Gunn-Christie, Rebekah G; Flatland, Bente; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Szladovits, Balazs; Harr, Kendal E; Ruotsalo, Kristiina; Knoll, Joyce S; Wamsley, Heather L; Freeman, Kathy P
In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and documents recommendations for control of preanalytical, analytical, and postanalytical factors related to urinalysis, cytology, and clinical chemistry in veterinary laboratories and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.2 (clinical chemistry), 1.3 and 2.5 (urinalysis), 1.4 and 2.6 (cytology), and 3 (postanalytical factors important in veterinary clinical pathology) of these guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Schultze, A Eric; Bounous, Denise I; Bolliger, Anne Provencher
There is an international shortage of veterinary clinical pathologists in the workplace. Current trainees in veterinary clinical pathology may choose to pursue careers in academe, diagnostic laboratories, government health services, biopharmaceutical companies, or private practice. Academic training programs attempt to provide trainees with an exposure to several career choices. However, due to the proprietary nature of much of the work in the biopharmaceutical industry, trainees may not be fully informed regarding the nature of work for veterinary clinical pathologists and the myriad opportunities that await employment in the biopharmaceutical industry. The goals of this report are to provide trainees in veterinary clinical pathology and other laboratory personnel with an overview of the work-life of veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry, and to raise the profile of this career choice for those seeking to enter the workforce. Biographical sketches, job descriptions, and motivation for 3 successful veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are provided. Current and past statistics for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry are reviewed. An overview of the drug development process and involvement of veterinary clinical pathologists in the areas of discovery, lead optimization, and candidate evaluation are discussed. Additional duties for veterinary clinical pathologists employed in the biopharmaceutical industry include development of biomarkers and new technologies, service as scientific resources, diagnostic support services, and laboratory management responsibilities. There are numerous opportunities available for trainees in veterinary clinical pathology to pursue employment in the biopharmaceutical industry and enjoy challenging and rewarding careers.
Veterinary clinical oncology involves a multidisciplinary approach to the recognition and management of spontaneously occurring neoplasms of domestic animals. This requires some knowledge of the causes, incidence, and natural course of malignant disease as it occurs in domestic species. The purpose of this course is to acquaint you with the more common neoplastic problems you will encounter in practice, so that you can offer your clients an informed opinion regarding prognosis and possible therapeutic modalities. A major thrust will be directed toward discussing and encouraging treatment/management of malignant disease. Multimodality therapy will be stressed. 10 refs., 3 tabs.
Horne, R. D.
Graduate training in clinical veterinary medicine is discussed. The options available to the student and problems that must be dealt with are presented, along with the requirements to accomplish a finely structured program that satisfies the needs of both the trainee and clinical veterinary medicine. (Author/MLW)
Faculty attrition and recruitment for veterinary clinical faculty positions have been reported as significant problems in veterinary medical education. To investigate the factors that may be important in veterinary clinical faculty retention, the perceptions and views of veterinary clinical academic faculty were determined using a web-distributed electronic survey. Responses were dichotomized by whether the respondent had or had not left an academic position and were analyzed for their association with faculty attrition. A total of 1,226 responses were recorded and results demonstrated that factors other than compensation were associated with veterinary clinical faculty attrition, including departmental culture, work-life balance, and recognition and support of clinical medicine by the administration. Forty-four percent of respondents who had held a faculty appointment reported leaving academia either voluntarily or for non-voluntary reasons such as failure to achieve tenure, retirement, or having their position closed. Attention to correcting deficiencies in workplace culture and professional rewards could be a beneficial means by which to decrease the faculty attrition rates currently observed in clinical academic veterinary medicine.
Exposure to chemotherapy is a health hazard for all personnel in facilities that store, prepare, or administer antineoplastic agents. Contamination levels have been measured as much as 15 times higher in the veterinary medicine sector than in human facilities. Recent publications in human and veterinary medicine indicate that exposure extends beyond the clinic walls to affect the patient's home and family. This article provides an update on the advances in chemotherapy safety, the current issues, and the impact on cancer management in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Clausen, Jürgen; Albrecht, Henning
The aim of the present report is to provide an overview of the first database on clinical research in veterinary homeopathy. Detailed searches in the database 'Veterinary Clinical Research-Database in Homeopathy' (http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/clinresvet/index.php). The database contains about 200 entries of randomised clinical trials, non-randomised clinical trials, observational studies, drug provings, case reports and case series. Twenty-two clinical fields are covered and eight different groups of species are included. The database is free of charge and open to all interested veterinarians and researchers. The database enables researchers and veterinarians, sceptics and supporters to get a quick overview of the status of veterinary clinical research in homeopathy and alleviates the preparation of systematical reviews or may stimulate reproductions or even new studies. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
... Find the answer to your question IN CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Hs-cTnI as a Gatekeeper for Further Cardiac ... Online Harmonization.net Commission on Accreditation in Clinical Chemistry American Board of Clinical Chemistry Clinical Chemistry Trainee ...
Introduction Providing clinical teachers with student feedback is an important part of faculty development. The current literature provides a range of instruments developed to generate student rating feedback. However, these instruments often lack a theoretical framework and evidence concerning
Braun, Jean-Pierre; Bourgès-Abella, Nathalie; Geffré, Anne; Concordet, Didier; Trumel, Cathy
This article presents the general causes of preanalytic variability with a few examples showing specialists and practitioners that special and improved care should be given to this too often neglected phase. The preanalytic phase of clinical pathology includes all the steps from specimen collection to analysis. It is the phase where most laboratory errors occur in human, and probably also in veterinary clinical pathology. Numerous causes may affect the validity of the results, including technical factors, such as the choice of anticoagulant, the blood vessel sampled, and the duration and conditions of specimen handling. While the latter factors can be defined, influence of biologic and physiologic factors such as feeding and fasting, stress, and biologic and endocrine rhythms can often not be controlled. Nevertheless, as many factors as possible should at least be documented. The importance of the preanalytic phase is often not given the necessary attention, although the validity of the results and consequent clinical decision making and medical management of animal patients would likely be improved if the quality of specimens submitted to the laboratory was optimized. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
In this overview of success stories in veterinary clinical nutrition topics in cats and dogs reviewed include the dietary management of chronic kidney disease, dissolution of urinary tract uroliths by dietary modification, the recognition that taurine and L-carnitine deficiencies can cause dilated cardiomyopathy; that clinical signs associated with feline hyperthyroidism (caused by a benign adenoma) can be controlled by a low-iodine diet alone; that dietary management of canine osteoarthritis can also reduce non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug doses; and that disease-free intervals and survival times can be statistically longer in dogs with Stage III lymphoma managed with diet. As we discover more about nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics, and as we expand our basic understanding of idiopathic diseases we are bound to identify more nutritionally related causes, and be able to develop novel dietary strategies to manage disease processes, including the formulation of diets designed to alter gene expression to obtain beneficial clinical outcomes.
Anderson, Maureen E C
Hand hygiene, contact precautions, and other basic infection control measures are crucial in veterinary clinics, because these facilities can be community mixing pots of animals and people with a wide range of health and disease-carrier states. Veterinary staff must be knowledgeable and well trained regarding when and how to apply situation-appropriate contact precautions and to properly perform hand hygiene. The limited information on the use of contact precautions and hand hygiene practices among veterinary staff suggests that compliance is low. Improving the infection control culture in clinics and in veterinary medicine is critical to achieving better compliance with these practices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Raditic, Donna M; Bartges, Joseph W
Integrative medicine is the combined use of complementary and alternative medicine with conventional or traditional Western medicine systems. The demand for integrative veterinary medicine is growing, but evidence-based research on its efficacy is limited. In veterinary clinical oncology, such research could be translated to human medicine, because veterinary patients with spontaneous tumors are valuable translational models for human cancers. An overview of specific herbs, botanics, dietary supplements, and acupuncture evaluated in dogs, in vitro canine cells, and other relevant species both in vivo and in vitro is presented for their potential use as integrative therapies in veterinary clinical oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Stewart, Sherry M; Dowers, Kristy L; Cerda, Jacey R; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina M; Kogan, Lori R
Microscopy (skill of using a microscope) and the concepts of cytology (study of cells) and histology (study of tissues) are most often taught in professional veterinary medicine programs through the traditional method of glass slides and light microscopes. Several limiting factors in veterinary training programs are encouraging educators to explore innovative options for teaching microscopy skills and the concepts of cytology and histology. An anonymous online survey was administered through the Colorado Veterinary Medical Association to Colorado veterinarians working in private practice. It was designed to assess their current usage of microscopes for cytological and histological evaluation of specimens and their perceptions of microscope use in their veterinary education. The first part of the survey was answered by 183 veterinarians, with 104 indicating they had an onsite diagnostic lab. Analysis pertaining to the use of the microscope in practice and in veterinary programs was conducted on this subset. Most respondents felt the amount of time spent in the curriculum using a microscope was just right for basic microscope use and using the microscope for viewing and learning about normal and abnormal histological sections and clinical cytology. Participants felt more emphasis could be placed on clinical and diagnostic cytology. Study results suggest that practicing veterinarians frequently use microscopes for a wide variety of cytological diagnostics. However, only two respondents indicated they prepared samples for histological evaluation. Veterinary schools should consider these results against the backdrop of pressure to implement innovative teaching techniques to meet the changing needs of the profession.
Sacchini, Federico; Freeman, Kathleen P
An increasing number of veterinary laboratories worldwide have obtained or are seeking certification based on international standards, such as the International Organization for Standardization/International Electrotechnical Commission 17025. Compliance with any certification standard or quality management system requires quality documentation, an activity that may present several unique challenges in the case of veterinary laboratories. Research specifically addressing quality documentation is conspicuously absent in the veterinary literature. This article provides an overview of the quality system documentation needed to comply with a quality management system with an emphasis on preparing written standard operating procedures specific for veterinary laboratories. In addition, the quality documentation challenges that are unique to veterinary clinical pathology laboratories are critically evaluated against the existing quality standards and discussed with respect to possible solutions and/or recommended courses of action. Documentation challenges include the establishment of quality requirements for veterinary tests, the use or modification of human analytic methods for animal samples, the limited availability of quality control materials satisfactory for veterinary clinical pathology laboratories, the limited availability of veterinary proficiency programs, and the complications in establishing species-specific reference intervals.
O'Brien, P.J.; Fournel-Fleury, C.; Bolliger, Adrian Marc
After 5 years of development, the European College of Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ECVCP)was formally recognized and approved on July 4, 2007 by the European Board of Veterinary Specialisation (EBVS), the European regulatory body that oversees specialization in veterinary medicine and which has...... approved 23 colleges. The objectives, committees, basis for membership, constitution, bylaws, information brochure and certifying examination of the ECVCP have remained unchanged during this time except as directed by EBVS. The ECVCP declared full functionality based on the following criteria: 1...... congresses and a joint journal (with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology) for communication of scientific research and information; the College also maintains a website, a joint listserv, and a newsletter; 6) collaboration in training and continuing education with relevant colleges...
Rishniw, Mark; Pion, Paul D
A previous study provided information regarding the quality of in-clinic veterinary biochemistry testing. However, no similar studies for in-clinic veterinary hematology testing have been conducted. The objective of this study was to assess the quality of hematology testing in veterinary in-clinic laboratories using results obtained from testing 3 levels of canine EDTA blood samples. Clinicians prepared blood samples to achieve measurand concentrations within, below, and above their RIs and evaluated the samples in triplicate using their in-clinic analyzers. Quality was assessed by comparison of calculated total error with quality requirements, determination of sigma metrics, use of a quality goal index, and agreement between in-clinic and reference laboratory instruments. Suitability for statistical quality control was determined using adaptations from the computerized program, EZRules3. Evaluation of 10 veterinary in-clinic hematology analyzers showed that these instruments often fail to meet quality requirements. At least 60% of analyzers reasonably determined RBC, WBC, HCT, and HGB, when assessed by most quality goal criteria; platelets were less reliably measured, with 80% deemed suitable for low platelet counts, but only 30% for high platelet counts, and automated differential leukocyte counts were generally considered unsuitable for clinical use with fewer than 40% of analyzers meeting the least stringent quality goal requirements. Fewer than 50% of analyzers were able to meet requirements for statistical quality control for any measurand. These findings reflect the current status of in-clinic hematology analyzer performance and provide a basis for future evaluations of the quality of veterinary laboratory testing. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Clausen, J; Albrecht, H; Mathie, R T
Veterinary homeopathy has led a somewhat shadowy existence since its first introduction. Only in the last three decades has the number of clinical trials increased considerably. This literature is generally not well perceived, which may be partly a consequence of the diffuse and somewhat inaccessible nature of some of the relevant research publications. The Veterinary Clinical Research Database for Homeopathy (VetCR) was launched in 2006 to provide information on existing clinical research in veterinary homeopathy and to facilitate the preparation of systematic reviews. The aim of the present report is to provide an overview of this first database on clinical research in veterinary homeopathy, with a special focus on its content of placebo controlled clinical trials and summarising what is known about placebo effects in animals. In April 2012, the VetCR database contained 302 data records. Among these, 203 controlled trials were identified: 146 randomised and 57 non-randomised. In 97 of those 203 trials, the homeopathic medical intervention was compared to placebo. A program of formal systematic reviews of peer-reviewed randomised controlled trials in veterinary homeopathy is now underway; detailed findings from the program's data extraction and appraisal approach, including the assessment of trial quality (risk of bias), will be reported in due course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Decision making in clinical veterinary practice. BM Anene. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL ...
Dahal, Rohini; Umbaugh, Scott E.; Mishra, Deependra; Lama, Norsang; Alvandipour, Mehrdad; Umbaugh, David; Marino, Dominic J.; Sackman, Joseph
Under development is a clinical software tool which can be used in the veterinary clinics as a prescreening tool for these pathologies: anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) disease, bone cancer and feline hyperthyroidism. Currently, veterinary clinical practice uses several imaging techniques including radiology, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). But, harmful radiation involved during imaging, expensive equipment setup, excessive time consumption and the need for a cooperative patient during imaging, are major drawbacks of these techniques. In veterinary procedures, it is very difficult for animals to remain still for the time periods necessary for standard imaging without resorting to sedation - which creates another set of complexities. Therefore, clinical application software integrated with a thermal imaging system and the algorithms with high sensitivity and specificity for these pathologies, can address the major drawbacks of the existing imaging techniques. A graphical user interface (GUI) has been created to allow ease of use for the clinical technician. The technician inputs an image, enters patient information, and selects the camera view associated with the image and the pathology to be diagnosed. The software will classify the image using an optimized classification algorithm that has been developed through thousands of experiments. Optimal image features are extracted and the feature vector is then used in conjunction with the stored image database for classification. Classification success rates as high as 88% for bone cancer, 75% for ACL and 90% for feline hyperthyroidism have been achieved. The software is currently undergoing preliminary clinical testing.
This master's thesis presents several instructional methods and techniques developed for each of eleven topics or subject areas in clinical chemistry: carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, diagnostic enzymology, endocrinology, toxicology, quality control, electrolytes, acid base balance, hepatic function, nonprotein nitrogenous compounds, and…
Metzger, Fred L; Rebar, Alan H
Routine monitoring of clinicopathologic data is a critical component in the management of older patients because blood and urine testing allows the veterinarian to monitor trends in laboratory parameters, which may be the early indicators of disease. Laboratory profiling often provides an objective and sensitive indicator of developing disease before obvious clinical signs or physical examination abnormalities are observed. The primary key to the power of this evaluation is that the data are collected year after year during wellness checks and are examined serially. Chronic renal failure, chronic active hepatitis, canine hyperadrenocorticism, diabetes mellitus, and feline hyperthyroidism were reviewed and expected laboratory findings are summarized.
Full Text Available Veterinary pharmaceutical products intended for use in fish should comply with all usual requirements regarding approval for marketing, according to the Order of the President of the National Sanitary Veterinary Agency and for Food Safety No.187/2007, with subsequent amendments and additions. According to the legislation the technical file should containe documentation of quality, safety of animals, consumer, user and environment and demonstration of efficacy and tolerance in the target species. This paper provides the important information on requirements for demonstration on efficacy of pharmaceutical products indended for use in fish. The principal aim of the efficacy data is to prove the therapeutic value of pharmaceutical products and to establish an optimal dose and period of dose administration. In efficacity clinical trial is needed, also, to take into account, the various conditions such as climatic aspects, disease situation, water temperature and salinity, because these may influence the outcome and veracity of the studies.
Hemel, Jan B.; Hindriks, Frans R.; van der Voet, Hilko; Rijnveld, Leo R.
For each patient sample that is presented to the clinical chemistry laboratory a combination of various tests can be requested. This combination or profile will depend on the condition of the patient, and hence also on the requesting hospital department. Several techniques were applied to detect and describe patterns in tests requested by the cardiology, hepatology and nephrology sections of the out-patient's Department for Internal Medicine. Comparison of the frequencies of ordering the test...
Lane, India F; Strand, Elizabeth
Missing in the recent calls for accountability and assurance of veterinary students' clinical competence are similar calls for competence in clinical teaching. Most clinician educators have no formal training in teaching theory or method. At the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM), we have initiated multiple strategies to enhance the quality of teaching in our curriculum and in clinical settings. An interview study of veterinary faculty was completed to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of clinical education; findings were used in part to prepare a professional development program in clinical teaching. Centered on principles of effective feedback, the program prepares participants to organize clinical rotation structure and orientation, maximize teaching moments, improve teaching and participation during formal rounds, and provide clearer summative feedback to students at the end of a rotation. The program benefits from being situated within a larger college-wide focus on teaching improvement. We expect the program's audience and scope to continue to expand.
Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter; Ferran, Aude A.; Mevius, Dik; Pelligand, Ludovic; Veldman, Kees T.; Lees, Peter
VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve
Tomlinson, Lindsay; Boone, Laura I; Ramaiah, Lila; Penraat, Kelley A; von Beust, Barbara R; Ameri, Mehrdad; Poitout-Belissent, Florence M; Weingand, Kurt; Workman, Heather C; Aulbach, Adam D; Meyer, Dennis J; Brown, Diane E; MacNeill, Amy L; Bolliger, Anne Provencher; Bounous, Denise I
The purpose of this paper by the Regulatory Affairs Committee (RAC) of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) is to review the current regulatory guidances (eg, guidelines) and published recommendations for best practices in veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology, particularly in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries, and to utilize the combined experience of ASVCP RAC to provide updated recommendations. Discussion points include (1) instrumentation, validation, and sample collection, (2) routine laboratory variables, (3) cytologic laboratory variables, (4) data interpretation and reporting (including peer review, reference intervals and statistics), and (5) roles and responsibilities of clinical pathologists and laboratory personnel. Revision and improvement of current practices should be in alignment with evolving regulatory guidance documents, new technology, and expanding understanding and utility of clinical pathology. These recommendations provide a contemporary guide for the refinement of veterinary toxicologic clinical pathology best practices. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jensen, Asger L
The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review and selection of publications as standard references. The following recommendations are provided in the format and order commonly found in veterinary publications. A checklist is provided to aid in planning, implementing, and evaluating veterinary studies on biologic variation (Appendix S1). These recommendations provide a valuable resource for clinicians, laboratorians, and researchers interested in conducting studies of biologic variation and in determining the quality of studies of biologic variation in veterinary laboratory testing. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
LeBlanc, Jacqueline; Frankel, Saundra
Describes the continuing education program for clinical chemistry instrumentation training established at The College of Staten Island, New York. A course consisting of 14 sessions is outlined and discussed. (CS)
The practices (veterinary anatomy laboratory, veterinarian physiology laboratory I, veterinarian physiology laboratory II, and veterinarian physiology chemistry laboratory) in the area of basic veterinary medicine are important subjects for acquiring knowledge and the technique by the process of shifting from the liberal arts subject to a specialized subjects for the area of applied veterinary medicine and clinical veterinary medicine. The number of equipment is insufficient to practice effec...
In planning the internal organization of central laboratories, the future needs for clinical chemistry in hospitals must be considered. For the next decade the medical laboratory will primarily be concerned with the interpretation of laboratory data and with organizational problems, such as sample identification, specimen splitting and especially the timing of its service. The consequences for instrumentation, newer technology for routine clinical chemistry, and recommendations for the future development of analytical systems are discussed.
Lind, Ann-Kristina; Hydbring-Sandberg, Eva; Forkman, Björn
and to evaluate, overall, how the dog experienced the visit. Three behavior tests were also carried out to describe the dog's reaction in the veterinary clinic: a “social contact” test, a “play” test, and a “treat” test. The play and treat tests were carried out both inside and outside the veterinary clinic...... to see if the dogs reacted differently in the 2 situations. Agreement between observers was good to excellent but generally better when assessing pain than stress. Dogs rated as more stressed were significantly less likely to engage in social contact with an unfamiliar person (P ...A visit to a veterinary clinic can be very stressful for the dog, and stress may interact with pain. The aim of this study was to observe the behavior of dogs in a veterinary clinic and to correlate it with subjective stress assessments by different persons. Systems have already been developed...
Petersen, Henning; Nielsen, J. P.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.
The body's early defence in response to trauma, inflammation or infection, the acute phase response, is a complex set of systemic reactions seen shortly after exposure to a triggering event. One of the many components is an acute phase protein response in which increased hepatic synthesis leads t...
Fung, V; Seneviratne, M
Veterinarians are increasingly being asked to provide chemotherapy for veterinary patients. However, chemotherapy agents have cytotoxic effects that can pose a health risk to workers from exposure. There are no published studies examining cytotoxic drug (CTD) contamination in veterinary practices in Australia. CTD use at 13 veterinary clinics and animal hospitals across New South Wales (NSW) was verified for compliance with Work, Health and Safety (WHS) legislation on the effectiveness of exposure control measures. Surface swab sampling was performed to detect the restricted carcinogen cyclophosphamide and seven other CTD. A total of 73 surface swab samples were collected from nine locations associated with CTD delivery, storage, treatment and waste disposal at four veterinary practices, with repeat sampling at two veterinary practices. Compliance with WHS legislation for systematic chemical management, including procedures for safe use of carcinogens, in veterinary practices was high: 4 of the 10 key clauses in WHS chemical management were complied with at all 13 verified workplaces. Surface contamination was detected in three locations, with levels of CTD contaminants ranging from 3.54 to 89 ng per sample. Results showed that, in general, there were safe systems in place to work with CTD in the veterinary practices that were verified in NSW. Areas for improvement were mainly in administrative measures related to hazardous chemical management. Particular attention should be given to raising awareness of the intrinsic hazards of CTD, through training and hazard information provision to staff. © 2016 Australian Veterinary Association.
Dalley, Jessica S; Creary, Patricia R; Durzi, Tiffany; McMurtry, C Meghan
Although there are existing guidelines for teaching and learning skillful client communication, there remains a need to integrate a developmental focus into veterinary medical curricula to prepare students for interactions with children who accompany their companion animals. The objectives of this teaching tip are (1) to describe the use of a Teddy Bear Clinic Tour as an innovative, applied practice method for teaching veterinary students about clinical communication with children, and (2) to provide accompanying resources to enable use of this method to teach clinical communication at other facilities. This paper includes practical guidelines for organizing a Teddy Bear Clinic Tour at training clinics or colleges of veterinary medicine; an anecdotal description of a pilot study at the Ontario Veterinary College Smith Lane Animal Hospital; and printable resources, including a list of specific clinical communication skills, a sample evaluation sheet for supervisors and students, recommendations for creating a child-friendly environment, examples of child-friendly veterinary vocabulary, and a sample script for a Teddy Bear Clinic Tour. Informed by the resources provided in this teaching tip paper, the Teddy Bear Clinic Tour can be used at your facility as a unique teaching method for clinical communication with children and as a community outreach program to advertise the services at the facility.
Zeck, Steven; Wall, Judy A; Smith, Bradford P; Wilson, W David; Walsh, Donal A
This article describes an extensive online criterion-referenced evaluation system for the assessment of veterinary students' achievement during their final year's Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (or equivalent) clinical education. Data are reported for the 2001 to 2009 University of California at Davis veterinary graduates, for a total of more than 1,100 students. These criterion-referenced evaluations extensively document the level of clinical skills attained and demonstrated during the individual clinical rotations that comprise the fourth-year curriculum. On average, in each of the 17,500 clinical rotations undertaken during this time period, student performance was assessed in at least 11 separate areas of skills, knowledge, and professional attributes. This provided more than 200,000 criterion-referenced judgments of the individual clinical attributes of graduates over nine years. The system is based on a previously detailed and validated definition of the skills, knowledge, and professional attributes that students should have demonstrated before graduation. The extensive database that this system has provided has established that this system, termed VOLES (VMTH [Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital] On-Line Evaluation System), is an effective tool to assess the clinical capabilities of veterinary students and their achievement of the "Day One" skills required for entering clinical practice. These expected proficiencies are balanced according to the differing expectations that each area of veterinary clinical practice demands.
Dewprashad, Brahmadeo; Kosky, Charles; Vaz, Geraldine S.; Martin, Charlotte L.
A clinical study was designed and used to show the relationship of health and medicine, in a typical clinical scenario, where many chemical principles are involved and that an integrated knowledge of chemistry and biology is essential to the understanding, diagnosing and treating of illnesses. A case study would be a positive learning experience…
Davies, R; London, C; Lascelles, B; Conzemius, M
Veterinary clinical trials generate data that advance the transfer of knowledge from clinical research to clinical practice in human and veterinary settings. The translational success of non-regulated and regulated veterinary clinical studies is dependent upon the reliability and reproducibility of the data generated. Clinician-scientists that conduct veterinary clinical studies would benefit from a commitment to research quality assurance and best practices throughout all non-regulated and regulated research environments. Good Clinical Practice (GCP) guidance documents from the FDA provides principles and procedures designed to safeguard data integrity, reliability and reproducibility. While these documents maybe excessive for clinical studies not intended for regulatory oversight it is important to remember that research builds on research. Thus, the quality and accuracy of all data and inference generated throughout the research enterprise remains vulnerable to the impact of potentially unreliable data generated by the lowest performing contributors. The purpose of this first of a series of statement papers is to outline and reference specific quality control and quality assurance procedures that should, at least in part, be incorporated into all veterinary clinical studies.
Freeman, Kathleen P; Baral, Randolph M; Dhand, Navneet K
The recent creation of a veterinary clinical pathology biologic variation website has highlighted the need to provide recommendations for future studies of biologic variation in animals in order to help standardize and improve the quality of published information and to facilitate review......). These recommendations provide a valuable resource for clinicians, laboratorians, and researchers interested in conducting studies of biologic variation and in determining the quality of studies of biologic variation in veterinary laboratory testing....
Oyama, M A; Ellenberg, S S; Shaw, P A
Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are among the most rigorous ways to determine the causal relationship between an intervention and important clinical outcome. Their use in veterinary medicine has become increasingly common, and as is often the case, with progress comes new challenges. Randomized clinical trials yield important answers, but results from these studies can be unhelpful or even misleading unless the study design and reporting are carried out with care. Herein, we offer some perspective on several emerging challenges associated with RCTs, including use of composite endpoints, the reporting of different forms of risk, analysis in the presence of missing data, and issues of reporting and safety assessment. These topics are explored in the context of previously reported veterinary internal medicine studies as well as through illustrative examples with hypothetical data sets. Moreover, many insights germane to RCTs in veterinary internal medicine can be drawn from the wealth of experience with RCTs in the human medical field. A better understanding of the issues presented here can help improve the design, interpretation, and reporting of veterinary RCTs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Humphrey, Sarah; Kirby, Rebecca; Rudloff, Elke
To review magnesium physiology including absorption, excretion, and function within the body, causes of magnesium abnormalities, and the current applications of magnesium monitoring and therapy in people and animals. Magnesium plays a pivotal role in energy production and specific functions in every cell in the body. Disorders of magnesium can be correlated with severity of disease, length of hospital stay, and recovery of the septic patient. Hypermagnesemia is seen infrequently in people and animals with significant consequences reported. Hypomagnesemia is more common in critically ill people and animals, and can be associated with platelet, immune system, neurological, and cardiovascular dysfunction as well as alterations in insulin responsiveness and electrolyte imbalance. Measurement of serum ionized magnesium in critically or chronically ill veterinary patients is practical and provides information necessary for stabilization and treatment. Tissue magnesium concentrations may be assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as well as through the application of fluorescent dye techniques. Magnesium infusions may play a therapeutic role in reperfusion injury, myocardial ischemia, cerebral infarcts, systemic inflammatory response syndromes, tetanus, digitalis toxicity, bronchospasms, hypercoagulable states, and as an adjunct to specific anesthetic or analgesic protocols. Further veterinary studies are needed to establish the frequency and importance of magnesium disorders in animals and the potential benefit of magnesium infusions as a therapeutic adjunct to specific diseases. The prognosis for most patients with magnesium disorders is variable and largely dependent on the underlying cause of the disorder. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.
Lumbreras-Lacarra, Blanca; Ramos-Rincón, José Manuel; Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso
The application of epidemiologic principles to clinical diagnosis has been less developed than in other clinical areas. Knowledge of the main flaws affecting diagnostic laboratory test research is the first step for improving its quality. We assessed the methodologic aspects of articles on laboratory tests. We included articles that estimated indexes of diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) and were published in Clinical Chemistry or Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine in 1996, 2001, and 2002. Clinical Chemistry has paid special attention to this field of research since 1996 by publishing recommendations, checklists, and reviews. Articles were identified through electronic searches in Medline. The strategy combined the Mesh term "sensitivity and specificity" (exploded) with the text words "specificity", "false negative", and "accuracy". We examined adherence to seven methodologic criteria used in the study by Reid et al. (JAMA1995;274:645-51) of papers published in general medical journals. Three observers evaluated each article independently. Seventy-nine articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The percentage of studies that satisfied each criterion improved from 1996 to 2002. Substantial improvement was observed in reporting of the statistical uncertainty of indices of diagnostic accuracy, in criteria based on clinical information from the study population (spectrum composition), and in avoidance of workup bias. Analytical reproducibility was reported frequently (68%), whereas information about indeterminate results was rarely provided. The mean number of methodologic criteria satisfied showed a statistically significant increase over the 3 years in Clinical Chemistry but not in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The methodologic quality of the articles on diagnostic test research published in Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine is comparable to the quality observed in the best general medical journals
Kema, IP; de Vries, EGE; Muskiet, FAJ
Analyses of serotonin and other 5-hydroxyindoles, such as its precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan and major metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), are indispensable for the elucidation of their (patho)physiological roles. In clinical chemistry attention is mainly focused on the diagnosis and
Gruen, Margaret E.; Griffith, Emily H.; Caney, Sarah M. A.; Rishniw, Mark; Lascelles, B. Duncan X.
OBJECTIVE To determine attitudes of small animal practitioners toward veterinary clinical trials and variables influencing their likelihood of participating in such trials. DESIGN Cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE Small animal practitioners with membership in 1 of 2 online veterinary communities (n = 163 and 652). PROCEDURES An online survey was developed for each of 2 veterinary communities, and invitations to participate were sent via email. Each survey included questions designed to collect information on the respondents’ willingness to enroll their patients in clinical trials and to recommend participation to clients for their pets. RESULTS More than 80% of respondents to each survey indicated that they spend no time in clinical research. A high proportion of respondents were likely or extremely likely to recommend clinical trial participation to clients for their pets when those trials involved treatments licensed in other countries, novel treatments, respected investigators, or sponsoring by academic institutions, among other reasons. Reasons for not recommending participation included distance, time restrictions, and lack of awareness of ongoing clinical trials; 28% of respondents indicated that they did not usually learn about such clinical trials. Most respondents (79% to 92%) rated their recommendation of a trial as important to their client’s willingness to participate. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Participation in veterinary clinical trials by small animal practitioners and their clients and patients appeared low. Efforts should be increased to raise practitioner awareness of clinical trials for which patients might qualify. Specific elements of trial design were identified that could be modified to increase participation. PMID:28001115
Rose, Nicole; Toews, Lorraine; Pang, Daniel S J
Clinical audit is a quality improvement process with the goal of continuously improving quality of patient care as assessed by explicit criteria. In human medicine clinical audit has become an integral and required component of the standard of care. In contrast, in veterinary medicine there appear to have been a limited number of clinical audits published, indicating that while clinical audit is recognised, its adoption in veterinary medicine is still in its infancy. A systematic review was designed to report and evaluate the veterinary literature on clinical audit in companion animal species (dog, cat, horse). A systematic search of English and French articles using Proquest Dissertations and Theses database (February 6, 2014), CAB Abstracts (March 21, 2014 and April 4, 2014), Scopus (March 21, 2014), Web of Science Citation index (March 21, 2014) and OVID Medline (March 21, 2014) was performed. Included articles were those either discussing clinical audit (such as review articles and editorials) or reporting parts of, or complete, audit cycles. The majority of articles describing clinical audit were reviews. From 89 articles identified, twenty-one articles were included and available for review. Twelve articles were reviews of clinical audit in veterinary medicine, five articles included at least one veterinary clinical audit, one thesis was identified, one report was of a veterinary clinical audit website and two articles reported incomplete clinical audits. There was no indication of an increase in the number of published clinical audits since the first report in 1998. However, there was evidence of article misclassification, with studies fulfilling the criteria of clinical audit not appropriately recognised. Quality of study design and reporting of findings varied considerably, with information missing on key components, including duration of study, changes in practice implemented between audits, development of explicit criteria and appropriate statistical
Matthew, Susan M.; Taylor, Rosanne M.; Ellis, Robert A.
This study investigated veterinary students' experiences of clinic-based learning (CBL) during a comprehensive final year internship programme. Open-ended surveys (n = 93) were used to gather qualitative data about students' conceptions of what is learned during CBL and their approaches to learning in clinics. Phenomenography was used for detailed…
Nielsen, Lindsey K; Whelan, Megan
To review the human and veterinary literature pertaining to all forms of compartment syndrome (CS). Data sources included scientific reviews and original research publications from the human and veterinary literature. While CS affecting the extremities has been recognized in people for decades, other forms of CS in the abdominal and thoracic cavities are recently gaining more attention. The role of CS in critically ill people is a rapidly growing area of interest. More research on prevention and treatment of CS is being conducted in people because some studies have found mortality rates as high as 80% for those suffering from these conditions. While a significant amount of experimental studies of CS have been performed on small animals, there is a marked lack of primary veterinary studies. The majority of the veterinary literature includes case reports and series, and many of these studies were published over a decade ago. However, the increased recognition of CS in people has sparked an interest in veterinary critical care medicine and this has been demonstrated by the recent increased evaluation of compartment pressures in veterinary patients. CS is a complex clinical condition where increased pressure within a compartment can cause significant adverse effects within the compartment as well as throughout the body. Systemic inflammatory responses and local ischemia-reperfusion elements can contribute to the detrimental effects seen in CS. This cascade of events results in increased mortality rates and contributes to the development of CS elsewhere. A better understanding of CS will help veterinarians improve patient care and outcome. Future studies on incidence, prevention, and treatment of CSs in the critical care patient are needed in veterinary medicine. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.
Mariti, Chiara; Pierantoni, Ludovica; Sighieri, Claudio; Gazzano, Angelo
A large survey of Italian dog guardians (n = 906) was conducted to assess dog behavior and welfare at the veterinary clinic and to investigate how guardians and veterinarians affect them. This study confirmed that the veterinary clinic is a source of stress for most dogs, who showed impaired welfare in all phases: in the waiting room, entering the examination room, on the examination table, and when approached by the vet. This study also characterizes some factors related to the guardians' and veterinarians' behavior that affect the dogs' behavior and welfare during the veterinary examination. If dogs had not been examined by a vet since puppyhood, if they did not accept treatments by their guardians, and if they were scolded when refusing a treatment, the risk for having problems with dog welfare and behavior at the veterinary clinic increased. The attention paid by the vet to the dog was found to be positively related with a good response of the dog to the vet. Prevention seems to be the key for the protection of dog welfare related to veterinary care.
McCobb, Emily; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; Malcolm, Elizabeth A; Wolfus, Gregory; Rush, John E
Providing veterinary students with opportunities to develop clinical skills in a realistic, hands-on environment remains a challenge for veterinary education. We have developed a novel approach to teaching clinical medicine to fourth-year veterinary students and technical high school students via development of a primary care clinic embedded within a technical high school. The primary care clinic targets an underserved area of the community, which includes many of the participating high school students. Support from the veterinary community for the project has been strong as a result of communication, the opportunity for veterinarians to volunteer in the clinic, and the careful targeting of services. Benefits to veterinary students include the opportunity to build clinical competencies and confidence, as well as the exposure to a diverse client population. The financial model of the clinic is described and initial data on outcomes for case load, clinic income, veterinary student evaluations, and high school students' success in passing the veterinary assisting examination are reported. This clinical model, involving a partnership between a veterinary school and a technical high school, may be adoptable to other clinical teaching situations.
When graduating from veterinary school, veterinary professionals must be ready to enter the complex veterinary profession. Therefore, one of the major responsibilities of any veterinary school is to develop training programmes that support students’ competency development on the trajectory from
Ghodasara, P; Sadowski, P; Satake, N; Kopp, S; Mills, P C
Over the last two decades, technological advancements in the field of proteomics have advanced our understanding of the complex biological systems of living organisms. Techniques based on mass spectrometry (MS) have emerged as powerful tools to contextualise existing genomic information and to create quantitative protein profiles from plasma, tissues or cell lines of various species. Proteomic approaches have been used increasingly in veterinary science to investigate biological processes responsible for growth, reproduction and pathological events. However, the adoption of proteomic approaches by veterinary investigators lags behind that of researchers in the human medical field. Furthermore, in contrast to human proteomics studies, interpretation of veterinary proteomic data is difficult due to the limited protein databases available for many animal species. This review article examines the current use of advanced proteomics techniques for evaluation of animal health and welfare and covers the current status of clinical veterinary proteomics research, including successful protein identification and data interpretation studies. It includes a description of an emerging tool, sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion mass spectra (SWATH-MS), available on selected mass spectrometry instruments. This newly developed data acquisition technique combines advantages of discovery and targeted proteomics approaches, and thus has the potential to advance the veterinary proteomics field by enhancing identification and reproducibility of proteomics data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
After viewing the rise of "scientific medicine" around the middle of the previous century, it is shown how the new subject of clinical chemistry arose as an interdiscipline by the constant interaction of organic chemistry and medicine. From this historical perspective, certain conclusions are drawn that are relevant to present-day clinical chemistry.
Khongsomboon, Khamphong; Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Kondo, Shozo
3D reconstruction from ordinary X-ray equipment which is not CT or MRI is required in clinical veterinary medicine. Authors have already proposed a 3D reconstruction technique from X-ray photograph to present bone structure. Although the reconstruction is useful for veterinary medicine, the thechnique has two problems. One is about exposure of X-ray and the other is about data acquisition process. An x-ray equipment which is not special one but can solve the problems is X-ray fluoroscopy. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a method for 3D-reconstruction from X-ray fluoroscopy for clinical veterinary medicine. Fluoroscopy is usually used to observe a movement of organ or to identify a position of organ for surgery by weak X-ray intensity. Since fluoroscopy can output a observed result as movie, the previous two problems which are caused by use of X-ray photograph can be solved. However, a new problem arises due to weak X-ray intensity. Although fluoroscopy can present information of not only bone structure but soft tissues, the contrast is very low and it is very difficult to recognize some soft tissues. It is very useful to be able to observe not only bone structure but soft tissues clearly by ordinary X-ray equipment in the field of clinical veterinary medicine. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a new method to determine opacity in volume rendering process. The opacity is determined according to 3D differential coefficient of 3D reconstruction. This differential volume rendering can present a 3D structure image of multiple organs volumetrically and clearly for clinical veterinary medicine. This paper shows results of simulation and experimental investigation of small dog and evaluation by veterinarians.
Toutain, Pierre Louis; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Damborg, Peter
VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs) for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs) used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve...... challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation......-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC)] and (iii) when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical...
Smith, Donald F; Hagstrom, Melena R
This paper provides a 50-year overview of research and clinical advances in AAVMC member colleges in four representative fields of veterinary medicine: oncology, vaccine development, production medicine, and public health. Though emphasis is on the progress since the mid-1960s, the salient background and associated personnel in each field are also identified to the extent that their description informs more recent events. Advances in board certification and post-graduate clinical and research educational opportunities are also described.
Weijs, Cynthia A; Coe, Jason B; Hecker, Kent G
Final-year veterinary students must meet baseline clinical competency upon completion of their training for entry to practice. Workplace-based assessments (WBAs), widely used in human medical training to assess post-graduate students' professionalism and clinical performance, have recently been adopted in undergraduate veterinary clinical teaching environments. WBAs should support veterinary trainees' learning in a clinical teaching environment, though utility of WBAs within veterinary education may differ from that in medical training due to differences in context and in learners' stage of clinical development. We conducted focus groups with final-year veterinary students and clinical instructors following the implementation of three WBAs (Direct Observation of Procedural Skills [DOPS], the Mini-Clinical evaluation exercise [Mini-CEX], and the In-Training Evaluation Report [ITER]) during a small-animal primary-veterinary-care rotation. Students and clinical instructors viewed the DOPS and Mini-CEX as feasible and valuable learning and assessment tools that offered an overall opportunity for timely in-the-moment feedback. Instructors viewed the ITER as less feasible in the context of a service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environment. Students believed the ITER had potential to be informative, although in its existing application the ITER had limited utility due to time constraints on instructors that prevented them from providing students with individualized and specific feedback. In service-oriented veterinary clinical teaching environments, successful implementation of WBAs requires balancing provision of feedback to students, time demands on clinical instructors, and flexibility of assessment tools.
Norman, E J
This qualitative study investigated the qualities of veterinary student performance that inform a supervisor's impression of their competency. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 15 supervisors from different veterinary subdisciplines, to elicit descriptions of excellent, weak and marginal students. Thematic analysis of transcriptions revealed 12 themes, of which engagement was frequently discussed and of stated importance, and trustworthiness was a differentiator of weak and marginal students from excellent students. Other themes were knowledge, application of knowledge, technical and animal handling skills, communication, social interaction, personal functioning, caring for animals, impact, prospects and the difficulty in judging competency. Patterns of association of themes were found, however themes were also used independently in unique combinations for most students described. The findings show the range of abilities, behaviours, attitudes and personal characteristics of students that are considered by supervisors and how these are weighted and balanced. The key contribution of engagement and trustworthiness to the overall impression aligns with research indicating their importance for success in clinical practice, as both contributors to competency and indicators of it. The findings may inform future design and investigation of workplace-based learning and in-training evaluation, as well as conceptions of veterinary competency. British Veterinary Association.
Freise, K J; Lin, T-L; Fan, T M; Recta, V; Clark, T P
Noninferiority trials are clinical studies designed to demonstrate that an investigational drug is at least as effective as an established treatment within a predetermined margin. They are conducted, in part, because of ethical concerns of administering a placebo to veterinary patients when an established effective treatment exists. The use of noninferiority trial designs has become more common in veterinary medicine with the increasing number of established veterinary therapeutics and the desire to eliminate potential pain or distress in a placebo-controlled study. Selecting the appropriate active control and an a priori noninferiority margin between the investigational and active control drug are unique and critical design factors for noninferiority studies. Without reliable historical knowledge of the disease response in the absence of treatment and of the response to the selected active control drug, proper design and interpretation of a noninferiority trial is not possible. Despite the appeal of conducting noninferiority trials to eliminate ethical concerns of placebo-controlled studies, there are real limitations and possible ethical conundrums associated with noninferiority trials. The consequences of incorrect study conclusions because of poor noninferiority trial design need careful attention. Alternative trial designs to typical noninferiority studies exist, but these too have limitations and must also be carefully considered. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
The objectives of this study were to assess the adherence of animal health workers to rational antimicrobial prescription guidelines. Data were collected from personnel working in 25 clinics by using structured questionnaires. The data included the methods of diagnosis and drug selection, the frequently prescribed ...
Kidney, Beverly A; Dial, Sharon M; Christopher, Mary M
The Education Committee of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology has identified a need for improved structure and guidance of training residents in clinical pathology. This article is the third in a series of articles that address this need. The goals of this article are to describe learning objectives and competencies in knowledge, abilities, and skills in cytopathology and surgical pathology (CSP); provide options and ideas for training activities; and identify resources in veterinary CSP for faculty, training program coordinators, and residents. Guidelines were developed in consultation with Education Committee members and peer experts and with evaluation of the literature. The primary objectives of training in CSP are: (1) to develop a thorough, extensive, and relevant knowledge base of biomedical and clinical sciences applicable to the practice of CSP in domestic animals, laboratory animals, and other nondomestic animal species; (2) to be able to reason, think critically, investigate, use scientific evidence, and communicate effectively when making diagnoses and consulting and to improve and advance the practice of pathology; and (3) to acquire selected technical skills used in CSP and pathology laboratory management. These guidelines define expected competencies that will help ensure proficiency, leadership, and the advancement of knowledge in veterinary CSP and will provide a useful framework for didactic and clinical activities in resident-training programs.
Kricka, Larry J; Savory, John
This review was written as part of the celebration of the International Year of Chemistry 2011. In this review we provide a chronicle of the history of clinical chemistry, with a focus on North America. We outline major methodological advances and trace the development of professional societies and journals dedicated to clinical chemistry. This review also serves as a guide to reference materials for those interested in the history of clinical chemistry. The various resources available, in sound recordings, videos, moving images, image and document archives, museums, and websites dedicated to diagnostic company timelines, are surveyed. These resources provide a map of how the medical subspecialty of clinical chemistry arrived at its present state. This information will undoubtedly help visionaries to determine in which direction clinical chemistry will move in the future.
Clinical features and management of equine post operative ileus (POI): Survey of Diplomates of the American Colleges of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM), Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) and Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (ACVECC).
Lefebvre, D; Hudson, N P H; Elce, Y A; Blikslager, A; Divers, T J; Handel, I G; Tremaine, W H; Pirie, R S
A recent survey of European Colleges (European College of Equine Internal Medicine [ECEIM] and European College of Veterinary Surgeons [ECVS]) revealed the different strategies implemented by, and some of the challenges facing, European clinicians presented with cases of post operative ileus (POI). It was concluded that further comparative analysis of opinions, canvassed from additional colleges of equine veterinary specialism worldwide, would provide valuable additional insight into current POI knowledge on a more global scale. To report and compare the current strategies favoured by American veterinary specialists when managing POI in horses that underwent emergency colic surgery. Cross-sectional survey. Electronic invitations were sent to 814 Large Animal specialists, including 3 colleges: the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM), American College of Veterinary Surgeons (ACVS) and the American College of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care (ACVECC). The response rate was 14% (115/814). The majority of respondents (68%) reported an estimated prevalence range of POI of 0-20%. The presence of reflux on nasogastric intubation was the main criterion used to define POI. A lesion involving the small intestine was considered the main risk factor for POI. Anti-inflammatory drugs, intravenous (i.v.) fluids and antimicrobial drugs were the primary strategies used when managing POI. Flunixin meglumine and i.v. lidocaine were the drugs most commonly used in the treatment of horses with POI. Supplementary management strategies targeted mainly the prevention of post operative adhesions, infection and inflammation. There is a lack of consensus on the clinical definition of POI. Prospective and objective clinical assessment of the effectiveness of the different strategies contained within this and the European survey is necessary in order to identify a standardised approach to the management of equine POI. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.
Englar, Ryane E
Experiential learning through the use of standardized patients (SPs) is the primary way by which human medical schools teach clinical communication. The profession of veterinary medicine has followed suit in response to new graduates' and their employers' concerns that veterinary interpersonal skills are weak and unsatisfactory. As a result, standardized clients (SCs) are increasingly relied upon as invaluable teaching tools within veterinary curricula to advance relationship-centered care in the context of a clinical scenario. However, there is little to no uniformity in the approach that various colleges of veterinary medicine take when designing simulation-based education (SBE). A further complication is that programs with pre-conceived curricula must now make room for training in clinical communication. Curricular time constraints challenge veterinary colleges to individually decide how best to utilize SCs in what time is available. Because it is a new program, Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) has had the flexibility and the freedom to prioritize an innovative approach to SBE. The author discusses the SBE that is currently underway at MWU CVM, which incorporates 27 standardized client encounters over eight consecutive pre-clinical quarters. Prior to entering clinical rotations, MWU CVM students are exposed to a variety of simulation formats, species, clients, settings, presenting complaints, and communication tasks. These represent key learning opportunities for students to practice clinical communication, develop self-awareness, and strategize their approach to future clinical experiences.
Brguljan, Pika Mesko
The practice of medical biochemistry in Slovenia includes clinical biochemistry (including toxicology, therapeutic drug monitoring, endocrinology, molecular diagnostics, immunology), hematology and coagulation. To start the vocational medical biochemistry training programme it's necessary to have a completed university degree (second cycle) in pharmacy, chemistry, biochemistry, medicine or other relevant university study and 1 year supervised practical training in medical laboratories, completed with mandatory state exam at Ministry of Health. The duration of vocational training programme is 4 years and is completed with final exam. The title after passed final examination is Medical biochemistry specialist. In October 2005 EC4 (Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine) approved Equivalence of standards of Slovenian national standards for medical biochemistry specialists. Since 2006 it is mandatory to be registered and to have valid license for medical biochemistry specialists and other professionals in laboratory medicine with at least university degree (second cycle) of education. Laboratory medicine in Slovenia is regulated globally through the Law of health-care activity and particularly through the Bylaw of laboratory medicine. The latter is based on standard ISO 15189, ratified in 2004. The Bylaw envisages granting working license to laboratories, valid for 5 years period. Granting of working licenses is ongoing process and first licenses have been granted in 2009. Important improvement toward the quality requirements for medical laboratories can be observed in the last 5 years. Parallel with the Bylaw of medical laboratories, Slovenian Accreditation (SA), the legal national accreditation body, started the initiative for accreditation of medical laboratories according to ISO 15189. It is in the implementation phase.
Quinn, P. J
"Veterinary Microbiology is one of the core subjects for veterinary students. Fully revised and expanded, this new edition covers every aspect of veterinary microbiology for students in both paraclinical and clinical years...
Koskinen, Heli I
In this study, the social interactions between students and their teachers in an ambulatory clinic setting were investigated using Bales's interaction process analysis framework. Observational data were collected during five small-group sessions. The observations were quantified, and the behaviors of students and teachers were compared statistically. This study demonstrated that the interaction between students and their teachers was for the most part equal and could be characterized as "positively task oriented." The study has implications for veterinary educators wishing to use social psychology frameworks to assess the quality of learning in small-group clinical setting.
Englar, Ryane E; Williams, Melanie; Weingand, Kurt
Effective communication in health care benefits patients. Medical and veterinary schools not only have a responsibility to teach communication skills, the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) Council on Education (COE) requires that communication be taught in all accredited colleges of veterinary medicine. However, the best strategy for designing a communications curriculum is unclear. The Calgary-Cambridge Guide (CCG) is one of many models developed in human medicine as an evidence-based approach to structuring the clinical consultation through 71 communication skills. The model has been revised by Radford et al. (2006) for use in veterinary curricula; however, the best approach for veterinary educators to teach communication remains to be determined. This qualitative study investigated if one adaptation of the CCG currently taught at Midwestern University College of Veterinary Medicine (MWU CVM) fulfills client expectations of what constitutes clinically effective communication. Two focus groups (cat owners and dog owners) were conducted with a total of 13 participants to identify common themes in veterinary communication. Participants compared communication skills they valued to those taught by MWU CVM. The results indicated that while the CCG skills that MWU CVM adopted are applicable to cat and dog owners, they are not comprehensive. Participants expressed the need to expand the skillset to include compassionate transparency and unconditional positive regard. Participants also expressed different communication needs that were attributed to the species of companion animal owned.
... and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. Keywords: Complementary and alternative veterinary medicine, Integrative veterinary course, Integrative veterinary curriculum, Integrative veterinary medicine, ...
Dingman, P A; Levy, J K; Rockey, L E; Crandall, M M
It is estimated that more than 5 million stray dogs and cats enter animal shelters in the USA each year, but less than half are ever reunited with their owners. Lost pets with identification microchips are up to 21 times more likely to be reunited than those without. Finders of lost pets are more likely to consult veterinarians than shelters for assistance, and pet owners look first to veterinarians for advice regarding pet health, protection, and welfare. An online survey of 1086 veterinary clinics in the South-Eastern USA was conducted to evaluate how veterinary clinics functioned as a part of the pet identification network. Scanning and microchip implants were offered by 91% of surveyed clinics and 41% used 'global' scanners capable of detecting all currently used microchip brands. Clinics more frequently relied on pet owners to register contact information rather than providing this service for clients (52% vs. 43%, respectively). Even though lost dogs are more likely to be reunited with owners than lost cats, microchips and collars were more likely to be recommended for all dogs (85% and 93%, respectively) than for all cats (67% and 61%, respectively). Only half of clinics that recommended identification collars made them available to their clients. Veterinarians can protect animals, pet owners and the human-animal bond by integrating pet identification into preventive health care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Editorial Board of the Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (SJVS) wishes to invite research articles, case reports and review articles for publication. ... 2.1.3 All haematological and clinical chemistry measurements should be reported in the metric system in terms of the International System of Units (SI). 2.1.4 In the ...
Pusterla, Nicola; Mapes, Samantha; Leutenegger, Christian M
A questionnaire was developed to document the knowledge base of large-animal diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) regarding polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology and to identify the common use of this technology in equine practice. Ninety-three of the 278 mailed questionnaires were returned, for an overall response rate of 33.4%. Ninety respondents (99%) reported being familiar with the general principles of nucleic acid probe technology; however, only 52 (57%) knew the difference between conventional (traditional) and real-time (second-generation) PCR. The majority of the respondents (88%) emphasized the need for continuing education on molecular diagnostics. Eighty-four (92%) of the respondents regularly use PCR (conventional and/or real-time) for the detection of equine pathogens, and 80 (88%) commonly submit their samples to university/state veterinary laboratories. Blood, nasal swabs, and feces are the three equine specimens most commonly submitted for PCR analysis of Streptococcus equi, Lawsonia intracellularis, Neorickettsia risticii, equine herpesvirus 1/4, Rhodococcus equi, Sarcocystis neurona, and equine influenza virus. Diplomates reported costs associated with molecular diagnostics and unreliability of PCR as the most common limitations of PCR. Didactic training in veterinary curricula and during continuing-education opportunities continues to be necessary to produce veterinarians who have an understanding of the clinical applications of molecular diagnostics.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(3). 2017. Gberindyer et al. 250. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2017. Vol 38 (3): 250-259. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Drugs Prescription Pattern in Dogs Diagnosed with Parvovirus Enteritis in Some Veterinary Clinics in Nigeria. Gberindyer, F. A.. 1.
Ryan, Marion T; Irwin, Jane A; Bannon, Finian J; Mulholland, Clive W; Baird, Alan W
This study has two purposes. The first is to explore an instrument of evaluation of the approaches to study (deep, strategic, and surface) adopted by students in the pre-clinical years of their veterinary degree program. The second is to examine relationships between these approaches and a broad range of further factors deemed relevant to the veterinary medicine context. We envisage that a greater knowledge of how these students learn will aid curriculum reform in a way that will enrich the learning experience of veterinary students. A questionnaire consisting of the 52-question Approaches to Study Inventory (ASI) and an additional 49 questions relating mainly to teaching, assessment, and study skills was distributed to 215 veterinary medicine (MVB) students in their pre-clinical years of study. Factor analysis was used to ensure that the ASI section of the questionnaire maintained previously reported structure. The internal reliability of the approaches measured was tested using Cronbach alpha analysis. The approaches were described as frequency distributions. Associations between the parameters (deep, strategic, and surface) and 49 additional context-specific factors were investigated using loglinear analysis. (1) Factor analysis revealed that the integrity and structure of the instrument in this context was generally comparable to previous studies. (2) The impact of a high workload was evident in the surface approach, with fear of failure becoming a strong motivating factor and syllabus boundness a widely used strategy. (3) Associations made between the approaches and 49 context-specific factors showed strong associations between both workload and lack of prior knowledge with the surface approach. (4) Grades were associated positively with both the deep and strategic approaches but negatively with the surface approach. (5) A range of learning and study skills were associated positively with the deep and strategic approaches and negatively with the surface
Myers, Michael J; Smith, Emily R; Turfle, Phillip G
This article summarizes the relevant definitions related to biomarkers; reviews the general processes related to biomarker discovery and ultimate acceptance and use; and finally summarizes and reviews, to the extent possible, examples of the types of biomarkers used in animal species within veterinary clinical practice and human and veterinary drug development. We highlight opportunities for collaboration and coordination of research within the veterinary community and leveraging of resources from human medicine to support biomarker discovery and validation efforts for veterinary medicine.
Higgins, Helen M; Ferguson, Eamonn; Smith, Robert F; Green, Martin J
In the face of a steady decline in dairy cow fertility over several decades, using hormones to assist reproduction has become common. In the European Union, hormones are prescription-only medicines, giving veterinary practitioners a central role in their deployment. This study explored the clinical and ethical beliefs of practitioners, and provides data on their current prescribing practices. During 2011, 93 practitioners working in England completed a questionnaire (95% response rate). Of the 714 non-organic farms they attended, only 4 farms (0.6%) never used hormones to assist the insemination of lactating dairy cows. Practitioners agreed (>80%) that hormones improve fertility and farm businesses profitability. They also agreed (>80%) that if farmers are able to tackle management issues contributing to poor oestrus expression, then over a five year period these outcomes would both improve, relative to using hormones instead. If management issues are addressed instead of prescribing hormones, practitioners envisaged a less favourable outcome for veterinary practices profitability (p<0.01), but an improvement in genetic selection for fertility (p<0.01) and overall cow welfare (p<0.01). On farms making no efforts to address underlying management problems, long-term routine use at the start of breeding for timing artificial insemination or inducing oestrus was judged "unacceptable" by 69% and 48% of practitioners, respectively. In contrast, practitioners agreed (≥ 90%) that both these types of use are acceptable, provided a period of time has been allowed to elapse during which the cow is observed for natural oestrus. Issues discussed include: weighing quality versus length of cow life, fiscal factors, legal obligations, and balancing the interests of all stakeholders, including the increasing societal demand for food. This research fosters debate and critical appraisal, contributes to veterinary ethics, and encourages the pro-active development of professional
Lin, Tzu-Yin; Rodriguez, Carlos O; Li, Yuanpei
Nanomedicine is an interdisciplinary field that combines medicine, engineering, chemistry, biology and material sciences to improve disease management and can be especially valuable in oncology. Nanoparticle-based agents that possess functions such as tumor targeting, imaging and therapy are currently under intensive investigation. This review introduces the basic concept of nanomedicine and the classification of nanoparticles. Because of their favorable pharmacokinetics, tumor targeting properties, and resulting superior efficacy and toxicity profiles, nanoparticle-based agents can overcome several limitations associated with conventional diagnostic and therapeutic protocols in veterinary oncology. The two most important tumor targeting mechanisms (passive and active tumor targeting) and their dominating factors (i.e. shape, charge, size and nanoparticle surface display) are discussed. The review summarizes published clinical and preclinical studies that utilize different nanoformulations in veterinary oncology, as well as the application of nanoparticles for cancer diagnosis and imaging. The toxicology of various nanoformulations is also considered. Given the benefits of nanoformulations demonstrated in human medicine, nanoformulated drugs are likely to gain more traction in veterinary oncology. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Scrivani, Peter V; Erb, Hollis N
High quality clinical research is essential for advancing knowledge in the areas of veterinary radiology and radiation oncology. Types of clinical research studies may include experimental studies, method-comparison studies, and patient-based studies. Experimental studies explore issues relative to pathophysiology, patient safety, and treatment efficacy. Method-comparison studies evaluate agreement between techniques or between observers. Patient-based studies investigate naturally acquired disease and focus on questions asked in clinical practice that relate to individuals or populations (e.g., risk, accuracy, or prognosis). Careful preplanning and study design are essential in order to achieve valid results. A key point to planning studies is ensuring that the design is tailored to the study objectives. Good design includes a comprehensive literature review, asking suitable questions, selecting the proper sample population, collecting the appropriate data, performing the correct statistical analyses, and drawing conclusions supported by the available evidence. Most study designs are classified by whether they are experimental or observational, longitudinal or cross-sectional, and prospective or retrospective. Additional features (e.g., controlled, randomized, or blinded) may be described that address bias. Two related challenging aspects of study design are defining an important research question and selecting an appropriate sample population. The sample population should represent the target population as much as possible. Furthermore, when comparing groups, it is important that the groups are as alike to each other as possible except for the variables of interest. Medical images are well suited for clinical research because imaging signs are categorical or numerical variables that might be predictors or outcomes of diseases or treatments. © 2013 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.
Siska, William; Gupta, Aradhana; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Tripathi, Niraj; von Beust, Barbara
Clinical pathology testing is routinely performed in target animal safety studies in order to identify potential toxicity associated with administration of an investigational veterinary pharmaceutical product. Regulatory and other testing guidelines that address such studies provide recommendations for clinical pathology testing but occasionally contain outdated analytes and do not take into account interspecies physiologic differences that affect the practical selection of appropriate clinical pathology tests. Additionally, strong emphasis is often placed on statistical analysis and use of reference intervals for interpretation of test article-related clinical pathology changes, with limited attention given to the critical scientific review of clinically, toxicologically, or biologically relevant changes. The purpose of this communication from the Regulatory Affairs Committee of the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology is to provide current recommendations for clinical pathology testing and data interpretation in target animal safety studies and thereby enhance the value of clinical pathology testing in these studies.
de Wit, Emmie; Kramer, Shelby; Prescott, Joseph; Rosenke, Kyle; Falzarano, Darryl; Marzi, Andrea; Fischer, Robert J; Safronetz, David; Hoenen, Thomas; Groseth, Allison; van Doremalen, Neeltje; Bushmaker, Trenton; McNally, Kristin L; Feldmann, Friederike; Williamson, Brandi N; Best, Sonja M; Ebihara, Hideki; Damiani, Igor A C; Adamson, Brett; Zoon, Kathryn C; Nyenswah, Tolbert G; Bolay, Fatorma K; Massaquoi, Moses; Sprecher, Armand; Feldmann, Heinz; Munster, Vincent J
The development of point-of-care clinical chemistry analyzers has enabled the implementation of these ancillary tests in field laboratories in resource-limited outbreak areas. The Eternal Love Winning Africa (ELWA) outbreak diagnostic laboratory, established in Monrovia, Liberia, to provide Ebola virus and Plasmodium spp. diagnostics during the Ebola epidemic, implemented clinical chemistry analyzers in December 2014. Clinical chemistry testing was performed for 68 patients in triage, including 12 patients infected with Ebola virus and 18 infected with Plasmodium spp. The main distinguishing feature in clinical chemistry of Ebola virus-infected patients was the elevation in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and γ-glutamyltransferase levels and the decrease in calcium. The implementation of clinical chemistry is probably most helpful when the medical supportive care implemented at the Ebola treatment unit allows for correction of biochemistry derangements and on-site clinical chemistry analyzers can be used to monitor electrolyte balance. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Full Text Available Mycoses affecting dogs are widely distributed worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of fungi isolated from dogs. A retrospective study was performed to determine the main mycoses that affected dogs at a private veterinary clinic in Callao, Peru. Isolates were collected from skin and ear from 2003 to 2012. Fungi species were identified by standard microbiological techniques. A total of 54 fungi were isolated from 124 mycological studies; the most prevalent fungal species were Malassezia pachydermatis (51.86 % and Microsporum canis (27.78 %. The principal breeds affected were mongrel (31.52 %, boxer (11.1% and shih tzu (11.1 %. M. pachydermatis represented 58.8 % and 43.2 % of isolates in mongrel breed and in skin samples respectively. M. pachydermatis was the most frequent fungus getting >50 % of all isolates. Microsporum canis and Aspergillus spp. had >40 % presence.
Hamamoto, Kazuhiko; Sato, Motoyoshi
3D imaging technique is very important and indispensable in diagnosis. The main stream of the technique is one in which 3D image is reconstructed from a set of slice images, such as X-ray CT and MRI. However, these systems require large space and high costs. On the other hand, a low cost and small size 3D imaging system is needed in clinical veterinary medicine, for example, in the case of diagnosis in X-ray car or pasture area. We propose a novel 3D imaging technique using 2-D X-ray radiographic images. This system can be realized by cheaper system than X-ray CT and enables to get 3D image in X-ray car or portable X-ray equipment. In this paper, a 3D visualization technique from 2-D radiographic images is proposed and several reconstructions are shown. These reconstructions are evaluated by veterinarians.
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of... Chemistry and Clinical Toxicology Devices Panel of the Medical Devices Advisory Committee. General Function... monitoring levels of methotrexate to ensure appropriate drug therapy. FDA is seeking panel input on the...
Perigard, Christopher J; Parrula, M Cecilia M; Larkin, Matthew H; Gleason, Carol R
In preclinical studies with cynomolgus macaques, it is common to have one or more females presenting with menses. Published literature indicates that the blood lost during menses causes decreases in red blood cell mass variables (RBC, HGB, and HCT), which would be a confounding factor in the interpretation of drug-related effects on clinical pathology data, but no scientific data have been published to support this claim. This investigation was conducted to determine if the amount of blood lost during menses in cynomolgus macaques has an effect on routine hematology and serum chemistry variables. Ten female cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis), 5 to 6.5 years old, were observed daily during approximately 3 months (97 days) for the presence of menses. Hematology and serum chemistry variables were evaluated twice weekly. The results indicated that menstruation affects the erythrogram including RBC, HGB, HCT, MCHC, MCV, reticulocyte count, RDW, the leukogram including neutrophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts, and chemistry variables, including GGT activity, and the concentrations of total proteins, albumin, globulins, and calcium. The magnitude of the effect of menstruation on susceptible variables is dependent on the duration of the menstrual phase. Macaques with menstrual phases lasting ≥ 7 days are more likely to develop changes in variables related to chronic blood loss. In preclinical toxicology studies with cynomolgus macaques, interpretation of changes in several commonly evaluated hematology and serum chemistry variables requires adequate clinical observation and documentation concerning presence and duration of menses. There is a concern that macaques with long menstrual cycles can develop iron deficiency anemia due to chronic menstrual blood loss. © 2016 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Haider, Najmul; Khan, S. U.; Islam, A.
As in most low-income countries, adequate laboratory facilities are not available in Bangladesh to assist veterinarians in diagnosing animal diseases. We aimed to determine the efficiency of veterinary diagnoses for two common ruminant diseases in Bangladesh: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR......) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). We conducted the study from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals where veterinarians collected samples from sick livestock and recorded the presumptive diagnosis on the basis of clinical presentations. Samples were tested for PPR and FMD using...
Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine can look back over more than 150 years of eventful history. The subject encompasses all the medicinal disciplines as well as the remaining natural sciences. Clinical chemistry demonstrates how new insights from basic research in biochemical, biological, analytical chemical, engineering, and information technology can be transferred into the daily routine of medicine to improve diagnosis, therapeutic monitoring, and prevention. This Review begins with a presentation of the development of clinical chemistry. Individual steps between the drawing of blood and interpretation of laboratory data are then illustrated; here not only are pitfalls described, but so are quality control systems. The introduction of new methods and trends into medicinal analysis is explored, along with opportunities and problems associated with personalized medicine.
Skogerboe, Kristen J.
Highlights several analytical techniques that are being used in state-of-the-art clinical labs. Illustrates how other advances in instrumentation may contribute to clinical chemistry in the future. Topics include: biosensors, polarization spectroscopy, chemiluminescence, fluorescence, photothermal deflection, and chromatography in clinical…
Rondon, F. C. M.; Bevilaqua, C.M.L.; Franke,C.R.; Barros, R. S.; Oliveira,F.R.; Alcântara, Adriano Costa de; Diniz, A. T.
Acesso restrito: Texto completo. p. 24-31 Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most important reemerging parasitic disease in the world. The domestic dog is the main reservoir in urban environments. The aim of this work was to extend the knowledge on canine Leishmania infection in the city of Fortaleza in northeastern Brazil, identifying the risk factors inherent in dog susceptibility to the infection. Two populations were analyzed, domestic dogs from clinics and the Veterinary ...
Jacob, Megan E; Hoppin, Jane A; Steers, Nicola; Davis, Jennifer L; Davidson, Gigi; Hansen, Bernie; Lunn, Katharine F; Murphy, K Marcia; Papich, Mark G
To determine opinions of faculty members with clinical appointments, clinical veterinarians, residents, and interns at a US veterinary teaching hospital regarding antimicrobial use and antimicrobial-resistant infections. Cross-sectional survey. 71 veterinarians. An online questionnaire was sent to all veterinarians with clinical service responsibilities at the North Carolina State University veterinary teaching hospital (n = 167). The survey included 23 questions regarding demographic information, educational experiences, current prescribing practices, and personal opinions related to antimicrobial selection, antimicrobial use, restrictions on antimicrobial use, and antimicrobial resistance. Of the 167 veterinarians eligible to participate, 71 (43%) responded. When respondents were asked to rate their level of concern (very concerned = 1; not concerned = 5) about antimicrobial-resistant infections, most (41/70 [59%]) assigned a score of 1, with mean score for all respondents being 1.5. Most survey participants rated their immediate colleagues (mean score, 1.9) as more concerned than other veterinary medical professionals (mean score, 2.3) and their clients (mean score, 3.4). Fifty-nine of 67 (88%) respondents felt that antimicrobials were overprescribed at the hospital, and 32 of 69 (46%) respondents felt uncomfortable prescribing at least one class of antimicrobials (eg, carbapenems or glycopeptides) because of public health concerns. Findings indicated that veterinarians at this teaching hospital were concerned about antimicrobial resistance, thought antimicrobials were overprescribed, and supported restricting use of certain antimicrobial classes in companion animals. Findings may be useful in educating future veterinarians and altering prescribing habits and antimicrobial distribution systems in veterinary hospitals.
Wobeser, B K; Kidney, B A; Powers, B E; Withrow, S J; Mayer, M N; Spinato, M T; Allen, A L
Amputation is commonly performed in an attempt to both treat and diagnose conditions affecting the digits of cats. The records of multiple veterinary diagnostic laboratories were searched to identify submissions of amputated digits from cats. Eighty-five separate submissions were reviewed for diagnosis, age, sex, limb of origin, and digits affected; and the original submitting clinics were surveyed to determine clinical outcome. The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to determine the disease-free interval and survival time. Neoplastic disease was identified in 63 of 85 submissions, with exclusively inflammatory lesions composing the other 22 cases. In 60 (95.2%) of the neoplastic cases, a malignant tumor was identified. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most commonly identified malignant tumor (n = 15; 23.8%) and was associated with a median survival time of 73 days. Other diagnoses included fibrosarcoma (n = 14; 22.2%); adenocarcinoma, likely metastases of a primary pulmonary neoplasm (n = 13; 20.6%); osteosarcoma (n = 5; 7.9%); mast cell tumor (n = 4; 6.3%); hemangiosarcoma (n = 5; 7.9%); malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n = 2; 3.2%); giant cell tumor of bone (n = 2; 3.2%); and hemangioma (n = 2; 3.2%). Giant cell tumor of bone has not been previously described in the digits of cats. Various neoplasms can occur in the digits of cats, and submission of the amputated digit for histopathologic diagnosis is essential to determine the histogenesis and predict the clinical outcome.
Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathy P; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Vap, Linda M; Getzy, Karen M; Evans, Ellen W; Harr, Kendal E
Owing to lack of governmental regulation of veterinary laboratory performance, veterinarians ideally should demonstrate a commitment to self-monitoring and regulation of laboratory performance from within the profession. In response to member concerns about quality management in veterinary laboratories, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) formed a Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards (QAS) committee in 1996. This committee recently published updated and peer-reviewed Quality Assurance Guidelines on the ASVCP website. The Quality Assurance Guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports on 1) general analytic factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons, 2) hematology and hemostasis, and 3) clinical chemistry, endocrine assessment, and urinalysis. This report documents recommendations for control of general analytical factors within veterinary clinical laboratories and is based on section 2.1 (Analytical Factors Important In Veterinary Clinical Pathology, General) of the newly revised ASVCP QAS Guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimum guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing. It is hoped that these guidelines will provide a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. ©2010 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Hammersley, E; Duz, M; Marshall, J F
Triamcinolone is commonly used in equine practice for the treatment of orthopaedic conditions. A serious potential adverse effect of triamcinolone is laminitis. However, evidence for the risk of laminitis associated with triamcinolone use is limited. To determine the risk of laminitis within 90 days of triamcinolone administration and compare with the risk of laminitis in a veterinary-attended horse population. Retrospective study of clinical records. Text mining and data extraction was performed using content analysis software (SimStat-WordStat v.6) on a database of anonymous digital clinical records from a convenience sample of North American equine practices (n = 9). Medical records were retrieved using a dictionary of keywords for 3 groups of horses: 1) treated with triamcinolone, 2) age and practice matched control population (no triamcinolone) and 3) all laminitic horses. Records of horses within Groups 1 and 2 were mined for evidence of laminitis within a 90-day period of treatment or a random date respectively. Data manipulation and analysis was performed using R v3.0.0 (R Development Core Team). The prevalence of laminitis within all groups was determined and relative risk of developing laminitis determined by single logistic regression. The clinical records of 225,777 horses were examined. Overall prevalence of laminitis within the database was 1.1% (n = 2533). Triamcinolone was administered to 12.4% (n = 27,898) horses and 0.07% of treated horses (n = 20) developed laminitis. In the control population (n = 56,695), 0.2% of horses (n = 134) developed laminitis. The risk of developing laminitis was significantly lower in the triamcinolone treatment group than the control population (OR 0.3 95%CI, 0.18-0.48 PVeterinary Medicine at the University of Glasgow. Owners gave informed consent for their horses' inclusion in the study. Sources of funding: John Crawford Endowment Fund, University of Glasgow. Competing interests
Duncan, Mark W; Nedelkov, Dobrin; Walsh, Ryan; Hattan, Stephen J
MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) is set to make inroads into clinical chemistry because it offers advantages over other analytical platforms. These advantages include low acquisition and operating costs, ease of use, ruggedness, and high throughput. When coupled with innovative front-end strategies and applied to important clinical problems, it can deliver rapid, sensitive, and cost-effective assays. This review describes the general principles of MALDI-TOF MS, highlights the unique features of the platform, and discusses some practical methods based upon it. There is substantial potential for MALDI-TOF MS to make further inroads into clinical chemistry because of the selectivity of mass detection and its ability to independently quantify proteoforms. MALDI-TOF MS has already transformed the practice of clinical microbiology and this review illustrates how and why it is now set to play an increasingly important role in in vitro diagnostics in particular, and clinical chemistry in general. © 2015 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.
Melissa Medeiros Markoski
Full Text Available Today, several veterinary diseases may be treated with the administration of stem cells. This is possible because these cells present a high therapeutic potential and may be injected as autologous or allogenic, freshly isolated, or previously cultured. The literature supports that the process is safe and brings considerable benefits to animal health. Knowledge about how adult stem cells modulate the molecular signals to activate cell homing has also been increasingly determined, evidencing the mechanisms which enable cells to repair and regenerate injured tissues. Preclinical studies were designed for many animal models and they have contributed to the translation to the human clinic. This review shows the most commonly used stem cell types, with emphasis on mesenchymal stem cells and their mechanistic potential to repair, as well as the experimental protocols, studied diseases, and species with the highest amount of studies and applications. The relationship between stem cell protocols utilized on clinics, molecular mechanisms, and the physiological responses may offer subsidies to new studies and therefore improve the therapeutic outcome for both humans and animals.
Markoski, Melissa Medeiros
Today, several veterinary diseases may be treated with the administration of stem cells. This is possible because these cells present a high therapeutic potential and may be injected as autologous or allogenic, freshly isolated, or previously cultured. The literature supports that the process is safe and brings considerable benefits to animal health. Knowledge about how adult stem cells modulate the molecular signals to activate cell homing has also been increasingly determined, evidencing the mechanisms which enable cells to repair and regenerate injured tissues. Preclinical studies were designed for many animal models and they have contributed to the translation to the human clinic. This review shows the most commonly used stem cell types, with emphasis on mesenchymal stem cells and their mechanistic potential to repair, as well as the experimental protocols, studied diseases, and species with the highest amount of studies and applications. The relationship between stem cell protocols utilized on clinics, molecular mechanisms, and the physiological responses may offer subsidies to new studies and therefore improve the therapeutic outcome for both humans and animals.
Ferguson, Duncan C; McNeil, Leslie Klis; Schaeffe, David J; Mills, Eric M
First-year didactic course instructors at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine leverage earlier clinical rotation experiences with weekly "Clinical Correlations" exercises to provide early exposure to critical clinical thinking (CCT). This study evaluated the efficacy of individual and paired group exercises on CCT development. Before and after instruction, the Cornell Critical Thinking Test (Level Z) (CCTTZ) was administered. Based on the hypothesis that students with higher scores would coach lower-scoring colleagues during group exercises, heterogeneous groups with similar mean scores were established for the year. Students completed 14 individual and paired group exercises over 6 months. Exercises were designed to increase in complexity and decline in scaffolding. Seven of the exercises were cases using the Applied Learning Platform (ALP) at http://www.whenknowingmatters.com . Student analyses were scored according to a six-category critical-thinking rubric using a 5-point scale. Consistent with our hypothesis, individual and group rubric scores increased significantly, plateauing near the end of the year. Contrary to our hypothesis, mean overall CCTTZ scores did not change, but there was a small statistically significant increase in the ability to assess the validity of an argument. Student attitudes were mixed. Positive comments focused on reinforcement of prior didactic instruction, while negative comments focused on preparation time needed to conduct research on clinical concepts, and on a lack of explicit evaluation by summative examinations. Nonetheless, end-of-year GPAs correlated linearly with cumulative individual rubric scores. In summary, the value of early curriculum CCT training was confirmed when discipline-specific criteria were applied.
Ribitsch, I.; Burk, J.; Delling, U.; Geißler, C.; Gittel, C.; Jülke, H.; Brehm, W.
Stem cells play an important role in veterinary medicine in different ways. Currently several stem cell therapies for animal patients are being developed and some, like the treatment of equine tendinopathies with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), have already successfully entered the market. Moreover, animal models are widely used to study the properties and potential of stem cells for possible future applications in human medicine. Therefore, in the young and emerging field of stem cell research, human and veterinary medicine are intrinsically tied to one another. Many of the pioneering innovations in the field of stem cell research are achieved by cooperating teams of human and veterinary medical scientists.
Lairmore, Michael D.; Oglesbee, Michael; Weisbrode, Steve E.; Wellman, Maxey; Rosol, Thomas; Stromberg, Paul
Recent reports project a deficiency of veterinary pathologists, indicating a need to train highly qualified veterinary pathologists, particularly in academic veterinary medicine. The need to provide high-quality research training for veterinary pathologists has been recognized by the veterinary pathology training program of the Ohio State University (OSU) since its inception. The OSU program incorporates elements of both residency training and graduate education into a unified program. This review illustrates the components and structure of the training program and reflects on future challenges in training veterinary pathologists. Key elements of the OSU program include an experienced faculty, dedicated staff, and high-quality students who have a sense of common mission. The program is supported through cultural and infrastructure support. Financial compensation, limited research funding, and attractive work environments, including work–life balance, will undoubtedly continue to be forces in the marketplace for veterinary pathologists. To remain competitive and to expand the ability to train veterinary pathologists with research skills, programs must support strong faculty members, provide appropriate infrastructure support, and seek active partnerships with private industry to expand program opportunities. Shortages of trained faculty may be partially resolved by regional cooperation to share faculty expertise or through the use of communications technology to bridge distances between programs. To foster continued interest in academic careers, training programs will need to continue to evolve and respond to trainees' needs while maintaining strong allegiances to high-quality pathology training. Work–life balance, collegial environments that foster a culture of respect for veterinary pathology, and continued efforts to reach out to veterinary students to provide opportunities to learn about the diverse careers offered in veterinary pathology will pay long
Micke, Oliver; Schomburg, Lutz; Buentzel, Jens; Kisters, Klaus; Muecke, Ralph
The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with selenium does not
Full Text Available The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a constituent of the small group of selenocysteine-containing selenoproteins and elicits important structural and enzymatic functions. Selenium deficiency has been linked to increased infection risk and adverse mood states. It has been shown to possess cancer-preventive and cytoprotective activities in both animal models and humans. It is well established that Se has a key role in redox regulation and antioxidant function, and hence in membrane integrity, energy metabolism and protection against DNA damage. Recent clinical trials have shown the importance of selenium in clinical oncology. Our own clinical study involving 48 patients suggest that selenium has a positive effect on radiation-associated secondary lymphedema in patients with limb edemas, as well as in the head and neck region, including endolaryngeal edema. Another randomized phase III study of our group was performed to examine the cytoprotective properties of selenium in radiation oncology. The aim was to evaluate whether sodium selenite is able to compensate a preexisting selenium deficiency and to prevent radiation induced diarrhea in adjuvant radiotherapy for pelvic gynecologic malignancies. Through this study, the significant benefits of sodium selenite supplementation with regards to selenium deficiency and radiotherapy induced diarrhea in patients with cervical and uterine cancer has been shown for the first time in a prospective randomized trial. Survival data imply that supplementation with
Oliver Micke; Lutz Schomburg; Jens Buentzel; Klaus Kisters; Ralph Muecke
The essential trace element selenium, which is a crucial cofactor in the most important endogenous antioxidative systems of the human body, is attracting more and more the attention of both laypersons and expert groups. The interest of oncologists mainly focuses in the following clinical aspects: radioprotection of normal tissues, radiosensitizing in malignant tumors, antiedematous effect, prognostic impact of selenium, and effects in primary and secondary cancer prevention. Selenium is a con...
Gochman, Nathan; And Others
A discussion of the basic design and characteristics of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems used in clinical chemistry. A comparison of three specific systems: the Vitek Olfax IIA, Hewlett-Packard HP5992, and Du Pont DP-102 are included. (BB)
Laboratory medicine is at the heart of modern health care and diagnosis and effective treatment of patients is impossible without high-quality bioanalytical services. The European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine is a professional federation working to ensure high standards across the discipline in all European countries. This article describes our work in science, education and professional development.
literature on laboratory error indicate great heterogeneity in the. Evaluation of Analytical Errors in a Clinical Chemistry. Laboratory: A 3 Year Experience. Sakyi AS1,2, Laing EF1,2, Ephraim RK3, Asibey OF2, Sadique OK2. 1Department of Molecular Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Kwame ...
Research activity and applications of biosensors for measurement of analytes of clinical interest over the last eight years are reviewed. Nanotechnology has been applied to improve performance of biosensors using electrochemical, optical, mechanical and physical modes of transduction, and to allow arrays of biosensors to be constructed for parallel sensing. Biosensors have been proposed for measurement of cancer biomarkers, cardiac biomarkers as well as biomarkers for autoimmune disease, infectious disease and for DNA analysis. Novel applications of biosensors include measurements in alternate sample types, such as saliva. Biosensors based on immobilized whole cells have found new applications, for example to detect the presence of cancer and to monitor the response of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. The number of research reports describing new biosensors for analytes of clinical interest continues to increase; however, movement of biosensors from the research laboratory to the clinical laboratory has been slow. The greatest impact of biosensors will be felt at point-of-care testing locations without laboratory support. Integration of biosensors into reliable, easy-to-use and rugged instrumentation will be required to assure success of biosensor-based systems at the point-of-care. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Maluping, R P; Paul, N C; Moodley, A
Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a leading aetiologic agent of pyoderma and other body tissue infections in dogs and cats. In recent years, an increased prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has been reported. Isolation of MRSP in serious infections poses a major therapeutic challenge as strains are often resistant to all forms of systemic antibiotic used to treat S. pseudintermedius -related infections. This study investigates the occurrence of MRSP from a total of 7183 clinical samples submitted to the authors' laboratories over a 15-month period. Identification was based on standard microbiological identification methods, and by S. pseudintermedius-specific nuc polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Methicillin resistance was confirmed by PBP2a latex agglutination and mecA PCR. Susceptibility against non-beta-lactam antibiotics was carried out using a disc-diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. In addition, susceptibility to pradofloxacin--a new veterinary fluoroquinolone--was also investigated. SCCmec types were determined by multiplex PCR. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius was isolated from 391 (5%) samples and 20 were confirmed as MRSP from cases of pyoderma, otitis, wound infections, urinary tract infection and mastitis in dogs only. All 20 isolates were resistant to clindamycin and sulphamethoxazole/trimethoprim. Nineteen were resistant to chloramphenicol, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, marbofloxacin and pradofloxacin; additionally, seven isolates were resistant to tetracycline. Fifteen isolates carried SCCmec type II-III, four isolates had type V and one harboured type IV. To date, only a few scientific papers on clinical MRSP strains isolated from the UK have been published, thus the results from this study would provide additional baseline data for further investigations.
Zaninelli, M; Campagnoli, A; Reyes, M; Rojas, V
In order to improve the hospital information system of the Chilean University Hospital, the Veterinary Medicine School of Universidad de Chile made a research cooperation with Università San Raffaele Roma to develop and test a new release of the O3-Vet software application. O3-Vet was selected by the Chilean University mainly for two reasons: (1) it uses human medicine standardized technologies such as "Health Level 7" (HL7) and "Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise" (IHE), which allow a good level of data sharing and hospital management; (2) it is open source, which means it can be adapted to specific hospital needs. In the new release, a subset of diagnostic terms was added from the "Systematized Nomenclature of Medicine Clinical Terms" (SNOMED CT), selected by the "American Animal Hospital Association" (AAHA) to standardize the filing of clinical data and its retrieval. Results from a limited survey of veterinarians of the University (n=9) show that the new release improved the management of the Chilean University Hospital and the ability to retrieve useful clinical data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pardue, Harry L.; Truchaud, Alain; Ozawa, Kyoichi; Place, John; Schnipelsky, Paul
This paper introduces a systematic approach to organizing the discipline of clinical chemistry. The approach is called a top-down, systems approach because it starts at the top with the most general concepts and works down through less general concepts to the most specific details and techniques. The hypothesis is that the discipline can be organized into hierarchical levels of functional processes and operational approaches to those processes. The functional processes represent what clinical...
Microbiology, Center for Veterinary Medicine , Food and Drug Administration & Veterinary Pathology Services, Joint Pathology Center, Silver Spring, MD... Veterinary Medicine Division for the care and handling of the animals and the Clinical Lab personnel for performing hematology and chemistry tests in...was conducted (USAMRIID) is fully accredited by the Association for the Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International
Khosa, Deep K; Volet, Simone E; Bolton, John R
The value of collaborative concept mapping in assisting students to develop an understanding of complex concepts across a broad range of basic and applied science subjects is well documented. Less is known about students' learning processes that occur during the construction of a concept map, especially in the context of clinical cases in veterinary medicine. This study investigated the unfolding collaborative learning processes that took place in real-time concept mapping of a clinical case by veterinary medical students and explored students' and their teacher's reflections on the value of this activity. This study had two parts. The first part investigated the cognitive and metacognitive learning processes of two groups of students who displayed divergent learning outcomes in a concept mapping task. Meaningful group differences were found in their level of learning engagement in terms of the extent to which they spent time understanding and co-constructing knowledge along with completing the task at hand. The second part explored students' and their teacher's views on the value of concept mapping as a learning and teaching tool. The students' and their teacher's perceptions revealed congruent and contrasting notions about the usefulness of concept mapping. The relevance of concept mapping to clinical case-based learning in veterinary medicine is discussed, along with directions for future research.
Kurtz, Ellen S; Wallo, Warren
Oatmeal has been used for centuries as a soothing agent to relieve itch and irritation associated with various xerotic dermatoses. In 1945, a ready to use colloidal oatmeal, produced by finely grinding the oat and boiling it to extract the colloidal material, became available. Today, colloidal oatmeal is available in various dosage forms from powders for the bath to shampoos, shaving gels, and moisturizing creams. Currently, the use of colloidal oatmeal as a skin protectant is regulated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) according to the Over-The-Counter Final Monograph for Skin Protectant Drug Products issued in June 2003. Its preparation is also standardized by the United States Pharmacopeia. The many clinical properties of colloidal oatmeal derive from its chemical polymorphism. The high concentration in starches and beta-glucan is responsible for the protective and water-holding functions of oat. The presence of different types of phenols confers antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Some of the oat phenols are also strong ultraviolet absorbers. The cleansing activity of oat is mostly due to saponins. Its many functional properties make colloidal oatmeal a cleanser, moisturizer, buffer, as well as a soothing and protective anti-inflammatory agent.
Lescuyer, Pierre; Farina, Annarita; Hochstrasser, Denis F
Proteomics has stimulated the development of very powerful methods for protein analysis. Implementation of some of these methods in clinical chemistry laboratories could offer clinicians better tools for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic follow-up of human diseases. However, laboratory medicine activities are bound by a number of constraints and rules for ensuring quality of results for clinical practice. There is therefore a gap to be filled between the research and routine medical laboratories. In this opinion article, we present the proteomic methods that will most likely be implemented in clinical chemistry laboratories in the short term, and we discuss the major issues yet to be addressed before considering such a transfer. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
SCOPE The Editorial Board of the Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) welcomes contributions in the form of original research papers, review articles, clinical case reports, and short communications on all aspects of Veterinary Medicine, Surgery and Animal Production. Submissions are accepted on the understanding that ...
Pavlovic, Melanie; Wudy, Corinna; Zeller-Peronnet, Veronique; Maggipinto, Marzena; Zimmermann, Pia; Straubinger, Alix; Iwobi, Azuka; Märtlbauer, Erwin; Busch, Ulrich; Huber, Ingrid
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently emerged as a rapid and accurate identification method for bacterial species. Although it has been successfully applied for the identification of human pathogens, it has so far not been well evaluated for routine identification of veterinary bacterial isolates. This study was performed to compare and evaluate the performance of MALDI-TOF MS based identification of veterinary bacterial isolates with commercially available conventional test systems. Discrepancies of both methods were resolved by sequencing 16S rDNA and, if necessary, the infB gene for Actinobacillus isolates. A total of 375 consecutively isolated veterinary samples were collected. Among the 357 isolates (95.2%) correctly identified at the genus level by MALDI-TOF MS, 338 of them (90.1% of the total isolates) were also correctly identified at the species level. Conventional methods offered correct species identification for 319 isolates (85.1%). MALDI-TOF identification therefore offered more accurate identification of veterinary bacterial isolates. An update of the in-house mass spectra database with additional reference spectra clearly improved the identification results. In conclusion, the presented data suggest that MALDI-TOF MS is an appropriate platform for classification and identification of veterinary bacterial isolates.
Full Text Available This is a reprint of Myburgh, J.G. Botha, C.J. Booyse, D.G. & Reyers, F., 2008, 'Provisional clinical chemistry parameters in the African Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus', Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 79(4, 156-160. http://dx.doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v79i4.265:Pollution affects aquatic systems worldwide and there is an urgent need for efficient monitoring. Fish are generally sensitive to their environment and are thus considered to be valuable bioindicator species. The African Sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus is particularly important in this respect because of its very wide distribution. In order to use C. gariepinus as a bioindicator species its baseline clinical chemistry must be defined. Existing data are scarce, and the objective of this work was therefore to establish clinical chemistry parameters for C. gariepinus. Blood was collected from male and female catfish and a number of clinical chemistry parameters were determined. Plasma protein values, but particularly those of plasma albumin, were found to be very low, approximately half the value for dogs, but similar to the values in Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus. Plasma urea values in Sharptooth catfish were found to be much lower than in dogs, but only marginally lower than in Channel catfish. Plasma creatinine in Sharptooth catfish, however, was only a quarter of that of dogs and one third of that found in Channel catfish. These findings may have implications for using urea and / or creatinine as an index of renal glomerular filtration, as is done in mammals. Plasma enzyme activity ranges were much lower in Sharptooth catfish than in dogs, particularly for alkaline phosphatase (ALP and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. By comparison, Channel catfish have an even lower ALT activity range but an ALP range that is very similar to dogs. The implications for using these enzymes as markers for liver disease are not clear from these data, as factors such as
Ober, Christopher P
When confronted with various findings on thoracic radiographs, fourth-year veterinary students often have difficulty generating appropriate lists of differential diagnoses. The purpose of this one-group, pretest, posttest experimental study was to determine if a game could be used as an adjunct teaching method to improve students' understanding of connections between imaging findings and differential diagnoses. A novel board game focusing on differential diagnoses in thoracic radiography was developed. One hundred fourth-year veterinary students took a brief pretest, played the board game, and took a brief posttest as a part of their respective clinical radiology rotations. Pretest results were compared to posttest results using a paired t-test to determine if playing the game impacted student understanding. Students' mean scores on the posttest were significantly higher than mean pretest scores (P board game resulted in improved short-term understanding of thoracic differential diagnoses by fourth-year students, and use of the board game on a clinical rotation seems to be a beneficial part of the learning process. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Ostrowski, Janusz; Muszytowski, Marek; Rutkowski, Bolesław
Dynamic progress in the basic sciences such as clinical chemistry exerted a great influence on the development of clinical science in medicine in the 19th century. We should rate Prof. Leon Marchlewski among the group of prominent foreign and Polish scientists working in that period. Marchlewski was born in 1869 in Wloclawek, Poland. He began his chemical studies in Warsaw and then continued at the Zurich Technical University. After having graduated, he began working in the famous Edward Schunk's laboratory in Kersal near Manchester in England. At that time he achieved recognition for his research on the chemical affinity of dyes of the animal and plant world. Later he cooperated in this field with another great scholar Marceli Nencki. In 1900 he returned to Poland, and in 1906 he took charge of the Department of Medical Chemistry at Jagiellonian University. He was nominated for the Nobel Prize twice in 1913 and 1914 for his numerous achievements in the field of clinical chemistry. He took many positions at Jagiellonian University in Krakow, including dean and rector. In 1930-1935 he was a senator of the Republic of Poland. He died in 1946 in Krakow.
Dooley, Laura M; Frankland, Sarah; Boller, Elise; Tudor, Elizabeth
There has been a recent move toward active learning pedagogies in veterinary education, with increasing use of a blended approach that incorporates both online resources and live classroom sessions. In this study, an established veterinary pre-clinical course in introductory animal health was transitioned from a traditional didactic lecture delivery mode to a flipped classroom approach with core content delivered online. This study compared the experiences of two cohorts of students who studied the same course in the different formats in consecutive years. Online learning resources included short video segments and a variety of short problems and activities. Online materials were complemented with weekly small- group case-based learning classes facilitated by academic staff. A mixed methods evaluation strategy was applied using student grades, surveys, and focus groups to compare student academic performance, satisfaction and engagement between the two cohorts. The flipped classroom cohort achieved significantly higher grades in the written answer section of the final examination. Student satisfaction with learning resources was also higher in this cohort. However, satisfaction with other aspects of the course were largely the same for both cohorts. This study revealed some of the challenges associated with achieving adequate student preparation for class using online resources. The outcomes of this study have implications for veterinary educators considering the design and development of new online learning resources.
Vergnano, D; Bergero, D; Valle, E
Nutrition plays a very important role in the healthy and in the ill horse. Although research in this field clearly shows that incorrect nutritional practices may lead to severe pathologies, inappropriate feeding plans often continue to be used. A clinical nutrition counselling (CNC) service could thus be of great use to both horse owners and veterinarians. The aim of this study was to provide information on equine patients referred to the CNC service of the University of Turin and to provide standard dietary protocols as used in our Veterinary Teaching Hospital for the most common nutrition-related pathologies. The data were obtained by retrospective analysis of the nutritional records of referred equine patients. The data collected included information about anamnesis, nutritional assessment, current diet, referring person and follow-up of each patient. Sixty-one horses were included in the study. The majority were adult males. The most common breeds were the Italian Saddle Horse and the Friesian Horse. Old horses (>19 years) had a statistically lower BCS than brood mares or other adult horses (p < 0.01). The most common nutritional pathologies were chronic weight loss (CWL), chronic diarrhoea (CD) and equine gastric ulcer syndrome. All horses received first-cut meadow hay; 85% also ate concentrates. Young horses (<2 years) received more hay as a percentage of body weight (BW) than old horses or adults. The hay percentage of BW per day given to animals with CWL was statistically higher than those with CD (p < 0.01). The concentrate percentage of BW given to old horses was statistically lower compared to that given to young horses (p < 0.05). The concentrate percentage of BW per day given to horses with colic was statistically higher than that given to horses with CD (p < 0.05). 28% of cases were referred by the owner and 72% by a veterinarian. Follow-up evaluation was deemed to be 'good' in 92% cases and 'poor' in 8%. In summary, the CNC service could
The goal of harmonizing laboratory information is to contribute to quality in patient care, ultimately improving upon patient outcomes and safety. The main focus of harmonization and standardization initiatives has been on analytical processes within the laboratory walls, clinical chemistry tests in particular. However, two major evidences obtained in recent years show that harmonization should be promoted not only in the analytical phase but also in all steps of the testing process, encompassing the entire field of laboratory medicine, including innovative areas (e.g. "omics") rather than just conventional clinical chemistry tests. A large body of evidence demonstrates the vulnerability of the extra-analytical phases of the testing cycle. Because only "good biological samples" can assure good analytical quality, a closer interconnection between the different phases of the cycle is needed. In order to provide reliable and accurate laboratory information, harmonization activities should cover all steps of the cycle from the "pre-pre-analytical" phase (right choice of test at right time for right patient) through the analytical steps (right results with right report) to the "post-post-analytical" steps (right and timely acknowledgment of laboratory information, right interpretation and utilization with any necessary advice as to what to do next with the information provided). In addition, modern clinical laboratories are performing a broad menu of hundreds of tests, covering both traditional and innovative subspecialties of the discipline. In addition, according to a centered viewpoint, harmonization initiatives should not be addressed exclusively to clinical chemistry tests but should also include all areas of laboratory medicine.
The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of laboratory quality regulations and accreditation standards in Turkey. This paper is written based on the current regulations, information collected by available websites and congress proceedings, and personal communications. A total of 14 private and one public laboratory have been accredited according to ISO 15189 voluntarily. The total number of the JCI accredited hospitals is 24. One hospital has been accredited by HQS. A few medical laboratories have been accredited according to ISO 17025, whereas a lot of them have ISO 9001 certification from Turkish Accreditation Agency, TURKAK. There are no comprehensive laboratory standards and/or regulations to maintain a mandatory minimum quality of laboratories. External QC is not mandatory and there is no national proficiency testing program. It is a requirement to get a license to open a laboratory. There are residency programs for clinical chemistry and clinical microbiology. The Association of Clinical Biochemists, KBUD, is the youngest society in the field of clinical chemistry and is a leader in quality and accreditation activities. KBUDEK is an external QC program of KBUD. KBUD has organized four national and an international symposiums on quality and accreditation in addition to annual congresses and courses. The new standard and regulation should be designed and applied to all laboratories to increase the quality of laboratory service in Turkey. It will be useful if the ISO 15189 standard can be incorporated into the national standards and regulations.
Hafen, McArthur; Siqueira Drake, Adryanna A; Rush, Bonnie R; Sibley, D Scott
The present study evaluated third-year veterinary medical students' perceptions of a communication lab protocol. The protocol used clips of fourth-year veterinary medical students working with authentic clients. These clips supplemented course material. Clips showed examples of proficient communication as well as times of struggle for fourth-year students. Third-year students were asked to critique interactions during class. One hundred and eight third-year students provided feedback about the communication lab. While initial interest in communication proved low, interest in communication training at the end of the course increased substantially. The majority of students cited watching videos clips of authentic client interactions as being an important teaching tool.
Rizos, Demetrios; Karababa, Photini; Sarandakou, Angeliki; Panagiotakis, Othon; Haliassos, Alexander; Makris, Konstantinos; Psarra, Katerina; Bairaktari, Eleni; Spyropoulou, Panagiota; Nikolou, Chara; Galiatsatos, Nikolaos; Trakas, Nikolaos; Ferderigou, Angeliki; Seferiadis, Konstantin
In Greece, there is no officially organized training in clinical chemistry for scientists. The Greek Society of Clinical Chemistry-Clinical Biochemistry decided to organize an intensive educational program of 18 seminars on clinical chemistry content as it is described in the EC4 Syllabus. The duration of each seminar was about 6 hours and consisted of 6 to 9 lectures. At the end of each seminar there was a voluntary written examination, comprised of 24 multiple choice questions. Successful completion of the Educational program was leading to a Certificate of Competence. Two cycles of the 18 seminars were performed: 1st cycle from October 2003 to December 2005 and 2nd cycle from March 2005 to October 2007. One hundred eighty nine colleagues was the mean attendance per seminar for the seminars of the 1st cycle and 38 colleagues for the seminars of the 2nd cycle. The mean participation to the examination for each seminar was almost 80% for the 1st cycle and 68% for the 2nd cycle. More than 80% of the participants performed Good or Very good in the examination in both cycles. It is estimated that more than 40% of the scientists who practice Clinical Chemistry in Greece, participated to this educational activity. This program is now provided as an e-learning application, and it is open for all scientists who want to follow the discipline of clinical chemistry.
Li, Jiakui; Guo, Dingzong; Zhou, Donghai; Wu, Xiaoxiong
Veterinary internal medicine (VIM) is a core subject and important clinical discipline for undergraduate students of veterinary science. The present paper reviews current information about the teaching of VIM, presents a description of the veterinary science curriculum, suggests methods to improve the quality of VIM teaching in China, and describes difficulties, problems, and trends in veterinary education in China.
Anderson, Maureen E.C.; Weese, J. Scott
The objective of this study was to describe the perceived importance of and barriers to hand hygiene among companion animal clinic staff. An anonymous, voluntary written questionnaire was completed by 356 of approximately 578 individuals (62%) from 49/51 clinics. On a scale of 1 (not important) to 7 (very important), the percentage of respondents who rated hand hygiene as a 5 or higher was at least 82% in all clinical scenarios queried. The most frequently reported reason for not performing hand hygiene was forgetting to do so (40%, 141/353). Specific discussion of hand hygiene practices at work was recalled by 32% (114/354) of respondents. Although veterinary staff seem to recognize the importance of hand hygiene, it should be emphasized more during staff training. Other barriers including time constraints and skin irritation should also be addressed, possibly through increased access to and use of alcohol-based hand sanitizers. PMID:26933265
Peto, J.; Whitby, L. G.; Finney, D. J.
This paper begins with a critical examination of the published account (Carruthers, 1970) of a pioneering study of simulation in a clinical chemistry laboratory. It next considers the basic requirements for the formal mathematical description of such a laboratory: these include the setting of criteria, the resource and input variates, and the definition of success by means of criterion variates. Investigation of criterion variates can be by direct measurement, or by a theoretical approach which may include simulation. The aims of simulation are discussed and an attempt to simulate the operation of a large clinical chemistry laboratory is described. The difficulty of constructing an overall measure of efficiency is considered in relation to improving performance within an existing framework, to evaluating new equipment such as computers on-line to laboratory apparatus, and to inter-laboratory comparisons of performance. It is concluded that complex operational research techniques, including simulation, have little to offer at least for the present, and may even lead to misleading conclusions. PMID:4648545
The present overview of validation and verification procedures in clinical chemistry focuses on the use of harmonized concepts and nomenclature, fitness-for-purpose evaluations and procedures for minimizing overall measurement and diagnostic uncertainty. The need for mutually accepted validation procedures in all fields of bioanalysis becomes obvious when they implement international accreditation and certification standards or their equivalents. The guide on bioanalytical method validation published by the US FDA in 2001 represents a sensible compromise between thoroughness and cost-effectiveness. Lacking comprehensive international agreements in the field, this document has also been successfully adapted in other fields of bioanalysis. European and international efforts aiming for consensus in the entire field of bioanalysis are currently being made. Manufacturers of highly automated in vitro diagnostic methods provide the majority of measurement methods used in unmodified in clinical chemistry. Validated by the manufacturers for their intended use and fitness-for-purpose, they need to be verified in the circumstances of the end-users. As yet, there is unfortunately no general agreement on the extent of the verification procedures needed.
Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse
Materials and methods: The Jamnapari cross goat aged two years and weighing 40 Kg was presented to the Universiti Veterinary Hospital, Universiti Putra Malaysia with the history of diarrhea and depression. The goat was examined physically. Blood and fecal samples were collected for complete blood count, serum biochemistry analysis and parasitological examination. Standard treatment plan was applied for the correction of the the problem. Results: Physical examination findings revealed the goat was in poor body condition, dull and depressed. Wet and dry fecal traces were observed around the groin region. The temperature was slightly elevated (39.5°C, the heart rate was increased (160 b/min while other parameters were within normal range. Upon auscultation of the thoracic region, moderate crackle lung sound was determined. Visual observation of the nasal cavity indicated a bilateral mucopurulent nasal discharge. The hemogram result revealed evidence of a normocytic normochromic anemia, leukocytosis, neutrophilia with left shift and monocytosis. Serum biochemistry revealed increases in gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT, sodium, chloride, creatine kinase (CK, and hyperglobulinemia. Fecal examination revealed increased in Strongyle egg count of about 2,700 eggs per gram of feces using the Modified Mcmaster technique. From the history, physical examination and laboratory findings the goat was diagnosed with clinical parasitic gastroenteritis (PGE concurrent with moderate pneumonia infection. The therapeutic plan for this case were 45 mL of kaolin-pectin (30 mL/Kg body weight orally SID for 3 days as anti-diarrhea, 12 mL Levamisole (12 mg/Kg bwt was administered orally once as anthelminthic, fluid therapy was instituted using 1.5 L of Lactated Ringers solution once via intravenously. Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole (1 mL/16 Kg bwt was administered intramuscularly SID for 3 days. Conclusion: Follow up examination of the goat a week post treatment indicated a good prognosis
Full Text Available VetCAST is the EUCAST sub-committee for Veterinary Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. Its remit is to define clinical breakpoints (CBPs for antimicrobial drugs (AMDs used in veterinary medicine in Europe. This position paper outlines the procedures and reviews scientific options to solve challenges for the determination of specific CBPs for animal species, drug substances and disease conditions. VetCAST will adopt EUCAST approaches: the initial step will be data assessment; then procedures for decisions on the CBP; and finally the release of recommendations for CBP implementation. The principal challenges anticipated by VetCAST are those associated with the differing modalities of AMD administration, including mass medication, specific long-acting product formulations or local administration. Specific challenges comprise mastitis treatment in dairy cattle, the range of species and within species breed considerations and several other variable factors not relevant to human medicine. Each CBP will be based on consideration of: (i an epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF – the highest MIC that defines the upper end of the wild-type MIC distribution; (ii a PK/PD breakpoint obtained from pre-clinical pharmacokinetic data [this PK/PD break-point is the highest possible MIC for which a given percentage of animals in the target population achieves a critical value for the selected PK/PD index (fAUC/MIC or fT > MIC] and (iii when possible, a clinical cut-off, that is the relationship between MIC and clinical cure. For the latter, VetCAST acknowledges the paucity of such data in veterinary medicine. When a CBP cannot be established, VetCAST will recommend use of ECOFF as surrogate. For decision steps, VetCAST will follow EUCAST procedures involving transparency, consensus and independence. VetCAST will ensure freely available dissemination of information, concerning standards, guidelines, ECOFF, PK/PD breakpoints, CBPs and other relevant information
A. William, S.U.R. Chaudhari1 and N.N. Atsandac2
Full Text Available A 3-year (retrospective study was conducted to determine the prevalence of diseases; clinical conditions of dogs and cats presented at the Government Veterinary Clinic, Maiduguri from January 1995 to December 1997. The prevalent diseases; conditions of dogs included helminthosis (19.19%, accidental injury (18.18%, tick infestation ( 15.15% , canine distemper (8.42% , diarrhoea ( 6.73%, mange ( 7.41%, rabies (5.05% and babesiosis (4.71%, Prevalent diseases/conditions of cats included helminthosis (26.67%. tick infestation ( 8.89%. diarrhea ( 16.67%, nutritional deficiencies ( 15.56% and respiratory infections ( 12.22%. Of highest prevalence in both dogs and cats was helminthosis (20.93%, followed by tick infestation (13. 70% and diarrhea (9.04% suggesting a poor husbandy of these pets in Maiduguri area. Cases of automobile accidental injury of dogs were also high, probably due to the same factors of poor husbandry.
Kwo, Paul Y; Cohen, Stanley M; Lim, Joseph K
Clinicians are required to assess abnormal liver chemistries on a daily basis. The most common liver chemistries ordered are serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin. These tests should be termed liver chemistries or liver tests. Hepatocellular injury is defined as disproportionate elevation of AST and ALT levels compared with alkaline phosphatase levels. Cholestatic injury is defined as disproportionate elevation of alkaline phosphatase level as compared with AST and ALT levels. The majority of bilirubin circulates as unconjugated bilirubin and an elevated conjugated bilirubin implies hepatocellular disease or cholestasis. Multiple studies have demonstrated that the presence of an elevated ALT has been associated with increased liver-related mortality. A true healthy normal ALT level ranges from 29 to 33 IU/l for males, 19 to 25 IU/l for females and levels above this should be assessed. The degree of elevation of ALT and or AST in the clinical setting helps guide the evaluation. The evaluation of hepatocellular injury includes testing for viral hepatitis A, B, and C, assessment for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease, screening for hereditary hemochromatosis, autoimmune hepatitis, Wilson's disease, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. In addition, a history of prescribed and over-the-counter medicines should be sought. For the evaluation of an alkaline phosphatase elevation determined to be of hepatic origin, testing for primary biliary cholangitis and primary sclerosing cholangitis should be undertaken. Total bilirubin elevation can occur in either cholestatic or hepatocellular diseases. Elevated total serum bilirubin levels should be fractionated to direct and indirect bilirubin fractions and an elevated serum conjugated bilirubin implies hepatocellular disease or biliary obstruction in most settings. A liver biopsy may be considered when serologic testing and imaging
Jones, Jana L; Rinehart, Jim; Spiegel, Jacqueline Jordan; Englar, Ryane E; Sidaway, Brian K; Rowles, Joie
Anesthesia simulations have been used in pre-clinical medical training for decades to help learners gain confidence and expertise in an operating room environment without danger to a live patient. The authors describe a veterinary anesthesia simulation environment (VASE) with anesthesia scenarios developed to provide a re-creation of a veterinarian's task environment while performing anesthesia. The VASE uses advanced computer technology with simulator inputs provided from standard monitoring equipment in common use during veterinary anesthesia and a commercial canine training mannequin that allows intubation, ventilation, and venous access. The simulation outputs are determined by a script that outlines routine anesthesia scenarios and describes the consequences of students' hands-on actions and interventions during preestablished anesthetic tasks and critical incidents. Patients' monitored physiologic parameters may be changed according to predetermined learner events and students' interventions to provide immediate learner feedback and clinical realism. A total of 96 students from the pre-clinical anesthesia course participated in the simulations and the pre- and post-simulation surveys evaluating students' perspectives. Results of the surveys and comparisons of overall categorical cumulative responses in the pre- and post-simulation surveys indicated improvement in learners' perceived preparedness and confidence as a result of the simulated anesthesia experience, with significant improvement in the strongly agree, moderately agree, and agree categories (p<.05 at a 95% CI). These results suggest that anesthesia simulations in the VASE may complement traditional teaching methods through experiential learning and may help foster classroom-to-clinic transference of knowledge and skills without harm to an animal.
Chadderdon, Linda M; Lloyd, James W; Pazak, Helene E
Veterinary technology has generally established itself well in companion-animal and mixed-animal veterinary medical practice, but the career's growth trajectory is uncertain. Michigan State University (MSU) convened a national conference, "Creating the Future of Veterinary Technology-A National Dialogue," in November 2011 to explore ways to elevate the veterinary technician/technologist's role in the veterinary medical profession and to identify new directions in which the career could expand. Veterinary technicians/technologists might advance their place in private practice by not only improving their clinical skills, but by also focusing on areas such as practice management, leadership training, business training, conflict resolution, information technology, and marketing/communications. Some new employment settings for veterinary technicians/technologists include more participation within laboratory animal medicine and research, the rural farm industry, regulatory medicine, and shelter medicine. Achieving these ends would call for new training options beyond the current 2-year and 4-year degree programs. Participants suggested specialty training programs, hybrid programs of various types, online programs, veterinary technician residency programs of 12-18 months, and more integration of veterinary technician/technology students and veterinary medicine students at colleges of veterinary medicine.
Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare
The validation process is essential in accredited clinical laboratories. Aim of this study was to validate five kinds of serum vacuum tubes for routine clinical chemistry laboratory testing. Blood specimens from 100 volunteers in five different serum vacuum tubes (Tube I: VACUETTE, Tube II: LABOR IMPORT, Tube III: S-Monovette, Tube IV: SST and Tube V: SST II) were collected by a single, expert phlebotomist. The routine clinical chemistry tests were analyzed on cobas 6000 module. The significance of the differences between samples was assessed by paired Student's t-test after checking for normality. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.005. Finally, the biases from Tube I, Tube II, Tube III, Tube IV and Tube V were compared with the current desirable quality specifications for bias (B), derived from biological variation. Basically, our validation will permit the laboratory or hospital managers to select the brand's vacuum tubes validated according him/her technical or economical reasons, in order to perform the following laboratory tests: glucose, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, total protein, albumin, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, alkaline phosphatise, aspartate aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, calcium, iron, sodium and potassium. On the contrary special attention will be required if the laboratory already performs creatinine, amylase, phosphate and magnesium determinations and the quality laboratory manager intend to change the serum tubes. We suggest that laboratory management should both standardize the procedures and frequently evaluate the quality of in vitro diagnostic devices.
The National Cancer Institute, through its Clinical Proteomic Technologies for Cancer (CPTC) initiative has entered into a memorandum of understanding with the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) to join forces to promote and educate the clinical chemistry community in the area of proteomic standards and technology advances.
Diseases related to copper, selenium or iron overload or deficiency are common and well-described in large animal veterinary medicine. Some of them certainly have the potential to serve as useful animal models for ongoing research in the field of trace elements. Obvious advantages of large animal models compared to laboratory animal models like rats and mice are the option of long-term, consecutive examinations of progressive deficient or toxic stages and the opportunity to collect various, high volume samples for repeated measurements. Nevertheless, close cooperation between scientific disciplines is necessary as scientists using high sophisticated analytical methods and equipment are not regularly in touch with scientists working with large animal diseases. This review will give an introduction into some typical animal diseases related to trace elements and will present approaches where the animal diseases were used already as a model for interdisciplinary research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Haider, N; Khan, S U; Islam, A; Osmani, M G; Rahman, M Z; Epstein, J H; Daszak, P; Zeidner, N S
As in most low-income countries, adequate laboratory facilities are not available in Bangladesh to assist veterinarians in diagnosing animal diseases. We aimed to determine the efficiency of veterinary diagnoses for two common ruminant diseases in Bangladesh: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). We conducted the study from May 2009 to August 2010 in three government veterinary hospitals where veterinarians collected samples from sick livestock and recorded the presumptive diagnosis on the basis of clinical presentations. Samples were tested for PPR and FMD using real-time RT-PCR. We estimated the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the presumptive diagnoses when compared to laboratory tests. We tested 539 goats for PPR and 340 cattle and goats for FMD. Our results indicate that the veterinarians' presumptive diagnoses were different from laboratory findings for both PPR (P clinical diagnoses was 54% (95% CI: 47-61%) while specificity was 81% (95% CI: 78-84%) compared to real-time RT-PCR tests. The kappa value obtained in our validation process for PPR (kappa: 0.25) and FMD (kappa 0.36) indicated a poor performance of the presumptive diagnoses. Most of the animals (93%) were treated with antibiotics. Our findings indicate that veterinarians can detect animals not infected with FMD or PPR but miss the true cases. The clinical competency of these veterinarians needs to be improved and access to laboratory diagnostic facilities could help veterinarians to improve the diagnostics and outcomes. The rational use of antibiotics by veterinarians in animals must be ensured. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Hecker, Kent G; Adams, Cindy L; Coe, Jason B
Communication skills are considered to be a core clinical skill in veterinary medicine and essential for practice success, including outcomes of care for patients and clients. While veterinary schools include communication skills training in their programs, there is minimal knowledge on how best to assess communication competence throughout the undergraduate program. The purpose of this study was to further our understanding of the reliability, utility, and suitability of a communication skills Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE). Specifically we wanted to (1) identify the greatest source of variability (student, rater, station, and track) within a first-year, four station OSCE using exam scores and scores from videotape review by two trained raters, and (2) determine the effect of different stations on students' communication skills performance. Reliability of the scores from both the exam data and the two expert raters was 0.50 and 0.46 respectively, with the greatest amount of variance attributable to student by station. The percentage of variance due to raters in the exam data was 16.35%, whereas the percentage of variance for the two expert raters was 0%. These results have three important implications. First, the results reinforce the need for communication educators to emphasize that use of communication skills is moderated by the context of the clinical interaction. Second, by increasing rater training the amount of error in the scores due to raters can be reduced and inter-rater reliability increases. Third, the communication assessment method (in this case the OSCE checklist) should be built purposefully, taking into consideration the context of the case.
Flatland, Bente; Freeman, Kathleen P; Vap, Linda M; Harr, Kendal E
Point-of-care testing (POCT) refers to any laboratory testing performed outside the conventional reference laboratory and implies close proximity to patients. Instrumental POCT systems consist of small, handheld or benchtop analyzers. These have potential utility in many veterinary settings, including private clinics, academic veterinary medical centers, the community (eg, remote area veterinary medical teams), and for research applications in academia, government, and industry. Concern about the quality of veterinary in-clinic testing has been expressed in published veterinary literature; however, little guidance focusing on POCT is available. Recognizing this void, the ASVCP formed a subcommittee in 2009 charged with developing quality assurance (QA) guidelines for veterinary POCT. Guidelines were developed through literature review and a consensus process. Major recommendations include (1) taking a formalized approach to POCT within the facility, (2) use of written policies, standard operating procedures, forms, and logs, (3) operator training, including periodic assessment of skills, (4) assessment of instrument analytical performance and use of both statistical quality control and external quality assessment programs, (5) use of properly established or validated reference intervals, (6) and ensuring accurate patient results reporting. Where possible, given instrument analytical performance, use of a validated 13s control rule for interpretation of control data is recommended. These guidelines are aimed at veterinarians and veterinary technicians seeking to improve management of POCT in their clinical or research setting, and address QA of small chemistry and hematology instruments. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide a minimum standard for maintenance of POCT instruments in the veterinary setting. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J
Hemostasis is a delicate, dynamic and intricate system, in which pro- and anti-coagulant forces cooperate for either maintaining blood fluidity under normal conditions, or else will prompt blood clot generation to limit the bleeding when the integrity of blood vessels is jeopardized. Excessive prevalence of anticoagulant forces leads to hemorrhage, whereas excessive activation of procoagulant forces triggers excessive coagulation and thrombosis. The hemostasis laboratory performs a variety of first, second and third line tests, and plays a pivotal role in diagnostic and monitoring of most hemostasis disturbances. Since the leading targets of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine include promotion of progress in fundamental and applied research, along with publication of guidelines and recommendations in laboratory diagnostics, this journal is an ideal source of information on current developments in the laboratory technology of hemostasis, and this article is aimed to celebrate some of the most important and popular articles ever published by the journal in the filed of laboratory hemostasis.
Artemiou, Elpida; Adams, Cindy L; Toews, Lorraine; Violato, Claudio; Coe, Jason B
We determined the Web-based configurations that are applied to teach medical and veterinary communication skills, evaluated their effectiveness, and suggested future educational directions for Web-based communication teaching in veterinary education. We performed a systematic search of CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ERIC limited to articles published in English between 2000 and 2012. The review focused on medical or veterinary undergraduate to clinical- or residency-level students. We selected studies for which the study population was randomized to the Web-based learning (WBL) intervention with a post-test comparison with another WBL or non-WBL method and that reported at least one empirical outcome. Two independent reviewers completed relevancy screening, data extraction, and synthesis of results using Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's framework. The search retrieved 1,583 articles, and 10 met the final inclusion criteria. We identified no published articles on Web based communication platforms in veterinary medicine; however, publications summarized from human medicine demonstrated that WBL provides a potentially reliable and valid approach for teaching and assessing communication skills. Student feedback on the use of virtual patients for teaching clinical communication skills has been positive,though evidence has suggested that practice with virtual patients prompted lower relation-building responses.Empirical outcomes indicate that WBL is a viable method for expanding the approach to teaching history taking and possibly to additional tasks of the veterinary medical interview.
Bowen, Raffick A R; Remaley, Alan T
Improper design or use of blood collection devices can adversely affect the accuracy of laboratory test results. Vascular access devices, such as catheters and needles, exert shear forces during blood flow, which creates a predisposition to cell lysis. Components from blood collection tubes, such as stoppers, lubricants, surfactants, and separator gels, can leach into specimens and/or adsorb analytes from a specimen; special tube additives may also alter analyte stability. Because of these interactions with blood specimens, blood collection devices are a potential source of pre-analytical error in laboratory testing. Accurate laboratory testing requires an understanding of the complex interactions between collection devices and blood specimens. Manufacturers, vendors, and clinical laboratorians must consider the pre-analytical challenges in laboratory testing. Although other authors have described the effects of endogenous substances on clinical assay results, the effects/impact of blood collection tube additives and components have not been well systematically described or explained. This review aims to identify and describe blood collection tube additives and their components and the strategies used to minimize their effects on clinical chemistry assays.
Rafaela Alves Dias
Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Dias R.A., Souza A.P. & Garino Júnior F. [Assessment of bacterial contamination in the sectors of Clinical Medicine and Surgery Small Animal Veterinary Hospital, UFCG, PB.] Avaliação da contaminação bacteriana nos setores de Clínica e Cirurgia de Pequenos Animais do Hospital Veterinário da UFCG, PB. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:173-177, 2015. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Av. Universitária, s/n, Bairro Santa Cecília, Patos, PB 58708-110, Brasil. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org With this study aimed to evaluate bacterial contamination sectors Clinic and Surgery Small Animal Veterinary Hospital UFCG, in order to prevent infections in patients attending hospital. An assessment of the environmental contamination of sectors before and after disinfection, where was collected samples of air, surfaces and hands of people who deal directly with the animals. Then the test was made of the effectiveness of disinfectants used. Of the 40 samples collected, was identified in 5 of them (12.5% Enterobacteria such as Escherichia coli and Klebisiella pneumoniae and in 22 samples (55% was identified Staphylococcus coagulase negative and positive. Was seen in the quantitative analysis that the number of cfu in some sample was above the indicated. The test showed that the disinfectant solution was effective against all micro-organisms found in the environments. The results indicate that more attention to procedures performed in the disinfection of areas evaluated, and also include measures to prevent contamination at these sites.
Johnson, Beth M; Fry, Michael M; Flatland, Bente; Kirk, Claudia A
To compare blood glucose concentrations measured with 2 portable blood glucose meters (PBGMs) validated for use in dogs (PBGM-D) and humans (PBGM-H) and an automated chemistry analyzer. Validation study. 92 samples of fresh whole blood and plasma from 83 dogs with various diseases. Each PBGM was used to measure whole blood glucose concentration, and the automated analyzer was used to measure plasma glucose concentration. Passing-Bablok linear regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to determine correlations and bias between the PBGMs and the automated analyzer. Calculated acceptability limits based on combined inherent instrument imprecision were used with Bland-Altman plots to determine agreement. Clinical relevance was assessed via error grid analysis. Although correlation between results of both PBGMs and the standard analyzer was > 0.90, disagreement was greater than could be explained by instrument imprecision alone. Mean difference between PBGM-H and chemistry-analyzer values was -15.8 mg/dL. Mean difference between PBGM-D and chemistry-analyzer values was 2.4 mg/dL. Linear regression analysis revealed proportional bias of PBGM-H (greater disagreement at higher glucose concentrations); no proportional bias was detected for PBGM-D. No constant bias was detected for either PBGM. Error grid analysis revealed all measurements from both PBGMs were within zones without an anticipated effect on clinical outcome. Neither PBGM had exact agreement with the automated analyzer; however, the disagreement detected did not have serious clinical consequences. Our findings stressed the importance of using the same device for monitoring trends in dogs and using instrument-specific reference ranges.
Getachew, M A; Innocent, G; Reid, S W J; Burden, F; Love, S
Although fasciolosis is an important livestock disease worldwide, the public health importance of human fasciolosis has increased in recent years and it is recognised as an important re-emerging zoonotic disease, its epidemiology and pathogenicity in donkeys, and the epidemiological role they may play have not been determined. To investigate the epidemiology and pathogenicity of fasciolosis in donkeys. Cross-sectional coprological and retrospective post-mortem study. Faecal samples collected from 803 randomly selected working donkeys from the central region of Ethiopia were analysed by a sedimentation-centrifugation-flotation technique. Further data on liver-flukes and associated pathologies were obtained by routine post mortem examinations of 112 donkeys, subjected to euthanasia on welfare grounds or died. Data were analysed using a generalised linear model and multivariate binary logistic regression in R statistical package with significance level of statistical tests set at Psound control strategies and prevention of fasciolosis. Ethical animal research: The research underwent ethical review and the use of animals was approved by the Directors of The Donkey Sanctuary. Consent of the owners was obtained to use their animals. The Donkey Sanctuary. Competing interests: None declared. © 2015 The Author(s). Equine Veterinary Journal © 2015 EVJ Ltd.
Vasikaran, Samuel; Sikaris, Kenneth; Kilpatrick, Eric; French, Jane; Badrick, Tony; Osypiw, Jacqui; Plebani, Mario
The provision of interpretative advice on laboratory results is a post-analytic activity and an integral part of clinical laboratory services. It is valued by healthcare workers and has the potential to prevent or reduce errors and improve patient outcomes. It is important to ensure that interpretative comments provided by laboratory personnel are of high quality: comments should be patient-focused and answer the implicit or explicit question raised by the requesting clinician. Comment providers need to be adequately trained and qualified and be able to demonstrate their proficiency to provide advice on laboratory reports. External quality assessment (EQA) schemes can play a part in assessing and demonstrating the competence of such laboratory staff and have an important role in their education and continuing professional development. A standard structure is proposed for EQA schemes for interpretative comments in clinical chemistry, which addresses the scope and method of assessment including nomenclature and marking scales. There is a need for evidence that participation in an EQA program for interpretative commenting facilitates improved quality of comments. It is proposed that standardizing goals and methods of assessment as well as nomenclature and marking scales may help accumulate evidence to demonstrate the impact of participation in EQA for interpretative commenting on patient outcome.
Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Shcharbina, Natallia; Milowska, Katarzyna; de la Mata, Francisco Javier; Muñoz-Fernandez, Maria Angeles; Mignani, Serge; Gomez-Ramirez, Rafael; Majoral, Jean-Pierre; Bryszewska, Maria
The development of medical nanosystems requires knowledge of their behavior in vivo. Clinical chemistry tests are widely used to estimate the systemic toxicity of nanoparticles. In this paper we have explored the impact of small positively charged nanoparticles-poly(amidoamine), phosphorous and carbosilane dendrimers - on biochemical parameters of standardized serum in vitro. All the dendrimers could shift the main biochemical parameters. Thus, in the case of patients having the normal, but 'boundary', values of biochemical parameters, nanoparticle-induced changes can be wrongly interpreted as evidence of some dysfunctions (hepatic, renal, etc.). Moreover, the effects of nanoparticles of metals, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, fullerenes, dendrimers having been sized up to 4000 nm and the hundreds of reactive groups, can be significantly higher. Thus, preliminary evaluation of any nanomaterial in vitro is required in clinical chemistry tests before its application in vivo to draw the correct conclusions and benefit animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Malton, R; Nagy, A
Diffusion of local anaesthetic solution after a mid-pastern ring block has not been investigated. To demonstrate potential distribution of local anaesthetic solution following injection of radiodense contrast medium as performed for a mid-pastern ring block. Experimental. Twelve mature horses were used. One and a half ml radiodense contrast medium was injected over the medial or lateral palmar digital nerve at the level of the proximal aspect of the ungular cartilages. A dorsal ring block was performed on the ipsilateral side, 1.5 cm proximal to the palpable palmar aspect of the proximal eminence of the middle phalanx, using 2 or 5 ml contrast medium. Both forelimbs were injected on 2 days (48 injections). Four standard radiographic views of the pastern were obtained immediately, 10 and 20 min after injections. Images were analysed subjectively and objectively. After dorsal injections the contrast medium was distributed in a diffuse patch over the ipsilateral half of the proximal phalanx (PP), extending proximally over the half of the length of PP in all limbs (greatest proximal extension: 89.0% of the length of PP [from distal] after 2 ml, 94.2% after 5 ml). There was significant proximal diffusion in the first 10 min after injection and significant dorsal diffusion between all time points (PFetlock region pain may be influenced by a mid-pastern ring block. Ethical animal research: Written consent had been obtained from a representative of the horses' owner prior to starting the study. None. Competing interests: None declared. © 2015 The Author(s). Equine Veterinary Journal © 2015 EVJ Ltd.
Clarke, Patricia; Schull, Daniel; Coleman, Glen; Pitt, Rachael; Manathunga, Catherine
Veterinary technology is an emerging profession within the veterinary and allied animal health fields in Australia and affords graduates the opportunity to contribute to the small but growing body of literature within this discipline. This study describes the introduction of a contextualised assessment task to develop students' research…
Haidari, Mehran; Yared, Marwan; Olano, Juan P; Alexander, C Bruce; Powell, Suzanne Z
-Previous studies suggest that training in pathology residency programs does not adequately prepare pathology residents to become competent in clinical chemistry. -To define the beliefs of pathology residents in the United States regarding their preparation for practicing clinical chemistry in their career, their attitude toward the discipline, and the attractiveness of clinical chemistry as a career. -The residents of all pathology residency programs in the United States were given the opportunity to participate in an online survey. -Three hundred thirty-six pathology residents responded to the survey. Analysis of the survey results indicates that pathology residents are more likely to believe that their income may be lower if they select a career that has a clinical chemistry focus and that their faculty do not value clinical chemistry as much as the anatomic pathology part of the residency. Residents also report that clinical chemistry is not as enjoyable as anatomic pathology rotations during residency or preferable as a sole career path. A large proportion of residents also believe that they will be slightly prepared or not prepared to practice clinical chemistry by the end of their residency and that they do not have enough background and/or time to learn clinical chemistry during their residency programs to be able to practice this specialty effectively post graduation. -Our survey results suggest that many pathology residents do not have a positive attitude toward clinical chemistry and do not experience a supportive learning environment with an expectation that they will become competent in clinical chemistry with a residency alone.
Hollinger, Charlotte; Libarkin, Julie C; Stickle, Julia E; Hauptman, Joe G; Henry, Rebecca; Scott, Michael A
A mixed-methods evaluation was conducted to study learner attitudes and knowledge about clinical pathology across a curricular change that instituted a stand-alone clinical pathology course in place of content within a previously integrated pathology course structure. Groups of pre- and post-change students were assessed three times across the two semesters leading up to graduation. At each time, rank-ordered and open-ended response items probed attitudes, and multiple-choice items assessed knowledge. Data about student clinical pathology performance were also collected from clinical pathology instructors and supervising clinicians. Student rank-ordered items were evaluated by factor analysis; resulting factor-scale scores, multiple-choice scores, and rank responses from study cohorts were statistically assessed between groups and within each group over time. Intraclass correlations were calculated for the coding of student open-ended responses, and all coded responses were compared among groups. Analysis revealed that students in the revised curriculum had greater satisfaction with their training and greater confidence in data interpretation compared to students without exposure to an independent clinical pathology course. Although differences in knowledge of clinical pathology were not detected, it was also apparent that the independent clinical pathology course filled a student-perceived curricular need without raising criticisms related to diminished integration with anatomic pathology. Secondary study outcomes included formative feedback for course improvement, evidence of clerkship efficacy, and baseline data for further studies.
leptospirosis. Case report. An 1 1 year old male Alsatian dog was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the. University of lbadan (VTH-Ul) with a hist01y of anorexia, weakness and exercise intolerance of5 days duration. On clinical examination, the rectal temperature was normal andlung auscultation revealed a ...
Although the safety profile of short term dexamethasone treatment has been established, there has been ... Although low-dose dexamethasone treatment has been used in veterinary and human clinics for many years and produced no severe ..... in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PcOS) (Keay et al., 2001).
Helcileia Dias Santos
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A direct search for parasites were used as the diagnostic test to determine the frequency of Leishmania spp. infection in dogs ( Canis lupus familiaris under veterinary clinical care in the city of Araguaína, Tocantins, Brazil. For this approach, lymph node cell samples were collected using needle aspiration from 649 dogs of different breeds and ages. Two hundred and sixty four (40.7% dogs tested positive for amastigote forms of Leishmania spp. Furthermore, 202 (76.5% dogs that tested positive showed some clinical sign of disease, while 62 (28.4% dogs were asymptomatic. Dogs <2 years old or those that lived alongside poultry species in peri-domicile areas had a greater chance of infection (P<0.05. Our results revealed the importance of frequently monitoring leishmaniasis in dogs, and the need to train veterinary professionals who work in high-transmission areas on the clinical diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.
Chichester, Lee; Gee, Melaney K; Jorgensen, Matthew J; Kaplan, Jay R
Clinical decisions and experimental analyses often involve the assessment of hematology and clinical chemistry. Using clinical pathology to assess the health status of NHP in breeding colonies or data from studies than involve pregnancy can often be complicated by pregnancy status. This study had 2 objectives regarding the hematology and clinical chemistry of African green monkeys (AGM, Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus): 1) to compare pregnant or recently postpartum animals with nonpregnant, nonlactating animals and 2) to create age- and sex-specific reference intervals. Subjects in this study were 491 AGM from the Vervet Research Colony of the Wake Forest University Primate Center. Results indicated that changes in BUN, serum total protein, albumin, ALP, GGT, calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, cholesterol, total CO2, globulins, lipase, amylase, WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, platelets, RBC, Hgb, and Hct occur during pregnancy and the postpartum period. Age- and sex-specific reference intervals consistent with guidelines from the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology were established and further expand the understanding of how to define health in AGM on the basis of clinical pathology. The combination of understanding the changes that occur in pregnancy and postpartum and expansive reference intervals will help guide clinical and experimental decisions.
Chemistry is the science of matter and of its transformations, and life is its highest expression. It provides structures endowed with properties and develops processes for the synthesis of structures. It plays a primordial role in our understanding of material phe- nomena, in our capability to act upon them, to modify them, to.
Sharkey, Leslie; Michael, Helen; LeBeau, Brandon; Center, Bruce; Wingert, Deb
Our second-year core clinical pathology course uses free-response case-based learning exercises in an otherwise traditional lecture or laboratory course format to augment the development of skills in application of knowledge and critical thinking and clinical reasoning. We previously reported increased learner confidence accompanied by perceived improvements in understanding and ability to apply information, along with enhanced feelings of preparedness for examinations that students attributed to the case-based exercises. The current study prospectively follows a cohort of students to determine the ability of traditional multiple-choice versus free-response case-based assessments to predict future academic performance and to determine if the perceived value of the case-based exercises persists through the curriculum. Our data show that after holding multiple-choice scores constant, better performance on case-based free-response exercises led to higher GPA and better class rank in the second and third years and better class rank in the fourth year. Students in clinical rotations reported that the case-based approach was superior to traditional lecture or multiple-choice exam format for learning clinical reasoning, retaining factual information, organizing information, communicating medical information clearly to colleagues in clinical situations, and preparing high quality medical records. In summary, this longitudinal study shows that case-based free-response writing assignments are efficacious above and beyond standard measures in determining students' GPAs and class rank and in students' acquisition of knowledge, skills, and clinical reasoning. Students value these assignments and overwhelmingly find them an efficient use of their time, and these opinions are maintained even two years following the course.
Eriksson, Jonatan; Andersson, Simone; Appelqvist, Roger; Wieslander, Elisabet; Truedsson, Mikael; Bugge, May; Malm, Johan; Dahlbäck, Magnus; Andersson, Bo; Fehniger, Thomas E; Marko-Varga, György
Data from biological samples and medical evaluations plays an essential part in clinical decision making. This data is equally important in clinical studies and it is critical to have an infrastructure that ensures that its quality is preserved throughout its entire lifetime. We are running a 5-year longitudinal clinical study, KOL-Örestad, with the objective to identify new COPD (Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease) biomarkers in blood. In the study, clinical data and blood samples are collected from both private and public health-care institutions and stored at our research center in databases and biobanks, respectively. The blood is analyzed by Mass Spectrometry and the results from this analysis then linked to the clinical data. We built an infrastructure that allows us to efficiently collect and analyze the data. We chose to use REDCap as the EDC (Electronic Data Capture) tool for the study due to its short setup-time, ease of use, and flexibility. REDCap allows users to easily design data collection modules based on existing templates. In addition, it provides two functions that allow users to import batches of data; through a web API (Application Programming Interface) as well as by uploading CSV-files (Comma Separated Values). We created a software, DART (Data Rapid Translation), that translates our biomarker data into a format that fits REDCap's CSV-templates. In addition, DART is configurable to work with many other data formats as well. We use DART to import our clinical chemistry data to the REDCap database. We have shown that a powerful and internationally adopted EDC tool such as REDCap can be extended so that it can be used efficiently in proteomic studies. In our study, we accomplish this by using DART to translate our clinical chemistry data to a format that fits the templates of REDCap.
Brown, Corina E.; Henry, Melissa L. M.; Barbera, Jack; Hyslop, Richard M.
This study focused on the undergraduate course that covers basic topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry at a mid-sized state university in the western United States. The central objective of the research was to identify the main topics of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was…
Konishi, Emiko; Tabara, Takashi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Engineering and Technology); Kusama, Tomoko
To propose measures for radiological protection of veterinary workers in Japan, X-ray exposure of workers in typical conditions in veterinary clinics was assessed. Dose rates of useful beam and scattered radiation, worker exposure doses at different stations, and effectiveness of protective clothing were determined using TLD and ion chambers. As precausions against radiation, the following practices are important: (1) use of suitable and properly maintained X-ray equipment, (2) proper selection of safe working stations, (3) use of protective clothing. Regulations are necessary to restrict the use of X-rays in the veterinary field. Because the use of X-rays in the veterinary field is not currently controlled by law, the above precautions are essential for minimizing exposure of veterinary staff. (author).
Fortier, Lisa A; Travis, Alexander J
The stem cell field in veterinary medicine continues to evolve rapidly both experimentally and clinically. Stem cells are most commonly used in clinical veterinary medicine in therapeutic applications for the treatment of musculoskeletal injuries in horses and dogs. New technologies of assisted reproduction are being developed to apply the properties of spermatogonial stem cells to preserve endangered animal species. The same methods can be used to generate transgenic animals for production o...
In health care, exchange of data is becoming increasingly important. However, it is still unclear how to interpret measurements of the same parameter from diverse data sources. In clinical chemistry point-of-care testing (POCT), e.g. for blood glucose, complements the analytical spectrum of central laboratories. Available data from "central laboratory", "professional POCT" and "non-professional" blood glucose measurements can be used to realistically simulate errors in different environments. The ability to classify the disease status or to detect a significant change based on these simulated measurements was assessed in several scenarios. Patients were simulated with realistic "true values" of blood glucose and a "diseased" or "non-diseased" status. To further simulate a change of blood glucose values, a random difference was created and classified as "significant" or "non-significant". Scientific literature was searched for accuracy and precision of blood glucose measurements in different environments. These values were used to calculate "measured values" from the "true values". In scenarios where only measurements from the same environment were combined the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to express classifier performance. Balanced accuracy was used for scenarios with a combination of measurements from different environments. Situations with and without prior knowledge of the data source were simulated separately. AUC for the classification of disease status remained around 0.68 in all scenarios. Median AUCs for the detection of a significant change ranged between 0.89 in the central laboratory and 0.76 in the non-professional environment. For the combination of different measurement environments median balanced accuracies reached 0.63 for the classification of the disease status and differed little between scenarios. Median balanced accuracy to detect a significant change ranged from 0.81 to 0.72. When there was no prior knowledge about the additional
Schalkwijk, D.B. van; Bochove, K. van; Ommen, B. van; Freidig, A.P.; Someren, E.P. van; Greef, J. van der; Graaf, A.A. de
This article provides methodological and technical considerations to researchers starting to develop computational model-based diagnostics using clinical chemistry data.These models are of increasing importance, since novel metabolomics and proteomics measuring technologies are able to produce large
McMurray, Janet; Zérah, Simone; Hallworth, Michael
In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 12 years, more...... than 2200 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Forum of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). Two previous...
Muellner, Petra; Muellner, Ulrich; Gates, M Carolyn; Pearce, Trish; Ahlstrom, Christina; O'Neill, Dan; Brodbelt, Dave; Cave, Nick John
Veterinary practitioners have extensive knowledge of animal health from their day-to-day observations of clinical patients. There have been several recent initiatives to capture these data from electronic medical records for use in national surveillance systems and clinical research. In response, an approach to surveillance has been evolving that leverages existing computerized veterinary practice management systems to capture animal health data recorded by veterinarians. Work in the United Kingdom within the VetCompass program utilizes routinely recorded clinical data with the addition of further standardized fields. The current study describes a prototype system that was developed based on this approach. In a 4-week pilot study in New Zealand, clinical data on presentation reasons and diagnoses from a total of 344 patient consults were extracted from two veterinary clinics into a dedicated database and analyzed at the population level. New Zealand companion animal and equine veterinary practitioners were engaged to test the feasibility of this national practice-based health information and data system. Strategies to ensure continued engagement and submission of quality data by participating veterinarians were identified, as were important considerations for transitioning the pilot program to a sustainable large-scale and multi-species surveillance system that has the capacity to securely manage big data. The results further emphasized the need for a high degree of usability and smart interface design to make such a system work effectively in practice. The geospatial integration of data from multiple clinical practices into a common operating picture can be used to establish the baseline incidence of disease in New Zealand companion animal and equine populations, detect unusual trends that may indicate an emerging disease threat or welfare issue, improve the management of endemic and exotic infectious diseases, and support research activities. This pilot project
Muellner, Petra; Muellner, Ulrich; Gates, M. Carolyn; Pearce, Trish; Ahlstrom, Christina; O’Neill, Dan; Brodbelt, Dave; Cave, Nick John
Veterinary practitioners have extensive knowledge of animal health from their day-to-day observations of clinical patients. There have been several recent initiatives to capture these data from electronic medical records for use in national surveillance systems and clinical research. In response, an approach to surveillance has been evolving that leverages existing computerized veterinary practice management systems to capture animal health data recorded by veterinarians. Work in the United Kingdom within the VetCompass program utilizes routinely recorded clinical data with the addition of further standardized fields. The current study describes a prototype system that was developed based on this approach. In a 4-week pilot study in New Zealand, clinical data on presentation reasons and diagnoses from a total of 344 patient consults were extracted from two veterinary clinics into a dedicated database and analyzed at the population level. New Zealand companion animal and equine veterinary practitioners were engaged to test the feasibility of this national practice-based health information and data system. Strategies to ensure continued engagement and submission of quality data by participating veterinarians were identified, as were important considerations for transitioning the pilot program to a sustainable large-scale and multi-species surveillance system that has the capacity to securely manage big data. The results further emphasized the need for a high degree of usability and smart interface design to make such a system work effectively in practice. The geospatial integration of data from multiple clinical practices into a common operating picture can be used to establish the baseline incidence of disease in New Zealand companion animal and equine populations, detect unusual trends that may indicate an emerging disease threat or welfare issue, improve the management of endemic and exotic infectious diseases, and support research activities. This pilot project
Guard-Petter, J.; Parker, C.T. [Agricultural Research Service, Athens, GA (United States). Southeast Poultry Research Lab.; Asokan, K.; Carlson, R.W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Complex Carbohydrate Research Center
Twelve human and chicken isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis belonging to phage types 4, 8, 13a, and 23 were characterized for variability in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) composition. Isolates were differentiated into two groups, i.e., those that lacked immunoreactive O-chain, termed rough isolates, and those that had immunoreactive O-chain, termed smooth isolates. Isolates within these groups could be further differentiated by LPS compositional differences as detected by gel electrophoresis and gas liquid chromatography of samples extracted with water, which yielded significantly more LPS in comparison to phenol-chloroform extraction. The rough isolates were of two types, the O-antigen synthesis mutants and the O-antigen polymerization (wzy) mutants. Smooth isolates were also of two types, one producing low-molecular-weight (LMW) LPS and the other producing high-molecular-weight (HMW) LPS. To determine the genetic basis for the O-chain variability of the smooth isolates, the authors analyzed the effects of a null mutation in the O-chain length determinant gene, wzz (cld) of serovar Typhimurium. This mutation results in a loss of HMW LPS; however, the LMW LPS of this mutant was longer and more glucosylated than that from clinical isolates of serovar Enteritidis. Cluster analysis of these data and of those from two previously characterized isogenic strains of serovar Enteritidis that had different virulence attributes indicated that glucosylation of HMW LPS (via oafR function) is variable and results in two types of HMW structures, one that is highly glucosylated and one that is minimally glucosylated. These results strongly indicate that naturally occurring variability in wzy, wzz, and oafR function can be used to subtype isolates of serovar Enteritidis during epidemiological investigations.
Tacke, S; Schimke, E; Kramer, M; Gerwing, M; Tellhelm, B
Since the introduction of excision arthoplasty in veterinary medicine the question of indication is often asked. The maximum of the patient's body weight up to which surgery should be performed is another discussed problem. A long-term study from January 1985 to July 1995 at the Veterinary Surgery Department at the Justus-Liebig-University was carried out to answer these questions (222 patients, 155 dogs and 67 cats). Trauma and Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease came first in the list of indications. In case of postoperative problems trouble with lameness after high activity, long rest or at the time of change in weather could be seen. No owner of an animal thought that the life quality of his animal was restricted by this occasional problems. At a body weight over 30 kg the occasional problems were more often seen but every patient had less clinical problems after surgery than before. In this group no deterioration was seen.
Full Text Available Homeopathy is an alternative medicine practice, which has been used for the past 200 years but, until now, scientific methods have not proven its effectiveness. The use of highly diluted natural substances based on the principal that similar heals similar is contrary to the scientific theories of the conventional medicine. In veterinary medicine homeopathic remedies are most frequently used for chronic conditions of small animals, but also their application in organic farming is increasing. Minimal number of clinical studies about the use of homeopathy in veterinary medicine has been published in scientific literature. The results of effectiveness are contradictory, which can be explained by being a consequence of different research methodologies. However, there is a significant inverse proportionality between the quality of research and results that approve of the use of homeopathy. In evidence based veterinary medicine scientific approach is fundamental for objective diagnostics and treatment prescription, and homeopathy is an excellent teaching model for possible methodological failures in scientific research. Key words: homeopathy, alternative medicine, evidence based veterinary medicine
[Skills lab training in veterinary medicine. Effective preparation for clinical work at the small animal clinic of the University for Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation. Effektive Vorbereitung auf die klinische Tätigkeit am Beispiel der Kleintierklinik der Stiftung Tierärztliche Hochschule Hannover].
Engelskirchen, Simon; Ehlers, Jan; Kirk, Ansgar T; Tipold, Andrea; Dilly, Marc
During five and a half years of studying veterinary medicine, students should in addition to theoretical knowledge acquire sufficient practical skills. Considering animal welfare and ethical aspects, opportunities for hands-on learning on living animals are limited because of the high annual number of students. The first German veterinary clinical-skills lab, established in 2013 at the University for Veterinary Medicine Hannover, Foundation (TiHo), offers opportunities for all students to learn, train and repeat clinical skills on simulators and models as frequently as they would like, until they feel sufficiently confident to transfer these skills to living animals. This study describes the establishment of clinical-skills lab training within the students' practical education, using the example of the small-animal clinic of the TiHo. Two groups of students were compared: without skills lab training (control group K) and with skills lab training (intervention group I). At the end of both the training and a subsequent 10-week clinical rotation in different sections of the clinic, an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) was performed, testing the students' practical skills at 15 stations. An additional multiple-choice test was performed before and after the clinical rotation to evaluate the increased theoretical knowledge. Students of group I achieved significantly (p ≤ 0.05) better results in eight of the 15 tested skills. The multiple-choice test revealed a significant (p ≤ 0.05) gain of theoretical knowledge in both groups without any differences between the groups. Students displayed a high degree of acceptance of the skills lab training. Using simulators and models in veterinary education is an efficient teaching concept, and should be used continually and integrated in the curriculum.
Lim, Jinsook; Song, Kyung Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Choi, Hyun-Jung; Koo, Sun Hoe; Kwon, Gye Choel
-The traceability of clinical results to internationally recognized and accepted reference materials and reference measurement procedures has become increasingly important. Therefore, the establishment of traceability has become a mandatory requirement for all in vitro diagnostics devices. -To evaluate the traceability of the Abbott Architect c8000 system (Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois), consisting of calibrators and reagents, across 4 different chemistry analyzers, and to evaluate its general performance on the Toshiba 2000FR NEO (Toshiba Medical Systems Corporation, Otawara-shi, Tochigi-ken, Japan). -For assessment of traceability, secondary reference materials were evaluated 5 times, and then bias was calculated. Precision, linearity, and carryover were determined according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (Wayne, Pennsylvania). -The biases from 4 different analyzers ranged from -2.33% to 2.70% on the Toshiba 2000FR NEO, -2.33% to 5.12% on the Roche Hitachi 7600 (Roche Diagnostics International, Basel, Switzerland), -0.93% to 2.87% on the Roche Modular, and -2.16% to 2.86% on the Abbott Architect c16000. The total coefficients of variance of all analytes were less than 5%. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) were more than 0.9900. The carryover rate ranged from -0.54% to 0.17%. -Abbott clinical chemistry assays met the performance criteria based on desirable biological variation for precision, bias, and total error. They also showed excellent linearity and carryover. Therefore, these clinical chemistry assays were found to be accurate and reliable and are readily applicable on the various platforms used in this study.
An enzymatic laboratory experiment based on the analysis of serum is described that is suitable for students of clinical chemistry. The experiment incorporates an introduction to mathematical method-comparison techniques in which three different clinical glucose analysis methods are compared using linear regression and Bland-Altman difference…
Approach to acid-base disorders – a clinical chemistry perspective. Acid-base disorders are frequently encountered in clinical practice and have a significant impact on patient morbidity and mortality. Nicholette M Oosthuizen, MB ChB, FC Path (SA) Chem. Acting Head, Department of Chemical Pathology, University of ...
Diana L. Eubanks
Full Text Available Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changing as nearly every one of the 28 US Colleges of Veterinary Medicine offers some level of small animal dentistry during the four-year curriculum. Primary areas of focus are on client education, the treatment of periodontal disease, dental prophylaxis, dental radiology, endodontics, exodontics and pain control. Students receive instruction in dental anatomy during their di-dactic curriculum and later experience clinical cases. Graduate DVMs can attend a variety of continuing education courses and even choose to specialize in veterinary dentistry in both small animals and horses. Through the efforts of organizations such as the American Veterinary Dental So-ciety, The American Veterinary Dental College and The Academy of Veterinary Dentistry, many veterinarians have been able to advance their skills in dentistry and improve animal welfare. Increasing ex-pectations of the pet-owning public coupled with the recent advancements of training opportunities available for vete-rinary students, graduate DVMs and certified veterinary technicians make veterinary dentistry an emerging practice-builder among the most successful small animal hospitals.
Brown, Corina E.
This two-stage study focused on the undergraduate nursing course that covers topics in general, organic, and biological (GOB) chemistry. In the first stage, the central objective was to identify the main concepts of GOB chemistry relevant to the clinical practice of nursing. The collection of data was based on open-ended interviews of both nursing…
Heegaard, Niels H H; Østergaard, Ole; Bahl, Justyna M C; Overgaard, Martin; Beck, Hans C; Rasmussen, Lars Melholt; Larsen, Martin R
In the realm of clinical chemistry, the field of clinical proteomics, that is, the application of proteomic methods for understanding mechanisms and enabling diagnosis, prediction, measurement of activity, and treatment response in disease, is first and foremost a discovery and research tool that feeds assay development downstream. Putative new assay candidates generated by proteomics discovery projects compete with well-established assays with known indications, well-described performance, and of known value in specific clinical settings. Careful attention to the many options available in the design, execution, and interpretation of clinical proteomics studies is thus necessary for translation into clinical practice. We here review and discuss important options associated with clinical proteomics endeavors stretching from the planning phases to the final use in clinical chemistry. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Heegaard, Niels H H; Ostergaard, Ole; Bahl, Justyna M C
In the realm of clinical chemistry the field of clinical proteomics, i.e., the application of proteomic methods for understanding mechanisms and enabling diagnosis, prediction, measurement of activity, and treatment response in disease, is first and foremost a discovery and research tool that feed......, execution, and interpretation of clinical proteomics studies is thus necessary for translation into clinical practice. We here review and discuss important options associated with clinical proteomics endeavors stretching from the planning phases to the final use in clinical chemistry. This article...... assay development downstream. Putative new assay candidates generated by proteomics discovery projects compete with well-established assays with known indications, well-described performance, and of known value in specific clinical settings. Careful attention to the many options available in the design...
Schoeman, J P; van Schoor, M; van der Merwe, L L; Meintjes, R A
In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small-group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem-based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.
Full Text Available In 1999 a dedicated problem-based learning course was introduced into the lecture-based preclinical veterinary curriculum of the University of Pretoria. The Introduction to Clinical Studies Course combines traditional lectures, practical sessions, student self-learning and guided tutorials. The self-directed component of the course utilises case-based, small group cooperative learning as an educational vehicle to link basic science with clinical medicine. The aim of this article is to describe the objectives and structure of the course and to report the results of the assessment of the students' perceptions on some aspects of the course. Students reacted very positively to the ability of the course to equip them with problem-solving skills. Students indicated positive perceptions about the workload of the course. There were, however, significantly lower scores for the clarity of the course objectives. Although the study guide for the course is very comprehensive, the practice regarding the objectives is still uncertain. It is imperative to set clear objectives in non-traditional, student-centred courses. The objectives have to be explained at the outset and reiterated throughout the course. Tutors should also communicate the rationale behind problem based learning as a pedagogical method to the students. Further research is needed to verify the effectiveness of this course in bridging the gap between basic science and clinical literacy in veterinary science. Ongoing feedback and assessment of the management and content are important to refine this model for integrating basic science with clinical literacy.
Fullerton, Marjorie; Khatiwada, Janak; Johnson, Jacqueline U.; Davis, Shurrita
Abstract The use of medicinal plants as natural antimicrobial agents is gaining popularity. Sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is widely used for the treatment of diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of sorrel on Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from food, veterinary, and clinical samples. Phenolics of the calyces were extracted from 10 g of ground, freeze-dried samples using 100 mL of 80% aqueous methanol. Concentrations of 10%, 5%, and 2.5% methanol extract of sorrel were investigated for its antimicrobial activity. Inhibition zones were indicated by a lack of microbial growth due to inhibitory concentrations of sorrel diffused into semisolid culture medium beneath the sorrel-impregnated disk. The results of this experiment showed that the most potent sorrel concentration was 10%, then 5%, and finally 2.5%. The overall mean zone of inhibition for the sorrel extract was 12.66 mm for 10%, 10.75 mm for 5%, and 8.9 mm for 2.5%. The highest inhibition zones (11.16 mm) were observed in veterinary samples, and the lowest (10.57 mm) in the food samples. There were significant (P<.05) differences among mean zones of inhibition found in the food, veterinary, and clinical sources. Based on the source of samples and concentration of sorrel extract, the lowest mean inhibition was 7.00±0.04 mm from clinical samples, and the highest was 15.37±0.61 mm from a food source. These findings indicated that sorrel was effective at all levels in inhibiting E. coli O157:H7; thus it possesses antimicrobial activity and hold great promise as an antimicrobial agent. PMID:21548802
Dawson, Lauren C; Dewey, Cate E; Stone, Elizabeth A; Mosley, Cornelia I; Guerin, Michele T; Niel, Lee
Successful prevention, recognition, and treatment of pain are integral to ensuring veterinary patient welfare. A canine and feline welfare assessment tool, incorporating verbal interviews with veterinarians using open-ended questions, was developed to assess pain management practices that safeguard and improve patient welfare. The tool was evaluated in 30 companion- and mixed-animal veterinary clinics in Ontario in order to assess its reliability, feasibility, and validity, while also benchmarking current practices. Responses were analyzed according to a scoring scheme developed based on published literature and expert opinion. Based on weighted kappa statistics, interview scoring had substantial inter-observer (Kw = 0.83, 0.73) and near-perfect intra-observer (Kw = 0.92) agreement, which suggests that the tool reliably collects information about pain management practices. Interviews were completed at all recruited clinics, which indicates high feasibility for the methods. Validity could not be assessed, as participants were reluctant to share information about analgesic administration from their clinical records. Descriptive results indicated areas for which many veterinarians are acting in accordance with best practices for pain management, such as pre-emptive and post-surgical analgesia for ovariohysterectomy patients, and post-surgical care instructions. Areas that offer opportunity for enhancement were also highlighted, e.g., training veterinary staff to recognize signs of pain and duration of analgesia in ovariohysterectomy patients after discharge. Overall, based on this limited sample, most veterinarians appear to be effectively managing their patients' pain, although areas with opportunity for enhancement were also identified. Further research is needed to assess trends in a broader sample of participants.
Moriello, Karen A; Coyner, Kimberly; Paterson, Susan; Mignon, Bernard
Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal skin disease of cats and dogs. The most common pathogens of small animals belong to the genera Microsporum and Trichophyton. It is an important skin disease because it is contagious, infectious and can be transmitted to people. The objective of this document is to review the existing literature and provide consensus recommendations for veterinary clinicians and lay people on the diagnosis and treatment of dermatophytosis in cats and dogs. The authors served as a Guideline Panel (GP) and reviewed the literature available prior to September 2016. The GP prepared a detailed literature review and made recommendations on selected topics. The World Association of Veterinary Dermatology (WAVD) provided guidance and oversight for this process. A draft of the document was presented at the 8th World Congress of Veterinary Dermatology (May 2016) and was then made available via the World Wide Web to the member organizations of the WAVD for a period of three months. Comments were solicited and posted to the GP electronically. Responses were incorporated by the GP into the final document. No one diagnostic test was identified as the gold standard. Successful treatment requires concurrent use of systemic oral antifungals and topical disinfection of the hair coat. Wood's lamp and direct examinations have good positive and negative predictability, systemic antifungal drugs have a wide margin of safety and physical cleaning is most important for decontamination of the exposed environments. Finally, serious complications of animal-human transmission are exceedingly rare. © 2017 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of the ESVD and ACVD.
van Duijkeren, E; Kamphuis, M; van der Mije, I C; Laarhoven, L M; Duim, B; Wagenaar, J A; Houwers, D J
The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP) in people, pets and the environment in households with a pet with a clinical MRSP-infection within the past year. Personnel and the environment at veterinary clinics were also screened. Nasal swabs (humans), nasal and perineal swabs (pets) and environmental wipes were examined using selective culturing. Twenty households were enrolled; 10/20 index cases still had clinical signs of infection at the start of the study and all were MRSP-positive. Of the remaining 10 index cases five were MRSP-positive in nasal and/or perineal samples. Five of 14 (36%) contact dogs and four of 13 (31%) contact cats were found MRSP-positive. In the households with an index case with clinical signs of infection 6/7 (86%) contact animals were MRSP-positive. MRSP was cultured from 2/45 (4%) human nasal samples. Domestic contamination was widespread as positive samples were found in 70% of the households and 44% of all environmental samples were MRSP-positive. In all but one of these MRSP-positive households the index case was still MRSP positive. Among the personnel in veterinary clinics 4/141 (3%) were MRSP-positive. MRSP was cultured from 31/200 environmental samples in 7/13 clinics at the first sampling and in 3/6 clinics the environment remained MRSP-positive after cleaning and disinfection indicating that current cleaning procedures often were unable to eliminate MRSP. These results show that transmission of MRSP between infected or colonized dogs and cats and healthy people does occur but is relatively uncommon, while transmission to contact pets occurs frequently, especially when the index case still has clinical signs of MRSP-infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Spicker, Jeppe; Brunak, Søren; Frederiksen, K.S.
A large number of databases are currently being implemented within toxicology aiming to integrate diverse biological data, such as clinical chemistry, expression, and other types of data. However, for these endeavors to be successful, tools for integration, visualization, and interpretation...... are needed. This paper presents a method for data integration using a hierarchical model based on either principal component analysis or partial least squares discriminant analysis of clinical chemistry, expression, and nuclear magnetic resonance data using a toxicological study as case. The study includes...
Holistic veterinary medicine treats the whole patient including all physical and behavioral signs. The root cause of disease is treated at the same time as accompanying clinical signs. Herbal and nutritional supplements can help support tissue healing and proper organ functioning, thereby reducing the tendency of disease progression over time. Proper selection of homeopathic remedies is based on detailed evaluation of clinical signs. Herbal medicines are selected based on organ(s) affected and the physiologic nature of the imbalance. Many herbal and nutraceutical companies provide support for veterinarians, assisting with proper formula selection, dosing, drug interactions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Okorie-Kanu et al. 160. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): ... Nigeria; 3Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu state,. Nigeria. ...... (ASVCP), International Veterinary.
1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria.. 2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Abeokuta, Ogun State,. Nigeria. *Corresponding Authors: .... medial and lateral canthi of each eye. Philtrum Height (PH). Measured ...
Jul 2, 2000 ... Nigerian Veterinary Journal 36(4). 2015. Owoyemi et al. 1341. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., December 2015 ... medicine, 3Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. .... in wound or burn healing, internal intake of.
The recent opening of an official register for medicallaboratory scientists in South Africa has prompted an examination of the professional role, training and qualification of one particular group of scientists, namely clinical chemists working in hospital pathology departments. Lack of recognition of the potential contribution of ...
Issa, Naiem T; Byers, Stephen W; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan
The process of discovering a pharmacological compound that elicits a desired clinical effect with minimal side effects is a challenge. Prior to the advent of high-performance computing and large-scale screening technologies, drug discovery was largely a serendipitous endeavor, as in the case of thalidomide for erythema nodosum leprosum or cancer drugs in general derived from flora located in far-reaching geographic locations. More recently, de novo drug discovery has become a more rationalized process where drug-target-effect hypotheses are formulated on the basis of already known compounds/protein targets and their structures. Although this approach is hypothesis-driven, the actual success has been very low, contributing to the soaring costs of research and development as well as the diminished pharmaceutical pipeline in the United States. In this review, we discuss the evolution in computational pharmacology as the next generation of successful drug discovery and implementation in the clinic where high-performance computing (HPC) is used to generate and validate drug-target-effect hypotheses completely in silico. The use of HPC would decrease development time and errors while increasing productivity prior to in vitro, animal and human testing. We highlight approaches in chemoinformatics, bioinformatics as well as network biopharmacology to illustrate potential avenues from which to design clinically efficacious drugs. We further discuss the implications of combining these approaches into an integrative methodology for high-accuracy computational predictions within the context of drug repositioning for the efficient streamlining of currently approved drugs back into clinical trials for possible new indications.
Cai, Zhaohui; Bresell, Anders; Steinberg, Mark H; Silberg, Debra G; Furlong, Stephen T
Purpose The goal of this retrospective analysis was to assess how well predictive models could determine which patients would develop liver chemistry signals during clinical trials based on their pretreatment (baseline) information. Patients and methods Based on data from 24 late-stage clinical trials, classification models were developed to predict liver chemistry outcomes using baseline information, which included demographics, medical history, concomitant medications, and baseline laboratory results. Results Predictive models using baseline data predicted which patients would develop liver signals during the trials with average validation accuracy around 80%. Baseline levels of individual liver chemistry tests were most important for predicting their own elevations during the trials. High bilirubin levels at baseline were not uncommon and were associated with a high risk of developing biochemical Hy’s law cases. Baseline γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) level appeared to have some predictive value, but did not increase predictability beyond using established liver chemistry tests. Conclusion It is possible to predict which patients are at a higher risk of developing liver chemistry signals using pretreatment (baseline) data. Derived knowledge from such predictions may allow proactive and targeted risk management, and the type of analysis described here could help determine whether new biomarkers offer improved performance over established ones. PMID:23226004
Bunch, Dustin R; Wang, Sihe
Monolithic columns have slowly been applied to HPLC methods for clinical chemistry testing in the last 10 years. The application areas include therapeutic drug monitoring, drugs of abuse, vitamins, porphyrins, and steroids. In comparison with conventional particulate columns, the monolithic columns may offer shorter chromatography time, more robustness, and better resolution for certain analytes. The potential drawback of large mobile phase consumption may be improved with smaller id columns, which are currently on the market. Methods covered in this review are those searchable in PubMed up to December 2010. This review highlights the emergence of monolithic column technology in HPLC methods used for clinical chemistry testing. The goals of this review are threefold: (i) To identify the areas of clinical chemistry that analytical monolithic columns have been used in HPLC methods. (ii) To demonstrate the application of analytical monolithic columns in HPLC methods using different detection systems. (iii) To discuss the advantages and limitations of the monolithic columns compared with particulate columns in the clinical chemistry applications. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Körber, Friedrich; Plebani, Mario
In the early 1960s, Joachim Brugsch, one of the founders of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) (then Zeitschrift für Klinische Chemie), had the idea to found a journal in the upcoming field of clinical chemistry. He approached Ernst Schütte, who was associated with the De Gruyter publishing house through another journal, to participate, and Schütte thus became the second founder of this Journal. The aim was to create a vehicle allowing the experts to express their opinions and raise their voices more clearly than they could in a journal that publishes only original experimental papers, a laborious and difficult, but important endeavor, as the profession of clinical chemistry was still in the early stages of development at this time. The first issue of this Journal was published in early 1963, and today, we are proud to celebrate the 50th anniversary of CCLM. This review describes the development of this Journal in light of the political situation of the time when it was founded, the situation of the publisher Walter De Gruyter after the erection of the Berlin Wall, and the development of clinical chemistry, and later on, laboratory medicine as a well-acknowledged discipline and profession.
Zhao, Ying-Yong; Cheng, Xian-long; Lin, Rui-Chao
Lipids are the fundamental components of biological membranes as well as the metabolites of organisms. Lipids play diverse and important roles in biologicals. The lipid imbalance is closely associated with numerous human lifestyle-related diseases, such as atherosclerosis, obesity, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Lipidomics or lipid profiling is a system-based study of all lipids aiming at comprehensive analysis of lipids in the biological system. Lipidomics has been accepted as a lipid-related research tool in lipid biochemistry, clinical biomarker discovery, disease diagnosis, and in understanding disease pathology. Lipidomics will not only provide insights into the specific functions of lipid species in health and disease, but will also identify potential biomarkers for establishing preventive or therapeutic programs for human diseases. This review presents an overview of lipidomics followed by in-depth discussion of its application to the study of human diseases, including extraction methods of lipids, analytical technologies, data analysis, and clinical research in cancer, neuropsychiatric disease, cardiovascular disease, kidney disease, and respiratory disease. We describe the current status of the identification of metabolic biomarkers in different diseases. We also discuss the lipidomics for the future perspectives and their potential problems. The application of lipidomics in clinical studies may provide new insights into lipid profiling and pathophysiological mechanisms.
Schaufler, Katharina; Bethe, Astrid; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Ewers, Christa; Kohn, Barbara; Wieler, Lothar H; Guenther, Sebastian
To contribute to the understanding of multiresistant bacteria, a 'One Health' approach in estimating the rate of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli and getting insights into the transmission from clinical settings to the surrounding environment was employed by collecting fecal samples of dogs in a public area. Isolates were compared to those from samples of diseased dogs from a nearby small-animal clinic. One hundred fecal samples of dogs were collected on a single day in the public area of a veterinary faculty with a small-animal clinic and adjacent residential neighborhoods. All identified ESBL-producing strains were isolated by selective plating, genotypically analyzed by DNA microarray, polymerase chain reaction, sequence analysis, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and compared to 11 clinical ESBL/AmpC-producing E. coli isolated from diseased dogs treated in the small-animal clinic 2 months before and 2 months following the environmental sampling collection. Fourteen percent (14/100) of the extra-clinical samples harbored phenotypic ESBL/putative AmpC-producing E. coli with additional resistances against other antimicrobials. One ESBL-strain displayed an identical macrorestriction pattern to one clinical, another one to three clinical clonal ESBL-producing strains. The genotypic ESBL-determinants (blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-15) and detection rates (10%) in dog feces collected outside of the small-animal clinic are comparable to the rates and ESBL-types in the healthy human population in Germany and to clinical and non-clinical samples of humans and companion animals in Europe. The occurrence of identical strains detected both outside and inside the clinical setting suggests a connection between the small-animal clinic and the surrounding environment. In conclusion, dog feces collected in proximity to veterinary facilities should be considered as a non-point infection source of zoonotic ESBL-producing E. coli for both animals and
In Sweden 300 veterinary clinics have a license for x-ray diagnostics. Six of them also have a license for nuclear medicine. During 2005 eight clinics were inspected and the results show that the radiation protection in veterinary medicine can be improved. No clinic fulfilled the regulations of categorization of workplaces and workers (SSI FS 1998:3). Half of the clinics had no Swedish manual to the x-ray equipment and just as many had not performed the annual function check. Obviously, there is a need for more information to staff in veterinary medicine.
de Jong, Wilhelmina H. A.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Kema, Ido P.
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is rapidly gaining ground in special clinical chemistry laboratories. It significantly increases the analytic potential in clinical chemistry, especially in the field of low molecular weight biomarker analysis. This review overviews current
... diagnostic imaging and laboratory evaluations of specimens. Computers have also crept into the field of agro-veterinary consultancy services and have been useful here for clinical consultancy; agro-veterinary project design, monitoring and implementation; preparation of presentations as resource persons or instructor; ...
Womack, James E.; Templeton, Joe W.
Areas that will influence the development of veterinary medical genetics as a clinical discipline are discussed, some critical research areas of immediate concern are suggested, and misconceptions held by many practicing veterinarians which must be corrected at the level of veterinary education are identified. (JMD)
Bergman, Philip J
The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
McMurray, Janet; Zérah, Simone; Hallworth, Michael
In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 12 years, more...... than 2200 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Forum of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). Two previous...... Guides to the Register have been published, one in 1997 and another in 2003. The third version of the Guide is presented in this article and is based on the experience gained and development of the profession since the last revision. Registration is valid for 5 years and the procedure and criteria for re...
In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 12 years, more than 2200 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Forum of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). Two previous Guides to the Register have been published, one in 1997 and another in 2003. The third version of the Guide is presented in this article and is based on the experience gained and development of the profession since the last revision. Registration is valid for 5 years and the procedure and criteria for re-registration are presented as an Appendix at the end of the article.
In 1997, the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EC4) set up a Register for European Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The operation of the Register is undertaken by a Register Commission (EC4RC). During the last 10 years, more than 2000 specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine have joined the Register. In 2007, EC4 merged with the Federation of European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC) to form the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFCC). A Code of Conduct was adopted in 2003 and a revised and updated version, taking account particularly of the guidelines of the Conseil Européen des Professions Libérales (CEPLIS) of which EFCC is a member, is presented in this article. The revised version was approved by the EC4 Register Commission and by the EFCC Executive Board in Paris on 6 November, 2008.
la Marca, Giancarlo
Newborn screening (NBS) program is a complex and organized system consisting of family and personnel education, biochemical tests, confirmatory biochemical and genetic tests, diagnosis, therapy, and patient follow up. The program identifies treatable metabolic disorders possibly when asymptomatic by using dried blood spot (DBS). During the last 20 years tandem mass spectrometry (TMS) has become the leading technology in NBS programs demonstrating to be versatile, sensitive and specific. There is consistent evidence of benefits from NBS for many disorders detected by TMS as well as for congenital hypothyroidism, cystic fibrosis, congenital adrenal hyperplasia by immune-enzymatic methods. Real time PCR tests have more recently been proposed for the detection of some severe combined immunodeficiences (SCID) along with the use of TMS for ADA and PNP SCID; a first evaluation of their cost-benefit ratio is still ongoing. Avoiding false negative results by using specific biomarkers and reducing the false positive rate by using second tier tests, is fundamental for a successful NBS program. The fully integration of NBS and diagnostic laboratories with clinical service is crucial to have the best effectiveness in a comprehensive NBS system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Whitehair, K J; Haskins, S C; Whitehair, J G; Pascoe, P J
Stewart used physicochemical principles of aqueous solutions to develop an understanding of variables that control hydrogen ion concentration (H+) in body fluids. He proposed that H+ concentration in body fluids was determined by PCO2, strong ion difference (SID = sum of strong positive ion concentrations minus the sum of the strong anion concentrations) and the total concentration of nonvolatile weak acid (Atot) under normal circumstances. Albumin is the major weak acid in plasma and represents the majority of Atot. These 3 variables were defined as independent variables, which determined the values of all other relevant variables (dependent) in plasma, including H+. The major strong ions in plasma are sodium and chloride. The difference between Na+ and Cl- may be used as an estimation of SID. A decrease in SID below normal results in acidosis (increase in H+) and an increase in SID above normal results in alkalosis (decrease in H+). Unidentified strong anions such as lactate will decrease the SID, if present. Equations developed by Fencl allow Stewart's work to be easily applied clinically for evaluating the metabolic (nonrespiratory) contribution to acid-base balance. This approach separates the net metabolic abnormality into components, and allows one to easily detect mixed metabolic acid-base abnormalities. The Fencl approach provides insight into the nature and severity of the disturbances that exist in the patient. Sodium, chloride, protein, and unidentified anion derangements may contribute to the observed metabolic acid-base imbalance.
Huang, Chao; Yang, Yang; Chen, Xuetong; Wang, Chao; Li, Yan; Zheng, Chunli; Wang, Yonghua
Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM) is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.
Full Text Available Veterinary Herbal Medicine (VHM is a comprehensive, current, and informative discipline on the utilization of herbs in veterinary practice. Driven by chemistry but progressively directed by pharmacology and the clinical sciences, drug research has contributed more to address the needs for innovative veterinary medicine for curing animal diseases. However, research into veterinary medicine of vegetal origin in the pharmaceutical industry has reduced, owing to questions such as the short of compatibility of traditional natural-product extract libraries with high-throughput screening. Here, we present a cross-species chemogenomic screening platform to dissect the genetic basis of multifactorial diseases and to determine the most suitable points of attack for future veterinary medicines, thereby increasing the number of treatment options. First, based on critically examined pharmacology and text mining, we build a cross-species drug-likeness evaluation approach to screen the lead compounds in veterinary medicines. Second, a specific cross-species target prediction model is developed to infer drug-target connections, with the purpose of understanding how drugs work on the specific targets. Third, we focus on exploring the multiple targets interference effects of veterinary medicines by heterogeneous network convergence and modularization analysis. Finally, we manually integrate a disease pathway to test whether the cross-species chemogenomic platform could uncover the active mechanism of veterinary medicine, which is exemplified by a specific network module. We believe the proposed cross-species chemogenomic platform allows for the systematization of current and traditional knowledge of veterinary medicine and, importantly, for the application of this emerging body of knowledge to the development of new drugs for animal diseases.
Memon, M A; Shmalberg, J; Adair, H S; Allweiler, S; Bryan, J N; Cantwell, S; Carr, E; Chrisman, C; Egger, C M; Greene, S; Haussler, K K; Hershey, B; Holyoak, G R; Johnson, M; Jeune, S Le; Looney, A; McConnico, R S; Medina, C; Morton, A J; Munsterman, A; Nie, G J; Park, N; Parsons-Doherty, M; Perdrizet, J A; Peyton, J L; Raditic, D; Ramirez, H P; Saik, J; Robertson, S; Sleeper, M; Dyke, J Van; Wakshlag, J
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative.
Memon, M.A.; Shmalberg, J.; Adair, H.S.; Allweiler, S.; Bryan, J.N.; Cantwell, S.; Carr, E.; Chrisman, C.; Egger, C.M.; Greene, S.; Haussler, K.K.; Hershey, B.; Holyoak, G.R.; Johnson, M.; Jeune, S. Le; Looney, A.; McConnico, R.S.; Medina, C.; Morton, A.J.; Munsterman, A.; Nie, G.J.; Park, N.; Parsons-Doherty, M.; Perdrizet, J.A.; Peyton, J.L.; Raditic, D.; Ramirez, H.P.; Saik, J.; Robertson, S.; Sleeper, M.; Dyke, J. Van; Wakshlag, J.
Integrative veterinary medicine (IVM) describes the combination of complementary and alternative therapies with conventional care and is guided by the best available evidence. Veterinarians frequently encounter questions about complementary and alternative veterinary medicine (CAVM) in practice, and the general public has demonstrated increased interest in these areas for both human and animal health. Consequently, veterinary students should receive adequate exposure to the principles, theories, and current knowledge supporting or refuting such techniques. A proposed curriculum guideline would broadly introduce students to the objective evaluation of new veterinary treatments while increasing their preparation for responding to questions about IVM in clinical practice. Such a course should be evidence-based, unbiased, and unaffiliated with any particular CAVM advocacy or training group. All IVM courses require routine updating as new information becomes available. Controversies regarding IVM and CAVM must be addressed within the course and throughout the entire curriculum. Instructional honesty regarding the uncertainties in this emerging field is critical. Increased training of future veterinary professionals in IVM may produce an openness to new ideas that characterizes the scientific method and a willingness to pursue and incorporate evidence-based medicine in clinical practice with all therapies, including those presently regarded as integrative, complementary, or alternative. PMID:27200270
Larrieu, Sophie; Cardinale, Eric; Ocquidant, Philippe; Roger, Matthieu; Lepec, Richard; Delatte, Hélène; Camuset, Guillaume; Desprès, Philippe; Brottet, Elise; Charlin, Cyril; Michault, Alain
A 58-year-old woman living in Reunion Island and returning from Madagascar was hospitalized for neuroinvasive encephalitis and died 1 month later. West Nile virus (WNV) infection was biologically confirmed by detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM) reactive with WNV antigens in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum, and weak neutralizing activity was also detected. A veterinary survey performed in her traveling area showed a seroprevalence of WNV of 28.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 21.1–36.3) in adult poultry, confirming an active circulation of the virus. Development of a severe form could be related to a weak antibody response, because the patient presented low IgM and IgG titers. This case report underlines the constant risk of emergence of West Nile in Indian Ocean territories, including Reunion Island where competent vectors are widely present during the whole year. PMID:23751400
2003; Halderman, 2005). Animals provide highly nutritious foods, and provide. Ethiop. Vet. .... providing veterinary services in the. District include veterinary drugs shops and mobile clinics providing full time ... 4) The public veterinary service was chosen as first choice for effectiveness and costliness compared to private ...
... State & Area Data Explore resources for employment and wages by state and area for veterinary technologists and technicians. Similar Occupations Compare the job duties, education, job growth, and pay of veterinary technologists and ...
Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology; Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, ... Parasitic diseases have a debilitating impact on human and animal health worldwide particularly in developing countries. Haemoparasitism have largely been ..... exerts a major health concern in domestic.
Veterinary Microbiology, Third Edition is organized into four sections and begins with an updated and expanded introductory section on infectious disease pathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical management. The second section covers bacterial and fungal pathogens, and the third section describes viral d...
Häfner, Dietrich; Gödicke, Viola; Narkus, Annemie
A set of standard clinical chemistry and hematology parameters are usually measured during clinical studies. The major outcome of these standard tests is to control that the drug investigated does not lead to pathophysiological changes in respective organs or blood. In some cases based on scientific rationale such tests may not be needed. In this paper we report on a standard set of clinical chemistry and hematology laboratory parameters measured before and after treatment in three different immunotherapy studies, representing different routes of administration and different formulations. Thirteen hematological laboratory parameters and eight clinical chemistry parameters were evaluated from three double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, multi-centre, phase III studies. The three studies include one with sublingual immunotherapy (n = 185), one subcutaneous immunotherapy trial with an aluminium hydroxide-adsorbed recombinant hypoallergenic Bet v1-FV (n = 211) and one with pre-seasonal subcutaneous immunotherapy with a 6-grass pollen allergoid (n = 154). Allergen specific immunotherapy with both administration forms and formulations respectively did not show any influence on any of the 21 laboratory parameters analyzed. Few patients had a change in laboratory parameters from within normal range at baseline to either below or above at end-of-treatment. No differences between active and placebo were seen with respect to number of patients with such a change. This study with different preparations and routes of application indicates that the value of repeated measurements of standard clinical chemistry and hematology parameters during allergen immunotherapy should be discussed further.
Flatland, Bente; Breickner, Liesl C; Fry, Michael M
The Heska Dri-Chem 4000 uses dry slide technology to evaluate serum or plasma. No previous independent performance evaluation is published to the authors' knowledge. The objectives were to (1) characterize analytical performance of a Dri-Chem 4000 by measuring precision and bias, (2) compare analytical performance of that Dri-Chem 4000 unit with a predetermined quality requirement, and (3) determine whether statistical QC of the Dri-Chem 4000 is possible using the 13s control rule. Sixteen analytes were measured using plasma from dogs, cats, and horses. Coefficient of variation (CV), bias, and observed total error (TEobs ) were calculated. TEobs was compared with allowable total error (TEa ). Sigma metric and quality goal index were calculated where relevant. QC validation was performed. Bias and TEobs calculated using quality control material (QCM) data were smaller than those calculated using method comparison data. Using TEobs calculated from species-specific CV and QCM-based bias, 100% of analytes in each species met ASVCP-recommended TEa . Desired error detection and false rejection rates were achievable using the 13s control rule and ASVCP-recommended TEa values for 9/16 (56%) of analytes in dogs, 9/14 (64%) of analytes in cats, and 8/13 (62%) of analytes in horses. Analytical performance of the Dri-Chem 4000 is comparable to that reported by other authors for other small benchtop biochemistry analyzers. Statistical QC using a simple control rule is possible for most analytes in dogs, cats, and horses. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Background Large colon impactions are a common cause of colic in the horse. There are no scientific reports on the clinical presentation, diagnostic tests and treatments used in first opinion practice for large colon impaction cases. The aim of this study was to describe the presentation, diagnostic approach and treatment at the primary assessment of horses with large colon impactions. Methods Data were collected prospectively from veterinary practitioners on the primary assessment of equine colic cases over a 12 month period. Inclusion criteria were a diagnosis of primary large colon impaction and positive findings on rectal examination. Data recorded for each case included history, signalment, clinical and diagnostic findings, treatment on primary assessment and final case outcome. Case outcomes were categorised into three groups: simple medical (resolved with single treatment), complicated medical (resolved with multiple medical treatments) and critical (required surgery, were euthanased or died). Univariable analysis using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test, Kruskal Wallis with Dunn’s post-hoc test and Chi squared analysis were used to compare between different outcome categories. Results 1032 colic cases were submitted by veterinary practitioners: 120 cases met the inclusion criteria for large colon impaction. Fifty three percent of cases were categorised as simple medical, 36.6% as complicated medical, and 9.2% as critical. Most cases (42.1%) occurred during the winter. Fifty nine percent of horses had had a recent change in management, 43% of horses were not ridden, and 12.5% had a recent / current musculoskeletal injury. Mean heart rate was 43bpm (range 26-88) and most cases showed mild signs of pain (67.5%) and reduced gut sounds (76%). Heart rate was significantly increased and gut sounds significantly decreased in critical compared to simple medical cases (p<0.05). Fifty different treatment combinations were used, with NSAIDs (93%) and oral
Justin Phillips is marketing manager at White Cross Vets and the Veterinary Marketing Association's (VMA's) Young Veterinary Marketeer of the Year. Here, he describes what he does and why he believes other practices should embrace marketing to improve their quality and client care. British Veterinary Association.
The Nigerian Veterinary Journal (NVJ) has been in existence since 1971. The NVJ is published by the Nigerian Veterinary Medical Association (NVMA) as part of the association's commitment to the advancement of Veterinary Medicine in Nigeria and other parts of the world, with a general view of enhancing the livestock ...
The Tanzania Veterinary Journal (The Tropical Veterinarian) is a biannual Journal, which publishes original contribution to knowledge on Veterinary Science, Animal Science and Production, and allied sciences including new techniques and developments in Veterinary Medicine. The target readers of the Journal are the ...
1Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria, 2Department of. Veterinary Anatomy ... laboratory technologists and academic staff of the departments of veterinary anatomy, pathology and public health. Design of the ... Early histology and histopathology based research was ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(2). 2017. Mustapha et al. 129 ... 1 Department of Veterinary Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta,. Abeokuta, Ogun State; 2 ..... lamina 9; IB: Internal basilar nucleus; ICI: Intercalated nucleus; ICo9: Intercostal muscle motor neurons of lamina 9; ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Thomas et al. 123 .... Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of. Agriculture Abeokuta and were ..... immunogenic Salmonella ghost confers protection against internal organ colonization and egg contamination. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology,. 162(1-2): 41–50. JOSHI ...
1288. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., December 2015. Vol. 36 (4): 1288-1298. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Anatomical Studies of ... 1Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria; 2 Department of .... back, the internal organs were measured in.
Full Text Available Zhaohui Cai,1,* Anders Bresell,2,* Mark H Steinberg,1 Debra G Silberg,1 Stephen T Furlong11AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Wilmington, DE, USA; 2AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals, Södertälje, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: The goal of this retrospective analysis was to assess how well predictive models could determine which patients would develop liver chemistry signals during clinical trials based on their pretreatment (baseline information.Patients and methods: Based on data from 24 late-stage clinical trials, classification models were developed to predict liver chemistry outcomes using baseline information, which included demographics, medical history, concomitant medications, and baseline laboratory results.Results: Predictive models using baseline data predicted which patients would develop liver signals during the trials with average validation accuracy around 80%. Baseline levels of individual liver chemistry tests were most important for predicting their own elevations during the trials. High bilirubin levels at baseline were not uncommon and were associated with a high risk of developing biochemical Hy’s law cases. Baseline γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT level appeared to have some predictive value, but did not increase predictability beyond using established liver chemistry tests.Conclusion: It is possible to predict which patients are at a higher risk of developing liver chemistry signals using pretreatment (baseline data. Derived knowledge from such predictions may allow proactive and targeted risk management, and the type of analysis described here could help determine whether new biomarkers offer improved performance over established ones.Keywords: bilirubin, Hy’s Law, ALT, GGT, baseline, prediction
Miri-Dashe, Timzing; Osawe, Sophia; Tokdung, Monday; Daniel, Monday Tokdung Nenbammun; Daniel, Nenbammun; Choji, Rahila Pam; Mamman, Ille; Deme, Kurt; Damulak, Dapus; Abimiku, Alash'le
Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women. Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors' questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4%) males, 125 (32.6%) non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2%) with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC), Hemoglobin (HB) and Hematocrit (HCT) had significant gender difference (p = 0.000) but not for total white blood count (p>0.05) which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000). Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000). Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001) but lower in pregnant women (p = .001) with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05) but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3), Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (p0.05). Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interpretation of laboratory test results with appropriate diagnostic accuracy requires reference or cutoff values. This study is a comprehensive determination of reference values for hematology and clinical chemistry in apparently healthy voluntary non-remunerated blood donors and pregnant women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Consented clients were clinically screened and counseled before testing for HIV, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and Syphilis. Standard national blood donors' questionnaire was administered to consented blood donors. Blood from qualified volunteers was used for measurement of complete hematology and chemistry parameters. Blood samples were analyzed from a total of 383 participants, 124 (32.4% males, 125 (32.6% non-pregnant females and 134 pregnant females (35.2% with a mean age of 31 years. Our results showed that the red blood cells count (RBC, Hemoglobin (HB and Hematocrit (HCT had significant gender difference (p = 0.000 but not for total white blood count (p>0.05 which was only significantly higher in pregnant verses non-pregnant women (p = 0.000. Hemoglobin and Hematocrit values were lower in pregnancy (P = 0.000. Platelets were significantly higher in females than men (p = 0.001 but lower in pregnant women (p = .001 with marked difference in gestational period. For clinical chemistry parameters, there was no significant difference for sodium, potassium and chloride (p>0.05 but gender difference exists for Bicarbonate (HCO3, Urea nitrogen, Creatinine as well as the lipids (p0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Hematological and Clinical Chemistry reference ranges established in this study showed significant gender differences. Pregnant women also differed from non-pregnant females and during pregnancy. This is the first of such comprehensive study to establish reference values among adult Nigerians and difference observed underscore the need to establish reference values for different populations.
Xia, Jun; Chen, Su-Feng; Xu, Fei; Zhou, Yong-Lie
Sigma metrics were applied to evaluate the performance of 20 routine chemistry assays, and individual quality control criteria were established based on the sigma values of different assays. Precisions were expressed as the average coefficient variations (CVs) of long-term two-level chemistry controls. The biases of the 20 assays were obtained from the results of trueness programs organized by National Center for Clinical Laboratories (NCCL, China) in 2016. Four different allowable total error (TEa) targets were chosen from biological variation (minimum, desirable, optimal), Clinical Laboratory Improvements Amendments (CLIA, US), Analytical Quality Specification for Routine Analytes in Clinical Chemistry (WS/T 403-2012, China) and the National Cholesterol Education Program (NECP). The sigma values from different TEa targets varied. The TEa targets for ALT, AMY, Ca, CHOL, CK, Crea, GGT, K, LDH, Mg, Na, TG, TP, UA and Urea were chosen from WS/T 403-2012; the targets for ALP, AST and GLU were chosen from CLIA; the target for K was chosen from desirable biological variation; and the targets for HDL and LDL were chosen from the NECP. Individual quality criteria were established based on different sigma values. Sigma metrics are an optimal tool to evaluate the performance of different assays. An assay with a high value could use a simple internal quality control rule, while an assay with a low value should be monitored strictly. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hinkley, Georgia K; Carpinone, Paul L; Munson, John W; Powers, Kevin W; Roberts, Stephen M
Nanomaterials are known to cause interference with several standard toxicological assays. As part of an in vivo study of PEG-coated gold nanorods in mice, nanorods were added to reference serum, and results for standard clinical chemistry parameters were compared with serum analyzed without nanorods. PEG-coated gold nanorods produced several concentration-dependent interferences. Comparisons were then made with PEG-coated gold and silica nanospheres. Interferences were observed for both materials that differed from gold nanorods. Removal of the particles from serum by centrifugation prior to analysis resolved most, but not all of the interferences. Additional clinical chemistry analyzers were used to further investigate trends in assay interference. We conclude that PEG-coated gold and silica nanoparticles can interfere with standard clinical chemistry tests in ways that vary depending upon material, shape, and specific assay methodology employed. Assay interferences by nanomaterials cannot always be predicted, underscoring the need to verify that nanomaterials under study do not interfere with methods used to evaluate potential biological effects.
Kochevar, Deborah T
Veterinary clinical pharmacology encompasses all interactions between drugs and animals and applies basic and clinical knowledge to improve rational drug use and patient outcomes. Veterinary pharmacology instructors set educational goals and objectives that, when mastered by students, lead to improved animal health. The special needs of pharmacology instruction include establishing a functional interface between basic and clinical knowledge, managing a large quantity of information, and mastering quantitative skills essential to successful drug administration and analysis of drug action. In the present study, a survey was conducted to determine the extent to which veterinary pharmacology instructors utilize information technology (IT) in their teaching. Several IT categories were investigated, including Web-based instructional aids, stand-alone pharmacology software, interactive videoconferencing, databases, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and e-book applications. Currently IT plays a largely ancillary role in pharmacology instruction. IT use is being expanded primarily through the efforts of two veterinary professional pharmacology groups, the American College of Veterinary Clinical Pharmacology (ACVCP) and the American Academy of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (AAVPT). The long-term outcome of improved IT use in pharmacology instruction should be to support the larger educational mission of active learning and problem solving. Creation of high-quality IT resources that promote this goal has the potential to improve veterinary pharmacology instruction within and across institutions.
Brown, Corina E.; Hyslop, Richard M.; Barbera, Jack
The General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry Knowledge Assessment (GOB-CKA) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to assess students' understanding of the chemistry topics deemed important to clinical nursing practice. This manuscript describes the development process of the individual items along with a psychometric evaluation of the…
Sharkey, Leslie; Overmann, Jed; Flash, Pamela
To encourage application and critical thinking, case-based writing assignments and grading rubrics were developed for use in a second-year core clinical pathology course. Objectives were to describe how this teaching technique was adapted to a large-class setting and how student perceptions of the learning experience guided modifications of this teaching technique over two presentations of the course and plans for a third presentation. Our goal was to enhance learning by encouraging application of course material to clinical situations and thereby improve students' ability to organize and communicate information. Furthermore, we evaluated the influence of instructor feedback on the learning process. With assistance from the University of Minnesota Center for Writing, assignments and grading rubrics were developed. Students completed course evaluation surveys designed to elicit feedback on the impact of the assignments. Increased learner confidence was reflected in larger self-reported increases in understanding of the material and ability to apply information and in increased feelings of preparedness for class and examinations. A large majority of students advocated the use of such assignments in the course in future years, and modifications to make grading and evaluation of assignments more efficient are underway. Investment of faculty and student time in case-based writing assignments in the veterinary clinical pathology curriculum appears to increase student engagement with material and learner confidence. Future studies should address the impact of this type of assignment more specifically on clinical reasoning and communication skills and on long-term retention of material.
Scotney, Rebekah L; McLaughlin, Deirdre; Keates, Helen L
The study of occupational stress and compassion fatigue in personnel working in animal-related occupations has gained momentum over the last decade. However, there remains incongruence in understanding what is currently termed compassion fatigue and the associated unique contributory factors. Furthermore, there is minimal established evidence of the likely influence of these conditions on the health and well-being of individuals working in various animal-related occupations. To assess currently available evidence and terminology regarding occupational stress and compassion fatigue in personnel working in animal shelters, veterinary clinics, and biomedical research facilities. Studies were identified by searching the following electronic databases with no publication date restrictions: ProQuest Research Library, ProQuest Social Science Journals, PsycARTICLES, Web of Science, Science Direct, Scopus, PsychINFO databases, and Google Scholar. Search terms included (euthanasia AND animals) OR (compassion fatigue AND animals) OR (occupational stress AND animals). Only articles published in English in peer-reviewed journals that included use of quantitative or qualitative techniques to investigate the incidence of occupational stress or compassion fatigue in the veterinary profession or animal-related occupations were included. On the basis of predefined criteria, 1 author extracted articles, and the data set was then independently reviewed by the other 2 authors. 12 articles met the selection criteria and included a variety of study designs and methods of data analysis. Seven studies evaluated animal shelter personnel, with the remainder evaluating veterinary nurses and technicians (2), biomedical research technicians (1), and personnel in multiple animal-related occupations (2). There was a lack of consistent terminology and agreed definitions for the articles reviewed. Personnel directly engaged in euthanasia reported significantly higher levels of work stress and lower
Krasowski, Matthew D; Davis, Scott R; Drees, Denny; Morris, Cory; Kulhavy, Jeff; Crone, Cheri; Bebber, Tami; Clark, Iwa; Nelson, David L; Teul, Sharon; Voss, Dena; Aman, Dean; Fahnle, Julie; Blau, John L
Autoverification is a process of using computer-based rules to verify clinical laboratory test results without manual intervention. To date, there is little published data on the use of autoverification over the course of years in a clinical laboratory. We describe the evolution and application of autoverification in an academic medical center clinical chemistry core laboratory. At the institution of the study, autoverification developed from rudimentary rules in the laboratory information system (LIS) to extensive and sophisticated rules mostly in middleware software. Rules incorporated decisions based on instrument error flags, interference indices, analytical measurement ranges (AMRs), delta checks, dilution protocols, results suggestive of compromised or contaminated specimens, and 'absurd' (physiologically improbable) values. The autoverification rate for tests performed in the core clinical chemistry laboratory has increased over the course of 13 years from 40% to the current overall rate of 99.5%. A high percentage of critical values now autoverify. The highest rates of autoverification occurred with the most frequently ordered tests such as the basic metabolic panel (sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, glucose; 99.6%), albumin (99.8%), and alanine aminotransferase (99.7%). The lowest rates of autoverification occurred with some therapeutic drug levels (gentamicin, lithium, and methotrexate) and with serum free light chains (kappa/lambda), mostly due to need for offline dilution and manual filing of results. Rules also caught very rare occurrences such as plasma albumin exceeding total protein (usually indicative of an error such as short sample or bubble that evaded detection) and marked discrepancy between total bilirubin and the spectrophotometric icteric index (usually due to interference of the bilirubin assay by immunoglobulin (Ig) M monoclonal gammopathy). Our results suggest that a high rate of
Mariana S.A. Silva; Uzêda,Rosângela S.; Costa, Kattyanne S.; Santos, Sara L.; Macedo, Alan C. C.; Abe Sandes, Kiyoko; Gondim, Luis Fernando Pita
Texto completo: acesso restrito. p. 156-159 Hammondia heydorni is a coccidian parasite with an obligatory two host life cycle, with dogs and foxes as definitive hosts, and a number of intermediate hosts, including goats. While infection by this parasite seems to be unassociated with any clinical signs, infection by the closely related parasites Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii can result in abortion, stillbirths and low yielding in caprine herds. The aim of this work was to investiga...
Full Text Available Early and accurate pre-clinical and clinical biomarkers of hepatotoxicity facilitate the drug development process and the safety monitoring in clinical studies. We selected eight known model compounds to be administered to male Wistar rats to identify biomarkers of drug induced liver injury (DILI using transcriptomics, metabolite profiling (metabolomics and conventional endpoints. We specifically explored early biomarkers in serum and liver tissue associated with histopathologically evident acute hepatotoxicity. A tailored data analysis strategy was implemented to better differentiate animals with no treatment-related findings in the liver from animals showing evident hepatotoxicity as assessed by histopathological analysis. From the large number of assessed parameters, our data analysis strategy allowed us to identify five metabolites in serum and five in liver tissue, 58 transcripts in liver tissue and seven clinical chemistry markers in serum that were significantly associated with acute hepatotoxicity. The identified markers comprised metabolites such as taurocholic acid and putrescine (measured as sum parameter together with agmatine, classical clinical chemistry markers like AST (aspartate aminotransferase, ALT (alanine aminotransferase, and bilirubin, as well as gene transcripts like Igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 and Egr1 (early growth response protein 1. The response pattern of the identified biomarkers was concordant across all types of parameters and sample matrices. Our results suggest that a combination of several of these biomarkers could significantly improve the robustness and accuracy of an early diagnosis of hepatotoxicity.
Zhao, Ying-Yong; Cheng, Xian-Long; Vaziri, Nosratola D; Liu, Shuman; Lin, Rui-Chao
Metabonomics is a powerful and promising analytic tool that allows assessment of global low-molecular-weight metabolites in biological systems. It has a great potential for identifying useful biomarkers for early diagnosis, prognosis and assessment of therapeutic interventions in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to provide a brief summary of the recent advances in UPLC-based metabonomic approach for biomarker discovery in a variety of diseases, and to discuss their significance in clinical chemistry. All the available information on UPLC-based metabonomic applications for discovering biomarkers of diseases were collected via a library and electronic search (using Web of Science, Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Springer, Google Scholar, etc.). Metabonomics has been used in clinical chemistry to identify and evaluate potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets in various diseases affecting the liver (hepatocarcinoma and liver cirrhosis), lung (lung cancer and pneumonia), gastrointestinal tract (colorectal cancer) and urogenital tract (prostate cancer, ovarian cancer and chronic kidney disease), as well as metabolic diseases (diabetes) and neuropsychiatric disorders (Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia), etc. The information provided highlights the potential value of determination of endogenous low-molecular-weight metabolites and the advantages and potential drawbacks of the application of UPLC-based metabonomics in clinical setting. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Buness, Andreas; Roth, Adrian; Herrmann, Annika; Schmitz, Oliver; Kamp, Hennicke; Busch, Kristina; Suter, Laura
Early and accurate pre-clinical and clinical biomarkers of hepatotoxicity facilitate the drug development process and the safety monitoring in clinical studies. We selected eight known model compounds to be administered to male Wistar rats to identify biomarkers of drug induced liver injury (DILI) using transcriptomics, metabolite profiling (metabolomics) and conventional endpoints. We specifically explored early biomarkers in serum and liver tissue associated with histopathologically evident acute hepatotoxicity. A tailored data analysis strategy was implemented to better differentiate animals with no treatment-related findings in the liver from animals showing evident hepatotoxicity as assessed by histopathological analysis. From the large number of assessed parameters, our data analysis strategy allowed us to identify five metabolites in serum and five in liver tissue, 58 transcripts in liver tissue and seven clinical chemistry markers in serum that were significantly associated with acute hepatotoxicity. The identified markers comprised metabolites such as taurocholic acid and putrescine (measured as sum parameter together with agmatine), classical clinical chemistry markers like AST (aspartate aminotransferase), ALT (alanine aminotransferase), and bilirubin, as well as gene transcripts like Igfbp1 (insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1) and Egr1 (early growth response protein 1). The response pattern of the identified biomarkers was concordant across all types of parameters and sample matrices. Our results suggest that a combination of several of these biomarkers could significantly improve the robustness and accuracy of an early diagnosis of hepatotoxicity.
Lee, Hye Ryun; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Roh, Eun Youn; Chang, Ju Young
Reference intervals need to be established according to age. We established reference intervals of hematology and chemistry from community-based healthy 1-yr-old children and analyzed their iron status according to the feeding methods during the first six months after birth. A total of 887 children who received a medical check-up between 2010 and 2014 at Boramae Hospital (Seoul, Korea) were enrolled. A total of 534 children (247 boys and 287 girls) were enrolled as reference individuals after the exclusion of data obtained from children with suspected iron deficiency. Hematology and clinical chemistry analytes were measured, and the reference value of each analyte was estimated by using parametric (mean±2 SD) or nonparametric methods (2.5-97.5th percentile). Iron, total iron-binding capacity, and ferritin were measured, and transferrin saturation was calculated. As there were no differences in the mean values between boys and girls, we established the reference intervals for 1-yr-old children regardless of sex. The analysis of serum iron status according to feeding methods during the first six months revealed higher iron, ferritin, and transferrin saturation levels in children exclusively or mainly fed formula than in children exclusively or mainly fed breast milk. We established reference intervals of hematology and clinical chemistry analytes from community-based healthy children at one year of age. These reference intervals will be useful for interpreting results of medical check-ups at one year of age.
The combination of liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a powerful and indispensable analytical tool that is widely applied in many areas of chemistry, medicine, pharmaceutics and biochemistry. In this review recent MS instrumental developments are presented as part of a special issue covering various aspects of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) in clinical chemistry. Improvements, new inventions as well as new combinations in ion source technology are described focusing on dual or multimode sources and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI). Increasing demands regarding sensitivity, accuracy, resolution and both quantitation and identification guarantee on-going improvements in mass analyzer technology. This paper discusses new hybrid MS instruments that can perform novel scan modes as well as high-resolution mass spectrometers (HRMS) that finally seem to be able to overcome, or at least significantly reduce, their weaknesses in quantitative applications. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IMMS) itself is not an invention of the last 10 years, but a lot of progress was made within the last decade that reveals the potential benefits of this combination. This is clearly reflected by the increased number of commercially available instruments and the various designs of IMMS are covered in detail in this review. Selected applications for all these instrumental developments are given focusing on the perspective of clinical chemistry. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Vap, Linda M; Harr, Kendal E; Arnold, Jill E; Freeman, Kathleen P; Getzy, Karen; Lester, Sally; Friedrichs, Kristen R
In December 2009, the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology (ASVCP) Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standards committee published the updated and peer-reviewed ASVCP Quality Assurance Guidelines on the Society's website. These guidelines are intended for use by veterinary diagnostic laboratories and veterinary research laboratories that are not covered by the US Food and Drug Administration Good Laboratory Practice standards (Code of Federal Regulations Title 21, Chapter 58). The guidelines have been divided into 3 reports: (1) general analytical factors for veterinary laboratory performance and comparisons; (2) hematology, hemostasis, and crossmatching; and (3) clinical chemistry, cytology, and urinalysis. This particular report is one of 3 reports and provides recommendations for control of preanalytical and analytical factors related to hematology for mammalian and nonmammalian species, hemostasis testing, and crossmatching and is adapted from sections 1.1 and 2.3 (mammalian hematology), 1.2 and 2.4 (nonmammalian hematology), 1.5 and 2.7 (hemostasis testing), and 1.6 and 2.8 (crossmatching) of the complete guidelines. These guidelines are not intended to be all-inclusive; rather, they provide minimal guidelines for quality assurance and quality control for veterinary laboratory testing and a basis for laboratories to assess their current practices, determine areas for improvement, and guide continuing professional development and education efforts. © 2012 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Cello, R. M.
The author suggests that attempts to strengthen clinical specialty training must begin with a coordinated effort on the part of all schools to establish graduate clinical education as a fundamental, important and independent element of their academic programs. (LBH)
Niu, Aijun; Yan, Xianxia; Wang, Lin; Min, Yan; Hu, Chengjin
Routine repeat testing of critical values is a long-standing practice in many clinical laboratories; however, its usefulness and necessity remain to be empirically established and no regulatory requirements yet exist for verification of the critical value results obtained by repeat analysis. To determine whether repeat testing of critical values is useful and necessary in a clinical chemistry laboratory. A total of 601 chemistry critical values (potassium, n = 255; sodium, n = 132; calcium, n = 108; glucose, n = 106) obtained from 72,259 routine clinical chemistry specimens were repeat tested. The absolute value and the percentage of difference between the two testing runs were calculated for each of the four critical values and then compared with the allowable error limit put forth in the College of American Pathologists (CAP). Among the repeat data for the 601 critical values, a total of 24 showed large differences between the initial result and the repeated result which exceeded the CAP limits for allowable error. The number and rates (%) of large differences for within and outside the analytical measurement range (AMR) were 12 (2.1%) and 12 (41.4%), respectively. For the 572 critical values within the AMR for each test category, the mean absolute difference (mmol/L) and difference(%) between the two testing runs were: potassium, 0.1 mmol/L (2.7%); sodium, 2.1 mmol/L (1.7%); calcium, 0.05 mmol/L (3.0%); glucose, 0.18 mmol/L (2.6%). When the initial chemistry critical values are within the AMR, repeated testing does not improve accuracy and is therefore unnecessary. When the initial chemistry critical values are outside the AMR, however, the benefit of repeated testing justifies its performance and makes it necessary. Performing repeat clinical testing on a case-by-case, rather than routine, basis can improve patient care by delivering critical values more rapidly while providing savings on reagent costs associated with unnecessary repeat testing.
de Kieviet, Wim; Blaton, Victor; Kovacs, Gabor L; Palicka, Vladimir; Pulkki, Kari
The professional duties of the specialists in clinical chemistry differ from country to country in Europe. One of the main goals of the Strategic Plan of the Forum of the European Societies of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (FESCC; IFCC-Europe) is to promote a high scientific and professional standard in the field of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine in Europe. This can be stimulated by the knowledge of the local conditions in each country and by striving towards a strong and harmonised position in all the European countries. In order to enhance the knowledge of the managerial situation of the specialists in clinical chemistry in Europe, FESCC launched a survey in September 2000. This survey provides information about the position of the specialists in clinical chemistry in the various disciplines in the medical laboratories and in hospitals, and about the advisory tasks and the managerial education during the post-graduate training in clinical chemistry. Of the 35 FESCC member countries 33 have participated in the survey (94%). The results show a rather heterogeneous situation in Europe caused by the local historical developments, the differences in academic background and the relative numbers of private and physicians' office laboratories. Large differences exist between the European countries in the disciplines of laboratory medicine that are headed by a specialist in clinical chemistry. In the different countries the clinical chemistry laboratories are headed by specialists in clinical chemistry in between 20% and 100% of the laboratories. The haematology, immunology, microbiology, therapeutic drug monitoring, molecular biology and haemostasis laboratories and departments of blood banking are headed by specialists in clinical chemistry in between 0% and 100% of the laboratories. The responsibilities for the various managerial tasks of the specialists in clinical chemistry show no uniformity in Europe. In the majority of the countries the
Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Brocco, Giorgio; Danese, Elisa; Lippi, Giuseppe
An experimental study was planned to assess the influence on routine clinical chemistry parameters of fist making prior to, and maintenance during, venipuncture. Blood was collected from 16 healthy volunteers with two separate sequential procedures, entailing standard venipuncture with hand opened throughout blood collection, or clenching the fist 6 times before venipuncture and maintaining the fist until completion of blood collection. After separation of lithium-heparin plasma at vacuum tubes with gel separator, 28 routine clinical chemistry parameters and serum indices were measured on Roche Cobas 6000 〈c501〉 module. Fist clenching and maintaining were associated with significant variations of 8/26 (31%) analytes tested. Specifically, aspartate aminotransferase (+2.3%), calcium (+2.2%), chloride (+1.0%), creatine kinase (+2.0%), magnesium (+2.3%), potassium (+13.4%), and sodium (+0.7%) increased, whereas phosphate (-5.0%) decreased. All variations except aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase exceeded the quality specifications for desirable imprecision. A remarkable increase of free hemoglobin in plasma (i.e., +28.2%) was also observed. The ratio of plasma potassium was significantly associated with that of plasma CK (r=0.55; p=0.029), but not with variations of other analytes. No significant correlation was observed between the ratio of free hemoglobin and those of other analytes. The results of our investigation demonstrate that repeated clenching and maintenance of fist during venipuncture may trigger acute variations of several routine clinical chemistry parameters, which may be attributable to muscle contraction, hemolysis or both. Accordingly, venipuncture should be performed avoiding fist clenching and maintenance. Copyright Â© 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Álvarez-Pérez, Sergio; Blanco, José L; Harmanus, Celine; Kuijper, Ed J; García, Marta E
Despite extensive research on the epidemiology of pathogenic clostridia in dogs and cats, most published studies focus on a selected animal population and/or a single veterinary medical centre. We assessed the burden of Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile shedding by small animals in 17 veterinary clinics located within the Madrid region (Spain) and differing in size, number and features of animals attended and other relevant characteristics. In addition, we studied the genetic diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of recovered isolates. Selective culture of all fecal specimens collected during a single week from dogs (n = 105) and cats (n = 37) attended in participating clinics yielded C. perfringens/C. difficile from 31%, 4.8% of the dogs, and 20%, 0% of the cats analyzed, respectively, and three dogs yielded both species. Furthermore, 17 animals (15 dogs and two cats) that yielded a positive culture for either species were recruited for a follow-up survey and C. perfringens was again obtained from nine dogs. Considerable differences in prevalence were observed among participating clinics for both clostridial species. C. perfringens isolates (n = 109) belonged to toxinotypes A (97.2%) and E (three isolates from one dog), whereas C. difficile isolates (n = 18) belonged to the toxigenic ribotypes 106 (33.3%) and 154 (16.7%), a 009-like ribotype (33.3%) and an unknown non-toxigenic ribotype (16.7%). Amplified fragment length polymorphism-based fingerprinting classified C. perfringens and C. difficile isolates into 105 and 15 genotypes, respectively, and tested isolates displayed in vitro resistance to benzylpenicillin (2.8%, 88.8%), clindamycin (0%, 16.7%), erythromycin (0.9%, 16.7%), imipenem (1.8%, 100%), levofloxacin (0.9%, 100%), linezolid (5.5%, 0%), metronidazole (4.6%, 0%) and/or tetracycline (7.3%, 0%). All animals from which multiple isolates were retrieved yielded ≥2 different genotypes and/or antimicrobial susceptibility profiles
... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010. The draft... Live Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated September 2010...
... Biotherapeutic Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information '' dated February 2012. The guidance provides... Products: Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Control Information'' dated February 2012. The guidance provides...
Hawkins, Robert C; Badrick, Tony
In this study we aimed to compare the reporting unit size used by Australian laboratories for routine chemistry and haematology tests to the unit size used by learned authorities and in standard laboratory textbooks and to the justified unit size based on measurement uncertainty (MU) estimates from quality assurance program data. MU was determined from Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia (RCPA) - Australasian Association of Clinical Biochemists (AACB) and RCPA Haematology Quality Assurance Program survey reports. The reporting unit size implicitly suggested in authoritative textbooks, the RCPA Manual, and the General Serum Chemistry program itself was noted. We also used published data on Australian laboratory practices.The best performing laboratories could justify their chemistry unit size for 55% of analytes while comparable figures for the 50% and 90% laboratories were 14% and 8%, respectively. Reporting unit size was justifiable for all laboratories for red cell count, >50% for haemoglobin but only the top 10% for haematocrit. Few, if any, could justify their mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) reporting unit sizes.The reporting unit size used by many laboratories is not justified by present analytical performance. Using MU estimates to determine the reporting interval for quantitative laboratory results ensures reporting practices match local analytical performance and recognises the inherent error of the measurement process.
Singh, Darshan; Müller, Christian P; Murugaiyah, Vikneswaran; Hamid, Shahrul Bariyah Sahul; Vicknasingam, Balasingam K; Avery, Bonnie; Chear, Nelson Jeng Yeou; Mansor, Sharif Mahsufi
Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa Korth.) from the Rubiaceae family is an indigenous tropical medicinal tree of Southeast Asia. Kratom leaves have been used for decades in Malaysia and Thailand in traditional context for its perceived vast medicinal value, and as a mild stimulant among manual labourers. Kratom consumption has been reported to cause side-effects in kratom users. To evaluate kratom's effects towards hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters among regular kratom users in Malaysia. A total of 77 subjects (n=58 regular kratom users, and n=19 healthy controls) participated in this cross-sectional study. All the surveys were conducted through face-to-face interview to elicit subject's socio-demographic characteristics and kratom use history. A full-blood test was also administered. Laboratory analysis was conducted using GC-MS to determine mitragynine content in the acquired kratom samples in order to relate mitragynine consumption with possible alterations in the blood parameters of kratom users. Findings showed that there were no significant differences in the hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters of traditional kratom users and healthy controls, except for HDL and LDL cholesterol values; these were found to be above the normal reference range for the former. Similarly, long-term kratom consumption (>5 years), and quantity of daily kratom use (≥3 ½ glasses; mitragynine content 76.3-114.8mg) did not appear to alter the hematological and biochemical parameters of kratom users. These data suggest that even long-term and heavy kratom consumption did not significantly alter the hematological and clinical-chemistry parameters of kratom users in a traditional setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Jeong, Seri; Lee, Sang-Guk; Kim, Yoonjung; Park, Jeong Rae; Kim, Jeong-Ho
Polyethylene glycol-electrolyte lavage solutions (PEG-ELSs) and sodium phosphate formulations (NaPs) are two major colon cleansing laxatives used in preparation for endoscopic examinations of the gastrointestinal tract. PEG-ELSs are osmotically balanced preparations, whereas NaPs are hyperosmotic purgatives. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of these two laxatives on routine chemistry tests. We retrospectively reviewed 9366 clinical records of patients who had health checkups with or without colonoscopy from July 2010 to June 2011. We compared the values of 19 clinical chemistry parameters in the NaPs group (n=3239) and the PEG-ELSs group (n=1279) with those of controls (without colonoscopy, n=4848). Compared with controls, the NaPs group had higher mean values of inorganic phosphate, sodium, chloride, creatinine, total protein, AST, and ALT, and lower mean values of calcium and potassium, exceeding acceptable biases. Notably, inorganic phosphate showed the largest % bias (51.14%). In the PEG-ELSs laxative group, higher mean values of inorganic phosphorus, creatinine, uric acid, AST, and total bilirubin and a lower mean value of potassium were observed compared with controls, exceeding acceptable biases. The effects of NaPs on inorganic phosphate, calcium, and electrolyte levels exceeded those of PEG-ELSs. PEG-ELSs rather than NaPs are recommended as the first choice for bowel preparation, taking safety concerns and the reliability of laboratory values into account. Blood chemistry data from blood samples drawn after the ingestion of laxatives for colonoscopy should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Mission:To provide quality veterinary medical care and environmental enrichment programs for all animals, representing nine different species.To provide guidance for...
Beastall, Graham; Kenny, Desmond; Laitinen, Paivi; ten Kate, Joop
A definition has been agreed for the most senior professional (consultant) in clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. A model job description for a consultant has been determined, which is intended to act as a toolkit to assist employing authorities and professional bodies to define the role of individual consultant posts. A total of 86 competences for a consultant have been designated and expressed in the form of simple generic proficiency standards. These competences have been allocated to six broad areas: clinical ; scientific ; technical ; communication ; management and leadership ; professional autonomy and accountability . The competences are intended to be illustrative rather than definitive and to enable the duties of any consultant post to be defined. Assessment of competence is likely to entail consideration of qualifications, registration status, continuing professional development and performance review. The project is intended as a guide to European societies of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. The guide should be capable of local interpretation to encourage a greater degree of commonality in the role of the consultant whilst protecting national identity. The guide should stimulate international understanding and collaboration and contribute to an overall improvement in the quality of practice.
Jafri, Lena; Khan, Aysha Habib; Ghani, Farooq; Shakeel, Shahid; Raheem, Ahmed; Siddiqui, Imran
Quality indicators for assessing the performance of a laboratory require a systematic and continuous approach in collecting and analyzing data. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of errors utilizing the quality indicators in a clinical chemistry laboratory and to convert errors to the Sigma scale. Five-year quality indicator data of a clinical chemistry laboratory was evaluated to describe the frequency of errors. An 'error' was defined as a defect during the entire testing process from the time requisition was raised and phlebotomy was done until the result dispatch. An indicator with a Sigma value of 4 was considered good but a process for which the Sigma value was 5 (i.e. 99.977% error-free) was considered well controlled. In the five-year period, a total of 6,792,020 specimens were received in the laboratory. Among a total of 17,631,834 analyses, 15.5% were from within hospital. Total error rate was 0.45% and of all the quality indicators used in this study the average Sigma level was 5.2. Three indicators - visible hemolysis, failure of proficiency testing and delay in stat tests - were below 5 on the Sigma scale and highlight the need to rigorously monitor these processes. Using Six Sigma metrics quality in a clinical laboratory can be monitored more effectively and it can set benchmarks for improving efficiency.
During the past 10 years, many activities have taken place in the field of quality systems and accreditation in medical laboratories. Each country in Europe has a slightly different approach. The Working Group on Accreditation of the European Communities Confederation of Clinical Chemistry (EC4) tries to support harmonisation of these efforts. For this purpose, they edited the Essential Criteria for quality systems of medical laboratories and supported the forthcoming International ISO standard "Quality management for the medical laboratory". At this moment, a Model Quality Manual is nearly ready for publication. The next items are setting up criteria for auditing the quality system and criteria for the accreditation process.
Olsen, Glenn H.; Rininger, D.L.; Ets, M.K.; Sladen, William J. L.; Rees, Eileen C.; Earnst, Susan L.; Coulson, John C.
Results from hematology and clinical chemistry tests are presented for healthy captive-raised Trumpeter Swans (Cygnus buccinator) to help establish baseline data. Blood samples were obtained from 14 cygnets between the ages of three to four and seven to eight months that were the subjects of a study to teach migration routes to swans. Males and females differed significantly in asparatate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total protein. Age categories differed significantly in hematocrit, white blood cell counts, alkaline phosphatase, aspar-rate aminotransferase, glucose, cholesterol and uric acid. There were no significant differences among age categories in values of alanine aminotransferase, calcium, triglycerides and total protein.
Camus, Melinda S
This review, aimed primarily at general practitioners, focuses on quality assurance/quality control principles for all three phases of clinical pathology testing: preanalytic, analytic, and postanalytic. Specific emphasis is placed on the preanalytic phase of diagnostic modalities for identifying neoplastic cells, specifically flow cytometry, PCR for antigen receptor rearrangement, and immunocytochemistry. Recommendations for establishing an in-clinic quality assurance system are provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bartels, Kenneth E.
As in other facets of medical science, the use of lasers in veterinary medicine is a relatively new phenomenon. Economic aspects of the profession as well as questionable returns on investment have limited laser applications primarily to the academic community, research institutions, and specialty practices. As technology improves and efficacy is proven, costs should decrease and allow further introduction of laser surgical and diagnostic devices into the mainstream of clinical veterinary medicine.
Matthew D Krasowski
Full Text Available Background: Autoverification is a process of using computer-based rules to verify clinical laboratory test results without manual intervention. To date, there is little published data on the use of autoverification over the course of years in a clinical laboratory. We describe the evolution and application of autoverification in an academic medical center clinical chemistry core laboratory. Subjects and Methods: At the institution of the study, autoverification developed from rudimentary rules in the laboratory information system (LIS to extensive and sophisticated rules mostly in middleware software. Rules incorporated decisions based on instrument error flags, interference indices, analytical measurement ranges (AMRs, delta checks, dilution protocols, results suggestive of compromised or contaminated specimens, and ′absurd′ (physiologically improbable values. Results: The autoverification rate for tests performed in the core clinical chemistry laboratory has increased over the course of 13 years from 40% to the current overall rate of 99.5%. A high percentage of critical values now autoverify. The highest rates of autoverification occurred with the most frequently ordered tests such as the basic metabolic panel (sodium, potassium, chloride, carbon dioxide, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, calcium, glucose; 99.6%, albumin (99.8%, and alanine aminotransferase (99.7%. The lowest rates of autoverification occurred with some therapeutic drug levels (gentamicin, lithium, and methotrexate and with serum free light chains (kappa/lambda, mostly due to need for offline dilution and manual filing of results. Rules also caught very rare occurrences such as plasma albumin exceeding total protein (usually indicative of an error such as short sample or bubble that evaded detection and marked discrepancy between total bilirubin and the spectrophotometric icteric index (usually due to interference of the bilirubin assay by immunoglobulin (Ig M monoclonal
Armbruster, David A; Overcash, David R; Reyes, Jaime
The era of automation arrived with the introduction of the AutoAnalyzer using continuous flow analysis and the Robot Chemist that automated the traditional manual analytical steps. Successive generations of stand-alone analysers increased analytical speed, offered the ability to test high volumes of patient specimens, and provided large assay menus. A dichotomy developed, with a group of analysers devoted to performing routine clinical chemistry tests and another group dedicated to performing immunoassays using a variety of methodologies. Development of integrated systems greatly improved the analytical phase of clinical laboratory testing and further automation was developed for pre-analytical procedures, such as sample identification, sorting, and centrifugation, and post-analytical procedures, such as specimen storage and archiving. All phases of testing were ultimately combined in total laboratory automation (TLA) through which all modules involved are physically linked by some kind of track system, moving samples through the process from beginning-to-end. A newer and very powerful, analytical methodology is liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). LC-MS/MS has been automated but a future automation challenge will be to incorporate LC-MS/MS into TLA configurations. Another important facet of automation is informatics, including middleware, which interfaces the analyser software to a laboratory information systems (LIS) and/or hospital information systems (HIS). This software includes control of the overall operation of a TLA configuration and combines analytical results with patient demographic information to provide additional clinically useful information. This review describes automation relevant to clinical chemistry, but it must be recognised that automation applies to other specialties in the laboratory, e.g. haematology, urinalysis, microbiology. It is a given that automation will continue to evolve in the clinical laboratory
The Sahel Journal of Veterinary Sciences is the official journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria. The journal welcomes original research articles, short communications and reviews on all aspects of veterinary sciences and related disciplines.
Dhollander, S.; Jallow, A.; Mbodge, K.; Kora, S.; Sanneh, M.; Gaye, M.; Bos, J.F.F.P.; Leak, S.; Berkvens, D.; Geerts, S.
The objective of this,study was to provide epidemiological information of equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division (CRD) of The Gambia. Therefore, 2285 consultations records of equines, admitted in a gate-clinic at Sololo in CRD, were studied retrospectively. The data were recorded in the
Bunch, Dustin R; Wang, Sihe
Complex matrices, for example urine, serum, plasma, and whole blood, which are common in clinical chemistry testing, contain many non-analyte compounds that can interfere with either detection or in-source ionization in chromatography-based assays. To overcome this problem, analytes are extracted by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction (SPE), and liquid-liquid extraction. With correct chemistry and well controlled material SPE may furnish clean specimens with consistent performance. Traditionally, SPE has been performed with particle-based adsorbents, but monolithic SPE is attracting increasing interest of clinical laboratories. Monoliths, solid pieces of stationary phase, have bimodal structures consisting of macropores, which enable passage of solvent, and mesopores, in which analytes are separated. This structure results in low back-pressure with separation capabilities similar to those of particle-based adsorbents. Monoliths also enable increased sample throughput, reduced solvent use, varied support formats, and/or automation. However, many of these monoliths are not commercially available. In this review, application of monoliths to purification of samples from humans before chromatography-based assays will be critically reviewed.
Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Brocco, Giorgio; Danese, Elisa; Guidi, Gian Cesare
To investigate the influence of different phlebotomy postures on clinical chemistry testing. Nineteen volunteers were recruited from the laboratory staff. A first set of samples was drawn after 25 min of resting in supine position, a second after 20 min in sitting position, and a third after 20 min in upright position. Clinical chemistry testing was performed on Roche Cobas C501. The plasma volume change (PVC) was -3.4% from supine to sitting, -14.1% from supine to standing and -9.7% from sitting to standing. Compared to quality specifications for bias, hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin and total proteins exhibited meaningful increases from supine to sitting, whereas meaningful increases were observed for hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), amylase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, calcium, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), glucose, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), magnesium, total protein and triglycerides from sitting to standing. The parameters with meaningful bias from sitting to upright were hemoglobin, hematocrit, albumin, ALP, total bilirubin, calcium, total and HDL cholesterol, glucose, LDH and total protein. These results provide further support to the need of standardizing patient's posture during phlebotomy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Simundic, Ana-Maria; Topic, Elizabeta; Cvoriscec, Dubravka; Cepelak, Ivana
Heterogeneity exists across Europe in the definition of the profession of clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine and also in academic background of specialists in this discipline. This article provides an overview of the standards of education and training of laboratory professionals and quality regulations in Croatia. Clinical chemistry in Croatia is almost exclusively practiced by medical biochemists. Although term Medical biochemist often relates to medical doctors in other European countries, in Croatia medical biochemists are not medical doctors, but university degree professionals who are qualified scientifically. Practicing the medical biochemistry is regulated by The Health Care Law, The Law of the Medical Biochemistry Profession and The Law of the State and Private Health Insurance. According to the law, only medical biochemists are entitled to run and work in the medical biochemistry laboratory. University degree is earned after the 5 years of the studies. Register for medical biochemists is kept by the Croatian Chamber of Medical Biochemists. Licensing is mandatory, valid for 6 years and regulated by the government (Law on the Health Care, 1993). Vocational training for medical biochemists lasts 44 months and is regulated by the national regulatory document issued by the Ministry of Health. Accreditation is not mandatory and is provided by an independent, non-commercial national accreditation body. The profession has interdisciplinary character and a level of required competence and skills comparable to other European countries.
Shin, Dong Hoon; Kim, Juwon; Uh, Young; Lee, Se Il; Seo, Dong Min; Kim, Kab Seung; Jang, Jae Yun; Lee, Man Hee; Yoon, Kwang Ro; Yoon, Kap Jun
Hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia (HIL) cause preanalytical interference and vary unpredictably with different analytical equipments and measurement methods. We developed an integrated reporting system for verifying HIL status in order to identify the extent of interference by HIL on clinical chemistry results. HIL interference data from 30 chemical analytes were provided by the manufacturers and were used to generate a table of clinically relevant interference values that indicated the extent of bias at specific index values (alert index values). The HIL results generated by the Vista 1500 system (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, USA), Advia 2400 system (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics), and Modular DPE system (Roche Diagnostics, Switzerland) were analyzed and displayed on physicians' personal computers. Analytes 11 and 29 among the 30 chemical analytes were affected by interference due to hemolysis, when measured using the Vista and Modular systems, respectively. The hemolysis alert indices for the Vista and Modular systems were 0.1-25.8% and 0.1-64.7%, respectively. The alert indices for icterus and lipemia were <1.4% and 0.7% in the Vista system and 0.7% and 1.0% in the Modular system, respectively. The HIL alert index values for chemical analytes varied depending on the chemistry analyzer. This integrated HIL reporting system provides an effective screening tool for verifying specimen quality with regard to HIL and simplifies the laboratory workflow.
Gates, M C; Hinds, H J; Dale, A
AIMS To conduct a preliminary investigation into the chronic disease conditions and clinical signs present in aging New Zealand companion animals at end-of-life and to describe the timing, circumstances, and manner of death. METHODS The medical records database of a first-opinion, companion animal, veterinary practice in Auckland, New Zealand was searched to identify all canine and feline patients ≥7 years of age that were subjected to euthanasia or cremated in the period between July 2012-June 2014. The free-text medical notes were analysed for information on the circumstances surrounding the death, previous diagnoses of chronic disease conditions, and the presence of clinical signs associated with decreased quality-of-life at the time of euthanasia. RESULTS The median age at death was 15 (max 22) years for the 130 cats and 12 (max 17) years for the 68 dogs in the study sample. Euthanasia at the clinic was carried out for 119/130 (91%) cats and 62/68 (91%) dogs, with the remainder recorded as having an unassisted death. The frequency of deaths was highest during December for both cats and dogs. Cost was mentioned as an issue in the medical records for 39/181 (21.6%) patients that were subjected to euthanasia. At the time of euthanasia, 92/119 (77.3%) cats and 43/62 (69.4%) dogs were recorded as having >1 clinical sign associated with a decreased quality-of-life. Inappetence and non-specific decline were the two most commonly recorded clinical signs for both dogs and cats. Cardiovascular disease (44/130, 34%), renal failure (40/130, 31%), and malignant neoplasia (36/130, 28%) were the most common chronic disease conditions recorded for cats. Degenerative joint disease (22/68, 32%), malignant neoplasia (14/68, 21%), and cardiovascular disease (8/68, 12%) were the most common chronic disease conditions recorded for dogs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE These preliminary findings highlight that aging companion animals in New Zealand frequently have chronic
Jiang, Yuanyuan; Jiang, Hongmin; Ding, Siyi; Liu, Qin
Timely delivery of correct results has long been considered as the goal of quality management in clinical laboratory. With increasing workload as well as complexities of laboratory testing and patient care, the traditional technical adopted like internal quality control (IQC) and external quality assessment (EQA) may not enough to cope with quality management problems for clinical laboratories. We applied failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA), a proactive tool, to reduce errors associated with the process beginning with sample collection and ending with a test report in a clinical chemistry laboratory. Our main objection was to investigate the feasibility of FMEA in a real-world situation, namely the working environment of hospital. A team of 8 people (3 laboratory workers, 2 couriers, 2 nurses, and 1 physician) from different departments who were involved in the testing process were recruited and trained. Their main responsibility was to analyze and score all possible clinical chemistry laboratory failures based on three aspects: the severity of the outcome (S), the likeliness of occurrence (O), and the probability of being detected (D). These three parameters were multiplied to calculate risk priority numbers (RPNs), which were used to prioritize remedial measures. Failure modes with RPN≥200 were deemed as high risk, meaning that they needed immediate corrective action. After modifications that were put, we compared the resulting RPN with the previous one. A total of 33 failure modes were identified. Many of the failure modes, including the one with the highest RPN (specimen hemolysis) appeared in the pre-analytic phase, whereas no high-risk failure modes (RPN≥200) were found during the analytic phase. High-priority risks were "sample hemolysis" (RPN, 336), "sample delivery delay" (RPN, 225), "sample volume error" (RPN, 210), "failure to release results in a timely manner" (RPN, 210), and "failure to identify or report critical results" (RPN, 200). The
Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture,. Umudike, P.M.B 7267 Umuahia, Abia State, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: Email: email@example.com; Tel. No:+234 8034509991. SUMMARY. This study investigated comparatively the genetic influence on the ...
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The importance of computers in all works of life need not to be overemphasized. However, in. Nigeria, the application of computers in veterinary medicine has not been fully utilized. Computer aided diagnosis is a process that has significantly improved the practice of veterinary medicine in other parts of the world. This paper ...
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Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Meseko et al. 155. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): 155-159. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Detection of Haemagglutination inhibition antibody to Pandemic and. Classical Swine Influenza Virus in Commercial Piggery in ...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(1). 2016. Igado et al. 54. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 54-63. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cranio-facial and Ocular Morphometrics of the Male Greater Cane Rat. (Thryonomys swinderianus). Igado, O. O.. 1. *; Adebayo, A. O.. 2.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 37(3). 2016. Ogunro et al. 187. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., September 2016. Vol. 37 (3): 187-191. CASE REPORT. Management of Epitheliogenesis Imperfecta in a Piglet (Sus Scrofa domesticus) in Ibadan, Nigeria. Ogunro, B. N.. 1. ; Otuh, P. I.. 1.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal 38(2). 2017. Meseko et al. 124. NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., June 2017. Vol 38 (2): 124-128. SHORT COMMUNICATION. Fowlpox Virus from Backyard Poultry in Plateau State Nigeria: Isolation and Phylogeny of the P4b Gene Compared to a Vaccine Strain.
Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects. Other websites associated with this journal: ...
Principal Contact. Dr. Ibrahim Eldaghayes Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tripoli, P. O. Box 13662, Tripoli, Libya Phone: +218 21 462 8422. Fax: +218 21 462 8421. Email: firstname.lastname@example.org ...
variegatum (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks from Nigeria. Ogo, N. I.. 1. ; Okubanjo, O. O.. 2. ; Inuwa, H. M.. 3 and Agbede, R. I. S.. 4. 1National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Plateau State. 2Department of Veterinary Parasitology and. Entomology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. 3Department of Biochemistry, Ahmadu ...
Vet. J., December 2015. Vol. 36 (4): 1272-1282. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Gross and Morphometric Anatomical Changes of the Thyroid Gland in the West African Dwarf ... Department of Veterinary Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. .... common carotid artery, internal jugular vein,.
Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 45-53. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. A Retrospective Evaluation of Intravenous Fluid Usage in Animal. Patients Treated at Veterinary Teaching Hospital Nsukka, 2005-2015 ... 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. ... they carried with them their own internal sea.
SUMMARY. The prevalence and morphological pathology of renal failure in exotic breeds of dog in Lagos and Ogun States, within Southwestern Nigeria were determined from postmortem records of the. Department of Veterinary Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Federal University of. Agriculture, Abeokuta ...
at the Maiduguri municipal abattoir and were used for this study. Thyroid glands collected were transported in ice packs to the Department of Veterinary Pathology laboratory, University of Maiduguri, Nigeria for gross examination and thereafter, fixed and sent to Department of Veterinary. Anatomy, University of Abuja, were it ...
Lehmann, Sylvain; Poinot, Pauline; Tiers, Laurent; Junot, Christophe; Becher, François; Hirtz, Christophe
Clinical Proteomics biomarker discovery programs lead to the selection of putative new biomarkers of human pathologies. Following an initial discovery phase, validation of these candidates in larger populations is a major task that recently started relying upon the use of mass spectrometry approaches, especially in cases where classical immune-detection methods were lacking. Thanks to highly sensitive spectrometers, adapted measurement methods like selective reaction monitoring (SRM) and various pre-fractionation methods, the quantitative detection of protein/peptide biomarkers in low concentrations is now feasible from complex biological fluids. This possibility leads to the use of similar methodologies in clinical biology laboratories, within a new proteomic field that we shall name "Clinical Chemistry Proteomics" (CCP). Such evolution of Clinical Proteomics adds important constraints with regards to the in vitro diagnostic (IVD) application. As measured values of analytes will be used to diagnose, follow-up and adapt patient treatment on a routine basis; medical utility, robustness, reference materials and clinical feasibility are among the new issues of CCP to consider.
Wieringa, Gijsbert; Zerah, Simone; Jansen, Rob
, management and treatment of patients, and their prognostic assessment. In submitting a revised common syllabus for post-graduate education and training across the 27 member states an expectation is set for harmonised, high quality, safe practice. In this regard an extended 'Core knowledge, skills...... and competencies' division embracing all laboratory medicine disciplines is described. For the first time the syllabus identifies the competencies required to meet clinical leadership demands for defining, directing and assuring the efficiency and effectiveness of laboratory services as well as expectations...... in translating knowledge and skills into ability to practice. In a 'Specialist knowledge' division, the expectations from the individual disciplines of Clinical Chemistry/Immunology, Haematology/Blood Transfusion, Microbiology/ Virology, Genetics and In Vitro Fertilisation are described. Beyond providing...
HbA(1c) was discovered in the late 1960s and its use as marker of glycemic control has gradually increased over the course of the last four decades. Recognized as the gold standard of diabetic survey, this parameter was successfully implemented in clinical practice in the 1970s and 1980s and internationally standardized in the 1990s and 2000s. The use of standardized and well-controlled methods, with well-defined performance criteria, has recently opened new directions for HbA(1c) use in patient care, e.g., for diabetes diagnosis. Many reports devoted to HbA1c have been published in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM) journal. This review reminds the major steps of HbA(1c) history, with a special emphasis on the contribution of CCLM in this field.
Wadzanai P Samaneka
Full Text Available Laboratory reference ranges used for clinical care and clinical trials in various laboratories in Zimbabwe were derived from textbooks and research studies conducted more than ten years ago. Periodic verification of these ranges is essential to track changes over time. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and chemistry laboratory reference ranges using more rigorous methods.A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Harare, Chitungwiza, and Mutoko. A multistage sampling technique was used. Samples were transported from the field for analysis at the ISO15189 certified University of Zimbabwe-University of California San Francisco Central Research Laboratory. Hematology and clinical chemistry reference ranges lower and upper reference limits were estimated at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively.A total of 769 adults (54% males aged 18 to 55 years were included in the analysis. Median age was 28 [IQR: 23-35] years. Males had significantly higher red cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin compared to females. Females had higher white cell counts, platelets, absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte counts compared to males. There were no gender differences in eosinophils, monocytes, and absolute basophil count. Males had significantly higher levels of urea, sodium, potassium, calcium, creatinine, amylase, total protein, albumin and liver enzymes levels compared to females. Females had higher cholesterol and lipase compared with males. There are notable differences in the white cell counts, neutrophils, cholesterol, and creatinine kinase when compared with the currently used reference ranges.Data from this study provides new country specific reference ranges which should be immediately adopted for routine clinical care and accurate monitoring of adverse events in research studies.
Samaneka, Wadzanai P; Mandozana, Gibson; Tinago, Willard; Nhando, Nehemiah; Mgodi, Nyaradzo M; Bwakura-Dangarembizi, Mutsawashe F; Munjoma, Marshall W; Gomo, Zvenyika A R; Chirenje, Zvavahera M; Hakim, James G
Laboratory reference ranges used for clinical care and clinical trials in various laboratories in Zimbabwe were derived from textbooks and research studies conducted more than ten years ago. Periodic verification of these ranges is essential to track changes over time. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and chemistry laboratory reference ranges using more rigorous methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Harare, Chitungwiza, and Mutoko. A multistage sampling technique was used. Samples were transported from the field for analysis at the ISO15189 certified University of Zimbabwe-University of California San Francisco Central Research Laboratory. Hematology and clinical chemistry reference ranges lower and upper reference limits were estimated at the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles respectively. A total of 769 adults (54% males) aged 18 to 55 years were included in the analysis. Median age was 28 [IQR: 23-35] years. Males had significantly higher red cell counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin compared to females. Females had higher white cell counts, platelets, absolute neutrophil counts, and absolute lymphocyte counts compared to males. There were no gender differences in eosinophils, monocytes, and absolute basophil count. Males had significantly higher levels of urea, sodium, potassium, calcium, creatinine, amylase, total protein, albumin and liver enzymes levels compared to females. Females had higher cholesterol and lipase compared with males. There are notable differences in the white cell counts, neutrophils, cholesterol, and creatinine kinase when compared with the currently used reference ranges. Data from this study provides new country specific reference ranges which should be immediately adopted for routine clinical care and accurate monitoring of adverse events in research studies.
Lehmann, Sylvain; Hoofnagle, Andrew; Hochstrasser, Denis; Brede, Cato; Glueckmann, Matthias; Cocho, José A; Ceglarek, Uta; Lenz, Christof; Vialaret, Jérôme; Scherl, Alexander; Hirtz, Christophe
Proteomics studies typically aim to exhaustively detect peptides/proteins in a given biological sample. Over the past decade, the number of publications using proteomics methodologies has exploded. This was made possible due to the availability of high-quality genomic data and many technological advances in the fields of microfluidics and mass spectrometry. Proteomics in biomedical research was initially used in 'functional' studies for the identification of proteins involved in pathophysiological processes, complexes and networks. Improved sensitivity of instrumentation facilitated the analysis of even more complex sample types, including human biological fluids. It is at that point the field of clinical proteomics was born, and its fundamental aim was the discovery and (ideally) validation of biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, or therapeutic monitoring of disease. Eventually, it was recognized that the technologies used in clinical proteomics studies [particularly liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)] could represent an alternative to classical immunochemical assays. Prior to deploying MS in the measurement of peptides/proteins in the clinical laboratory, it seems likely that traditional proteomics workflows and data management systems will need to adapt to the clinical environment and meet in vitro diagnostic (IVD) regulatory constraints. This defines a new field, as reviewed in this article, that we have termed quantitative Clinical Chemistry Proteomics (qCCP).
This paper examines the differences in the veterinary services provided by university and ministry based officers to livestock farmers in Oyo State. Simple random sampling technique was used to select veterinary clinics and livestock farmers who visited the clinics. One hundred and twenty five farmers were selected and ...
Innes, Elisabeth A; Bartley, Paul M; Maley, Stephen; Katzer, Frank; Buxton, David
Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Jensen, Asger Lundorff
in a Surgical Skills Lab (SSL) has an anxiety reducing effect. Investigations were carried out as a comparative study and a parallel group study. Potential participants were fourth-year veterinary students who attended a surgical course (Basic Surgical Skills) and a non-surgical course (Clinical Examination......The surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and this can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of this study was to investigate whether veterinary students' level of anxiety is higher in a surgical course than in a non-surgical course and if pre-surgical training...... anxiety questionnaires (Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory and Cox and Kenardy's performance anxiety questionnaire) were used. Anxiety levels were measured before the non-surgical course (111 students from 2009) and before live-animal surgery during the surgical course (153 students from 2009...
Elisabeth A Innes
Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii has a very wide intermediate host range and is thought to be able to infect all warm blooded animals. The parasite causes a spectrum of different diseases and clinical symptoms within the intermediate hosts and following infection most animals develop adaptive humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. The development of protective immunity to T. gondii following natural infection in many host species has led researchers to look at vaccination as a strategy to control disease, parasite multiplication and establishment in animal hosts. A range of different veterinary vaccines are required to help control T. gondii infection which include vaccines to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis, reduce or eliminate tissue cysts in meat producing animals and to prevent oocyst shedding in cats. In this paper we will discuss some of the history, challenges and progress in the development of veterinary vaccines against T. gondii.
H. S. Vedpathak
Full Text Available The veterinary practitioner has an ethical obligation to help alleviate animal pain. Although most veterinarians accept the fact that animals feel pain, still, postoperative pain relief is not a routine practice in all veterinary hospitals and clinics today. Nociception is a physiological process which involves transduction, transmission, modulation and perception of the noxious stimuli. Chemical mediators are important components of the nociceptive reflex and offer a target of pharmacologic modulation. Assessment of pain in animals is the most important step in the successful management of pain. Choosing appropriate method of pain control would depend upon the type of procedure followed, severity of pain and economic considerations for each individual circumstance. Our understanding of the pain in its manifestation, mechanisms, assessment and alleviation in animals is still although improving, limited. [Vet World 2009; 2(9.000: 360-363
Lefebvre, D; Pirie, R S; Handel, I G; Tremaine, W H; Hudson, N P H
There is a need for an improved understanding of equine post operative ileus (POI), in terms of both clinical definition and optimal management. Although the pharmacological strategies that are used to treat POI continue to evolve, little is known about the supplementary strategies used to prevent and manage this condition. To report the current strategies used to diagnose, prevent and manage POI following emergency abdominal surgeries. Cross-sectional survey. An electronic survey invitation was sent by email to 306 European college diplomates (European Colleges of Equine Internal Medicine, ECEIM n = 120, and Veterinary Surgeons, ECVS n = 186). The response rate was 33% (100 of 306). The median reported estimated incidence of POI was 10-20%. The presence of reflux on nasogastric intubation was the main criterion used to define POI. Lesions involving the small intestine were thought to be the leading risk factors for developing POI. Anti-inflammatory drugs, antimicrobial drugs and i.v. fluids were the primary preventative strategies when managing cases at high risk for POI. Flunixin meglumine and lidocaine were the drugs most commonly used to treat horses with POI. Supplementary preventative and treatment strategies for POI included control of endotoxaemia, fluid therapy, early ambulation and judicious timing of post operative feeding. Appreciation of the potential risk factors associated with the development of POI appeared to have an impact on the choice of management strategies that are implemented. The majority of ECEIM and ECVS Diplomates in the survey used flunixin meglumine and lidocaine, often in combination, to treat horses with POI, which is likely to reflect the contributory role of inflammation in its pathophysiology. Various supplementary strategies were used to prevent and manage POI risk factors intraoperatively and post operatively. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.
Erdal, Erik P; Mitra, Debanjali; Khangulov, Victor S; Church, Stephen; Plokhoy, Elizabeth
Background Despite advances in clinical chemistry testing, poor blood sample quality continues to impact laboratory operations and the quality of results. While previous studies have identified the preanalytical causes of lower sample quality, few studies have examined the economic impact of poor sample quality on the laboratory. Specifically, the costs associated with workarounds related to fibrin and gel contaminants remain largely unexplored. Methods A quantitative survey of clinical chemistry laboratory stakeholders across 10 international regions, including countries in North America, Europe and Oceania, was conducted to examine current blood sample testing practices, sample quality issues and practices to remediate poor sample quality. Survey data were used to estimate costs incurred by laboratories to mitigate sample quality issues. Results Responses from 164 participants were included in the analysis, which was focused on three specific issues: fibrin strands, fibrin masses and gel globules. Fibrin strands were the most commonly reported issue, with an overall incidence rate of ∼3%. Further, 65% of respondents indicated that these issues contribute to analyzer probe clogging, and the majority of laboratories had visual inspection and manual remediation practices in place to address fibrin- and gel-related quality problems (55% and 70%, respectively). Probe maintenance/replacement, visual inspection and manual remediation were estimated to carry significant costs for the laboratories surveyed. Annual cost associated with lower sample quality and remediation related to fibrin and/or gel globules for an average US laboratory was estimated to be $100,247. Conclusions Measures to improve blood sample quality present an important step towards improved laboratory operations.
Mossop, Liz H; Cobb, Kate
The teaching and assessment of professional behaviors and attitudes are important components of veterinary curricula. This article aims to outline some important considerations and concepts which will be useful for veterinary educators reviewing or developing this topic. A definition or framework of veterinary professionalism must be decided upon before educators can develop relevant learning outcomes. The interface between ethics and professionalism should be considered, and both clinicians and ethicists should deliver professionalism teaching. The influence of the hidden curriculum on student development as professionals should also be discussed during curriculum planning because it has the potential to undermine a formal curriculum of professionalism. There are several learning theories that have relevance to the teaching and learning of professionalism; situated learning theory, social cognitive theory, adult learning theory, reflective practice and experiential learning, and social constructivism must all be considered as a curriculum is designed. Delivery methods to teach professionalism are diverse, but the teaching of reflective skills and the use of early clinical experience to deliver valid learning opportunities are essential. Curricula should be longitudinal and integrated with other aspects of teaching and learning. Professionalism should also be assessed, and a wide range of methods have the potential to do so, including multisource feedback and portfolios. Validity, reliability, and feasibility are all important considerations. The above outlined approach to the teaching and assessment of professionalism will help ensure that institutions produce graduates who are ready for the workplace.
Mills, Jennifer N; Volet, Simone; Fozdar, Farida
Australian veterinary classrooms are increasingly diverse and their growing internal diversity is a result of migration and large numbers of international students. Graduates interact with other students and increasingly with clients whose attitudes, beliefs, values, and behaviors differ from their own. An understanding and respect for these differences has an impact on client communication and health care outcomes. The present study explored how students understand and are likely to deal with issues of cultural diversity in veterinary professional practice as well as the educational needs that students feel should be met in regard to preparation to engage productively with diversity in professional practice. The present study also explored the extent to which the rich diversity of the undergraduate student population constitutes an educational resource. A class of final-year veterinary students was invited to participate in a workshop exploring intercultural confidence in veterinary consultation. Twelve groups of six to eight students discussed a fictitious scenario involving a challenging clinical encounter with a client from a different culture. Students were reticent to see the scenario in terms of cultural difference, although they generally recognized that awareness of cultural issues in veterinary practice was important. They also tended to not see their own ethnicity as relevant to their practice. While some felt that veterinary practice should be culture blind, most recognized a need to orient to cultural difference and to respond sensitively. Their suggestions for curricular improvements to address these issues are also included.
Rocco, Richard M
John P Peters is considered one of the founders of modern clinical chemistry. In more than 200 research articles, he brought clinical biochemistry to the bedside, advancing the use of laboratory medicine in diagnosis and disease management. His two-volume landmark textbook Quantitative Clinical Chemistry, coauthored with Donald Dexter van Slyke (1883-1971) and released in 1931-1932, defined clinical chemistry as a distinct professional discipline within medicine. A three-volume revision was begun in 1937. Peters took on the task of revising Volumes I and II but never finished Volume II. His outspoken public advocacy for social reform, world peace, and universal health care made him a target in the era of McCarthyism. Three times between 1949 and 1953 he was brought before the Loyalty Review Board with charges of being a communist and a sympathetic supporter of subversive organizations. According to his family, the turmoil of the McCarthyism persecution shortened his life and prevented him from completing the one thing he wanted to do in his professional life, finish the revision of his landmark clinical chemistry textbook.
Grieme, Caleb V; Voss, Dena R; Davis, Scott R; Krasowski, Matthew D
The prevalence of hemolysis, icterus, and lipemia (HIL) was determined for residual whole blood specimens analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on blood gas analyzers. The frequency and potential impact of exogenous interference from iodide, salicylate, and thiocyanate (metabolite of sodium nitroprusside) on analysis of whole blood chloride was also assessed. Over an approximately two month period at an academic medical center, indices for HIL were determined on Roche cobas c502 analyzers for 1,986 residual whole blood specimens that had been previously analyzed for clinical chemistry parameters on Radiometer ABL90 FLEX blood gas analyzers. To examine exogenous interferences, retrospective analysis was performed over multiple years to ascertain whether patient samples analyzed for whole blood chloride were potentially affected by interference from iodide, salicylate, or thiocyanate. Some degree of hemolysis (defined as hemolysis index of greater than 60) was present in 9.7% of the whole blood specimens. Increasing rates of hemolysis were associated with higher whole blood potassium concentrations. Nearly 60% of specimens with potassium concentrations between 6.0 and 6.9 mEq/L had hemolysis indices of 100 or greater, and 75% of specimens with a potassium concentration of 7.0 mEq/L or greater were severely hemolyzed (hemolysis index of 300 or greater). In contrast to the hemolysis results, icterus and lipemia were determined to have minimal impact on patient results. For the exogenous interferences, we did not identify any patient samples where elevated salicylate levels or pharmaceutical iodide administration overlapped with whole blood chloride analysis (out of 75,887 and 169,229 total chloride measurements, respectively). We did, however, find that for patients receiving nitroprusside therapy in the inpatient setting, whole blood chloride concentrations were significantly higher during nitroprusside therapy [106.7 +/- 6.2 mEq/L (mean, SD)] compared to before
Ciudin, Andreea; Hernandez, Cristina; Simó, Rafael
Peroxisome proliferator-activator receptors (PPARs) are now known as members of the nuclear hormonereceptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene expression in response to nutritional and physiological stimuli. PPARγ plays a crucial role in glucose homeostasis and it is involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation and function. From all the PAARγ ligands, the thiazolidindiones (TZDs) are of most clinical importance. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone have been largely used so far in the clinical practice. They provide similar effects on glycemic control, as well as a range of similar adverse effects, such as weight gain, fluid retention, and increased risk of hearth failure, which seem to be PPARγ mediated. Interestingly, they differ on their effect on lipid and cardiovascular safety profile, indicating a PPARγ-independent mechanism. Indeed, rosiglitazone was recently withdrawn in Europe and its use has been restricted in USA as a consequence of increased risk of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetic patients. This review is focused on the cardiovascular effects of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone as representative members of PPARγ ligands, because they were widely evaluated in many clinical trials and experimental studies and data obtained from these studies are relevant from medicinal chemistry and clinical pharmacology point of view. Finally, an overview on the development of selective PPARγ modulators and/or dual PPARα/γ agonists will be given. These new approaches might provide anti-hyperglycemic efficacy without the associated undesirable side-effects. However, further experimental and clinical studies evaluating the theoretical benefit and safety of this therapeutic strategy are needed.
Full Text Available Veterinary surgeons have a long tradition of consulting one another about problem cases and many have unwittingly practised telemedicine when discussing cases by telephone or by sending laboratory reports by telefax. Specific veterinary telemedicine applications have been in use since the early 1980s, but little research has been undertaken in this field. The Pubmed and CAB International databases were searched for the following Boolean logic-linked keywords; veterinary AND telemedicine, veterinary AND telecare, animal AND telemedicine, animal AND telecare and veterinary AND e-mail and an additional search was made of the worldwide web, using Google Scholar. This returned 25 papers which were reviewed. Of these only 2 report research. Sixteen papers had no references and 1 author was associated with 13 papers. Several themes emerge in the papers reviewed. These include remarks about the use of telemedicine, the benefits that can and are derived from the use of telemedicine, areas of practice in which telemedicine is being used, ethical and legal issues around the practice of telemedicine, image standards required for telemedicine, the equipment that is required for the practice of telemedicine, advice on ways in which digital images can be obtained and educational aspects of telemedicine. These are discussed. Veterinary practice has lagged behind its human counterpart in producing research on the validity and efficacy of telemedicine. This is an important field which requires further research.
Summary Working in laboratories of clinical chemistry, we risk feeling that our personal contribution to quality is small and that statistical models and manufacturers play the major roles. It is seldom sufficiently acknowledged that personal knowledge, skills and common sense are crucial for quality assurance in the interest of patients. The employees, environment and procedures inherent to the laboratory including its interactions with the clients are crucial for the overall result of the total testing chain. As the measurement systems, reagents and procedures are gradually improved, work on the preanalytical, postanalytical and clinical phases is likely to pay the most substantial dividends in accomplishing further quality improvements. This means changing attitudes and behaviour, especially of the users of the laboratory. It requires understanding people and how to engage them in joint improvement processes. We need to use our knowledge and common sense expanded with new skills e.g. from the humanities, management, business and change sciences in order to bring this about together with the users of the laboratory. PMID:28356868
Agarwal, Shweta; Vargas, German; Nordstrom, Cristina; Tam, Estella; Buffone, Gregory J; Devaraj, Sridevi
Clinical laboratory assays can be affected by interferents like hemoglobin (Hb), lipids and bilirubin. We evaluated the effect of these interferences on pediatric samples for different chemistry assays. Further we established cut-off indices above which these interferences confound sample results. Three separate serum pools were spiked with increasing concentrations of hemolysate or intralipid or bilirubin and different analytes were analyzed. The Hemolysis-(H), Lipemia-(T) and Icterus-(I) indices were measured on Vitros 5600. Analytes affected by lipemia were treated with LipoClear ® and re-analyzed. All the measured analytes were compromised by gross hemolysis (H-Index >1000). Except lipase and magnesium (Mg(++)), all other analytes were affected by moderate (H-Index >250) and significant hemolysis (H-Index >500). Low estradiol levels showed a significant effect at severe icterus (I-Index >20.0). C3, C4, Ceruloplasmin, Haptoglobin, Immunoglobulins (Ig) and Vitamin D were significantly affected by moderate (T-Index >100) and severe (T-Index >500) lipemia. LipoClear ® treatment significantly attenuated the lipemic interference on the above analytes except for C3, C4, and IgG. Accurate reporting of pediatric samples for the analytes affected by common interferences will lead to better clinical interpretation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wagner, G Gale; Brown, Corrie C
The public needs no reminder that deadly infectious diseases such as FMD could emerge in any country at any moment, or that national food security could be compromised by Salmonella or Listeria infections. Protections against these risks include the knowledge that appropriate and equivalent veterinary education will enable detection and characterization of emerging disease agents, as well as an appropriate response, wherever they occur. Global veterinary leadership is needed to reduce the global threat of infectious diseases of major food animal and public health importance. We believe that the co-curriculum is an excellent way to prepare and train veterinarians and future leaders who understand and can deal with global issues. The key to the success of the program is the veterinarian's understanding that there is a cultural basis to the practice of veterinary medicine in any country. The result will be a cadre of veterinarians, faculty, and other professionals who are better able (language and culture) to understand the effects of change brought about by free trade and the importance of interdisciplinary and institutional relationships to deal effectively with national and regional issues of food safety and security. New global veterinary leadership programs will build on interests, experience, ideas, and ambitions. A college that wishes to take advantage of this diversity must offer opportunities that interest veterinarians throughout their careers and that preferably connect academic study with intensive experiential training in another country. At its best, the global veterinary leadership program would include a partnership between veterinarians and several international learning centers, a responsiveness to the identified international outreach needs of the profession, and attention to critical thinking and reflection. The global veterinary leadership program we have described is intended to be a set of ideas meant to promote collaboration, coalitions, and
Analysis of the responses of 90 clinical veterinary students of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, on career motivation and specialization preference showed that 38% of the students choose veterinary medicine as a profession because of their love for animals. High income accounted for 32.3%, high status 22.2%, ...
The presence of pathogenic organisms namely parasite species and bacteria in biofilms in veterinary settings, is a public health concern in relation to human and animal exposure. Veterinary clinics represent a significant risk factor for the transfer of pathogens from housed animals to humans, especially in cases of wound ...
Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; More, Simon J; Morton, David B; Hanlon, Alison J
Antimicrobial resistance has emerged in recent years as a significant public health threat, which requires both an ethical and a scientific approach. In a recent Policy Delphi study, on-farm use of antimicrobials was a key concern identified by veterinary professionals in Ireland. In this case study (the second in a series of three resulting from a research workshop exploring the challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland; the other two case studies investigate clinical veterinary services and emergency/casualty slaughter certification) we aim to provide a value-based reflection on the constraints and possible opportunities for responsible use of veterinary antimicrobials in Ireland. Using a qualitative focus group approach, this study gathered evidence from relevant stakeholders, namely veterinarians working in public and private organisations, a representative from the veterinary regulatory body, a dairy farmer and a general medical practitioner. Three overarching constraints to prudent on-farm use of veterinary antimicrobials emerged from the thematic analysis: 'Defective regulations', 'Lack of knowledge and values' regarding farmers and vets and 'Farm-centred concerns', including economic and husbandry concerns. Conversely, three main themes which reflect possible opportunities to the barriers were identified: 'Improved regulations', 'Education' and 'Herd health management'. Five main recommendations arose from this study based on the perspectives of the study participants including: a) the potential for regulatory change to facilitate an increase in the number of yearly visits of veterinarians to farms and to implement electronic prescribing and shorter validity of prescriptions; b) a 'One Health' education plan; c) improved professional guidance on responsible use of veterinary antimicrobials; d) improved on-farm herd health management practices; and e) the promotion of a 'One Farm-One Vet' policy. These findings may assist Veterinary Council of
Hashizume, Cary T; Woloschuk, Wayne; Hecker, Kent G
There is a paucity of research regarding veterinary students' attitudes toward the rural environment and rural veterinary practice and how these attitudes might change over the course of a veterinary medicine program that includes rural clinical experience. Using a 23-item questionnaire, attitudes toward rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, opportunities for career and skill development in rural veterinary practice, and inter-professional teamwork in the rural environment were assessed at the beginning and completion of a four-year veterinary medicine program. Eighty-six students (74.4% female) were included in this Canadian study over a six-year period. Thirty-one participants (36.1%) were rural students. Overall, students' attitudes toward the rural lifestyle, rural work-life balance, and inter-professional teamwork in rural veterinary practice all significantly decreased (pworking in a rural environment could influence students to exclude rural veterinary practice as a career choice. Rural clinical experiences designed to sustain or increase veterinary student interest in rural practice may not be sufficient to support positive rural attitudes. Given the demand for rural veterinary services in developed countries, the implications of this study may extend beyond Canada.
Pryor, Brian; Millis, Darryl L
Laser therapy is an increasingly studied modality that can be a valuable tool for veterinary practitioners. Mechanisms of action have been studied and identified for the reduction of pain and inflammation and healing of tissue. Understanding the basics of light penetration into tissue allows evaluation of the correct dosage to deliver for the appropriate condition, and for a particular patient based on physical properties. New applications are being studied for some of the most challenging health conditions and this field will continue to grow. Additional clinical studies are still needed and collaboration is encouraged for all practitioners using this technology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Allan L. Hilario
Full Text Available Plants are rich sources of antioxidants that are protective against diseases associated to oxidative stress. There is a need for high throughput screening method that should be useful in determining the antioxidant concentration in plants. Such screening method should significantly simplify and speed up most antioxidant assays. This paper aimed at comparing the applicability of a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer Pointe Scientific MI USA with the traditional standard curve method and using a Vis spectrophotometer in performing the DPPH assay for antioxidant screening. Samples of crude aqueous leaf extract of kulitis Amaranthus viridis Linn and chayote Sechium edule Linn were screened for the Total Antioxidant Concentration TAC using the two methods. Results presented in mean SD amp956gdl were compared using unpaired Students t-test P0.05. All runs were done in triplicates. The mean TAC of A. viridis was 646.0 45.5 amp956gdl using the clinical chemistry analyzer and 581.9 19.4 amp956gdl using the standard curve-spectrophotometer. On the other hand the mean TAC of S. edule was 660.2 35.9 amp956gdl using the semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer and 672.3 20.9 amp956gdl using the spectrophotometer. No significant differences were observed between the readings of the two methods for A. viridis P0.05 and S. edible P0.05. This implies that the clinical chemistry analyzer can be an alternative method in conducting the DPPH assay to determine the TAC in plants. This study presented the applicability of a semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer in performing the DPPH assay. Further validation can be conducted by performing other antioxidant assays using this equipment.
Jeon, Yongbum; Han, Minje; Han, Eun Young; Lee, Kyunghoon; Song, Junghan; Song, Sang Hoon
Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal developed for the treatment of fungal infectious disease, and the clinical utility of its therapeutic drug monitoring has been evaluated. Recently, a new assay for analyzing the serum voriconazole concentration with an automated clinical chemistry analyzer was developed. We evaluated the performance of the new assay based on standardized protocols. The analytical performance of the assay was evaluated according to its precision, trueness by recovery, limit of quantitation, linearity, and correlation with results from liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The evaluation was performed with the same protocol on two different routine chemistry analyzers. All evaluations were performed according to CLSI Guidelines EP15, EP17, EP6, and EP9 [1-4]. Coefficients of variation for within-run and between-day imprecision were 3.2-5.1% and 1.5-3.0%, respectively, on the two different analyzers for pooled serum samples. The recovery rates were in the range of 95.4-102.2%. The limit of blank was 0.0049 μg/mL, and the limit of detection of the samples was 0.0266-0.0376 μg/mL. The percent recovery at three LoQ levels were 67.9-74.6% for 0.50 μg/mL, 75.5-80.2% for 0.60 μg/mL, and 89.9-96.6% for 0.70 μg/mL. A linear relationship was demonstrated between 0.5 μg/mL and 16.0 μg/mL (R2 =0.9995-0.9998). The assay correlated well with LC-MS/MS results (R2 =0.9739-0.9828). The assay showed acceptable precision, trueness, linearity, and limit of quantification, and correlated well with LC-MS/MS. Therefore, its analytical performance is satisfactory for monitoring the drug concentration of voriconazole.
Zerah, Simone; McMurray, Janet; Bousquet, Bernard; Baum, Hannsjorg; Beastall, Graham H; Blaton, Vic; Cals, Marie-Josèphe; Duchassaing, Danielle; Gaudeau-Toussaint, Marie-Françoise; Harmoinen, Aimo; Hoffmann, Hans; Jansen, Rob T; Kenny, Desmond; Kohse, Klaus P; Köller, Ursula; Gobert, Jean-Gérard; Linget, Christine; Lund, Erik; Nubile, Giuseppe; Opp, Matthias; Pazzagli, Mario; Pinon, Georges; Queralto, José M; Reguengo, Henrique; Rizos, Demetrios; Szekeres, Thomas; Vidaud, Michel; Wallinder, Hans
The EC4 Syllabus for Postgraduate Training is the basis for the European Register of Specialists in Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine. The syllabus: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. The syllabus is not primarily meant to be a training guide, but on the basis of the overview given (common minimal programme), national societies should formulate programmes that indicate where knowledge and experience is needed. The main points of this programme are: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Knowledge in biochemistry, haematology, immunology, etc.; Pre-analytical conditions; Evaluation of results; Interpretations (post-analytical phase); Laboratory management; and Quality insurance management. The aim of this version of the syllabus is to be in accordance with the Directive of Professional Qualifications published on 30 September 2005. To prepare the common platforms planned in this directive, the disciplines are divided into four categories: Indicates the level of requirements in postgraduate training to harmonise the postgraduate education in the European Union (EU); Indicates the level of content of national training programmes to obtain adequate knowledge and experience; Is approved by all EU societies for clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine. Knowledge in biochemistry, haematology, immunology, etc.; Pre-analytical conditions; Evaluation of results; Interpretations (post-analytical phase); Laboratory
Lo, Sheng-Ying; Baird, Geoffrey S; Greene, Dina N
Proper utilization of resources is an important operational objective for clinical laboratories. To reduce unnecessary manual interventions on automated instruments, we conducted a workflow analysis that optimized dilution parameters and reporting of abnormally high chemistry results for the Beckman AU series of chemistry analyzers while maintaining clinically acceptable reportable ranges. Workflow analysis for the Beckman AU680/5812 and DxC800 chemistry analyzers was performed using historical data. Clinical reportable ranges for 53 chemistry analytes were evaluated. Optimized dilution parameters and upper limit of reportable ranges for the AU680/5812 instruments were derived and validated to meet these reportable ranges. The number of specimens that required manual dilutions before and after optimization was determined for both the AU680/5812 and DxC800, with the DxC800 serving as the reference instrument. Retrospective data analysis revealed that 7700 specimens required manual dilutions on the DxC over a 2-y period. Using our optimized AU-specific dilution and reporting parameters, the data-driven simulation analysis showed a 61% reduction in manual dilutions. For the specimens that required manual dilutions on the AU680/5812, we developed standardized dilution procedures to further streamline workflow. We provide a data-driven, practical outline for clinical laboratories to efficiently optimize their use of automated chemistry analyzers. The outcomes can be used to assist laboratories wishing to improve their existing procedures or to facilitate transitioning into a new line of instrumentation, regardless of the instrument model or manufacturer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Camilla Kirketerp Nielsen
Full Text Available The overall objective of this project is research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based learning concept to be used in the veterinary education. Herd visits and animal contact are essential for the development of veterinary competences and skills during education. Yet veterinary students have little occasion to reach/attain a proper level of confidence in their own skills/abilities, as they have limited “training-facilities” (Kneebone & Baillie, 2008. One possible solution mightbe to provide a safe, virtual environment (game-based where students could practise interdisciplinary clinical skills in an easily-accessible, interactive setting. A playable demo using Classical Swine Fever in a pig herd as an example has been produced for this purpose. In order totailor the game concept to the specific veterinary learning environment and to ensure compliance with both learning objectives and the actual learning processes/procedures of the veterinary students, the project contains both a developmental aspect (game development and an exploration of the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context. The initial phase of the project was a preliminary exploration of the actual learning context, providing an important starting point for the upcoming phase in which I will concentrate on research-based development, implementation and evaluation of a game-based virtual environment in this course context. In the academic (scholastic and profession (practice oriented learning context of a veterinary course in Herd Health Management (Pig module,ethnographic studies have been conducted by using multiple data collection methods; participant observation, spontaneous dialogues and interviews (Borgnakke, 1996; Hammersley & Atkinson, 2007. All courserelated activities in the different learning spaces (commercial pig herds, auditoriums, post-mortem examinations, independent group work were followed.This paper will
Gwaltney-Brant, S M
Veterinary pathologists working in diagnostic laboratories are sometimes presented with cases involving animal poisonings that become the object of criminal or civil litigation. Forensic veterinary toxicology cases can include cases involving animal cruelty (malicious poisoning), regulatory issues (eg, contamination of the food supply), insurance litigation, or poisoning of wildlife. An understanding of the appropriate approach to these types of cases, including proper sample collection, handling, and transport, is essential so that chain of custody rules are followed and proper samples are obtained for toxicological analysis. Consultation with veterinary toxicologists at the diagnostic laboratory that will be processing the samples before, during, and after the forensic necropsy can help to ensure that the analytical tests performed are appropriate for the circumstances and findings surrounding the individual case. © The Author(s) 2016.
Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Mojgan; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Baraldi, Stefania; Gessi, Stefania; Merighi, Stefania; Borea, Pier Andrea
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is an ion channel expressed on sensory neurons triggering an influx of cations. TRPV1 receptors function as homotetramers responsive to heat, proinflammatory substances, lipoxygenase products, resiniferatoxin, endocannabinoids, protons, and peptide toxins. Its phosphorylation increases sensitivity to both chemical and thermal stimuli, while desensitization involves a calcium-dependent mechanism resulting in receptor dephosphorylation. TRPV1 functions as a sensor of noxious stimuli and may represent a target to avoid pain and injury. TRPV1 activation has been associated to chronic inflammatory pain and peripheral neuropathy. Its expression is also detected in nonneuronal areas such as bladder, lungs, and cochlea where TRPV1 activation is responsible for pathology development of cystitis, asthma, and hearing loss. This review offers a comprehensive overview about TRPV1 receptor in the pathophysiology of chronic pain, epilepsy, cough, bladder disorders, diabetes, obesity, and hearing loss, highlighting how drug development targeting this channel could have a clinical therapeutic potential. Furthermore, it summarizes the advances of medicinal chemistry research leading to the identification of highly selective TRPV1 antagonists and their analysis of structure-activity relationships (SARs) focusing on new strategies to target this channel. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are well-established, widely used first-choice drugs for bone-related diseases and are one of the few classes of molecules for selective bone targeting. Their binding to calcium cations within hydroxyapatite (HA) is a key physicochemical event that takes place on the bone surface. It is the starting point for a cascade of biochemical reactions and cellular effects that lead to the pharmacological activity of BPs. The phenomenon has been known for years, yet its physicochemical nature is still not fully understood. In particular, the adsorption/release processes and structure-function relationships of BPs remain to be clarified. These are elementary, yet crucial factors, which should influence the design and development of new delivery tools or drugs with improved characteristics. This review summarizes the current understanding of the chemical interactions between clinically used BPs and bone mineral, starting from basic Ca 2+ coordination chemistry through to interactions with hydroxyapatite, nanocrystalline apatites, and natural bone mineral. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Xu, Guoyan G; Guo, Jia; Wu, Yuntao
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) causes acquired immumodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), one of the worst global pandemic. The virus infects human CD4 T cells and macrophages, and causes CD4 depletion. HIV enters target cells through the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein to CD4 and the chemokine coreceptor, CXCR4 or CCR5. In particular, the CCR5-utilizing viruses predominate in the blood during the disease course. CCR5 is expressed on the surface of various immune cells including macrophages, monocytes, microglia, dendric cells, and active memory CD4 T cells. In the human population, the CCR5 genomic mutation, CCR5Δ32, is associated with relative resistance to HIV. These findings paved the way for the discovery and development of CCR5 inhibitors to block HIV transmission and replication. Maraviroc, discovered as a CCR5 antagonist, is the only CCR5 inhibitor that has been approved by both US FDA and the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for treating HIV/AIDS patients. In this review, we summarize the medicinal chemistry and clinical studies of Maraviroc.
van der Kooij, Anita J.; Reijmers, Theo H.; Schroën, Yan; Wang, Mei; Xu, Zhiliang; Wang, Xinchang; Kong, Hongwei; Xu, Guowang; Hankemeier, Thomas; Meulman, Jacqueline J.; van der Greef, Jan
Objective The aim is to characterize subgroups or phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients using a systems biology approach. The discovery of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients is an essential research area for the improvement of response to therapy and the development of personalized medicine strategies. Methods In this study, 39 RA patients are phenotyped using clinical chemistry measurements, urine and plasma metabolomics analysis and symptom profiles. In addition, a Chinese medicine expert classified each RA patient as a Cold or Heat type according to Chinese medicine theory. Multivariate data analysis techniques are employed to detect and validate biochemical and symptom relationships with the classification. Results The questionnaire items ‘Red joints’, ‘Swollen joints’, ‘Warm joints’ suggest differences in the level of inflammation between the groups although c-reactive protein (CRP) and rheumatoid factor (RHF) levels were equal. Multivariate analysis of the urine metabolomics data revealed that the levels of 11 acylcarnitines were lower in the Cold RA than in the Heat RA patients, suggesting differences in muscle breakdown. Additionally, higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) levels in Heat patients compared to Cold patients were found suggesting that the Cold RA group has a more suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Conclusion Significant and relevant biochemical differences are found between Cold and Heat RA patients. Differences in immune function, HPA axis involvement and muscle breakdown point towards opportunities to tailor disease management strategies to each of the subgroups RA patient. PMID:22984493
Hoffmann, Johannes J M L
For the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the journal Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (CCLM), an historic overview of papers that the journal has published in the field of laboratory hematology (LH) is presented. All past volumes of CCLM were screened for papers on LH and these were categorized. Bibliographic data of these papers were also analyzed. CCLM published in total 387 LH papers. The absolute number of LH papers published annually showed a significant increase over the years since 1985. Also the share of LH papers demonstrated a steady increase (overall mean 5%, but mean 8% over the past 4 years). The most frequent category was coagulation and fibrinolysis (23.5%). Authors from Germany contributed the most LH papers to the journal (22.7%), followed by the Netherlands and Italy (16.3 and 13.2%, respectively). Recent citation data indicated that other publications cited LH review papers much more frequently than other types of papers. The history of the journal reflects the emergence and development of laboratory hematology as a separate discipline of laboratory medicine.
Herman A van Wietmarschen
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim is to characterize subgroups or phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis (RA patients using a systems biology approach. The discovery of subtypes of rheumatoid arthritis patients is an essential research area for the improvement of response to therapy and the development of personalized medicine strategies. METHODS: In this study, 39 RA patients are phenotyped using clinical chemistry measurements, urine and plasma metabolomics analysis and symptom profiles. In addition, a Chinese medicine expert classified each RA patient as a Cold or Heat type according to Chinese medicine theory. Multivariate data analysis techniques are employed to detect and validate biochemical and symptom relationships with the classification. RESULTS: The questionnaire items 'Red joints', 'Swollen joints', 'Warm joints' suggest differences in the level of inflammation between the groups although c-reactive protein (CRP and rheumatoid factor (RHF levels were equal. Multivariate analysis of the urine metabolomics data revealed that the levels of 11 acylcarnitines were lower in the Cold RA than in the Heat RA patients, suggesting differences in muscle breakdown. Additionally, higher dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS levels in Heat patients compared to Cold patients were found suggesting that the Cold RA group has a more suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis function. CONCLUSION: Significant and relevant biochemical differences are found between Cold and Heat RA patients. Differences in immune function, HPA axis involvement and muscle breakdown point towards opportunities to tailor disease management strategies to each of the subgroups RA patient.
Mainali, Sandhya; Davis, Scott R; Krasowski, Matthew D
The aims of this study were to identify the causes of severe lipemia in an academic medical center patient population and to determine the relationship between lipemia and hemolysis. Retrospective study was done on the data from the core clinical laboratory at an academic medical center. Lipemic indices were available for all chemistry specimens analyzed over a 16-month period (n=552,029 specimens) and for serum/plasma triglycerides concentrations ordered for clinical purposes over a 16-year period (n=393,085 specimens). Analysis was performed on Roche Diagnostics cobas 8000 analyzers. Extensive chart review was done for all specimens with lipemic index greater than 500 (severely lipemic) and for all specimens with serum/plasma triglycerides greater than 2000 mg/dL. We also determined the relationship between lipemia and hemolysis. The most frequent suspected causes of very high lipemic index (>500) were found to be lipid-containing intravenous infusions (54.4% of total; fat emulsions for parenteral nutrition - 47%; propofol -7.4%) and diabetes mellitus (25% of total, mainly type 2). The most frequent suspected causes of very elevated serum/plasma triglycerides (>2000 mg/dL) was diabetes mellitus (64%, mainly type 2) and hyperlipidemia (16.9%). The frequency of hemolysis increased with increasing lipemic index. Intravenous lipid infusions and type 2 diabetes were the most common causes of severe lipemia in this study at an academic medical center. Given that iatrogenic factors are the most common cause of severe lipemia, education and intervention may be helpful in reducing frequency of severe lipemia in patient specimens.
Armitage-Chan, E; Maddison, J; May, S A
Professionalism and professional skills are increasingly being incorporated into veterinary curricula; however, lack of clarity in defining veterinary professionalism presents a potential challenge for directing course outcomes that are of benefit to the veterinary professional. An online continuing education course in veterinary professionalism was designed to address a deficit in postgraduate support in this area; as part of this course, delegates of varying practice backgrounds participated in online discussions reflecting on the implications of professional skills for their clinical practice. The discussions surrounding the role of the veterinary professional and reflecting on strengths and weaknesses in professional skills were analysed using narrative methodology, which provided an understanding of the defining skills and attributes of the veterinary professional, from the perspectives of those involved (i.e. how vets understood their own career identity). The veterinary surgeon was understood to be an interprofessional team member, who makes clinical decisions in the face of competing stakeholder needs and works in a complex environment comprising multiple and diverse challenges (stress, high emotions, financial issues, work-life balance). It was identified that strategies for accepting fallibility, and those necessary for establishing reasonable expectations of professional behaviour and clinical ability, are poorly developed. British Veterinary Association.
Brooks, Aimee; Thomovsky, Elizabeth; Johnson, Paula
This review article covers basic physiology underlying the clinical use of natural and artificial colloids as well as provide practice recommendations. It also touches on the recent scrutiny of these products in human medicine and how this may have an effect on their use in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Douglas, Jeffrey S.
Marie-Suthers-McCabe, of Riner, Va., associate professor of small animal clinical sciences at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine, has been awarded the highest honor in the nation for work in the area of the "human/animal bond."
191-203. FACULTY OF VETERINARY MEDICINE. USMANU DANFODIYO UNIVERSITY. P.M.B. 2346, SOKOTO. NIGERIA. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences. ISSN 1595-093X. Nwanta et al. /Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences (2008). 7(2): 42-45. Field trial of Malaysian thermostable Newcastle disease vaccine in.
Items 1 - 15 of 15 ... ... of the Kenya Veterinary Association. It publishes original papers in English, within the whole field of animal science and veterinary medicine and those addressing legal and policy issues related to the veterinary profession. The journal accepts articles and reports in the areas of Anatomy and Histology, ...
Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Kainz, Alexander; Bachmann, Claude
To compare plasma levels of amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters in healthy infants at 1 and 4 months of age and to establish corresponding reference limits. Data of three multicenter studies assessing the safety of new infant formulas were used. During these studies infants of both age-groups were either breast-fed or received formulas of low or high protein content. All samples were analyzed centrally in the same accredited laboratory. Plasma was collected from 521 infants in total, 157 boys and 135 girls aged 1 month and 121 boys and 108 girls aged 4 months. At the age of 1 month, 62 infants had received exclusively breast milk, 198 exclusively formula, and 27 both; in the 4-months age group corresponding numbers were 49, 158 and 18, respectively; for 9 infants, diet was unknown. Concentrations of most amino acids and clinical chemistry parameters differed significantly between both ages. Regardless of age, most plasma amino acid levels were comparable or lower in breast-fed than in formula-fed infants whereas at 1 month of age most clinical chemistry parameters were higher. While in breast-fed infants the plasma urea concentration decreased over 4 months of age, it increased in formula-fed infants. There were significant differences between infants fed a low and high protein formula. At both ages, high protein formulas resulted in significantly higher threonine, 2-aminobutyrate, and urea concentrations. For clinical use, age- and diet specific reference limits in infants are warranted.
Kinnison, T; Guile, D; May, S A
Case studies in two typical UK veterinary practices were undertaken to explore teamwork, including interprofessional working. Each study involved one week of whole team observation based on practice locations (reception, operating theatre), one week of shadowing six focus individuals (veterinary surgeons, veterinary nurses and administrators) and a final week consisting of semistructured interviews regarding teamwork. Errors emerged as a finding of the study. The definition of errors was inclusive, pertaining to inputs or omitted actions with potential adverse outcomes for patients, clients or the practice. The 40 identified instances could be grouped into clinical errors (dosing/drugs, surgical preparation, lack of follow-up), lost item errors, and most frequently, communication errors (records, procedures, missing face-to-face communication, mistakes within face-to-face communication). The qualitative nature of the study allowed the underlying cause of the errors to be explored. In addition to some individual mistakes, system faults were identified as a major cause of errors. Observed examples and interviews demonstrated several challenges to interprofessional teamworking which may cause errors, including: lack of time, part-time staff leading to frequent handovers, branch differences and individual veterinary surgeon work preferences. Lessons are drawn for building better veterinary teams and implications for Disciplinary Proceedings considered. British Veterinary Association.
1Department of Veterinary Surgery and Radiology, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria; 2Department of Animal Health .... and Tucker, 2004). Even for animals for which direct observation of intraocular structures is possible, ultrasonography may be helpful for tumor identification, ..... determination of the size of eye prosthesis in.
Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Vol 34 pi res-sea. Epizootiologicul Survey of Bovine Brucellosis in. Nomadic Pastoral ... brucellosis in the pastoral herds of Niger State despite its high cattle population and no research has ..... Brucella abortus infection in Cattle in Chile. Archivos de Med.Veterin.. 27: 45-50. ROTH, F., ZINSSTAG ...
Hikke, Mia C.; Pijlman, Gorben P.
Vaccination is essential in livestock farming and in companion animal ownership. Nucleic acid vaccines based on DNA or RNA provide an elegant alternative to those classical veterinary vaccines that have performed suboptimally. Recent advances in terms of rational design, safety, and efficacy have
Journal Homepage Image. Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal contains original and review papers on all aspects of animal health in Zimbabwe and SADC countries, including articles by non-veterinarians. This journal did not publish any issues between 2002 and 2015 but has been revived and and it actively accepting papers ...
according to International guiding principles for biochemical research involving animals. (C. I .O. M .S .1985). Source of Trypanosomes. Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federe strain) used for the study was obtained from donor rats maintained at the postgraduate laboratory of the Department of Veterinary. Microbiology and ...
'*Nigerian Veterinary Journal. ~. Vol35 (1)9~8· 955. ARTICLE. Prevalence of Aeromonas hydrophila. Isolates in cultured and Feral Clarias gariepinus of the Kainji Lake Area, Nigeria,. OMEJE, V.O.' and CHUKWU, C.C.. Aquaculture Programme. National Institute for Freshwater Fisheries Researcl1. PMB 6006, New Bussa, ...
Describes the history, research, teaching strategies, and specialties of the University of California at Davis School of Veterinary Medicine. Documents effects of changing societal attitudes toward wildlife, pets, working animals, and food animals on curriculum, the systems approach to disease, comparative genetics, biotechnology, the ecology of…
prevalence of diseases and available veterinary services were noticed to be present in these communities. The draught animal survival ability rather ... labour in farming and transportation. (Chantalakhana and Bunyavejehewin, 1994) ..... spreading of these diseases such as. Babesiosis and Anaplasmosis to these animals.
ovemight in a cool box. Serum was extracted using a plastic micropipette and transferred into sample bottles and was frozen until tested. Detection of antibodies to N DV. Antigen. Newcastle disease virus LaSota strain obtained from the National Veterinary Research Institute. (NVRI), Vom, was used as antigen for HI-test.
Vet. J., March 2017. Vol 38 (1): 57-68. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. An Audit of Castration of Male Dogs in Enugu Metropolis, South. Eastern Nigeria. Raheem, K. A.. 1Department of Veterinary ..... The internal genital organs like the prostate gland, urethra, penis, bulbis ... As biotechnology and medicine continue to advance, other ...
Vet. J., June 2016. Vol. 37 (2): 82-87. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Cystographic Evaluation Post Colocystoplasty in Two Nigerian. Indigenous Dogs. Muhammad S. T.*. 1 ., Awasum C. A.. 2 ... integrity/morphology of most internal body organs or system(s) of an individual, ..... Journal of Veterinary. Medicine and Animal Health, 7(1):.
Lungworms of Small Ruminants Slaughtered in Restaurants of Ambo, Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia. 1. 1. 1. 2. GAROMSSA, T. , BERSISSA, K. , DINKA, A.* and ENDRIAS, Z. 1. 2. School of Veterinary Medicine, Addis Ababa University. Ambo University. *Corresponding author: email@example.com. INTRODUCTION.
NIGERIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL. ISSN 0331-3026. Nig. Vet. J., March 2016. Vol. 37 (1): 24-31. ORIGINAL ARTICLE. Occurrence of Klebsiella Species in Cultured African Catfish in Oyo. State, South-West Nigeria. Adeshina, I. 1. *; Abdrahman, S. A.. 2 and Yusuf, A. A.. 3. 1Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries, ...
SUMMARY. An audit of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, lbadan between 2008 and 2011 was conducted to evaluate the level of compliance with standard practices. The study involved retrospective case note audit of surgical procedures performed during the period. A total number of 108.
Cao, Liyun; Chen, Meng; Phipps, Ron A; Del Guidice, Robert E; Handy, Beverly C; Wagar, Elizabeth A; Meng, Qing H
Pre-analytical errors necessitate specimen rejection and negatively affect patient safety. Our purpose was to investigate the factors leading to specimen rejection and its impact. Specimen rejections in a clinical chemistry laboratory during a 1-year period were reviewed retrospectively and analyzed for frequency, cause, circumstances, and impact. Of the 837,862 specimens received, 2178 (0.26%) were rejected. The most common reasons for specimen rejection were contamination (n=764, 35.1%), inappropriate collection container/tube (n=330, 15.2%), quantity not sufficient (QNS) (n=329, 15.1%), labeling errors (n=321, 14.7%), hemolyzed specimen (n=205, 9.4%), and clotted specimen (n=203, 9.3%). The analytes most often affected were glucose (n=192, 8.8%); calcium (n=152, 7.0%), magnesium (n=148, 6.8%), potassium (n=137, 6.3%), creatinine (n=100, 4.6%), and blood urea nitrogen (n=97, 4.4%). Outpatient service and blood draw by phlebotomists were associated with low rejection rates (536/493,501 or 0.11% and 368/586,503 or 0.06%, respectively). Recollection due to specimen rejection increased the turnaround time by an average of 108min. The total cost for the recollection was around $43,210 USD with an average cost around $21.9 USD. The factors associated with rejection are remediable by improved training and quality assurance measures. Policies and procedures specific to specimen collection, transportation, and preparation should be strictly followed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Matos, Miguel; Grafl, Beatrice; Liebhart, Dieter; Schwendenwein, Ilse; Hess, Michael
In the present study, clinical chemistry was applied to assess the pathogenesis and progression of experimentally induced inclusion body hepatitis (IBH). For this, five fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) strains from recent IBH field outbreaks were used to orally inoculate different groups of day-old specific pathogen-free chickens, which were weighed, sampled and examined during necropsy by sequential killing. Mortalities of 50% and 30% were recorded in two groups between 6 and 9 days post-infection (dpi), along with a decreased weight of 23% and 20%, respectively, compared to the control group. Macroscopical changes were seen in the liver and kidney between 6 and 10 dpi, with no lesions being observed in the other organs. Histological lesions were observed in the liver and pancreas during the same period. Plasma was collected from killed birds of each group at each time point and the following clinical chemistry analytes were investigated: aspartate aminotransferase (AST), glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH), bile acids, total protein, albumin, uric acid and lipase. Plasma protein profile, AST and GLDH, together with bile acids values paralleled the macroscopical and histopathological lesions in the liver, while plasma lipase activity levels coincided with lesions observed in pancreas. In agreement with the histology and clinical chemistry, viral load in the target organs, liver and pancreas, was highest at 7 dpi. Thus, clinical chemistry was found to be a valuable tool in evaluating and monitoring the progression of IBH in experimentally infected birds, providing a deeper knowledge of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of a FAdV infection in chickens.
Clarke, Patricia M; Al-Alawneh, John; Pitt, Rachael E; Schull, Daniel N; Coleman, Glen T
Client or service user perspectives are important when designing curricula for professional programs. In the case of veterinary technology, an emerging profession in the veterinary field in Australasia, client views on desirable graduate attributes, skills, and knowledge have not yet been explored. This study reports on a survey of 441 veterinary clients (with 104 responses) from four veterinary practices in Brisbane, Queensland, conducted between October 2008 and February 2009. The included veterinary practices provided clinical placements for veterinary technology undergraduates and employment for veterinary technology graduates (2003-2007). Client socio-demographic data along with ratings of the importance of a range of technical (veterinary nursing) skills, emotional intelligence, and professional attributes for veterinary technology graduates were collected and analyzed. Overall, the majority of clients viewed technical skills, emotional intelligence, and professional attributes as important in the clinical practice of veterinary technology graduates with whom they interacted in the veterinary practice. Client interviews (n=3) contextualized the survey data and also showed that clients attached importance to graduates demonstrating professional competence. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis revealed four distinct groupings of clients within the data based on their differing perceptions. Using a multivariable proportional-odds regression model, it was also found that some client differences were influenced by demographic factors such as gender, age, and number of visits annually. For example, the odds of female clients valuing emotionality and sociability were greater than males. These findings provide useful data for the design of a professionalizing and market-driven veterinary technology curriculum.
Hens, Koen; Berth, Mario; Armbruster, Dave; Westgard, Sten
Six Sigma metrics were used to assess the analytical quality of automated clinical chemistry and immunoassay tests in a large Belgian clinical laboratory and to explore the importance of the source used for estimation of the allowable total error. Clinical laboratories are continually challenged to maintain analytical quality. However, it is difficult to measure assay quality objectively and quantitatively. The Sigma metric is a single number that estimates quality based on the traditional parameters used in the clinical laboratory: allowable total error (TEa), precision and bias. In this study, Sigma metrics were calculated for 41 clinical chemistry assays for serum and urine on five ARCHITECT c16000 chemistry analyzers. Controls at two analyte concentrations were tested and Sigma metrics were calculated using three different TEa targets (Ricos biological variability, CLIA, and RiliBÄK). Sigma metrics varied with analyte concentration, the TEa target, and between/among analyzers. Sigma values identified those assays that are analytically robust and require minimal quality control rules and those that exhibit more variability and require more complex rules. The analyzer to analyzer variability was assessed on the basis of Sigma metrics. Six Sigma is a more efficient way to control quality, but the lack of TEa targets for many analytes and the sometimes inconsistent TEa targets from different sources are important variables for the interpretation and the application of Sigma metrics in a routine clinical laboratory. Sigma metrics are a valuable means of comparing the analytical quality of two or more analyzers to ensure the comparability of patient test results.
Fowler, Heather N; Holzbauer, Stacy M; Smith, Kirk E; Scheftel, Joni M
To identify the scope of occupational hazards encountered by veterinary personnel and compare hazard exposures between veterinarians and technicians working in small and large animal practices. Cross-sectional survey. Licensed veterinarians and veterinary staff in Minnesota. A survey of Minnesota veterinary personnel was conducted between February 1 and December 1, 2012. Adult veterinary personnel working in clinical practice for > 12 months were eligible to participate. Information was collected on various workplace hazards as well as on workplace safety culture. 831 eligible people responded, representing approximately 10% of Minnesota veterinary personnel. A greater proportion of veterinarians (93%; 368/394) reported having received preexposure rabies vaccinations than did veterinary technicians (54%; 198/365). During their career, 226 (27%) respondents had acquired at least 1 zoonotic infection and 636 (77%) had been injured by a needle or other sharps. Recapping of needles was reported by 87% of respondents; the most common reason reported by veterinarians (41%; 142/345) and veterinary technicians (71%; 238/333) was being trained to do so at school or work. Recent feelings of depression were reported by 204 (25%) respondents. A greater proportion of technicians (42%; 155/365) than veterinarians (21%; 81/394) indicated working in an environment in which employees experienced some form of workplace abuse. Veterinary personnel in Minnesota were exposed to several work-related hazards. Practice staff should assess workplace hazards, implement controls, and incorporate instruction on occupational health into employee training.
Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E
Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses. © 2015 The Authors Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Newman, Carlton; Jaggar, David H.
Lasers have been used for some time now on animals for experimental purposes prior to their use in human medical and surgical fields. However the use of lasers in veterinary medicine and surgery per se is a recent development. We describe the application of high and low intensity laser technology in a general overview of the current uses, some limitations to its use and future needs for future inquiry and development.
Corley, Kevin T T; Mathews, Karol; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Bain, Fairfield T; Hughes, Dez
Veterinary species experience similar perturbations of their health to those of human patients. When the long-term prognosis is good and providing suffering can be minimized, animals stand to benefit greatly from recent advances in the field of emergency and critical care. Outcomes in many conditions in small and large animals have improved markedly in the last 15 years, as management has improved, making the financial and emotional investment in critical care worthwhile for many owners.
Mekonnen, Zewdie; Amuamuta, Asmare; Mulu, Wondemagegn; Yimer, Mulat; Zenebe, Yohannes; Adem, Yesuf; Abera, Bayeh; Gebeyehu, Wondemu; Gebregziabher, Yakob
Reference interval is crucial for disease screening, diagnosis, monitoring, progression and treatment efficacy. Due to lack of locally derived reference values for the parameters, clinicians use reference intervals derived from western population. But, studies conducted in different African countries have indicated differences between locally and western derived reference values. Different studies also indicated considerable variation in clinical chemistry reference intervals by several variables such as age, sex, geographical location, environment, lifestyle and genetic variation. This study aimed to determine the reference intervals of common clinical chemistry parameters of the community of Gojjam Zones, Northwest Ethiopia. Population based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2015 to December 2016 in healthy adult populations of Gojjam zone. Data such as, medical history, physical examination and socio-demographic data were collected. In addition, laboratory investigations were undertaken to screen the population. Clinical chemistry parameters were measured using Mindray BS 200 clinical chemistry autoanalyzer as per the manufacturer's instructions. Descriptive statistics was used to calculate mean, median and 95th percentiles. Independent sample T-test and one way ANOVA were used to see association between variables. After careful screening of a total of 799 apparently healthy adults who were consented for this study, complete data from 446 (224 females and 222 males) were included for the analysis. The mean age of both the study participants was 28.8 years. Males had high (P0.05). Mean, median, 95% percentile values of AST, ALP, amylase, LDH, creatinine, total protein, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin across all age groups of participants were similar (P>0.05). But, there was a significant difference in the value of ALT (P1500 ETB compared to those with low monthly income. Significant (Pclinical chemistry parameters reference intervals of
Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J; Pakozdy, Akos; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Fischer, Anea; Long, Sam; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heiun; Pumarola, Martí Batlle; Rusbridge, Clare; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Anea; Volk, Holger A
Dogs with epilepsy are among the commonest neurological patients in veterinary practice and therefore have historically attracted much attention with regard to definitions, clinical approach and management...
Hesbach, Amie Lamoreaux
As it matures, the field of animal rehabilitation is welcoming utilization of interventions that have proven efficacy in the specialty of physical therapy for human patients. More recently, manual therapy techniques have become more accepted. Range-of-motion and stretching techniques; mobilization or manipulation of soft tissues, peripheral joints, and the spine; neuromuscular facilitation techniques; techniques unique to osteopathy; chest physical therapy; manual lymphatic drainage techniques; and neural mobilization techniques are now commonly incorporated in clinical practice, and these interventions are more commonly cited in the veterinary literature. The following is a brief review of these manual therapy approaches including the goals, effects, indications, precautions, and contraindications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liguori, Lucia; Adamsen, Tom Christian Holm
Practical experience is vital for promoting interest in science. Several aspects of chemistry are rarely taught in the secondary school curriculum, especially nuclear and radiochemistry. Therefore, we introduced radiochemistry to secondary school students through positron emission tomography (PET) associated with computer tomography (CT). PET-CT…
Femoral head disarticulation (FHD) and necrosis is a sporadic leg problem of unknown etiology in broiler breeders. To determine the underlying physiology of FHD, the blood chemistry and the histopathology of the femoral heads of the affected chickens were compared with their age matched controls. Ch...
Wheelton, R.; McCaffery, A. (National Radiological Protection Board, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Scottish Centre)
This brief article discusses radiation protection for diagnostic radiography in veterinary practices. It includes aspects such as a radiation protection adviser, personal dosimetry but in particular a Veterinary Monitoring Service, developed by the NRPB, which offers veterinary practitioners the convenience of making simple but essential measurements for themselves using photographic films contained in a 'vet pack' to determine the operating condition of their X-ray machine. (U.K.).
Huang, Wei-Yi; Wang, Ming; Suo, Xun; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Zhu, Xing-Quan
Many parasites of domestic animals in China are of major socioeconomic and medical importance. Hence, veterinary parasitology is one of the core subjects for undergraduate and postgraduate students of veterinary science. Here, we review the teaching of veterinary parasitology in Chinese universities, including a description of the veterinary science curricula and measures to improve the quality of veterinary parasitology teaching in China.
Rusbridge, Clare; Long, Sam; Jovanovik, Jelena; Milne, Marjorie; Berendt, Mette; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Farqhuar, Robyn G; Fischer, Andrea; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E; Pakozdy, Akos; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun; Stein, Veronika M; Tipold, Andrea; Volk, Holger A
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases in veterinary practice. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is regarded as an important diagnostic test to reach the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy. However, given that the diagnosis requires the exclusion of other differentials for seizures, the parameters for MRI examination should allow the detection of subtle lesions which may not be obvious with existing techniques. In addition, there are several differentials for idiopathic epilepsy in humans, for example some focal cortical dysplasias, which may only apparent with special sequences, imaging planes and/or particular techniques used in performing the MRI scan. As a result, there is a need to standardize MRI examination in veterinary patients with techniques that reliably diagnose subtle lesions, identify post-seizure changes, and which will allow for future identification of underlying causes of seizures not yet apparent in the veterinary literature.There is a need for a standardized veterinary epilepsy-specific MRI protocol which will facilitate more detailed examination of areas susceptible to generating and perpetuating seizures, is cost efficient, simple to perform and can be adapted for both low and high field scanners. Standardisation of imaging will improve clinical communication and uniformity of case definition between research studies. A 6-7 sequence epilepsy-specific MRI protocol for veterinary patients is proposed and further advanced MR and functional imaging is reviewed.
Warren, Amy L; Donnon, Tyrone
As veterinary medical curricula evolve, the time dedicated to biomedical science teaching, as well as the role of biomedical science knowledge in veterinary education, has been scrutinized. Aside from being mandated by accrediting bodies, biomedical science knowledge plays an important role in developing clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic reasoning skills in the application of clinical skills, in supporting evidence-based veterinary practice and life-long learning, and in advancing biomedical knowledge and comparative medicine. With an increasing volume and fast pace of change in biomedical knowledge, as well as increased demands on curricular time, there has been pressure to make biomedical science education efficient and relevant for veterinary medicine. This has lead to a shift in biomedical education from fact-based, teacher-centered and discipline-based teaching to applicable, student-centered, integrated teaching. This movement is supported by adult learning theories and is thought to enhance students' transference of biomedical science into their clinical practice. The importance of biomedical science in veterinary education and the theories of biomedical science learning will be discussed in this article. In addition, we will explore current advances in biomedical teaching methodologies that are aimed to maximize knowledge retention and application for clinical veterinary training and practice.
Kogan, Lori R; McConnell, Sherry L; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina
Students in veterinary schools can experience stress in balancing the different demands on them-academic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and professional or work related-as well as managing potential conflict between animal and human interests. Practicing veterinarians report many similar stressors and reactions. Stressful stimuli produce stress reactions that can be inimical to physical and psychological well-being, and students' performance in veterinary programs can be adversely affected if they do not have coping resources. While there has been some research into stress among university students in general, and among medical students in particular, there is little on the experience of veterinary students. This article describes a study by the School of Psychology, commissioned by the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, at Murdoch University in Western Australia. It was designed to investigate the levels and causes of stress among, and the frequency and type of coping strategies used by, fourth- and fifth-year students. Results indicate that the students in this cohort faced frequent stressors and felt at least moderately stressed but did not routinely and systematically use a range of coping strategies. Academic stressors and perceived responsibilities attached to moving into practical or professional areas figured strongly and were associated with higher levels of stress in the students, in particular physical sequelae. Though the numbers were small, it is of concern that some students were using measures that were potentially harmful. Some recommendations are made here about measures that veterinary programs may be able to incorporate to address stress in their students. Information is included on current strategies within the curriculum to manage potential stressful situations as part of students' professional development.
Maton, Barbara L; Smarick, Sean D
To review the updates in the American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and identify potential applications to veterinary patients. Cardiopulmonary arrest is common in veterinary emergency and critical care, and consensus guidelines are lacking. Human resuscitation guidelines are continually evolving as new clinical and experimental studies support updated recommendations. Synthesis of human, experimental animal model, and veterinary literature support the potential for updates and advancement in veterinary CPR practices. This review serves to highlight updates in the AHA guidelines for CPR and evaluate their application to small animal veterinary patients. Interventions identified will be evaluated for trans-species potential, raise questions regarding best resuscitation recommendations, and offer opportunities for further research to continue to advance veterinary CPR. The prognosis for any patient undergoing cardiopulmonary arrest remains guarded. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.
Qekwana, Daniel N; Oguttu, James W; Sithole, Fortune; Odoi, Agricola
Antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci, often associated with treatment failure, is increasingly reported in veterinary medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate patterns and predictors of antimicrobial resistance among Staphylococcus spp. isolates from canine samples submitted to the bacteriology laboratory at the University of Pretoria academic veterinary hospital between 2007 and 2012. Retrospective data of 334 Staphylococcus isolates were used to calculate the proportion of samples resistant to 15 antimicrobial agents. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to investigate temporal trends and logistic regression models were used to investigate predictors of antimicrobial resistance in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Results show that 98.2% (55/56) of the S. aureus isolates were resistant to at least one drug while 42.9% were multidrug resistant. Seventy-seven percent (214/278) of the S. pseudintermedius isolates were resistant to at least one drug and 25.9% (72/278) were multidrug resistant. Resistance to lincospectin was more common among S. aureus (64.3%) than S. pseudintermedius (38.9%). Similarly, resistance to clindamycin was higher in S. aureus (51.8%) than S. pseudintermedius (31.7%) isolates. There was a significant (p = 0.005) increase in S. aureus resistance to enrofloxacin over the study period. Similarly, S. pseudintermedius exhibited significant increasing temporal trend in resistance to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (p = 0.004), clindamycin (p = 0.022) and orbifloxacin (p = 0.042). However, there was a significant decreasing temporal trend in the proportion of isolates resistant to doxycycline (p = 0.041), tylosin (p = 0.008), kanamycin (p = 0.017) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (p = 0.032). High levels of multidrug resistance and the increasing levels of resistance to sulphonamides, lincosamides and fluoroquinolones among Staphylococcus spp. isolates in this study are concerning. Future
Sobczak, Natalia; Kantyka, Magdalena
The saliva of medicinal leeches, e.g., Hirudo medicinalis and Hirudo verbana commonly used in hirudotherapy, contains more than 100 bioactive substances with various therapeutic effects, including anticoagulant, vasodilator, thrombolytic, anti-inflammatory and anaesthetic properties. Recently, leeches have been used very successfully in veterinary medicine to treat many diseases of animals, especially dogs, cats and horses. The most common indications for the use of leeches are hip and elbow dysplasia, acute and chronic arthritis, diseases associated with inflammation of tendons, ligaments, and fascia, diseases of the vertebrae and the treatment of scars. Leech therapy is a painless procedure which takes an average of 30 to 120 minutes, the time being dependent on the size of the animal. All leeches used in medical procedures should originate only from certified biofarms. The maintenance of sterile conditions for the culture, transport and storage of medical leeches is very important to protect animals from microbial infections. Hirudotherapy is successfully used in veterinary medicine, especially when traditional treatment is not effective, the effects of treatment are too slow, or after surgery, when the tissues may be threatened by venous congestion.
Newman, H. C.
Veterinary medicine is a latecomer in benefiting from the advent of surgical lasers. It is ironic that although most of the basic work in lasers is carried out in animal species with which we are most conversant, veterinary medicine as a profession has not been very extensively involved.
This is a clinician's view of the current state of veterinary dentistry at the level of the general practitioner across the different species. An indication of the work done and the hazards commonly encountered are covered. To increase awareness within the dental profession of the current state of veterinary dentistry.
Journal Homepage Image. The Journal publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted. Other sites related to ...
1Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology. 2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine. Ahmadu Bello .... and cresol as its active ingredients. The most common disinfectant reported to be used in the various hatcheries investigated was Morigad® which has phenol as its active ingredient.
Focus and Scope. Open Veterinary Journal is a peer reviewed international open access online and printed journal that publishes high-quality original research articles, reviews, short communications and case reports dedicated to all aspects of veterinary sciences and its related subjects.
Gelberg, H B; Gelberg, S
It is important for veterinary administrators to apply knowledge bases from other fields to their own unique administrative needs. For example, although some resources are written for business managers, the discussions of four key management competency areas, guidelines for mastering these skills, organizational assessment tools, and other self-help tools may provide interesting food-for-thought for veterinary administrators.(76) In developing their own administrative styles, administrators should seek to apply those principles that seem to intuitively fit with their personal research styles, work situations, managerial styles, administrative preferences, and unique organizational culture. Through strengthening their liaisons with community and university business programs, counseling agencies, employee assistance programs, and psychology researchers, administrators can continue to be exposed to and benefit from new paradigms for consideration in veterinary medical environments. Through these liaisons, the unique needs of veterinary medical environments are also communicated to individuals within the fields of psychology and business, thus stimulating new research that specifically targets veterinary medical environment leadership issues. Each field has unique contributions to help veterinary administrators work toward creating veterinary medical environments that are creative, energetic, visionary, pragmatic, and highly marketable in order to help administrators recruit and nurture the best and brightest veterinary researchers, teachers, and clinicians.
Ellie Patterson, Vetlife marketing officer, summarises the services offered by Vetlife - an independent, confidential and free charity for everyone in the veterinary community. British Veterinary Association.
Hamood, Wendy J; Chur-Hansen, Anna; McArthur, Michelle L
To explore and gain an understanding of what "clinical communication skills" mean to veterinarians working in private practice and what implications this might have for veterinary medical education. Qualitative research methods were used to purposefully sample a range of veterinary practitioners from a pool of South Australian veterinary practices who were interviewed to determine their understanding of what communication skills mean in the context of veterinary practice. Interviews were conducted with fourteen veterinary practitioners. Participants were sampled from a range of ages, veterinary schools of graduation plus urban and rural locations. Interview transcripts were analysed for themes, definitions and contexts. Participants' accounts included a number of skills which they considered to be "communication". Some of the definitions of these skills parallel communication skills and competencies for human medicine on which communication skills training incorporated into veterinary curricula to date have largely been based. However, the veterinarians in this study also raised interesting contextual differences unique to the veterinary profession, such as communication with the animal, selling service, discussing money in relation to decisions for care, and communicating about euthanasia. Veterinary practitioners require high level communication skills. Education and training in veterinary medicine may be better tailored to reflect the unique context of the veterinary profession.
Armitage-Chan, Elizabeth; Jackson, Elizabeth
In a densely packed veterinary curriculum, students may find it particularly challenging to engage in the less overtly clinical subjects, yet pressure from industry and an increasingly competitive employment market necessitate improved veterinary student education in business and management skills. We describe a curriculum intervention (formative reflective assignment) that optimizes workplace learning opportunities and aims to provide better student scaffolding for their in-context business learning. Students were asked to analyze a business practice they experienced during a period of extra-mural studies (external work placement). Following return to the college, they were then instructed to discuss their findings in their study group, and produce a group reflection on their learning. To better understand student engagement in this area, we analyzed individual and group components of the assignment. Thematic analysis revealed evidence of various depths of student engagement, and provided indications of the behaviors they used when engaging at different levels. Interactive and social practices (discussing business strategies with veterinary employees and student peers) appeared to facilitate student engagement, assist the perception of relevance of these skills, and encourage integration with other curriculum elements such as communication skills and clinical problem solving.
Amass, Sandra F
To evaluate how the veterinary profession is represented in nonfiction children's books and determine whether representations reflect the current veterinary profession or the demographics of the United States. Survey. Covers of 46 nonfiction children's books and contents of 45 nonfiction children's books. Book covers and book contents (images and text) were evaluated for representations of veterinarians and to identify settings, clients, technology and equipment, and animals portrayed. Book contents were additionally evaluated to identify specialties and career opportunities specifically mentioned in the text. Book covers predominantly portrayed veterinarians as Caucasian women who wore examination coats, worked alone in veterinary clinics, and cared for dogs without a client present. Book contents predominantly portrayed veterinarians as a Caucasian man or woman who wore an examination coat, worked as part of a team in a veterinary clinic, and helped clients care for dogs, cats, and exotic animals. Specialties and career opportunities in the veterinary profession were mentioned in the text of 29 of 45 (64.4%) books. Nonfiction children's book covers that focused on the veterinary profession portrayed a greater percentage of women than is currently found in the profession. Similarly, books portrayed a greater percentage of Caucasians than in the current or predicted US population. With the exception of Asians, books collectively represented lower or similar percentages of underrepresented minorities, compared with the US population. Veterinarians are encouraged to select books for individual children that portray veterinarians with whom the children can identify.
Nickels, Bonnie McCracken; Feeley, Thomas Hugh
The patient-provider relationship in the context of veterinary medicine represents a unique opportunity for studying how bad news is communicated to pet owners by conducting structured interviews with veterinarians. A sample of 44 veterinarians' responses was recorded and content-analyzed in an effort to identify themes among providers in their clinical experience of breaking bad news (BBN). Two coders revealed several themes in the data that were organized by three overarching areas: (1) breaking bad news in general, (2) euthanasia, and (3) social support. The findings from interviews indicated the COMFORT model (Villagran, Goldsmith, Wittenberg-Lyles, & Baldwin, 2010) in medical education provided a useful framework to organize the communication of BBN in veterinary medicine. Results were discussed in relation to future research in patient-provider communication and COMFORT's potential value for training students in veterinarian education.
Clinical Laboratory Practice Recommendations for the Use of Cardiac Troponin in Acute Coronary Syndrome: Expert Opinion from the Academy of the American Association for Clinical Chemistry and the Task Force on Clinical Applications of Cardiac Bio-Markers of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine.
Wu, Alan H B; Christenson, Robert H; Greene, Dina N; Jaffe, Allan S; Kavsak, Peter A; Ordonez-Llanos, Jordi; Apple, Fred S
This document is an essential companion to the third iteration of the National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry [NACB,8 now the American Association for Clinical Chemistry (AACC) Academy] Laboratory Medicine Practice Guidelines (LMPG) on cardiac markers. The expert consensus recommendations were drafted in collaboration with the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine Task Force on Clinical Applications of Bio-Markers (IFCC TF-CB). We determined that there is sufficient clinical guidance on the use of cardiac troponin (cTn) testing from clinical practice groups. Thus, in this expert consensus document, we focused on clinical laboratory practice recommendations for high-sensitivity (hs)-cTn assays. This document utilized the expert opinion class of evidence to focus on the following 10 topics: (a) quality control (QC) utilization, (b) validation of the lower reportable analytical limits, (c) units to be used in reporting measurable concentrations for patients and QC materials, (d) 99th percentile sex-specific upper reference limits to define the reference interval; (e) criteria required to define hs-cTn assays, (f) communication with clinicians and the laboratory's role in educating clinicians regarding the influence of preanalytic and analytic problems that can confound assay results, (g) studies on hs-cTn assays and how authors need to document preanalytical and analytical variables, (h) harmonizing and standardizing assay results and the role of commutable materials, (i) time to reporting of results from sample receipt and sample collection, and (j) changes in hs-cTn concentrations over time and the role of both analytical and biological variabilities in interpreting results of serial blood collections. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.
LeBlanc, Amy K; Peremans, Kathelijne
Veterinarians have gained increasing access to positron emission tomography (PET and PET/CT) imaging facilities, allowing them to use this powerful molecular imaging technique for clinical and research applications. SPECT is currently being used more in Europe than in the United States and has been shown to be useful in veterinary oncology and in the evaluation of orthopedic diseases. SPECT brain perfusion and receptor imaging is used to investigate behavioral disorders in animals that have interesting similarities to human psychiatric disorders. This article provides an overview of the potential applications of PET and SPECT. The use of commercially available and investigational PET radiopharmaceuticals in the management of veterinary disease has been discussed. To date, most of the work in this field has utilized the commercially available PET tracer, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose for oncologic imaging. Normal biodistribution studies in several companion animal species (cats, dogs, and birds) have been published to assist in lesion detection and interpretation for veterinary radiologists and clinicians. Studies evaluating other (18)F-labeled tracers for research applications are underway at several institutions and companion animal models of human diseases are being increasingly recognized for their value in biomarker and therapy development. Although PET and SPECT technologies are in their infancy for clinical veterinary medicine, increasing access to and interest in these applications and other molecular imaging techniques has led to a greater knowledge and collective body of expertise for veterinarians worldwide. Initiation and fostering of physician-veterinarian collaborations are key components to the forward movement of this field. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
van Foreest, Andries
Rooted in human dentistry, veterinary dentistry has developed steadily in the Netherlands since the 1980s and is now recognized as an essential discipline of veterinary medicine. The availability of specialized tools and techniques has led to improved treatment outcomes and results, with the choice of treatment being largely determined by the functionality of the dentition and the costs involved. Domestic animals and horses with dental problems should be referred to dental veterinarians. The Working Group Veterinary Dentistry in the Netherlands is an association for skilled veterinarians with professional dental equipment at their disposal.
Wu, Yuanyuan; Boonloed, Anukul; Sleszynski, Neal; Koesdjojo, Myra; Armstrong, Chadd; Bracha, Shay; Remcho, Vincent T
Rapidly increasing healthcare costs in economically advantaged countries are currently unsustainable, while in many developing nations, even 50-year-old technologies are too expensive to implement. New and unconventional technologies are being explored as solutions to this problem. In this study, we examined the use of a smartphone as the detection platform for 2 well-developed, relatively inexpensive, commercially available clinical chemistry assays as a model for rapid and inexpensive clinical diagnostic testing. An Apple iPhone 4 camera phone equipped with a color analysis application (ColorAssist) was combined with Vitros® glucose and urea colorimetric assays. Color images of assay slides at various concentrations of glucose or urea were collected with the iPhone 4 and quantitated in three different spectral ranges (red/green/blue or RGB) using the ColorAssist app. When the diffuse reflectance data was converted into absorbance, it was possible to quantitate glucose or blood urea nitrogen (BUN) over their clinically important concentration ranges (30-515mg/dl for glucose or 2-190mg/dl for BUN), with good linearity (R(2)=0.9994 or 0.9996, respectively [n=5]). Data collected using the iPhone 4 and canine serum samples were in agreement with results from the instrumental "gold standard" (Beckman Coulter AU480 Chemistry System) (R(2)=0.9966 and slope=1.0001 for glucose; R(2)=0.9958 and slope=0.9454 for BUN). Glucose determinations of serum samples made using this smartphone method were as accurate as or more accurate than a commercial colorimetric dry slide analyzer (Heska® Element DC Chemistry Analyzer, Loveland, CO) and 2 glucometers: ReliOn® Ultima (Abbott Diabetes Care Inc) and Presto® (AgaMatrix Inc.H). BUN determinations made using the smartphone approach were comparable in accuracy to the Heska instrument. This demonstration shows that smartphones have the potential to be used as simple, effective colorimetric detectors for quantitative diagnostic tests
Hespel, Adrien-Maxence; Wilhite, Ray; Hudson, Judith
Recent technological advances in 3D printing have resulted in increased use of this technology in human medicine, and decreasing cost is making it more affordable for veterinary use. Rapid prototyping is at its early stage in veterinary medicine but clinical, educational, and experimental possibilities exist. Techniques and applications, both current and future, are explored and illustrated in this article. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.
Vasikaran, Samuel; Cooper, Cyrus; Eastell, Richard; Griesmacher, Andrea; Morris, Howard A; Trenti, Tommaso; Kanis, John A
The International Osteoporosis Foundation (IOF) and the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC) Working Group on Bone Marker Standards (WG-BMS) has evaluated the clinical potential of bone turnover markers (BTMs) in the prediction of fracture risk and for monitoring treatment. Research evidence suggests that BTMs may provide information on fracture risk independently from BMD, so that fracture risk prediction might be enhanced by their inclusion in assessment algorithms. The potential use of BTMs to predict the response to treatments for osteoporosis in the individual patient is also of great interest. Treatment-induced changes in specific markers account for a substantial proportion of fracture risk reduction. However, there is still a need for stronger evidence on which to base practice in both situations. IOF/IFCC recommends one bone formation marker (serum procollagen type I N propeptide, s-PINP) and one bone resorption marker (serum C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type I collagen, s-CTX) to be used as reference markers and measured by standardised assays in observational and intervention studies in order to enlarge the international experience of the application of markers to clinical medicine and to help resolve uncertainties over their clinical use.
Nault, Andre J.
Veterinary medical libraries and librarians are unique. There are now 33 veterinary colleges in North America, and in accordance with American Veterinary Medical Association accreditation, each has a library managed by an accredited librarian. Colleges with veterinary programs often maintain specialized branch libraries to support the degree,…
Moore, Dale A
Ideas about centers of emphasis and veterinary medical teaching consortia have resurfaced to attract students into food-supply veterinary medicine (FSVM). From 1988 to 2000 a multiple veterinary school consortium approach to food-animal production medicine (FAPM) teaching was conducted to handle regional differences in case load, faculty strengths, and student interests. Six universities developed a memorandum of understanding to provide a wide variety of in-depth, species-specific clinical experiences in FAPM to balance their individual strengths and weakness in addressing food-animal agriculture, to provide for student exchange and faculty development, and to conduct research in food safety. Changes in leadership, redirection of funds, failure to publicize the program to faculty and students, and a focus on research as opposed to teaching led to dissolution of the consortium. However, this approach could work to improve recruitment and retention of students in FSVM if it focused on student exchange, fostered a more integrated curriculum across schools, encouraged faculty involvement, garnered institutional support, and used modern technology in teaching. Private veterinary practices as well as public/corporate practices could be integrated into a broader food-animal curriculum directed at building competency among FSVM students by providing the in-depth training they require. Requirements for the success of this type of program will include funding, marketing, leadership, communication, coordination, integration, and dedicated people with the time to make it work.
... the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA), and sponsored by the Food Supply Veterinary... by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in the spring of 2009, the average educational... grateful to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the American Veterinary...
... the American Veterinary Medical Association (JAVMA), and sponsored by the Food Supply Veterinary... by the American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) in the spring of 2009, the average educational... grateful to the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC), the American Veterinary...
Ridefelt, Peter; Aldrimer, Mattias; Rödöö, Per-Olof; Niklasson, Frank; Jansson, Leif; Gustafsson, Jan; Hellberg, Dan
Reference intervals are crucial decision-making tools aiding clinicians in differentiating between healthy and diseased populations. However, for children such values often are lacking or incomplete. Blood samples were obtained from 692 healthy children, aged 6 months to 18 years, recruited in daycare centers and schools. Twelve common general clinical chemistry analytes were measured on the Abbott Architect ci8200 platform; sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, albumin-adjusted calcium, phosphate, magnesium, creatinine (Jaffe and enzymatic), cystatin C, urea and uric acid. Age- and gender specific pediatric reference intervals were defined by calculating the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles. The data generated is primarily applicable to a Caucasian population when using the Abbott Architect platform, but could be used by any laboratory if validated for the local patient population.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — As seen on the center's logo, the mission statement for FDA's Center for Veterinary Medicine (CVM) reads: "Protecting Human and Animal Health." To achieve this broad...
Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources; Board on Higher Education and Workforce; Division on Earth and Life Studies; Policy and Global Affairs; National Research Council
In a study of the issues related to the veterinary medical workforce, including demographics, workforce supply, trends affecting job availability, and capacity of the educational system to fill future...
Martinsen, Siri; Jukes, Nick
There is a vast array of learning tools and approaches to veterinary education, many tried and true, many innovative and with potential. Such new methods have come about partly from an increasing demand from both students and teachers to avoid methods of teaching and training that harm animals. The aim is to create the best quality education, ideally supported by validation of the efficacy of particular educational tools and approaches, while ensuring that animals are not used harmfully and that respect for animal life is engendered within the student. In this paper, we review tools and approaches that can be used in the teaching of veterinary students, tools and approaches that ensure the dignity and humane treatment of animals that all teachers and students must observe as the very ethos of the veterinary profession that they serve. Veterinary education has not always met, and still often does not meet, this essential criterion.
Knowledge of common diseases is important for effective disease control and management programme. This retrospective study was designed to identify the common equine diseases and clinical conditions observed at the Large Animal Clinics of Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto, using ...
Taneja, S R; Gupta, R C; Kumar, Jagdish; Thariyan, K K; Verma, Sanjeev
Clinical chemistry analyser is a high-performance microcontroller-based photometric biochemical analyser to measure various blood biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, urea, protein, bilirubin, and so forth, and also to measure and observe enzyme growth occurred while performing the other biochemical tests such as ALT (alkaline amino transferase), amylase, AST (aspartate amino transferase), and so forth. These tests are of great significance in biochemistry and used for diagnostic purposes and classifying various disorders and diseases such as diabetes, liver malfunctioning, renal diseases, and so forth. An inexpensive clinical chemistry analyser developed by the authors is described in this paper. This is an open system in which any reagent kit available in the market can be used. The system is based on the principle of absorbance transmittance photometry. System design is based around 80C31 microcontroller with RAM, EPROM, and peripheral interface devices. The developed system incorporates light source, an optical module, interference filters of various wave lengths, peltier device for maintaining required temperature of the mixture in flow cell, peristaltic pump for sample aspiration, graphic LCD display for displaying blood parameters, patients test results and kinetic test graph, 40 columns mini thermal printer, and also 32-key keyboard for executing various functions. The lab tests conducted on the instrument include versatility of the analyzer, flexibility of the software, and treatment of sample. The prototype was tested and evaluated over 1000 blood samples successfully for seventeen blood parameters. Evaluation was carried out at Government Medical College and Hospital, the Department of Biochemistry. The test results were found to be comparable with other standard instruments.
Colangelo, Jennifer L
Mass spectrometry (MS) has become a key platform in the clinical pathology laboratory and is being used more frequently for clinical pathology assessments in preclinical species for drug development studies. MS assays are being utilized for some traditional clinical pathology end points as well as novel biomarker analyses. For effective deployment in drug development toxicology studies, assays must be validated for use, and these validations are not very different from other bioanalytical platforms commonly found in the clinical pathology laboratory. Validations for MS assays include accuracy and precision assessments, analyte stability evaluations, carryover determinations, and recovery measures. The MS platform does present some unique challenges that should be considered, including ion suppression and availability of reference standards with MS data. Understanding the caveats of the MS platform is important for thorough validations and effective deployment.
Musser Jeffrey MBDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, TX, USAThis year marks the 250th anniversary of the Royal Veterinary School in Lyon, France, the world's first veterinary college. Since its inception, many changes have occurred in veterinary medicine such as views on education and didactic learning, demographics of our profession, and standards of practice in animal husbandry, medicine, surgery, anesthesia, and vacci...
King, L J
The veterinary profession finds itself in the midst of a new world order. Today veterinarians are part of a world that is exquisitely interconnected culturally, economically, socially, and professionally. As a consequence, societal needs and expectations of the profession are more demanding, critical and far-reaching. Veterinarians must play important roles in five intersecting domains of work: public health, bio-medical research, global food safety and security, ecosystem health and the more traditional role of caring for animals. To be successful in this broad and complex range of services and activities, veterinarians must possess an expanded knowledge base, acquire new skills, and develop a new mindset that will ensure their success and excellence in all these domains. The veterinary profession is becoming more fragmented and specialised, and it needs to be brought back together by a single sphere of knowledge or discipline that can serve as an intellectual foundation. The concept of One World of Veterinary Medicine can do just that. With this mindset veterinarians will become better connected to the world around and gain new public recognition and esteem. To achieve this, a special commitment by academic veterinary medicine is, of course, essential. Veterinary schools must lead an educational transformation that reaffirms the social contract of veterinarians and works to align diverse sectors, build a global community, find a common purpose and expand the 21st Century veterinary portfolio of services, activities, and new possibilities.
This review of governance distinguishes between ends and means and, by highlighting the complexity and differing definitions of the concept, defines its scope and focuses discussion on its characteristics in order to establish an interrelationship between veterinary legislation and governance. Good governance must be backed by legislation, and good legislation must incorporate the principles and instruments of good governance. This article lists some of the main characteristics of governance and then reviews them in parallel with the methodology used to draft veterinary legislation, emphasising the importance of goal-setting and stakeholder participation. This article describes the criteria developed by the Veterinary Legislation Support Programme (VLSP) of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) for assessing the quality of veterinary legislation. It then makes a comparison between the quality assurance process and the good governance process in order to demonstrate that the introduction and proper use of the tools for developing veterinary legislation offered by the OIE VLSP leads to a virtuous circle linking legislation with good governance. Ultimately, the most important point remains the implementation of legislation. Consequently, the author points out that satisfactory implementation relies not only on legislation that is technically and legally appropriate, acceptable, applicable, sustainable, correctly drafted, well thought through and designed for the long term, but also on the physical and legal capacity of official Veterinary Services to perform their administrative and enforcement duties, and on there being the means available for all those involved to discharge their responsibilities.
Scholz, Emma; Trede, Franziska; Raidal, Sharanne L
Veterinary practice is a broad sphere of professional activity encompassing clinical activity and other vocational opportunities conducted in rapidly changing contemporary social conditions. Workplace learning is an important but resource-intensive component of educating students for practice. This conceptual article argues that literature on workplace learning in the veterinary context is dominated by descriptive accounts and that there is a dearth of theoretically informed research on this topic. Framing veterinary practice as a social, relational, and discursive practice supports the use of workplace learning theories developed from a sociocultural perspective. Situated learning theory, with its associated concepts of communities of practice and legitimate peripheral participation, and workplace learning theory focused on workplace affordances and learner agency are discussed. Two composite examples of student feedback from veterinary clinical learning illustrate the concepts, drawing out such themes as the roles of teachers and learners and the assessment of integrated practice. The theoretical perspective described in this article can be used to inform development of models of workplace learning in veterinary clinical settings; relevant examples from medical education are presented.
College of Lab Animal Medicine; Certified by American College of Veterinary Pathology 1 - PhD, Physiology/Biochem - Clinical Research Admin...Budg~ Research Support Pathology McrobioloQ’J Training Supply Hematology Toxicology Chemistry M>lecular 4 22 Nov 11 CRD Staff Expertise D r I r...Laboratory Services Branch Dr. Thomas Gibbons - 292-7363 Thomas.firstname.lastname@example.org Pathology Section Support L TC Michele Thompson - 292-6589
Buchanan, James W
Throughout civilization, animals have played a pivotal role in the advancement of science and medicine. From as early as 400 BC when Hippocrates recognized that diseases had natural causes, the steadfast advances made by biologists, scientists, physicians and scholars were fueled by timely and important facts and information- much of it gained through animal observations that contributed importantly to understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology. There have been many breakthroughs and historic developments. For example, William Harvey in the 16th and 17th centuries clarified the importance of the circulatory system, aided by observations in dogs and pigs, which helped to clarify and confirm his concepts. The nineteenth century witnessed advances in physical examination techniques including auscultation and percussion. These helped create the basis for enhanced proficiency in clinical cardiology. An explosion of technologic advances that followed in the 20th century have made possible sophisticated, accurate, and non-invasive diagnostics. This permitted rapid patient assessment, effective monitoring, the development of new cardiotonic drugs, clinical trials to assess efficacy, and multi-therapy strategies. The latter 20th century has marshaled a dizzying array of advances in medical genetics and molecular science, expanding the frontiers of etiologies and disease mechanisms in man, with important implications for animal health. Veterinary medicine has evolved during the last half century, from a trade designed to serve agrarian cultures, to a diverse profession supporting an array of career opportunities ranging from private, specialty practice, to highly organized, specialized medicine and subspecialty academic training programs in cardiology and allied disciplines. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Erika Helena Salles de Brito
Full Text Available O gênero Candida é composto por leveduras que vivem como comensais na microbiota de homens e animais. Em geral, não causam nenhum dano aos seus hospedeiros, entretanto, em virtude de desequilíbrios nas defesas química, física e imunológica, esses microrganismos podem se tornar patogênicos. Infecções por Candida spp. são pouco frequentes na Medicina Veterinária no entanto, nos últimos anos, tem sido observado aumento considerável de relatos de enfermidades causadas por essas leveduras, acometendo diferentes animais. Várias espécies do gênero são implicadas em quadros infecciosos, sendo a C. albicans a principal delas, seguida por C. tropicalis e C. parapsilosis. Considerando-se o potencial patogênico do gênero Candida, aliado ao surgimento de cepas resistentes a derivados azólicos, in vitro, o presente trabalho se propôs a realizar detalhada revisão de literatura, abordando os aspectos clínico-laboratoriais, etiológicos e terapêuticos da candidose na Medicina Veterinária.The Candida genus is composed by yeasts that live as commmensal on human and animals' microbiota. In general, they do not cause any damage to their hosts. However, due instability on chemical, physical and immunological defenses, these microorganisms can become pathogens. Candida spp. infections are rare on Veterinary Medicine. However, on the last years, a considerable raise of illness caused by these yeasts has been related on varied animal species. Several species of this genus has been mentioned as responsible for infectious diseases in animals, being C. albicans the main of them, followed by C. tropicalis and C. parapsilosis. Considering the pathogenic role of the genus Candida, allied to the emerging of resistant strains to the azole derivatives, in vitro, the present research proposed to perform a detailed review, approaching clinic-laboratorial, etiologic and therapeutic aspects of the candidosis on Veterinary medicine.
This article suggests that veterinary medicine has a leadership role to play in our society on ethical matters involving non-human animals. The article contrasts two trends within veterinary medicine; the first trend is a continuation of the avowedly utilitarian attitude toward non-humans that has its roots in Western veterinary medicine's eighteenth-century origins, and the second is the implicit view in veterinary practice that animals matter in and of themselves. Using the idea of alternatives in research and teaching, the article suggests that, in the years to come, veterinary medicine's answers to the relationships of these two trends will shape not only the soul of veterinary medicine, veterinary education, and the veterinary profession but, just as importantly, the larger society and culture themselves. This text is based on the keynote address delivered at the AAVMC Education Symposium in Washington, DC, on March 9, 2006, under the title "Ethical Issues Impacting Animal Use in Veterinary Medical Teaching."
Stephanie A. Sapowicz
Full Text Available This study assessed body condition scores (BCS and feeding habits for dogs and cats. Eighty-six cats and 229 dogs (and their owners were enrolled from 2 clinics: a low cost clinic (n=149 and a general practice (n=166. BCS and body weight were recorded. Owners completed a survey which included animal age, sex, and breed; owner demographics; and feeding practices (e.g., diet, rationale for feeding practices. Owners from the low cost clinic had a significantly lower income (P<0.001 and education (P<0.001 compared to those from the general practice. Animals from the low cost clinic were younger (P<0.001 and dogs were less likely to be neutered (P<0.001. Overweight prevalence was 55% overall (P=0.083, with a significantly higher prevalence in the general practice for cats (44% versus 66%; P=0.046, but not for dogs (58% versus 53%; P=0.230. Multivariate analysis showed that only neuter status was significantly associated with BCS (P=0.004. Veterinarians were the most common source of nutritional information, though lack of accurate nutrition knowledge was common among all participants. These findings support the need for enhanced communication about optimal BCS and nutrition regardless of socioeconomic status.
Gardner, Ian A.; Greiner, Matthias
Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves provide a cutoff-independent method for the evaluation of continuous or ordinal tests used in clinical pathology laboratories. The area under the curve is a useful overall measure of test accuracy and can be used to compare different tests (or differ...
Imoh, Lucius C; Mutale, Mubanga; Parker, Christopher T; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Zemlin, Annalise E
Timeliness of laboratory results is crucial to patient care and outcome. Monitoring turnaround times (TAT), especially for emergency tests, is important to measure the effectiveness and efficiency of laboratory services. Laboratory-based clinical audits reveal opportunities for improving quality. Our aim was to identify the most critical steps causing a high TAT for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) chemistry analysis in our laboratory. A 6-month retrospective audit was performed. The duration of each operational phase across the laboratory work flow was examined. A process-mapping audit trail of 60 randomly selected requests with a high TAT was conducted and reasons for high TAT were tested for significance. A total of 1505 CSF chemistry requests were analysed. Transport of samples to the laboratory was primarily responsible for the high average TAT (median TAT = 170 minutes). Labelling accounted for most delays within the laboratory (median TAT = 71 minutes) with most delays occurring after regular work hours (P chemistry requests without the appropriate number of CSF sample tubes were significantly associated with delays in movement of samples from the labelling area to the technologist's work station (caused by a preference for microbiological testing prior to CSF chemistry). A laboratory-based clinical audit identified sample transportation, work shift periods and use of inappropriate CSF sample tubes as drivers of high TAT for CSF chemistry in our laboratory. The results of this audit will be used to change pre-analytical practices in our laboratory with the aim of improving TAT and customer satisfaction.
Schmidt, Robert L; Garcia, Christopher A; Panlener, Jeanne; Ashwood, Edward R; Jackson, Brian R; Hussong, Jerry W
Clinical consultation is a key role of pathologists. Many have advocated that pathologists expand their consulting activities to improve laboratory utilization. Although many have suggested that residency programs need to provide experience in clinical consultation, little has been written on the nature of consultation or on the methods of training. To characterize the content of consultations and to describe training in consultation in chemical pathology within the residency program at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City. Retrospective review of the consultation database for the period between July 2011 and July 2012. Residents performed an average of 159 consultations a month covering 276 topics during the course of a year. Each topic involved 1 or more specific tests. Eighty percent of the topics received fewer than 12 calls. The most common topics involved virus testing (eg, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human immunodeficiency virus). Consultations most often involved test interpretation (53%), selection (38%), and performance characteristics (21%). Twenty-seven percent of consultations involved 2 or more consultation categories (eg, interpretation and performance). Consultation calls in chemical pathology are widely distributed across topics. Consultations most often involve test interpretation and selection. Methods to assess the effectiveness of consultations and resident teaching should be devised.
Cornes, Michael P; Church, Stephen; van Dongen-Lases, Edmée
Patient safety is a leading challenge in healthcare and from the laboratory perspective it is now well established that preanalytical errors are the major contributor to the overall rate of diagnostic and therapeutic errors. To address this, the European Federation of Clinical Chemistry...
Presented is a project that developed a competency-based clinical chemistry course for associate degree medical laboratory technicians (MLT) in a medical technology (MT) baccalaureate program. Content of the course was based upon competencies expected of medical technologists at career-entry as defined in the statements adopted in 1976 by the…
Holmstrom, Steven E
When you have completed this article, you will be able to (1) understand and grade patients with periodontal disease and prescribe proper treatment for them; (2) describe the AVDC Stages of Tooth resorption and the treatment; (3) describe the non-clinically aggressive and aggressive oral tumors; (4) be knowledgeable of the American Animal Hospital Association Guidelines on Veterinary Dental Procedures and how to obtain them; and (5) understand the disadvantage of Non-Professional Dental Scaling (NPDS) and why it should not be performed.
Wieringa, Gijsbert; Zerah, Simone; Jansen, Rob; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Queralto, José; Solnica, Bogdan; Gruson, Damien; Tomberg, Karel; Riittinen, Leena; Baum, Hannsjörg; Brochet, Jean-Philippe; Buhagiar, Gerald; Charilaou, Charis; Grigore, Camelia; Johnsen, Anders H; Kappelmayer, Janos; Majkic-Singh, Nada; Nubile, Giuseppe; O'Mullane, John; Opp, Matthias; Pupure, Silvija; Racek, Jaroslav; Reguengo, Henrique; Rizos, Demetrios; Rogic, Dunja; Špaňár, Július; Štrakl, Greta; Szekeres, Thomas; Tzatchev, Kamen; Vitkus, Dalius; Wallemacq, Pierre; Wallinder, Hans
Laboratory medicine's practitioners across the European community include medical, scientific and pharmacy trained specialists whose contributions to health and healthcare is in the application of diagnostic tests for screening and early detection of disease, differential diagnosis, monitoring, management and treatment of patients, and their prognostic assessment. In submitting a revised common syllabus for post-graduate education and training across the 27 member states an expectation is set for harmonised, high quality, safe practice. In this regard an extended 'Core knowledge, skills and competencies' division embracing all laboratory medicine disciplines is described. For the first time the syllabus identifies the competencies required to meet clinical leadership demands for defining, directing and assuring the efficiency and effectiveness of laboratory services as well as expectations in translating knowledge and skills into ability to practice. In a 'Specialist knowledge' division, the expectations from the individual disciplines of Clinical Chemistry/Immunology, Haematology/Blood Transfusion, Microbiology/ Virology, Genetics and In Vitro Fertilisation are described. Beyond providing a common platform of knowledge, skills and competency, the syllabus supports the aims of the European Commission in providing safeguards to increasing professional mobility across European borders at a time when demand for highly qualified professionals is increasing and the labour force is declining. It continues to act as a guide for the formulation of national programmes supplemented by the needs of individual country priorities.
O'Neill, D; Hendricks, A; Summers, J; Brodbelt, D
To describe systemic glucocorticoid usage in cats and dogs by three primary care -veterinary practices in England and to ascertain risk factors for clinical use. To evaluate consistency of prescribing patterns across clinics. To validate a merged database of primary veterinary clinical data as a functional tool for clinical epidemiological research. A merged database was established from clinical data on 31,273 cat and dog consultations with pharmacotherapy from three veterinary practices in England. Descriptive statistics described systemic glucocorticoid drug use in cats and dogs while mixed-effects logistic regression modelling evaluated risk factors. Individual clinic usage was compared. Overall, 1877 (16·68%) cat consultations and 2913 (14·55%) dog consultations resulted in systemic glucocorticoid therapy. Cats received higher parenteral (Pveterinary clinical database was effective for epidemiological research. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Lima, Miguel S; Silveira, Júlia M; Carolino, Nuno; Lamas, Luis P; Pascoal, Rita A; Hjerpe, Charles A
Pregnancy toxaemia (PT) is a disease that affects pregnant goats during their last month of gestation and is characterized by a high case fatality rate. This study involved 32 does maintained on a commercial dairy goat farm that were diagnosed with PT. A physical examination was performed on and haematology parameters obtained from each doe, at the time of diagnosis. The data from the 24 PT goats that died was compared with the corresponding data from the 8 PT goats that survived. Polypnea, swollen limbs, anorexia with absence of ruminal motility, recumbency, nervous signs and drooping ears were the most frequently observed clinical manifestations. Nineteen out of 21 recumbent goats died. Sixteen out of 17 goats with anorexia and absence of ruminal motility died. Mean beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) values in the goats that died were not significantly different from those in goats that survived. The blood values for pH and pCO2 (p < 0.005) as well as for HCO3-, BE and K+ (p < 0.001) were significantly lower in the goats that died than in those that survived. The clinical signs most indicative of a poor prognosis are anorexia with absence of ruminal motility and recumbency. Among the blood parameters to be considered, hypokalaemia and metabolic acidosis are the most relevant. Goats with PT have a high mortality and their condition can deteriorate very fast. Based on the authors's experience, a good strategy to minimize the economic losses caused by PT is to focus on the offspring survival rate since an early decision (induction of kidding or caesarian surgery) can increase the number of alive kids.
Full Text Available The veterinary profession as a health service is facing new market conditions of business management. In the conditions of increased competition it is necessary to look for new ways of expanding the business and increase the economic efficiency and profitability. The introduction of the prospective customers to the activities and promotion of its services is one of the ways of expanding the veterinary clinic. The promotion is a crucial tool in the market penetration in every field, but one of the disadvantages of this tool is the often extremely high price and is not appropriate for small business, such as veterinary practice. This is why the Internet as a medium is interesting means of promotion of the veterinary clinic due to its many advantages. It is accessible to everyone, has a great number of users and at the same time, is fairly affordable. Its important feature is the room for modern, creative and interactive approach. In certain countries there are certain limitations in the promotion of veterinary facilities, and the Internet is useful in such cases. The veterinary clinic has a great choice of means of promotion. Some of them are completely free, and those which cost usually have a symbolic price. Their usage enables the veterinarian to be more competitive, and helps their clinic to increase its successful work. At the same time this type of promotion provides the opportunity for interactive relationship with the clients and for promotion of the facilities and the accomplishments of the clinic. The increase in the market share and the economic efficiency is also an important factor in favor of this type of promotion. The example with the veterinary clinic Animal Medica, which has managed to increase its frequency in 15 % is another proof. Almost 60% f the clients talked that they heard first time for Animal Medica on the net (Facebook or website. Therefore the veterinarians in their ruthless competition should use the limitless
Wahid, Rahnuma; Holt, Renee; Hjorth, Richard; Berlanda Scorza, Francesco
With the support of the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA) of the US Department of Health and Human Services, PATH has contributed to the World Health Organization's (WHO's) Global Action Plan for Influenza Vaccines (GAP) by providing technical and clinical assistance to several developing country vaccine manufacturers (DCVMs). GAP builds regionally based independent and sustainable influenza vaccine production capacity to mitigate the overall global shortage of influenza vaccines. The program also ensures adequate influenza vaccine manufacturing capacity in the event of an influenza pandemic. Since 2009, PATH has worked closely with two DCVMs in Vietnam: the Institute of Vaccines and Medical Biologicals (IVAC) and VABIOTECH. Beginning in 2013, PATH also began working with Torlak Institute in Serbia; Instituto Butantan in Brazil; Serum Institute of India Private Ltd. in India; and Changchun BCHT Biotechnology Co. (BCHT) in China. The DCVMs supported under the GAP program all had existing influenza vaccine manufacturing capability and required technical support from PATH to improve vaccine yield, process efficiency, and product formulation. PATH has provided customized technical support for the manufacturing process to each DCVM based on their respective requirements. Additionally, PATH, working with BARDA and WHO, supported several DCVMs in the clinical development of influenza vaccine candidates progressing toward national licensure or WHO prequalification. As a result of the activities outlined in this review, several companies were able to make excellent progress in developing state-of-the-art manufacturing processes and completing early phase clinical trials. Licensure trials are currently ongoing or planned for several DCVMs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Özgür, Aykut; Tutar, Yusuf
Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is an important member of the chaperone protein family and it is involved in stabilization, regulation, and maintenance of oncogenic client proteins with co-chaperones. Cochaperones regulate the ATPase activity of Hsp90 and its interactions with oncogenic client proteins. Therefore, Hsp90 and its co-chaperones have become significant therapeutic targets for cancer treatment. Many chemical compounds have been evaluated for Hsp90 inhibition as well as significant results were obtained in clinical trials. In this paper, we emphasize on the key roles of Hsp90 and its co-chaperones in tumorigenesis and overview therapeutic strategies of Hsp90 inhibition in oncology.
Adane, Kasaw; Abiy, Zenegnaw; Desta, Kassu
The rapid and continuous growth of health care cost aggravates the frequently low priority and less attention given in financing laboratory services. The poorest countries have the highest out-of-pocket spending as a percentage of income. Higher charges might provide a greater potential for revenue. If fees raise quality sufficiently, it can enhance usage. Therefore, estimating the revenue generated from laboratory services could help in capacity building and improved quality service provision. Panel study design was used to determine revenue generated from clinical chemistry and hematology services at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Teaching Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Activity-Based Costing (ABC) model was used to determine the true cost of tests performed from October 2011 to December 2011 in the hospital. The principle of Activity-based Costing is that activities consume resources and activities consumed by services which incur the costs and hence service takes the cost of resources. All resources with costs are aggregated with the established casual relationships. The process maps designed was restructured in consultation with the senior staffs working and/or supervising the laboratory and pretested checklists were used for observation. Moreover, office documents, receipts and service bills were used while collecting data. The amount of revenue collected from services was compared with the cost of each subsequent test and the profitability or return on investment (ROI) of services was calculated. Data were collected, entered, cleaned, and analyzed using Microsoft Excel 2007 software program and Statistical Software Package for Social Sciences version 19 (SPSS). Paired sample t test was used to compare the price and cost of each test. P-value less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. A total of 25,654 specimens were analyzed during 3 months of regular working hours. The total numbers of clinical chemistry and hematology tests performed during
Rizk, Mostafa M; Zaki, Adel; Hossam, Nermine; Aboul-Ela, Yasmin
The performance of clinical laboratories plays a fundamental role in the quality and effectiveness of healthcare. To evaluate the laboratory performance in Alexandria University Hospital Clinical Laboratories using key quality indicators and to compare the performance before and after an improvement plan based on ISO 15189 standards. The study was carried out on inpatient samples for a period of 7 months that was divided into three phases: phase I included data collection for evaluation of the existing process before improvement (March-May 2012); an intermediate phase, which included corrective, preventive action, quality initiative and steps for improvement (June 2012); and phase II, which included data collection for evaluation of the process after improvement (July 2012-September 2012). In terms of the preanalytical indicators, incomplete request forms in phase I showed that the total number of received requests were 31 944, with a percentage of defected request of 33.66%; whereas in phase II, there was a significant reduction in all defected request items (Plaboratories.
Anderson, Jamie G; Goldstein, Gary; Boudreaux, Karen; Ilkiw, Jan E
Dental disease is important in the population of pets seen by veterinarians. Knowledge and skills related to oral disease and dentistry are critical entry-level skills expected of graduating veterinarians. A descriptive survey on the state of veterinary dental education was sent to respondents from 35 veterinary schools in the United States, Canada, and the Caribbean. Using the online SurveyMonkey application, respondents answered up to 26 questions. Questions were primarily designed to determine the breadth and depth of veterinary dental education from didactic instruction in years 1-3 to the clinical year programs. There was an excellent response to the survey with 86% compliance. Learning opportunities for veterinary students in years 1-3 in both the lecture and laboratory environments were limited, as were the experiences in the clinical year 4, which were divided between community-type practices and veterinary dentistry and oral surgery services. The former provided more hands-on clinical experience, including tooth extraction, while the latter focused on dental charting and periodontal debridement. Data on degrees and certifications of faculty revealed only 12 programs with board-certified veterinary dentists. Of these, seven veterinary schools had residency programs in veterinary dentistry at the time of the survey. Data from this study demonstrate the lack of curricular time dedicated to dental content in the veterinary schools participating in the survey, thereby suggesting the need for veterinary schools to address the issue of veterinary dental education. By graduation, new veterinarians should have acquired the needed knowledge and skills to meet both societal demands and professional expectations.
DeForge, Donald H
Ergonomics is the application of a body of knowledge addressing the interactions between man and the total working environment, such as atmosphere, heat, light and sound, as well as all tools and equipment of the workplace. Work related musculoskeletal injuries, caused by poor posture, have been discussed in human dentistry for several years. Veterinary dentistry, as a relatively new specialty within veterinary medicine, should address the ergonomics of poor posture without further delay to prevent work-related injuries. The generalist, as well as the specialist and their technicians, are subject to various neck and back disorders if proper ergonomic recommendations are not followed. This review article highlights basic ergonomic design principles for illumination and posture in veterinary dentistry.
Prasse, Keith W
Dr. Keith Prasse is a very distinguished leader in veterinary education. He started his career achieving his BS and DVM degrees from Iowa State University (ISU). He returned to ISU after a brief period in private practice in Illinois. His well-recognized career in veterinary pathology began with his MS and PhD degrees, followed by a five-year period of teaching at ISU. Dr. Prasse joined the faculty of the University of Georgia in 1972, and thus began a long-term partnership with Dr. Bob Duncan that is arguably the foundation of veterinary clinical pathology. The textbook they authored, Veterinary Laboratory Medicine: Clinical Pathology, or "Duncan and Prasse" as it is known, remains the standard today, with later participation from Dr. Ed Mahaffey and most recently Dr. Ken Latimer. Dr. Prasse has mentored numerous graduate students and received many awards over his 23-year career in teaching, including the Norden Distinguished Teaching award twice, once at ISU and once at Georgia. His leadership as President of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists was greatly acknowledged and appreciated. Dr. Prasse's administrative service at the University of Georgia spanned 14 years, first as Associate Dean for Public Service and Outreach and later as Dean for eight years, during which time he served as President of the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC). The growth of the College of Veterinary Medicine under Dean Prasse's visionary leadership was extraordinary. He led through difficult economic and political times, yet the college and its community continued to prosper. His legacy at the University of Georgia is indelible and perpetual. His outstanding leadership of the college was recognized by the Georgia Veterinary Medical Association in 2004, when he was given the Georgia Veterinarian of the Year award. Since his retirement from Georgia, Dr. Prasse has contributed greatly to the profession and to the AAVMC by leading the Foresight project
Tyson, Reid; Daniel, Gregory B
Renal scintigraphy is performed commonly in dogs and cats and has been used in a variety of other species. In a 2012 survey of the members of the Society of Veterinary Nuclear Medicine, 95% of the respondents indicated they perform renal scintigraphy in their practice. Renal scintigraphy is primarily used to assess renal function and to evaluate postrenal obstruction. This article reviews how renal scintigraphy is used in veterinary medicine and describes the methods of analysis. Species variation is also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lasers have been used in human dentistry since the 1960's. Lasers can provide a veterinary dentist access to difficult to reach areas with a relatively bloodless surgical field. Due to vaporization of nerve endings, human patients undergoing laser dental treatment reveal less pain compared to scalpel driven procedures. Dental applications for the commonly used lasers are discussed, as are special safety precautions. Many dental procedures enhanced by a carbon dioxide laser are covered. Future applications for the laser in veterinary dentistry are also discussed.
Rekant, Steven I; Lyons, Mark A; Pacheco, Juan M; Arzt, Jonathan; Rodriguez, Luis L
Abnormal body temperature is a major indicator of disease; infrared thermography (IRT) can assess changes in body surface temperature quickly and remotely. This technology can be applied to a myriad of diseases of various etiologies across a wide range of host species in veterinary medicine. It is used to monitor the physiologic status of individual animals, such as measuring feed efficiency or diagnosing pregnancy. Infrared thermography has applications in the assessment of animal welfare, and has been used to detect soring in horses and monitor stress responses. This review addresses the variety of uses for IRT in veterinary medicine, including disease detection, physiologic monitoring, welfare assessment, and potential future applications.
Thoresen, Stein I; Arnemo, Jon M; Liberg, Olof
Scandinavian free-ranging wolves (Canis lupus) are endangered, such that laboratory data to assess their health status is increasingly important. Although wolves have been studied for decades, most biological information comes from captive animals. The objective of the present study was to establish reference intervals for 30 clinical chemical and 8 hematologic analytes in Scandinavian free-ranging wolves. All wolves were tracked and chemically immobilized from a helicopter before examination and blood sampling in the winter of 7 consecutive years (1998-2004). Seventy-nine blood samples were collected from 57 gray wolves, including 24 juveniles (24 samples), 17 adult females (25 samples), and 16 adult males (30 samples). Whole blood and serum samples were stored at refrigeration temperature for 1-3 days before hematologic analyses and for 1-5 days before serum biochemical analyses. Reference intervals were calculated as 95% confidence intervals except for juveniles where the minimum and maximum values were used. Significant differences were observed between adult and juvenile wolves for RBC parameters, alkaline phosphatase and amylase activities, and total protein, albumin, gamma-globulins, cholesterol, creatinine, calcium, chloride, magnesium, phosphate, and sodium concentrations. Compared with published reference values for captive wolves, reference intervals for free-ranging wolves reflected exercise activity associated with capture (higher creatine kinase activity, higher glucose concentration), and differences in nutritional status (higher urea concentration).
Lees, P; Pelligand, L; Whiting, M; Chambers, D; Toutain, P-L; Whitehead, M L
For many years after its invention around 1796, homeopathy was widely used in people and later in animals. Over the intervening period (1796-2016) pharmacology emerged as a science from Materia Medica (medicinal materials) to become the mainstay of veterinary therapeutics. There remains today a much smaller, but significant, use of homeopathy by veterinary surgeons. Homeopathic products are sometimes administered when conventional drug therapies have not succeeded, but are also used as alternatives to scientifically based therapies and licensed products. The principles underlying the veterinary use of drug-based and homeopathic products are polar opposites; this provides the basis for comparison between them. This two-part review compares and contrasts the two treatment forms in respect of history, constituents, methods of preparation, known or postulated mechanisms underlying responses, the legal basis for use and scientific credibility in the 21st century. Part 1 begins with a consideration of why therapeutic products actually work or appear to do so. British Veterinary Association.
A retrospective study of dog bite cases reported to ECWA Veterinary Clinic Bukuru was carried out in Plateau State, Nigeria to understand the pattern of occurrence in this region. A total of two hundred and forty seven (247) dog bite cases were reported between May, 2009 and June, 2010. The dogs profile showed that ...
A five years study (2003-2007) of parasitic diseases of ruminants brought to two Zonal Veterinary clinics located in the Southern part of Niger State, Central Nigeria was carried out to establish disease patterns in cattle, sheep and goats. The study was based on the data extracted from the monthly records of parasitic disease ...
Zywicki, Micaela; Blohowiak, Sharon E; Magness, Ronald R; Segar, Jeffrey L; Kling, Pamela J
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is interconnected with developmental programming of lifelong pathophysiology. IUGR is seen in human multifetal pregnancies, with stepwise rises in fetal numbers interfering with placental nutrient delivery. It remains unknown whether fetal blood analyses would reflect fetal nutrition, liver, and excretory function in the last trimester of human or ovine IUGR In an ovine model, we hypothesized that fetal plasma biochemical values would reflect progressive placental, fetal liver, and fetal kidney dysfunction as the number of fetuses per gestation rose. To determine fetal plasma biochemical values in singleton, twin, triplet, and quadruplet/quintuplet ovine gestation, we investigated morphometric measures and comprehensive metabolic panels with nutritional measures, liver enzymes, and placental and fetal kidney excretory measures at gestational day (GD) 130 (90% gestation). As anticipated, placental dysfunction was supported by a stepwise fall in fetal weight, fetal plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels as fetal number per ewe rose. Fetal glucose and triglycerides were directly related to fetal weight. Plasma creatinine, reflecting fetal renal excretory function, and plasma cholesterol, reflecting placental excretory function, were inversely correlated with fetal weight. Progressive biochemical disturbances and growth restriction accompanied the rise in fetal number. Understanding the compensatory and adaptive responses of growth-restricted fetuses at the biochemical level may help explain how metabolic pathways in growth restriction can be predetermined at birth. This physiological understanding is important for clinical care and generating interventional strategies to prevent altered developmental programming in multifetal gestation. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
Sakyi, As; Laing, Ef; Ephraim, Rk; Asibey, Of; Sadique, Ok
Proficient laboratory service is the cornerstone of modern healthcare systems and has an impact on over 70% of medical decisions on admission, discharge, and medications. In recent years, there is an increasing awareness of the importance of errors in laboratory practice and their possible negative impact on patient outcomes. We retrospectively analyzed data spanning a period of 3 years on analytical errors observed in our laboratory. The data covered errors over the whole testing cycle including pre-, intra-, and post-analytical phases and discussed strategies pertinent to our settings to minimize their occurrence. We described the occurrence of pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical errors observed at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital clinical biochemistry laboratory during a 3-year period from January, 2010 to December, 2012. Data were analyzed with Graph Pad Prism 5(GraphPad Software Inc. CA USA). A total of 589,510 tests was performed on 188,503 outpatients and hospitalized patients. The overall error rate for the 3 years was 4.7% (27,520/58,950). Pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical errors contributed 3.7% (2210/58,950), 0.1% (108/58,950), and 0.9% (512/58,950), respectively. The number of tests reduced significantly over the 3-year period, but this did not correspond with a reduction in the overall error rate (P = 0.90) along with the years. Analytical errors are embedded within our total process setup especially pre-analytical and post-analytical phases. Strategic measures including quality assessment programs for staff involved in pre-analytical processes should be intensified.
Petsko, Gregory A
General chemistry courses haven't changed significantly in forty years. Because most basic chemistry students are premedical students, medical schools have enormous influence and could help us start all over again to create undergraduate chemistry education that works.
Guardabassi, Luca; Damborg, Peter; Stamm, Ivonne
Background The microbiology laboratory can be perceived as a service provider rather than an integral part of the healthcare team. Objectives The aim of this review is to discuss the current challenges of providing a state-of-the-art diagnostic veterinary microbiology service including...... the identification (ID) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of key pathogens in veterinary dermatology. Methods The Study Group for Veterinary Microbiology (ESGVM) of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ESCMID) identified scientific, technological, educational...... and regulatory issues impacting the predictive value of AST and the quality of the service offered by microbiology laboratories. Results The advent of mass spectrometry has significantly reduced the time required for ID of key pathogens such as Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. However, the turnaround time...
McGreevy, Paul; Thomson, Peter; Dhand, Navneet K; Raubenheimer, David; Masters, Sophie; Mansfield, Caroline S; Baldwin, Timothy; Soares Magalhaes, Ricardo J; Rand, Jacquie; Hill, Peter; Peaston, Anne; Gilkerson, James; Combs, Martin; Raidal, Shane; Irwin, Peter; Irons, Peter; Squires, Richard; Brodbelt, David; Hammond, Jeremy
VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses). Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1) roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2) development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation) platform; and (3) creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP) technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.
Full Text Available VetCompass Australia is veterinary medical records-based research coordinated with the global VetCompass endeavor to maximize its quality and effectiveness for Australian companion animals (cats, dogs, and horses. Bringing together all seven Australian veterinary schools, it is the first nationwide surveillance system collating clinical records on companion-animal diseases and treatments. VetCompass data service collects and aggregates real-time, clinical records for researchers to interrogate, delivering sustainable and cost-effective access to data from hundreds of veterinary practitioners nationwide. Analysis of these clinical records will reveal geographical and temporal trends in the prevalence of inherited and acquired diseases, identify frequently prescribed treatments, revolutionize clinical auditing, help the veterinary profession to rank research priorities, and assure evidence-based companion-animal curricula in veterinary schools. VetCompass Australia will progress in three phases: (1 roll-out of the VetCompass platform to harvest Australian veterinary clinical record data; (2 development and enrichment of the coding (data-presentation platform; and (3 creation of a world-first, real-time surveillance interface with natural language processing (NLP technology. The first of these three phases is described in the current article. Advances in the collection and sharing of records from numerous practices will enable veterinary professionals to deliver a vastly improved level of care for companion animals that will improve their quality of life.
Helder Roberto Dota Janoselli
objective of this study was to assess the costs and analyze the economic viability of starting a complete veterinary clinic, in conformity with standards of a veterinary hospital, able to perform basic and advanced medical procedures all in the same place, in the city of São João da Boa Vista, countryside of São Paulo state. For that, a survey of required investments to start the clinic was performed, as well as the fixed and variable costs, and revenues. The cash flow was projected for a five year period and the economic viability analysis was done using the indicators: Net Present Value [NPV], Internal Rate of Return [IRR] and payback period (simple and discounted. Sensitivity analysis was also used to assess how changes in the investments, revenues and interest rates affect the NPV of the project. The results showed that the project of starting a complete pet veterinary clinic is economically feasible. The project had a positive NPV of R$ 152.049,33, IRR of 12,68%, and simple and discounted payback period of 4.13 and 4.38 years, respectively. The NPV calculation was very sensitive to changes in revenue, followed by the investments, whose increase negatively affected the NPV. Lower sensitivity was observed for changes in interest rates.
Kerker, Ann E.; Malamud, Judie
This course guide outlines the objectives and content for a professional continuing education course on the literature of veterinary medicine. Topics covered include: (1) an introduction to veterinary medicine as a discipline, including comparison with other medical sciences, veterinary medicine education, licensure, animal models, veterinary…
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Parts 510, 514, and 558 Veterinary Feed Directive... relating to veterinary feed directive (VFD) drugs. FDA's VFD regulation, which became effective on January... CONTACT: Neal Bataller, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-230), Food and Drug Administration, 7500...
Focus and Scope. The Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences publishes original research articles related to veterinary sciences, including livestock health and production, diseases of wild life and fish, preventive veterinary medicine and zoonoses among others. Case reports, review articles and editorials are also accepted.
Jones, Bruce Vivash
The American Veterinary Medical Association is marking its 150th anniversary in 2013, celebrating '150 years of education, science and service'. As Bruce Vivash Jones explains, veterinary surgeons from the UK played a key role in establishing a system of veterinary education in North America.
Animal use resulting in harm or death has historically played an integral role in veterinary education, in disciplines such as surgery, physiology, biochemistry, anatomy, pharmacology, and parasitology. However, many non-harmful alternatives now exist, including computer simulations, high quality videos, ''ethically-sourced cadavers'' such as from animals euthanased for medical reasons, preserved specimens, models and surgical simulators, non-invasive self-experimentation, and supervised clinical experiences. Veterinary students seeking to use such methods often face strong opposition from faculty members, who usually cite concerns about their teaching efficacy. Consequently, studies of veterinary students were reviewed comparing learning outcomes generated by non-harmful teaching methods with those achieved by harmful animal use. Of eleven published from 1989 to 2006, nine assessed surgical training--historically the discipline involving greatest harmful animal use. 45.5% (5/11) demonstrated superior learning outcomes using more humane alternatives. Another 45.5% (5/11) demonstrated equivalent learning outcomes, and 9.1% (1/11) demonstrated inferior learning outcomes. Twenty one studies of non-veterinary students in related academic disciplines were also published from 1968 to 2004. 38.1% (8/21) demonstrated superior, 52.4% (11/21) demonstrated equivalent, and 9.5% (2/21) demonstrated inferior learning outcomes using humane alternatives. Twenty nine papers in which comparison with harmful animal use did not occur illustrated additional benefits of humane teaching methods in veterinary education, including: time and cost savings, enhanced potential for customisation and repeatability of the learning exercise, increased student confidence and satisfaction, increased compliance with animal use legislation, elimination of objections to the use of purpose-killed animals, and integration of clinical perspectives and ethics early in the curriculum. The evidence
2. 1Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello Unviersity, Zaria, Nigeria. 2College of Agriculture and Animal Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Mando, Kaduna, Nigeria. Correspondence Author: Abstract. Village chickens in Kaduna State, Nigeria were vaccinated once with a Malaysian heat-resistant Newcastle disease ...
Coles, G C
Current evidence suggests research in veterinary parasitology is in decline despite its importance. This is particularly true in the UK where research funds have been diverted into BSE. Decline in interest in veterinary parasitology is at least in part due to the success of major pharmaceutical companies in producing a range of effective and safe anti-parasitic drugs. Research is needed because of the effects of parasites on animal welfare and the economic costs of parasites. However, there is little information on the actual costs of animal parasites. Another major reason for research is the development of drug resistance in protozoa, helminths and arthropods of veterinary importance. This is a serious problem particularly for sheep and goats in the southern hemisphere. A prioritised list of research requirements is suggested: (i) new drugs; (ii) resistance management; (iii) vaccines; (iv) breeding for resistance; (v) improved diagnostics; (vi) zoonoses; (vii) global warming and parasites. There is a major political challenge to raise the profile of veterinary parasitology and thus the funding essential for its advancement and the continued welfare and productivity of animals.
Tomasi, Suzanne; Roberts, Kristin J; Stull, Jason; Spiller, Henry A; McKenzie, Lara B
To describe the epidemiology of veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures to children based on calls to a regional poison control center. A retrospective analysis of pediatric (≤19 years of age) exposures to pharmaceutical products intended for animal use, managed by a regional poison control center from 1999 through 2013, was conducted. Case narratives were reviewed and coded for exposure-related circumstances and intended species. Descriptive statistics were generated. From 1999 through 2013, the Central Ohio Poison Center received 1431 calls that related to a veterinary pharmaceutical exposure for children ≤19 years of age. Most of the pediatric calls (87.6%) involved children ≤5 years of age. Exploratory behavior was the most common exposure-related circumstance (61.4%) and ingestion accounted for the exposure route in 93% of cases. Substances commonly associated with exposures included: veterinary drugs without human equivalent (17.3%), antimicrobial agents (14.8%), and antiparasitics (14.6%). Based on substance and quantity, the majority of exposures (96.9%) were not expected to result in long-term or lasting health effects and were managed at home (94.1%). A total of 80 cases (5.6%) were referred to a health care facility, and 2 cases resulted in a moderate health effect. Children ≤5 years of age are most at risk for veterinary pharmaceutical-related exposures. Although most exposures do not result in a serious medical outcome, efforts to increase public awareness, appropriate product dispensing procedures, and attention to home storage practices may reduce the risk of veterinary pharmaceutical exposures to young children. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
They were fed on hay, millet, wheat bran and crop residues, and water was provided ad libitum. Some horses had history of deworming and vaccination against tetanus. The horses were kept for racing, durbar, companion, polo and ceremonial activity. Data Analysis. Data generated from the clinical records were stored in ...
practice in Nigeria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pattern of drugs prescription in dogs diagnosed with CPE in some small animal clinics in Nigeria. MATERIALS AND METHODS ... presumptive and/or laboratory diagnoses. Data obtained from individual .... be appropriate and prudent. There is currently no ...
Romeo T. Cristina
Full Text Available The paper is a small guide about: what is to know, being a vet, related to homeopathic therapy institution (anamnesys and clinical examination, what are the polichrests, antagonisms and synergisms, data about somehomeopathic conditionings as well the doses and way of administration choosing.
per ml. Groups VAU and UNU were each inoculated with 0.2ml of phosphate buffered saline. Group VAC showed no clinical signs, no clear lesions grossly and mild histopathologic changes. Group UNC showed severe depression, anorexia, whitish-greenish diarrhoea, nervous signs and necrosis of the organs. All infected.
Fagan, D A; Oosterhuis, J E; Kirkman, J E
This article reviews the clinical literature of the field of Veterinary Dentistry from its conception in the late 1960's to its rapidly expanding role today as an emerging clinical specialty practice in veterinary medicine. It defines eight dental sub-disciplines in contemporary veterinary oral health care from a practical point of view and provides information concerning standardization of key words searches, definition of terms, and use of the expanded Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) necessary for a comprehensive review of the rapidly expanding literature stored in electronic databases.
Standardization of clinical enzyme analysis using frozen human serum pools with values assigned by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures.
Tong, Qing; Chen, Baorong; Zhang, Rui; Zuo, Chang
Variation in clinical enzyme analysis, particularly across different measuring systems and laboratories, represents a critical but long-lasting problem in diagnosis. Calibrators with traceability and commutability are imminently needed to harmonize analysis in laboratory medicine. Fresh frozen human serum pools were assigned values for alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) by six laboratories with established International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine reference measurement procedures. These serum pools were then used across 76 laboratories as a calibrator in the analysis of five enzymes. Bias and imprecision in the measurement of the five enzymes tested were significantly reduced by using the value-assigned serum in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration. The median (interquartile range) of the relative biases of ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH were 2.0% (0.6-3.4%), 0.8% (-0.8-2.3%), 1.0% (-0.5-2.0%), 0.2% (-0.3-1.0%) and 0.2% (-0.9-1.1%), respectively. Before calibration, the interlaboratory coefficients of variation (CVs) in the analysis of patient serum samples were 8.0-8.2%, 7.3-8.5%, 8.1-8.7%, 5.1-5.9% and 5.8-6.4% for ALT, AST, GGT, CK and LDH, respectively; after calibration, the CVs decreased to 2.7-3.3%, 3.0-3.6%, 1.6-2.1%, 1.8-1.9% and 3.3-3.5%, respectively. The results suggest that the use of fresh frozen serum pools significantly improved the comparability of test results in analytical systems with open and single-point calibration.
Herbert P. Schneider
Full Text Available Until the middle of the 19th century, very few references exist regarding the occurrence of animal diseases in Namibia. With the introduction of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP in 1859, this picture changed completely and livestock owners implemented various forms of disease control in an effort to contain the spread of this disease and minimise its devastating effects. After the establishment of the colonial administration in 1884, the first animal disease legislation was introduced in 1887 and the first veterinarian, Dr Wilhelm Rickmann, arrived in 1894. CBPP and the outbreak of rinderpest in 1897 necessitated a greatly expanded veterinary infrastructure and the first veterinary laboratory was erected at Gammams near Windhoek in 1897. To prevent the spread of rinderpest, a veterinary cordon line was established, which was the very beginning of the Veterinary Cordon Fence as it is known today. After the First World War, a small but dedicated corps of veterinarians again built up an efficient animal health service in the following decades, with veterinary private practice developing from the mid–1950s. The veterinary profession organised itself in 1947 in the form of a veterinary association and, in 1984, legislation was passed to regulate the veterinary profession by the establishment of the Veterinary Council of Namibia. The outbreak of foot and mouth disease in 1961 was instrumental in the creation of an effective veterinary service, meeting international veterinary standards of quality and performance which are still maintained today.
Schneider, Herbert P
Until the middle of the 19th century, very few references exist regarding the occurrence of animal diseases in Namibia. With the introduction of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in 1859, this picture changed completely and livestock owners implemented various forms of disease control in an effort to contain the spread of this disease and minimise its devastating effects. After the establishment of the colonial administration in 1884, the first animal disease legislation was introduced in 1887 and the first veterinarian, Dr Wilhelm Rickmann, arrived in 1894. CBPP and the outbreak of rinderpest in 1897 necessitated a greatly expanded veterinary infrastructure and the first veterinary laboratory was erected at Gammams near Windhoek in 1897. To prevent the spread of rinderpest, a veterinary cordon line was established, which was the very beginning of the Veterinary Cordon Fence as it is known today. After the First World War, a small but dedicated corps of veterinarians again built up an efficient animal health service in the following decades, with veterinary private practice developing from the mid-1950s. The veterinary profession organised itself in 1947 in the form of a veterinary association and, in 1984, legislation was passed to regulate the veterinary profession by the establishment of the Veterinary Council of Namibia. The outbreak of foot and mouth disease in 1961 was instrumental in the creation of an effective veterinary service, meeting international veterinary standards of quality and performance which are still maintained today.
Wood, Terry R.; McLaren, Brian C.
There can be no question that specific systemic physiological results occur, when red light (660nm) is applied to the skin, it is now more a question of detailed mechanisms. Before gathering statistically signifcant clinical trial data, it is important to first enumerate the type of results observed in practice. Case histories are presented highlighting the use of photonic therapy in veterinary medicine. Over 900 surgical procedures have been performed and documented, utilizing the principles of photonic therapy, and while hemostasis, pain relief, and nausea relief, were the primary goals, the peri-operative death rate, the post-operative seroma, and post-operative infection were reduced to almost zero, and there was a noticeable increase in the healing rate. Scientifically applied photonic therapy, rather than supplanting conventional veterinary medicine, compliments and increases the veterinarian's set of skills. This paper proposes a hypothesis of how 660 nm light applied to specific points on the skin, produces various physiological changes in animals. By using animals, there can be no placebo, hypnotic or psychosomatic confounding effects.
Rebar, A.H.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Bruden, D.L.; Kloecker, K.A.
Hematologic and serum chemical analyses were performed on sea otter blood samples collected from 31 adult males, 63 adult females, and 42 pups captured in western Prince William Sound (oiled area), and 12 adult males, 40 adult females, and 15 pups captured in eastern Prince William Sound (unoiled area) in 1989 and 1990. Hematologic differences between eastern and western adult males were minimal. Both hematocrits and hemoglobins were higher in western than eastern otters but the biological significance of this is equivocal. Western males had higher absolute eosinophil counts, suggesting possible systemic hypersensitivity reactions. Western males had higher serum protein and serum globulin levels than eastern males, suggesting greater antigenic stimulation (more inflammatory and/or infectious conditions). There were no differences in hematologic parameters between eastern and western female otters. Some chemistry changes were present, but the degree of difference was small. Total protein and serum globulin levels were slightly higher in western females, a finding also seen in adult males. Mean levels of liver enzymes for western females were somewhat higher than for the eastern otters, suggesting the possibility of subclinical liver disease. As a group, western pup hematocrits, hemoglobins, and red cell counts were significantly lower than those of eastern pups. From a biological perspective, these reductions were minimal but supported by individual animal data. The red cell data suggest a mild anemia in western pups; however, the degree of anemia was minimal, so that biological significance was equivocal. Other hematologic and clinical chemical differences between eastern and western pups were not striking and were also of equivocal biological significance.
Pelzer, Nancy L; Wiese, William H
Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5-3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature.
Scheftel, Joni M; Elchos, Brigid L; Rubin, Carol S; Decker, John A
OBJECTIVE To review publications that address female reproductive health hazards in veterinary practice, summarize best practices to mitigate reproductive risks, and identify current knowledge gaps. DESIGN Systematized review. SAMPLE English-language articles describing chemical, biological, and physical hazards present in the veterinary workplace and associations with adverse reproductive outcomes or recommendations for minimizing risks to female reproductive health. PROCEDURES Searches of the CAB abstracts database were performed in July 2012 and in May 2015 with the following search terms: veterinarians AND occupational hazards and vets.id AND occupational hazards.sh. Searches of the PubMed database were conducted in November 2012 and in May 2015 with the following medical subject heading terms: occupational exposure AND veterinarians; anesthetics, inhalation/adverse effects AND veterinarians; risk factors AND pregnancy AND veterinarians; pregnancy outcome AND veterinarians; and animal technicians AND occupational exposure. Two additional PubMed searches were completed in January 2016 with the terms disinfectants/toxicity AND female AND fertility/drug effects and veterinarians/psychology AND stress, psychological. No date limits were applied to searches. RESULTS 4 sources supporting demographic trends in veterinary medicine and 118 resources reporting potential hazards to female reproductive health were identified. Reported hazards included exposure to anesthetic gases, radiation, antineoplastic drugs, and reproductive hormones; physically demanding work; prolonged standing; and zoonoses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Demographic information suggested that an increasing number of women of reproductive age will be exposed to chemical, biological, and physical hazards in veterinary practice. Information on reproductive health hazards and minimizing risk, with emphasis on developing a safety-focused work culture for all personnel, should be discussed starting
Dixon, William H R; Kinnison, Tierney; May, Stephen A
At a time where high levels of stress are reported in the veterinary profession, this study explores the challenges that veterinary graduates encounter when they enter general (first opinion) practice. Participants had written reflective accounts of their 'Most Puzzling Cases' for the postgraduate Professional Key Skills module of the Certificate in Advanced Veterinary Practice, offered by the Royal Veterinary College. Reasons that a case was puzzling, or became challenging, were thematically analysed. Fifteen summaries were analysed. Three core themes were identified: 'clinical reasoning', centred on the limitations of pattern recognition and the methods used to overcome this; the 'veterinary healthcare system', focusing on the need for continuity of care, time pressure and support in the transition to practice; and the 'owner', looking at the broader clinical skills needed to succeed in general practice. Clinical reasoning was raised as an issue; discussion of when pattern recognition is not appropriate and what to do in these cases was common. A lack of experience in general practice case types, and how to best operate in the resource-constrained environment in which they present, is the likely cause of this, suggesting that a greater focus on the primary care paradigm is needed within veterinary education. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Stone, Brett M; Gan, David
Limited availability of diagnostic cytopathologic material may preclude additional diagnostic techniques. Tissue transfer allows for preparation of additional slides from a single original slide. Information pertaining to the application of the tissue transfer technique in veterinary cytopathology is lacking. The objectives were to evaluate the application of the tissue transfer technique on Quick Dip-stained veterinary cytologic smears and to assess if a selection of histochemical and immunocytochemical stains, and PCR analyses could be performed on transferred material. Archived Quick Dip-stained canine lymph node aspirate smears from previously diagnosed lymphoma cases were utilized to validate and optimize the tissue transfer technique. In this technique, diagnostic material is lifted from the original stained slide, is divided and transferred to multiple new slides. Histochemical stains such as Gram, periodic acid Schiff, Congo red, and Ziehl-Neelson, immunohistochemistry for CD3 and PAX5, and PCR for cryptococcal and mycobacterial organisms were selectively performed on transferred material. The tissue transfer technique was simple, and transferred Quick Dip-stained material retained cellular morphology. Histochemical and immunohistochemical stains, and PCR analysis yielded reliable results when performed on the additional smears produced by this technique. The tissue transfer technique was simple and easy to perform on previously Quick Dip-stained cytology smears. Cellular detail was preserved and multiple additional ancillary diagnostic techniques were facilitated, such as histochemical and immunohistochemical stains, and PCR analysis. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.
Lane, India F; Bogue, E Grady
To explore perceptions of faculty educators regarding the importance of nontechnical competencies in veterinary graduates and the placement of nontechnical competency development in veterinary education. Survey. All faculty members at 5 North American veterinary medical institutions. Participants rated the importance of 14 nontechnical competencies and indicated in which phase or phases of veterinary education such competencies should be developed (ie, curriculum placement). Differences in mean ratings were statistically evaluated, as were associations between ratings or curriculum placement and respondent institution, gender, experience, and discipline. Mean ratings of importance were above neutral for all competencies and were highest for ethical, critical thinking, and interpersonal and intrapersonal competencies; development of these competencies was favored in preveterinary and veterinary training. Ratings were lower for management and business competencies; development of these and other competencies was placed primarily in the clinical phase of the veterinary curriculum. Basic science, nonveterinarian, and junior faculty appeared to more strongly appreciate the importance of nontechnical skills, whereas large animal and midcareer faculty reported a more reserved degree of support. Female faculty were more likely to place nontechnical competency development throughout the educational process. Participants agreed nontechnical competencies are important for veterinary graduates; however, faculty perceptions differed from previously published findings regarding the relative importance of business and management skills. Those involved in faculty hiring, faculty development, and curricular planning should also be aware of disciplinary and career stage differences affecting faculty perspectives.
Reisbig, Allison M J; Danielson, Jared A; Wu, Tsui-Feng; Hafen, McArthur; Krienert, Ashley; Girard, Destiny; Garlock, Jessica
This study builds on previous research on predictors of depression and anxiety in veterinary medical students and reports data on three veterinary cohorts from two universities through their first three semesters of study. Across all three semesters, 49%, 65%, and 69% of the participants reported depression levels at or above the clinical cut-off, suggesting a remarkably high percentage of students experiencing significant levels of depression symptoms. Further, this study investigated the relationship between common stressors experienced by veterinary students and mental health, general health, and academic performance. A factor analysis revealed four factors among stressors common to veterinary students: academic stress, transitional stress, family-health stress, and relationship stress. The results indicated that both academic stress and transitional stress had a robust impact on veterinary medical students' well-being during their first three semesters of study. As well, academic stress negatively impacted students in the areas of depression and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction, general health, perception of academic performance, and grade point average (GPA). Transitional stress predicted increased depression and anxiety symptoms and decreased life satisfaction. This study helped to further illuminate the magnitude of the problem of depression and anxiety symptoms in veterinary medical students and identified factors most predictive of poor outcomes in the areas of mental health, general health, and academic performance. The discussion provides recommendations for considering structural changes to veterinary educational curricula to reduce the magnitude of academic stressors. Concurrently, recommendations are suggested for mental health interventions to help increase students' resistance to environmental stressors.
Alison M Bard
Full Text Available Client behaviour change is at the heart of veterinary practice, where promoting animal health and welfare is often synonymous with engaging clients in animal management practices. In the medical realm, extensive research points to the link between practitioner communication and patient behavioural outcomes, suggesting that the veterinary industry could benefit from a deeper understanding of veterinarian communication and its effects on client motivation. Whilst extensive studies have quantified language components typical of the veterinary consultation, the literature is lacking in-depth qualitative analysis in this context. The objective of this study was to address this deficit, and offer new critical insight into veterinary communication strategies in the pursuit of client behaviour change. Role-play interactions (n = 15 between UK cattle veterinarians and an actress experienced in medical and veterinary education were recorded, transcribed and analysed thematically. Analysis revealed that, overall, veterinarians tend to communicate in a directive style (minimal eliciting of client opinion, dominating the consultation agenda, prioritising instrumental support, reflecting a paternalistic role in the consultation interaction. Given this finding, recommendations for progress in the veterinary industry are made; namely, the integration of evidence-based medical communication methodologies into clinical training. Use of these types of methodologies may facilitate the adoption of more mutualistic, relationship-centred communication in veterinary practice, supporting core psychological elements of client motivation and resultant behaviour change.
Langebæk, Rikke; Eika, Berit; Pedersen, Lene Tanggaard
A surgical educational environment is potentially stressful and can negatively affect students' learning. The aim of the present study was to investigate the emotions experienced by veterinary students in relation to their first encounter with live-animal surgery and to identify possible sources...... of positive and negative emotions, respectively. During a Basic Surgical Skills course, 155 veterinary fourth-year students completed a survey. Of these, 26 students additionally participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of the study show that students often experienced a combination...... of emotions; 63% of students experienced negative emotions, while 58% experienced positive ones. In addition, 61% of students reported feeling excited or tense. Students' statements reveal that anxiety is perceived as counterproductive to learning, while excitement seems to enhance students' focus...
... Controls Information--Fermentation-Derived Intermediates, Drug Substances, and Related Drug Products for... 216 entitled ``Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Information-- Fermentation-Derived... fermentation-derived intermediates, drug substances, and related drug products for veterinary medicinal use...
... Controls Information--Fermentation-Derived Intermediates, Drug Substances, and Related Drug Products for... entitled ``Chemistry, Manufacturing, and Controls (CMC) Information-- Fermentation-Derived Intermediates... fermentation-derived intermediates, drug substances, and related drug products for veterinary medicinal use...
Diana L. Eubanks
Periodontal disease is among the most prevalent canine dis-eases affecting over 75% of dogs. Strengthening of the human-animal bond and the increasing education of the aver-age pet owner, have fostered a heightened awareness of periodontal care in dogs and cats. Industry support has further assisted the small animal veterinarian in providing quality dental treatments and prevention. As recently as the 1990’s, veterinary curriculums contained little or no dental training. That trend is changin...
Lippi, G.; Banfi, G.; Church, S.
, is aimed to provide further contributions for pursuing quality and harmony in the preanalytical phase, and is a synopsis of lectures of the third European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)-Becton Dickinson (BD) European Conference on Preanalytical Phase meeting entitled......). Although laboratory medicine seems less vulnerable than other clinical and diagnostic areas, the chance of errors is not negligible and may adversely impact on quality of testing and patient safety. This article, which continues a biennial tradition of collective papers on preanalytical quality improvement...
The most common veterinary application of liver scintigraphy is for the diagnosis of portosystemic shunts (PSSs). There has been a continual evolution of nuclear medicine techniques for diagnosis of PSS, starting in the early 1980s. Currently, transplenic portal scintigraphy using pertechnetate or (99m)Tc-mebrofenin is the technique of choice. This technique provides both anatomical and functional information about the nature of the PSS, with high sensitivity and specificity. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy has also been used in veterinary medicine for the evaluation of liver function and biliary patency. Hepatobiliary scintigraphy provides information about biliary patency that complements finding in ultrasound, which may not be able to differentiate between biliary ductal dilation from previous obstruction vs current obstruction. Hepatocellular function can also be determined by deconvolutional analysis of hepatic uptake or by measuring the clearance of the radiopharmaceutical from the plasma. Plasma clearance of the radiopharmaceutical can be directly measured from serial plasma samples, as in the horse, or by measuring changes in cardiac blood pool activity by region of interest analysis of images. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of the reported applications of hepatobiliary scintigraphy in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
De Risio, Luisa; Bhatti, Sofie; Muñana, Karen
This article outlines the consensus proposal on diagnosis of epilepsy in dogs by the International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force. The aim of this consensus proposal is to improve consistency in the diagnosis of epilepsy in the clinical and research settings. The diagnostic approach to the patient...... paroxysmal events can be challenging. Criteria that can be used to make this differentiation are presented in detail and discussed. Criteria for the diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy (IE) are described in a three-tier system. Tier I confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based on a history of two or more...... for the diagnosis of IE is based on the factors listed in tier I and unremarkable fasting and post-prandial bile acids, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain (based on an epilepsy-specific brain MRI protocol) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis. Tier III confidence level for the diagnosis of IE is based...
Hashizume, Cary T; Myhre, Douglas L; Hecker, Kent G; Bailey, Jeremy V; Lockyer, Jocelyn M
Optimization of clinical veterinary education requires an understanding of what compels veterinary preceptors in their role as clinical educators, what satisfaction they receive from the teaching experience, and what struggles they encounter while supervising students in private practice. We explored veterinary preceptors' teaching motivations, enjoyment, and challenges by undertaking a thematic content analysis of 97 questionnaires and 17 semi-structured telephone interviews. Preceptor motivations included intrinsic factors (obligation to the profession, maintenance of competence, satisfaction) and extrinsic factors (promotion of the veterinary field, recruitment). Veterinarians enjoyed observing the learner (motivation and enthusiasm, skill development) and engaging with the learner (sharing their passion for the profession, developing professional relationships). Challenges for veterinary preceptors included variability in learner interest and engagement, time management, and lack of guidance from the veterinary medicine program. We found dynamic interactions among the teaching motivations, enjoyment, and challenges for preceptors. Our findings suggest that in order to sustain the veterinary preceptor, there is a need to recognize the interplay between the incentives and disincentives for teaching, to foster the motivations and enjoyment for teaching, and to mitigate the challenges of teaching in community private practice.
Full Text Available The main objective of this clinical study consisted in evaluation of the therapeutic effects of the propolis extract used in different disorders at company animals, thus being improved the palette of the apitherapeutical products used in veterinary purposes. The experiments were carried out on company animals (two experimental groups during the 2007-2008 period, in the frame of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty – Bucharest and the University - Spiru Haret, at the veterinary departments: Parasitology, Dermatology and Surgery. The raw propolis was collected from the bee colonies belonging to the Institute of the Beekeeping Research & Development– Bucharest and the apiphytotherapeutical product based on propolis was obtained in the Apitherapy sector of the same Institute. In a first stage were obtained the antiparasite, dermatological and surgical veterinary product PROACTIVATOR based on propolis alcoholic extract and Aloe vera gel. The experiments consisted in administration of the obtained preparation in different disorders on the experimental groups as: dermatological (plagues, chemical and physical burns, parasitological (extern parasites: scabies supra infected or not and in veterinary surgery (as a protective layer applied on the sutured plague. In dermatologic disorders the effects of the PROACTIVATOR product were established by way of clinical periodical examinations until the total recover were done. In external parasites and connected disorders it was established the repellent or killing effect of the preparation on the infestation with parasites and the degree of control in the correlated infections. In skin tissue surgery it was established the cicatrising effect in sutured plagues and the anaesthesic local effect. The established of the studied preparation efficiency was similar as those used in classical treatments with synthesis products. The advantage of the utilization of PROACTIVATOR eliminates the toxic and cumulative effects
Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M
Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.
Full Text Available Musser Jeffrey MBDepartment of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Texas A&M University, TX, USAThis year marks the 250th anniversary of the Royal Veterinary School in Lyon, France, the world's first veterinary college. Since its inception, many changes have occurred in veterinary medicine such as views on education and didactic learning, demographics of our profession, and standards of practice in animal husbandry, medicine, surgery, anesthesia, and vaccinology. In fact, the concept of infectious diseases has changed - remember the germ theory was proposed a mere 140 years ago. However, one constant tenet in our profession has been the need to disseminate progresses, innovations, advances, and developments in veterinary sciences. Published reports are the foundation for the growth of medicine and science. What would the state of medicine be if Pasteur, Koch, Bourgelat, or Theobald Smith had not published their works?
Powles, Thomas; Bracarda, Sergio; Chen, Mei; Norry, Elliot; Compton, Natalie; Heise, Mark; Hutson, Thomas; Harter, Philipp; Carpenter, Christopher; Pandite, Lini; Kaplowitz, Neil
Drug-induced liver chemistry abnormalities, primarily transaminase elevations, are commonly observed in pazopanib-treated patients. This meta-analysis characterises liver chemistry abnormalities associated with pazopanib. Data of pazopanib-treated patients from nine prospective trials were integrated (N=2080). Laboratory datasets were used to characterise the incidence, timing, recovery and patterns of liver events, and subsequent rechallenge with pazopanib. Severe cases of liver chemistry abnormalities were clinically reviewed. Multivariate analyses identified predisposing factors. Twenty percent of patients developed elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT) >3×ULN. Incidence of peak ALT >3-5×ULN, >5-8×ULN, >8-20×ULN and >20×ULN was 8%, 5%, 5% and 1%, respectively. Median time to onset for all events was 42days; 91% of events were observed within 18weeks. Recovery rates based on peak ALT >3-5×ULN, >5-8×ULN, >8-20×ULN and >20×ULN were 91%, 90%, 90% and 64%, respectively. Median time from onset to recovery was 30days, but longer in patients without dose interruption. Based on clinical review, no deaths were associated with drug-induced liver injury. Overall, 38% of rechallenged patients had ALT elevation recurrence, with 9-day median time to recurrence. Multivariate analysis showed that older age was associated with development of ALT >8×ULN. There was no correlation between hypertension and transaminitis. Our data support the current guidelines on regular liver chemistry tests after initiation of pazopanib, especially during the first 9 or 10weeks, and also demonstrate the safety of rechallenge with pazopanib. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Passantino, Annamaria; Fazio, Alessandra; Quartatone, Valeria
The practice of veterinary medicine has changed radically over the past two decades, new technology and scientific breakthroughs have occurred, in close association with the field of human medicine. This progress has not only increased the capacity of veterinarians to provide high-quality care, it has also served to increase client awareness and expectations regarding animal care. On the legal front, it has finally given a "voice" to animals, now defined as sentient beings, thus imposing a series of duties upon veterinarians to promote their welfare. Preventing and managing pain has become a fundamental element of patient care quality in veterinary medicine, and pharmacotherapy is the basis of pain management. This paper takes this as a starting point to clarify the concept of pain in veterinary medicine and explores the relevance of an ethic to the clinical setting which gives the animal patient a strong right to freedom from unnecessary pain and thus creating moral obligations towards patients on the part of veterinary professionals. There is the duty not to inflict pain and suffering beyond what is necessary for effective diagnosis and treatment on the one hand and a duty to do all that can be done to relieve all the pain and suffering which can be alleviated on the other.
Lumbis, Rachel H; Gregory, Susan P; Baillie, Sarah
Periodontal disease has deleterious effects on an animal's health and potentially serious implications for its welfare. Consequently, veterinarians frequently perform routine periodontal treatment in small-animal practice. One would therefore assume that small-animal dentistry would constitute a core component of a veterinary curriculum. However, most practitioners received little or no formal training in dentistry during their veterinary degrees, and the amount of instruction students currently receive is variable, often with limited opportunities to practice. At the Royal Veterinary College, a prototype dental model was developed to address the lack of practical training; it was made using ceramic tiles, silicone sealant, and grout to emulate teeth, gingiva, and calculus, respectively. A study was conducted with third-year veterinary students to compare the outcomes of learning to perform a professional dental cleaning using a model (group A) or a video (group B). Performance was assessed using an objective structured clinical examination. Students in group A scored significantly better than those in group B (pdentistry-related skills. All students identified a model as a potentially valuable learning tool to supplement existing teaching methods and facilitate the acquisition of small-animal dentistry skills. The dental model has the potential to equip students with useful, practical skills in a safe and risk-free environment.
Vanel, Maïa; Blond, Laurent; Vanel, Daniel
Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that prognostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the aggressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haldane, Sarah; Hinchcliff, Kenneth; Mansell, Peter; Baik, Chi
Good communication skills are an important entry-level attribute of graduates of professional degrees. The inclusion of communication training within the curriculum can be problematic, particularly in programs with a high content load, such as veterinary science. This study examined the differences between the perceptions of students and qualified veterinarians with regards to the entry-level communication skills required of new graduates in clinical practice. Surveys were distributed to students in each of the four year levels of the veterinary science degree at the University of Melbourne and to recent graduates and experienced veterinarians registered in Victoria, Australia. Respondents were asked to rank the relative importance of six different skill sets: knowledge base; medical and technical skills; surgical skills; verbal communication and interpersonal skills; written communication skills; and critical thinking and problem solving. They were then asked to rate the importance of specific communication skills for new graduate veterinarians. Veterinarians and students ranked verbal communication and interpersonal skills as the most important skill set for an entry-level veterinarian. Veterinarians considered many new graduates to be deficient in these skills. Students often felt they lacked confidence in this area. This has important implications for veterinary educators in terms of managing the expectations of students and improving the delivery of communication skills courses within the veterinary curriculum.
Vanel, Maïa, E-mail: email@example.com [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Blond, Laurent [Diagnostic Imaging Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Montreal, 3200 Rue Sicotte, PO Box 5000, Saint-Hyacinthe, QC (Canada); Vanel, Daniel [The Rizzoli Institute, Via del Barbiano 1-10, 40136, Bologna (Italy)
Veterinary medicine is most often a mysterious world for the human doctors. However, animals are important for human medicine thanks to the numerous biological similarities. Primary bone tumors are not uncommon in veterinary medicine and especially in small domestic animals as dogs and cats. As in human medicine, osteosarcoma is the most common one and especially in the long bones extremities. In the malignant bone tumor family, chondrosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and hemangiosarcoma are following. Benign bone tumors as osteoma, osteochondroma and bone cysts do exist but are rare and of little clinical significance. Diagnostic modalities used depend widely on the owner willing to treat his animal. Radiographs and bone biopsy are the standard to make a diagnosis but CT, nuclear medicine and MRI are more an more used. As amputation is treatment number one in appendicular bone tumor in veterinary medicine, this explains on the one hand why more recent imaging modalities are not always necessary and on the other hand, that pronostic on large animals is so poor that it is not much studied. Chemotherapy is sometimes associated with the surgery procedure, depending on the agressivity of the tumor. Although, the strakes differs a lot between veterinary and human medicine, biological behavior are almost the same and should led to a beneficial team work between all.
Douglas, Jeffrey S.
Spiraling veterinary student debt and the lack of a sustainable and profitable business model for many private practices in the modern business environment threaten the future growth and stability of the veterinary profession.
The Chemistry Dashboard is part of a suite of dashboards developed by EPA to help evaluate the safety of chemicals. The Chemistry Dashboard provides access to a variety of information on over 700,000 chemicals currently in use.
Milorad Radakovic is a teaching fellow in veterinary public health (VPH) at the University of Cambridge. Here, he explains why he believes the challenges in this field of veterinary medicine make for an exciting career path. In a second article to be published in Vet Record Careers next week, he will share some of his own experiences of working in this field. British Veterinary Association.
An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds.......An overview of combinatorial chemistry is presented. Combinatorial chemistry, sometimes referred to as `irrational drug design,' involves the generation of molecular diversity. The resulting chemical library is then screened for biologically active compounds....
Gelberg, Susan; Gelberg, Howard
Two-hundred-and-eighty-nine veterinary students from all four years of the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM) were invited to complete the Derogatis Stress Profile (DSP)1 and an original Demographic Data Profile (DDP). The DSP assessed the students' current experiences of perceived stress, and the DDP was designed to gather information about students' academic year, their living situations, their financial situations, their interest area within the veterinary medical profession, and their current methods of coping with stress. These data were gathered as a baseline measure of veterinary medical students' perceived level of stress and quality of life. In an earlier study, data were also collected from faculty and staff about the perceived quality of the climate and culture of the veterinary college. The results of the DSP and DDP suggest that, although veterinary students at UTCVM do not experience significant levels of stress overall, they do report higher levels of subjective stress, time pressure, and depression than the general population. The more companion animals that veterinary students cared for in their personal lives, the more likely they were to report higher levels of perceived stress. Lastly, there were significant differences between genders, with female veterinary students reporting higher levels of perceived stress than their male counterparts. The preliminary results of the climate and culture data suggest that faculty and staff of the veterinary college individually feel that they are cared for in the work environment and collectively believe that the college strives for excellence.
Privatizing community animal health worker based veterinary services delivery system in West Kordofan, Southern Sudan; The needed roles of community animal health assistant (CAHA) and Pastoral unions.
... National Institute of Food and Agriculture Nomination Form of Veterinary Shortage Situations for the Veterinary Medicine Loan Repayment Program (VMLRP) AGENCY: National Institute of Food and Agriculture, USDA... Act of 1995, invites the general public to comment on an information collection for the Veterinary...
Sisk, Dudley B.; And Others
Members of the American Association of Veterinary Medical Colleges-Council of Educators were surveyed in an attempt to measure their opinions and feelings towards veterinary medical education. Their opinions on such topics as relationships between students, faculty, the curriculum, and the identity of veterinary medicine are reported. (LBH)
Barrett, Jennifer G.
“Regenerative medicine” refers to therapies that aim to restore normal form and function using the body’s own biological machinery, such as stem cells and biologics. The use of regenerative medicine to treat injury and disease offers new hope to cure previously frustrating diseases and conditions. However, commercialization of biologic therapies in veterinary medicine has outpaced the speed of clinical research, and we are at risk of harming the reputation and standing of regenerative medicin...
Steuer, Christian; Huber, Andreas R; Bernasconi, Luca
As LC-MS/MS techniques are becoming more accessible even outside of highly specialized clinical laboratories, pre-analytical issues such as drug stability during specimen storage should be critically evaluated before implementing therapeutic drug monitoring. Our study investigated the influence of physico-chemical properties of different drugs in regard to their interaction with gel separators used in commercial available collection tubes. Drug spiked blood samples were analyzed after storage in different commercial gel- and non-gel based serum tubes. LC-ESI-MS/MS based methods were used to determine drug concentration in serum samples. Lipophilic compounds, defined by logP>3 and a compatibility factor>20 are prone to be efficiently and rapidly absorbed by lipophilic gel barriers inducing a significant in-vitro decrease of drug concentration over a short storage time. Our data show a relevant drop of concentration of posaconazole, sertraline and citalopram when stored in gel based tubes. Molecular descriptors such as logP, polar surface area and protein binding seem to be good predictive markers to identify gel interacting drugs. For ease of handling and minimization of blood drawing times, we assume that tubes containing separator gel can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of high hydrophilic drugs. In contrast lipophilic compounds showing logP higher than 3 and/or CF>20 should be critically considered and validated by extensive stability studies. logP, partition coefficient; PSA, polar surface area; TDM, therapeutic drug monitoring; ACN, acetonitrile; MeOH, methanol; IVD, in-vitro diagnostic; CF, compatibility factor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Williams, Sandy M; Arnold, Pauline K; Mills, Jennifer N
Students in veterinary schools can experience stress in balancing the different demands on them-academic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and professional or work related-as well as managing potential conflict between animal and human interests. Practicing veterinarians report many similar stressors and reactions. Stressful stimuli produce stress reactions that can be inimical to physical and psychological well-being, and students' performance in veterinary programs can be adversely affected if they do not have coping resources. While there has been some research into stress among university students in general, and among medical students in particular, there is little on the experience of veterinary students. This article describes a study by the School of Psychology, commissioned by the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, at Murdoch University in Western Australia. It was designed to investigate the levels and causes of stress among, and the frequency and type of coping strategies used by, fourth- and fifth-year students. Results indicate that the students in this cohort faced frequent stressors and felt at least moderately stressed but did not routinely and systematically use a range of coping strategies. Academic stressors and perceived responsibilities attached to moving into practical or professional areas figured strongly and were associated with higher levels of stress in the students, in particular physical sequelae. Though the numbers were small, it is of concern that some students were using measures that were potentially harmful. Some recommendations are made here about measures that veterinary programs may be able to incorporate to address stress in their students. Information is included on current strategies within the curriculum to manage potential stressful situations as part of students' professional development.
Otto, Gordon P; Rathkolb, Birgit; Oestereicher, Manuela A; Lengger, Christoph J; Moerth, Corinna; Micklich, Kateryna; Fuchs, Helmut; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Wolf, Eckhard; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin
Although various mouse inbred strains are widely used to investigate disease mechanisms and to establish new therapeutic strategies, sex-specific reference intervals for laboratory diagnostic analytes that are generated from large numbers of animals have been unavailable. In this retrospective study, we screened data from more than 12,000 mice phenotyped in the German Mouse Clinic from January 2006 through June 2014 and selected animals with the genetic background of C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, or C3HeB/FeJ. In addition, we distinguished between the C57BL/6NTac substrain and C57BL/6N mice received from other vendors. The corresponding data sets of electrolytes (sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, inorganic phosphate), lipids (cholesterol, triglyceride), and enzyme activities (ALT, AST, ALP, α-amylase) and urea, albumin, and total protein levels were analyzed. Significant effects of age and sex on these analytes were identified, and strain- or substrain- and sex-specific reference intervals for 90- to 135-d-old mice were calculated. In addition, we include an overview of the literature that reports clinical chemistry values for wild-type mice of different strains. Our results support researchers interpreting clinical chemistry values from various mouse mutants and corresponding wild-type controls based on the examined strains and substrains.
Hubbert, William T.
The program aims at training veterinarians, with interdepartmental faculty participation the rule rather than the exception. Included in the curriculum are: avian medicine, herd health management, veterinary public health, veterinary food hygiene, and regulatory veterinary medicine. (LBH)
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 14 Advisory Committee; Veterinary Medicine... Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the termination of the Veterinary Medicine Advisory... [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Veterinary Medicine Committee was...
... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting... the public. Name of Committee: Veterinary Medicine Advisory Committee. General Function of the...-1100. Contact Person: Aleta Sindelar, Center for Veterinary Medicine (HFV-3), Food and Drug...
Meursinge Reynders, Reint
The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2–58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5–89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4–24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45–2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients. PMID:26835187
Di Girolamo, Nicola; Meursinge Reynders, Reint
The validity of studies that assess the effectiveness of an intervention (EoI) depends on variables such as the type of study design, the quality of their methodology, and the participants enrolled. Five leading veterinary journals and 5 leading human medical journals were hand-searched for EoI studies for the year 2013. We assessed (1) the prevalence of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) among EoI studies, (2) the type of participants enrolled, and (3) the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 1707 eligible articles, 590 were EoI articles and 435 RCTs. Random allocation to the intervention was performed in 52% (114/219; 95%CI:45.2-58.8%) of veterinary EoI articles, against 87% (321/371; 82.5-89.7%) of human EoI articles (adjusted OR:9.2; 3.4-24.8). Veterinary RCTs were smaller (median: 26 animals versus 465 humans) and less likely to enroll real patients, compared with human RCTs (OR:331; 45-2441). Only 2% of the veterinary RCTs, versus 77% of the human RCTs, reported power calculations, primary outcomes, random sequence generation, allocation concealment and estimation methods. Currently, internal and external validity of veterinary EoI studies is limited compared to human medical ones. To address these issues, veterinary interventional research needs to improve its methodology, increase the number of published RCTs and enroll real clinical patients.
Smith, Ronald D.; Williams, Mitsuko
This study used the peer-reviewed biomedical literature to define the veterinary informatics knowledgebase and associated subspecialties, and assesses the level of activity in the field over the thirty-year period from 1966 through 1995. Grateful Med was used to search the MEDLINE bibliographic database for articles that shared one or more Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords from the veterinary and medical informatics subject headings. Each of ninety-five MeSH medical informatics terms was assigned to one of twelve veterinary informatics subspecialties. The number of articles retrieved by each MeSH keyword and subspecialty was calculated. A total of 611 articles were retrieved, representing the contributions of 1,338 authors published in 153 journals. The field experienced slow growth over the twenty-year period from 1966 through 1985. In the following decade, the cumulative number of veterinary informatics articles almost tripled and the percentage of veterinary-related articles that included an informatics component increased almost two-and-one-half fold. Despite this recent growth, the number of veterinary-related articles with an informatics component has never exceeded 1% of either the veterinary or medical informatics literature over the past thirty years, and representation of veterinary subspecialties in the literature varied widely. PMID:10658963
Kalymbek, Bakytzhan; Shulanbekova, Gulmira K.; Madiyarova, Ainur S.; Mirambaeva, Gulnaz Zh.
This article is devoted to the problem of veterinary safety of the countries under the Eurasian Economic Union. Animal health's measures are provided in order to prevent the entry and spread of infectious animal diseases, including common to humans and animals, as well as goods not conforming to the common veterinary and sanitary requirements.…
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary drugs. 201.105 Section 201.105 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.105 Veterinary drugs. A drug subject to the...
The study was conducted to. (1) determine the kinds of veterinary extension services that are provided to livestock farmers;. (2) determine the frequency of farmers contact with extension agents in relation to the extent of adoption of animal health innovations, and. (3) identify the various constraints to veterinary extension ...
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Veterinary care. 3.110 Section 3.110... WELFARE STANDARDS Specifications for the Humane Handling, Care, Treatment, and Transportation of Marine Mammals Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.110 Veterinary care. (a) Newly acquired marine mammals...
Buchanan, Robert A; Wooldridge, Anne A
The body of knowledge in veterinary medicine and the biomedical sciences continues to grow logarithmically, and learning about new developments in veterinary medicine requires successful navigation of recently published literature worldwide. This article examines how veterinarians can use different types of automated services from databases and publishers to search the current and past literature, access articles, and manage references that are found.
... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Veterinary records. 530.5 Section 530.5 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS EXTRALABEL DRUG USE IN ANIMALS General Provisions § 530.5 Veterinary records...
Nigerian Veterinary Journal Vol. 26 (2), 2005. EFFECT OF ETHYLENE DIAMINE TETRAACETIC ACID (EDTA) ON IN VI TRO. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TETRACYCLINE AND AMPICILLIN AGAINST. ESCHERICHIA COLI STRAINS. CHAH*1, K.F. AND OBOEGBULEMz, S.I.. [Department of I Veterinary Pathology and ...