformatics-oriented pathologists and to do so at two large centers with differing informatics environments. Methods: Pathology trainees and staff at Cleveland Clinic (CC and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH were surveyed. At MGH, pathology department leadership has promoted a pervasive informatics presence through practice, training, and research. At CC, PI efforts focus on production systems that serve a multi-site integrated health system and a reference laboratory, and on the development of applications oriented to department operations. The survey assessed perceived definition of PI, interest in PI, and perceived utility of PI. Results: The survey was completed by 107 noninformatics-oriented pathologists and trainees. A majority viewed informatics positively. Except among MGH trainees, confusion of PI with information technology (IT and help desk services was prominent, even in those who indicated they understood informatics. Attendings and trainees indicated desire to learn more about PI. While most acknowledged that having some level of PI knowledge would be professionally useful and advantageous, only a minority plan to utilize it. Conclusions: Informatics is viewed positively by the majority of noninformatics pathologists at two large centers with differing informatics orientations. Differences in departmental informatics culture can be attributed to the varying perceptions of PI by different individuals. Incorrect perceptions exist, such as conflating PI with IT and help desk services, even among those who claim to understand PI. Further efforts by the PI community could
Full Text Available Veterinary surgeons have a long tradition of consulting one another about problem cases and many have unwittingly practised telemedicine when discussing cases by telephone or by sending laboratory reports by telefax. Specific veterinary telemedicine applications have been in use since the early 1980s, but little research has been undertaken in this field. The Pubmed and CAB International databases were searched for the following Boolean logic-linked keywords; veterinary AND telemedicine, veterinary AND telecare, animal AND telemedicine, animal AND telecare and veterinary AND e-mail and an additional search was made of the worldwide web, using Google Scholar. This returned 25 papers which were reviewed. Of these only 2 report research. Sixteen papers had no references and 1 author was associated with 13 papers. Several themes emerge in the papers reviewed. These include remarks about the use of telemedicine, the benefits that can and are derived from the use of telemedicine, areas of practice in which telemedicine is being used, ethical and legal issues around the practice of telemedicine, image standards required for telemedicine, the equipment that is required for the practice of telemedicine, advice on ways in which digital images can be obtained and educational aspects of telemedicine. These are discussed. Veterinary practice has lagged behind its human counterpart in producing research on the validity and efficacy of telemedicine. This is an important field which requires further research.
Montazeri, Amine; Patrick, Jonathan; Michalowski, Wojtek; Banerjee, Diponkar
In the Division of Anatomical Pathology of a teaching hospital at the beginning of each month, clinical managers assign expected daily pathology requests to the pathologists on duty. Since the number of these requests is usually large and a division employs a number of pathologists with different sub-specialties, the size of the problem is significant and finding a feasible assignment schedule manually is time-consuming. Moreover, every time there is a need to change, a new assignment schedule needs to be developed taking into account all the pre-defined constraints including pathologists' availability, sub-specialty mix, teaching/research releases, etc. In this paper we describe an analytics optimization model embedded in a decision support tool that helps the clinical managers of the division determine the optimal monthly assignment schedule. The decision support tool has been validated using data from the Division of Anatomical Pathology at The Ottawa Hospital in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Lockwood, R; Arkow, P
The role of the veterinary forensic pathologist in the investigation of animal abuse or neglect can go beyond documenting the condition of animals presented as evidence. Although animal cruelty is a moral concern and a crime in itself, law enforcement response to such crimes is often enhanced by the recognition that crimes against animals can be both indicators of other ongoing crimes against people and predictors of the potential for interpersonal violence. An understanding of common motives underlying animal cruelty can aid the pathologist in asking appropriate questions. The authors review the forms of pathology evidence commonly seen in various presentations of animal cruelty. Understanding these forms of evidence can help the pathologist describe findings that can be significant for assessing the potential risks the alleged perpetrator may pose to other animals and humans. © The Author(s) 2016.
Abstract Immunohistochemical (IHC) assays performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections traditionally have been semi-quantified by pathologist visual scoring of staining. IHC is useful for validating biomarkers discovered through genomics methods as large clinical repositories of FFPE specimens support the construction of tissue microarrays (TMAs) for high throughput studies. Due to the ubiquitous availability of IHC techniques in clinical laboratories, validated IHC biomarkers may be translated readily into clinical use. However, the method of pathologist semi-quantification is costly, inherently subjective, and produces ordinal rather than continuous variable data. Computer-aided analysis of digitized whole slide images may overcome these limitations. Using TMAs representing 215 ovarian serous carcinoma specimens stained for S100A1, we assessed the degree to which data obtained using computer-aided methods correlated with data obtained by pathologist visual scoring. To evaluate computer-aided image classification, IHC staining within pathologist annotated and software-classified areas of carcinoma were compared for each case. Two metrics for IHC staining were used: the percentage of carcinoma with S100A1 staining (%Pos), and the product of the staining intensity (optical density [OD] of staining) multiplied by the percentage of carcinoma with S100A1 staining (OD*%Pos). A comparison of the IHC staining data obtained from manual annotations and software-derived annotations showed strong agreement, indicating that software efficiently classifies carcinomatous areas within IHC slide images. Comparisons of IHC intensity data derived using pixel analysis software versus pathologist visual scoring demonstrated high Spearman correlations of 0.88 for %Pos (p < 0.0001) and 0.90 for OD*%Pos (p < 0.0001). This study demonstrated that computer-aided methods to classify image areas of interest (e.g., carcinomatous areas of tissue specimens) and
Wagner, G Gale; Brown, Corrie C
The public needs no reminder that deadly infectious diseases such as FMD could emerge in any country at any moment, or that national food security could be compromised by Salmonella or Listeria infections. Protections against these risks include the knowledge that appropriate and equivalent veterinary education will enable detection and characterization of emerging disease agents, as well as an appropriate response, wherever they occur. Global veterinary leadership is needed to reduce the global threat of infectious diseases of major food animal and public health importance. We believe that the co-curriculum is an excellent way to prepare and train veterinarians and future leaders who understand and can deal with global issues. The key to the success of the program is the veterinarian's understanding that there is a cultural basis to the practice of veterinary medicine in any country. The result will be a cadre of veterinarians, faculty, and other professionals who are better able (language and culture) to understand the effects of change brought about by free trade and the importance of interdisciplinary and institutional relationships to deal effectively with national and regional issues of food safety and security. New global veterinary leadership programs will build on interests, experience, ideas, and ambitions. A college that wishes to take advantage of this diversity must offer opportunities that interest veterinarians throughout their careers and that preferably connect academic study with intensive experiential training in another country. At its best, the global veterinary leadership program would include a partnership between veterinarians and several international learning centers, a responsiveness to the identified international outreach needs of the profession, and attention to critical thinking and reflection. The global veterinary leadership program we have described is intended to be a set of ideas meant to promote collaboration, coalitions, and
Analysis of the responses of 90 clinical veterinary students of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, on career motivation and specialization preference showed that 38% of the students choose veterinary medicine as a profession because of their love for animals. High income accounted for 32.3%, high status 22.2%, ...
The presence of pathogenic organisms namely parasite species and bacteria in biofilms in veterinary settings, is a public health concern in relation to human and animal exposure. Veterinary clinics represent a significant risk factor for the transfer of pathogens from housed animals to humans, especially in cases of wound ...
Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; More, Simon J; Morton, David B; Hanlon, Alison J
Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in recent years as a significant public health threat, which requires both an ethical and a scientific approach. In a recent Policy Delphi study, on-farm use of antimicrobials was a key concern identified by veterinary professionals in Ireland. In this case study (the second in a series of three resulting from a research workshop exploring the challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland; the other two case studies investigate clinical veterinary services and emergency/casualty slaughter certification) we aim to provide a value-based reflection on the constraints and possible opportunities for responsible use of veterinary antimicrobials in Ireland. Using a qualitative focus group approach, this study gathered evidence from relevant stakeholders, namely veterinarians working in public and private organisations, a representative from the veterinary regulatory body, a dairy farmer and a general medical practitioner. Three overarching constraints to prudent on-farm use of veterinary antimicrobials emerged from the thematic analysis: 'Defective regulations', 'Lack of knowledge and values' regarding farmers and vets and 'Farm-centred concerns', including economic and husbandry concerns. Conversely, three main themes which reflect possible opportunities to the barriers were identified: 'Improved regulations', 'Education' and 'Herd health management'. Five main recommendations arose from this study based on the perspectives of the study participants including: a) the potential for regulatory change to facilitate an increase in the number of yearly visits of veterinarians to farms and to implement electronic prescribing and shorter validity of prescriptions; b) a 'One Health' education plan; c) improved professional guidance on responsible use of veterinary antimicrobials; d) improved on-farm herd health management practices; and e) the promotion of a 'One Farm-One Vet' policy. These findings may assist Veterinary Council of
Hashizume, Cary T; Woloschuk, Wayne; Hecker, Kent G
There is a paucity of research regarding veterinary students' attitudes toward the rural environment and rural veterinary practice and how these attitudes might change over the course of a veterinary medicine program that includes rural clinical experience. Using a 23-item questionnaire, attitudes toward rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, opportunities for career and skill development in rural veterinary practice, and inter-professional teamwork in the rural environment were assessed at the beginning and completion of a four-year veterinary medicine program. Eighty-six students (74.4% female) were included in this Canadian study over a six-year period. Thirty-one participants (36.1%) were rural students. Overall, students' attitudes toward the rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, and inter-professional teamwork in rural veterinary practice all significantly decreased (pworking in a rural environment could influence students to exclude rural veterinary practice as a career choice. Rural clinical experiences designed to sustain or increase veterinary student interest in rural practice may not be sufficient to support positive rural attitudes. Given the demand for rural veterinary services in developed countries, the implications of this study may extend beyond Canada.
Pryor, Brian; Millis, Darryl L
Laser therapy is an increasingly studied modality that can be a valuable tool for veterinary practitioners. Mechanisms of action have been studied and identified for the reduction of pain and inflammation and healing of tissue. Understanding the basics of light penetration into tissue allows evaluation of the correct dosage to deliver for the appropriate condition, and for a particular patient based on physical properties. New applications are being studied for some of the most challenging health conditions and this field will continue to grow. Additional clinical studies are still needed and collaboration is encouraged for all practitioners using this technology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Camilla Kirketerp Nielsen
Full Text Available The overall objective of this project is research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based learning concept to be used in the veterinary education. Herd visits and animal contact are essential for the development of veterinary competences and skills during education. Yet veterinary students have little occasion to reach/attain a proper level of confidence in their own skills/abilities, as they have limited “training-facilities” (Kneebone & Baillie, 2008. One possible solution mightbe to provide a safe, virtual environment (game-based where students could practise interdisciplinary clinical skills in an easily-accessible, interactive setting. A playable demo using Classical Swine Fever in a pig herd as an example has been produced for this purpose. In order totailor the game concept to the specific veterinary learning environment and to ensure compliance with both learning objectives and the actual learning processes/procedures of the veterinary students, the project contains both a developmental aspect (game development and an exploration of the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context. The initial phase of the project was a preliminary exploration of the actual learning context, providing an important starting point for the upcoming phase in which I will concentrate on research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based virtual environment in this course context. In the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context of a veterinary course in Herd Health Management (Pig module,ethnographic studies have been conducted by using multiple data collection methods; participant observation, spontaneous dialogues and interviews (Borgnakke, 1996; Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007. All courserelated activities in the different learning spaces (commercial pig herds, auditoriums, post-mortem examinations, independent group work were followed.This paper will
Change in Pattern of HER2 Fluorescent in Situ Hybridization (FISH) Results in Breast Cancers Submitted for FISH Testing: Experience of a Reference Laboratory Using US Food and Drug Administration Criteria and American Society of Clinical Oncology and College of American Pathologists Guidelines.
Shah, Mithun Vinod; Wiktor, Anne E; Meyer, Reid G; Tenner, Kathleen S; Ballman, Karla V; Green, Stefan J; Sukov, William R; Ketterling, Rhett P; Perez, Edith A; Jenkins, Robert B
Purpose In 1998, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) testing guidelines to determine eligibility for HER2-directed therapy (HDT) in breast cancer. ASCO and the College of American Pathologists published immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) HER2 testing guidelines in 2007 (AC2007) and updated these guidelines in 2013 (AC2013). We compared the HER2 FISH amplification frequency using these three guidelines. Methods Patient samples that were sent to the Mayo Clinic cytogenetics laboratory for FISH testing (n = 2,851; from November 2013 to October 2014) were analyzed. Frequency of HER2 FISH amplification was examined and impact of AC2013 assessed. Results IHC results were available for 1,922 patient samples (67.4%), 137 of which were from Mayo Clinic. Distribution was 2.4% IHC 0, 7.9% IHC 1+, 84.8% IHC 2+, and 2.5% IHC 3+. Among IHC 2+ patients, HER2 FISH positivity was 11.8% (FDA), 9.4% (AC2007), and 24.1% (AC2013). Overall, 11.8% (n = 339) were positive with a FISH ratio ≥ 2.0, 1.3% (n = 35) with a FISH ratio ≥ 2.0 despite a HER2 signal FISH ratio FISH-equivocal (ratio FISH-positive and 36 (1.3% overall) patients to FISH-negative, whereas 157 (5.5% overall) patients remained equivocal. Final HER2 positivity with AC2013 (23.6%) was increased (P FISH-equivocal patients. Approximately one half of these FISH-equivocal patients (7.4% overall) became HER2-positive upon alternative FISH probe testing. However, these patients would not have participated in the pivotal HDT trials. Clinical utility data on HDT benefit in these patients and other special subsets are needed.
Armitage-Chan, E; Maddison, J; May, S A
Professionalism and professional skills are increasingly being incorporated into veterinary curricula; however, lack of clarity in defining veterinary professionalism presents a potential challenge for directing course outcomes that are of benefit to the veterinary professional. An online continuing education course in veterinary professionalism was designed to address a deficit in postgraduate support in this area; as part of this course, delegates of varying practice backgrounds participated in online discussions reflecting on the implications of professional skills for their clinical practice. The discussions surrounding the role of the veterinary professional and reflecting on strengths and weaknesses in professional skills were analysed using narrative methodology, which provided an understanding of the defining skills and attributes of the veterinary professional, from the perspectives of those involved (i.e. how vets understood their own career identity). The veterinary surgeon was understood to be an interprofessional team member, who makes clinical decisions in the face of competing stakeholder needs and works in a complex environment comprising multiple and diverse challenges (stress, high emotions, financial issues, work-life balance). It was identified that strategies for accepting fallibility, and those necessary for establishing reasonable expectations of professional behaviour and clinical ability, are poorly developed. British Veterinary Association.
Brooks, Aimee; Thomovsky, Elizabeth; Johnson, Paula
This review article covers basic physiology underlying the clinical use of natural and artificial colloids as well as provide practice recommendations. It also touches on the recent scrutiny of these products in human medicine and how this may have an effect on their use in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Douglas, Jeffrey S.
Marie-Suthers-McCabe, of Riner, Va., associate professor of small animal clinical sciences at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, has been awarded the highest honor in the nation for work in the area of the "human/animal bond."
The Editorial Board of the Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (SJVS) wishes to invite research articles, case reports and review articles for publication. ... 2.1.3 All haematological and clinical chemistry measurements should be reported in the metric system in terms of the International System of Units (SI). 2.1.4 In the ...
191-203. FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. USMANU DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY. P.M.B. 2346, SOKOTO. NIGERIA. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. ISSN 1595-093X. Nwanta et al. /Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (2008). 7(2): 42-45. Field trial of Malaysian thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine in.
Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... ... of the Kenya Veterinary Association. It publishes original papers in English, within the whole field of animal science and veterinary medicine and those addressing legal and policy issues related to the veterinary profession. The journal accepts articles and reports in the areas of Anatomy and Histology, ...
Kinnison, T; Guile, D; May, S A
Case studies in two typical UK veterinary practices were undertaken to explore teamwork, including interprofessional working. Each study involved one week of whole team observation based on practice locations (reception, operating theatre), one week of shadowing six focus individuals (veterinary surgeons, veterinary nurses and administrators) and a final week consisting of semistructured interviews regarding teamwork. Errors emerged as a finding of the study. The definition of errors was inclusive, pertaining to inputs or omitted actions with potential adverse outcomes for patients, clients or the practice. The 40 identified instances could be grouped into clinical errors (dosing/drugs, surgical preparation, lack of follow-up), lost item errors, and most frequently, communication errors (records, procedures, missing face-to-face communication, mistakes within face-to-face communication). The qualitative nature of the study allowed the underlying cause of the errors to be explored. In addition to some individual mistakes, system faults were identified as a major cause of errors. Observed examples and interviews demonstrated several challenges to interprofessional teamworking which may cause errors, including: lack of time, part-time staff leading to frequent handovers, branch differences and individual veterinary surgeon work preferences. Lessons are drawn for building better veterinary teams and implications for Disciplinary Proceedings considered. British Veterinary Association.
1Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria; 2Department of Animal Health .... and Tucker, 2004). Even for animals for which direct observation of intraocular structures is possible, ultrasonography may be helpful for tumor identification, ..... determination of the size of eye prosthesis in.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Vol 34 pi res-sea. Epizootiologicul Survey of Bovine Brucellosis in. Nomadic Pastoral ... brucellosis in the pastoral herds of Niger State despite its high cattle population and no research has ..... Brucella abortus infection in Cattle in Chile. Archivos de Med.Veterin.. 27: 45-50. ROTH, F., ZINSSTAG ...
Hikke, Mia C.; Pijlman, Gorben P.
Vaccination is essential in livestock farming and in companion animal ownership. Nucleic acid vaccines based on DNA or RNA provide an elegant alternative to those classical veterinary vaccines that have performed suboptimally. Recent advances in terms of rational design, safety, and efficacy have
Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...
according to International guiding principles for biochemical research involving animals. (C. I .O. M .S .1985). Source of Trypanosomes. Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federe strain) used for the study was obtained from donor rats maintained at the postgraduate laboratory of the Department of Veterinary. Microbiology and ...
'*Nigerian Veterinary Journal. ~. Vol35 (1)9~8· 955. ARTICLE. Prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila. Isolates in cultured and Feral Clarias gariepinus of the Kainji Lake Area, Nigeria,. OMEJE, V.O.' and CHUKWU, C.C.. Aquaculture Programme. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Researcl1. PMB 6006, New Bussa, ...
Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…
prevalence of diseases and available veterinary services were noticed to be present in these communities. The draught animal survival ability rather ... labour in farming and transportation. (Chantalakhana and Bunyavejehewin, 1994) ..... spreading of these diseases such as. Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis to these animals.
ovemight in a cool box. Serum was extracted using a plastic micropipette and transferred into sample bottles and was frozen until tested. Detection of antibodies to N DV. Antigen. Newcastle disease virus LaSota strain obtained from the National Veterinary Research Institute. (NVRI), Vom, was used as antigen for HI-test.
Vet. J., March 2017. Vol 38 (1): 57-68. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. An Audit of Castration of Male Dogs in Enugu Metropolis, South. Eastern Nigeria. Raheem, K. A.. 1Department of Veterinary ..... The internal genital organs like the prostate gland, urethra, penis, bulbis ... As biotechnology and medicine continue to advance, other ...
Vet. J., June 2016. Vol. 37 (2): 82-87. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cystographic Evaluation Post Colocystoplasty in Two Nigerian. Indigenous Dogs. Muhammad S. T.*. 1 ., Awasum C. A.. 2 ... integrity/morphology of most internal body organs or system(s) of an individual, ..... Journal of Veterinary. Medicine and Animal Health, 7(1):.
Lungworms of Small Ruminants Slaughtered in Restaurants of Ambo, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. 1. 1. 1. 2. GAROMSSA, T. , BERSISSA, K. , DINKA, A.* and ENDRIAS, Z. 1. 2. School of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University. Ambo University. *Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org. INTRODUCTION.
NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 24-31. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Occurrence of Klebsiella Species in Cultured African Catfish in Oyo. State, South-West Nigeria. Adeshina, I. 1. *; Abdrahman, S. A.. 2 and Yusuf, A. A.. 3. 1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, ...
SUMMARY. An audit of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, lbadan between 2008 and 2011 was conducted to evaluate the level of compliance with standard practices. The study involved retrospective case note audit of surgical procedures performed during the period. A total number of 108.
Shetty, Pushparaja; Raviprakash, A
Objectives: Oral pathologists have major responsibilities in the development of forensic science. We conducted a survey to evaluate the degree of involvement of oral pathologists in forensic investigations in India and the difficulties faced by them. Materials and Methods: Data was collected during 2007–2009 by means of a questionnaire survey among qualified oral pathologists related to confidence in handling forensic cases, knowledge and awareness, training in forensic odontology, practical exposure to forensic cases, and difficulties faced. Results: A total of 120 oral pathologists responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 28% expressed confidence in handling forensic cases, 7% had been exposed to formal training in forensic odontology, and 6% had handled forensic cases earlier. Only two participants said that they were part of the forensic team in their respective cities. Forty-eight percent of the participants said that they read forensic journals regularly. Conclusion: Oral pathologists are generally not very confident about handling forensic cases mainly because of inadequate formal training in the field of forensic dentistry, inadequate exposure to the subject, minimal importance given to the subject in the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum, and no practical exposure to forensic cases. PMID:22022135
Shetty, Pushparaja; Raviprakash, A
Oral pathologists have major responsibilities in the development of forensic science. We conducted a survey to evaluate the degree of involvement of oral pathologists in forensic investigations in India and the difficulties faced by them. Data was collected during 2007-2009 by means of a questionnaire survey among qualified oral pathologists related to confidence in handling forensic cases, knowledge and awareness, training in forensic odontology, practical exposure to forensic cases, and difficulties faced. A total of 120 oral pathologists responded to the questionnaire. Of these, 28% expressed confidence in handling forensic cases, 7% had been exposed to formal training in forensic odontology, and 6% had handled forensic cases earlier. Only two participants said that they were part of the forensic team in their respective cities. Forty-eight percent of the participants said that they read forensic journals regularly. Oral pathologists are generally not very confident about handling forensic cases mainly because of inadequate formal training in the field of forensic dentistry, inadequate exposure to the subject, minimal importance given to the subject in the undergraduate and postgraduate curriculum, and no practical exposure to forensic cases.
Kelly, Donald F
This article presents a historical perspective on veterinary anatomic pathology in the United Kingdom from the late nineteenth century to the present. Prior to World War II, the specialty was a rather general one that also included bacteriology and parasitology and was only slightly affected by strong Germanic developments in cell and tissue pathology. The few notable figures of this era include John McFadyean, Sidney Gaiger, and J.R.M Innes. The specialty developed strongly in the second half of the twentieth century, led by a small number of individuals, and was greatly aided by the development of specialist colleges and residency training. Key individuals of this era include W.F. Blakemore, Ernest Cotchin, R.J.M. Franklin, W.F.H. Jarrett, A.R. Jennings, and A.C. Palmer. A remarkable feature of this period has been the increased employment of veterinary pathologists in biomedical industry and in private diagnostic laboratories. While standards of pathology practice have benefited from the college initiatives, there are major financial constraints on the availability of funded training posts in the United Kingdom, and there remain considerable shortages in the supply of pathologists trained to contemporary standards. The acknowledged professional and scientific importance of veterinary pathology needs to be translated into effective financial support for the training that underpins competence in this specialty. Further developments seem likely to be dominated by advances in the technology of tissue handling, applications of molecular biology to pathology, and greater use of telepathology in teaching, in quality assurance, and in continuing professional development.
Speech-language pathologists play important roles in supporting people to be competent communicators in the languages of their communities. However, with over 7000 languages spoken throughout the world and the majority of the global population being multilingual, there is often a mismatch between the languages spoken by children and families and their speech-language pathologists. This paper provides insights into service provision for multilingual children within an English-dominant country by viewing Australia's multilingual population as a microcosm of ethnolinguistic minorities. Recent population studies of Australian pre-school children show that their most common languages other than English are: Arabic, Cantonese, Vietnamese, Italian, Mandarin, Spanish, and Greek. Although 20.2% of services by Speech Pathology Australia members are offered in languages other than English, there is a mismatch between the language of the services and the languages of children within similar geographical communities. Australian speech-language pathologists typically use informal or English-based assessments and intervention tools with multilingual children. Thus, there is a need for accessible culturally and linguistically appropriate resources for working with multilingual children. Recent international collaborations have resulted in practical strategies to support speech-language pathologists during assessment, intervention, and collaboration with families, communities, and other professionals. The International Expert Panel on Multilingual Children's Speech was assembled to prepare a position paper to address issues faced by speech-language pathologists when working with multilingual populations. The Multilingual Children's Speech website ( http://www.csu.edu.au/research/multilingual-speech ) addresses one of the aims of the position paper by providing free resources and information for speech-language pathologists about more than 45 languages. These international
Clarke, Patricia M; Al-Alawneh, John; Pitt, Rachael E; Schull, Daniel N; Coleman, Glen T
Client or service user perspectives are important when designing curricula for professional programs. In the case of veterinary technology, an emerging profession in the veterinary field in Australasia, client views on desirable graduate attributes, skills, and knowledge have not yet been explored. This study reports on a survey of 441 veterinary clients (with 104 responses) from four veterinary practices in Brisbane, Queensland, conducted between October 2008 and February 2009. The included veterinary practices provided clinical placements for veterinary technology undergraduates and employment for veterinary technology graduates (2003-2007). Client socio-demographic data along with ratings of the importance of a range of technical (veterinary nursing) skills, emotional intelligence, and professional attributes for veterinary technology graduates were collected and analyzed. Overall, the majority of clients viewed technical skills, emotional intelligence, and professional attributes as important in the clinical practice of veterinary technology graduates with whom they interacted in the veterinary practice. Client interviews (n=3) contextualized the survey data and also showed that clients attached importance to graduates demonstrating professional competence. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four distinct groupings of clients within the data based on their differing perceptions. Using a multivariable proportional-odds regression model, it was also found that some client differences were influenced by demographic factors such as gender, age, and number of visits annually. For example, the odds of female clients valuing emotionality and sociability were greater than males. These findings provide useful data for the design of a professionalizing and market-driven veterinary technology curriculum.
Fowler, Heather N; Holzbauer, Stacy M; Smith, Kirk E; Scheftel, Joni M
To identify the scope of occupational hazards encountered by veterinary personnel and compare hazard exposures between veterinarians and technicians working in small and large animal practices. Cross-sectional survey. Licensed veterinarians and veterinary staff in Minnesota. A survey of Minnesota veterinary personnel was conducted between February 1 and December 1, 2012. Adult veterinary personnel working in clinical practice for > 12 months were eligible to participate. Information was collected on various workplace hazards as well as on workplace safety culture. 831 eligible people responded, representing approximately 10% of Minnesota veterinary personnel. A greater proportion of veterinarians (93%; 368/394) reported having received preexposure rabies vaccinations than did veterinary technicians (54%; 198/365). During their career, 226 (27%) respondents had acquired at least 1 zoonotic infection and 636 (77%) had been injured by a needle or other sharps. Recapping of needles was reported by 87% of respondents; the most common reason reported by veterinarians (41%; 142/345) and veterinary technicians (71%; 238/333) was being trained to do so at school or work. Recent feelings of depression were reported by 204 (25%) respondents. A greater proportion of technicians (42%; 155/365) than veterinarians (21%; 81/394) indicated working in an environment in which employees experienced some form of workplace abuse. Veterinary personnel in Minnesota were exposed to several work-related hazards. Practice staff should assess workplace hazards, implement controls, and incorporate instruction on occupational health into employee training.
Mastracci, Luca; Piol, Nataniele; Molinaro, Luca; Pitto, Francesca; Tinelli, Carmine; De Silvestri, Annalisa; Fiocca, Roberto; Grillo, Federica
Confirmation of endoscopically suspected esophageal metaplasia (ESEM) requires histology, but confusion in the histological definition of columnar-lined esophagus (CLE) is a longstanding problem. The aim of this study is to evaluate interpathologist variability in the interpretation of CLE. Thirty pathologists were invited to review three ten-case sets of CLE biopsies. In the first set, the cases were provided with descriptive endoscopy only; in the second and the third sets, ESEM extent using Prague criteria was provided. Moreover, participants were required to refer to a diagnostic chart for evaluation of the third set. Agreement was statistically assessed using Randolph's free-marginal multirater kappa. While substantial agreement in recognizing columnar epithelium (K = 0.76) was recorded, the overall concordance in clinico-pathological diagnosis was low (K = 0.38). The overall concordance rate improved from the first (K = 0.27) to the second (K = 0.40) and third step (K = 0.46). Agreement was substantial when diagnosing Barrett's esophagus (BE) with intestinal metaplasia or inlet patch (K = 0.65 and K = 0.89), respectively, in the third step, while major problems in interpretation of CLE were observed when only cardia/cardia-oxyntic atrophic-type epithelium was present (K = 0.05-0.29). In conclusion, precise endoscopic description and the use of a diagnostic chart increased consistency in CLE interpretation of esophageal biopsies. Agreement was substantial for some diagnostic categories (BE with intestinal metaplasia and inlet patch) with a well-defined clinical profile. Interpretation of cases with cardia/cardia-oxyntic atrophic-type epithelium, with or without ESEM, was least consistent, which reflects lack of clarity of definition and results in variable management of this entity.
Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E
Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. © 2015 The Authors Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Newman, Carlton; Jaggar, David H.
Lasers have been used for some time now on animals for experimental purposes prior to their use in human medical and surgical fields. However the use of lasers in veterinary medicine and surgery per se is a recent development. We describe the application of high and low intensity laser technology in a general overview of the current uses, some limitations to its use and future needs for future inquiry and development.
Corley, Kevin T T; Mathews, Karol; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Bain, Fairfield T; Hughes, Dez
Veterinary species experience similar perturbations of their health to those of human patients. When the long-term prognosis is good and providing suffering can be minimized, animals stand to benefit greatly from recent advances in the field of emergency and critical care. Outcomes in many conditions in small and large animals have improved markedly in the last 15 years, as management has improved, making the financial and emotional investment in critical care worthwhile for many owners.
Ressel, L; Hetzel, U; Ricci, E
Veterinary pathologists commonly encounter lesions of blunt trauma. The development of lesions is affected by the object's mass, velocity, size, shape, and angle of impact and by the plasticity and mobility of the impacted organ. Scrape, impact, and pattern abrasions cause localized epidermal loss and sometimes broken hairs and implanted foreign material. Contusions are best identified after reflecting the skin, and must be differentiated from coagulopathies and livor mortis. Lacerations-traumatic tissue tears-may have irregular margins, bridging by more resilient tissue, deviation of the wound tail, crushed hairs, and unilateral abrasion. Hanging or choking can cause circumferential cervical abrasions, contusions and rupture of hairs, hyoid bone fractures, and congestion of the head. Other special forms of blunt trauma include fractured nails, pressure sores, and dog bites. Ocular blunt trauma causes extraocular and intraocular hemorrhages, proptosis, or retinal detachment. The thoracic viscera are relatively protected from blunt trauma but may develop hemorrhages in intercostal muscles, rib fractures, pulmonary or cardiac contusions or lacerations with subsequent hemothorax, pneumothorax, or cardiac arrhythmia. The abdominal wall is resilient and moveable, yet the liver and spleen are susceptible to traumatic laceration or rupture. Whereas extravasation of blood can occur after death, evidence of vital injury includes leukocyte infiltration, erythrophagocytosis, hemosiderin, reparative lesions of fibroblast proliferation, myocyte regeneration in muscle, and callus formation in bone. Understanding these processes aids in the diagnosis of blunt force trauma including estimation of the age of resulting injuries. © The Author(s) 2016.
Cheung, Carol C; Torlakovic, Emina E; Chow, Hung; Snover, Dale C; Asa, Sylvia L
Pathologists provide diagnoses relevant to the disease state of the patient and identify specific tissue characteristics relevant to response to therapy and prognosis. As personalized medicine evolves, there is a trend for increased demand of tissue-derived parameters. Pathologists perform increasingly complex analyses on the same 'cases'. Traditional methods of workload assessment and reimbursement, based on number of cases sometimes with a modifier (eg, the relative value unit (RVU) system used in the United States), often grossly underestimate the amount of work needed for complex cases and may overvalue simple, small biopsy cases. We describe a new approach to pathologist workload measurement that aligns with this new practice paradigm. Our multisite institution with geographically diverse partner institutions has developed the Automatable Activity-Based Approach to Complexity Unit Scoring (AABACUS) model that captures pathologists' clinical activities from parameters documented in departmental laboratory information systems (LISs). The model's algorithm includes: 'capture', 'export', 'identify', 'count', 'score', 'attribute', 'filter', and 'assess filtered results'. Captured data include specimen acquisition, handling, analysis, and reporting activities. Activities were counted and complexity units (CUs) generated using a complexity factor for each activity. CUs were compared between institutions, practice groups, and practice types and evaluated over a 5-year period (2008-2012). The annual load of a clinical service pathologist, irrespective of subspecialty, was ∼40,000 CUs using relative benchmarking. The model detected changing practice patterns and was appropriate for monitoring clinical workload for anatomical pathology, neuropathology, and hematopathology in academic and community settings, and encompassing subspecialty and generalist practices. AABACUS is objective, can be integrated with an LIS and automated, is reproducible, backwards compatible
Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J; Pakozdy, Akos; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Fischer, Anea; Long, Sam; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heiun; Pumarola, Martí Batlle; Rusbridge, Clare; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Anea; Volk, Holger A
Dogs with epilepsy are among the commonest neurological patients in veterinary practice and therefore have historically attracted much attention with regard to definitions, clinical approach and management...
Foster, Abby; Worrall, Linda; Rose, Miranda; O'Halloran, Robyn
An evidence-practice gap has been identified in current acute aphasia management practice, with the provision of services to people with aphasia in the acute hospital widely considered in the literature to be inconsistent with best-practice recommendations. The reasons for this evidence-practice gap are unclear; however, speech pathologists practising in this setting have articulated a sense of dissonance regarding their limited service provision to this population. A clearer understanding of why this evidence-practice gap exists is essential in order to support and promote evidence-based approaches to the care of people with aphasia in acute care settings. To provide an understanding of speech pathologists' conceptualization of evidence-based practice for acute post-stroke aphasia, and its implementation. This study adopted a phenomenological approach, underpinned by a social constructivist paradigm. In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 Australian speech pathologists, recruited using a purposive sampling technique. An inductive thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. A single, overarching theme emerged from the data. Speech pathologists demonstrated a sense of disempowerment as a result of their relationship with evidence-based practice for acute aphasia management. Three subthemes contributed to this theme. The first described a restricted conceptualization of evidence-based practice. The second revealed speech pathologists' strained relationships with the research literature. The third elucidated a sense of professional unease over their perceived inability to enact evidence-based clinical recommendations, despite their desire to do so. Speech pathologists identified a current knowledge-practice gap in their management of aphasia in acute hospital settings. Speech pathologists place significant emphasis on the research evidence; however, their engagement with the research is limited, in part because it is perceived to lack clinical utility. A sense
Purpose: The purpose of this tutorial is to introduce speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to the broad issues surrounding the problem of school bullying in childhood and adolescence. Specifically, types of bullying and their causes are considered, as are the roles students take when bullying occurs and the effects of bullying on students with…
McLaughlin, Emma; Lincoln, Michelle; Adamson, Barbara
The aim of this study was to identify common themes in speech-language pathologists' perceptions of factors that increase and decrease their experiences of job stress, their satisfaction with their jobs and the profession, and their opinions about why people chose to leave the speech-language pathology profession. The participants' perceptions about the relationships between job stress, work satisfaction and job and profession retention were also explored. Sixty members of Speech Pathology Australia from a range of geographical and professional contexts were asked to participate in telephone interviews. Eighteen speech-language pathologists agreed to participate (30% response rate), and took part in semi-structured telephone interviews. Two researchers independently coded transcripts of the interviews for themes. Eight major themes were identified. These were positive aspects of the profession, workload, non-work obligations, effectiveness, recognition, support, learning and autonomy. The themes that emerged from analysis of these interviews provide new evidence about the positive and negative aspects of working as a speech-language pathologist, and provide preliminary insights into potential reasons as to why speech-language pathologists choose to remain in or leave the profession.
Meijer, G.A.; Oudejans, J.J.; Koevoets, J.J.M.; Meijer, C.J.L.M.
Adequate budget control in pathology practice requires accurate allocation of resources. Any changes in types and numbers of specimens handled or protocols used will directly affect the pathologists' workload and consequently the allocation of resources. The aim of the present study was to develop a
Hesbach, Amie Lamoreaux
As it matures, the field of animal rehabilitation is welcoming utilization of interventions that have proven efficacy in the specialty of physical therapy for human patients. More recently, manual therapy techniques have become more accepted. Range-of-motion and stretching techniques; mobilization or manipulation of soft tissues, peripheral joints, and the spine; neuromuscular facilitation techniques; techniques unique to osteopathy; chest physical therapy; manual lymphatic drainage techniques; and neural mobilization techniques are now commonly incorporated in clinical practice, and these interventions are more commonly cited in the veterinary literature. The following is a brief review of these manual therapy approaches including the goals, effects, indications, precautions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gesek, M; Szarek, J; Babińska, I; Wojtacka, J; Sobczak-Filipiak, M; Felsmann, M Z
This paper presents the main trends in the activity of European veterinary pathologists in the context of their oral presentations (plenary lectures and short presentations) and posters provided during annual meetings of the European Society of Veterinary Pathology (ESVP), in the decade 1997-2006. It was found that the issue that was most often brought up in the meetings was organ pathology (566 presentations). Infectious and parasitical diseases were only slightly less frequent (548 presentations). Oncology was another common issue (404 presentations). During this decade, 52 plenary lectures were presented, 765 oral presentations and 1 072 posters. Altogether, 1 889 presentations were made, which is between 127 and 238 per year. Research by Polish scientists accounted for 3.16% of all presentations. Additionally, the subject matter discussed at the annual meetings is analysed, and the trends in the development of veterinary diagnostic pathology and broad pathology education are indicated. It is shown that veterinary pathology enhances knowledge in the field of veterinary medicine by fulfilling a cognitive and diagnostic role.
Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E
Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Hofman, Paul; Popper, Helmut H
Recently, the advent of therapies targeting genomic alterations has improved the care of patients with certain types of cancer. While molecular targets were initially detected in nucleic acid samples extracted from tumor tissue, detection of nucleic acids in circulating blood has allowed the development of what has become known as liquid biopsies, which provide a complementary and alternative sample source allowing identification of genomic alterations that might be addressed by targeted therapy. Consequently, liquid biopsies might rapidly revolutionize oncology practice in allowing administration of more effective treatments. Liquid biopsies also provide an approach towards short-term monitoring of metastatic cancer patients to evaluate efficacy of treatment and/or early detection of secondary mutations responsible for resistance to treatment. In this context, pathologists, who have already been required in recent years to take interest in the domain of molecular pathology of cancer, now face new challenges. The attitude of pathologists to and level of involvement in the practice of liquid biopsies, including mastering the methods employed in molecular analysis of blood samples, need close attention. Regardless of the level of involvement of pathologists in this new field, it is mandatory that oncologists, biologists, geneticists, and pathologists work together to coordinate the pre-analytical, analytical, and post-analytical phases of molecular assessment of tissue and liquid samples of individual cancer patients. The challenges include (1) implementation of effective and efficient procedures for reception and analysis of liquid and tissue samples for histopathological and molecular evaluation and (2) assuring short turn-around times to facilitate rapid optimization of individual patient treatment. In this paper, we will review the following: (1) recent data concerning the concept of liquid biopsies in oncology and its development for patient care, (2) advantages
Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Scottish Centre)
This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.).
Huang, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ming; Suo, Xun; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Many parasites of domestic animals in China are of major socioeconomic and medical importance. Hence, veterinary parasitology is one of the core subjects for undergraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary science. Here, we review the teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities, including a description of the veterinary science curricula and measures to improve the quality of veterinary parasitology teaching in China.
Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena; Milne, Marjorie; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Farqhuar, Robyn G; Fischer, Andrea; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Pakozdy, Akos; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials for seizures, the parameters for MRI examination should allow the detection of subtle lesions which may not be obvious with existing techniques. In addition, there are several differentials for idiopathic epilepsy in humans, for example some focal cortical dysplasias, which may only apparent with special sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can be adapted for both low and high field scanners. Standardisation of imaging will improve clinical communication and uniformity of case definition between research studies. A 6-7 sequence epilepsy-specific MRI protocol for veterinary patients is proposed and further advanced MR and functional imaging is reviewed.
Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone
As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.
Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina
Students in veterinary schools can experience stress in balancing the different demands on them-academic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and professional or work related-as well as managing potential conflict between animal and human interests. Practicing veterinarians report many similar stressors and reactions. Stressful stimuli produce stress reactions that can be inimical to physical and psychological well-being, and students' performance in veterinary programs can be adversely affected if they do not have coping resources. While there has been some research into stress among university students in general, and among medical students in particular, there is little on the experience of veterinary students. This article describes a study by the School of Psychology, commissioned by the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, at Murdoch University in Western Australia. It was designed to investigate the levels and causes of stress among, and the frequency and type of coping strategies used by, fourth- and fifth-year students. Results indicate that the students in this cohort faced frequent stressors and felt at least moderately stressed but did not routinely and systematically use a range of coping strategies. Academic stressors and perceived responsibilities attached to moving into practical or professional areas figured strongly and were associated with higher levels of stress in the students, in particular physical sequelae. Though the numbers were small, it is of concern that some students were using measures that were potentially harmful. Some recommendations are made here about measures that veterinary programs may be able to incorporate to address stress in their students. Information is included on current strategies within the curriculum to manage potential stressful situations as part of students' professional development.
Maton, Barbara L; Smarick, Sean D
To review the updates in the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and identify potential applications to veterinary patients. Cardiopulmonary arrest is common in veterinary emergency and critical care, and consensus guidelines are lacking. Human resuscitation guidelines are continually evolving as new clinical and experimental studies support updated recommendations. Synthesis of human, experimental animal model, and veterinary literature support the potential for updates and advancement in veterinary CPR practices. This review serves to highlight updates in the AHA guidelines for CPR and evaluate their application to small animal veterinary patients. Interventions identified will be evaluated for trans-species potential, raise questions regarding best resuscitation recommendations, and offer opportunities for further research to continue to advance veterinary CPR. The prognosis for any patient undergoing cardiopulmonary arrest remains guarded. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.
Qekwana, Daniel N; Oguttu, James W; Sithole, Fortune; Odoi, Agricola
Antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci, often associated with treatment failure, is increasingly reported in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate patterns and predictors of antimicrobial resistance among Staphylococcus spp. isolates from canine samples submitted to the bacteriology laboratory at the University of Pretoria academic veterinary hospital between 2007 and 2012. Retrospective data of 334 Staphylococcus isolates were used to calculate the proportion of samples resistant to 15 antimicrobial agents. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to investigate temporal trends and logistic regression models were used to investigate predictors of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Results show that 98.2% (55/56) of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to at least one drug while 42.9% were multidrug resistant. Seventy-seven percent (214/278) of the S. pseudintermedius isolates were resistant to at least one drug and 25.9% (72/278) were multidrug resistant. Resistance to lincospectin was more common among S. aureus (64.3%) than S. pseudintermedius (38.9%). Similarly, resistance to clindamycin was higher in S. aureus (51.8%) than S. pseudintermedius (31.7%) isolates. There was a significant (p = 0.005) increase in S. aureus resistance to enrofloxacin over the study period. Similarly, S. pseudintermedius exhibited significant increasing temporal trend in resistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (p = 0.004), clindamycin (p = 0.022) and orbifloxacin (p = 0.042). However, there was a significant decreasing temporal trend in the proportion of isolates resistant to doxycycline (p = 0.041), tylosin (p = 0.008), kanamycin (p = 0.017) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (p = 0.032). High levels of multidrug resistance and the increasing levels of resistance to sulphonamides, lincosamides and fluoroquinolones among Staphylococcus spp. isolates in this study are concerning. Future
Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena
The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.
Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), a French neurologist of Polish origin, médecin des hôpitaux de Paris, is well known for the discovery of the Sign (the toes phenomenon) which bears his name. Beyond the Sign, his semiological work in the field of neurology is also important (particularly cutaneous and osteo-tendinous reflexes, cerebellar and vestibular semiology, hysteria and pithiatism) as well as his role in the birth of the French neurosurgery. On the contrary, the implication of Babinski in pathological anatomy and histology is usually unrecognized. However, in the beginning of his career, Babinski worked as an Interne in the clinical departments of Victor Cornil (1837-1908), professor of pathological anatomy and president of the Société d'Anatomie de Paris, Alfred Vulpian (1826-1887), past professor of pathological anatomy and then professor of experimental physiology, and in the laboratory of Louis Ranvier (1835-1922), professor of general anatomy at the Collège de France. Babinski beacame préparateur at the chair of pathological anatomy, member then treasurer of the Société Anatomique, member of the Société de Biologie. He reported on several clinico-pathological observations of general pathology (liver cirrhosis, cancer of the kidney, cancer of a buttock, squamous epithelioma, tuberculosis, multiple cysts of the liver and the kidneys, bowel occlusion), of neuropathology (embolic brain softenings, hydatic cysts of the brain, multiple sclerosis, spinal cord combined sclerosis, tabetic arthropathies, adiposo-genital syndrome due to a pituitary tumor) and of human neuro-muscular histology (neuro-muscular spindles, muscular histology after nerve sectioning, diphtheria paralysis, peripheral neuritis).
Newman, H. C.
Veterinary medicine is a latecomer in benefiting from the advent of surgical lasers. It is ironic that although most of the basic work in lasers is carried out in animal species with which we are most conversant, veterinary medicine as a profession has not been very extensively involved.
This is a clinician's view of the current state of veterinary dentistry at the level of the general practitioner across the different species. An indication of the work done and the hazards commonly encountered are covered. To increase awareness within the dental profession of the current state of veterinary dentistry.
Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...
1Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology. 2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine. Ahmadu Bello .... and cresol as its active ingredients. The most common disinfectant reported to be used in the various hatcheries investigated was Morigad® which has phenol as its active ingredient.
Focus and Scope. Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.
Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S
It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.
Cardiff, Robert D; Ward, Jerrold M; Barthold, Stephen W
The American Medical Association and the American Veterinary Medical Association have recently approved resolutions supporting 'One Medicine' or 'One Health' that bridge the two professions. The concept is far from novel. Rudolf Virchow, the Father of Modern Pathology, and Sir William Osler, the Father of Modern Medicine, were outspoken advocates of the concept. The concept in its modern iteration was re-articulated in the 1984 edition of Calvin Schwabe's 'Veterinary Medicine and Human Health.' The veterinary and medical pathology professions are steeped in a rich history of 'One Medicine,' but they have paradoxically parted ways, leaving the discipline of pathology poorly positioned to contribute to contemporary science. The time has come for not only scientists but also all pathologists to recognize the value in comparative pathology, the consequences of ignoring the opportunity and, most importantly, the necessity of preparing future generations to meet the challenge inherent in the renewed momentum for 'One Medicine.' The impending glut of new genetically engineered mice creates an urgent need for prepared investigators and pathologists.
Nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a diagnostic category that is unfamiliar to most speech-language pathologists. This brief tutorial describes NLD's characteristics, a theoretical model proposed to explain its source, and areas of overlap between NLD and similar diagnostic categories. The communicative profile, made up of difficulties in pragmatic and semantic language in the presence of relatively preserved syntactic skill, is also discussed. Empirical evidence relevant to NLD is also evaluated. Many questions remain unresolved, but until systematic research provides definitive answers, speech-language pathologists are encouraged to rely on careful description of the individual child's communicative strengths and weaknesses to identify appropriate targets and to focus intervention on improving the child's ability to communicate effectively in everyday contexts.
Ellie Patterson, Vetlife marketing officer, summarises the services offered by Vetlife - an independent, confidential and free charity for everyone in the veterinary community. British Veterinary Association.
Hamood, Wendy J; Chur-Hansen, Anna; McArthur, Michelle L
To explore and gain an understanding of what "clinical communication skills" mean to veterinarians working in private practice and what implications this might have for veterinary medical education. Qualitative research methods were used to purposefully sample a range of veterinary practitioners from a pool of South Australian veterinary practices who were interviewed to determine their understanding of what communication skills mean in the context of veterinary practice. Interviews were conducted with fourteen veterinary practitioners. Participants were sampled from a range of ages, veterinary schools of graduation plus urban and rural locations. Interview transcripts were analysed for themes, definitions and contexts. Participants' accounts included a number of skills which they considered to be "communication". Some of the definitions of these skills parallel communication skills and competencies for human medicine on which communication skills training incorporated into veterinary curricula to date have largely been based. However, the veterinarians in this study also raised interesting contextual differences unique to the veterinary profession, such as communication with the animal, selling service, discussing money in relation to decisions for care, and communicating about euthanasia. Veterinary practitioners require high level communication skills. Education and training in veterinary medicine may be better tailored to reflect the unique context of the veterinary profession.
Kremer, Célia; Racette, Stéphanie; Marton, Dominique; Sauvageau, Anny
In child deaths investigation, radiologic examination is particularly important in the diagnosis of child abuse. In the province of Quebec, Canada, all autopsies for suspicious deaths are performed at a centralized forensic laboratory where, because of budget restrictions, forensic pathologists rely on their own knowledge for radiographs interpretations. To assess the validity of this radiologic examination by nonradiologist forensic specialist, we reviewed all cases of child death on a 1-year period. A total of 20 cases were reviewed by an experienced pediatric radiologist, and this interpretation was compared with pathologist's conclusions. Forensic pathologists missed an important finding in 3 positive cases. Yet, none of those missed findings would have significantly changed the cases outcome, because other autopsy findings had already oriented the final diagnosis. Nevertheless, this result is alarming. In a general context of financing problems, it can be appealing to management team to restrict access to external consultants. This study is important in reminding that such money savings do not come without a decrease in quality.
Lawton, Thomas J.; Acs, Geza; Argani, Pedram; Farshid, Gelareh; Gilcrease, Michael; Goldstein, Neal; Koerner, Frederick; Rowe, J. Jordi; Sanders, Melinda; Shah, Sejal S.; Reynolds, Carol
Fibroepithelial lesions with cellular stroma are frequently termed cellular fibroadenomas although criteria for distinguishing them from a phyllodes tumor are vague and subjective. However, the clinical implications and surgical management for these 2 lesions may be different. We randomly selected 21 cases of fibroepithelial lesions sent in consultation to the senior author that were challenging to classify as cellular fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor. One to 2 representative slides of each case along with patient age were sent to 10 pathologists who specialize in breast pathology. The World Health Organization criteria for phyllodes tumors and a diagnosis form were included with the study set. For the purposes of data reporting, fibroadenoma and cellular fibroadenoma are considered together. In only 2 cases was there uniform agreement as to whether the tumor represented a fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumor. Of the remaining 19 cases, if the diagnoses of fibroadenoma and benign phyllodes tumor were combined and separated from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors, there was 100% agreement in 53% of cases and 90% agreement in 79% of cases. This study highlights the difficulty that exists in distinguishing some cellular fibroadenomas from phyllodes tumors even for pathologists who specialize in breast pathology. However, there appears to be considerable agreement when cellular fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumors are distinguished from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors. Further studies are needed to determine if there is a clinically significant difference between cellular fibroadenomas and benign phyllodes tumors and how to better distinguish them from borderline and malignant phyllodes tumors. PMID:25161205
Rakha, Emad A; Green, Andrew R
Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease featuring distinct histological, molecular and clinical phenotypes. Although traditional classification systems utilising clinicopathological and few molecular markers are well established and validated, they remain insufficient to reflect the diverse biological and clinical heterogeneity of breast cancer. Advancements in high-throughput molecular techniques and bioinformatics have contributed to the improved understanding of breast cancer biology, refinement of molecular taxonomies and the development of novel prognostic and predictive molecular assays. Application of such technologies is already underway, and is expected to change the way we manage breast cancer. Despite the enormous amount of work that has been carried out to develop and refine breast cancer molecular prognostic and predictive assays, molecular testing is still in evolution. Pathologists should be aware of the new technology and be ready for the challenge. In this review, we provide an update on the application of molecular techniques with regard to breast cancer diagnosis, prognosis and outcome prediction. The current contribution of emerging technology to our understanding of breast cancer is also highlighted. Copyright © 2016 Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vogels, Brittany; Cartwright, Jade; Cocks, Naomi
The current study aimed to investigate what Australian speech-language pathologists frequently include in their bedside assessments in adult dysphagia, what factors influence these bedside assessments and whether they are consistent with the current evidence base. These aims were achieved via an online questionnaire and a series of semi-structured interviews. In the questionnaire, respondents were asked to rate how frequently they utilized bedside assessment components on a scale of five ranging from never to always. One hundred and forty practicing speech-language pathologists completed the online questionnaire in full. Eight interviews were then conducted. Respondents reported utilizing predominantly motor elements of their oro-motor examination with very few sensory elements being frequently utilized. Five main themes arose from the interviews including the influence of the individual patient and participant, the current evidence base, the participants' clinical practice and the participants' workplace. The findings from this research have implications for current clinical and education practices, in particular the impact of education and training and caseload demands on current practice.
Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth; Jackson, Elizabeth
In a densely packed veterinary curriculum, students may find it particularly challenging to engage in the less overtly clinical subjects, yet pressure from industry and an increasingly competitive employment market necessitate improved veterinary student education in business and management skills. We describe a curriculum intervention (formative reflective assignment) that optimizes workplace learning opportunities and aims to provide better student scaffolding for their in-context business learning. Students were asked to analyze a business practice they experienced during a period of extra-mural studies (external work placement). Following return to the college, they were then instructed to discuss their findings in their study group, and produce a group reflection on their learning. To better understand student engagement in this area, we analyzed individual and group components of the assignment. Thematic analysis revealed evidence of various depths of student engagement, and provided indications of the behaviors they used when engaging at different levels. Interactive and social practices (discussing business strategies with veterinary employees and student peers) appeared to facilitate student engagement, assist the perception of relevance of these skills, and encourage integration with other curriculum elements such as communication skills and clinical problem solving.
Amass, Sandra F
To evaluate how the veterinary profession is represented in nonfiction children's books and determine whether representations reflect the current veterinary profession or the demographics of the United States. Survey. Covers of 46 nonfiction children's books and contents of 45 nonfiction children's books. Book covers and book contents (images and text) were evaluated for representations of veterinarians and to identify settings, clients, technology and equipment, and animals portrayed. Book contents were additionally evaluated to identify specialties and career opportunities specifically mentioned in the text. Book covers predominantly portrayed veterinarians as Caucasian women who wore examination coats, worked alone in veterinary clinics, and cared for dogs without a client present. Book contents predominantly portrayed veterinarians as a Caucasian man or woman who wore an examination coat, worked as part of a team in a veterinary clinic, and helped clients care for dogs, cats, and exotic animals. Specialties and career opportunities in the veterinary profession were mentioned in the text of 29 of 45 (64.4%) books. Nonfiction children's book covers that focused on the veterinary profession portrayed a greater percentage of women than is currently found in the profession. Similarly, books portrayed a greater percentage of Caucasians than in the current or predicted US population. With the exception of Asians, books collectively represented lower or similar percentages of underrepresented minorities, compared with the US population. Veterinarians are encouraged to select books for individual children that portray veterinarians with whom the children can identify.
Nickels, Bonnie McCracken; Feeley, Thomas Hugh
The patient-provider relationship in the context of veterinary medicine represents a unique opportunity for studying how bad news is communicated to pet owners by conducting structured interviews with veterinarians. A sample of 44 veterinarians' responses was recorded and content-analyzed in an effort to identify themes among providers in their clinical experience of breaking bad news (BBN). Two coders revealed several themes in the data that were organized by three overarching areas: (1) breaking bad news in general, (2) euthanasia, and (3) social support. The findings from interviews indicated the COMFORT model (Villagran, Goldsmith, Wittenberg-Lyles, & Baldwin, 2010) in medical education provided a useful framework to organize the communication of BBN in veterinary medicine. Results were discussed in relation to future research in patient-provider communication and COMFORT's potential value for training students in veterinarian education.
LeBlanc, Amy K; Peremans, Kathelijne
Veterinarians have gained increasing access to positron emission tomography (PET and PET/CT) imaging facilities, allowing them to use this powerful molecular imaging technique for clinical and research applications. SPECT is currently being used more in Europe than in the United States and has been shown to be useful in veterinary oncology and in the evaluation of orthopedic diseases. SPECT brain perfusion and receptor imaging is used to investigate behavioral disorders in animals that have interesting similarities to human psychiatric disorders. This article provides an overview of the potential applications of PET and SPECT. The use of commercially available and investigational PET radiopharmaceuticals in the management of veterinary disease has been discussed. To date, most of the work in this field has utilized the commercially available PET tracer, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for oncologic imaging. Normal biodistribution studies in several companion animal species (cats, dogs, and birds) have been published to assist in lesion detection and interpretation for veterinary radiologists and clinicians. Studies evaluating other (18)F-labeled tracers for research applications are underway at several institutions and companion animal models of human diseases are being increasingly recognized for their value in biomarker and therapy development. Although PET and SPECT technologies are in their infancy for clinical veterinary medicine, increasing access to and interest in these applications and other molecular imaging techniques has led to a greater knowledge and collective body of expertise for veterinarians worldwide. Initiation and fostering of physician-veterinarian collaborations are key components to the forward movement of this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Foreest, Andries
Rooted in human dentistry, veterinary dentistry has developed steadily in the Netherlands since the 1980s and is now recognized as an essential discipline of veterinary medicine. The availability of specialized tools and techniques has led to improved treatment outcomes and results, with the choice of treatment being largely determined by the functionality of the dentition and the costs involved. Domestic animals and horses with dental problems should be referred to dental veterinarians. The Working Group Veterinary Dentistry in the Netherlands is an association for skilled veterinarians with professional dental equipment at their disposal.
Hespel, Adrien-Maxence; Wilhite, Ray; Hudson, Judith
Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in human medicine, and decreasing cost is making it more affordable for veterinary use. Rapid prototyping is at its early stage in veterinary medicine but clinical, educational, and experimental possibilities exist. Techniques and applications, both current and future, are explored and illustrated in this article. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Nault, Andre J.
Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…
McCaw-Binns, Affette; Holder, Yvette; Mullings, Jasneth
Describe the completeness and quality of Jamaica's 2008 vital registration mortality database. Multiple sources (hospitals, police, forensic pathologists, Coroners courts) were used to validate deaths registered as occurring in 2008. A 10% random sample was examined to evaluate the quality of certification and coding. Jamaica, a middle-income country of 2.7 million, began vital registration in 1877; however, the mortality database was considered of limited use, and the study was commissioned to understand the problem. Of 19,286 deaths identified, 76% were registered by 31.12.2009 for inclusion among 2008 demographic returns. Registration was highest among deaths not requiring autopsy (94%) and lowest among Coroners cases (22%) with only 41% of deaths among 15-44 year-olds registered. The leading causes of death were cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and homicide. Fifteen percent were coded to ill-defined causes of death. Recoding the sample increased mortality from prematurity, pregnancy complications, homicide, selected cardiovascular disorders, and human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS. Delays registering Coroners cases, certification and coding errors, introduced biases into the disease profile limiting the data's value in informing clinical care. Issuance of medical certificates by pathologists who investigate Coroners cases and training physicians and coders would eliminate most underreporting and improve data quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mamou, Jonathan; Saegusa-Beecroft, Emi; Coron, Alain; Oelze, Michael L; Yamaguchi, Tadashi; Machi, Junji; Hata, Masaki; Yanagihara, Eugene; Laugier, Pascal; Feleppa, Ernest J
The detection of metastases in freshly-excised lymph nodes from cancer patients during lymphadenectomy is critically important for cancer staging, treatment, and optimal patient management. Currently, conventional histologic methods suffer a high rate of false-negative determinations because pathologists cannot evaluate each excised lymph nodes in its entirety. Therefore, lymph nodes are undersampled and and small but clinically relevant metastatic regions can be missed. In this study, quantitative ultrasound (QUS) methods using high-frequency transducers (i.e., > 20 MHz) were developed and evaluated for their ability to detect and guide pathologists towards suspicious regions in lymph nodes. A custom laboratory scanning system was used to acquire radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D from excised lymph nodes using a 26-MHz center-frequency transducer. Overlapping 1-mm cylindrical regions-of-interest (ROIs) of the RF data were processed to yield 13 QUS estimates quantifying tissue microstructure and organization. These QUS methods were applied to more than 260 nodes from more than 160 colorectal-, gastric-, and breast-cancer patients. Cancer-detection performance was assessed for individual estimates and linear combinations of estimates. ROC results demonstrated excellent classification. For colorectal- and gastric-cancer nodes, the areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) were greater than 0.95. Slightly poorer results (AUC=0.85) were obtained for breast-cancer nodes. Images based on QUS parameters also permitted localization of cancer foci in some micrometastatic cases.
Moore, Dale A
Ideas about centers of emphasis and veterinary medical teaching consortia have resurfaced to attract students into food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). From 1988 to 2000 a multiple veterinary school consortium approach to food-animal production medicine (FAPM) teaching was conducted to handle regional differences in case load, faculty strengths, and student interests. Six universities developed a memorandum of understanding to provide a wide variety of in-depth, species-specific clinical experiences in FAPM to balance their individual strengths and weakness in addressing food-animal agriculture, to provide for student exchange and faculty development, and to conduct research in food safety. Changes in leadership, redirection of funds, failure to publicize the program to faculty and students, and a focus on research as opposed to teaching led to dissolution of the consortium. However, this approach could work to improve recruitment and retention of students in FSVM if it focused on student exchange, fostered a more integrated curriculum across schools, encouraged faculty involvement, garnered institutional support, and used modern technology in teaching. Private veterinary practices as well as public/corporate practices could be integrated into a broader food-animal curriculum directed at building competency among FSVM students by providing the in-depth training they require. Requirements for the success of this type of program will include funding, marketing, leadership, communication, coordination, integration, and dedicated people with the time to make it work.
... the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA), and sponsored by the Food Supply Veterinary... by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in the spring of 2009, the average educational... grateful to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the American Veterinary...
... the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA), and sponsored by the Food Supply Veterinary... by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in the spring of 2009, the average educational... grateful to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the American Veterinary...
Tworek, Joseph A; Henry, Michael R; Blond, Barbara; Jones, Bruce Allen
Gynecologic cytopathology is a heavily regulated field, with Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 mandating the collection of many quality metrics. There is a lack of consensus regarding methods to collect, monitor, and benchmark these data and how these data should be used in a quality assurance program. Furthermore, the introduction of human papilloma virus testing and proficiency testing has provided more data to monitor. To determine good laboratory practices in quality assurance of gynecologic cytopathology. Data were collected through a written survey consisting of 98 questions submitted to 1245 Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments-licensed or Department of Defense laboratories. There were 541 usable responses. Additional input was sought through a Web posting of results and questions on the College of American Pathologists Web site. Four senior authors who authored the survey and 28 cytopathologists and cytotechnologists were assigned to 5 working groups to analyze data and present statements on good laboratory practices in gynecologic cytopathology at the College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytopathology Quality Consensus Conference. Ninety-eight attendees at the College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytopathology Quality Consensus Conference discussed and voted on good laboratory practice statements to obtain consensus. This paper describes the rationale, background, process, and strengths and limitations of a series of papers that summarize good laboratory practice statements in quality assurance in gynecologic cytopathology.
Fritzsche Florian Rudolf
Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathologists are highly trained medical professionals who play an essential part in the diagnosis and therapy planning of malignancies and inflammatory diseases. Their work is associated with potential health hazards including injuries involving infectious human tissue, chemicals which are assumed to be carcinogenic or long periods of microscope and computer work. This study aimed to provide the first comprehensive assessment of the health situation of pathologists in Switzerland. Methods Pathologists in Switzerland were contacted via the Swiss Society of Pathologists and asked to answer an ethically approved, online anonymous questionnaire comprising 48 questions on occupational health problems, workplace characteristics and health behaviour. Results 163 pathologists participated in the study. Forty percent of pathologists reported musculoskeletal problems in the previous month. The overall prevalence was 76%. Almost 90% of pathologists had visual refraction errors, mainly myopia. 83% of pathologists had experienced occupational injuries, mostly cutting injuries, in their professional career; more than one fifth of participants reported cutting injuries in the last year. However, long lasting injuries and infectious diseases were rare. Depression and burnout affected every eighth pathologist. The prevalence of smoking was substantially below that of the general Swiss population. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that more care should be taken in technical and personal protective measures, ergonomic workplace optimisation and reduction of work overload and work inefficiencies. Despite the described health risks, Swiss pathologists were optimistic about their future and their working situation. The high rate of ametropia and psychological problems warrants further study.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...
Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources; Board on Higher Education and Workforce; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Policy and Global Affairs; National Research Council
In a study of the issues related to the veterinary medical workforce, including demographics, workforce supply, trends affecting job availability, and capacity of the educational system to fill future...
Martinsen, Siri; Jukes, Nick
There is a vast array of learning tools and approaches to veterinary education, many tried and true, many innovative and with potential. Such new methods have come about partly from an increasing demand from both students and teachers to avoid methods of teaching and training that harm animals. The aim is to create the best quality education, ideally supported by validation of the efficacy of particular educational tools and approaches, while ensuring that animals are not used harmfully and that respect for animal life is engendered within the student. In this paper, we review tools and approaches that can be used in the teaching of veterinary students, tools and approaches that ensure the dignity and humane treatment of animals that all teachers and students must observe as the very ethos of the veterinary profession that they serve. Veterinary education has not always met, and still often does not meet, this essential criterion.
Knowledge of common diseases is important for effective disease control and management programme. This retrospective study was designed to identify the common equine diseases and clinical conditions observed at the Large Animal Clinics of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, using ...
Musser Jeffrey MBDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, TX, USAThis year marks the 250th anniversary of the Royal Veterinary School in Lyon, France, the world's first veterinary college. Since its inception, many changes have occurred in veterinary medicine such as views on education and didactic learning, demographics of our profession, and standards of practice in animal husbandry, medicine, surgery, anesthesia, and vacci...
Hersh, Deborah; Armstrong, Elizabeth; Bourke, Noni
To explore in detail the narrative of a speech pathologist (SP) working with Indigenous Australian clients with acquired communication disorders following stroke or brain injury. There is some evidence that Indigenous clients do not find speech pathology rehabilitation to be culturally appropriate but, currently, there is very little published on the nature of this service or the experiences of SPs who provide this rehabilitation. This research uses both thematic and structural narrative analysis of data from a semi-structured, in-depth interview with a SP to examine the adaptations that she made to address the needs of her adult neurological caseload of (mainly) Indigenous Australians from both urban and remote regions. The thematic analysis resulted in a core theme of flexibility and four other sub-themes: awareness of cultural context, client focus/person-centredness, being practical and working ethically. The structural narrative analysis allowed insight into the nature of clinical reasoning in a context lacking predictability and where previous clinical certainties required adaptation. Individual, detailed narratives are useful in exposing the challenges and clinical reasoning behind culturally sensitive practice. Implications for Rehabilitation Speech pathologists (SPs) can learn from hearing the clinical stories of colleagues with experience of providing rehabilitation in culturally diverse contexts, as well as from ongoing training in culturally competent and safe practices. Such stories help bridge understanding from the general to the particular. SPs working with Indigenous Australians with acquired communication disorders post-stroke and brain injury may find it helpful to consider how the themes, drawn from an interview with the clinician in this study - flexibility, awareness of cultural context, person-centredness, being practical and working ethically - might apply to their practice. Narratives may be helpful in staff training and form an important
King, L J
The veterinary profession finds itself in the midst of a new world order. Today veterinarians are part of a world that is exquisitely interconnected culturally, economically, socially, and professionally. As a consequence, societal needs and expectations of the profession are more demanding, critical and far-reaching. Veterinarians must play important roles in five intersecting domains of work: public health, bio-medical research, global food safety and security, ecosystem health and the more traditional role of caring for animals. To be successful in this broad and complex range of services and activities, veterinarians must possess an expanded knowledge base, acquire new skills, and develop a new mindset that will ensure their success and excellence in all these domains. The veterinary profession is becoming more fragmented and specialised, and it needs to be brought back together by a single sphere of knowledge or discipline that can serve as an intellectual foundation. The concept of One World of Veterinary Medicine can do just that. With this mindset veterinarians will become better connected to the world around and gain new public recognition and esteem. To achieve this, a special commitment by academic veterinary medicine is, of course, essential. Veterinary schools must lead an educational transformation that reaffirms the social contract of veterinarians and works to align diverse sectors, build a global community, find a common purpose and expand the 21st Century veterinary portfolio of services, activities, and new possibilities.
This review of governance distinguishes between ends and means and, by highlighting the complexity and differing definitions of the concept, defines its scope and focuses discussion on its characteristics in order to establish an interrelationship between veterinary legislation and governance. Good governance must be backed by legislation, and good legislation must incorporate the principles and instruments of good governance. This article lists some of the main characteristics of governance and then reviews them in parallel with the methodology used to draft veterinary legislation, emphasising the importance of goal-setting and stakeholder participation. This article describes the criteria developed by the Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for assessing the quality of veterinary legislation. It then makes a comparison between the quality assurance process and the good governance process in order to demonstrate that the introduction and proper use of the tools for developing veterinary legislation offered by the OIE VLSP leads to a virtuous circle linking legislation with good governance. Ultimately, the most important point remains the implementation of legislation. Consequently, the author points out that satisfactory implementation relies not only on legislation that is technically and legally appropriate, acceptable, applicable, sustainable, correctly drafted, well thought through and designed for the long term, but also on the physical and legal capacity of official Veterinary Services to perform their administrative and enforcement duties, and on there being the means available for all those involved to discharge their responsibilities.
Scholz, Emma; Trede, Franziska; Raidal, Sharanne L
Veterinary practice is a broad sphere of professional activity encompassing clinical activity and other vocational opportunities conducted in rapidly changing contemporary social conditions. Workplace learning is an important but resource-intensive component of educating students for practice. This conceptual article argues that literature on workplace learning in the veterinary context is dominated by descriptive accounts and that there is a dearth of theoretically informed research on this topic. Framing veterinary practice as a social, relational, and discursive practice supports the use of workplace learning theories developed from a sociocultural perspective. Situated learning theory, with its associated concepts of communities of practice and legitimate peripheral participation, and workplace learning theory focused on workplace affordances and learner agency are discussed. Two composite examples of student feedback from veterinary clinical learning illustrate the concepts, drawing out such themes as the roles of teachers and learners and the assessment of integrated practice. The theoretical perspective described in this article can be used to inform development of models of workplace learning in veterinary clinical settings; relevant examples from medical education are presented.
Buchanan, James W
Throughout civilization, animals have played a pivotal role in the advancement of science and medicine. From as early as 400 BC when Hippocrates recognized that diseases had natural causes, the steadfast advances made by biologists, scientists, physicians and scholars were fueled by timely and important facts and information- much of it gained through animal observations that contributed importantly to understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology. There have been many breakthroughs and historic developments. For example, William Harvey in the 16th and 17th centuries clarified the importance of the circulatory system, aided by observations in dogs and pigs, which helped to clarify and confirm his concepts. The nineteenth century witnessed advances in physical examination techniques including auscultation and percussion. These helped create the basis for enhanced proficiency in clinical cardiology. An explosion of technologic advances that followed in the 20th century have made possible sophisticated, accurate, and non-invasive diagnostics. This permitted rapid patient assessment, effective monitoring, the development of new cardiotonic drugs, clinical trials to assess efficacy, and multi-therapy strategies. The latter 20th century has marshaled a dizzying array of advances in medical genetics and molecular science, expanding the frontiers of etiologies and disease mechanisms in man, with important implications for animal health. Veterinary medicine has evolved during the last half century, from a trade designed to serve agrarian cultures, to a diverse profession supporting an array of career opportunities ranging from private, specialty practice, to highly organized, specialized medicine and subspecialty academic training programs in cardiology and allied disciplines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Byard, R W
The following study provides an overview of accidental childhood death. This study is based on a review of 369 cases of fatal childhood accidents taken from the records of the Department of Histopathology, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide, Australia, over a 34-year period from 1963 to 1996. Data provide information on deaths due to motor vehicle accidents, drownings, accidental asphyxia, burns, poisonings, electrocution, and miscellaneous trauma. In addition, certain categories have undergone further examination, including asphyxial deaths due to unsafe sleeping environments and unsafe eating practices, drowning deaths, and deaths on farms, following identification of significant child safety problems in these areas as part of the "Keeping Your Baby and Child Safe" program. Previously unrecognized dangers to children detected through this program include mesh-sided cots, V-shaped pillows, and certain types of stroller-prams. The production of information pamphlets and packages for parents and the recall of certain dangerous products following recommendations made by pathologists demonstrate that pediatric and forensic pathologists have an important role to play in preventive medicine issues and in formulating public health strategies.
Dayton, Vanessa; Nguyen, Chi Kim; Van, Trinh Thu; Thanh, Nguyen Van; To, Ta Van; Hung, Nguyen Phi; Dung, Nguyen Ngoc; Milner, Danny A
We evaluate the need for, feasibility of, and impediments to improving hematopathology diagnoses for cancer hospitals in Vietnam. Two hematopathologists from the United States visited three major cancer treatment hospitals in Vietnam to workshop a sampling of difficult hematopathology cases. With Vietnamese pathologists, they toured histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and ancillary laboratory facilities. Automated tissue processors and slide staining equipment were documented for each of the three hospitals. Between seven and 11 hematopathology cases were reviewed for each hospital. Exact/complete diagnostic concordance was 50% or less for all three laboratories. The major impediments to accurate specific diagnoses were limitations of immunohistochemical stains, limited stains available in house, and, for one of the hospitals, difficulty with interpretation of the immunohistochemistry. Vietnamese pathologists would benefit from hematopathology training or opportunities to consult with hematopathologists in the United States. Expert hematopathology consultation services are currently unavailable within Vietnam, as postgraduate training for laboratory physicians consists of residency training in anatomic pathology only. Limitations in the quality of histopathology and immunohistochemistry could impose a barrier to success of efforts to improve hematopathology diagnosis. Implementation of a histopathology and immunohistochemistry quality improvement program might overcome this limitation.
Erika Helena Salles de Brito
Full Text Available O gênero Candida é composto por leveduras que vivem como comensais na microbiota de homens e animais. Em geral, não causam nenhum dano aos seus hospedeiros, entretanto, em virtude de desequilíbrios nas defesas química, física e imunológica, esses microrganismos podem se tornar patogênicos. Infecções por Candida spp. são pouco frequentes na Medicina Veterinária no entanto, nos últimos anos, tem sido observado aumento considerável de relatos de enfermidades causadas por essas leveduras, acometendo diferentes animais. Várias espécies do gênero são implicadas em quadros infecciosos, sendo a C. albicans a principal delas, seguida por C. tropicalis e C. parapsilosis. Considerando-se o potencial patogênico do gênero Candida, aliado ao surgimento de cepas resistentes a derivados azólicos, in vitro, o presente trabalho se propôs a realizar detalhada revisão de literatura, abordando os aspectos clínico-laboratoriais, etiológicos e terapêuticos da candidose na Medicina Veterinária.The Candida genus is composed by yeasts that live as commmensal on human and animals' microbiota. In general, they do not cause any damage to their hosts. However, due instability on chemical, physical and immunological defenses, these microorganisms can become pathogens. Candida spp. infections are rare on Veterinary Medicine. However, on the last years, a considerable raise of illness caused by these yeasts has been related on varied animal species. Several species of this genus has been mentioned as responsible for infectious diseases in animals, being C. albicans the main of them, followed by C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. Considering the pathogenic role of the genus Candida, allied to the emerging of resistant strains to the azole derivatives, in vitro, the present research proposed to perform a detailed review, approaching clinic-laboratorial, etiologic and therapeutic aspects of the candidosis on Veterinary medicine.
This article suggests that veterinary medicine has a leadership role to play in our society on ethical matters involving non-human animals. The article contrasts two trends within veterinary medicine; the first trend is a continuation of the avowedly utilitarian attitude toward non-humans that has its roots in Western veterinary medicine's eighteenth-century origins, and the second is the implicit view in veterinary practice that animals matter in and of themselves. Using the idea of alternatives in research and teaching, the article suggests that, in the years to come, veterinary medicine's answers to the relationships of these two trends will shape not only the soul of veterinary medicine, veterinary education, and the veterinary profession but, just as importantly, the larger society and culture themselves. This text is based on the keynote address delivered at the AAVMC Education Symposium in Washington, DC, on March 9, 2006, under the title "Ethical Issues Impacting Animal Use in Veterinary Medical Teaching."
Stephanie A. Sapowicz
Full Text Available This study assessed body condition scores (BCS and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic (n=149 and a general practice (n=166. BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices. Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income (P<0.001 and education (P<0.001 compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger (P<0.001 and dogs were less likely to be neutered (P<0.001. Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (P=0.083, with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; P=0.046, but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; P=0.230. Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (P=0.004. Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status.
Gardner, Ian A.; Greiner, Matthias
Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves provide a cutoff-independent method for the evaluation of continuous or ordinal tests used in clinical pathology laboratories. The area under the curve is a useful overall measure of test accuracy and can be used to compare different tests (or differ...
Holmstrom, Steven E
When you have completed this article, you will be able to (1) understand and grade patients with periodontal disease and prescribe proper treatment for them; (2) describe the AVDC Stages of Tooth resorption and the treatment; (3) describe the non-clinically aggressive and aggressive oral tumors; (4) be knowledgeable of the American Animal Hospital Association Guidelines on Veterinary Dental Procedures and how to obtain them; and (5) understand the disadvantage of Non-Professional Dental Scaling (NPDS) and why it should not be performed.
O'Neill, D; Hendricks, A; Summers, J; Brodbelt, D
To describe systemic glucocorticoid usage in cats and dogs by three primary care -veterinary practices in England and to ascertain risk factors for clinical use. To evaluate consistency of prescribing patterns across clinics. To validate a merged database of primary veterinary clinical data as a functional tool for clinical epidemiological research. A merged database was established from clinical data on 31,273 cat and dog consultations with pharmacotherapy from three veterinary practices in England. Descriptive statistics described systemic glucocorticoid drug use in cats and dogs while mixed-effects logistic regression modelling evaluated risk factors. Individual clinic usage was compared. Overall, 1877 (16·68%) cat consultations and 2913 (14·55%) dog consultations resulted in systemic glucocorticoid therapy. Cats received higher parenteral (Pveterinary clinical database was effective for epidemiological research. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Full Text Available The veterinary profession as a health service is facing new market conditions of business management. In the conditions of increased competition it is necessary to look for new ways of expanding the business and increase the economic efficiency and profitability. The introduction of the prospective customers to the activities and promotion of its services is one of the ways of expanding the veterinary clinic. The promotion is a crucial tool in the market penetration in every field, but one of the disadvantages of this tool is the often extremely high price and is not appropriate for small business, such as veterinary practice. This is why the Internet as a medium is interesting means of promotion of the veterinary clinic due to its many advantages. It is accessible to everyone, has a great number of users and at the same time, is fairly affordable. Its important feature is the room for modern, creative and interactive approach. In certain countries there are certain limitations in the promotion of veterinary facilities, and the Internet is useful in such cases. The veterinary clinic has a great choice of means of promotion. Some of them are completely free, and those which cost usually have a symbolic price. Their usage enables the veterinarian to be more competitive, and helps their clinic to increase its successful work. At the same time this type of promotion provides the opportunity for interactive relationship with the clients and for promotion of the facilities and the accomplishments of the clinic. The increase in the market share and the economic efficiency is also an important factor in favor of this type of promotion. The example with the veterinary clinic Animal Medica, which has managed to increase its frequency in 15 % is another proof. Almost 60% f the clients talked that they heard first time for Animal Medica on the net (Facebook or website. Therefore the veterinarians in their ruthless competition should use the limitless
Juric-Sekhar, Gordana; Upton, Melissa P; Swanson, Paul E; Westerhoff, Maria
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) causes clinically significant gastrointestinal (GI) injury. CMV inclusions can be identified on routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain, but immunohistochemistry (IHC) is also available for identifying CMV in tissue. The advent of accountable care organization models of care bring into question whether it is cost-effective for immunohistochemistry to be performed upfront at the request of clinicians and whether the quality of viral detection is compromised when the diagnosis of CMV is predicated on histologic review. In this study, a retrospective review of GI biopsies with CMV evaluations was performed. There were 449 cases with clinical requests to rule out CMV and 238 CMV analyses initiated by the pathologist without a clinical request. Among the cases that included a clinician's request, 37 had CMV detected. Immunostaining was performed on 26 cases, while a diagnosis based on readily identifiable viral inclusions on H&E-stained slides was made in 11. Among pathologist-initiated work-ups, 15 were CMV+, 3 of which had inclusions identified by H&E only. Among 38 CMV cases for which IHC had been performed, 27 had overt viral inclusions obvious on H&E. Seventy-two cases revealed uninflamed GI mucosa, and although a clinical concern about CMV infection was present, a CMV IHC work-up was not initially performed; all were negative for CMV by IHC and H&E. Clinical suspicion for CMV has a high yield for CMV detection, but "upfront" testing is likely unnecessary. Careful histopathologic review by a pathologist remains critical in the efficient and cost-effective detection of CMV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anderson, Jamie G; Goldstein, Gary; Boudreaux, Karen; Ilkiw, Jan E
Dental disease is important in the population of pets seen by veterinarians. Knowledge and skills related to oral disease and dentistry are critical entry-level skills expected of graduating veterinarians. A descriptive survey on the state of veterinary dental education was sent to respondents from 35 veterinary schools in the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean. Using the online SurveyMonkey application, respondents answered up to 26 questions. Questions were primarily designed to determine the breadth and depth of veterinary dental education from didactic instruction in years 1-3 to the clinical year programs. There was an excellent response to the survey with 86% compliance. Learning opportunities for veterinary students in years 1-3 in both the lecture and laboratory environments were limited, as were the experiences in the clinical year 4, which were divided between community-type practices and veterinary dentistry and oral surgery services. The former provided more hands-on clinical experience, including tooth extraction, while the latter focused on dental charting and periodontal debridement. Data on degrees and certifications of faculty revealed only 12 programs with board-certified veterinary dentists. Of these, seven veterinary schools had residency programs in veterinary dentistry at the time of the survey. Data from this study demonstrate the lack of curricular time dedicated to dental content in the veterinary schools participating in the survey, thereby suggesting the need for veterinary schools to address the issue of veterinary dental education. By graduation, new veterinarians should have acquired the needed knowledge and skills to meet both societal demands and professional expectations.
DeForge, Donald H
Ergonomics is the application of a body of knowledge addressing the interactions between man and the total working environment, such as atmosphere, heat, light and sound, as well as all tools and equipment of the workplace. Work related musculoskeletal injuries, caused by poor posture, have been discussed in human dentistry for several years. Veterinary dentistry, as a relatively new specialty within veterinary medicine, should address the ergonomics of poor posture without further delay to prevent work-related injuries. The generalist, as well as the specialist and their technicians, are subject to various neck and back disorders if proper ergonomic recommendations are not followed. This review article highlights basic ergonomic design principles for illumination and posture in veterinary dentistry.
Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathleen P; Vap, Linda M; Harr, Kendal E
Point-of-care testing (POCT) refers to any laboratory testing performed outside the conventional reference laboratory and implies close proximity to patients. Instrumental POCT systems consist of small, handheld or benchtop analyzers. These have potential utility in many veterinary settings, including private clinics, academic veterinary medical centers, the community (eg, remote area veterinary medical teams), and for research applications in academia, government, and industry. Concern about the quality of veterinary in-clinic testing has been expressed in published veterinary literature; however, little guidance focusing on POCT is available. Recognizing this void, the ASVCP formed a subcommittee in 2009 charged with developing quality assurance (QA) guidelines for veterinary POCT. Guidelines were developed through literature review and a consensus process. Major recommendations include (1) taking a formalized approach to POCT within the facility, (2) use of written policies, standard operating procedures, forms, and logs, (3) operator training, including periodic assessment of skills, (4) assessment of instrument analytical performance and use of both statistical quality control and external quality assessment programs, (5) use of properly established or validated reference intervals, (6) and ensuring accurate patient results reporting. Where possible, given instrument analytical performance, use of a validated 13s control rule for interpretation of control data is recommended. These guidelines are aimed at veterinarians and veterinary technicians seeking to improve management of POCT in their clinical or research setting, and address QA of small chemistry and hematology instruments. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide a minimum standard for maintenance of POCT instruments in the veterinary setting. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Johnson, Cheryl DeConde
Emphasis on classroom listening has gained importance for all children and especially for those with hearing loss and special listening needs. The rationale can be supported from trends in educational placements, the Response to Intervention initiative, student performance and accountability, the role of audition in reading, and improvement in hearing technologies. Speech-language pathologists have an instrumental role advocating for the accommodations that are necessary for effective listening for these children in school. To identify individual listening needs and make relevant recommendations for accommodations, a classroom listening assessment is suggested. Components of the classroom listening assessment include observation, behavioral assessment, self-assessment, and classroom acoustics measurements. Together, with a strong rationale, the results can be used to implement a plan that results in effective classroom listening for these children. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B
Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lasers have been used in human dentistry since the 1960's. Lasers can provide a veterinary dentist access to difficult to reach areas with a relatively bloodless surgical field. Due to vaporization of nerve endings, human patients undergoing laser dental treatment reveal less pain compared to scalpel driven procedures. Dental applications for the commonly used lasers are discussed, as are special safety precautions. Many dental procedures enhanced by a carbon dioxide laser are covered. Future applications for the laser in veterinary dentistry are also discussed.
Rekant, Steven I; Lyons, Mark A; Pacheco, Juan M; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis L
Abnormal body temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in body surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to a myriad of diseases of various etiologies across a wide range of host species in veterinary medicine. It is used to monitor the physiologic status of individual animals, such as measuring feed efficiency or diagnosing pregnancy. Infrared thermography has applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and has been used to detect soring in horses and monitor stress responses. This review addresses the variety of uses for IRT in veterinary medicine, including disease detection, physiologic monitoring, welfare assessment, and potential future applications.
Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.
A retrospective study of dog bite cases reported to ECWA Veterinary Clinic Bukuru was carried out in Plateau State, Nigeria to understand the pattern of occurrence in this region. A total of two hundred and forty seven (247) dog bite cases were reported between May, 2009 and June, 2010. The dogs profile showed that ...
A five years study (2003-2007) of parasitic diseases of ruminants brought to two Zonal Veterinary clinics located in the Southern part of Niger State, Central Nigeria was carried out to establish disease patterns in cattle, sheep and goats. The study was based on the data extracted from the monthly records of parasitic disease ...
Palfrey, Carol Lynn
The purpose of this non-experimental quantitative study was to explore the practices of speech-language pathologists in conducting bilingual assessments with interpreters. Data were obtained regarding the assessment tools and practices used by speech-language pathologists, the frequency with which they work with interpreters, and the procedures…
Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne
Background The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. Objectives The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including...... the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. Methods The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational...... and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories. Results The advent of mass spectrometry has significantly reduced the time required for ID of key pathogens such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. However, the turnaround time...
McGreevy, Paul; Thomson, Peter; Dhand, Navneet K; Raubenheimer, David; Masters, Sophie; Mansfield, Caroline S; Baldwin, Timothy; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Rand, Jacquie; Hill, Peter; Peaston, Anne; Gilkerson, James; Combs, Martin; Raidal, Shane; Irwin, Peter; Irons, Peter; Squires, Richard; Brodbelt, David; Hammond, Jeremy
VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses). Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1) roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2) development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation) platform; and (3) creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP) technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.
Full Text Available VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses. Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1 roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2 development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation platform; and (3 creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.
Helder Roberto Dota Janoselli
objective of this study was to assess the costs and analyze the economic viability of starting a complete veterinary clinic, in conformity with standards of a veterinary hospital, able to perform basic and advanced medical procedures all in the same place, in the city of São João da Boa Vista, countryside of São Paulo state. For that, a survey of required investments to start the clinic was performed, as well as the fixed and variable costs, and revenues. The cash flow was projected for a five year period and the economic viability analysis was done using the indicators: Net Present Value [NPV], Internal Rate of Return [IRR] and payback period (simple and discounted. Sensitivity analysis was also used to assess how changes in the investments, revenues and interest rates affect the NPV of the project. The results showed that the project of starting a complete pet veterinary clinic is economically feasible. The project had a positive NPV of R$ 152.049,33, IRR of 12,68%, and simple and discounted payback period of 4.13 and 4.38 years, respectively. The NPV calculation was very sensitive to changes in revenue, followed by the investments, whose increase negatively affected the NPV. Lower sensitivity was observed for changes in interest rates.
Hartman, Douglas J
Optimizing pathologist workflow can be difficult because it is affected by many variables. Surgical pathologists must complete many tasks that culminate in a final pathology report. Several software systems can be used to enhance/improve pathologist workflow. These include voice recognition software, pre-sign-out quality assurance, image utilization, and computerized provider order entry. Recent changes in the diagnostic coding and the more prominent role of centralized electronic health records represent potential areas for increased ways to enhance/improve the workflow for surgical pathologists. Additional unforeseen changes to the pathologist workflow may accompany the introduction of whole-slide imaging technology to the routine diagnostic work. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kerker, Ann E.; Malamud, Judie
This course guide outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on the literature of veterinary medicine. Topics covered include: (1) an introduction to veterinary medicine as a discipline, including comparison with other medical sciences, veterinary medicine education, licensure, animal models, veterinary…
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... relating to veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs. FDA's VFD regulation, which became effective on January... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration, 7500...
Focus and Scope. The Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted.
Jones, Bruce Vivash
The American Veterinary Medical Association is marking its 150th anniversary in 2013, celebrating '150 years of education, science and service'. As Bruce Vivash Jones explains, veterinary surgeons from the UK played a key role in establishing a system of veterinary education in North America.
Animal use resulting in harm or death has historically played an integral role in veterinary education, in disciplines such as surgery, physiology, biochemistry, anatomy, pharmacology, and parasitology. However, many non-harmful alternatives now exist, including computer simulations, high quality videos, ''ethically-sourced cadavers'' such as from animals euthanased for medical reasons, preserved specimens, models and surgical simulators, non-invasive self-experimentation, and supervised clinical experiences. Veterinary students seeking to use such methods often face strong opposition from faculty members, who usually cite concerns about their teaching efficacy. Consequently, studies of veterinary students were reviewed comparing learning outcomes generated by non-harmful teaching methods with those achieved by harmful animal use. Of eleven published from 1989 to 2006, nine assessed surgical training--historically the discipline involving greatest harmful animal use. 45.5% (5/11) demonstrated superior learning outcomes using more humane alternatives. Another 45.5% (5/11) demonstrated equivalent learning outcomes, and 9.1% (1/11) demonstrated inferior learning outcomes. Twenty one studies of non-veterinary students in related academic disciplines were also published from 1968 to 2004. 38.1% (8/21) demonstrated superior, 52.4% (11/21) demonstrated equivalent, and 9.5% (2/21) demonstrated inferior learning outcomes using humane alternatives. Twenty nine papers in which comparison with harmful animal use did not occur illustrated additional benefits of humane teaching methods in veterinary education, including: time and cost savings, enhanced potential for customisation and repeatability of the learning exercise, increased student confidence and satisfaction, increased compliance with animal use legislation, elimination of objections to the use of purpose-killed animals, and integration of clinical perspectives and ethics early in the curriculum. The evidence
2. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello Unviersity, Zaria, Nigeria. 2College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Mando, Kaduna, Nigeria. Correspondence Author: Abstract. Village chickens in Kaduna State, Nigeria were vaccinated once with a Malaysian heat-resistant Newcastle disease ...
Coles, G C
Current evidence suggests research in veterinary parasitology is in decline despite its importance. This is particularly true in the UK where research funds have been diverted into BSE. Decline in interest in veterinary parasitology is at least in part due to the success of major pharmaceutical companies in producing a range of effective and safe anti-parasitic drugs. Research is needed because of the effects of parasites on animal welfare and the economic costs of parasites. However, there is little information on the actual costs of animal parasites. Another major reason for research is the development of drug resistance in protozoa, helminths and arthropods of veterinary importance. This is a serious problem particularly for sheep and goats in the southern hemisphere. A prioritised list of research requirements is suggested: (i) new drugs; (ii) resistance management; (iii) vaccines; (iv) breeding for resistance; (v) improved diagnostics; (vi) zoonoses; (vii) global warming and parasites. There is a major political challenge to raise the profile of veterinary parasitology and thus the funding essential for its advancement and the continued welfare and productivity of animals.
Tomasi, Suzanne; Roberts, Kristin J; Stull, Jason; Spiller, Henry A; McKenzie, Lara B
To describe the epidemiology of veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures to children based on calls to a regional poison control center. A retrospective analysis of pediatric (≤19 years of age) exposures to pharmaceutical products intended for animal use, managed by a regional poison control center from 1999 through 2013, was conducted. Case narratives were reviewed and coded for exposure-related circumstances and intended species. Descriptive statistics were generated. From 1999 through 2013, the Central Ohio Poison Center received 1431 calls that related to a veterinary pharmaceutical exposure for children ≤19 years of age. Most of the pediatric calls (87.6%) involved children ≤5 years of age. Exploratory behavior was the most common exposure-related circumstance (61.4%) and ingestion accounted for the exposure route in 93% of cases. Substances commonly associated with exposures included: veterinary drugs without human equivalent (17.3%), antimicrobial agents (14.8%), and antiparasitics (14.6%). Based on substance and quantity, the majority of exposures (96.9%) were not expected to result in long-term or lasting health effects and were managed at home (94.1%). A total of 80 cases (5.6%) were referred to a health care facility, and 2 cases resulted in a moderate health effect. Children ≤5 years of age are most at risk for veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures. Although most exposures do not result in a serious medical outcome, efforts to increase public awareness, appropriate product dispensing procedures, and attention to home storage practices may reduce the risk of veterinary pharmaceutical exposures to young children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
They were fed on hay, millet, wheat bran and crop residues, and water was provided ad libitum. Some horses had history of deworming and vaccination against tetanus. The horses were kept for racing, durbar, companion, polo and ceremonial activity. Data Analysis. Data generated from the clinical records were stored in ...
practice in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of drugs prescription in dogs diagnosed with CPE in some small animal clinics in Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS ... presumptive and/or laboratory diagnoses. Data obtained from individual .... be appropriate and prudent. There is currently no ...
Romeo T. Cristina
Full Text Available The paper is a small guide about: what is to know, being a vet, related to homeopathic therapy institution (anamnesys and clinical examination, what are the polichrests, antagonisms and synergisms, data about somehomeopathic conditionings as well the doses and way of administration choosing.
per ml. Groups VAU and UNU were each inoculated with 0.2ml of phosphate buffered saline. Group VAC showed no clinical signs, no clear lesions grossly and mild histopathologic changes. Group UNC showed severe depression, anorexia, whitish-greenish diarrhoea, nervous signs and necrosis of the organs. All infected.
Post, Miriam D; Johnson, Kristen; Brissette, Mark D; Conran, Richard Michael; Domen, Ronald E; Hoffman, Robert D; McCloskey, Cindy B; Raciti, Patricia M; Roberts, Cory Anthony; Rojiani, Amyn M; Tucker, J Allan; Powell, Suzanne Z
-Multiple sources have identified challenges that training programs face in preparing graduates for the "real world" practice of pathology, and many training programs have sought to decrease the gap between skills acquired during training and those required in practice. However, there exists the possibility that some of the difficulty experienced by newly trained pathologists and employers might arise from differences between employer expectations of new hires and what applicants expect from their first job. -To define the constellation of skills and attributes employers prioritize when hiring newly trained pathologists. -A survey of fellows of the College of American Pathologists in practice for 5 or more years in the United States was administered and the results were analyzed. -A total of 630 pathologists who were responsible for hiring a new-in-practice pathologist completed the survey. Regardless of practice setting, certain skills and attributes were rated critically important in new hires, including ethics/integrity, work ethic, and professionalism. Seventy-one percent reported having some difficulty hiring entry-level pathologists and cited inadequate training/experience during residency, and applicants having unrealistic expectations regarding work load/hours as the most common reasons. -Prospective employers not only expect well-developed diagnostic skills in their job applicants, but also require evidence of a strong work ethic and outstanding professionalism. Successful applicants must display willingness to assume responsibilities and flexibility regarding existing and new responsibilities. A secondary but important finding of this survey was that most jobs are garnered through word-of-mouth recommendations; therefore, it is crucial for pathologists-in-training to hone their networking skills.
Fagan, D A; Oosterhuis, J E; Kirkman, J E
This article reviews the clinical literature of the field of Veterinary Dentistry from its conception in the late 1960's to its rapidly expanding role today as an emerging clinical specialty practice in veterinary medicine. It defines eight dental sub-disciplines in contemporary veterinary oral health care from a practical point of view and provides information concerning standardization of key words searches, definition of terms, and use of the expanded Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) necessary for a comprehensive review of the rapidly expanding literature stored in electronic databases.
Rammage, L A; Nichol, H; Morrison, M D
The University of British Columbia Voice Clinic provides care to patients with various types of voice disorder, and the effectiveness of therapy is enhanced by an interdisciplinary approach. The Voice Clinic team includes an otolaryngologist, speech pathologist, psychiatrist, and singing teacher consultant. This paper particularly highlights the interactions between the speech pathologist and psychiatrist in their therapy programs for voice disordered patients.
Herbert P. Schneider
Full Text Available Until the middle of the 19th century, very few references exist regarding the occurrence of animal diseases in Namibia. With the introduction of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP in 1859, this picture changed completely and livestock owners implemented various forms of disease control in an effort to contain the spread of this disease and minimise its devastating effects. After the establishment of the colonial administration in 1884, the first animal disease legislation was introduced in 1887 and the first veterinarian, Dr Wilhelm Rickmann, arrived in 1894. CBPP and the outbreak of rinderpest in 1897 necessitated a greatly expanded veterinary infrastructure and the first veterinary laboratory was erected at Gammams near Windhoek in 1897. To prevent the spread of rinderpest, a veterinary cordon line was established, which was the very beginning of the Veterinary Cordon Fence as it is known today. After the First World War, a small but dedicated corps of veterinarians again built up an efficient animal health service in the following decades, with veterinary private practice developing from the mid–1950s. The veterinary profession organised itself in 1947 in the form of a veterinary association and, in 1984, legislation was passed to regulate the veterinary profession by the establishment of the Veterinary Council of Namibia. The outbreak of foot and mouth disease in 1961 was instrumental in the creation of an effective veterinary service, meeting international veterinary standards of quality and performance which are still maintained today.
Schneider, Herbert P
Until the middle of the 19th century, very few references exist regarding the occurrence of animal diseases in Namibia. With the introduction of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in 1859, this picture changed completely and livestock owners implemented various forms of disease control in an effort to contain the spread of this disease and minimise its devastating effects. After the establishment of the colonial administration in 1884, the first animal disease legislation was introduced in 1887 and the first veterinarian, Dr Wilhelm Rickmann, arrived in 1894. CBPP and the outbreak of rinderpest in 1897 necessitated a greatly expanded veterinary infrastructure and the first veterinary laboratory was erected at Gammams near Windhoek in 1897. To prevent the spread of rinderpest, a veterinary cordon line was established, which was the very beginning of the Veterinary Cordon Fence as it is known today. After the First World War, a small but dedicated corps of veterinarians again built up an efficient animal health service in the following decades, with veterinary private practice developing from the mid-1950s. The veterinary profession organised itself in 1947 in the form of a veterinary association and, in 1984, legislation was passed to regulate the veterinary profession by the establishment of the Veterinary Council of Namibia. The outbreak of foot and mouth disease in 1961 was instrumental in the creation of an effective veterinary service, meeting international veterinary standards of quality and performance which are still maintained today.
Wood, Terry R.; McLaren, Brian C.
There can be no question that specific systemic physiological results occur, when red light (660nm) is applied to the skin, it is now more a question of detailed mechanisms. Before gathering statistically signifcant clinical trial data, it is important to first enumerate the type of results observed in practice. Case histories are presented highlighting the use of photonic therapy in veterinary medicine. Over 900 surgical procedures have been performed and documented, utilizing the principles of photonic therapy, and while hemostasis, pain relief, and nausea relief, were the primary goals, the peri-operative death rate, the post-operative seroma, and post-operative infection were reduced to almost zero, and there was a noticeable increase in the healing rate. Scientifically applied photonic therapy, rather than supplanting conventional veterinary medicine, compliments and increases the veterinarian's set of skills. This paper proposes a hypothesis of how 660 nm light applied to specific points on the skin, produces various physiological changes in animals. By using animals, there can be no placebo, hypnotic or psychosomatic confounding effects.
Cochrane, Frances Clare; Brown, Louise; Siyambalapitiya, Samantha; Plant, Christopher
This study explored speech-language pathologists' (SLPs) perspectives about factors that influence clinical management of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults with acquired communication disorders (e.g. aphasia, motor speech disorders). Using a qualitative phenomenological approach, seven SLPs working in North Queensland, Australia with experience working with this population participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify categories and overarching themes within the data. Four categories, in relation to barriers and facilitators, were identified from participants' responses: (1) The Practice Context; (2) Working Together; (3) Client Factors; and (4) Speech-Language Pathologist Factors. Three overarching themes were also found to influence effective speech pathology services: (1) Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cultural Practices; (2) Information and Communication; and (3) Time. This study identified many complex and inter-related factors which influenced SLPs' effective clinical management of this caseload. The findings suggest that SLPs should employ a flexible, holistic and collaborative approach in order to facilitate effective clinical management with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people with acquired communication disorders.
Signorelli, Monique E; Madill, Catherine J; McCabe, Patricia
The purpose of this study was to determine the management options and voice therapy techniques currently being used by practicing speech-language pathologists (SLPs) to treat vocal fold nodules (VFNs) in children. The sources used by SLPs to inform and guide their clinical decisions when managing VFNs in children were also explored. Sixty-two SLPs completed a 23-item web-based survey. Data was analysed using frequency counts, content analyses, and supplementary analyses. SLPs reported using a range of management options and voice therapy techniques to treat VFNs in children. Voice therapy was reportedly the most frequently used management option across all respondents, with the majority of SLPs using a combination of indirect and direct voice therapy techniques. When selecting voice therapy techniques, the majority of SLPs reported that they did not use the limited external evidence available to guide their clinical decisions. Additionally, the majority of SLPs reported that they frequently relied on lower levels of evidence or non-evidence-based sources to guide clinical practice both in the presence and absence of higher quality evidence. Further research needs to investigate strategies to remove the barriers that impede SLPs use of external evidence when managing VFNs in children.
Flatley, Danielle R; Kenny, Belinda J; Lincoln, Michelle A
Speech-language pathologists experience ethical dilemmas as they fulfil their professional roles and responsibilities. Previous research findings indicated that speech-language pathologists working in publicly funded settings identified ethical dilemmas when they managed complex clients, negotiated professional relationships, and addressed service delivery issues. However, little is known about ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice settings. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe the nature of ethical dilemmas experienced by speech-language pathologists working in private practice. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 speech-language pathologists employed in diverse private practice settings. Participants explained the nature of ethical dilemmas they experienced at work and identified their most challenging and frequently occurring ethical conflicts. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse transcribed data and generate themes. Four themes reflected the nature of speech-language pathologists' ethical dilemmas; balancing benefit and harm, fidelity of business practices, distributing funds, and personal and professional integrity. Findings support the need for professional development activities that are specifically targeted towards facilitating ethical practice for speech-language pathologists in the private sector.
Pelzer, Nancy L; Wiese, William H
Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5-3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature.
Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A
OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting
Schuh, Joann C L
Awareness of the regulatory environment is fundamental to understanding the biological assessment of biomaterials and medical devices. Medical devices are a diverse and heterogeneous group of medical products and technologies defined by the lack of chemical action or requirement for metabolism. Regional activity and the Global Harmonization Task Force are now working on harmonizing the categorization and testing of medical devices. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published 19 standards for biological evaluation. ISO 10993 standards are generally accepted outright or as an alternative to most national regulatory directives or acts, although Japan and the United States require more stringency in some tests. Type of materials, intended use, and risk are the basis for drafting testing programs for biomaterials and medical devices. With growth of the medical device industry and advent of new biomaterials and technologies, the need for toxicologic pathologists in safety (biocompatibility) and efficacy (conditions of use) evaluation of moderate- to high-risk devices is expanding. Preclinical evaluation of biomaterials and medical devices increasingly requires a basic understanding of materials science and bioengineering to facilitate interpretation of complex interface reactions between biomaterials, cellular and secretory factors, and vascular and tissue responses that modulate success or failure of medical devices.
Dixon, William H R; Kinnison, Tierney; May, Stephen A
At a time where high levels of stress are reported in the veterinary profession, this study explores the challenges that veterinary graduates encounter when they enter general (first opinion) practice. Participants had written reflective accounts of their 'Most Puzzling Cases' for the postgraduate Professional Key Skills module of the Certificate in Advanced Veterinary Practice, offered by the Royal Veterinary College. Reasons that a case was puzzling, or became challenging, were thematically analysed. Fifteen summaries were analysed. Three core themes were identified: 'clinical reasoning', centred on the limitations of pattern recognition and the methods used to overcome this; the 'veterinary healthcare system', focusing on the need for continuity of care, time pressure and support in the transition to practice; and the 'owner', looking at the broader clinical skills needed to succeed in general practice. Clinical reasoning was raised as an issue; discussion of when pattern recognition is not appropriate and what to do in these cases was common. A lack of experience in general practice case types, and how to best operate in the resource-constrained environment in which they present, is the likely cause of this, suggesting that a greater focus on the primary care paradigm is needed within veterinary education. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Stone, Brett M; Gan, David
Limited availability of diagnostic cytopathologic material may preclude additional diagnostic techniques. Tissue transfer allows for preparation of additional slides from a single original slide. Information pertaining to the application of the tissue transfer technique in veterinary cytopathology is lacking. The objectives were to evaluate the application of the tissue transfer technique on Quick Dip-stained veterinary cytologic smears and to assess if a selection of histochemical and immunocytochemical stains, and PCR analyses could be performed on transferred material. Archived Quick Dip-stained canine lymph node aspirate smears from previously diagnosed lymphoma cases were utilized to validate and optimize the tissue transfer technique. In this technique, diagnostic material is lifted from the original stained slide, is divided and transferred to multiple new slides. Histochemical stains such as Gram, periodic acid Schiff, Congo red, and Ziehl-Neelson, immunohistochemistry for CD3 and PAX5, and PCR for cryptococcal and mycobacterial organisms were selectively performed on transferred material. The tissue transfer technique was simple, and transferred Quick Dip-stained material retained cellular morphology. Histochemical and immunohistochemical stains, and PCR analysis yielded reliable results when performed on the additional smears produced by this technique. The tissue transfer technique was simple and easy to perform on previously Quick Dip-stained cytology smears. Cellular detail was preserved and multiple additional ancillary diagnostic techniques were facilitated, such as histochemical and immunohistochemical stains, and PCR analysis. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Lane, India F; Bogue, E Grady
To explore perceptions of faculty educators regarding the importance of nontechnical competencies in veterinary graduates and the placement of nontechnical competency development in veterinary education. Survey. All faculty members at 5 North American veterinary medical institutions. Participants rated the importance of 14 nontechnical competencies and indicated in which phase or phases of veterinary education such competencies should be developed (ie, curriculum placement). Differences in mean ratings were statistically evaluated, as were associations between ratings or curriculum placement and respondent institution, gender, experience, and discipline. Mean ratings of importance were above neutral for all competencies and were highest for ethical, critical thinking, and interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies; development of these competencies was favored in preveterinary and veterinary training. Ratings were lower for management and business competencies; development of these and other competencies was placed primarily in the clinical phase of the veterinary curriculum. Basic science, nonveterinarian, and junior faculty appeared to more strongly appreciate the importance of nontechnical skills, whereas large animal and midcareer faculty reported a more reserved degree of support. Female faculty were more likely to place nontechnical competency development throughout the educational process. Participants agreed nontechnical competencies are important for veterinary graduates; however, faculty perceptions differed from previously published findings regarding the relative importance of business and management skills. Those involved in faculty hiring, faculty development, and curricular planning should also be aware of disciplinary and career stage differences affecting faculty perspectives.
Reisbig, Allison M J; Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Hafen, McArthur; Krienert, Ashley; Girard, Destiny; Garlock, Jessica
This study builds on previous research on predictors of depression and anxiety in veterinary medical students and reports data on three veterinary cohorts from two universities through their first three semesters of study. Across all three semesters, 49%, 65%, and 69% of the participants reported depression levels at or above the clinical cut-off, suggesting a remarkably high percentage of students experiencing significant levels of depression symptoms. Further, this study investigated the relationship between common stressors experienced by veterinary students and mental health, general health, and academic performance. A factor analysis revealed four factors among stressors common to veterinary students: academic stress, transitional stress, family-health stress, and relationship stress. The results indicated that both academic stress and transitional stress had a robust impact on veterinary medical students' well-being during their first three semesters of study. As well, academic stress negatively impacted students in the areas of depression and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction, general health, perception of academic performance, and grade point average (GPA). Transitional stress predicted increased depression and anxiety symptoms and decreased life satisfaction. This study helped to further illuminate the magnitude of the problem of depression and anxiety symptoms in veterinary medical students and identified factors most predictive of poor outcomes in the areas of mental health, general health, and academic performance. The discussion provides recommendations for considering structural changes to veterinary educational curricula to reduce the magnitude of academic stressors. Concurrently, recommendations are suggested for mental health interventions to help increase students' resistance to environmental stressors.
Alison M Bard
Full Text Available Client behaviour change is at the heart of veterinary practice, where promoting animal health and welfare is often synonymous with engaging clients in animal management practices. In the medical realm, extensive research points to the link between practitioner communication and patient behavioural outcomes, suggesting that the veterinary industry could benefit from a deeper understanding of veterinarian communication and its effects on client motivation. Whilst extensive studies have quantified language components typical of the veterinary consultation, the literature is lacking in-depth qualitative analysis in this context. The objective of this study was to address this deficit, and offer new critical insight into veterinary communication strategies in the pursuit of client behaviour change. Role-play interactions (n = 15 between UK cattle veterinarians and an actress experienced in medical and veterinary education were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Analysis revealed that, overall, veterinarians tend to communicate in a directive style (minimal eliciting of client opinion, dominating the consultation agenda, prioritising instrumental support, reflecting a paternalistic role in the consultation interaction. Given this finding, recommendations for progress in the veterinary industry are made; namely, the integration of evidence-based medical communication methodologies into clinical training. Use of these types of methodologies may facilitate the adoption of more mutualistic, relationship-centred communication in veterinary practice, supporting core psychological elements of client motivation and resultant behaviour change.
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard
A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...... of emotions; 63% of students experienced negative emotions, while 58% experienced positive ones. In addition, 61% of students reported feeling excited or tense. Students' statements reveal that anxiety is perceived as counterproductive to learning, while excitement seems to enhance students' focus...
Diana L. Eubanks
Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changin...
The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maronpot, Robert R
The "omics," high-throughput screening, computational modeling, and database mining revolutions have each arrived with euphoric expectations, considerable hand waving, and promises to set toxicity testing priorities and reduce reliance on conventional animal toxicity and carcinogenicity testing. Reflecting back on prior experience with other predictive approaches and alternatives, what follows the rush to endorse a promising new technology or different approach to toxicity/carcinogenicity testing is years of grinding out data for validation and optimization. Much of what has driven the enthusiasm for each new emerging technology and approach is the costly, labor-intensive, and sometimes irrelevant and inefficient rodent bioassay-testing paradigm. However, no one should expect abandonment of all animal testing for the foreseeable future, especially for agrochemicals and environmental xenobiotic exposures. It is reasonable to anticipate the future will bring still new approaches to safety testing and human risk assessment. In the past, each new approach has not achieved the inflated expectations for safety testing and human risk assessment but often has become a useful research tool with tangible contributions to basic biology and clinical medicine. The toxicologic pathologist is embedded in the matrix of a mixed disciplinary milieu and is faced with some critical challenges and important opportunities in the postgenomic decades ahead. So what advice do we give to the journeyman toxicologic pathologist who will hopefully function effectively in the postgenomic decades ahead? And what advice do we also give to the experienced bench pathologist confronted with emerging technologies each accompanied by a bewildering array of techno-jargon so that he or she can remain effective as a toxicologic pathology practitioner?
Full Text Available Abstract Aim External quality assurance (EQA is an extremely valuable resource for clinical pathologists to maintain high standards, improve diagnostic skills, and possibly revalidate medical license. The aim of this study was to participate in and compare four international slide survey programs (UK, IAP-Germany, USA-Canada, Australasia in pediatric histopathology for clinical pathologists with the aim to use it as a revalidation method. Methods The following parameters were evaluated: number of circulations per year, number of slides, membership requirement, proof of significant pediatric pathology work, open to overseas participants, laboratory accreditation, issue of continuing professional development certificates and credits, slides discussion meeting, use of digital images, substandard performance letter, and anonymity of responses. Results The UK scheme, which has sampling procedure over several time frames (2 circulations/year, 30 slides, partial confidentiality, and multiple sources of data and assessors, can be used as a model for revalidation. The US-Canadian and Australasian schemes only partially fulfill the revalidation requirements. The IAP scheme appears to be essentially an educational program and may be unsuitable for revalidation. Conclusion The purposes and programs of EQA schemes vary worldwide. In order for it to be used for revalidation, it is advisable that EQA schemes are immediately unified.
Chahda, Laura; Mathisen, Bernice A; Carey, Lindsay B
Given minimal studies describing the role and practice of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in adult palliative care, the aim of this review was to compile a database of research literature, examine the potential research gaps and to consider material that specifically discussed the need for and/or use of procedures and protocols for SLPs working in palliative care that would support the development of SLP palliative care guidelines. A scoping review was conducted utilising Arksey and O'Malley's framework with the goal of exploring any key concepts and approaches utilised by SLPs in adult palliative care, plus any literature and/or recommendations regarding SLP practice in adult palliative care settings. Over 1200 articles were initially identified. Of the 1200 articles, 13 academic papers were considered relevant as they recommended, or at least suggested, the need for speech-language pathology therapy guidelines to be implemented within adult palliative care settings. The main focus of these articles was on ethical considerations and clinical recommendations for SLPs. Recommendations arising from this scoping review include providing goals to support current practising SLP clinicians and developing clinical guidelines to manage swallowing and/or communication needs of people receiving palliative care.
De Risio, Luisa; Bhatti, Sofie; Muñana, Karen
This article outlines the consensus proposal on diagnosis of epilepsy in dogs by the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force. The aim of this consensus proposal is to improve consistency in the diagnosis of epilepsy in the clinical and research settings. The diagnostic approach to the patient...... paroxysmal events can be challenging. Criteria that can be used to make this differentiation are presented in detail and discussed. Criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy (IE) are described in a three-tier system. Tier I confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based on a history of two or more...... for the diagnosis of IE is based on the factors listed in tier I and unremarkable fasting and post-prandial bile acids, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain (based on an epilepsy-specific brain MRI protocol) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Tier III confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based...
Hashizume, Cary T; Myhre, Douglas L; Hecker, Kent G; Bailey, Jeremy V; Lockyer, Jocelyn M
Optimization of clinical veterinary education requires an understanding of what compels veterinary preceptors in their role as clinical educators, what satisfaction they receive from the teaching experience, and what struggles they encounter while supervising students in private practice. We explored veterinary preceptors' teaching motivations, enjoyment, and challenges by undertaking a thematic content analysis of 97 questionnaires and 17 semi-structured telephone interviews. Preceptor motivations included intrinsic factors (obligation to the profession, maintenance of competence, satisfaction) and extrinsic factors (promotion of the veterinary field, recruitment). Veterinarians enjoyed observing the learner (motivation and enthusiasm, skill development) and engaging with the learner (sharing their passion for the profession, developing professional relationships). Challenges for veterinary preceptors included variability in learner interest and engagement, time management, and lack of guidance from the veterinary medicine program. We found dynamic interactions among the teaching motivations, enjoyment, and challenges for preceptors. Our findings suggest that in order to sustain the veterinary preceptor, there is a need to recognize the interplay between the incentives and disincentives for teaching, to foster the motivations and enjoyment for teaching, and to mitigate the challenges of teaching in community private practice.
Page, Stephen J; Wallace, Sarah E
Constraint-induced language therapy (CILT) has received recent attention as a possible intervention to improve expressive language in people with nonfluent aphasia. Difficulties have been reported with the practical implementation of constraint-induced movement therapy due to its intensive treatment parameters. It remains unknown whether similar challenges may exist with CILT. To determine the opinions of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) about CILT for people with nonfluent aphasia. One hundred sixty-seven SLPs completed an electronic survey assessing their opinions of various aspects of CILT. Over 60% of participants felt that people with aphasia would be very unlikely or somewhat unlikely to adhere to CILT. The majority felt that people with aphasia would hold high or moderate concerns with the number of hours spent in therapy (high, 41.8%; moderate, 31.4%), the number of days spent in therapy (high, 44.4%; moderate, 24.8%), likelihood for managed care reimbursement (high, 74.8%; moderate, 15.2%), and other logistical issues (high, 39.2%; moderate, 30.7%). With respect to providing CILT, participants cited the number of hours of therapy (high, 37.3%; moderate, 21.6%) and the number of consecutive days of therapy (high, 29.4%; moderate, 20.3%) as concerns. There were 70.6% who indicated that their facilities lacked resources to provide CILT, and 90.9% felt that most facilitates do not have the resources to provide CILT. Some SLPs hold significant concerns with the administration of CILT, particularly related to its dosing and reimbursement parameters. Additional work is needed to investigate the issues that were identified in this survey using qualitative methods with SLPs and people with aphasia and to examine modified CILT protocols.
Guo, Ruiling; Bain, Barbara A.; Willer, Janene
Objectives: The research assesses the information needs of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) and audiologists in Idaho and identifies specific needs for training in evidence-based practice (EBP) principles and searching EBP resources.
Dunkle, Jennifer; Flynn, Perry
The Common Core State Standards initiative within public school education is designed to provide uniform guidelines for academic standards, including more explicit language targets. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) are highly qualified language experts who may find new leadership roles within their clinical practice using the Common Core Standards. However, determining its usage by SLPs in clinical practice needs to be examined. This article seeks to discover the social context of organizations and organizational change in relation to clinical practice. Specifically, this article presents the diffusion of innovations theory to explain how initiatives move from ideas to institutionalization and the importance of social context in which these initiatives are introduced. Next, the values of both SLPs and organizations will be discussed. Finally, this article provides information on how to affect organizational change through the value of an affirmative, socially based theoretical perspective and methodology, appreciative inquiry. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Full Text Available The main objective of this clinical study consisted in evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the propolis extract used in different disorders at company animals, thus being improved the palette of the apitherapeutical products used in veterinary purposes. The experiments were carried out on company animals (two experimental groups during the 2007-2008 period, in the frame of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty – Bucharest and the University - Spiru Haret, at the veterinary departments: Parasitology, Dermatology and Surgery. The raw propolis was collected from the bee colonies belonging to the Institute of the Beekeeping Research & Development– Bucharest and the apiphytotherapeutical product based on propolis was obtained in the Apitherapy sector of the same Institute. In a first stage were obtained the antiparasite, dermatological and surgical veterinary product PROACTIVATOR based on propolis alcoholic extract and Aloe vera gel. The experiments consisted in administration of the obtained preparation in different disorders on the experimental groups as: dermatological (plagues, chemical and physical burns, parasitological (extern parasites: scabies supra infected or not and in veterinary surgery (as a protective layer applied on the sutured plague. In dermatologic disorders the effects of the PROACTIVATOR product were established by way of clinical periodical examinations until the total recover were done. In external parasites and connected disorders it was established the repellent or killing effect of the preparation on the infestation with parasites and the degree of control in the correlated infections. In skin tissue surgery it was established the cicatrising effect in sutured plagues and the anaesthesic local effect. The established of the studied preparation efficiency was similar as those used in classical treatments with synthesis products. The advantage of the utilization of PROACTIVATOR eliminates the toxic and cumulative effects
Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M
Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.
Full Text Available Musser Jeffrey MBDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, TX, USAThis year marks the 250th anniversary of the Royal Veterinary School in Lyon, France, the world's first veterinary college. Since its inception, many changes have occurred in veterinary medicine such as views on education and didactic learning, demographics of our profession, and standards of practice in animal husbandry, medicine, surgery, anesthesia, and vaccinology. In fact, the concept of infectious diseases has changed - remember the germ theory was proposed a mere 140 years ago. However, one constant tenet in our profession has been the need to disseminate progresses, innovations, advances, and developments in veterinary sciences. Published reports are the foundation for the growth of medicine and science. What would the state of medicine be if Pasteur, Koch, Bourgelat, or Theobald Smith had not published their works?
Passantino, Annamaria; Fazio, Alessandra; Quartatone, Valeria
The practice of veterinary medicine has changed radically over the past two decades, new technology and scientific breakthroughs have occurred, in close association with the field of human medicine. This progress has not only increased the capacity of veterinarians to provide high-quality care, it has also served to increase client awareness and expectations regarding animal care. On the legal front, it has finally given a "voice" to animals, now defined as sentient beings, thus imposing a series of duties upon veterinarians to promote their welfare. Preventing and managing pain has become a fundamental element of patient care quality in veterinary medicine, and pharmacotherapy is the basis of pain management. This paper takes this as a starting point to clarify the concept of pain in veterinary medicine and explores the relevance of an ethic to the clinical setting which gives the animal patient a strong right to freedom from unnecessary pain and thus creating moral obligations towards patients on the part of veterinary professionals. There is the duty not to inflict pain and suffering beyond what is necessary for effective diagnosis and treatment on the one hand and a duty to do all that can be done to relieve all the pain and suffering which can be alleviated on the other.
Lumbis, Rachel H; Gregory, Susan P; Baillie, Sarah
Periodontal disease has deleterious effects on an animal's health and potentially serious implications for its welfare. Consequently, veterinarians frequently perform routine periodontal treatment in small-animal practice. One would therefore assume that small-animal dentistry would constitute a core component of a veterinary curriculum. However, most practitioners received little or no formal training in dentistry during their veterinary degrees, and the amount of instruction students currently receive is variable, often with limited opportunities to practice. At the Royal Veterinary College, a prototype dental model was developed to address the lack of practical training; it was made using ceramic tiles, silicone sealant, and grout to emulate teeth, gingiva, and calculus, respectively. A study was conducted with third-year veterinary students to compare the outcomes of learning to perform a professional dental cleaning using a model (group A) or a video (group B). Performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination. Students in group A scored significantly better than those in group B (pdentistry-related skills. All students identified a model as a potentially valuable learning tool to supplement existing teaching methods and facilitate the acquisition of small-animal dentistry skills. The dental model has the potential to equip students with useful, practical skills in a safe and risk-free environment.
Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel
Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that prognostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the aggressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haldane, Sarah; Hinchcliff, Kenneth; Mansell, Peter; Baik, Chi
Good communication skills are an important entry-level attribute of graduates of professional degrees. The inclusion of communication training within the curriculum can be problematic, particularly in programs with a high content load, such as veterinary science. This study examined the differences between the perceptions of students and qualified veterinarians with regards to the entry-level communication skills required of new graduates in clinical practice. Surveys were distributed to students in each of the four year levels of the veterinary science degree at the University of Melbourne and to recent graduates and experienced veterinarians registered in Victoria, Australia. Respondents were asked to rank the relative importance of six different skill sets: knowledge base; medical and technical skills; surgical skills; verbal communication and interpersonal skills; written communication skills; and critical thinking and problem solving. They were then asked to rate the importance of specific communication skills for new graduate veterinarians. Veterinarians and students ranked verbal communication and interpersonal skills as the most important skill set for an entry-level veterinarian. Veterinarians considered many new graduates to be deficient in these skills. Students often felt they lacked confidence in this area. This has important implications for veterinary educators in terms of managing the expectations of students and improving the delivery of communication skills courses within the veterinary curriculum.
Vanel, Maïa, E-mail: email@example.com [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Blond, Laurent [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Vanel, Daniel [The Rizzoli Institute, Via del Barbiano 1-10, 40136, Bologna (Italy)
Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all.
Douglas, Jeffrey S.
Spiraling veterinary student debt and the lack of a sustainable and profitable business model for many private practices in the modern business environment threaten the future growth and stability of the veterinary profession.
Milorad Radakovic is a teaching fellow in veterinary public health (VPH) at the University of Cambridge. Here, he explains why he believes the challenges in this field of veterinary medicine make for an exciting career path. In a second article to be published in Vet Record Careers next week, he will share some of his own experiences of working in this field. British Veterinary Association.
Gelberg, Susan; Gelberg, Howard
Two-hundred-and-eighty-nine veterinary students from all four years of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM) were invited to complete the Derogatis Stress Profile (DSP)1 and an original Demographic Data Profile (DDP). The DSP assessed the students' current experiences of perceived stress, and the DDP was designed to gather information about students' academic year, their living situations, their financial situations, their interest area within the veterinary medical profession, and their current methods of coping with stress. These data were gathered as a baseline measure of veterinary medical students' perceived level of stress and quality of life. In an earlier study, data were also collected from faculty and staff about the perceived quality of the climate and culture of the veterinary college. The results of the DSP and DDP suggest that, although veterinary students at UTCVM do not experience significant levels of stress overall, they do report higher levels of subjective stress, time pressure, and depression than the general population. The more companion animals that veterinary students cared for in their personal lives, the more likely they were to report higher levels of perceived stress. Lastly, there were significant differences between genders, with female veterinary students reporting higher levels of perceived stress than their male counterparts. The preliminary results of the climate and culture data suggest that faculty and staff of the veterinary college individually feel that they are cared for in the work environment and collectively believe that the college strives for excellence.
Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.
... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA... Act of 1995, invites the general public to comment on an information collection for the Veterinary...
Sisk, Dudley B.; And Others
Members of the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges-Council of Educators were surveyed in an attempt to measure their opinions and feelings towards veterinary medical education. Their opinions on such topics as relationships between students, faculty, the curriculum, and the identity of veterinary medicine are reported. (LBH)
Jain, Deepali; Ghosh, Subha; Teixeira, Lucileia; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay
Most pathologists are familiar with the microscopic features of tuberculosis and the need to examine special stains for acid-fast bacteria (AFB) in cases of granulomatous lung disease. However, misconceptions do exist, including the concept that finding AFB in "caseating granulomas" confirms the diagnosis of tuberculosis. This dogma is attributable to the high prevalence of tuberculosis in many countries, as well as unfamiliarity with the microscopic spectrum of non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease. This review aims to provide surgical pathologists with practical tips to identify AFB, illustrate the histologic overlap between pulmonary tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacterial lung disease, and highlight the importance of cultures in this setting. M. tuberculosis and non-tuberculous mycobacteria cannot be reliably differentiated either on the basis of the tissue reaction or by bacterial morphology on acid-fast stains. Although a presumptive clinical diagnosis of tuberculosis can be made without culture-confirmation, the only definitive means to determine the true identity of AFB is by cultures or molecular methods. Making this distinction is most critical when AFB are found in incidentally detected lung nodules in geographic locations where the incidence of tuberculosis is low, because in such settings AFB in necrotizing granulomas of the lung are more likely to be non-tuberculous mycobacteria than M. tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wylie, Karen; McAllister, Lindy; Davidson, Bronwyn; Marshall, Julie; Law, James
Public health approaches to communication disability challenge the profession of speech-language pathology (SLP) to reconsider both frames of reference for practice and models of education. This paper reviews the impetus for public health approaches to communication disability and considers how public health is, and could be, incorporated into SLP education, both now and in the future. The paper describes tensions between clinical services, which have become increasingly specialized, and public health approaches that offer a broader view of communication disability and communication disability prevention. It presents a discussion of these tensions and asserts that public health approaches to communication are themselves a specialist field, requiring specific knowledge and skills. The authors suggest the use of the term 'communication disability public health' to refer to this type of work and offer a preliminary definition in order to advance discussion. Examples from three countries are provided of how some SLP degree programmes are integrating public health into the SLP curriculum. Alternative models of training for communication disability public health that may be relevant in the future in different contexts and countries are presented, prompting the SLP profession to consider whether communication disability public health is a field of practice for speech-language pathologists or whether it has broader workforce implications. The paper concludes with some suggestions for the future which may advance thinking, research and practice in communication disability public health. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Silva Aloísio S. Felipe da
Full Text Available Some kinds of interstitial pneumonia present a histopathological pattern dominated by sarcoid - necrotizing or non-necrotizing - granulomas, which can be divided into two main groups: infectious and non-infectious. The infectious causes include tuberculosis, histoplasmosis, fungi in general, paracoccidioidomycosis, ascaridiasis, echinococcosis and dirophilariosis. The non-infectious causes include histiocytosis-X, hipersensitivity pneumonia, vasculitis, lymphomas, sarcoidosis, and pneumoconioses such as silicosis and berylliosis. The purpose of this review is to provide a practical guideline to enable general pathologists to make the differential diagnosis of granulomatous pulmonary diseases. For this purpose, anatomical-clinical-radiological correlations will be presented and targeted to each diagnosis discussed. Whenever a granulomatous inflammatory process is in progress, the search for infective agents by direct observation, by culture, and by histochemical methods should be mandatory. The histological aspects of infectious granulomas to be analyzed should include their random histo-anatomical location, the type of inflammatory reaction, and necrosis. A panel of complementary reactions (immunohistochemistry and PCR should identify the infectious agent and, whenever their results and the culture are negative, the possibility of non-infectious granulomatous diseases has to be evaluated. In such cases, the histo-anatomical distribution (bronchocentric, lymphangitic, angiocentric, random, the qualitative characteristics of the lesions (type of necrosis and inflammatory reaction, and the correlation with the X-ray findings will help the diagnosis.
Johansson, Monica B; Carlsson, Marianne; Sonnander, Karin
The overall aim was to investigate how speech and language pathologists (SLPs), in Sweden are working with people with aphasia and their families and what their professional experiences are. A cross-sectional study with a descriptive and comparative design. An 84-item study-specific questionnaire was sent to all Swedish SLPs, affiliated to SLOF (the Swedish professional association and trade union). The response rate was 72.5% (n = 758). Thirty per cent worked with people with aphasia and typically met with their families. The participants considered the involvement of families as very important, especially concerning providing information of aphasia and training of communication strategies. However, involvement of families was limited due to a shortage of time, but also to perceived limited skill and knowledge. There was an evident discrepancy between what the participants claimed to be an important part of their work, and their actual practice. It is suggested that to facilitate family intervention, this should be explicitly expressed in both local and national guidelines. The content of the SLP education, and the need of further education and implementation of new knowledge into clinical practice also requires consideration.
Langner, Cord; Aust, Daniela; Ensari, Arzu; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Becheanu, Gabriel; Miehlke, Stephan; Geboes, Karel; Münch, Andreas
Microscopic colitis has emerged as a major cause of chronic watery non-bloody diarrhoea, particularly in elderly females. The term is used as an umbrella term to categorize a subgroup of colitides with distinct clinicopathological phenotypes and no significant endoscopic abnormalities. Lymphocytic colitis is defined by an increased number of surface intraepithelial lymphocytes, and collagenous colitis by a thickened collagen band underneath the surface epithelium. There is increased inflammation in the lamina propria, but only little or no crypt architectural distortion. Incomplete and variant forms showing less characteristic features have been reported under different names. The differential diagnosis mainly includes resolving infectious colitis and changes related to the intake of drugs such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Substantial clinical and histological overlap between lymphocytic and collagenous colitis has been described, raising the suspicion that the conditions are two histological manifestations of the same entity, possibly representing different manifestations during the disease course or different stages of disease development. In this review, we provide a practical approach for pathologists, with a focus on diagnostic criteria and differential diagnosis, and discuss recent insights into the pathogenesis of disease and the relationship with classic chronic inflammatory bowel disease, i.e. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Baylor, Carolyn; Hula, William; Donovan, Neila J; Doyle, Patrick J; Kendall, Diane; Yorkston, Kathryn
To present a primarily conceptual introduction to item response theory (IRT) and Rasch models for speech-language pathologists (SLPs). This tutorial introduces SLPs to basic concepts and terminology related to IRT as well as the most common IRT models. The article then continues with an overview of how instruments are developed using IRT and some basic principles of adaptive testing. IRT is a set of statistical methods that are increasingly used for developing instruments in speech-language pathology. While IRT is not new, its application in speech-language pathology to date has been relatively limited in scope. Several new IRT-based instruments are currently emerging. IRT differs from traditional methods for test development, typically referred to as classical test theory (CTT), in several theoretical and practical ways. Administration, scoring, and interpretation of IRT instruments are different from methods used for most traditional CTT instruments. SLPs will need to understand the basic concepts of IRT instruments to use these tools in their clinical and research work. This article provides an introduction to IRT concepts drawing on examples from speech-language pathology.
Barrett, Jennifer G.
“Regenerative medicine” refers to therapies that aim to restore normal form and function using the body’s own biological machinery, such as stem cells and biologics. The use of regenerative medicine to treat injury and disease offers new hope to cure previously frustrating diseases and conditions. However, commercialization of biologic therapies in veterinary medicine has outpaced the speed of clinical research, and we are at risk of harming the reputation and standing of regenerative medicin...
Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone L; Wagg, Catherine R; Priest, Heather; Fernandez, Nicole J
Visual diagnostic reasoning is the cognitive process by which pathologists reach a diagnosis based on visual stimuli (cytologic, histopathologic, or gross imagery). Currently, there is little to no literature examining visual reasoning in veterinary pathology. The objective of the study was to use eye tracking to establish baseline quantitative and qualitative differences between the visual reasoning processes of novice and expert veterinary pathologists viewing cytology specimens. Novice and expert participants were each shown 10 cytology images and asked to formulate a diagnosis while wearing eye-tracking equipment (10 slides) and while concurrently verbalizing their thought processes using the think-aloud protocol (5 slides). Compared to novices, experts demonstrated significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (p<.017), shorter time to diagnosis (p<.017), and a higher percentage of time spent viewing areas of diagnostic interest (p<.017). Experts elicited more key diagnostic features in the think-aloud protocol and had more efficient patterns of eye movement. These findings suggest that experts' fast time to diagnosis, efficient eye-movement patterns, and preference for viewing areas of interest supports system 1 (pattern-recognition) reasoning and script-inductive knowledge structures with system 2 (analytic) reasoning to verify their diagnosis.
Williams, Sandy M; Arnold, Pauline K; Mills, Jennifer N
Students in veterinary schools can experience stress in balancing the different demands on them-academic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and professional or work related-as well as managing potential conflict between animal and human interests. Practicing veterinarians report many similar stressors and reactions. Stressful stimuli produce stress reactions that can be inimical to physical and psychological well-being, and students' performance in veterinary programs can be adversely affected if they do not have coping resources. While there has been some research into stress among university students in general, and among medical students in particular, there is little on the experience of veterinary students. This article describes a study by the School of Psychology, commissioned by the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, at Murdoch University in Western Australia. It was designed to investigate the levels and causes of stress among, and the frequency and type of coping strategies used by, fourth- and fifth-year students. Results indicate that the students in this cohort faced frequent stressors and felt at least moderately stressed but did not routinely and systematically use a range of coping strategies. Academic stressors and perceived responsibilities attached to moving into practical or professional areas figured strongly and were associated with higher levels of stress in the students, in particular physical sequelae. Though the numbers were small, it is of concern that some students were using measures that were potentially harmful. Some recommendations are made here about measures that veterinary programs may be able to incorporate to address stress in their students. Information is included on current strategies within the curriculum to manage potential stressful situations as part of students' professional development.
Hubbert, William T.
The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 14 Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory... [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Veterinary Medicine Committee was...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the...-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3), Food and Drug...
Meursinge Reynders, Reint
The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2–58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5–89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4–24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45–2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187
Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint
The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2-58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5-89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4-24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45-2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients.
Bentz, Joel S; Hughes, Jonathan H; Fatheree, Lisa A; Schwartz, Mary R; Souers, Rhona J; Soures, Rhona J; Wilbur, David C
Creating a tool that assesses professional proficiency in gynecologic cytology is challenging. A valid proficiency test (PT) must reflect practice conditions, evaluate locator and interpretive skills, and discriminate between those practitioners who are competent and those who need more education. The College of American Pathologists Gynecologic Cytology Proficiency Testing Program (PAPPT) was approved to enroll participants in a nationwide PT program in 2006. Report results from the 2006 PAPPT program. Summarize PT results by pass/fail rate, participant type, and slide-set modules. Nine thousand sixty-nine participants showed initial PT failure rates of 5%, 16%, and 6% for cytotechnologists, primary screening pathologists, and secondary screening pathologist, respectively. The overall initial test failure rate was 6%. After 3 retests, 9029 (99.6%) of the participants were able to achieve compliance with the PT requirement. No participant "tested out"; however, 40 individuals "dropped out" of the testing sequence (8 cytotechnologists, 9 primary screening pathologists, 23 secondary screening pathologists). Initial failure rates by slide-set modules were 6% conventional, 6% ThinPrep, 6% SurePath, and 5% mixture of all 3 slide types. A total of 99.6% of individuals enrolled in the 2006 PAPPT program achieved satisfactory results. The data confirm that cytotechnologists have higher initial pass rates than pathologists and pathologists who are secondary screeners perform better than those who are primary screeners. There was no difference identified in overall pass rates between the slide-set modules. Further analysis of data should help define the results and ongoing challenges of providing a nationwide federally mandated proficiency testing program in gynecologic cytology.
Smith, Ronald D.; Williams, Mitsuko
This study used the peer-reviewed biomedical literature to define the veterinary informatics knowledgebase and associated subspecialties, and assesses the level of activity in the field over the thirty-year period from 1966 through 1995. Grateful Med was used to search the MEDLINE bibliographic database for articles that shared one or more Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords from the veterinary and medical informatics subject headings. Each of ninety-five MeSH medical informatics terms was assigned to one of twelve veterinary informatics subspecialties. The number of articles retrieved by each MeSH keyword and subspecialty was calculated. A total of 611 articles were retrieved, representing the contributions of 1,338 authors published in 153 journals. The field experienced slow growth over the twenty-year period from 1966 through 1985. In the following decade, the cumulative number of veterinary informatics articles almost tripled and the percentage of veterinary-related articles that included an informatics component increased almost two-and-one-half fold. Despite this recent growth, the number of veterinary-related articles with an informatics component has never exceeded 1% of either the veterinary or medical informatics literature over the past thirty years, and representation of veterinary subspecialties in the literature varied widely. PMID:10658963
Kalymbek, Bakytzhan; Shulanbekova, Gulmira K.; Madiyarova, Ainur S.; Mirambaeva, Gulnaz Zh.
This article is devoted to the problem of veterinary safety of the countries under the Eurasian Economic Union. Animal health's measures are provided in order to prevent the entry and spread of infectious animal diseases, including common to humans and animals, as well as goods not conforming to the common veterinary and sanitary requirements.…
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to the...
The study was conducted to. (1) determine the kinds of veterinary extension services that are provided to livestock farmers;. (2) determine the frequency of farmers contact with extension agents in relation to the extent of adoption of animal health innovations, and. (3) identify the various constraints to veterinary extension ...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine mammals...
Buchanan, Robert A; Wooldridge, Anne A
The body of knowledge in veterinary medicine and the biomedical sciences continues to grow logarithmically, and learning about new developments in veterinary medicine requires successful navigation of recently published literature worldwide. This article examines how veterinarians can use different types of automated services from databases and publishers to search the current and past literature, access articles, and manage references that are found.
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary records...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol. 26 (2), 2005. EFFECT OF ETHYLENE DIAMINE TETRAACETIC ACID (EDTA) ON IN VI TRO. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TETRACYCLINE AND AMPICILLIN AGAINST. ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS. CHAH*1, K.F. AND OBOEGBULEMz, S.I.. [Department of I Veterinary Pathology and ...
Black, Leslie S.; Turnwald, Grant H.; Meldrum, James B.
Describes the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine's use of outcomes assessment (OA) as part of the accreditation review process for the American Veterinary Medical Association. Discusses its nine OA survey instruments and use of resulting data during accreditation. (EV)
Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.
The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of
Halliwell, R.E.W.; Goudswaard, J.
The importance of the creation of a new international journal of “Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology” is apparent following the emergence of veterinary immunology as an identifiable discipline and the vital part played by investigations of animal models of immunological diseases of
This Introduction to the special issue of Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology summarizes the Proceedings of the 9th International Veterinary Immunology Symposium (9th IVIS) held August, 2010, in Tokyo, Japan. Over 340 delegates from 30 countries discussed research progress analyzing the immune...
Nigerian VeterinaryJournal. ~. Vol35(2) 995·1006 ... ADEN KOLA, A Y: and OKORO, L.1. Departm,entof Physiology Pharmacology and Biochemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Agriculture, Makurdi. Nlgena. Corresponding ... defenses against external and internal aggressions such as ROS (SIES, 1993,.
Ortega S, César
This article analyzes curriculum offerings related to aquaculture and/or aquatic-animal health taught in veterinary medical schools or colleges in Mexico. The information database of the Mexican Association of Schools and Colleges of Veterinary Medicine and the Web sites of veterinary institutions indicate that 60% of veterinary colleges include courses related to aquaculture in their curriculum, but most of these are optional courses. There are few specialized continuing education programs or graduate level courses. There is also a lack of veterinary participation, in both public and private sectors, in aquatic-animal health. It is evident that there should be a greater involvement by the veterinary profession in Mexico's aquaculture to ensure food production in a safe and sustainable manner; to achieve this, veterinary medical institutions must include more aquaculture and aquatic-animal health courses in their curricula.
Full Text Available Context: In medical and veterinary medical education the use of problem-based and cased-based learning has steadily increased over time. At veterinary faculties, this development has mainly been evident in the clinical phase of the veterinary education. Therefore, a consortium of teachers of biochemistry and physiology together with technical and didactical experts launched the EU-funded project “vetVIP”, to create and implement veterinary virtual patients and problems for basic science instruction. In this study the implementation and utilization of virtual patients occurred at the veterinary faculties in Budapest, Hannover and Lublin.Methods: This report describes the investigation of the utilization and acceptance of students studying veterinary basic sciences using optional online learning material concurrently to regular biochemistry and physiology didactic instruction. The reaction of students towards this offer of clinical case-based learning in basic sciences was analysed using quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were collected automatically within the chosen software-system CASUS as user-log-files. Responses regarding the quality of the virtual patients were obtained using an online questionnaire. Furthermore, subjective evaluation by authors was performed using a focus group discussion and an online questionnaire.Results: Implementation as well as usage and acceptance varied between the three participating locations. High approval was documented in Hannover and Lublin based upon the high proportion of voluntary students (>70% using optional virtual patients. However, in Budapest the participation rate was below 1%. Due to utilization, students seem to prefer virtual patients and problems created in their native language and developed at their own university. In addition, the statement that assessment drives learning was supported by the observation that peak utilization was just prior to summative examinations
Kleinsorgen, Christin; Kankofer, Marta; Gradzki, Zbigniew; Mandoki, Mira; Bartha, Tibor; von Köckritz-Blickwede, Maren; Naim, Hassan Y.; Beyerbach, Martin; Tipold, Andrea; Ehlers, Jan P.
Context: In medical and veterinary medical education the use of problem-based and cased-based learning has steadily increased over time. At veterinary faculties, this development has mainly been evident in the clinical phase of the veterinary education. Therefore, a consortium of teachers of biochemistry and physiology together with technical and didactical experts launched the EU-funded project “vetVIP”, to create and implement veterinary virtual patients and problems for basic science instruction. In this study the implementation and utilization of virtual patients occurred at the veterinary faculties in Budapest, Hannover and Lublin. Methods: This report describes the investigation of the utilization and acceptance of students studying veterinary basic sciences using optional online learning material concurrently to regular biochemistry and physiology didactic instruction. The reaction of students towards this offer of clinical case-based learning in basic sciences was analysed using quantitative and qualitative data. Quantitative data were collected automatically within the chosen software-system CASUS as user-log-files. Responses regarding the quality of the virtual patients were obtained using an online questionnaire. Furthermore, subjective evaluation by authors was performed using a focus group discussion and an online questionnaire. Results: Implementation as well as usage and acceptance varied between the three participating locations. High approval was documented in Hannover and Lublin based upon the high proportion of voluntary students (>70%) using optional virtual patients. However, in Budapest the participation rate was below 1%. Due to utilization, students seem to prefer virtual patients and problems created in their native language and developed at their own university. In addition, the statement that assessment drives learning was supported by the observation that peak utilization was just prior to summative examinations. Conclusion
Killinger, Stacy L; Flanagan, Sean; Castine, Eleanor; Howard, Kimberly A S
While existing literature suggests that professional students (e.g., medical, dental, law, nursing, etc.) experience high levels of stress and depression, the experiences of veterinary medical students have been less well examined. The purpose of this study was to explore the levels of stress and depression among veterinary medical students and to examine the relationship between these variables. Study participants were 1,245 veterinary medical students from North America. The findings provide support for the assertion that veterinary medical students experience high levels of stress and depression. Results also indicated that there is a correlation between stress and depression for veterinary medical students and that female students experience higher levels of stress and depression than their male counterparts.
McEwen, B J
Asphyxia in a forensic context refers to death by rapid cerebral anoxia or hypoxia due to accidental or nonaccidental injury. Death due to nondrowning asphyxia can occur with strangulation, suffocation, and mechanical asphyxia, each of which is categorized based on the mechanism of injury. Individuals dying due to various types of asphyxia may or may not have lesions, and even those lesions that are present may be due to other causes. The interpretation or opinion that death was due to asphyxia requires definitive and compelling evidence from the postmortem examination, death scene, and/or history. Beyond the postmortem examination, pathologists may be faced with questions of forensic importance that revolve around the behavioral and physiological responses in animals subjected to strangulation, suffocation, or mechanical asphyxia to determine if the animal suffered. While there is no prescriptive answer to these questions, it is apparent that, because of physiological and anatomical differences between humans and animals, for some mechanisms of asphyxia, consciousness is maintained for longer periods and the onset of death is later in animals than that described for people. Veterinary pathologists must be cognizant that direct extrapolation from the medical forensic literature to animals may be incorrect. This article reviews the terminology, classification, mechanisms, and lesions associated with asphyxial deaths in companion animals and highlights significant comparative differences of the response to various types of asphyxia in animals and people. © The Author(s) 2016.
There is a complex interplay between expectations for speech-language pathologists based in primary schools to work with low-progress readers and various factors that may preclude this from actually occurring. This qualitative study investigated experiences and perspectives of nine Australian speech-language pathologists based in primary schools about their capacity to work with low-progress readers. Building on previous quantitative research, this study supported a relatively even split of those who do and do not work with such children. Moreover, thematic analysis revealed that speech-language pathologists face many more barriers than facilitators when attempting to become a member of written language support teams within schools. Facilitators included having a personal interest in reading difficulty as well as working in an environment supportive of speech-language pathology input for low-progress readers. Barriers to working with or participating in teams to support low-progress readers involved factors such as time constraints, resistance from educational colleagues, and a theoretical divide about reading difficulty between educators and speech-language pathologists. Suggested strategies to enhance school-based speech-language pathologists' capacity to operate as key supports for struggling readers are discussed. These include approaches such as aiming to create a more transparent role definition, professional advocacy, and increasing interdisciplinary collaborations at schools.
Hafen, McArthur; Reisbig, Allison M J; White, Mark B; Rush, Bonnie R
Historically, veterinary medical students' mental health has rarely been investigated, but recently there has been renewed interest in this topic. The present study evaluated depression and anxiety levels in a cross-sectional investigation of 93 first-year veterinary medical students enrolled at Kansas State University (KSU). During their first semester, students completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and the Mental Health Inventory's Anxiety Scale (MHI-A). Results indicate that 32% of these first-year KSU veterinary students were experiencing clinical levels of depressive symptoms. Additionally, students reported elevated anxiety scores. Predictors of depression and anxiety levels include homesickness, physical health, and unclear instructor expectations. Areas of intervention with a focus on improving veterinary medical student well-being are discussed.
Translational research serves as a bench-to-field "translation" of basic scientific research into practical diagnostic procedures and therapies useful in human and veterinary clinical services. The productivity of translational research involving infectious diseases relevant to both human and animal health (e.g., influenza diagnosis and epidemiology using emerging molecular detection and identification methods) can be maximized when both human and veterinary medical virology disciplines are integrated. Influenza viruses are continually evolving through site-specific mutation and segment reassortment, and these processes occur in all potential carrier species - including birds, humans, and many agriculturally important animals. This evolutionary plasticity occasionally allows "novel" influenzas to move from animal hosts to humans, potentially causing destructive pandemics; therefore, a rapid laboratory technique that can detect and identify "novel" influenza viruses is clinically and epidemiologically desirable. A technique-focused translational research approach is pursued to enhance detection and characterization of emerging influenza viruses circulating in both humans and other animal hosts. The PLEX-ID System, which incorporates multi-locus PCR and electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry, uses deliberately nonspecific primers that amplify all known variants (all H/N subtypes) of influenza virus, including human, other mammalian, and avian influenzas, and is therefore likely to generate analyzable amplicons from any novel influenza that might emerge in any host. Novel technology development and implementation such as the PLEX-ID System forms a key component of human and veterinary medical virology translational research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hartley, Naomi A; Braden, Maia; Thibeault, Susan L
The purpose of this study was to investigate current practices of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the management of pediatric vocal health, with specific analysis of the influence of clinical specialty and workplace setting on management approaches. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association-certified clinicians providing services within the United States (1%-100% voice caseload) completed an anonymous online survey detailing clinician demographics; employment location and service delivery models; approaches to continuing professional development; and specifics of case management, including assessment, treatment, and discharge procedures. Current practice patterns were analyzed for 100 SLPs (0-42 years of experience; 77 self-identifying as voice specialists) providing services in 34 U.S. states across a range of metropolitan and nonmetropolitan workplace settings. In general, SLPs favored a multidisciplinary approach to management; included perceptual, instrumental, and quality of life measures during evaluation; and tailored intervention to the individual using a combination of therapy approaches. In contrast with current practice guidelines, only half reported requiring an otolaryngology evaluation prior to initiating treatment. Both clinical specialty and workplace setting were found to affect practice patterns. SLPs in school settings were significantly less likely to consider themselves voice specialists compared with all other work environments. Those SLPs who considered themselves voice specialists were significantly more likely to utilize voice-specific assessment and treatment approaches. SLP practice largely mirrors current professional practice guidelines; however, potential exists to further enhance client care. To ensure that SLPs are best able to support children in successful communication, further research, education, and advocacy are required.
Kogan, Lori R.; Dowers, Kristy L.; Cerda, Jacey R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M.; Stewart, Sherry M.
Veterinary schools, similar to many professional health programs, face a myriad of evolving challenges in delivering their professional curricula including expansion of class size, costs to maintain expensive laboratories, and increased demands on veterinary educators to use curricular time efficiently and creatively. Additionally, exponential expansion of the knowledge base through ongoing biomedical research, educational goals to increase student engagement and clinical reasoning earlier in the curriculum, and students' desire to access course materials and enhance their educational experience through the use of technology all support the need to reassess traditional microscope laboratories within Professional Veterinary Medical (PVM) educational programs. While there is clear justification for teaching veterinary students how to use a microscope for clinical evaluation of cytological preparations (i.e., complete blood count, urinalysis, fecal analysis, fine needle aspirates, etc.), virtual microscopy may be a viable alternative to using light microscopy for teaching and learning fundamental histological concepts. This article discusses results of a survey given to assess Professional Veterinary Medical students' perceptions of using virtual microscope for learning basic histology/microscopic anatomy and implications of these results for using virtual microscopy as a pedagogical tool in teaching first-year Professional Veterinary Medical students' basic histology.
Latief Mohammad Dar
Full Text Available Alternative therapies to conventional wound management are available now-a-days to facilitate faster wound healing without any complications. Among various alternative therapies, it has been well established that maggot therapy can be used successfully to treat chronic long-standing infected wounds which previously failed to respond to conventional treatment. Maggot therapy employs the use of freshly emerged, sterile larvae of the common greenbottle fly, Phaenicia (Lucilia sericata, and is a form of artificially induced myiasis in a controlled clinical situation. Maggot therapy, however, is used relatively little in veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, concern over antibiotic resistance and the increase in demand for organic husbandry and residue-free meat and milk, suggest that it is an option which merits further consideration. In this review article, authors’ discuss the role of maggots and their preparation for veterinary medical use.
Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Littel-van den Hurk, Sylvia van Drunen
The prevention of infectious diseases of animals by vaccination has been routinely practiced for decades and has proved to be one of the most cost-effective methods of disease control. However, since the pioneering work of Pasteur in the 1880s, the composition of veterinary vaccines has changed very little from a conceptual perspective and this has, in turn, limited their application in areas such as the control of chronic infectious diseases. New technologies in the areas of vaccine formulation and delivery as well as our increased knowledge of disease pathogenesis and the host responses associated with protection from disease offer promising alternatives for vaccine formulation as well as targets for the prevention of bacterial disease. These new vaccines have the potential to lessen our reliance on antibiotics for disease control, but will only reach their full potential when used in combination with other intervention strategies.
Bates, N; Rawson-Harris, P; Edwards, N
Toxicology is a vast subject. Animals are exposed to numerous drugs, household products, plants, chemicals, pesticides and venomous animals. In addition to the individual toxicity of the various potential poisons, there is also the question of individual response and, more importantly, of species differences in toxicity. This review serves to address some of the common questions asked when dealing with animals with possible poisoning, providing evidence where available. The role of emetics, activated charcoal and lipid infusion in the management of poisoning in animals, the toxic dose of chocolate, grapes and dried fruit in dogs, the use of antidotes in paracetamol poisoning, timing of antidotal therapy in ethylene glycol toxicosis and whether lilies are toxic to dogs are discussed. © 2015 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Byron, Julie K; Johnson, Susan E; Allen, L Clare V; Brilmyer, Cheryl; Griffiths, Robert P
There is an increasing demand in veterinary education to engage students, teach and reinforce clinical reasoning, and provide access anytime/anywhere to quality learning opportunities. In addition, accrediting bodies are asking for more concrete documentation of essential clinical-skills outcomes. Unfortunately, during the clinical year in a referral hospital setting, students are at the mercy of chance regarding the types of cases they will encounter and the opportunities they will have to participate. Patient- and case-simulation technology is becoming more popular as a way to achieve these objectives in human and veterinary medical education. Many of the current options available to the veterinary medical education community to develop virtual-patient cases are too time-consuming, cost prohibitive, or difficult for the instructor or learner to use. In response, we developed a learning tool, Case Manager, which is low-cost and user-friendly. Case Manager was designed to meet the demands of veterinary education by providing students with an opportunity to cultivate clinical reasoning skills and allowing for real-time student feedback. We launched a pilot test with 37 senior veterinary medical students as part of their Small Animal Internal Medicine clinical rotation. Students reported that Case Manager increased their engagement with the material, improved diagnostic and problem-solving skills, and broadened their exposure to a variety of cases. In addition, students felt that Case Manager was superior to a more traditional, less interactive case presentation format.
Creevy, Kate E; Shaver, Stephanie L; Cornell, Karen K
Animal abuse and domestic violence are linked issues, and pet ownership is reported to play a crucial role in the choice to leave an abusive situation. Although veterinarians witness the effects of abuse and violence over the course of their careers, they have limited training regarding these issues. One mechanism for educating veterinary students while providing a service for victims of domestic violence is the creation of partnerships between domestic violence shelters and veterinary schools. These extracurricular programs can provide both care for pets belonging to victims of domestic violence and an educational platform for student participants. The goals of this study were to determine the prevalence and characteristics of domestic violence shelter partnerships (DVSPs) at North American veterinary teaching hospitals and to determine whether the presence of a DVSP was associated with increased awareness among veterinary students regarding animal abuse and domestic violence. Nine of 33 veterinary schools surveyed described a DVSP program. Students at schools with DVSPs associated with their veterinary teaching hospitals were significantly more likely to indicate that their awareness of the link between animal abuse and domestic violence had increased during veterinary school. Most veterinary students reported that they felt poorly prepared to handle domestic violence and animal abuse issues in the workplace. This study indicates that extracurricular DVSPs are a viable means of educating veterinary students regarding domestic violence and animal abuse. A need for improved education on these topics in veterinary schools across North America is identified.
Alpi, Kristine M; Burnett, Heidi A; Bryant, Sheila J; Anderson, Katherine M
Electronic health records (EHRs) provide clinical learning opportunities through quick and contextual linkage of patient signalment, symptom, and diagnosis data with knowledge resources covering tests, drugs, conditions, procedures, and client instructions. This paper introduces the EHR standards for linkage and the partners-practitioners, content publishers, and software developers-necessary to leverage this possibility in veterinary medicine. The efforts of the American Animal Hospital Association (AAHA) Electronic Health Records Task Force to partner with veterinary practice management systems to improve the use of controlled vocabulary is a first step in the development of standards for sharing knowledge at the point of care. The Veterinary Medical Libraries Section (VMLS) of the Medical Library Association's Task Force on Connecting the Veterinary Health Record to Information Resources compiled a list of resources of potential use at point of care. Resource details were drawn from product Web sites and organized by a metric used to evaluate medical point-of-care resources. Additional information was gathered from questions sent by e-mail and follow-up interviews with two practitioners, a hospital network, two software developers, and three publishers. Veterinarians with electronic records use a variety of information resources that are not linked to their software. Systems lack the infrastructure to use the Infobutton standard that has been gaining popularity in human EHRs. While some veterinary knowledge resources are digital, publisher sites and responses do not indicate a Web-based linkage of veterinary resources with EHRs. In order to facilitate lifelong learning and evidence-based practice, veterinarians and educators of future practitioners must demonstrate to veterinary practice software developers and publishers a clinically-based need to connect knowledge resources to veterinary EHRs.
Khramtsov, A I; Isianov, N N; Khorzhevskiĭ, V A
The recently developed Web-ring of pathology-related Web-sites has transformed computer-mediated communications for Russian-speaking pathologists. Though the pathologists may be geographically dispersed, the network provides a complex of asynchronous and synchronous conferences for the purposes of diagnosis, consultations, education, communication, and collaboration in the field of pathology. This paper describes approaches to be used by participants of the pathology-related Web-ring. The approaches are analogous to the tools employed in telepathology and digital microscopy. One of the novel methodologies is the use of Web-based conferencing systems, in which the whole slide digital images of tissue microarrays were jointly reviewed online by pathologists at distant locations. By using ImageScope (Aperio Technologies) and WebEx connect desktop management technology, they shared presentations and images and communicated in realtime. In this manner, the Web-based forums and conferences will be a powerful addition to a telepathology.
Funmilayo A. Okanlawon, RN, PhD, FWACN
Full Text Available Traditionally, nursing care has been identified as an integral part of human medicine but is not well recognised in veterinary medicine as practised in Nigeria. In caring for human beings, a nurse is expected to have the fundamental understanding of disease aetiology, manifestations, diagnosis, manage-ment, rehabilitation, prevention and control. This is equally applicable to the care of animals. The role of veterinary nursing in veterinary medicine is significant considering the multitude of issues involved in the care of animals. The keeping of domestic animals is becoming popular and consequently the spread of infectious diseases from animals to human beings is on the increase. It is vital for human beings and animals to coexist in a healthy environment. The authors examine the importance of nursing care in veterinary medicine, the current situation in Nigeria, the role of veterinary nurses, the inter-professional approach to veterinary medicine, preparedness for the emergence of infectious diseases and career opportunities for veterinary nurses. This premise falls within the context of the ‘One Health’ concept.
Knight-Jones, T. J. D.; Edmond, K.; Gubbins, S.; Paton, D. J.
Despite the universal importance of vaccines, approaches to human and veterinary vaccine evaluation differ markedly. For human vaccines, vaccine efficacy is the proportion of vaccinated individuals protected by the vaccine against a defined outcome under ideal conditions, whereas for veterinary vaccines the term is used for a range of measures of vaccine protection. The evaluation of vaccine effectiveness, vaccine protection assessed under routine programme conditions, is largely limited to human vaccines. Challenge studies under controlled conditions and sero-conversion studies are widely used when evaluating veterinary vaccines, whereas human vaccines are generally evaluated in terms of protection against natural challenge assessed in trials or post-marketing observational studies. Although challenge studies provide a standardized platform on which to compare different vaccines, they do not capture the variation that occurs under field conditions. Field studies of vaccine effectiveness are needed to assess the performance of a vaccination programme. However, if vaccination is performed without central co-ordination, as is often the case for veterinary vaccines, evaluation will be limited. This paper reviews approaches to veterinary vaccine evaluation in comparison to evaluation methods used for human vaccines. Foot-and-mouth disease has been used to illustrate the veterinary approach. Recommendations are made for standardization of terminology and for rigorous evaluation of veterinary vaccines. PMID:24741009
The undergraduate teaching of veterinary parasitology in an African perspective is reviewed. Information was gathered from 8 of approximately 20 veterinary schools/faculties in Africa. In order to compare teaching in the different schools a standard questionnaire was designed for collecting data on different aspects of the curriculum, including the curriculum structure, the year(s) in which veterinary parasitology is taught, the contact hours allocated to teaching and the methods of teaching. The results of the eight faculties/schools reveal that veterinary parasitology is taught in a disciplinary approach allocating a total of 90-198 h to lectures (46-75%) and practicals 38-196 h (25-54%) during the full curriculum. There are considerable differences in structure of the curricula and methods of teaching undergraduate veterinary parasitology between the various schools/faculties. Availability of teaching staff and the cost of running practical classes are the most limiting factors in teaching of veterinary parasitology. There is a need to constantly review the curriculum of undergraduate veterinary parasitology and to standardise the materials and methods in light of new knowledge. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.
Gifford, Grace K; Gill, Anthony J; Stevenson, William S
Molecular classification of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is critical. Numerous methodologies have demonstrated that DLBCL is biologically heterogeneous despite morphological similarities. This underlies the disparate outcomes of treatment response or failure in this common non-Hodgkin lymphoma. This review will summarise historical approaches to lymphoma classifications, current diagnosis of DLBCL, molecular techniques that have primarily been used in the research setting to distinguish and subclassify DLBCL, evaluate contemporary diagnostic methodologies that seek to translate lymphoma biology into clinical practice, and introduce novel diagnostic platforms that may overcome current issues. The review concludes with an overview of key molecular lesions currently identified in DLBCL, all of which are potential targets for drug treatments that may improve survival and cure. Copyright © 2015 The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Higgins, Helen M.; Green, Laura E.; Green, Martin J.; Kaler, Jasmeet
Footrot is a widespread, infectious cause of lameness in sheep, with major economic and welfare costs. The aims of this research were: (i) to quantify how veterinary surgeons’ beliefs regarding the efficacy of two treatments for footrot changed following a review of the evidence (ii) to obtain a consensus opinion following group discussions (iii) to capture complementary qualitative data to place their beliefs within a broader clinical context. Grounded in a Bayesian statistical framework, probabilistic elicitation (roulette method) was used to quantify the beliefs of eleven veterinary surgeons during two one-day workshops. There was considerable heterogeneity in veterinary surgeons’ beliefs before they listened to a review of the evidence. After hearing the evidence, seven participants quantifiably changed their beliefs. In particular, two participants who initially believed that foot trimming with topical oxytetracycline was the better treatment, changed to entirely favour systemic and topical oxytetracycline instead. The results suggest that a substantial amount of the variation in beliefs related to differences in veterinary surgeons’ knowledge of the evidence. Although considerable differences in opinion still remained after the evidence review, with several participants having non-overlapping 95% credible intervals, both groups did achieve a consensus opinion. Two key findings from the qualitative data were: (i) veterinary surgeons believed that farmers are unlikely to actively seek advice on lameness, suggesting a proactive veterinary approach is required (ii) more attention could be given to improving the way in which veterinary advice is delivered to farmers. In summary this study has: (i) demonstrated a practical method for probabilistically quantifying how veterinary surgeons’ beliefs change (ii) revealed that the evidence that currently exists is capable of changing veterinary opinion (iii) suggested that improved transfer of research knowledge
Dunne, Karen; Brereton, Bernadette; Duggan, Vivienne; Campion, Deirdre
Veterinary nurses report an intrinsic desire to work with animals. However, this motivation may be eroded by poor working conditions and low pay, resulting in the exit of experienced veterinary nurses from clinical practice. This study sought to quantify the level of animal-handling experience students possessed at the start of their training and to explore the factors motivating them to enter veterinary nurse training in two Irish third-level institutions. The authors had noted a tendency for veterinary nursing students to possess limited animal-handling skills, despite their obvious motivation to work with animals. The study explores possible reasons for this, as it mirrors previous reports in relation to students of veterinary medicine. First-year veterinary nursing students at Dundalk Institute of Technology and University College Dublin were surveyed and a focus group was held in each institution to explore student motivations for choosing this career and their prior animal-handling experience and workplace exposure. The results show that veterinary nursing students are highly intrinsically motivated to work with and care for animals. The majority had spent time in the veterinary workplace before starting their studies but they had limited animal-handling experience beyond that of family pets, primarily dogs. The study also revealed potential tensions between the veterinary nursing and veterinary medical students at University College Dublin: a hitherto unexposed aspect of the hidden curriculum in this institution. The results of this study highlight the need for ongoing investment in practical animal-handling training for veterinary nursing students.
Helen M Higgins
Full Text Available Footrot is a widespread, infectious cause of lameness in sheep, with major economic and welfare costs. The aims of this research were: (i to quantify how veterinary surgeons' beliefs regarding the efficacy of two treatments for footrot changed following a review of the evidence (ii to obtain a consensus opinion following group discussions (iii to capture complementary qualitative data to place their beliefs within a broader clinical context. Grounded in a Bayesian statistical framework, probabilistic elicitation (roulette method was used to quantify the beliefs of eleven veterinary surgeons during two one-day workshops. There was considerable heterogeneity in veterinary surgeons' beliefs before they listened to a review of the evidence. After hearing the evidence, seven participants quantifiably changed their beliefs. In particular, two participants who initially believed that foot trimming with topical oxytetracycline was the better treatment, changed to entirely favour systemic and topical oxytetracycline instead. The results suggest that a substantial amount of the variation in beliefs related to differences in veterinary surgeons' knowledge of the evidence. Although considerable differences in opinion still remained after the evidence review, with several participants having non-overlapping 95% credible intervals, both groups did achieve a consensus opinion. Two key findings from the qualitative data were: (i veterinary surgeons believed that farmers are unlikely to actively seek advice on lameness, suggesting a proactive veterinary approach is required (ii more attention could be given to improving the way in which veterinary advice is delivered to farmers. In summary this study has: (i demonstrated a practical method for probabilistically quantifying how veterinary surgeons' beliefs change (ii revealed that the evidence that currently exists is capable of changing veterinary opinion (iii suggested that improved transfer of research
This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US). PMID:15494763
This bibliography of in-print veterinary medical books published in English may be used as an acquisitions or evaluation tool for developing the monograph component of new veterinary medicine collections or existing science, technology, and medicine collections where veterinary medicine is in the scope of the collection. The bibliography is divided into 34 categories and consists of bibliographic information for 419 titles. The appendix contains an author/editor index. Prices for all entries are in US dollars, except where another currency is noted. The total cost of all books in the bibliography is $43,602.13 (US).
Blach, Edward L
This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.
Full Text Available One of the most severe events occurring in critically ill patients admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU center is represented by the multiple organ failure (MOF, a systemic inflammatory response leading to a progressive organ dysfunction and mortality in newborns. MOF may occur in newborns primarily affected by multiple single organ diseases, including respiratory distress syndrome neonatal sepsis with acute kidney injury, post-asphyxial hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy and pandemic influenza A (H1N1 infection. In a previous article from our group, based on the histological examination of all organs at autopsy of newborns affected by MOF, all organs studied did not escape to be damaged, including thymus and pancreas normally not mentioned in the literature of MOF. The aim of this article is to review the most important pathological changes pathologists should look for in every case of MOF occurring in the perinatal period, with particular attention to systemic endothelial changes occurring in blood vessels in all organs and sytems. On the basis of our experience, matching data during the last phases of the clinicopathological diagnosis represents a useful method, much more productive as compared to the method based on giving pathological answers to the clinical questions prospected before autopsy. As for the pathological features observed in neonatal MOF, one of them deserves a particular attention: the vascular lesions, and in particular the multiple changes occurring during MOF development in endothelial cells, ending with the loss of the endothelial barrier, probably the most relevant histological lesion followed by the insurgence of interstitial edema and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Small vessels should be observed at high power, with particular attention to the size and shape of endothelial nuclei, in order to evidence endothelial swelling, probably the initial modification of the endothelial cells leading to their