Appiowed bw pub1be MA DVtbufi Unifted DETERMINING TYPES OF HEALTH EFFECTS TO PERSIAN GULF VETERANS DUE TO EXPOSURE TO OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS THESI S F...9_,* TLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS DETERMINING TYPES OF HEALTH EFFECTS TO PERSIAN GULF VETERANS DUE TO EXPOSURE TO OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS PE: 62202F WV...PERSIAN GULF VETERANS DUE TO EXPOSURE TO OCCUPATIONAL HAZARDS THESIS Rebecca A. Nelson, Captain, USAF AFIT/GEE/ENV/95D Approved for public release
Kang, Han K.; Bullman, Tim
Objective: We determined cause-specific mortality prevalence and risks of Gulf War deployed and nondeployed veterans to determine if deployed veterans were at greater risk than nondeployed veterans for death overall or because of certain diseases or conditions up to 13 years after conflict subsided. Methods: Follow-up began when the veteran left the Gulf War theater or May 1, 1991, and ended on the date of death or December 31, 2004. We studied 621 901 veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War and 746 247 veterans who served but were not deployed during the Gulf War. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate rate ratios adjusted for age at entry to follow-up, length of follow-up, race, sex, branch of service, and military unit. We compared the mortality of (1) Gulf War veterans with non–Gulf War veterans and (2) Gulf War army veterans potentially exposed to nerve agents at Khamisiyah in March 1991 with those not exposed. We compared standardized mortality ratios of deployed and nondeployed Gulf War veterans with the US population. Results: Male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of mortality than male non–Gulf War veterans (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.99), and female Gulf War veterans had a higher risk of mortality than female non–Gulf War veterans (aRR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28). Khamisiyah-exposed Gulf War army veterans had >3 times the risk of mortality from cirrhosis of the liver than nonexposed army Gulf War veterans (aRR = 3.73; 95% CI, 1.64-8.48). Compared with the US population, female Gulf War veterans had a 60% higher risk of suicide and male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of suicide (standardized mortality ratio = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.88). Conclusion: The vital status and mortality risk of Gulf War and non–Gulf War veterans should continue to be investigated. PMID:28123229
Barth, Shannon K; Kang, Han K; Bullman, Tim
We determined cause-specific mortality prevalence and risks of Gulf War deployed and nondeployed veterans to determine if deployed veterans were at greater risk than nondeployed veterans for death overall or because of certain diseases or conditions up to 13 years after conflict subsided. Follow-up began when the veteran left the Gulf War theater or May 1, 1991, and ended on the date of death or December 31, 2004. We studied 621 901 veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War and 746 247 veterans who served but were not deployed during the Gulf War. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate rate ratios adjusted for age at entry to follow-up, length of follow-up, race, sex, branch of service, and military unit. We compared the mortality of (1) Gulf War veterans with non-Gulf War veterans and (2) Gulf War army veterans potentially exposed to nerve agents at Khamisiyah in March 1991 with those not exposed. We compared standardized mortality ratios of deployed and nondeployed Gulf War veterans with the US population. Male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of mortality than male non-Gulf War veterans (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.99), and female Gulf War veterans had a higher risk of mortality than female non-Gulf War veterans (aRR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28). Khamisiyah-exposed Gulf War army veterans had >3 times the risk of mortality from cirrhosis of the liver than nonexposed army Gulf War veterans (aRR = 3.73; 95% CI, 1.64-8.48). Compared with the US population, female Gulf War veterans had a 60% higher risk of suicide and male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of suicide (standardized mortality ratio = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.88). The vital status and mortality risk of Gulf War and non-Gulf War veterans should continue to be investigated.
..., and fibromyalgia were particularly elevated. The existence of a causal relationship between either military exposures or other risk factors and documented illness for most symptomatic PGW veterans remains to be demonstrated...
Glass, Deborah C; Sim, Malcolm R; Kelsall, Helen L; Ikin, Jill F; McKenzie, Dean; Forbes, Andrew; Ittak, Peter
This study identified chemical and environmental exposures specifically associated with the 1991 Persian Gulf War. Exposures were self-reported in a postal questionnaire, in the period of 2000-2002, by 1,424 Australian male Persian Gulf War veterans in relation to their 1991 Persian Gulf War deployment and by 625 Persian Gulf War veterans and 514 members of a military comparison group in relation to other active deployments. Six of 28 investigated exposures were experienced more frequently during the Persian Gulf War than during other deployments; these were exposure to smoke (odds ratio [OR], 4.4; 95% confidence interval, 3.0-6.6), exposure to dust (OR, 3.7; 95% confidence interval, 2.6-5.3), exposure to chemical warfare agents (OR, 3.9; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-7.9), use of respiratory protective equipment (OR, 13.6; 95% confidence interval, 7.6-26.8), use of nuclear, chemical, and biological protective suits (OR, 8.9; 95% confidence interval, 5.4-15.4), and entering/inspecting enemy equipment (OR, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-4.8). Other chemical and environmental exposures were not specific to the Persian Gulf War deployment but were also reported in relation to other deployments. The number of exposures reported was related to service type and number of deployments but not to age or rank.
Barth, Shannon K; Kang, Han K; Bullman, Tim A; Wallin, Mitchell T
This study focuses on long-term mortality, specifically brain cancer, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease, and multiple sclerosis (MS) of 621,902 veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War (GW), and 746,248 non-GW veterans. Follow-up began with the date the veteran left the GW theater or May 1, 1991 and ended with the date of death or December 31, 2004. Cox proportional hazard models were used for analyses. Adjusted mortality rate ratios (aRR) of GW veterans compared to non-GW veterans were not statistically significant for brain cancer (aRR = 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73, 1.11), MS (aRR = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.23, 1.63), Parkinson's disease (aRR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.17, 2.99), or ALS (aRR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.56, 1.62). GW veterans potentially exposed to nerve agents for 2 or more days and GW veterans exposed to oil well fire smoke were at increased risk for brain cancer mortality (aRR = 2.71, 95% CI: 1.25, 5.87; aRR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.27; respectively). The risk of death due to ALS, MS, Parkinson's disease, and brain cancer was not associated with 1991 GW service in general. However, GW veterans potentially exposed to nerve agents at Khamisiyah, Iraq, and to oil well fire smoke had an increased risk of mortality due to brain cancer. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Barth, Shannon K; Kang, Han K; Bullman, Tim
Objective: We determined cause-specific mortality prevalence and risks of Gulf War deployed and nondeployed veterans to determine if deployed veterans were at greater risk than nondeployed veterans for death...
White, Roberta F
The specific aims of this project were 1) to determine whether objective test measures reveal any progressive diminution in cognitive function among the GW-era veterans who participate in the study in 1995-1998 (Time 1...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War). 21.5053 Section 21.5053 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War...
... whether eradication of these bacteria reduces symptoms of chronic diarrhea. An agency may not conduct or... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans....'' SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION: Titles: a. Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans, VA...
... whether eradication of these bacteria reduces symptoms of chronic diarrhea. Affected Public: Individuals... AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Survey of Chronic Gastrointestinal Illness in Persian Gulf Veterans (Irritable Bowel Syndrome--Diarrhea)) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY: Veterans Health...
Shannon K Barth; Han K Kang; Tim Bullman
Objective: We determined cause-specific mortality prevalence and risks of Gulf War deployed and nondeployed veterans to determine if deployed veterans were at greater risk than nondeployed veterans for death...
Givishvili, G. V.; Leshchenko, L. N.
The extraordinary delay of the daily variation of absorption and electron density observed in the ionospheric D region above the Persian Gulf in 1976 observed from the research vessel 'Akademik Kurchatov' may be a consequence of air pollution by oil production by-products. It is suggested that the Gulf war might also have caused a lower ozone abundance in that region.
Ishøy, T; Andersson, A M; Suadicani, Poul Vilhelm
The male reproductive system could have been affected by various hazardous agents and exposures during and in the aftermath of the Persian Gulf War scenario. We tested the hypothesis that, compared to controls, male Danish Gulf War Veterans would have adverse sex hormone levels, decreased fertility...
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Nielsen, Anni B Sternhagen
OBJECTIVE: To examine the assumption that postdeployment incidence of sickness and other absence from work are higher among Gulf War Veterans compared with nonveterans. METHODS: A prospective registry study including a cohort of 721 Danish Gulf War Veterans and a control cohort of 3,629 nonvetera...
Redmond, Daniel F.
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited American policy in the Persian Gulf since the end of the Gulf war has dangerously overemphasized military instruments to protect United States interests in the region. This military focus suggests that threats to American interests are external and visible. At the same time it neglects the challenges posed to U.S. interests by internal political upheaval in the pro-American regimes of the Gulf Cooperation Council and ignores the societ...
provide insight into whether the various post-2001 maritime security measures have made the world safer from terrorism, or are simply cosmetic ...facilities that play a critical role in global energy markets , to the small dhows carrying a variety of cheap (and often smuggled) consumer goods...facilities on the Persian Gulf include several operated by the Saudi Ports Authority ( SPA ), clustered around the cities of Jubail, Dammam, and Khobar 16
Full Text Available Marine sponges with about 107 genuses and more than 15000 species constitute one of the most wonderful marine invertebrates. These creatures with wide variety of biologic compounds has offered unique source of marine bioproducts towards marine researchers and chemists. Persian Gulf is habitant of various marine organisms including different species of marine sponges. The book “Medicinal sponges of the Persian Gulf” offers comprehensive review of marine bioproducts of Persian Gulf sponges. Due to limited information regarding various species of Persian gulf sponges, list of identified marine sponges of Persian gulf and Red sea that is presented in the book was collected in collaboration with Dr. Helmut Lehnert from Germany, Dr. Rob Van Soest from Amsterdam university and Dr. Jochen Gugel from Stuttgart university. Derivatives of about 55 genuses and 28 species of Persian Gulf sponges were found to be bioactive through searching medical databases and are reviewed in different chapters of the book. Cytotoxic and antitumor compounds constitute the most products derived from Persian Gulf sponges. The review explores Persian gulf sponges as a natural pharmacy with potential pharmaceutical derivatives in near future and indicates further need for investigation of Persian gulf marine organisms’ for bioactive products.
Marine sponges with about 107 genuses and more than 15000 species constitute one of the most wonderful marine invertebrates. These creatures with wide variety of biologic compounds has offered unique source of marine bioproducts towards marine researchers and chemists. Persian Gulf is habitant of various marine organisms including different species of marine sponges. The book “Medicinal sponges of the Persian Gulf” offers comprehensive review of marine bioproducts of Persian Gulf ...
Samiei, Jahangir Vajed; Dab, Koosha; Ghezellou, Parviz; Shirvani, Arash
There is a shortage of knowledge about taxonomy and distribution of coral reef communities in the Persian Gulf. One of the main steps in the conservation and evaluation of such an environment is to locate and identify the communities and their inhabited fauna and flora. In the present study scleractinian corals were collected from depths of 3 to 9 meter around Larak Island, Persian Gulf. Underwater photographs of the sampled specimens were obtained in the natural habitat before sampling. 37 species have been identified via morphological characteristics of exoskeletons. The following study provided a pictorial reference to enhance the basic knowledge about coral reef communities in the Persian Gulf.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War veterans (PGWVs have been undertaken. Some authors have concluded that an association exists between Gulf War service and reported infertility or miscarriage, but that effects on PGWV's children were limited. The present study's objective was to describe the reproductive outcome and health of offspring of French Gulf War veterans. Methods The French Study on the Persian Gulf War (PGW and its Health Consequences is an exhaustive cross-sectional study on all French PGWVs conducted from 2002 to 2004. Data were collected by postal self-administered questionnaire. A case-control study nested in this cohort was conducted to evaluate the link between PGW-related exposures and fathering a child with a birth defect. Results In the present study, 9% of the 5,666 Gulf veterans who participated reported fertility disorders, and 12% of male veterans reported at least one miscarriage among their partners after the PGW. Overall, 4.2% of fathers reported at least one child with a birth defect conceived after the mission. No PGW-related exposure was associated with any birth defect in children fathered after the PGW mission. Concerning the reported health of children born after the PGW, 1.0% of children presented a pre-term delivery and 2.7% a birth defect. The main birth defects reported were musculoskeletal malformations (0.5% and urinary system malformations (0.3%. Birth defect incidence in PGWV children conceived after the mission was similar to birth defect incidence described by the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations, except for Down syndrome (PGWV children incidence was lower than Registry incidence. Conclusion This study did not highlight a high frequency of fertility disorders or miscarriage among French PGW veterans. We found no evidence for a link between paternal exposure during the Gulf War and increased risk of birth defects among French PGWV children.
The oil of the Persian Gulf has been of considerable interest to oil companies and Western governments (and to Russia) for more than a century. Remaining global conventional crude oil resources are on the order of 3 trillion barrels, with more than 50% of that amount in the Persian Gulf. Since 1986, a price range framework has resulted in stable crude oil prices and reliable supply. In economic terms, it is a Nash game theory equilibrium between Gulf producers and Western (and Asian) consumer...
Bulman TA, Kang HK, Thomas TL Postraumatic stress are the end result of injuries that occurred disorder among Vietnam veterans on the Agent Orange while...traumatic stress disorder , and symptons of other psychiatric conditions developed after the war. Second, physical and psychological traumas experienced...consequence of depression, post- non-battle injuries were a more common cause Development traumatic stress disorder , and symptoms of fatality than
Full Text Available The wind drift motion of the water which is produced by the stress of the wind exerted upon the surface of the ocean is described by Ekmans theory (1905. Using the mean monthly values for the wind stress and SST, seasonal Ekman transport for the Persian Gulf was computed and contoured. The geostrophic winds have combined with the SST to estimate the effect of cooling due to Ekman transport of colder northern waters and inflow from the Oman Sea. The monthly SST mainly obtained from the 10 10 grided data of Levitus atlas and Hormuz Cruis Experiment for 1997. Analyses show a NW to SE Ekman transport due to wind stress and significant interannual variability of SST on sea surface in the Persian Gulf. The seasonal variation of SST shows a continental pattern due to severe interaction between the land and sea. But these variations somehow moderates because of Ekman transport in Persian Gulf.
... addressing 1990-1991 Gulf War Veterans' illnesses. The GWVI-TF published its first annual report in September... AFFAIRS Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses Task Force Report AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Secretary Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) established the Gulf War Veterans...
Zalloi, Mir Mahdi
Almost two-thirds of proven oil and a third of world natural gas resources are in the Persian Gulf countries. Unfortunately strategic region of Persian Gulf in the past three decades faced with many security challenges due to wars and political conflicts. For security in this region, there are several methods such as military treaties between regional countries or Military presence of foreign countries, but historical evidence has shown, none of them could not guarantee the stable security in this region. The regional cooperation between countries can be replaced to mentioned methods. IPI Gas pipeline is an objective sample for this regional cooperation.
Anemone fishes are a group of 28 species of coral reef fishes belonging to the family, Pomacentridae; subfamily, Amphiprioninae and all have an obligate symbiotic relationship with sea anemones. Two species of these small ornamental fishes have been identified in the Persian Gulf including Amphiprion clarkii and ...
sign. higher; retinol binding protein ns higher 2005: Serum uric acid ns lower Neurocognitive function 1997: Poorer accuracy on automated performance...with muscle metabolism and physical endurance in 49 Gulf War veterans and 61 nonveterans with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS).1725 In Gulf War veterans...118. 120. Behan PO, Behan WM, Horrobin D. Effect of high doses of essential fatty acids on the postviral fatigue syndrome . Acta Neurol Scand. 1990;82
...)Veterans matched for age, height and weight. Serum OK, incidence of elevated OK, and muscle histology and fatigue rate and level of oxygen uptake relative to 02 delivery during forearm exercise were similar in both groups...
This paper attempts to study precisely the natural resource (oil& gas reserves) effect on economic development profile in Persian Gulf region. Health, education and political economic variables in these countries have been tested empirically as to what extent has been influenced by oil wealth. First, we will test if economic growth and development is positively changing with more level of oil and gas reserves in cross-country dataset. Second, we try to chase the oil revenue foo...
Full Text Available Coral bleaching events due to elevated temperatures are increasing in both frequency and magnitude worldwide. Mass bleaching was recorded at five sites in the northern Persian Gulf during August and September 2012. Based on available seawater temperature data from field, satellite and previous studies, we suggest that the coral bleaching threshold temperature in the northern Persian Gulf is between 33.5 and 34°C, which is about 1.5 to 2.5°C lower than that in the southern part. To assess the bleaching effects, coral genera counted during 60-minute dives were categorized into four groups including healthy, slightly bleached ( 50% bleached tissue and fully bleached colonies. The anomalously high sea surface temperature resulted in massive coral bleaching (~84% coral colonies affected. Acropora spp. colonies, which are known as the most vulnerable corals to thermal stress, were less affected by the bleaching than massive corals, such as Porites, which are among the most thermo-tolerant corals. Turbid waters, suggested as coral refugia against global warming, did not protect corals in this study since most affected corals were found in the most turbid waters. The 2012 bleaching in the northern Persian Gulf was relatively strong from the viewpoint of coral bleaching severity. Long-term monitoring is needed to understand the actual consequences of the bleaching event on the coral reefs and communities.
MOHAMMAD SHARIF RANJBAR
Full Text Available Moradi M, Kamrani E, Shokri MR, Ranjbar MS, Hesni MA (2009 First record of two hard coral species (Faviidae and Siderastreidae from Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf, Iran. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 34-37. Two species of hard corals including Cyphastrea chalcidicum (Forskal 1775 (Faviidae and Coscinaraea monile (Forskal 1775 (Siderastreidae were collected from the south of Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf, Iran in the late of 2008. These species were previously reported from southern Persian Gulf, Gulf of Aden, Southeast Africa and Indo-Pacific. The literature review on the distribution of these two species revealed that these species were firstly recorded from the Persian Gulf. These findings further emphasize the high diversity of coral fauna in the Iranian waters of the northern Persian Gulf.
Alidoost Salimi, Mahsa; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Fatemi, Seyyed Mohammad; Aeby, Greta S
Corals in the Persian Gulf exist in a harsh environment with extreme temperature and salinity fluctuations. Understanding the health of these hardy corals may prove useful for predicting the survival of other marine organisms facing the impacts of global climate change. In this study, the health state of corals was surveyed along belt transects at 4 sites on the east side of Kish Island, Iran. Corals had a patchy distribution, low colony densities and species diversity, and were dominated by Acropora, Porites, and Dipsastrea. We found chronic sedimentation on corals, a high prevalence of old partial mortality, abundant bioeroders, and overgrowth of corals by sponges and bryozoans. These are all signs indicating suboptimal environmental conditions for coral reefs. Four types of tissue loss lesions consistent with disease were found: Porites multi-focal chronic tissue loss, Porites peeling tissue loss, Porites focal chronic tissue loss, and Dipsastrea focal sub-acute tissue loss. Overall disease prevalence was 3.6% and there were significant differences in prevalence among the 3 most abundant coral genera. Acropora was numerically dominant within transects yet showed no signs of disease, whereas Porites had a 14% disease prevalence, indicating differential susceptibility to disease among genera. Other coral lesions included pigmentation response in Porites associated with algae invasion or boring organisms, sponge overgrowth, and mucus sheathing in Dipsastrea. The Persian Gulf region is understudied, and this represents one of the first quantitative surveys of coral health and disease on these reefs.
Hosseini, Majid; Ghafouri, Mohammad; Tabatabaei, MahmoudReza; Goodarzi, Masoud; Mokarian, Zeinab
Estimation of the major components of the hydrologic budget is important for determining the impacts on the water supply and quality of either planned or proposed land management projects, vegetative changes, groundwater withdrawals, and reservoir management practices and plans. As acquisition of field data is costly and time consuming, models have been created to test various land use practices and their concomitant effects on the hydrologic budget of watersheds. To simulate such management scenarios realistically, a model should be able to simulate the individual components of the hydrologic budget. The main objective of this study is to perform the SWAT2012 model for estimation of hydrological budget in six subbasin of Persian Gulf watershed; Golgol, Baghan, Marghab Shekastian, Tangebirim and Daragah, which are located in south and south west of Iran during 1991-2009. In order to evaluate the performance of the model, hydrological data, soil map, land use map and digital elevation model (DEM) are obtained and prepared for each catchment to run the model. SWAT-CUP with SUFI2 program was used for simulation, uncertainty and validation with 95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty. Coefficient of determination ( R 2) and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (NS) were used for evaluation of the model simulation results. Comparison of measured and predicted values demonstrated that each component of the model gave reasonable output and that the interaction among components was realistic. The study has produced a technique with reliable capability for annual and monthly water budget components in Persian Gulf watershed.
Kamranzad, Bahareh; Etemad-Shahidi, Amir; Chegini, Vahid; Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, Abbas
Excessive usage of fossil fuels and high emission of greenhouse gases have increased the earth's temperature, and consequently have changed the patterns of natural phenomena such as wind speed, wave height, etc. Renewable energy resources are ideal alternatives to reduce the negative effects of increasing greenhouse gases emission and climate change. However, these energy sources are also sensitive to changing climate. In this study, the effect of climate change on wave energy in the Persian Gulf is investigated. For this purpose, future wind data obtained from CGCM3.1 model were downscaled using a hybrid approach and modification factors were computed based on local wind data (ECMWF) and applied to control and future CGCM3.1 wind data. Downscaled wind data was used to generate the wave characteristics in the future based on A2, B1, and A1B scenarios, while ECMWF wind field was used to generate the wave characteristics in the control period. The results of these two 30-yearly wave modelings using SWAN model showed that the average wave power changes slightly in the future. Assessment of wave power spatial distribution showed that the reduction of the average wave power is more in the middle parts of the Persian Gulf. Investigation of wave power distribution in two coastal stations (Boushehr and Assalouyeh ports) indicated that the annual wave energy will decrease in both stations while the wave power distribution for different intervals of significant wave height and peak period will also change in Assalouyeh according to all scenarios.
Young, Heather A; Maillard, Jessica D; Levine, Paul H; Simmens, Samuel J; Mahan, Clare M; Kang, Han K
The purpose of this study was to determine whether proportional cancer incidence is greater among Gulf War veterans compared with non-Gulf War veterans. Files obtained from the Defense Manpower Data Center included data for 621,902 veterans who were deployed to the Persian Gulf during the 1990 to 1991 Gulf War (August 2, 1990, to March 1, 1991) and 746,248 non-Gulf War veteran controls. Identification of veterans who received a cancer diagnosis between 1991 and 2006 was accomplished through record linkage of the Defense Manpower Data Center dataset with files from 28 state cancer registries and the Department of Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry. By the use of logistic regression, proportional incidence ratios adjusted for demographic and military characteristics were calculated by comparing the proportion of a specific cancer among all cancers in the Gulf War veterans to the proportion of that specific cancer among all cancers in the non-Gulf War veterans. Only lung cancer showed a statistically significant relative excess among Gulf War veterans compared with non-Gulf War veterans (adjusted proportional incidence ratios, 1.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.29). When adjusted for race, age, and sex, the overall proportion of cancers among Gulf War and non-Gulf War veterans was similar (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.96-1.02). With the exception of lung cancer, there is little evidence of excess risk of cancer associated with Gulf War deployment. A follow-up study is warranted to confirm this finding and to evaluate the role of greater smoking rates among deployed personnel. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karimzadegan, K. [Horizon Engineering Inc., North Vancover, BC (Canada); Raissi, H. [Tehran Berkeley Engineers, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
Design and construction of the Pars Sulphur Export Harbour near the city of Beshar, in southern Iran on the Persian Gulf, to accommodate 15,000 DWT (deadweight) general cargo vessels is described. Although the steep drop of the ground near the shore was ideal for ship-berthing facilities, the construction of the associated breakwater in very deep waters required a significant amount of land reclamation (102,000 sq m, with a depth of backfilling up to eight metres and volume of about 550,000 cu m). The paper provides design details for filling the reclamation area in an economical way. It also describes the construction management and control issues that had to be dealt with to allow for the successful completion of the project within the approved budget. 5 tabs., 5 figs.
Salman Ghasemian; Mustafa Pirmoradian; Seyed Asqar Mahmoudabadi
By a survey on Qajar dynasty, there are some negligence by historians to investigate the Internal and external relations between southern Persian Gulf ports and its Eastern ports. Substantially, it is believed that southern ports had no role in Qajar foreign relations. But by study of several sources we find that there was several ground of cooperation between north and south ports, on which, for instance, there where a circulating and exchanging human skills from Africa and Persian Gulf. Foc...
Full Text Available Severe discharge of sewage and industrial effluents into the Persian Gulf leads to the deposition of various types of heavy metals, especially lead and mercury, in the muscles of fish. Total mercury and methylmercury contents were determined in the edible parts (muscle tissue, fillet of two different most popular frozen fish species from the Persian Gulf to ascertain whether the concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission or not. During the period from October 2015 to June 2016, a total of 150 frozen fish packaged samples were randomly collected from the recognized supermarkets in Tehran province, Iran. The mercury (Hg concentration of samples was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer using a mercuric hydride system (MHS 10 and also by direct mercury analyzer (DMA. High concentration of total Hg was found in a Carcharhinus dussumie brand (0.91 ± 0.12 μg/g while the lowest level was detected in Pomadasys furcatus (0.29 ± 0.02 μg/g. In current study the mean concentrations of Mercury in all studied frozen fish samples were 0.79 ± 0.11 µg/g that means Hg levels were above 0.5 μg/g, which is the maximum standard level recommended by Joint FAO/WHO/Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA. In 13% of Pomadasys and in 47.2 % of Carcharhinus fish samples total mercury concentrations exceeded the maximum level fixed by the European Commission. All samples had also mean Hg concentrations that exceeded EPA's established safety level of 0.3 μg/g.
Full Text Available The Persian Gulf States (Bahrain. Iran, Iraq, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and United Arab Emirate have dominated the oil and gas sector since the discovery of oil in the region. They are the world largest producers of crude oil, producing about 35 and 25 percent of the world natural gas and crude oil respectively. The use of fossil fuels is directly linked to the release of CO2 into the environment. CO2 accounts for 58.8 percent of all greenhouse gases released via human activities, consequently, presenting a malign impact on the environment through climate change, global warming, biodiversity, acid rain and desertification among others. Due to its importance, the data on CO2 emission obtained from US EIA from 1980 – 2010 was regressed using least square techniques and projections were made to the year 2050. Results indicated that each country’s p-value was less than 0.05 which implies that the models can be used for predicting CO2 emissions into the future. The data shows the emission of CO2 by countries from the highest to the lowest in 2016 as: Iran (590.72 Mtonnes; 7.58 tonnes of CO2/person > Saudi Arabia (471.82 Mtonnes; 18 tonnes of CO2/person > UAE (218.58 Mtonnes; 41.31 tonnes of CO2/person > Iraq (114.01 Mtonees; 3.71 tonnes of CO2/person > Kuwait (92.58 Mtonnes; 36.31 tonnes of CO2/person > Qatar (68.26 Mtonnes; 37 tonnes of CO2/person > Bahrain (33.16 Mtonnes; 27.5 tonnes of CO2/person". The sequence from the country with highest emission (Iran to the country with lowest emission (Bahrain will remain the same until 2050. A projection depicting a 7.7 percent yearly increase in CO2 emission in the Persian Gulf States.
Sharp, Sr, Walter G
An examination of the environmental damage that occurred during the Persian Gulf War provides a legal framework to conclude that the existing international legal order clearly proscribes environmental...
Ishøy, Torben; Knop, Joachim; Suadicani, Poul
would perform less well than controls using a computerized neuromotor test battery; and that 2) GW veterans have a psychological profile different from that of controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 686 subjects who had been deployed in the Persian Gulf within the period August 2......, 1990 until December 31, 1997; the control group comprised 231 subjects matched according to age, gender and profession. All participants underwent clinical and paraclinical examinations, along with a neuromotor test battery (CATSYS Test System) and a psychological health status questionnaire, the SCL...... associations were found for ratings of the obsessive-compulsive dimension and of the depression dimension. No associations were found with respect to phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. INTERPRETATION: The increased psychological distress found among Danish GW veterans seemed rather due...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature profile and chemical data were collected using bottle casts from NOAA Ship DELAWARE and other platforms in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman from 17...
Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; McQueen, Kenneth G.; Mirnejad, Hassan
It is generally assumed that severe dust events in western Iran could be responsible for elevated levels of toxic and radioactive elements in the region. Over a period of 5 months, from January 2012 to May 2012, dust particles in the size range PM10 (i.e. the Persian Gulf. The research aim was to compare chemical compositions of dust and aerosol samples collected during the non-dusty periods and during two severe dust events. Results of ICP-MS analysis of components indicate that during dust events the concentrations of major elements such as Ca, Mg, Al and K increase relative to ambient conditions when Fe and trace elements such as Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb and Zn are in higher proportions. Toxic trace elements that are generally ascribed to human activities, including industrial and urban pollution, are thus proportionately more abundant in the dust under calm conditions than during dust events, when their concentration is diluted by more abundant mineral particles of quartz, calcite and clay. The variability of chemical species during two dust events, noted by tracking the dust plumes in satellite images, was also assessed and the results relate to two different source areas, namely northern Iraq and northwestern Syria.
Full Text Available Recently it was discovered that over the Middle East during summer ozone mixing ratios can reach a pronounced maximum in the middle troposphere. Here we extend the analysis to the surface and show that especially in the Persian Gulf region conditions are highly favorable for ozone air pollution. We apply the EMAC atmospheric chemistry-climate model to investigate long-distance transport and the regional formation of ozone. Further, we make use of available in situ and satellite measurements and compare these with model output. The results indicate that the region is a hot spot of photochemical smog where European Union air quality standards are violated throughout the year. Long-distance transports of air pollution from Europe and the Middle East, natural emissions and stratospheric ozone conspire to bring about relatively high background ozone mixing ratios. This provides a hotbed to strong and growing indigenous air pollution in the dry local climate, and these conditions are likely to get worse in the future.
tender glands, difficulty sleeping, muscle pain, headache, joint pain or a neurologic symptom. The study measure of chronic fatigue did not rule out ...AD_ Award Number: DAMD17-98-1-8662 TITLE: Relationships of Stress Exposures to Health in Gulf War Veterans PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: John A. Fairbank... Stress Exposures to Health in Gulf War DAMD17-98-1-8662 Veterans 6. AUTHOR(S) John A. Fairbank, Ph.D. 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZA TION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES
Faghihifard, M; Badri, M A
Numerical simulation of oil slick movement with respect to tidal factors and wind effects was performed in order to counteract oil pollution in the Persian Gulf. First, a flow model was invoked with respect to water level fluctuations. The main tidal constituents were applied to the model using the initial conditions of water level variations in the Hormuz Strait near the Hangam Island. The movement of oil pollution was determined due to wind, tide and temperature effects and confirmed by applying a verified field results. Simulations were focused near an important terminal in the Persian Gulf, Assaluyeh Port. The results were led to preparing a risk-taking map in a parallel research for the Persian Gulf. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Data records since from 2008 to 2012 show the occurrence of the coral reef bleaching, an increase in population of jellyfish and a decreasing presence of some migratory marine mammals in the Persian Gulf has increased. Results of our biometric methods on jellyfish of the Persian Gulf (Aurelia aurata, show a significant increase in size during the last four years (p < 0.05. Our studies in the area showed that in the sampling areas in close proximity to superhot wastewater of industries cooled in terrestrial pools and then emptied into the sea, the abundance of the Aurelia aurata was significantly lower than in regions where superhot water was directly emptied into the seawater. This paper will review the effects of global warming, especially in the Persian Gulf.
McDiarmid, M A; Keogh, J P; Hooper, F J; McPhaul, K; Squibb, K; Kane, R; DiPino, R; Kabat, M; Kaup, B; Anderson, L; Hoover, D; Brown, L; Hamilton, M; Jacobson-Kram, D; Burrows, B; Walsh, M
A small group of Gulf War veterans possess retained fragments of depleted uranium (DU) shrapnel, the long-term health consequences of which are undetermined. We evaluated the clinical health effects of DU exposure in Gulf War veterans compared with nonexposed Gulf War veterans. History and follow-up medical examination were performed on 29 exposed veterans and 38 nonexposed veterans. Outcome measures employed were urinary uranium determinations, clinical laboratory values, and psychiatric and neurocognitive assessment. DU-exposed Gulf War veterans with retained metal shrapnel fragments are excreting elevated levels of urinary uranium 7 years after first exposure (range 0.01-30.7 microg/g creatinine vs 0.01- 0.05 microg/g creatinine in the nonexposed). The persistence of the elevated urine uranium suggests on-going mobilization from a storage depot which results in a chronic systemic exposure. Adverse effects in the kidney, a presumed target organ, are not present at this time, though other effects are observed. Neurocognitive examinations demonstrated a statistical relationship between urine uranium levels and lowered performance on computerized tests assessing performance efficiency. Elevated urinary uranium was statistically related to a high prolactin level (>1.6 ng/ml; P=0.04). More than 7 years after first exposure, DU-exposed Gulf War veterans with retained metal fragments continue to excrete elevated concentrations of urinary uranium. Effects related to this are subtle perturbations in the reproductive and central nervous systems. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
Prosdocimo, L.; Aftabrushad, M.
SIRIP (Societe Irano-Italienne des Petroles) explored the N. offshore part of the Persian Gulf, the E. slope of central Zagros Mts., and the N. block of Oman Gulf. Marine seismic exploration, surface geologic studies, and exploratory drilling resulted in the discovery of Bahrgan Sar and Nowrouz oil fields in the Persian Gulf. These oil fields are essentially structural. The Bahrgan Sar field produces from Asmari (Oligocene) and Saravak (Cretaceous) limestones and dolomites. Possible future reservoirs are Ghar Formation (Miocene), Nahr Umr and Yamama formations, both of Cretaceous age. The Nowrouz field produces only from the Nahr Umr Formation. The oldest rocks encountered in the Persian Gulf belong to Lower and Middle Jurassic age. These are overlain by thick sections of Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks. The lithologic succession in the Persian Gulf is predominantly marine carbonates, ranging from argillaceous and chalky limestones to dolomitric limestones and dolomites interbedded with marl and shale sections. Evaporite beds occur in Rus (lower Eocene) and Hith-Gotnia (Upper Jurassic) formations.
Pratchett, Morgan S.
The functional composition of reef fish assemblages is highly conserved across large biogeographic areas, but it is unknown whether assembly rules hold at biogeographical and environmental extremes for coral reefs. This study examined the functional composition of butterflyfishes in the Persian Gulf, Musandam Peninsula, and Gulf of Oman. Only five species of butterflyfishes were recorded during this study, and mostly just in the Gulf of Oman. Unlike most locations in the Indo-Pacific where butterflyfish assemblages are dominated by obligate corallivores, the only obligate corallivore recorded, Chaetodon melapterus, was rare or absent at all locations. The most common and widespread species was Chaetodon nigropunctatus, which is shown to be a facultative corallivore. The diversity of butterflyfishes in the Persian Gulf is likely to have been constrained by its\\' biogeographical history and isolation, but functional composition appears to be further affected by limited abundance of prey corals and harsh environmental conditions. © 2012.
Pratchett, Morgan S; Hoey, Andrew S; Feary, David A; Bauman, Andrew G; Burt, John A; Riegl, Bernhard M
The functional composition of reef fish assemblages is highly conserved across large biogeographic areas, but it is unknown whether assembly rules hold at biogeographical and environmental extremes for coral reefs. This study examined the functional composition of butterflyfishes in the Persian Gulf, Musandam Peninsula, and Gulf of Oman. Only five species of butterflyfishes were recorded during this study, and mostly just in the Gulf of Oman. Unlike most locations in the Indo-Pacific where butterflyfish assemblages are dominated by obligate corallivores, the only obligate corallivore recorded, Chaetodon melapterus, was rare or absent at all locations. The most common and widespread species was Chaetodon nigropunctatus, which is shown to be a facultative corallivore. The diversity of butterflyfishes in the Persian Gulf is likely to have been constrained by its' biogeographical history and isolation, but functional composition appears to be further affected by limited abundance of prey corals and harsh environmental conditions. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
overall exposure of troops to Leishmania tropica? 3. What were the exposure concentrations to various petroleum products, and their combustion products...have been identified in Veterans of the 1990 – 1991 Gulf War. 3. What were the exposure concentrations to various petroleum products, and their...Research Program within CDMRP (DoD). A clinical study to examine the effects of aspirin and Clopidogrel on biomarkers of Gulf War Veterans
Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Khan, Farhan
Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris...
... diagnosing and treating Gulf War Veterans, and a drug treatment trial which is underway. On June 18, the... AFFAIRS Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses, Notice of Meeting The Department of... Research Advisory Committee on Gulf War Veterans' Illnesses will meet on June 17 and 18, 2013, in room 230...
traditional outlook. Figure 1. The Debate over Japan’s International Role. 5 following the leadership of the U.S."’ I Political commentator Saburo Kugai... DEBATE OVER JAPAN’S INTERNATIONAL ROLE: CONTENDING VIEWS OF OPINION LEADERS DURING THE PERSIAN GULF CRISIS Eugene Brown July 17, 1991 The views expressed... debate over its policy in the Persian Gulf crisis. Particular attention is given to five competing schools of thought that shaped the national debate
Macfarlane, Gj; Biggs, Am; Maconochie, N; Hotopf, M; Doyle, P; Lunt, M
Objectives To determine whether incidence rates of cancer are higher in UK service personnel who were deployed in the Gulf war than in those not deployed and whether any increased risk of cancer is related to self reported exposures to potentially hazardous material during the period of deployment. Design A cohort study with follow up from 1 April 1991 (the end of the Gulf war) to 31 July 2002. Participants 51721 Gulf war veterans and 50 755 service personnel matched for age, sex, rank, servi...
Glass Deborah C; McKenzie Dean P; Forbes Andrew B; Ikin Jillian F; Sim Malcolm R; Kelsall Helen L; Ittak Peter
Abstract Background Since the 1991 Gulf War concerns have been raised about the effects of deployment to the Gulf War on veterans' health. Studies of the reproductive health of Gulf War veterans have reported varied findings. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study of male Australian Gulf War veterans (n = 1,424) and a randomly sampled military comparison group (n = 1,548). The study was conducted from August 2000 to April 2002. A postal questionnaire included questions about difficultie...
Full Text Available Garra rufa, a bottom dwelling freshwater fish and native to the Middle East, is distributed in the southwestern of Iran and the Tigris basin. Considering the importance of length-weight relationships data of a species in different habitats, the length-weight relationship of G. rufa from 13 rivers in the Persian Gulf and the Tigris basins was explored. The value of exponent b ranged from 2.74 to 3.19 with average of 2.99 in the Tigris basin and 2.96 in the Persian Gulf basin which was in normal range (2.5-3.5. As the length-weight parameters were concluded for each location separately, this information would be useful for further population dynamics researches.
Full Text Available Ports have always played a vital role in international transportation. Port selection decision is a process that requires consideration of many important and relevant criteria. The selection of the influential decision-making criteria is also a significant and vital issue which demands cautious thoughts. The main objective of this paper is to weigh the most dominant decision-making criteria by Technique for Order Preference to Similarity by Ideal Solution (TOPSIS and select an optimised container seaport in the Persian Gulf by Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP according to decisive port selection factors. This paper presents an extensive review of port selection decision-making attributes in different past studies. Finally, by using TOPSIS and AHP, the findings of this research suggest that the working time, stevedoring rate, safety, port entrance, sufficient draft, capacity of port facilities, operating cost, number of berths, ship chandelling, and international policies are critical factors for selecting container seaport in the Persian Gulf.
Bonyadi-Naeini, Alieh; Rastegar-Pouyani, Nasrullah; Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar; Glasby, Christopher J; Rahimian, Hassan
Currently, only 31 nereidid species are known from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. The present study was carried out in order to investigate the poorly known diversity of nereidid polychaetes from seas of the southern coasts of Iran. Specimens were collected from 23 locations along the intertidal zones of the two water bodies. Among the 26 species found: two are new, and are described here, including Simplisetia qeshmensis sp. nov. and Neanthes biparagnatha sp. nov.; 11 are new geographical records. Neanthes biparagnatha sp. nov. is most similar to N. deplanata (Mohammed, 1971), which is also found in the Persian Gulf, but can be most easily distinguished from it by the presence of bars in addition to cones in Area IV of the pharynx. Simplisetia qeshmensis sp. nov. may be distinguished from its closest congener, S. erythraeensis (Fauvel, 1918), also reported from the Persian Gulf, by having a greater number of paragnaths in Area I of the pharynx, an additional type of chaeta (homogomph spinigers) in the ventral neuropodial fascicle and having a reduced notopodial lobe in posterior chaetigers. The list of new records includes: one species from both areas, Neanthes glandicincta (Southern, 1921); eight species from the Persian Gulf, Leonnates decipiens Fauvel, 1929, Neanthes acuminata (Ehlers, 1868), Neanthes sp., Neanthes sp. cf. N. acuminata, Nereis sp. cf. N. pelagica Linnaeus, 1758, Perinereis cultrifera (Grube, 1840) species complex., Pseudonereis trimaculata (Horst, 1924), Pseudonereis sp. cf. P. variegata (Grube, 1857) and two from the Gulf of Oman, Leonnates persicus Wesenberg-Lund, 1949 and Perinereis kuwaitensis Mohammed, 1970. The present study brings to 40 the number of nereidid species currently known from the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. A taxonomic key to nereidid species from the intertidal zones of the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman is presented to facilitate future investigations.
Jassbi, Amir Reza; Mohabati, Maryam; Eslami, Saba; Sohrabipour, Jelveh; Miri, Ramin
Different solvent extracts of a red algae, Hypnea flagelliformis, and two brown algae, Cystoseira myrica and Sargassum boveanum, which were collected from the Persian Gulf coast were subjected to different bioassays, including: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography, agar disc diffusion (ADD) and nutrient-broth micro-dilution (NBMD) bioassays. The water extracts were found to ha...
Abdolhamid Behrouzi; Firouzeh Farashbandi
Background: Depleted uranium (DU) is a byproduct of natural uranium enrichment process. Its unique characteristics (e.g. high density) caused to use in civilian and military fields extensively. In the military fields, DU is used in the bullets and projectiles war hats. The munitions containing DU were used in the recent wars, more strikingly in the Middle East region (first and second Persian Gulf wars, and Afghanistan). Due to its biological impacts, this study aimed to assess biological eff...
Methods: A total of 1699 inhabitants of the north region of the Persian Gulf were selected based on a multi stage stratified clustered sampling and a fasting blood sample was taken from them. We measured serum homocysteine level using enzyme immuno assay method with accuracy limit of 1 µmol/L. Hyperhomocyteinaemia was defined as homocysteine more than 14 µmol/L. Results: Mean plasma homocysteine level was 14.63±7.08 µmol/L (17.72±6.63 µmol/L for men and 12.73±6.78 µmol/L for women. No correlation between homocysteine and age was found. The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinaemia was 51.2% (22.2% in male and 29% in female. Conclusion: The homocysteine level in the north region of the Persian Gulf general population is high. Further study is essential to reveal the reason of the high homocysteine serum level in the inhabitants of the northern Persian Gulf with emphasis on folic acid and vitamin B12 serum levels.
Seyed Mojtaba Jafary
Full Text Available Background: Homocysteine (Hcy, an intermediate form generated during the metabolism of methionine, is associated with cardiovascular diseases. There is little information available about serum concentration of Hcy in healthy Iranian population. In the present study, we assessed the reference range of serum Hcy level among inhabitants of the northern Persian Gulf. Methods: In the Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Study (PGHHS which used a multistage, stratified, clustered sampling, we measured fasting serum Hcy level using enzyme immunoassay method with an accuracy limit of 1 µmol/ L. Confounding factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, drugs and chronic diseases were eliminated. Reference range for homocysteine level was considered between 5 and 95 percentiles. Results: A total of 886 participants (39.3% female, 60.7% male were evaluated. Mean plasma Hcy level was 14.58 ± 7.29 µmol/ L and was higher in men than women. Reference range for Hcy level was 8.35-31.1 µmol/ L in males and 2.39-24.31 µmol/ L in females. There was no difference among age groups for serum Hcy level. Conclusion: The Hcy level in the northern Persian Gulf general population is high. Since high Hcy level has been shown as a risk factor of cardiovascular diseases in various studies, it is essential to study the reasons of this high level of Hcy in this region.
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... related to Gulf War Veterans' illnesses and updates on relevant scientific research published since the... to Gulf War Veterans' illnesses and treatments guided by systems biology. There will also be Committee training and updates on the Department of Defense and VA Gulf War research initiatives. A...
Bauman, Andrew G; Pratchett, Morgan S; Baird, Andrew H; Riegl, Bernhard; Heron, Scott F; Feary, David A
The size structure of coral populations is the culmination of key demographic events, including recruitment, mortality and growth, thereby providing important insights to recent ecological dynamics. Importantly, the size structure of corals reflects both intrinsic (inherent life-history characteristics) and extrinsic (enhanced mortality due to chronic or acute disturbances) forcing on local populations, enabling post-hoc assessment of spatial and taxonomic differences in susceptibility to disturbance. This study examined the size structure of four locally abundant corals (Acropora downingi, Favia pallida, Platygyra daedalea, and massive Porites spp.) in two regions of the Persian Gulf: the southern Gulf (Dubai and Abu Dhabi) and eastern Gulf (western Musandam). Significant and consistent differences were apparent in mean colony sizes and size-distributions between regions. All corals in the southern Gulf were significantly smaller, and their size structure positively skewed and relatively more leptokurtic (i.e., peaky) compared to corals in the eastern Gulf. Sea surface temperatures, salinity, and the recent frequency of mass bleaching are all higher, in the southern Gulf, suggesting higher mortality rates and/or slower growth in these populations. Differences in size structure between locations were more pronounced than differences between species at each location, suggesting that extreme differences in environmental conditions and disturbance events have a greater influence on population dynamics in the Gulf than inherent differences in their life-history characteristics. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blanchard, Melvin S; Eisen, Seth A; Alpern, Renee; Karlinsky, Joel; Toomey, Rosemary; Reda, Domenic J; Murphy, Frances M; Jackson, Leila W; Kang, Han K
Prior research has demonstrated that shortly after the 1991 Gulf War (Gulf War I), chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) was more common among deployed veterans than among nondeployed veterans. The aims of the current study were to determine the prevalence of CMI among deployed and nondeployed veterans 10 years after Gulf War I, compare the distribution of comorbid conditions, and identify prewar factors associated with CMI. Cross-sectional data collected from 1,061 deployed veterans and 1,128 nondeployed veterans examined between 1999 and 2001 were analyzed. CMI prevalence was 28.9% among deployed veterans and 15.8% among nondeployed veterans (odds ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.61, 2.90). Deployed and nondeployed veterans with CMI had similarly poorer quality-of-life measures and higher prevalences of symptom-based medical conditions, metabolic syndrome, and psychiatric disorders. Diagnoses of prewar anxiety disorders (not related to post-traumatic stress disorder) and depression were associated with CMI among both deployed and nondeployed veterans. Nicotine dependence and veteran-reported physician-diagnosed infectious mononucleosis were associated with CMI among deployed veterans, and migraine headaches and gastritis were associated with CMI among nondeployed veterans. CMI continues to be substantially more prevalent among deployed veterans than among nondeployed veterans 10 years after Gulf War I, but it manifests similarly in both groups. It is likely to be a common, persistent problem among veterans returning from the current Gulf War.
Nouri, Jafar; Danehkar, Afshin; Sharifipour, Rozita
This research has identified areas located in the northern coastline of the Persian Gulf in the south of Iran, as strategic and ecological sites, based on tourism potential assessing criteria. To this end coastal limits were identified by satellite imagery in terms of shorelines and the maximum extent of water approach into the land and taking into consideration the characteristics of the nearby coastal villages. The studied region was then compared to similar international criteria and experiences. The original criteria were then divided into three main and four sub criteria. The Kangan region was found to have a potential for tourism industry according to the mentioned criteria. Naiband Gulf with a score of 20 was ranked first followed by Asalouyeh with a score of 18 and finally Taheri and Kangan Ports with scores of 16 and 15, respectively. With a high tourism industry potential in the studied region the necessity of ecotourism quality enhancement and environmental management planning for the northern shoreline of the Persian Gulf becomes of vital importance.
Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Mason, Sherri A; Dick Vethaak, A
Microplastics (MPs; <5 mm) in aquatic environments are an emerging contaminant of concern due to their possible ecological and biological consequences. This study addresses that MP quantification and morphology to assess the abundance, distribution, and polymer types in littoral surface sediments of the Persian Gulf were performed. A two-step method, with precautions taken to avoid possible airborne contamination, was applied to extract MPs from sediments collected at five sites during low tide. MPs were found in 80% of the samples. Across all sites, fiber particles were the most dominate shape (88%), followed by films (11.2%) and fragments (0.8%). There were significant differences in MP particle concentration between sampling sites (p value <0.05). The sediments with the highest numbers of MPs were from sites in the vicinity of highly populated centers and municipal effluent discharges. FTIR analysis showed that polyethylene (PE), nylon, and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were the most abundant polymer types. More than half of the observed MPs (56%) were in the size category of 1-4.7 mm length, with the remaining particles (44%) being in the size range of 10 μm to <1 mm. Compared to literature data from other regions, intertidal sediments in the Persian Gulf cannot be characterized as a hot spot for MP pollution. The present study could, however, provide useful background information for further investigations and management policies to understand the sources, transport, and potential effects on marine life in the Persian Gulf.
Full Text Available Background: The aim of this paper was to study the prevalence and intensity of Anisakids larvae in the long tail tuna fish captured from Iranian shores of Persian Gulf.Methods: Different organs including skin, abdominal cavity, stomach and intestinal contents, stomach sub serous tissues, liver, spleen, gonads and 20 grams of muscles of 100 long tail tuna fish (Thannus tonggol caught from waters of the north parts of Persian Gulf were searched for anisakid nematodes larvae. Twenty grams of around the body cavity muscles were digested in artificial gastric juice. Different organs and digested muscles were examined with naked eyes for the presence of anisakids larvae. The collected larvae were preserved in 70% alcohol containing 5% glycerin, and cleared in lactophenol for identification.Results: Our findings revealed that 89% of fish harbored 3rd stage larvae of Anisakis sp. of which 2% were infected with both Anisakis and Raphidascaris. All inspected organs except that of skin were found to be infected, while stomach sub serous tissues were the most infected organ (80% followed by abdominal cavity (10%, liver (4%, testicle (3%, stomach contents and spleen (2% and intestinal contents (1%. Intestine and abdominal cavity were the organs harbored Raphidascaris sp. Digested muscles were free of parasite. Mean intensity was low for both species and ranged between 1.5 for Raphidascaris sp. and 3.67 for Anisaki sp.Conclusion: Anisakids larvae especially Anisakis are very prevalent in some fish including tunas of Persian Gulf, and consumption of infected fish if it is not properly cooked may lead to human anisakiasis.
Full Text Available Background and Purpose: More than a third of the world’s population lack access to essential medicines, despite the presence of several international agreements that proclaim health as a human right. Corruption, in its many forms, such as bribery and embezzlement, causes several detrimental effects on the health sector and access to medicines including economic, health, and government image and trust issues. Global health corruption remains a serious, ongoing, and under-recognized threat to global health progress. This paper aim is examination how global corruption and health-care expenditure (HE affect health statue in the Persian Gulf countries over 1980-2014 and what can be done to combat corruption in the health sector. Materials and Methods: This study is an experimental and applied research. To verify the consistency of the results of the model, this study used the appropriate panel data analysis methods such as feasible general least square method for the nine Persian Gulf countries over 1980-2014. I employ different panel data procedures to avoid estimation problems, namely, autocorrelation and heteroskedasticity. The used package id Stata version 14. Results: The level of gross domestic product per capita, the level of corruption in the country, per capita HE, the quality of air and water, population density levels have negative effect on region people’s life expectancy, but the index of environmental policy and the education, measured as years of education obtained, have positive effect on region people’s life expectancy over 1980-2014. Conclusion: The results indicate that corruption and HE have negative effect on the Persian Gulf region people‘s life expectancy.
Sepahvand, Vahid; Momtazi, Farzaneh; Tudge, Christopher
A new species of callianassid ghost shrimp is described from the Persian Gulf, Iran. Cheramus iranicus sp. nov. is the first member of Cheramus described from Iranian subtidal waters and can be differentiated by a large cheliped with a ventroproximal spine on the merus and 7 spines on the ventral margin of the ischium, the endopod of the uropod has 4 movable spines on the distal margin and the posterior margin of the telson is strongly bilobed with a prominent medial tooth and two pairs of lateral movable spines. It is compared to other described Cheramus-like species showing a high degree of morphological similarity.
Full Text Available Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL is a sever disease that is prevalent in Iran. We report a case of VL in a 3.5 year-old boy. Prolonged fever, chill, abdominal distention, and weight loss were important symptoms. Blood count showed pancytopenia and hypohemoglobinemia. Specific anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by serological test (IFAT, DAT but no Leishman body was observed in bone marrow. However, a 145 bp band of KDNA belong to L. infantum was detected by PCR method. Glucantime was administered and treatment was well tolerated. This is the first report of VL from Qeshm Island in Persian Gulf.
Razzaghi, Marzieh; Mashjoor, Sakineh; Kamrani, Ehsan
Fishing activities can alter the structure of marine food webs by the selective removal of some species. The changes in the marine food webs of the Hormuzgan waters of the Persian Gulf, Iran were assessed, based on estimates of the mean trophic index (MTI) and Fishing in Balance index (FiB), and on landing profile of the exploited marine community (49 species) during the period, 2002-2011. The total landings ( Y t) ( R=0.88, Pconservation programs should be prioritized for these valuable resources.
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian; Vedtofte, Mia Sadowa; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn; Guldager, Bernadette
contacts. The findings of increased use of antidepressants and anxiolytic or hypnotic medicine among GWVs compared with NVs were rather surprising since we recently, by using the same study population, found that deployment to the Persian Gulf was not associated with increased sickness absence or reduced labor market attachment. However, our results indicate that the mental health of the Danish GWVs is worse than in NV, and that this unfavorable difference increased with time. A possible explanation is that veterans have a high motivation for being in work, and that the deployment-related mental problems they may have acquired do not impair their ability to work, when treated properly. Furthermore, registry-based research in GWVs could include other outcomes, e.g., the use of pain medication, and other military comparison groups, e.g., veterans deployed to other areas than the Persian Gulf in addition to NV. The method of surveillance of military personnel with register data pertinent to health and monitoring outcomes compared with suitable control populations is highly recommended as a tool in the prevention of deployment-related health problems. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a condition occurring in some veterans who served in the 1990-91 Gulf War . To date there is no specific treatment for it. A...major complaint of veteran subjects with GWI is widespread pain and achiness. Currently, some drugs are available to treat these symptoms, but these...complaint of Gulf War veterans with GWI using a hand-held neuro-stimulator device that activates a nerve in the neck called the vagus. This study will
Full Text Available Due to strategic situation of the Persian Gulf, identifying the petroleum pollution level and source is an important issue. Therefore, this paper enhanced fingerprinting method of applying biomarkers Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs in identifying source and distribution of oil spills of the exposed areas. 10 soil samples collected from the northern coasts of the Persian Gulf along three provinces in the south of Iran. PAH concentrations in the soil ranged from 42.76 to 5596.49 ng.g-1. In the present study the distribution of 3 ringed PAHs was much higher than the other PAHs. Phenanthrene and alkylated derivatives of phenanthrene such as 3-methyl, 2-methyl, 9-methyl and 1-methyl phenanthrene were distinctively higher than the other components. According to the result PAHs concentration can be considered as no or little risk of toxicity for the organisms living in soil except for Fluoranthhene, comparing LD50. Applying marker ratios revealed that in most of the sampling sites showed perogenic sources and it emphasizes on the direct impact of oil and petroleum products to the lands due to oil well exploitation and transferring pipelines.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Factor analysis is one of the most used statistical techniques to analyze the inter-relationships among symptoms reported by Gulf War veterans. The objective of this study was to apply factor analyses to binary symptom data from the UK study of Gulf War illness and the US Air Force study of Gulf War veterans, and to compare the symptom domains derived from the distinct samples. Methods UK veterans of the 1991 Gulf War (n = 3,454, individuals deployed to Bosnia on U.N. peacekeeping operations (n = 1,979 and Gulf War-era servicemen (n = 2,577 who were not deployed to the Gulf were surveyed in 1997–1998, and US 1991 Gulf War veterans from four Air Force units (n = 1,163 were surveyed in 1995 to collect health characteristics including symptoms. Each sample was randomly split in half for exploratory and confirmatory dichotomous factor analyses with promax oblique rotation. Results Four correlated factors were identified in each of the samples. Three factors (Respiratory, Mood-Cognition, Peripheral Nervous overlapped considerably across the UK cohorts. The Gastrointestinal/Urogenital factor in the UK Gulf cohort was noticeably different from the Gastrointestinal factor identified from the Bosnia and Era cohorts. Symptoms from Gulf War UK and U.S cohorts yielded similar Gastrointestinal, Respiratory and Mood-Cognition factors, despite differences in symptom inventories between the two surveys. A Musculoskeletal factor was only elicited from the US Gulf sample. Conclusion Findings of this report are consistent with those from other factor analysis studies that identified similar symptom dimensions between Gulf and non-Gulf War veterans, except that the Gastrointestinal factor in Gulf veterans included other symptom types. Correlations among factors raise the question as to whether there is a general illness, even if not unique to Gulf veterans, representing the common pathway underlying the identified factors. Hierarchical factor
Rezaie-Atagholipour, Mohsen; Ghezellou, Parviz; Hesni, Majid Askari; Dakhteh, Seyyed Mohammad Hashem; Ahmadian, Hooman; Vidal, Nicolas
Abstract The Persian Gulf is known as the westernmost distribution limit for sea snakes, except for Hydrophis platurus (Linnaeus, 1766) that reaches southeastern Africa. Previous identification guides for sea snakes of the Persian Gulf and its adjacent waters in the Gulf of Oman were based on old data and confined mostly to written descriptions. Therefore, a series of field surveys were carried out in 2013 and 2014 through Iranian coastal waters of both gulfs to provide a comprehensive sampling of sea snakes in the area. This paper presents an illustrated and updated checklist and identification tool for sea snakes in the Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman, which are based on new material and a review of the literature. This checklist includes ten species of marine hydrophiines, of which one, Microcephalophis cantoris (Günther, 1864), is a new record for the area. All specimens examined herein are deposited and available at the Zoological Museum of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman province, Iran. PMID:27843383
Gwini, Stella M; Forbes, Andrew B; Sim, Malcolm R; Kelsall, Helen L
The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of multisymptom illness (MSI) in 1990 to 1991 Gulf/Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans. Electronic databases were searched from January 1990, June 2014 for studies on MSI prevalence in Gulf/Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans, based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention MSI case definition, and which included a military comparison group. Seven studies were identified among US, UK, and Australian Gulf War veterans; no studies were identified in Afghanistan/Iraq War veterans. MSI prevalence in Gulf War veterans and comparison groups ranged from 26 to 65% and from 12 to 37%, respectively. More recent studies were larger, with improved designs. The pooled odds ratio comparing Gulf War veterans to other military groups was 2.74 (95% confidence interval 2.15 to 3.51). The systematic review showed that MSI was most prevalent in Gulf War veterans, emphasizing the health burden of MSI in this veteran population.
M F Ilminskaya
Full Text Available The article analyzes the political situation in the Gulf region in the light of China’s vital interests. Particular attention is paid to Chinese energy diplomacy, mechanisms for bilateral and multilateral cooperation, the Chinese project that is expected to revive the «Great Silk Road» and the priority areas of Chinese energy security. The author considers China as the largest world energy consumer whose economy is directly dependent on oil supplies, primarily from the Persian Gulf region. The article also analyzes the reasons of acute energy shortages in China and its growing interest in the Gulf region. The author reveals strategic significance of such important water transport arteries, as Straits of Hormuz and Malacca, touches on the issue of global players’ competition over ownership and control of hydrocarbons. The article focuses on flexibility of Chinese diplomacy and foreign policy maneuvering techniques in the region, successfully applied by Beijing to maximize the benefits for the implementation of its own national interests.
Sometimes the greatest investment opportunities are in those areas where the least progress seems to be taking place. This report describes energy-based developments taking place in the Persian/Arabian Gulf. The 8 Gulf states are building their nations; each has large minority groups and swelling populations; their economies are built on one product (hydrocarbons). Large expatriate populations, being integrated into local societies and economies, have led to hostility and guarded access to contacts with the outside world. Gulf nations cannot benefit from any oil price rise as they did in the past, as their populations have grown too rapidly. Policies change daily and can be changed back to original ones as well as into new ones. Since the oil and gas industries are the primary source of government revenue, oil and gas are likely to remain longest under government control. A breakdown of energy-base investment potentials in the Middle East is tabulated: upstream oil, refining, domestic oil marketing, upstream gas, LNG, electricity, petrochemical.
Nozar, Seyedeh Laili Mohebbi; Pauzi, Mohamad Zakaria; Salarpouri, Ali; Daghooghi, Behnam; Salimizadeh, Maryam
To provide a baseline information for consumer's health, distribution of total petroleum hydrocarbons in 18 edible marine biota species from northern Persian Gulf was evaluated. The samples were purchased from fish market of Hormozgan Province, South of Iran. Marine biota samples included different species with various feeding habits and were analyzed based on ultraviolet florescence spectroscopy. Petroleum hydrocarbons showed narrow variation, ranging from 0.67 to 3.36 μg/g dry weight. The maximum value was observed in silver pomfret. Anchovy and silver pomfret with the highest content of petroleum hydrocarbons were known as good indicator for oil pollution in the studied area. From public health point of view, the detected concentrations for total petroleum hydrocarbons were lower than hazardous guidelines. The results were recorded as background data and information in the studied area; the continuous monitoring of pollutants is recommended, according to the rapid extension of industrial and oily activities in Hormozgan Province.
Hassanshahian, Mehdi; Zeynalipour, Mohammad Saleh; Musa, Farzaneh Hosseinzadeh
Fifteen crude oil degrading bacteria were isolated from oil contaminated sites in the Persian Gulf at Khorramshahr provenance. These bacteria were screened with two important factors such as growth rate on crude oil and hydrocarbon biodegradation, and then three strains were selected from 15 isolated strains for further study. One strain (PG-Z) that show the best crude oil biodegradation was selected between all isolates. Nucleotides sequencing of the gene encoding for 16S rRNA show that strain PG-Z belong to Corynebacterium variabile genus. This strain was efficient in degrading of crude oil. This strain was capable to degraded 82% of crude-oil after one week incubation in ONR7a medium. The PG-Z strain had high emulsification activity and biosurfactant production between all isolates. GC-MS analysis shows that C. variabile strain PG-Z can degrade different alkanes in crude oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal “Oil Fund for All Generations”. Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, the likelihood of waste, corruption and wars will be reduced, and there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies to enhance equity across generations.
Ebrahimi-Sirizi, Zohreh; Riyahi-Bakhtiyari, Alireza
The concentrations of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 22 individual PAH compounds in 42 surface sediments collected from the mangrove forest of Qeshm Island and Khamir Port (Persian Gulf) were analyzed. PAHs concentrations ranged from 259 to 5,376 ng g(-1) dry weight with mean and median values of 1,585 and 1,146 ng g(-1), respectively. The mangrove sediments had higher percentages of lower molecular weight PAHs and the PAH profiles were dominated by naphthalene. Ratio values of specific PAH compounds were calculated to evaluate the possible source of PAH contamination. This ratios suggesting that the mangrove sediments have a petrogenic input of PAHs. Sediment quality guidelines were conducted to assess the toxicity of PAH compounds. The levels of total PAHs at all of stations except one station, namely Q6, were below the effects range low. Also, concentrations of naphthalene in some stations exceeded the effects range median.
Sarasiab, Abdolah Raeisi; Hosseini, Mehdi; Mirsalari, Zohreh
The distribution of mercury in surface sediment from four estuaries along the Khuzestan shore, north part of Persian Gulf, was measured. The concentration of mercury varied among sampling stations (p estuaries were from 0.01 to 2.16 µg g(-1). Relatively high mercury concentrations were observed in sediments from Musa estuary. The percentage of mercury associated with different fractions in the sediment from all stations were in the order of residual (70.4 %) > organic matter (16.6 %) > easily and exchangeable (2.2 %) > acid reduction (0.8 %). I geo values calculated for mercury (1.5) showed higher values in Musa estuary than in the other stations. The bioavailability of mercury in sediments could be controlled by physicochemical factors such as pH, oxidation and reduction potential, organic carbon content and cation exchange capacity.
Full Text Available Background: Considering the fact that research on the marine products and creatures, in particular coral, has started just in the past decade and more attentions are focused on the benefits of this material, it has been decided to utilize the coral native to Persian Gulf as oral powder to heal tibia bone defect in rabbit. Methods: In this experimental study 18 New Zealander rabbits weighing 2.5-3 kg were categorized randomly in 3 groups (control, oral calcium powder and oral coral powder group of 6 rabbits. For inducing the defect, the first 3rd part of tibial bone was blunt dissected. A whole with the depth of 0.6-0.8 mm and diameter of 4 mm was produced in all 3 groups in the same style. The Calcium group was treated daily with 1150 mg calcium powder, coral group received 1220 mg of coral powder and control group were kept under standard condition. Course of treatment was 2 months and on days 0,10,20,30,40,50,63 the animals were evaluated for healing criteria such as filling the defects, density, external callus formation and intercortical callus. Results: Radiologic parameters indicates that filling defect, density, external and inter cortical callus and absorption for animals receiving coral is better than that of control and calcium group (P<0/05. Conclusion: In conclusion, by oral administration of Persian Gulf coral powder results increasing the rate of bone formation. Finally for human use, these results must be evaluated more in clinical studies.
Full Text Available Objective: To isolate and characterize the saponin from Persian Gulf brittle star (Ophiocoma erinaceus and to evaluate its hemolytic and cytotoxic potential. Methods: In an attempt to prepare saponin from brittle star, collected samples were minced and extracted with ethanol, dichloromethane, n-buthanol. Then, concentrated n-butanol extract were loaded on HP-20 resin and washed with dionized water, 80% ethanol and 100% ethanol respectively. Subsequently, detection of saponin was performed by foaming property, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and hemolytic analysis on thin layer chromatography. The cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells was evaluated through 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5- diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT assay and under invert microscopy. Results: The existence of saponin in Ophiocoma erinaceus were approved by phytochemical method. The presence of C-H bond, C-O-C and OH in fourier transform infrared spectrum of fraction 80% ethanol is characteristic feature in the many of saponin compounds. Hemolytic assay revealed HD 50 value was 500 µg/mL. MTT assay exhibited that saponin extracted in IC50 value of 25 µg/mL inducsd potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells in 24 h and 12.5 µg/mL in 48 h, meanwhile in lower concentration did not have considerable effect against HeLa cells. Conclusions: These findings showed that only 80% ethanol fraction Persian Gulf brittle star contained saponin like compounds with hemolytic activity which can be detected simply by phytochemical that can be appreciable for future anticancer research.
Full Text Available Background: Today the consequences of taking metal ions especially heavy metals on human health and the environment is of great interest, especially for aquatic food products. The main aim of this scientific and applied research was to measure, some ionic metals’ concentration (i.e. Ni, Fe, V, Co, Cr, Ag, Cd, Li and Ba in Shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus collected from Persian Gulf. Materials and Methods: In this research twenty one samples of Shrimp Penaeus semisulcatus from seven regional fishing ports in Bandar Bushehr, Bandar Mahshahr and Bandar Abbass were collected and transferred to the laboratory in an ice box immediately. After sample preparation according to the AOAC method, each sample was introduced into the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-OES for determination of the metallic elements’ concentration. Results: The results showed that the average concentration of all elements except of vanadium in the muscle of shrimp was higher than the skin. Statistical analysis showed significant differences in the mean of cobalt and lithium accumulation in the skin and muscle of shrimp (P <0/05. Also mean concentration of metals measured in the muscle and skin of shrimps collected from Bushehr have the highest amount of metallic pollution compared to the other two fishing regions which could be a sign of potential contamination of this aquatic area. Conclusion : The comparison of mean concentration in muscle of collected shrimps from Persian Gulf with the WHO recommended guidlines showed that the concentration of metallic elements are lower than the WHO allowable limits and there is no concern regarding consumption of these products.
Banks, Jamie R.
The inter-annual variability of the dust aerosol presence over the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf is analysed over the period 2005-2015. Particular attention is paid to the variation in loading across the Red Sea, which has previously been shown to have a strong, seasonally dependent latitudinal gradient. Over the 11 years considered, the July mean 630 nm aerosol optical depth (AOD) derived from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) varies between 0.48 and 1.45 in the southern half of the Red Sea. In the north, the equivalent variation is between 0.22 and 0.66. The temporal and spatial pattern of variability captured by SEVIRI is also seen in AOD retrievals from the MODerate Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), but there is a systematic offset between the two records. Comparisons of both sets of retrievals with ship-and land-based AERONET measurements show a high degree of correlation with biases of < 0.08. However, these comparisons typically only sample relatively low aerosol loadings. When both records are stratified by AOD retrievals from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR), opposing behaviour is revealed at high MISR AODs (> 1), with offsets of C 0.19 for MODIS and 0.06 for SEVIRI. Similar behaviour is also seen over the Persian Gulf. Analysis of the scattering angles at which retrievals from the SEVIRI and MODIS measurements are typically performed in these regions suggests that assumptions concerning particle sphericity may be responsible for the differences seen.
Full Text Available Background: Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of natural uranium enrichment process. Its unique characteristics (e.g. high density caused to use in civilian and military fields extensively. In the military fields, DU is used in the bullets and projectiles war hats. The munitions containing DU were used in the recent wars, more strikingly in the Middle East region (first and second Persian Gulf wars, and Afghanistan. Due to its biological impacts, this study aimed to assess biological effects of DU using scientometrics by investigating papers indexed in Pubmed from 1990-2008, to reveal the number and type of articles and also the important dimensions of DU biological impacts as well as the core issues. Methods: In this descriptive epidemiologic study, quantitative methods (counting frequency of words and scientometrics were used. Sample size was the total of the articles indexed in Pubmed during 1991- 2008, containing the terms "Gulf War" and "Depleted Uranium" in their title or keywords. Results: The most compromised body systems were urinary, nervous and cardiovascular. Other systems such as endocrine, musculoskeletal, immune and respiratory were also mentioned. Conclusion: Highly controversial results which have been stated in the surveyed articles about DU biological and environmental impacts caused the authors to recommend long term investigations for assessing its effects on recurrence to reveal potential late effects of DU.
with GWI reflect a persistent disruption in central nervous system (CNS) proinflammatory and neuroendocrine parameters. These processes can...Immunol. 1999;6:6-13. 8. Vojdani A, Thrasher, JD. Cellular and humoral immune abnormalities in Gulf War veterans. Environ Health Perspect. 2004;112...in Gulf War veterans: relationships to posttraumatic stress disorder and health symptoms. Biol Psychiatry. 2007;62:1175-1178. 18. Sastre A, Cook MR
Dadar, Maryam; Peyghan, Rahim; Memari, Hamid Rajabi
The concentrations of heavy metals in Persian Gulf are low, but petrochemical and refinery activities have caused an increase in heavy metal wastes, especially in coastal regions. The present study was done to determine the bioaccumulation of heavy metals in the muscle of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The experiment was conducted in four important coastal regions of the Persian Gulf: Bushehr, Deylam, Mahshahr, and Abadan. Amounts of seven heavy metals such as Copper (Cu), Iron (Fe), Lead (Pb), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Cadmium (Cd), and Cobalt (Co), were measured as µg/g heavy metal in dry weight in the muscle of white shrimp from the afore-mentioned regions during 2011. This study revealed information that the primary risk for human health and the marine life chain was lead in the muscles of white shrimp in Mahshahr, where intense petrochemical and refinery activities are conducted. Concentrations of other heavy metals were lower than world standards.
Glass Deborah C
Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the 1991 Gulf War concerns have been raised about the effects of deployment to the Gulf War on veterans' health. Studies of the reproductive health of Gulf War veterans have reported varied findings. Methods We undertook a cross-sectional study of male Australian Gulf War veterans (n = 1,424 and a randomly sampled military comparison group (n = 1,548. The study was conducted from August 2000 to April 2002. A postal questionnaire included questions about difficulties achieving pregnancy, pregnancy outcomes including live births, stillbirths, miscarriages and terminations; and for all live births gestation, birth weight, sex, and any cancers, birth defects, chromosomal abnormalities or serious health problems. Results Male Gulf War veterans reported slightly increased risk of fertility difficulties following the Gulf War (odds ratio [OR] 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0–1.8, but were more successful at subsequently fathering a child (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.3–2.6. The study groups reported similar rates of pregnancies and live births. There was no increased risk in veterans of miscarriage, stillbirth, or terminations. Children of male Gulf War veterans born after the period of the Gulf War were not at greater risk of being born prematurely, having a low birth weight, or having a birth defect or chromosomal abnormality (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.6–1.6. The numbers of cancers and deaths in children were too small to draw any firm conclusions. Conclusion The results of this study do not show an increased risk of adverse reproductive outcome in Australian male Gulf War veterans.
The use of antibiotics in aquaculture has been limited. Scientifics seeking for natural substitutes to prevent of aquatic animals diseases. Considering seaweeds are rich of nutritions and bioactive compounds, the purpose of this study is: investigation the potential and use possibility of native seaweeds from Persian Gulf in shrimp aquculture industry to improve growth, survival of postlarvae and to resistance against pathogens such as vibriosis. For this propose 7 macroalgae species from Bus...
... background information on the Gulf War and Gulf War Veterans' illnesses, immune function and system... at the end of each day. A sign-up sheet for five-minute comments will be available at the meeting.... Vivian Drake, Acting Committee Management Officer. BILLING CODE P ...
Agah, Homira; Leermakers, Martine; Gao, Yue; Fatemi, S M R; Katal, M Mohseni; Baeyens, Willy; Elskens, Marc
Total and methylmercury concentrations were assessed in muscle and liver of 141 fish samples from the northern part of the Persian Gulf. All fish samples belonged to five different species: grunt, flathead, greasy grouper, tiger-tooth croaker, and silver pomfret. In addition, Hg and methylmercury were analyzed in scalp hair of 19 fishermen living in the same coastal stations of the Persian Gulf and consuming several fish meals a week. Total mercury concentrations in fish muscle and liver ranged from 0.01 to 1.35 microg g(-1) w.w. and from 0.02 to 1.30 microg g(-1) w.w., respectively. In fish muscle, 3% of the Hg concentrations were higher than 0.5 microg g(-1) w.w., which corresponds to the maximum acceptable WHO level, while 9% were in the range of polluted fish (between 0.3 and 0.5 microg g(-1) w.w.). The highest mercury concentrations in fish muscle were observed in flathead fish at Abadan (average of 0.68 microg g(-1) w.w.). Methylmercury fractions in fish muscle and liver amount to 34-99% (median 64%) and 24-70% (median 43%), respectively. The mean total Hg concentration in the fishermen's scalp hair amounted to 2.9 +/- 2.2 microg g(-1), with 68% in the form of methylmercury. Ninety-five percent of the Hg levels in the fishermen's hair were below 10 microg g(-1), which is the WHO warning limit. In addition, relationships between the mercury levels in hair, on the one hand, and exposure-related factors such as Hg levels in specific fish species, regional differences, and number of fish meals, on the other hand, are discussed. It appears that a significant correlation for example exists between Hg levels human hair and fish muscle or human hair and age and that mean mercury levels in fish muscle and human hair decreased from western (Abadan) to eastern (Abbas port) coastal sites.
Full Text Available Background: Anisakid nematodes are common parasites of fish, mammals, fish-eating birds, and reptiles with a worldwide distribution, causing diseases in human, fish and important economic losses.Methods: A preliminary epidemiological study was carried out on Anisakid nematodes larvae in some commercially important fish species to evaluate the anisakid nematode larvae from greater lizardfish, (Saurida tumbil, Japanese thread fin bream (Nemipterus japonicus, crocodile longtom (Tylosurus crocodilus crocodiles and longfin trevally (Carangoides armatus from the Persian Gulf of Iran.Result: The collected larvae were identified mainly as the third larval stage (L3 of Hysterothylacium larval type A, B and C, Anisakis sp., Raphidascaris sp., Pseudoterranova sp. and Philometra sp. (Nematoda: Philometridae. The prevalence of Anisakid larvae infection of examined fishes was 97.2% in N. japonicus, 90.3% in S. tumbil, 20.5% in crocodile longtom and 5.5% in longfin trevally. Anisakis type III for the first time was different from Anisakis type I and Anisakis type II.Discussion: Zoonotic anisakids by high prevalence in edible fish could be a health hazard for people. So health practices should be considered in these areas.
Biosurfactants are surface active materials that are produced by some microorganisms. These molecules increase biodegradation of insoluble pollutants. In this study sediments and seawater samples were collected from the coastline of Bushehr provenance in the Persian Gulf and their biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated. Biosurfactant producing bacteria were isolated by using an enrichment method in Bushnell-Hass medium with diesel oil as the sole carbon source. Five screening tests were used for selection of Biosurfactant producing bacteria: hemolysis in blood agar, oil spreading, drop collapse, emulsification activity and Bacterial Adhesion to Hydrocarbon test (BATH). These bacteria were identified using biochemical and molecular methods. Eighty different colonies were isolated from the collected samples. The most biosurfactant producing isolates related to petrochemical plants of Khark Island. Fourteen biosurfactant producing bacteria were selected between these isolates and 7 isolates were screened as these were predominant producers that belong to Shewanella alga, Shewanella upenei, Vibrio furnissii, Gallaecimonas pentaromativorans, Brevibacterium epidermidis, Psychrobacter namhaensis and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The largest clear zone diameters in oil spreading were observed for G. pentaromativorans strain O15. Also, this strain has the best emulsification activity and reduction of surface tension, suggesting it is the best of thee isolated strains. The results of this study confirmed that there is high diversity of biosurfactant producing bacteria in marine ecosystem of Iran and by application of these bacteria in petrochemical waste water environmental problems can be assisted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jami, M J; Salehduost, A; Negarestan, H
Coral reefs are specialized communities that develop clear, well-lit tropical and subtropical water; they provide shelter and canopy for great variety of organisms, living in mean temperature of 20 degrees C. Coral Bleaching and mortality have been associated with elevated seawater temperature. The aim of the study was to investigate coral bleaching and evaluate health condition of the corals. Distribution of coral reefs around Kish Island was determined by the Timed Swim (TS) technique. This survey carried out in 2 times (May and October, 2009) in 2 depths of 3-5 m and 6-10 m. Two Divers swam in constant speed for a set amount of time in three dive sites. The timed swim survey around the Kish Island showed that the most healthy live hard coral assemblages were found in the site called Persian Gulf seaport, whereas the greatest percentage of bleached corals were located in Jurassic Park station, located at the southeast of the Island. Branching corals (Acropora sp.) were bleached among all 3 stations and no sign of recovery could be detected. In Big coral site suitable substrate for accumulation of living organisms including Echinometra mathaie (sea urchin) existed due to presence of great amount of algae on dead corals and rocks. Based on the observation, it seems that the cause of reef destruction in Kish Island fall in to two categories, natural and human impacts.
Payandeh, A; Zaker, N Hadjizadeh; Niksokhan, M H
Khur-e-Musa is a predominantly tide-driven marine creek located in the northwestern part of the Persian Gulf. The port city of Mahshahr and several important industrial enterprises are located in the vicinity of this marine creek. Therefore, marine pollution due to discharge from regional industries into this water body has been a matter of interest for environmental studies. In this paper, nutrient assimilative capacity of the Khur-e-Musa during the summer time was studied. In order to perform any engineering project or marine environment study related to Khur-e-Musa, the prediction of currents is an essential task. Therefore, MIKE 3-FM hydrodynamic and quality model was used to simulate nutrients and chlorophyll a concentrations. OECD open boundary index was used to determine the trophic status probabilities. Different scenarios were defined and simulated to find the minimum nutrient load that causes eutrophication in all parts of Khur-e-Musa simultaneously. The results showed assimilative capacity of 7,180 kg/day TN and 1,305 kg/day TP for Khur-e-Musa.
Naji, Abolfazl; Esmaili, Zinat; Khan, Farhan R
Currently little is known about the prevalence of plastics and microplastics (MPs) in the Persian Gulf. Five sampling stations were selected along the Strait of Hormuz (Iran) that exhibited different levels of industrialization and urbanization, and included a marine protected area. Debris was observed and sediments were collected for MPs extraction via fluidization/floatation methodology. The order of MP abundance (par/kg) generally reflected the level of anthropogenic activity: Bostanu (1258±291)>Gorsozan (122±23)>Khor-e-Yekshabeh (26±6)>Suru (14±4)>Khor-e-Azini (2±1). Across all sites fibers dominated (83%, 11% film, 6% fragments). FT-IR analysis showed polyethylene (PE), nylon, and PET (polyethylene terephthalate) were the commonly recovered polymers. Likely sources include beach debris, discarded fishing gear, and urban and industrial outflows that contain fibers from clothes. This study provides a 'snapshot' of MP pollution and longitudinal studies are required to fully understand plastic contamination in the region. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jassbi, Amir Reza; Mohabati, Maryam; Eslami, Saba; Sohrabipour, Jelveh; Miri, Ramin
Different solvent extracts of a red algae, Hypnea flagelliformis, and two brown algae, Cystoseira myrica and Sargassum boveanum, which were collected from the Persian Gulf coast were subjected to different bioassays, including: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay, antibacterial and antifungal activity by thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography, agar disc diffusion (ADD) and nutrient-broth micro-dilution (NBMD) bioassays. The water extracts were found to have the most antioxidant activity. The antibacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the active extracts were determined for the susceptible organisms, Staphylococcus aurous and Bacillus subtilis, using NBMD bioassays. The active substances were identified as free fatty acids (FFA), by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). After derivatization to their methyl esters, their concentrations were measured by using GC- lame ionization detection (GC-FID). In addition to the fatty acids, fucosterol, cholesterol and 22-dehydroxychlosterol were detected as the major sterols in S. boveanum extract using GC-MS analyses.
Bell, E A; Roth, M A; Weed, G
This descriptive correlational study of war time stressors and stress responses of women from the Persian Gulf War examined numerous stressors both physical and psychological. The psychological stressors more directly impacted postwar physical and psychological symptoms than did physical stressors. These findings add to our understanding of women's reactions to wartime stress and the types of stressors affecting women. The study provides more data to support the contention that sexual harassment is widely prevalent in the military. The study did not find data to support concerns about maternal guilt on leaving children, nor any significant evidence of stress symptomology from this situation. The results of this study confirmed the call by Wolfe, Brown, Furey, and Levin (1993) for more precise evaluation of wartime stressors in view of the changing gender composition of military forces and the subsequent increase of women in combat roles. Clinicians should be alerted to recognize gender-specific experiences. Education of military women about stressors and coping mechanisms should be broadened to address the development issue of intimacy versus isolation. Nurses, both military and civilian, must understand the effect of isolation and discrimination on women both in combat and in other high stress situations. The need for continued study of the problem of sexual harassment is confirmed. Understanding the scope of the problem and the health care outcomes strengthens the role of prevention and intervention for nurses and their clients.
Full Text Available Although sex steroids play an important role in many physiological processes including reproduction in vertebrates there is a few information about the effects of these hormones on the reproduction of fishes, specially the coral-reef ones in literature. Evaluation of the fluctuations in these hormones is of the great importance in the reproductive studies. In the present research, we monitored monthly changes of the plasma levels of testosterone during the gonadal development for 120 Abudefduf vaigiensis specimens, collected randomly by the angling from a reef habitat at coastal waters of the eastern Qeshm Island, the northeastern Persian Gulf, through the Enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA technique. The results exhibit the significant changes in the measured values of testosterone due to the role of these hormones in gonadal development during the vitellogenesis in six months of a year (October to March 2013. Thus, the mean value of the testosterone evaluated in the case of 47 female and 34 male specimens presents a significant reduction during winter compared to that of measured in autumn. The average measured testosterone were increased during the summer and reached to its maximum value in August in the case of both sexes.
Full Text Available Background: PAHs was producted from incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and due to nature of publishing, it was categorized as the soil and beaches pollutant. These compounds are considered in pollutants which have priority, carcinogenic and certain mutagenic. The main difficulty of clearing contaminated areas to PAHs is the nature of highly water repellent of these pollutants and a strong attraction to the soil texture. The main objective of this current study was to determine the efficiency of phenanthrene removal from contaminated soil and beaches by using biosurfactant produced by a bacterium isolated from Persian Gulf. Materials & Methods: with primary screening, a Bacillus sp strain with surfactin production capability was isolated and purified in laboratory. A mixed bacterial consortium isolated which was consists of three bacterial species with of capable of metabolism of phenanthrene from Khark contaminated beaches and was used as a microbial seed. The synthetic soil samples with initial phenanthrene concentration of 100 mg/kg and also natural contaminated samples were subjected to bioremediation during 9 weeks. Results: The phenanthrene removal efficiency in the samples containing biosurfactants and with artificial and natural pollution were 82% and 39% respectively. The removal efficiency for samples without biosurfactant was 11%. Conclusion: The bioremediation process is considered an efficient, eco-friendly and operational for remediation of beache and soil polluted by petroleum hydrocarbons by using bacterial biosurfactant.
Tajbakhsh, S; Pouyan, M; Zandi, K; Bahramian, P; Sartavi, K; Fouladvand, M; Asayesh, G; Barazesh, A
With due attention to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, discovering of new antibacterial compounds is needed. Algae produce numerous bioactive substances which may have pharmacological properties such as antibacterial activity. The objective of this investigation was to in vitro study of antibacterial activity of brown alga Sargassum oligocystum collected along the Bushehr coast of Persian Gulf (south west of Iran). Hot water extract, cold water extract, and hot glycerin extract were prepared. The effect of the extracts were investigated on Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 14990), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Hot water extract exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cold water extract and hot glycerin extract did not show antibacterial activity on any of the four test bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of hot water extract for both Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis was 3.175 mg/ml. However, the MIC of this extract for Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 9.556 mg/ml. In this study gram-positive bacteria were more susceptible to hot water extract than gram-negative bacteria. Extract of Sargassum oligocystum could be a candidate for purification and further in vivo studies.
Fontana, Alan; Rosenheck, Robert; Desai, Rani
Differences in the characteristics and mental health needs of female veterans of the Iraq/Afghanistan war compared with those of veterans of other wars may have useful implications for VA program and treatment planning. Female veterans reporting service in the Iraq/Afghanistan war were compared with women reporting service in the Persian Gulf and Vietnam wars and to men reporting service in the Iraq/Afghanistan war. Subjects were drawn from VA administrative data on veterans who sought outpatient treatment from specialized posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment programs. A series of analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to control for program site and age. In general, Iraq/Afghanistan and Persian Gulf women had less severe psychopathology and more social supports than did Vietnam women. In turn, Iraq/Afghanistan women had less severe psychopathology than Persian Gulf women and were exposed to less sexual and noncombat nonsexual trauma than their Persian Gulf counterparts. Notable differences were also found between female and male veterans of the Iraq/Afghanistan war. Women had fewer interpersonal and economic supports, had greater exposure to different types of trauma, and had different levels of diverse types of pathology than their male counterparts. There appear to be sufficient differences within women reporting service in different war eras and between women and men receiving treatment in VA specialized treatment programs for PTSD that consideration should be given to program planning and design efforts that address these differences in every program treating female veterans reporting war zone service.
Mohammad T. Rajabi Mashhadi
Full Text Available Background: To test the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI-12 in the Iranian opulation. Methods: After translating and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire into Persian, 100 caregiver spouses of Iran-Iraq war (1980-88 veterans with chronic spinal cord injury who live in the city of Mashhad, Iran, invited to participate in the study. The Persian version of ZBI-12 accompanied with the Persian SF-36 was completed by the caregivers to test validity of the Persian ZBI-12.A Pearson`s correlation coefficient was calculated for validity testing.In order to assess reliability of the Persian ZBI-12, we administered the ZBI-12 randomly in 48 caregiver spouses again 3 days later. Results: Generally, the internal consistency of the questionnaire was found to be strong (Cronbach’s alpha 0.77. Intercorrelationmatrix between the different domains of ZBI-12 at test-retest was 0.78. The results revealed that majority of questions the Persian ZBI_12 have a significant correlation to each other. In terms of validity, our results showed that there is significant correlations between some domains of the Persian version the Short Form Health Survey -36 with the Persian Zarit Burden Interview such as Q1 with Role Physical (P=0.03,General Health (P=0.034,Social Functional (0.037, Mental Health (0.023 and Q3 with Physical Function (P=0.001,Viltality (0.002, Socil Function (0.001. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the Zarit Burden Interview Persian version is both a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the burden of caregivers of individuals with chronic spinal cord injury.
Davoodi, Hamid; Gharibreza, Mohammadreza; Negarestan, Hossein; Mortazavi, Mohammad Sedigh; Lak, Razieh
The Assaluyeh and Bassatin estuaries are located in Nayband Bay in the northern Persian Gulf, which faces long-term contamination and ecological risks. The research objectives of this study were designed to assess the ecological risks for human health and aquatic life and to evaluate impacts on environmental changes. Accordingly, an index analysis approach (using the contamination factor Cf, contamination degree Cd, potential ecological risk factor for individual metals Er, and potential ecological risk index for the basin, RI) in conjunction with the enrichment factor (Ef) and sediment quality levels (comprised of the threshold effect level, TEL, the probable effect level, PEL, and the effects range medium, ERM) were employed. In total, 147 sediment samples were tested to determine the content of organic matter and sulfur, as well as the concentrations of terrestrial and rare earth elements (REEs) and toxic metals, namely As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Hg, using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Gulf War oil spills in addition to oil and gas industries of the Pars South Especial Economic Zone (PSEEZ) were identified as the primary source of pollution in the study area. Gulf War contamination in the study area is highlighted by increased levels of Cd and RI at key horizons at 29 cm, 35 cm and 49 cm depth in the sedimentary columns of the Assaluyeh and Bassatin estuaries and Gavbandi River, respectively. Adverse effects of PSEEZ were revealed by increasing concentrations of toxic metals, P and S in the top 25-30 cm of the sedimentary columns. As a result, superficial sediments have been severely polluted by As, Ni, Cd, Cu and Cr, while the entire sedimentary column of the Assaluyeh estuary has been polluted by Hg. Based on the locations of the key horizons, the sedimentation rates of the previous decade at the Assaluyeh and Bassatin estuaries and the Gavbandi River were calculated to be 1.26 cm, 1.52 cm, and 2.13 cm, respectively. The
Blore, J D; Sim, M R; Forbes, A B; Creamer, M C; Kelsall, H L
Although post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been a focus of attention in 1990/1991 Gulf War veterans, the excess risk of depression has not been clearly identified. We investigated this through a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing depression in Gulf War veterans to depression in a comparison group of non-deployed military personnel. Multiple electronic databases and grey literature were searched from 1990 to 2012. Studies were assessed for eligibility and risk of bias according to established criteria. Of 14 098 titles and abstracts assessed, 14 studies met the inclusion criteria. Gulf War veterans had over twice the odds of experiencing depression [odds ratio (OR) 2.28, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.88-2.76] and dysthymia or chronic dysphoria (OR 2.39, 95% CI 2.0-2.86) compared to non-deployed military personnel. This finding was robust in sensitivity analyses, and to differences in overall risk of bias and psychological measures used. Despite divergent methodologies between studies, depression and dysthymia were twice as common in Gulf War veterans and are important medical conditions for clinicians and policymakers to be aware of in managing Gulf War veterans' health.
McCauley, L A; Rischitelli, G; Lambert, W E; Lasarev, M; Sticker, D L; Spencer, P S
During the 1991 Gulf War, some Allied troops were potentially exposed to sarin/cyclosarin as the result of the destruction of Iraqi munitions at Khamisiyah. To evaluate the prevalence of past and current symptoms known to be associated with exposure to these chemical warfare agents, the authors conducted a computer-assisted telephone survey of 2,918 U.S. Gulf War veterans. Veterans who had participated in or witnessed the demolition in 1991 were more likely to report historical or extant symptoms than were veterans from other military units. These results should be viewed cautiously because they are based on symptoms recalled nine years after the event without precise characterization of exposure. Nonetheless, the findings suggest that symptoms consistent with low-level sarin exposure may have initially occurred, and health effects may have persisted in the veterans who were nearest to the demolition activity. Further research is warranted.
Sinaei, Mahmood; Rahmanpour, Shirin
As an attempt to study on the biomarkers types to assess the specification of the pollutants and health status of marine ecosystems, sediments and biota (i.e., Boleophthalmus dussumieri) were collected from the Persian Gulf. The liver glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in mudskipper was higher as compared with that in blood which could be illustrated by high metabolic rate in this organ, its key role in the metabolism of PAHs detoxification and specificity of enzymes composition. The results suggest that the liver GST activity in B. dussumieri was PAH inducible and could be extended as a biomarker of PAH pollution.
Ali Rostami; Marziyeh Bazamad; Behzad Hajalilou; Mohssen Moazzen
The study area is located about 3 km southwest of the Hormoz Island in the Hormozgan province, in the Persian Gulf. The main rock units in the region consist of a highly altered acidic pluton cratophyre, which is responsible for apatite formation, diabasic dike, marl and altered basalt. Apatite is the only phosphate mineral in the Hormoz Island, which has accumulated REE in its crystal structure. The amount of Na2O and SiO2 oxides in apatite are high and the average content of the main ele...
Full Text Available Fuel storage tanks are one of the main sources of water pollution as well as loss of crude oil and oil products in refineries. In the process of utilization of these tanks, considerable amounts of hydrocarbons may find their way into the coastal water, which eventually lead to loss of valuable hydrocarbons. Oil type, climatic condition and characteristics of oil tanks are among the main variables in computing evaporative losses. The present study brings out the results of a project that was carried out to investigate the adverse effects of oil terminal on coastal waters of Qeshm Island and aims to elaborate on speciation of metals in coastal waters. For this purpose, 12 stations were sampled. Water chemistry software was used to draw Eh-pH diagrams. Along with the speciation of heavy metals, cluster analysis was carried out by MVSP software. According to the results, HSC diagrams showed that Cu and Cd were present as free ions. Lead, manganese, cobalt, zinc and nickel were respectively present as PbOH, MnOH, ZnOH, CoOH and NiOH in the Persian Gulf. Speciation of Cu and Ni was in the form of Cu2O and NiO. Vanadium was also present in combination with hydroxide. Since all the studied elements were within the water stability range, they were stable, and there were no environmental risks of contamination and toxicity. The results of cluster analysis did not show any relation between Eh and pH. This clearly showed that Eh-pH was governed by different mechanisms in coastal waters of Qeshm Island. Vanadium and Ni concentration was governed by pH, while Cu and Cd concentration was controlled by Eh.
MJ Zibaee Nezhad
Full Text Available Background: The fatty acids of omega-3 family have high nutritional value and can prevent coronary heart disease.These fatty acids are found in various fish and sea foods. To investigate the level of omega-3 fatty acids indifferent kind of fish head, muscle and liver from 30 species of fish collected from Persian Gulf.Material and Methods: In this experimental study, the fish were collected by hunting from Boushehr and Hormozgansea ports. Their head, muscle and liver fatty acids were determined on their methylated fatty acids dissolvedin N-hexin. Quantitative analysis of fatty acids was performed by gas chromatography (GC with methylmyristateused as the reference material in this analysis and the qualitative analysis of fatty acids was done bygas chromatography and mass spectrometer (GC- mass and cod liver oil which contained all of omega-3 fattyacids used as standard.Results: Our study showed that some fish were good sources of omega-3 fatty acids and Trout (Ghezel-ALA,Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, Malabar blood snapper (Sorkhoo malabari had maximum levels ofomega-3 in all body tissues. Other types of fish were rich in omega 3 fatty acids in separate organs, such as liverin Bartail flathead (Zaminkan-e-domnavari, head in Sillago Sihama (Shoort and muscle in Trout (Ghezel-ALA. In contrast, lesser amount of omega 3 fatty acids is found in tissues of other species of fish such as Silverpomfret (Halva sefid, Longfin trevally (Gish-e-derazbale and Xiphophorus Hellerii (Dom-shamshiri.Conclusion: This research showed that the liver of fish had the highest level of omega-3 fatty acids and fish musclecontained more omega-3 fatty acids than the head. Thus for having maximum levels of omega-3 fatty acids inthe diet, all fish tissues can be served. As liver and head of fish are not usually consumed, it is recommended thatsuch organs be used for preparation of omega 3-containing cardio supportive supplements.
Full Text Available In this study we have analysed wind and wave time series data resulting from hourly measurements on the sea surface in Bushehr, the northern part of the Persian Gulf, from 15 July to 4 August 2000. Wind speed (U10 ranged from 0.34 to 10.38 m/s as alternating sea and land breezes. The lowest wind speed occurs at about midnight and the highest at around noon. The calculated autocorrelation of wind speed data shows that when the sea-land breeze is strong, the land-sea breeze is weak and vice versa. The significant wave height (Hs varies between 0.10 to 1.02 m. The data of the present study reflects mostly the local waves or the sea waves. The calculated correlation between wind and wave parameters is rather weak, due to the continuous change in the wind direction. Wave height distribution follows the well-known Rayleigh distribution law. The cross correlation analyses between U10 and Hs reveal a time lag of 4h. Finally, we have shown that the time series of U10, Hs, and wave period are stationary. We have modeled these parameters by an auto regressive moving average (ARMA and auto regressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models.
Keywords. Oceanography: physical (Air-sea interactions; Surface waves and tides; Upper ocean processes
Maconochie, N; Doyle, P; Carson, C.
OBJECTIVES: To examine the hypothesis that, theoretically at least, exposure to toxicants of the type present in the Gulf war could affect spermatogenesis, which might be observed as increased levels of infertility. DESIGN: Retrospective reproductive cohort analysis. SETTING: Male UK Gulf war veterans and matched comparison group of non-deployed servicemen, surveyed by postal questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: 42,818 completed questionnaires were returned, representing response rates of 53% for Gul...
Long, N; Chamberlain, K; Vincent, C
Symptoms of combat related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been reported extensively in Vietnam veterans. A few of these studies have reported situations in which PTSD has been reactivated in veterans with a history of PTSD. The present study reports the effects of media coverage of the Gulf War on a community sample of New Zealand Vietnam veterans. Levels of PTSD, distress, and well-being were assessed before and after the outbreak of hostilities. Most veterans closely followed the media presentation of the war and reported revived memories of Vietnam. Increased memories of Vietnam were associated with higher levels of PTSD and distress. It is suggested that veterans have heightened susceptibility to combat related stimuli because of their previous combat experience and that these stimuli can reactivate PTSD symptoms and distress. Implications of this finding for other groups in the community who harbour residual PTSD effects are discussed.
Murdoch, Maureen; Polusny, Melissa A; Street, Amy; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Simon, Alisha B; Bangerter, Ann; Grill, Joseph; Voller, Emily
To estimate the cumulative incidence of sexual assault during the time of Gulf War I among male Gulf War I Veterans who later applied for Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) post-traumatic stress disorder disability benefits and to identify potential risk and protective factors for sexual assault within the population. Mailed, national, cross-sectional survey supplemented with VA administrative and clinical data. Of 2,415 Veterans sampled, 1,700 (70%) responded. After adjusting for nonignorable missing data, the cumulative incidence of sexual assault during Gulf War I in this population ranged from 18% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 5.0%-51.9%] to 21% (95% CI: 20.0-22.0). Deployment was not associated with sexual assault [Odds Ratio (OR), 0.96; 95% CI: 0.75-1.23], but combat exposure was (OR, 1.80; 95% CI: 1.52-2.10). Other correlates of sexual assault within the population included working in a unit with greater tolerance of sexual harassment (OR, 1.80; 95% CI: 1.52-2.10) and being exposed to more sexual identity challenges (OR, 1.76; 95% CI: 1.55-2.00). The 9-month cumulative incidence of sexual assault in this particular population exceeded the lifetime cumulative incidence of sexual assault in U.S. civilian women. Although Persian Gulf deployment was not associated with sexual assault in this population, combat exposure was. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.
... on the Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War is sufficient to warrant a presumption of service...: Update on Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War, on April 9, 2010. The NAS was asked to review..., titled Gulf War and Health, Volume 4: Health Effects of Serving in the Gulf War, appear at higher...
Full Text Available Abstract Narrow-barred Spanish mackerel, Scomberomorus commerson, is an epipelagic and migratory species of family Scombridae which have a significant role in terms of ecology and fishery. 100 samples were collected from the Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea. Part of their dorsal fins was snipped and transferred to micro-tubes containing ethanol; then, DNAs were extracted and HRM-Real Time PCR was performed to designate representative specimens for sequencing. Phylogenetic relationships of S. commerson from Persian Gulf, Oman Sea and Arabian Sea were investigated using sequence data of mitochondrial DNA D-loop region. None clustered Neighbor Joining tree indicated the proximity amid S. commerson in four sites. As numbers demonstrated in sequence analyses of mitochondrial DNA D-Loop region a sublimely high degree of genetic similarity among S. commerson from the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea were perceived, thereafter, having one stock structure of S. commerson in four regions were proved, and this approximation can be merely justified by their migration process along the coasts of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf. Therefore, the assessment of distribution patterns of 20 haplotypes in the constructed phylogenetic tree using mtDNA D-Loop sequences ascertained that no significant clustering according to the sampling sites was concluded.
Fontana, Alan; Rosenheck, Robert
Differences in the characteristics and mental health needs of veterans of the Iraq/Afghanistan war when compared with those of veterans who served in the Persian Gulf war and in the Vietnam war may have important implications for Veterans Affairs (VA) program and treatment planning. Subjects were drawn from administrative data bases of veterans who sought treatment from specialized VA programs for treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Current Iraq/Afghanistan veterans were compared with 4 samples of outpatient and inpatient Persian Gulf and Vietnam veterans whose admission to treatment was either contemporaneous or noncontemporaneous with their admission. A series of analyses of covariance was used hierachically to control for program site and age. In analyses of contemporaneous veterans uncontrolled for age, Iraq/Afghanistan veterans differed most notably from Vietnam veterans by being younger, more likely to be female, less likely to be either married or separated/divorced, more often working, less likely to have ever been incarcerated, and less likely to report exposure to atrocities in the military. Regarding clinical status, Iraq/Afghanistan veterans were less often diagnosed with substance abuse disorders, manifested more violent behavior, and had lower rates of VA disability compensation because of PTSD. Differences are more muted in comparisons with Persian Gulf veterans, particularly in those involving noncontemporaneous samples, or those that controlled for age differences. Among recent war veterans with PTSD, social functioning has largely been left intact. There is a window of opportunity, therefore, for developing and focusing on treatment interventions that emphasize the preservation of these social assets.
(λ2/(λ1, the three bands ratio with variable [(λ1−1−(λ2−1]×(λ3 and four bands ratio with variable [(λ1−1−(λ2−1]/[(λ4−1−(λ3−1] that desired wavelength (i.e. λ1, λ2, λ3 and λ4 in the range of red and near-infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are in the region of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea look. Despite the high importance of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea which can have up basin countries, to now few studies have been done in this area. The focus of this article on the northern part of Oman Sea and Persian Gulf, the shores of neighboring Iran (case 2 water. In this paper, by using Landsat 8 satellite imageries, we have discussed chla concentrations and customizing different OC algorithms for this new dataset (Landsat-8 imagery. This satellite was launched in 2013 and its data using two sensors continuously are provided operating one sensor imager land (OLI: Operational Land Imager and the Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS: Thermal InfraRed Sensor and are available. This sensors collect image data, respectively, for the nine-band short wavelength in the range of 433-2300 nm and dual-band long wavelength thermal. Seven band of the nine band picked up by the sensor information of OLI to deal with sensors TM (Thematic Mapper and ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus in previous satellite Landsat compatible and two other band, the band of coastal water (433 to 453 nm and Cirrus band (1360 to 1390 nm, short wave infrared provides to measure water quality and high thin clouds. Since OLI sensor in Landsat satellite 8 compared with other sensors to study OC have been allocated a much better spatial resolution can be more accurate to determine changes in OC. To evaluate the results of the image sensor MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer at the same time satellite images Landsat 8 is used. The statistical parameters used in order to evaluate the performance of different algorithms, including root mean square error
Zeinali, Farrokhzad; Homaei, Ahmad; Kamrani, Ehsan; Patel, Seema
Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the pivotal antioxidant enzyme that defends organisms against the oxidative stresses of superoxide radicals. In this experimental study, purification of SOD from the leaves of Avicennia marina (grey mangrove or white mangrove) from the family Acanthaceae, located in Sirik mangrove forest on the shore of the Gulf of Oman was performed, for the intended characterization of SOD. The Sirik AmSOD (A. marina SOD) expressed optimum activity in the pH range of 6-9 with the maximum activity at pH 8. The optimal temperature for Sirik AmSOD activity was 70°C. Comparison of the pH and temperature optima in two regions (the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman) showed significant differences with Padaption to this environment, which is harsher. The evidence from these results suggests that AmSOD has different characteristics in each place, and mangroves undergo different adaptations and require different protections. The results of the enzymatic research can be useful for ecological management of organisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Akhbarizadeh, Razegheh; Moore, Farid; Keshavarzi, Behnam
Although weekly consumption of fish is recommended, the presence of contaminants in seafood has raised many concerns regarding the benefits of fish intake. In the present study microplastics (MPs) and metals' concentration in muscles of both benthic and pelagic fish species from northeast of Persian Gulf were investigated and the risk/benefit of their consumption was assessed. The results demonstrated that MPs and Hg in all species and Se in benthic species increase with size, while relationship between other metals, and fish size is not consistent. Consumption of a meal ration of 300 and relationship between MPs and metals in fish muscles were positive for A. djedaba, and negative for E. coioides. Considering the chemical toxicity of MPs and metals, and their good linear relationships in some species, consumption of high doses of the studied fish may pose a health threat to the consumers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aghadadashi, Vahid; Mehdinia, Ali
The concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were determined in the surficial sediments of Bushehr coasts, the Persian Gulf. Eighteen samples were collected from 6 sites at distances of 500, 1000 and 1500m from the coast. PBDEs were detected in all the samples, indicating their widespread occurrence in marine sediments of the studied area. BDE-209 and ∑7PBDEs were in the range of n.d. (not detected) to 6.29ngg-1 and n.d. to 0.62ngg-1 dw, respectively. The studied area can be classified as the region with the minimal contamination values reported globally as yet. The concentrations of PBDEs were lower than the Canadian benchmarks, and risk quotient assessments demonstrated low ecological risk. BDE-183 and then BDE-153 were the congeners with the highest detection frequencies in the stations, confirming extensive occurrence of Octa-mix in the studied area. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Shirani, Mehrnoosh; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Farahmand, Hamid; Abdollahi, Mohammad
A suite of 5 different biomarker responses were selected and measured in 3 different phases of detoxification process in mudskipper Periophthalmus waltoni from 3 different stations including Soltani Inlet, Shif Island and Ameri Port in Bushehr coastal area of the Persian Gulf. The selected biomarkers were 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), biliary fluorescent aromatic compounds (FACs), DNA damage using the Comet assay and micronucleus (MN). Spatial variations in biomarker responses were observed in different sites. EROD, GST, FACs, DNA damage and MN were significantly elevated in mudskippers in the most oil impacted site (Soltani inlet). Based on the assessments, bile metabolites, EROD and GST induction appear to be sensitive to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and can be considered as complementary biomarkers; therefore P. waltoni has the potential to be used as a bioindicator in these types of ecosystems. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Naji, Abolfazl; Khan, Farhan R; Hashemi, Seyed Hassan
This study was carried out to evaluate the concentration of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the muscle of four fish species from the Persian Gulf. Trace metals were analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy and consumption rates advisory for minimizing chronic systemic effects in children and adults were estimated. The metals concentrations in analyzed fish samples were lower than legal limits. Cadmium target hazard quotient values suggested that the threshold to avoid the potential risk for children health is an exposure level lower than 3 meals per week. Hazard index values based on four metals (not including Pb) for the child age class were higher than those of the adult age class, suggesting that children may suffer from a higher health risk. This study provides information about the consumption limits of certain metals, in particular Cd, necessary for minimizing potential health risks resulting from human consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Examination of a collection of Chaetopteridae (Annelida: Polychaeta from the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf led to the erection of a new species of Spiochaetopterus: S. creoceanae sp. nov. This is a small, oculate Spiochaetopterus with a single specialised, enlarged cutting seta on each A4 parapodium; this seta is roughly heart-shaped (cordate in end view and with the outer lobe of the oblique section more developed than the inner one. The new species is mainly characterised by the presence of 10 segments in the anterior region, while all other species described to date have only 9. The description of this new species of Spiochaetopterus is a contribution to the growing evidence supporting the hypothesis that Spiochaetopterus costarum, formerly considered to be a cosmopolitan species, has in fact been used for several distinct species. In addition, the habitat preferences of the new species are also discussed.
Bayat, F.; Hasanlou, M.
previous Landsat sensors. Third, TIRS is one of the best space born and high spatial resolution with 30 m. in this regards, Landsat-8 can use the Split-Window (SW) algorithm for retrieving SST dataset. Although several SWs have been developed to use with other sensors, some adaptations are required in order to implement them for the TIRS spectral bands. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a SW, adapted for use with Landsat-8 TIRS data, along with its accuracy assessment. In this research, that has been done for modelling SST using thermal Landsat 8-imagery of the Persian Gulf. Therefore, by incorporating contemporary in situ data and SST map estimated from other sensors like MODIS, we examine our proposed method with coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) on check point to model SST retrieval for Landsat-8 imagery. Extracted results for implementing different SW's clearly shows superiority of utilized method by R2 = 0.95 and RMSE = 0.24.
on board on previous Landsat sensors. Third, TIRS is one of the best space born and high spatial resolution with 30 m. in this regards, Landsat-8 can use the Split-Window (SW algorithm for retrieving SST dataset. Although several SWs have been developed to use with other sensors, some adaptations are required in order to implement them for the TIRS spectral bands. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a SW, adapted for use with Landsat-8 TIRS data, along with its accuracy assessment. In this research, that has been done for modelling SST using thermal Landsat 8-imagery of the Persian Gulf. Therefore, by incorporating contemporary in situ data and SST map estimated from other sensors like MODIS, we examine our proposed method with coefficient of determination (R2 and root mean square error (RMSE on check point to model SST retrieval for Landsat-8 imagery. Extracted results for implementing different SW's clearly shows superiority of utilized method by R2 = 0.95 and RMSE = 0.24.
shallow nature, the Persian Gulf appears to be influenced by winds and surface thermohaline fluxes. The persistent southward wind stress, at least in the...persistent thermal front across the Persian Gulf about the latitude of Qatar appears related to the thermohaline exchange through the Hormuz Strait and...the same methods to ingest COAMPS into HPAC, it was discovered that it was impossible to do from the Naval Postgraduate School. ASA was very
Full Text Available These days, most of the marine structures which are constructed and used in Persian Gulf, are made of ST37 steel. Due to oil and gas sources excavated, the number of these structures is constantly increasing. On the other hand, these types of structures are exposed to corrosive environments and it is seriously critical for these structures to be used for many years. Coal tar epoxy (trade name, one of the popular coating layers, is used in different parts of steel constructions which are in use in the Persian Gulf. Several works have been carried out on the functioning quality of this coating in tidal zones, under splashing water and atmospheric conditions, but up to now no report is made in submerge zone. Hence in this investigation, three coating systems have been considered that coal tar epoxy is being used in each of one of the three layers of primer, middle and top. Two systems of laboratory and in field have been investigated for 6 months and an isolated system in field type has been also investigated. All the mechanical and chemical tests which have been performed are according to NACERPO176-64 standard which is for investigating the function of all marine coatings. All corrosion tests have been performed in Refinary Laboratory of Petroleum Industry and all the fields samples have been investigated in Steel Harbor located in the south of Bandar Abbas every week during 6 months. The test results have indicated that the coal tar epoxy which were being used in the last layer is not suitable for submerge zone. By preparing, however, a suitable surface in the first layer using zinc ethyl silicate and the last layer with antifouling, the coal tar epoxy can function properly in the middle layer.
Full Text Available Objective. To determine the most effective and biodegradable dispersant of spilled oil in water surrounding two Persian Gulf provinces. Methods. This study compared the effects of three dispersants, Pars 1, Pars 2, and Gamlen OD4000 on removal of oil in two Persian Gulf provinces' water. Overall, 16 stations were selected. Using the Well method, the growth rate of isolated bacteria and fungi was identified. To specify the growth rate of microorganisms and their usage of oil in the presence of the above-mentioned dispersants, as exclusive sources of carbon, the bacteria were grown in culture medium for 28 days at 120 rpm, 30∘C, and their optical density was measured by spectrophotometry. Then, we tested biological oxygen demand (BOD and chemical oxygen demand (COD in microorganisms. Results. The highest growth rate was documented for the growth of microorganisms on either Pars 1 or Pars 2 dispersants or their mixtures with oil. However, the culture having microorganisms grown on Pars 1 had higher BOD and COD than the other two dispersants (9200 and 16800 versus 500 and 960, P<0.05. Mixture of oil and Pars 2 as well as oil and Pars 1 dispersants showed the highest BODs and CODs, respectively. In the Bahregan province, microorganisms grown on Pars 2 had maximum amount of BOD and COD in comparison with Pars 1 and Gamlen dispersants (7100 and 15200 versus 6000 and 10560, P<0.05. Conclusion. Pars 1 and Pars 2 were the most effective dispersants with highest degradability comparing Gamlen. In each region, the most suitable compound for removing oil spill from offshores with least secondary contamination should be investigated.
Kelsall, Helen L; McKenzie, Dean P; Sim, Malcolm R; Leder, Karin; Forbes, Andrew B; Dwyer, Terence
Multisymptom illness is more prevalent in 1991 Gulf War veterans than in military comparison groups; less is known about comorbidities. The authors compared physical, psychological, and functional comorbidities in Australian male Gulf War I veterans with those in actively (non-Gulf) deployed and nondeployed military personnel by using a questionnaire and medical assessment in 2000-2002. Multisymptom illness was more common in male Gulf War veterans than in the comparison group (odds ratio (OR) = 1.80, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.48, 2.19). Stratifying by deployment status in the comparison group made little difference in this association. Gulf War veterans with multisymptom illness had increased psychiatric disorders, including major depression (OR = 6.31, 95% CI: 4.19, 9.52) and posttraumatic stress disorder (OR = 9.77, 95% CI: 5.39, 18.59); increased unexplained chronic fatigue (OR = 13.32, 95% CI: 7.70, 23.05); and more reported functional impairment and poorer quality of life, but objective physical and laboratory outcomes were similar to those for veterans without multisymptom illness. Similar patterns were found in the comparison groups; differences across the 3 groups were statistically significant for only hospitalization, obstructive liver disease, and Epstein-Barr virus exposure. Multisymptom illness is more prevalent in Gulf War I veterans, but the pattern of comorbidities is similar for actively deployed and nondeployed military personnel.
Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Solovyev, Vladimir; Francis, Xavier; Hyder, Patrick; Chen, Feng; Asif, Muhammad
Cascading (aka shelf convection) is a specific type of buoyancy driven current in which dense water is formed over the continental shelf and then descends down the slope to a greater depth. The cascades of dense water down continental slopes provide a mechanism for shelf-ocean exchange in many parts of the world's oceans (Shapiro et al, 2003). Dense water is formed on the shelf by a number of processes, with high evaporation, limited river discharge and low precipitation being the major processes in warm climates (Ivanov et al, 2004). The formation and outflow of high salinity waters in the near-bottom layer of the Arabian/Persian Gulf is an example of dense water cascading (Bower et al 2000). Despite of its importance for the self-cleaning and the state of the marine ecosystem in the Arabian/Persian Gulf, the properties of the outflow have so far mainly been analysed using climatologically averaged data or observations of a limited set of parameters (mainly temperature), see (Bower et al 2000). In this paper we study the dynamics of the flow using a comprehensive set of observational data (temperature, salinity velocity and turbidity profiles) obtained during the GRASP (Gulf Reconnaissance And Selective Profiling) observational campaign in the Gulf of Oman, which are complemented by the results of numerical modelling of the area using a number of 3D ocean models, and some ARGO T/S profiles. The GRASP measurements were carried out using an Aqualog climbing moored profiler, which was equipped with a Seabird CTD sensor, a Nortek Aquadopp current meter and a Seapoint turbidity meter. The Ocean circulation models used in the study include PGM4 and IND12 (UK Met Office); and AS20 and AG60 (University of Plymouth). All models are based on NEMO (Nucleus for European Modelling of the Ocean) codebase with a resolution from 9 km down to 1.8 km. The models were calibrated and validated against ARGO float profiles in the area. The study revealed the mesoscale and sub
Chao, Linda L
Despite the fact that many veterans returned from the 1991 Gulf War (GW) with complaints of memory difficulties, most neuropsychological studies to date have found little evidence of a correspondence between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in GW veterans. However, if GW veterans complain about memory problems, it is likely that they experience memory problems in their daily lives. In this respect, it is notable that the past studies that have investigated the relationship between subjective and objective measures of cognitive function in GW veterans used composite measures to quantify subjective complaints and batteries of neuropsychological tests that assessed multiple domains to objectively measure cognitive function. The study's focus on memory was motivated by the suggestive evidence that subjective memory complaint may be a harbinger of further cognitive decline and increased risk for dementia. This study examined the association between subjective memory complaint (probed with single question: "Do you have difficulty remembering things?") and performance on a single objective test of verbal learning and memory (i.e., California Verbal Learning Test, CVLT-II) in a sample of 428 deployed GW veterans. GW veterans who endorsed memory difficulties performed more poorly on CVLT-II measures of total learning, retention, and delayed recall than GW veterans without subjective memory complaints (p subjective memory complaint significantly predicted CVLT-II retention scores (β = -0.12, p = 0.04) and marginally predicted CVLT-II delayed recall scores (β = -0.11, p = 0.05) over and above potentially confounding demographic and clinical variables. This study suggests that deployed GW veterans with subjective memory complaints have objective memory impairments. In light of the evidence linking subjective memory complaint to increased risk for dementia in the elderly, these findings suggest that aging GW veterans with subjective memory complaints
Chao, Linda L; Kriger, Stephen; Buckley, Shannon; Ng, Peter; Mueller, Susanne G
More than 100,000 US troops were potentially exposed to chemical warfare agents sarin (GB) and cyclosarin (GF) when an ammunition dump at Khamisiyah, Iraq was destroyed during the 1991 Gulf War (GW). We previously reported reduced hippocampal volume in GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure relative to matched, unexposed GW veterans estimated from 1.5T magnetic resonance images (MRI). Here we investigate, in a different cohort of GW veterans, whether low-level GB/GF exposure is associated with structural alterations in specific hippocampal subfields, estimated from 4T MRI. The Automatic Segmentation of Hippocampal Subfields (ASHS) technique was used to quantify CA1, CA2, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG), and subiculum (SUB) subfields volumes from high-resolution T2-weighted images acquired on a 4T MR scanner in 56 GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure and 56 "matched" unexposed GW veterans (mean age 49±7 years). GB/GF exposed veterans had smaller CA2 (p=0.003) and CA3/DG (p=0.01) subfield volumes compared to matched, unexposed GW veterans. There were no group difference in total hippocampal volume, quantified with FreeSurfer, and no dose-response relationship between estimated levels of GB/GF exposure and total hippocampal or subfield volume. These findings extend our previous report of structural alterations in the hippocampi of GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure to volume changes in the CA2, CA3, and DG hippocampal subfields in a different cohort of GW veterans with suspected GB/GF exposure. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72 to 2.67 among ill group compared to controls (0.58 to 1.59. We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series.
Horiguchi, F.; Nakata, K. (National Research Institute for Pollution and Resources, Tsukuba (Japan)); Kojima, T.; Kanemaki, S.; Sugioka, S. (Fuyo Ocean Development and Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))
In order to predict the fate of the oil spill in the Persian Gulf that has occurred during the Gulf War, a model to predict diffusion of oil mixed into water was applied to the waters. Calculations on the simulation to predict the oil spill diffusion were carried out for two cases; one with the oil spill mixed into the water, and the other not mixed. For the case of the oil spill not mixing into the water, the oil spill discharged at the end of the bay was predicted to diffuse over a certain area of the ocean surface, and then move down to the Oatar Peninsula along the west coast of the bay changing little the area. For the case of the oil spill mixed into the water, the oil will continue drifting on the ocean surface for a certain period of time. Thereafter, however, the oil grown emulsified will mix into the water and begin settling down. The diffusion will get weakened in places where the current is slow, and the oil spill will settle down and deposit on the ocean bottom, according to the prediction. 6 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.
Kelsall, Helen Louise; Wijesinghe, Millawage Supun Dilara; Creamer, Mark Christopher; McKenzie, Dean Philip; Forbes, Andrew Benjamin; Page, Matthew James; Sim, Malcolm Ross
Although recent veterans have been found to be at increased risk of psychiatric disorders, limited research has focused on alcohol or substance use disorders. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined whether alcohol or substance use disorders were more common in Gulf War, Afghanistan, and Iraq War veterans compared with military comparison groups nondeployed to the corresponding conflict, including never deployed personnel. Literature was searched (1990-2014) in multiple electronic databases. Studies were assessed for eligibility and quality, including risk of bias. Eighteen studies (1997-2014) met inclusion criteria. Pooled analysis based on a random-effects model yielded a summary odds ratio of 1.33 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22, 1.46) for alcohol (7 studies) and 2.13 (95% CI: 0.96, 4.72) for substance use (3 studies) disorders among Gulf War veterans, as well as 1.36 (95% CI: 1.11, 1.66) for alcohol (7 studies) and 1.14 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.25) for substance use (4 studies) disorders among Iraq/Afghanistan veterans; meta-regressions found no statistically significant association between theater of war and alcohol use or substance use disorders. Our findings indicate that Gulf and Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans are at higher alcohol use disorder risk than nondeployed veterans, but further studies with increased power are needed to assess substance use disorder risk in Gulf War veteran populations. © Commonwealth of Australia 2015.
... (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates). The Gulf states, which are all led by Sunni Muslim regimes, fear that Shiite Iran is unchecked now that Iraq is strategically weak...
Moradi, N.; Hasanlou, M.; Saadatseresht, M.
Ocean color (OC) monitoring using satellite imageries provides an appropriate tool for a better understanding of marine processes and changes in the coastal environment. Radiance measurements in the range of visible light of the electromagnetic spectrum provides information of ocean color that is associated with the water constituents. This measurements are used to monitor the level of biological activity and the presence of particles in the water. Ocean features such as the concentration of chlorophyll, suspended sediment concentration and sea surface temperature have a significant impact on the dynamics of the ocean. The concentration of chlorophyll (chla), active pigments of phytoplankton photosynthesis, as a key indicator applied for assessment of water quality and biochemistry. Experimental algorithms chla related to internal communication various optical components in the water that may be change in space and time in the water with different optical characteristics. Therefore, the algorithms have been developed for one area may not work for other places and each region according to its specific characteristics needs that determined by an algorithm may be appropriate to local. We have tried treatment several algorithms for determination of chlorophyll, including experimental algorithms with a simple band ratio of blue-green band (i.e. OCx) and algorithms includes two bands ratio with variable 𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ2)/𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ1), the three bands ratio with variable [𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ1)-1-𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ2)-1]×𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ3) and four bands ratio with variable [𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ1)-1-𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ2)-1]/[𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ4)-1-𝑅𝑟𝑠(λ3)-1] that desired wavelength (i.e. λ1, λ2, λ3 and λ4) in the range of red and near-infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are in the region of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea look
Full Text Available Ocean color (OC monitoring using satellite imageries provides an appropriate tool for a better understanding of marine processes and changes in the coastal environment. Radiance measurements in the range of visible light of the electromagnetic spectrum provides information of ocean color that is associated with the water constituents. This measurements are used to monitor the level of biological activity and the presence of particles in the water. Ocean features such as the concentration of chlorophyll, suspended sediment concentration and sea surface temperature have a significant impact on the dynamics of the ocean. The concentration of chlorophyll (chla, active pigments of phytoplankton photosynthesis, as a key indicator applied for assessment of water quality and biochemistry. Experimental algorithms chla related to internal communication various optical components in the water that may be change in space and time in the water with different optical characteristics. Therefore, the algorithms have been developed for one area may not work for other places and each region according to its specific characteristics needs that determined by an algorithm may be appropriate to local. We have tried treatment several algorithms for determination of chlorophyll, including experimental algorithms with a simple band ratio of blue-green band (i.e. OCx and algorithms includes two bands ratio with variable (λ2/(λ1, the three bands ratio with variable [(λ1−1−(λ2−1]×(λ3 and four bands ratio with variable [(λ1−1−(λ2−1]/[(λ4−1−(λ3−1] that desired wavelength (i.e. λ1, λ2, λ3 and λ4 in the range of red and near-infrared wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum are in the region of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea look. Despite the high importance of the Persian Gulf and Oman Sea which can have up basin countries, to now few studies have been done in this area. The focus of this article on the northern part of Oman Sea and Persian
Dadashi, Mahsa; Ghaffari, Sanaz; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Tauler, Roma
Straight-chain alkanes (n-alkanes) have been proposed as biomarkers to assess petroleum pollution sources in marine environments. In this work, three sampling sites were selected along Iranian-protected mangrove forests in the Persian Gulf. Sample sites were chosen to represent different compositions and sources of n-alkanes in surface sediments (0-5 cm) from different locations in the Khamir Port, in the middle part of the Gulf, and in the Qeshm Island. Samples were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the obtained n-alkanes concentrations were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to deduce their possible sources and distribution patterns. Results revealed that n-alkanes have a dominant biogenic source in marginal Qeshm Island stations, which changed from biogenic to petrogenic sources in the Khamir Port areas. Sediment samples from the Khamir Port showed the significant presence of oil pollution due to transportation. These samples are being exposed to basic Persian Gulf currents entering from the Hormuz Strait causing oil pollution spread over the entire Gulf area. Sediment samples of the Middle Part stations located between two other sites show a combined condition of the two previous sections, with petrogenic and biogenic contributions. The present study demonstrates that the Hara Protected Area was already contaminated by background oil pollution as a result of continuous oil spills and war conflicts in the Persian Gulf.Additionally, the MCR-ALS method is shown to be a powerful chemometric tool for the investigation, resolution, identification, and description of pollution patterns distributed over a particular geographical area and environmental compartment. They can be used as well as parameters like unresolved to resolved ratio (U/R), pristane to phytane (Pr/Ph), n-C17/Pr, n-C18/Ph, and unresolved complex mixture (UCM) to assess petroleum pollution
Gade, Daniel M; Wenger, Jeffrey B
Using a random sample of more than 4000 veterans, we test the effects of combat exposure on mental health. We focus on two cohorts of veterans: those who served in Vietnam (1964-1975) and the Gulf War (1990-1991). Combat exposure differed between these groups in intensity, duration and elapsed time since exposure. We find that combat exposure generally, and exposure to dead, dying, or wounded people, specifically, is a significant predictor of mental health declines as measured by an individual's Mental Component Summary score. Under our general specifications, the negative effects of combat on mental health were larger for Gulf war veterans than for Vietnam veterans as of 2001. These effects persist after controlling for demographic characteristics, insurance coverage, income and assets. Using discrete factor, nonparametric maximum likelihood (DFML) estimation we controlled for unobserved heterogeneity as well as the factors above. In the DFML specifications we find a negative impact of exposure to dead, wounded or dying people for both Gulf and Vietnam veterans, but find no statistically significant effect for combat exposure overall for Vietnam veterans as of 2001. Based on our Gulf war parameters, we estimate that the costs of mental health declines to be between $87 and $318 per year for each soldier with combat service and exposure to dead, dying and wounded people. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Fox, Darin J
To achieve lasting security in the Arabian Gulf region, U.S. policy, though currently focused on Iraq, must engage Saudi Arabia and Iran with all of its instruments of national power to encourage the spread of democracy within the region...
Dozens of universities--primarily from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia--are eyeing the Gulf region as a largely untapped reservoir of academic potential and economic opportunity. During the last few years, UAE states like Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Qatar, and Ras al Khaymah have spent billions to entice top universities. And many colleges…
outright foreign ownership of real estate . U.S. officials have applauded progress by the Gulf states in eliminating the requirement that U.S. firms work...U.S.-Oman Free Trade Agreement.” July 19, 2006, by Todd Tatelman. Financial Action Task Force ( MENA -FATF), and Bahrain hosted its inaugural meeting
This paper examines the biopolitics of HIV and labour migration from Pakistan (a country classified by UNAIDS as at 'high risk' of a generalised epidemic) to the countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). The remittances by the labour migrants in the Gulf are an invaluable source of foreign exchange for Pakistan and a large number of households are entirely dependent upon them. At the same time, the National AIDS Control Programme regards Gulf migrants as a key risk factor for an HIV epidemic. The majority of HIV positive people in clinics comprise Gulf returnee migrants and their family members. This paper suggests that in the process of migrating, prospective migrants are subjected to structural violence that increases their HIV vulnerabilities. In this process, they are subjected to regimes of medical inspection, reduced to their certifiable labour power, inscribed with nationalist ideologies identifying HIV as a disease that strikes 'the other', and exposed to exploitation that increases their vulnerabilities. After migration, they are made to undergo compulsory periodic medical examinations in the GCC and, if found to be HIV positive, they are forcibly deported without papers, proper diagnosis or healthcare - only to return as 'failed subjects'. Taking a disaggregated view of the state, the paper argues that, in order to be effective, debates on structural violence and the HIV epidemic must make explicit the role of the state in producing migrants' vulnerabilities.
RC, O’Connor FL, Crayton JW. Platelet paroxetine binding and fluoxetine pharmacotherapy in posttraumatic stress disorder: preliminary observations on...Psychother. 1991 ;17(6):356-361. Nagy LM, Morgan CA 3d, Southwick SM, Chamey DS. Open prospective trial of fluoxetine for posttraumatic stress disorder...al. Sperm abnormalities and cigarette smoking. Lancet. 1981 ;1:627-629. Field B, Kerr C. Reproductive behaviour and consistent patterns of
have (Abou-Donia, Wilmar , Jensen, Oehme, & Kurt, 1996; been forced to rely on self-report of exposures. Military Haley & Kurt, 1997). Other...155-157. Abou-Donia, M. B., Wilmar , K. R., Jensen, K. F., Oehme, F. W., & Proctor, S. P., Heeren, T., White, R. F., Wolfe, J., Borgos, M. S., Davis
Tavakoli, Vahid; Naderi-Khujin, Mehrangiz; Seyedmehdi, Zahra
Detailed sedimentological and geochemical records across the Permian-Triassic boundary (PTB) in five offshore wells of the central Persian Gulf served to interpret the end-Permian sea-level change in this region. A decrease in sea level at the PTB was established by petrographical and geochemical study of the boundary. Thin sections showed that Upper Permian strata are composed of dolomite with minor anhydrite, changing into limestone in Lower Triassic sediments. Brine dilution toward the boundary supports sea-level fall in the Permian-Triassic transition, reflected by a decrease in anhydrite content and a shallowing-upward trend from lagoonal to peritidal facies. Isotopic changes at the boundary are in favor of sea-level fall. Changes in both carbon (from about 4 to -1‰) and oxygen (from 2 to -5‰) stable isotopes show negative excursions. The shift in carbon isotope values is a global phenomenon and is interpreted as resulting from carbonate sediment interaction with 12C-rich waters at the end-Permian sea-level fall. However, the oxygen isotope shift is attributed to the effect of meteoric waters with negative oxygen isotope values. The increase in strontium isotope ratios is also consistent with the high rate of terrestrial input at the boundary. The effect of meteoric conditions during diagenesis is evident from vuggy and moldic porosities below the PTB. The following transgression at the base of the Triassic is evident from the presence of reworked fossils and intraclasts resulting from deposition from agitated water.
Full Text Available Solenidae are deep burrowing bivalves inhabiting intertidal and shallow sub-tidal soft bottom sediments mostly in tropical and sub-tropical areas. Solen dactylus has a restricted distribution within the Indian Ocean. Solen dactylus is frequently found on the sandy-muddy coast of the northern Persian Gulf, Iran. Specimens of S. dactylus were collected since 2006 from Bandar Abbas to study their biology and ecology. During these studies, an unexpected pair of anterior pallial tentacles at the dorsal end of the anterior pallial crest of the mantle was found. In the tentacles, two kinds of epithelial cells (pyramidal and vacuolated and fibres (radial and longitudinal, and a branch of the pallial nerve located in the centre of a haemocoel, were determined. A possible coherence of a furrow parallel to the anterior shell margin with the presence of anterior pallial tentacles is discussed. All species with long anterior pallial tentacles have anterior shell furrows. Anterior pallial tentacles were found in 10 species of Solenidae from Asia to the Middle East and Europe. The function of the tentacles is unknown. However, more species need to be examined for anterior pallial tentacles and anterior shell furrows to determine if they reflect a common evolutionary history or ecology.
Agah, Homira; Leermakers, Martine; Elskens, Marc; Fatemi, S Mohamad Rez; Baeyens, Willy
In this study, concentrations of 16 elements were quantified in muscles and livers of 141 fishes belonging to five commercially species. It was also our intention to evaluate potential risks to human health associated with seafood consumption. The grunt, flathead, greasy grouper, tiger-tooth croaker and silver pomfret fish species were obtained from Abadan, Deylam, Bushehr-Nirogah, Dayyer port, Lengeh port and Abbas port in Hormozgan, Bushehr and Khozesran provinces at the Iranian waters of the Persian Gulf. The contents of Al, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Tl, V and Zn in fish muscles and livers were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP MS), after digestion in a CEM (Mars 5) microwave oven using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide. Our results indicated that almost all metals were more accumulated in younger flathead, greasy grouper and tiger-tooth fishes. Contrary to the other fish species, grunt seems to stronger accumulating elements in the older fishes. Strong and positive correlations were observed in three or more of the fish species between V, Al, Fe, Tl, Co and Pb. The results confirmed that fish muscle and liver tissues appeared to be good bio-indicators for identification of coastal areas exposed to metallic contaminants. The results also showed that the element levels in the muscles of all fishes in our study were lower than the maximum allowable concentrations and pose no threat to public health, except for arsenic.
Full Text Available The study area is located about 3 km southwest of the Hormoz Island in the Hormozgan province, in the Persian Gulf. The main rock units in the region consist of a highly altered acidic pluton cratophyre, which is responsible for apatite formation, diabasic dike, marl and altered basalt. Apatite is the only phosphate mineral in the Hormoz Island, which has accumulated REE in its crystal structure. The amount of Na2O and SiO2 oxides in apatite are high and the average content of the main elements Fe, Mg, Al, Ca are 7.5 ppm, 365 ppm, 2880 ppm and 27.8%, respectively. The Y, Mn, Rb contents increase and Sr decreases with increasing magmatic differentiation. It shows that a moderate magmatic differentiation occurred during the crystallization of apatite. The total REE content in the Hormoz apatite is high (1.22-2.25%. LREE/HREE ratio is also high. This means that Hormoz apatites are enriched in light rare earth elements. The REE normalized pattern shows a negative slope with a negative Eu anomaly. According to various diagrams based on apatite composition, it is deduced that the Hormoz apatites belong to mafic I-type granitoids with high oxidation state (Fe2O3/FeO>1.
Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also named cancerous hepatoma, is the most common type of malignant neoplasia of the liver. In this research, we screened the Persian Gulf sea cucumber Holothuria parva (H. parva methanolic sub-fractions for the possible existence of selective toxicity on liver mitochondria isolated from an animal model of HCC. Next, we purified the most active fraction. Thus the structure of the active molecule was identified. HCC was induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF protocol. Rat liver mitochondria for evaluation of the selective cytotoxic effects of sub-fractions of H. parva were isolated and then mitochondrial parameters were determined. Our results showed that C1 sub-fraction of methanolic extract of H. parva considerably increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, swelling in mitochondria and cytochrome c release only on HCC liver mitochondria. Furthermore, the methanolic extract of H. parva was investigated furthermore and the active fraction was extracted. In this fraction, (Z-2,3-diphenylacrylonitrile molecule, which is also known as α-cyanostilbene, was identified by mass analysis. This molecule increased ROS generation, collapse of MMP, swelling in mitochondria and finally cytochrome c release only on HCC liver mitochondria. The derivatives of (Z-2,3-diphenylacrylonitrile in other natural products were also reported as an anti-cancer agent. These results suggest the eligibility of the (Z-2,3-diphenylacrylonitrile as a complementary therapeutic agent for patients with HCC.
Lo, S C; Levin, L; Ribas, J; Chung, R; Wang, R Y; Wear, D; Shih, J W
Mycoplasma firmentans is suspected in the development of 'Gulf War illness' in veterans of Operation Desert Storm. We conducted a matched case-control study for the prevalence of M. firmentans-specific antibodies before and after the operation, as well as seroconversion rates in veterans with and without complaints of 'Gulf War illness'. Cases consisted of Gulf War veterans, who complained of various illnesses and were enrolled in the second phase of the health evaluation by the Army Comprehensive Clinical Examination Program (CCEP). Controls were selected from Gulf War veterans who did not participate in the registry and did not request a health evaluation by the CCEP. Before operation deployment, 34 out of 718 of the cases (48%) and 116 out of 2233 of the controls (5.2%) tested positive for M. fermentans-specific antibodies. There was no difference in rates of seroconversion between cases and controls (1.1 vs. 1.2%) to M. fermentans during Operation Desert Storm. Thus, there is no serological evidence that suggests infectionby M. fermentans is associated with development of 'Gulf War illness'.
Asim Ali; Shatha Al-Aswad
Competitive branding between Bahrain, Qatar and UAE has occurred on different levels of investment through the medium of the Gulf State Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs). This has happened across a number of sectors: oil and gas, finance, real estate, automotive and entertainment, but Vision 2030 for the three states gives a sense of duplicating strategies. As they aim to diversify their economies and create jobs, they have also duplicated efforts, perhaps leading to a misallocation of resources....
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal sea water, the surface sediment and Mudskipper Boleophthalmus dussumieri from coastal areas of the Persian Gulf: source investigation, composition pattern and spatial distribution
Sinaei, Mahmood; Mashinchian, Ali
Background Persian Gulf is an exposed and stressed area as a result of oil pollution and other fossil fuels containing PAHs. The susceptibility of using mudskippers to monitor marine pollution, like PAHs, points to the fact that mudskippers are able to accumulate and record the PAHs presented in the coastal environments. Methods Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in the coastal waters, the sediments and biota (i.e., Boleophthalmus dussumieri) along the coast of the Persian ...
Steele, Lea; Sastre, Antonio; Gerkovich, Mary M; Cook, Mary R
At least one-fourth of U.S. veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Gulf War are affected by the chronic symptomatic illness known as Gulf War illness (GWI). Clear determination of the causes of GWI has been hindered by many factors, including limitations in how epidemiologic studies have assessed the impact of the complex deployment environment on veterans' health. We sought to address GWI etiologic questions by evaluating the association of symptomatic illness with characteristics of veterans' deployment. We compared veteran-reported wartime experiences in a population-based sample of 304 Gulf War veterans: 144 cases who met preestablished criteria for GWI and 160 controls. Veteran subgroups and confounding among deployment variables were considered in the analyses. Deployment experiences and the prevalence of GWI differed significantly by veterans' location in theater. Among personnel who were in Iraq or Kuwait, where all battles took place, GWI was most strongly associated with using pyridostigmine bromide pills [odds ratio (OR) = 3.5; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7, 7.4] and being within 1 mile of an exploding SCUD missile (OR = 3.1; 95% CI: 1.5, 6.1). For veterans who remained in support areas, GWI was significantly associated only with personal pesticide use, with increased prevalence (OR = 12.7; 95% CI: 2.6, 61.5) in the relatively small subgroup that wore pesticide-treated uniforms, nearly all of whom also used skin pesticides. Combat service was not significantly associated with GWI. Findings support a role for a limited number of wartime exposures in the etiology of GWI, which differed in importance with the deployment milieu in which veterans served.
Full Text Available Tore T. Petersen. Richard Nixon, Great Britain and the Anglo-American Alignment in the Persian Gulf and Arabian Peninsula: Making Allies out of Clients. Sussex Academic Press, 2009. 172pp. 978-1-84519-277-8.Since the events of 9-11 there has been a sizeable quantity of books published on American foreign policy in broad terms, as well as more focused studies on contemporary developments in southwest Asia, more commonly referred to as the Middle East. Many of these volumes are highly politic...
Rohani-Ghadikolaei, Kiuomars; Abdulalian, Eessa; Ng, Wing-Keong
The proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition were determined for green (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis), brown (Sargassum ilicifolium and Colpomenia sinuosa) and red (Hypnea valentiae and Gracilaria corticata) seaweeds collected from the Persian Gulf of Iran. Results showed that the seaweeds were high in carbohydrate (31.8-59.1%, dry weight) and ash (12.4-29.9%) but low in lipid content (1.5-3.6%). The protein content of red or green seaweeds was significantly higher (p minerals examined (K, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and Co) compared to terrestrial vegetables. Seaweeds could potentially be used as a food or feed additive in Iran.
Eighani, Morteza; Paighambari, Seyed Yousef; Herrmann, Bent
to Asian countries. In order to conserve Cutlassfish resources and reduce costs of fishing, the effect of changing bait type and size on the catch efficiency and size structure of narrow-barred Spanish mackerel caught in the Persian Gulf handline fishery was investigated. The alternative baits investigated......, Indian mackerel (Rastrelliger kanagurta) and artificial bait (lead lure), resulted in a lower overall catch efficiency and a shift in catch pattern towards smaller individuals. The two alternative baits had very similar overall catch efficiencies. The results obtained demonstrate that bait type and size...
Full Text Available Background: Swimming is highly recommended because of its potentially beneficial effects on the joints and people’s general sense of well-being. But unfortunately the discharing of urban and industrial wastewaters into sea with their high level of pathogens, heavy metals and other pollutants, increase concerns about its consequences on swimmers’ health and ecology. The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial and chemical quality of Persian Gulf Sea beaches in Bushehr port and compare it to the existing standards. Materials and Methods: In this study, 30 samples were taken from the beaches at TV-Park, Daneshjo-Park and Eskele-Jofreh, in August 2012. The mean values of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, pseudomonas, HPC, heavy metals and BOD were determined by standard methods. Results: The mean values of total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and pseudomonas along Bushehr port beaches were 540, 165.56 and 6 MPN/100ml respectively.The mean value of HPC was 1580.66 CFU/ml. Also the mean concentrations of Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and BOD were 0.1676, 0.013, 0.025, 0.0016, 0.039, 0 and 21.3 mg/l respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that the mean values of indicator microorganisms in all stations were higher than the existing standards and the mean concentration of heavy metals were lower than the existing standard, which indicates higher pollution more due to urban wastewater compare to industrial wastewater. Therefore Bushehr port beaches are contaminated considering indicator bacteria measurments that can be dangerous for swimmers health.
Full Text Available Background: Based on previous studies, tobacco smoking generally and water pipe smoking particularly, have high prevalence in Bushehr province. This study is a new analysis of the Persian Gulf healthy heart study with goal of determination of prevalence and pattern of cigarette and water pipe smoking in Bushehr province. Materials and methods: A total of 3735 men and women aged 25 years old or higher from three districts of Bushehr province (Bushehr, Genaveh, and Deylam were participated in the study phase I in 2003, from which 1833 persons (49.7% were participated in the phase II 6 years later in 2009. Demographic data and pattern of smoking, either cigarette or water pipe, were collected with personal interview. Gender specific crude and directly standardized prevalence of cigarette and water pipe smoking was calculated for both phases of the study. Results: Prevalence of cigarette smoking were 11.9% and 7.5% for the firstand second phase, respectively. 21.6% of men and 0.4% of women in the first phase and 13% of men and 0.7% of women in the second phase were cigarette smokers. Prevalence of water pipe smoking were 17.9% and 12.9% in the first and second phase, respectively. 10.7% of men and 25.8% of women in the first phase and 7.1% of men and 19.05% of women in second phase were water pipe smokers. Conclusion: Water pipe smoking in women in Bushehr province was significantly higher than other non-southern areas of Iran. More studies are needed to determine main causes of women tendency in water pipe smoking in southern provinces of Iran.
Full Text Available Gill histomorphological alterations were used to assess the effects of chronic exposure to HgCl2 on the yellowfin seabream, Acanthopagrus latus. In this regard, 90 A. latus were exposed to sublethal concentrations of HgCl2 (10, 20, 35 and 50 μg/L for 3 weeks. Treated fish were erratic and showed respiratory distress. The most common morphological abnormalities included: filaments disorganization, increase of mucus secretion, debris and blood plaques on the filaments, losing or shortening of some filaments. The most frequent histopathological changes detected in the gills included extensive lifting of the lamellar epithelium and edema of lamellae with enlarged sub-epithelial spaces, exfoliated epithelium of lamellae, telangiectasia, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the epithelial cell resulted in partial fusion of the secondary lamellae and a reduction of the water space, club shaping of gill lamellae, blood congestion. Some more severe alternations found in the gill of fish exposed to higher levels of HgCl2 (35 and 50 μg/L included lamellar aneurysm and hemorrhages with rupture of the lamellar epithelium. According to the results of the present study, mercuric chloride could cause major histomorphological changes in the gill of A. latus, decreasing its gas exchange capability. Two mercury concentrations (10 and 20 μg/L used in the present study were in agreement with the concentration of mercury in the water of different parts of Mahshahr creeks (the north of Persian Gulf (3.66 to 15 μg/L. Therefore, based on the results the presence of pathological alteration in A. latus inhibited in the natural environment (Mahshahr creeks seems to be logical.
Arshadi, M; Zandi, H; Akbari, J; Shameli, A
The application of covalently attached ferrocene groups to the aluminum-silicate nanoparticles (ASNPs) for phosphate (P) removal from the synthetic and real waters has been studied and the prepared nanomaterials were analyzed by XPS, EDS, BET, TEM, chemical analysis (CHN), FTIR, and ICP-AES. The immobilization of the ferrocene on the surface of the inorganic support (mixed oxides) can lead to reduce the drawback of the pristine ferrocene molecules which may have strong tendency to agglomerate into larger particles, resulting in the negative effect on both available active sites and catalyst performance. XPS of Fe ions evidenced that most of the active sites of the nano-adsorbent is in the form of Fe(III) ions at the surface. The heterogeneous Fe(III) ions were effective toward removal of phosphate. The contact time to obtain equilibrium for maximum adsorption of phosphate (100%) was found to be 120 min. The adsorption kinetics of P has been evaluated in terms of pseudo-first- and -second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models have also been tested to the equilibrium adsorption results. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature and followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model. FTIR, EDS and XPS results confirmed the formation of Fe-O-P bond on the Si/Al@Fe surface after adsorption of P from aqueous media. The Si/Al@Fe displayed high reusability due to its high removal capacity after 10th adsorption-desorption runs. The proposed adsorbent could also be utilized to adsorb the P ions from the real sample (Persian Gulf water). The high removal capacity of P ions from the real water and the high levels of reusability confirmed the versatility of the heterogenized ferrocene groups on the ASNPs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Asma Mohammad Karami
Full Text Available Background: Persian Gulf is a semi-closed environment which is affected by pollution from heavy metals. Entrance of heavy metals to the water column and binding to sediment particles can affect the benthic organisms that can accumulate these materials in their body. Noticing this ability, mussels are considered as bio-monitoring agents. Methods: The pearl oyster, Pinctada radiate, and sediment samples were collected from Lengeh Port and Qeshm Island. For measuring heavy metals, 0.5g of soft tissue and 1g of shell and sediment were digested by HNO3 (69% and hot block digester. The prepared samples were evaluated for Cd, Cu, and Zn using a flame AAS Model 67OG while for Pb a graphite furnace AAS was used. Results: Higher metal accumulations were observed in soft tissues. Positive correlations between Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu concentrations in sediments and soft tissues of oyster were observed. The use of soft tissue of P. radiata as an indicator showed the highest accumulations of Cd (9.76±0.59 and Zn (3142.60±477.10 in Lengeh Port, but there were no significant differences in Cu and Pb concentrations between the two stations. Conclusion: The higher concentrations of heavy metals in P. radiata’ soft tissue in comparison to shell suggested this material as a better heavy metals indicator than shell. Also, the correlation between heavy metals concentration in soft tissue and sediment improve this idea that soft tissue of Pinctada radiata can be considered as a biomonitoring agent for toxic metals pollutions. Hence, using this bioindicator showed Lengeh Port as more polluted station than Qeshm Island.
Fouladvand, M; Barazesh, A; Farokhzad, F; Malekizadeh, H; Sartavi, K
Leishmaniasis is a protozoan parasitic disease which is transmitted by the female Phlebotomus sand fly and is prevalent in four continents.The first-choice treatment for the leishmaniasis is pentavalent antimonials, which are potentially toxic and often ineffective and use of them exhibit therapeutic failure. These pharmaceutical problems point towards the need to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents. Seaweeds are considered as source of bioactive metabolites characterized by a broad spectrum of biological activities. In this experimental study, cold and hot water crude extracts of four species of green, brown and red marine algae "Caulerpa sertularioides, Gracilaria corticata, Gracillaria salicornia and Sargassum oligocystum" collected along the Bushehr coast of the Persian Gulf (southwest of Iran), prepared and their in vitro activities against Leishmania major promastigote were evaluated by using the MTT assay test. The cold and hot water crude extracts of four algae species exhibited different anti-Leishmanial activities. The minimum inhibitory concentration of hot water extracts calculated as IC50 was as follows: Caulerpa sertularioides (IC50 125 microg/ml) for Caulerpa Sertularioides (IC50 >65 microg/ml) for Gracilaria corticata (IC50 >74 microg/ml) for Gracilaria salicornia and (IC50 >105 microg/ml) for Sargassum oligocystum, IC50 values for reference drug (Amphotericin B) was (0.16-0.2 microg/ml). According to the results, inhibitory effects of the crude extracts from these four species algae specially hot water crude extracts from "Gracilaria corticata, Gracillaria salicornia and Sargassum oligocystum" are significant and in accordance with other studies that has been done on different algae species. So these results are sufficiently promising to be followed with further studies on isolation and characterization of pure compounds from these algae species as well as in vivo experiments, a work that is already under way in our laboratory.
Maule, Alexis L; Janulewicz, Patricia A; Sullivan, Kimberly A; Krengel, Maxine H; Yee, Megan K; McClean, Michael; White, Roberta F
Across diverse groups of Gulf War (GW) veterans, reports of musculoskeletal pain, cognitive dysfunction, unexplained fatigue, chronic diarrhoea, rashes and respiratory problems are common. GW illness is a condition resulting from GW service in veterans who report a combination of these symptoms. This study integrated the GW literature using meta-analytical methods to characterise the most frequently reported symptoms occurring among veterans who deployed to the 1990-1991 GW and to better understand the magnitude of ill health among GW-deployed veterans compared with non-deployed GW-era veterans. Meta-analysis. Literature databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies published from January 1990 to May 2017 reporting health symptom frequencies in GW-deployed veterans and GW-era control veterans. Self-reported health symptom data were extracted from 21 published studies. A binomial-normal meta-analytical model was used to determine pooled prevalence of individual symptoms in GW-deployed veterans and GW-era control veterans and to calculate combined ORs of health symptoms comparing GW-deployed veterans and GW-era control veterans. GW-deployed veterans had higher odds of reporting all 56 analysed symptoms compared with GW-era controls. Odds of reporting irritability (OR 3.21, 95% CI 2.28 to 4.52), feeling detached (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.83 to 7.03), muscle weakness (OR 3.19, 95% CI 2.73 to 3.74), diarrhoea (OR 3.24, 95% CI 2.51 to 4.17) and rash (OR 3.18, 95% CI 2.47 to 4.09) were more than three times higher among GW-deployed veterans compared with GW-era controls. The higher odds of reporting mood-cognition, fatigue, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms among GW-deployed veterans compared with GW-era controls indicates these symptoms are important when assessing GW veteran health status. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is
Megan K. Yee
Full Text Available Recent research demonstrated a relation between traumatic brain injury (TBI, health symptoms and diagnosis of Gulf War Illness (GWI in Gulf War Veterans, but no study has examined the impact of multiple mild TBIs (mTBIs. A total of 229 male Gulf War Veterans from the Ft Devens Cohort were categorized by a number of mTBIs reported. One-way ANOVA and chi-square test of independence were used to test for differences in total reported health symptoms and diagnosis of chronic multisymptom illness (CMI or Kansas GWI criteria, two of the most common case definitions of GWI. A total of 72 veterans reported no mTBIs (31.4%, 26 reported one mTBI (11.4%, 25 reported two mTBIs (10.9%, and 106 veterans reported sustaining three or more mTBIs (46.3%. Veterans reporting two or more mTBIs (p < 0.01 or three or more mTBIs (p < 0.001 endorsed significantly higher rates of health symptoms than Veterans reporting no mTBIs. Significantly higher rates of CMI (p = 0.035 and Kansas GWI criteria (p < 0.001 were seen in the three or more mTBI group. Results suggest two mTBIs increase risk of health symptoms, but three mTBIs may be the threshold needed to sustain chronic symptom reporting needed for a formal diagnosis. These findings highlight the importance of implementing policies and procedures monitoring head injuries in military personnel.
Wallin, Mitchell T; Kurtzke, John F; Culpepper, William J; Coffman, Parisa; Maloni, Heidi; Haselkorn, Jodie K; Mahan, Clare M
Concern has been raised that US veterans of the 1990-1991 Gulf War (GW1) may be at increased risk to develop neurologic disease. An incident cohort of multiple sclerosis (MS) and other demyelinating disease (ODD) was assembled from the US military comprising the Gulf War era (1990-2007). Cases of MS and ODD meeting standard diagnostic criteria were matched to a database of all active duty personnel from the Department of Defense. Relative risk (RR) estimates for MS and all demyelinating disease based on onset, deployment status, and exposures were calculated. For GW1, a total of 1,841 incident cases of definite MS and ODD were identified, with 387 among 696,118 deployed and 1,454 among 1,786,215 nondeployed personnel. The RR for MS alone among those deployed compared to those nondeployed was 0.69 (confidence interval, CI: 0.61-0.78), with 0.72 (CI: 0.62-0.83) in men and 0.96 (CI: 0.75-1.22) in women. Deployment was also nonsignificant or protective as an MS risk factor across racial groups, all age groups, and each military service. RRs for MS by service were: Air Force 0.71 (CI: 0.53-0.96), Army 0.80 (CI: 0.67-0.96), Marines 0.96 (CI: 0.63-1.47), and Navy 0.56 (CI: 0.43-0.74). Military deployment to GW1 was not a risk factor for developing MS. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Full Text Available Background: By considering the daily increase in drug resistance of various viruses, novel antiviral compounds extracted from natural resources – due to their fewer side effects, had always been important to researchers. In the present study, we investigated antiviral activity of the hot water extract of a green seaweed, Caulerpa sertularioides, collected from coastal water of Bushehr in the Persian Gulf, against Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV-1. Methods: The hot water extract of a green seaweed, Caulerpa sertularioides was sterilized by autoclave and filtration methods. After determining its cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50 value, the effect of the extract on the inhibition of HSV-1 replication was examined in Vero cell culture. Results: The extract showed antiviral activity against HSV-1 in both attachment and entry of virus to the Vero cells and also on post attachment stages of virus replication. Inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50 values of the autoclaved extract were 81µg/ml and 126 µg/ml for attachment and post attachment stages, respectively. IC50 values of the filtered extract were 73 µg/ml and 104 µg/ml for attachment and post attachment stages, respectively. CC50 values for autoclaved and filtered extracts were 3140 µg/ml and 3095 µg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The hot water extract of Caulerpa sertularioides of the Persian Gulf had antiviral effect against HSV-1.
McDiarmid, Melissa A; Albertini, Richard J; Tucker, James D; Vacek, Pamela M; Carter, Elizabeth W; Bakhmutsky, Marina V; Oliver, Marc S; Engelhardt, Susan M; Squibb, Katherine S
Exposure to depleted uranium (DU), an alpha-emitting heavy metal, has prompted the inclusion of markers of genotoxicity in the long-term medical surveillance of a cohort of DU-exposed Gulf War veterans followed since 1994. Using urine U (uU) concentration as the measure of U body burden, the cohort has been stratified into low-u (effect for MFs occurring in the highest U exposed cohort members. Mutational spectral analysis of HPRT mutations is underway to clarify a potential clonal vs. a threshold uU effect to explain this observation. This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of a human population chronically exposed to DU and demonstrates a relatively weak genotoxic effect of the DU exposure. These results may explain the lack of clear epidemiologic evidence for U carcinogenicity in humans. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Background: The occumulation of heavy metals which are as the results of industrial, urban and agricultural sewages are usually resistant to chemical dissociation. They can easily contaminate aquatic animals especially shrimps which are one of the food chains of humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the concentration of heavy metals in the tissues of different types of shrimps (wild and farmed in the sea waters of province of Bushehr (Persian Gulf. Material and Methods: Wild shrimps from different areas of the province and also three types of farmed shrimps including Ferropenaeus, penaeus semisulcatus and Litopenaeusvannamei were caught and collected. Then cleaned, washed, dried and made into powder and then made into ash in a furnace at 550 °C. Heavy metals including Pb, Cd, Hg, Cu, and Zn were measured by atomic absorption flame photometry. Results: The mean values of the concentration of the heavy metals including Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu present in the wild shrimps were, 2.86, 9.53, 0.45, 1.36 ppm respectively. The amount of Hg found to be 2.8 ppb. Also the mean values of the concentration of the heavy metals in the farmed shrimps were measured as 3, 9.8, 0.42 and 1.37 ppm respectively and the amount of Hg was 2.7 ppb. There was no difference between the amount of heavy metals estimated in the tissues from wild shrimps and the farmed one. Conclusion: The results of this investigation showed that the concentration of heavy metals including Zn,Cu and Hg in both types of the shrimps were less than the amounts reported by WHO and so not risky for health. However the concentration of Pb and Cd in both types were more than the recommended consumption limit for the humans, and they can be considered as risk factors for many diseases. This suggests that attempts should be taken by the responsible authorities to prevent the contamination of sea waters.
Jain, Vineet; Shankar, D.; Vinayachandran, P. N.; Kankonkar, A.; Chatterjee, Abhisek; Amol, P.; Almeida, A. M.; Michael, G. S.; Mukherjee, A.; Chatterjee, Meenakshi; Fernandes, R.; Luis, R.; Kamble, Amol; Hegde, A. K.; Chatterjee, Siddhartha; Das, Umasankar; Neema, C. P.
The high-salinity water masses that originate in the North Indian Ocean are Arabian Sea High-Salinity Water (ASHSW), Persian Gulf Water (PGW), and Red Sea Water (RSW). Among them, only ASHSW has been shown to exist in the Bay of Bengal. We use CTD data from recent cruises to show that PGW and RSW also exist in the bay. The presence of RSW is marked by a deviation of the salinity vertical profile from a fitted curve at depths ranging from 500 to 1000 m; this deviation, though small (of the order of 0.005 psu and therefore comparable to the CTD accuracy of 0.003 psu), is an order of magnitude larger than the 0.0003 psu fluctuations associated with the background turbulence or instrument noise in this depth regime, allowing us to infer the existence of RSW throughout the bay. PGW is marked by the presence of a salinity maximum at 200-450 m; in the southwestern bay, PGW can be distinguished from the salinity maximum due to ASHSW because of the intervening Arabian Sea Salinity Minimum. This salinity minimum and the maximum associated with ASHSW disappear east and north of the south-central bay (85°E, 8°N) owing to mixing between the fresher surface waters that are native to the bay (Bay of Bengal Water or BBW) with the high-salinity ASHSW. Hence, ASHSW is not seen as a distinct water mass in the northern and eastern bay and the maximum salinity over most of the bay is associated with PGW. The surface water over most of the bay is therefore a mixture of ASHSW and the low-salinity BBW. As a corollary, we can also infer that the weak oxygen peak seen within the oxygen-minimum zone in the bay at a depth of 250-400 m is associated with PGW. The hydrographic data also show that these three high-salinity water masses are advected into the bay by the Summer Monsoon Current, which is seen to be a deep current extending to 1000 m. These deep currents extend into the northern bay as well, providing a mechanism for spreading ASHSW, PGW, and RSW throughout the bay.
Chao, Linda L; Mohlenhoff, Brian S; Weiner, Michael W; Neylan, Thomas C
To investigate whether subjective sleep quality is associated with brain volume independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Cross-sectional. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center. One hundred forty-four Gulf War Veterans (mean age 45 years; range: 31-70 years; 14% female). None. Total cortical, lobar gray matter, and hippocampal volumes were quantified from 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance images using Freesurfer version 4.5. Subjective sleep quality was assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Multiple linear regressions were used to determine the association of sleep quality with total and regional brain volumes. The global PSQI score was positively correlated with lifetime and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and current depressive symptoms (P sleep quality. Poorer subjective sleep quality was associated with reduced total cortical and regional frontal lobe volumes independent of comorbid psychiatric conditions. Future work will be needed to examine if effective treatment of disturbed sleep leads to improved structural and functional integrity of the frontal lobes.
People-Technology-Ecosystem Integration: A Framework to Ensure Regional Interoperability for Safety, Sustainability, and Resilience of Interdependent Energy, Water, and Seafood Sources in the (Persian) Gulf.
Meshkati, Najmedin; Tabibzadeh, Maryam; Farshid, Ali; Rahimi, Mansour; Alhanaee, Ghena
The aim of this study is to identify the interdependencies of human and organizational subsystems of multiple complex, safety-sensitive technological systems and their interoperability in the context of sustainability and resilience of an ecosystem. Recent technological disasters with severe environmental impact are attributed to human factors and safety culture causes. One of the most populous and environmentally sensitive regions in the world, the (Persian) Gulf, is on the confluence of an exponentially growing number of two industries--nuclear power and seawater desalination plants--that is changing its land- and seascape. Building upon Rasmussen's model, a macrosystem integrative framework, based on the broader context of human factors, is developed, which can be considered in this context as a "meta-ergonomics" paradigm, for the analysis of interactions, design of interoperability, and integration of decisions of major actors whose actions can affect safety and sustainability of the focused industries during routine and nonroutine (emergency) operations. Based on the emerging realities in the Gulf region, it is concluded that without such systematic approach toward addressing the interdependencies of water and energy sources, sustainability will be only a short-lived dream and prosperity will be a disappearing mirage for millions of people in the region. This multilayered framework for the integration of people, technology, and ecosystem--which has been applied to the (Persian) Gulf--offers a viable and vital approach to the design and operation of large-scale complex systems wherever the nexus of water, energy, and food sources are concerned, such as the Black Sea. © 2016, Human Factors and Ergonomics Society.
White, Roberta F.; Steele, Lea; O’Callaghan, James P.; Sullivan, Kimberly; Binns, James H.; Golomb, Beatrice A.; Bloom, Floyd E.; Bunker, James A.; Crawford, Fiona; Graves, Joel C.; Hardie, Anthony; Klimas, Nancy; Knox, Marguerite; Meggs, William J.; Melling, Jack; Philbert, Martin A.; Grashow, Rachel
Veterans of Operation Desert Storm/Desert Shield – the 1991 Gulf War (GW) – are a unique population who returned from theater with multiple health complaints and disorders. Studies in the U.S. and elsewhere have consistently concluded that approximately 25–32% of this population suffers from a disorder characterized by symptoms that vary somewhat among individuals and include fatigue, headaches, cognitive dysfunction, musculoskeletal pain, and respiratory, gastrointestinal and dermatologic complaints. Gulf War illness (GWI) is the term used to describe this disorder. In addition, brain cancer occurs at increased rates in subgroups of GW veterans, as do neuropsychological and brain imaging abnormalities. Chemical exposures have become the focus of etiologic GWI research because nervous system symptoms are prominent and many neurotoxicants were present in theater, including organophosphates (OPs), carbamates, and other pesticides; sarin/cyclosarin nerve agents, and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) medications used as prophylaxis against chemical warfare attacks. Psychiatric etiologies have been ruled out. This paper reviews the recent literature on the health of 1991 GW veterans, focusing particularly on the central nervous system and on effects of toxicant exposures. In addition, it emphasizes research published since 2008, following on an exhaustive review that was published in that year that summarizes the prior literature (RACGWI, 2008). We conclude that exposure to pesticides and/or to PB are causally associated with GWI and the neurological dysfunction in GW veterans. Exposure to sarin and cyclosarin and to oil well fire emissions are also associated with neurologically based health effects, though their contribution to development of the disorder known as GWI is less clear. Gene-environment interactions are likely to have contributed to development of GWI in deployed veterans. The health consequences of chemical exposures in the GW and other conflicts have
Seydi, Enayatollah; Motallebi, Abbasali; Dastbaz, Maryam; Dehghan, Sahar; Salimi, Ahmad; Nazemi, Melika; Pourahmad, Jalal
Natural products isolated from marine environments are well known for their pharmacodynamic potential in diverse disease treatments, such as for cancer or inflammatory conditions. Sea cucumbers are marine animals of the phylum Echinoderm and the class Holothuroidea, with leathery skin and gelatinous bodies. Sponges are important components of Persian Gulf animal communities, and the marine sponges of the genus Haliclona have been known to display broad-spectrum biological activity. Many studies have shown that sea cucumbers and sponges contain antioxidants and anti-cancer compounds. This study was designed to determine the selective toxicity of Persian Gulf sea cucumber (Holothuria parva) and sponge (Haliclona oculata) methanolic extracts on liver mitochondria isolated from an animal model of hepatocellular carcinoma, as part of a national project that hopes to identify novel potential anticancer candidates among Iranian Persian Gulf flora and fauna. To induce hepatocarcinogenesis, rats were given diethylnitrosamine (DEN) injections (200 mg/kg i.p. by a single dose), and then the cancer was promoted with 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) (0.02 w/w) for two weeks. Histopathological evaluations were performed, and levels of liver injury markers and a specific liver cancer marker (alpha-fetoprotein), were determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Finally, mitochondria were isolated from cancerous and non-cancerous hepatocytes. Our results showed that H. parva methanolic extracts (250, 500, and 1000 µg/mL) and H. oculata methanolic extracts (200, 400, and 800 µg/mL) increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial swelling, and cytochrome c release in the mitochondria obtained from cancerous hepatocytes, but not in mitochondria obtained from non-cancerous liver hepatocytes. These extracts also induced caspase-3 activation, which is known as a final mediator of apoptosis, in the hepatocytes
Full Text Available Biophysical properties of water undergo serious variations under red tide (RT outbreak. During RT conditions, algal blooms spread out in the estuarine, marine and fresh waters due to different triggering factors such as nutrient loading, marine currents, and monsoonal winds. The Persian Gulf (PG was a talent region subjected to different RTs in recent decade. A massive RT started from the Strait of Hormuz in October 2008 and extended towards the northern parts of the PG covering more than 1200 km of coastlines. The bloom of microorganism C. Polykrikoides was the main specie that generated large fish mortalities, and hampered marine industries, and water desalination appliances. Ocean color satellite data have many advantages to monitor and alarm RT occurrences, such as wide and continuous extent, short time of imagery, high accessibility, and appropriate estimation of ocean color parameters. Since 1999, MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS satellite sensor has estimated satellite derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a, normalized fluorescence line height (nFLH, and diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490nm (kd490. It provides a capability to study the behavior of these parameters during RT and normal conditions. This study monitors variations in satellite derived Chl-a, nFLH, and kd490 under both RT and normal conditions of the PG between 2002 and 2008. Up to now, daily and monthly variations in these products were no synchronously investigated under RT conditions in the PG. In doing so, the MODIS L1B products were provided from NASA data archive. They were corrected for Rayleigh scattering and gaseous absorption, and atmospheric interference in turbid coastal waters, and then converted to level 2 data. In addition, Enhanced Red Green Blue (ERGB image was used to illustrate better water variations. ERGB image was built with three normalized leaving water radiance between 443 to 560nm. All the above data processes were applied by SeaDAS 7
Shahpasandzadeh, Majid; Hashemifar, Ghasem; Shafiei Bafti, Amir
Intersalt and host roch structures of the the Namakdan diapir were studied and compared with available 14C and OSL dated sediments to determine the structural evolution and uplift pattern of the diapir. The Namakdan salt diapir is situated on Qeshm Island in the east of the Zagros fold-thrust belt of Iran, north of the Persian Gulf. This nearly circular diapir with ~ 7 km diameter penetrates the crest of Salkh anticline and is embedded by steep-dip bedding of the Miocene Mishan and Aghajari Formations, which demonstrates the concentric internal structure of the diapir. The intraformational unconformities of country rocks were developed due to the Zagros shortening and salt diapirism, which demonstrate their syn-tectonic sedimentation. In addition, the dip of these unconfromities and also bedding of the country rocks decrease upward. The Namakdan diapir is partly covered by gypsum/anhydrite residuals, dolomite, marine limestone, and tilted marine terraces. The salt belong to the Hormuz Complex, consisted of predominantly halite, gypsum, anhydrite, dolomite, shale, sandstone, and volcanic-volanoclastic blocks, which was deposited in the Late Proterozoic-Middle Cambrian evaporitic rift basins. The Hormuz Complex is not only the cause of many salt diapir oil/gas fields but is also considered to have been a major source rock for generation of younger reservoirs. Thus, the salt diapirs of the Zagros play an important role in generation of the oil/gas reservoirs in this strategic area, so determination of structural style and evolution of the salt diapirs are vital in oil/gas exploration and development. The upright folds are developed in the salt beds due to upward movement and minor extrusion of the salt rocks due to its low viscosity. The dip of country rock beds increase toward to the diapir rim, so that the beds shows a vertical and even overturned attitude in vicinity of the diapir. Differential uplift pattern of the diapir was deduced in rim-to-center profiles by
Smith, Tyler C; Powell, Teresa M; Jacobson, Isabel G; Smith, Besa; Hooper, Tomoko I; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D
Symptoms and illnesses reported by veterans of the 1991 Gulf War era are a cause of potential concern for those military members who have deployed to the Gulf region in support of more recent contingency operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. In the present study, we quantified self-reported symptoms from participants in the Millennium Cohort Study, a prospective study representing all US service branches, including both active duty and Reserve/National Guard components (2001-2008). Self-reported symptoms were uniquely compared with those in a cohort of subjects from the 1991 Gulf War to gain context for the present report. Symptoms were then aggregated to identify cases of chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) based on the case definition from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The prevalence of self-reported CMI symptoms was compared with that collected in 1997-1999 from a study population of US Seabees from the 1991 Gulf War, as well as from deployed and nondeployed subgroups. Although overall symptom reporting was much less in the Millennium Cohort than in the 1991 Gulf War cohort, a higher prevalence of reported CMI was noted among deployed compared with nondeployed contemporary cohort members. An increased understanding of coping skills and resilience and development of well-designed screening instruments, along with appropriate clinical and psychological follow-up for returning veterans, might help to focus resources on early identification of potential long-term chronic disease manifestations. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Chao, Linda L; Zhang, Yu; Buckley, Shannon
We previously found evidence of reduced gray and white matter volume in Gulf War (GW) veterans with predicted low-level exposure to sarin (GB) and cyclosarin (GF). Because loss of white matter tissue integrity has been linked to both gray and white matter atrophy, the current study sought to test the hypothesis that GW veterans with predicted GB/GF exposure have evidence of disrupted white matter microstructural integrity. Measures of fractional anisotropy and directional (i.e., axial and radial) diffusivity were assessed from the 4T diffusion tensor images (DTI) of 59 GW veterans with predicted GB/GF exposure and 59 "matched" unexposed GW veterans (mean age: 48 ± 7 years). The DTI data were analyzed using regions of interest (ROI) analyses that accounted for age, sex, total brain gray and white matter volume, trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder, current major depression, and chronic multisymptom illness status. There were no significant group differences in fractional anisotropy or radial diffusivity. However, there was increased axial diffusivity in GW veterans with predicted GB/GF exposure compared to matched, unexposed veterans throughout the brain, including the temporal stem, corona radiata, superior and inferior (hippocampal) cingulum, inferior and superior fronto-occipital fasciculus, internal and external capsule, and superficial cortical white matter blades. Post hoc analysis revealed significant correlations between higher fractional anisotropy and lower radial diffusivity with better neurobehavioral performance in unexposed GW veterans. In contrast, only increased axial diffusivity in posterior limb of the internal capsule was associated with better psychomotor function in GW veterans with predicted GB/GF exposure. The finding that increased axial diffusivity in a region of the brain that contains descending corticospinal fibers was associated with better psychomotor function and the lack of significant neurobehavioral deficits in veterans
Ranjbar Jafarabadi, Ali; Riyahi Bakhtiyari, Alireza; Shadmehri Toosi, Amirhossein; Jadot, Catherine
Concentrations of 13 heavy metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Cr, Co, Ni, V, As, Cd, Hg, Pb) in 360 reef surface sediments (0-5 cm) and coastal seawater samples from ten coral Islands in the Persian Gulf were analyzed to determine their spatial distribution and potential ecological risks. Different sediment quality indices were applied to assess the surface sediment quality. The mean concentrations of metals in studied sediments followed the order: Al > Fe > Ni > V > Mn > Zn > Cu > Cr > Co > As > Cd > Pb > As. Average Cd and Hg exceeded coastal background levels at most sampling sites. With the exception of As, concentrations of heavy metals decreased progressively from the west to the east of the Persian Gulf. Based on the Enrichment Factor (EF) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (RI), concentrations of V, Ni, Hg and Cd indicated moderate contamination and is of some concern. The mean values of heavy metals Toxic Units (TUs) were calculated in the following order: Hg (0.75)> Cr (0.41)> Cd (0.27)> As (0.23)> Cu (0.12)> Zn (0.05)> Pb (0.009). Furthermore, the mean contributing ratios of six heavy metals to Toxic Risk Index (TRI) values were 79% for Hg, 11.48% for Cd, 6.16% for Cr, 3.27% for Cu, 0.07% for Zn and 0.01% for Pb. Calculated values of potential ecological risk factor, revealed that the risk of the heavy metals followed the order Cd > Pb > Ni > Cr > V > Cu > Zn. The results reflected that the level of heavy metals, especially Hg and Cd, are on rise due to emerging oil exploration, industrial development, and oil refineries along the entire Gulf. Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, V and Ni concentrations in seawater were significantly higher (p heavy metals in the sampling sites. A health risk assessment using the hazard quotient index (HQ) recommended by the USEPA suggests that there is no adverse health effect through dermal exposure, and there is no carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic harm to human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All
Brewer, Noel T; Hallman, William K; Kipen, Howard M
Noticing medical symptoms can cause one to search for explanatory labels such as "ate bad food" or even "exposed to anthrax," and perhaps these labels may cause new symptom reports. The present study examined whether there is empirical support for this symptom-label "symmetry rule." We interviewed veterans (N= 362) from the Gulf War Registry in 1995 and 2002 about their medical symptoms and about their exposure to war-related hazards and stressors. Health symptom reports were strongly correlated between the two time periods and showed relatively stable mean levels, whereas recall of war-related exposures was notably unstable. Veterans starting with fewer medical symptoms recalled fewer war-related exposures seven years later. Initial recollection of chemical and biological warfare exposure (but not other exposures) longitudinally predicted novel medical symptoms. The findings generally support the symmetry rule hypotheses, although the evidence for the label to symptom link was less strong. The findings account for some variability in symptoms and exposure recall over time, but they do not, on their own, account for the Gulf War veterans' elevated number of unexplained medical symptoms.
White, Roberta F; Steele, Lea; O'Callaghan, James P; Sullivan, Kimberly; Binns, James H; Golomb, Beatrice A; Bloom, Floyd E; Bunker, James A; Crawford, Fiona; Graves, Joel C; Hardie, Anthony; Klimas, Nancy; Knox, Marguerite; Meggs, William J; Melling, Jack; Philbert, Martin A; Grashow, Rachel
Veterans of Operation Desert Storm/Desert Shield - the 1991 Gulf War (GW) - are a unique population who returned from theater with multiple health complaints and disorders. Studies in the U.S. and elsewhere have consistently concluded that approximately 25-32% of this population suffers from a disorder characterized by symptoms that vary somewhat among individuals and include fatigue, headaches, cognitive dysfunction, musculoskeletal pain, and respiratory, gastrointestinal and dermatologic complaints. Gulf War illness (GWI) is the term used to describe this disorder. In addition, brain cancer occurs at increased rates in subgroups of GW veterans, as do neuropsychological and brain imaging abnormalities. Chemical exposures have become the focus of etiologic GWI research because nervous system symptoms are prominent and many neurotoxicants were present in theater, including organophosphates (OPs), carbamates, and other pesticides; sarin/cyclosarin nerve agents, and pyridostigmine bromide (PB) medications used as prophylaxis against chemical warfare attacks. Psychiatric etiologies have been ruled out. This paper reviews the recent literature on the health of 1991 GW veterans, focusing particularly on the central nervous system and on effects of toxicant exposures. In addition, it emphasizes research published since 2008, following on an exhaustive review that was published in that year that summarizes the prior literature (RACGWI, 2008). We conclude that exposure to pesticides and/or to PB are causally associated with GWI and the neurological dysfunction in GW veterans. Exposure to sarin and cyclosarin and to oil well fire emissions are also associated with neurologically based health effects, though their contribution to development of the disorder known as GWI is less clear. Gene-environment interactions are likely to have contributed to development of GWI in deployed veterans. The health consequences of chemical exposures in the GW and other conflicts have been
Haley, Robert W; Tuite, James J
Military intelligence data published in a companion paper explain how chemical fallout from US and Coalition bombing of Iraqi chemical weapons facilities early in the air campaign transited long distance, triggering nerve agent alarms and exposing US troops. We report the findings of a population-based survey designed to test competing hypotheses on the impact on chronic Gulf War illness of nerve agent from early-war bombing versus post-war demolition. The US Military Health Survey performed computer-assisted telephone interviews of a stratified random sample of Gulf War-era veterans (n = 8,020). Early-war exposure was measured by having heard nerve agent alarms and post-war exposure, by the computer-generated plume from the Khamisiyah demolition. Gulf War illness was measured by two widely published case definitions. The OR (95% CI) for the association of alarms with the Factor case definition was 4.13 (95% CI 2.51-6.80) compared with 1.21 (95% CI 0.86-1.69) for the Khamisiyah plume. There was a dose-related trend for the number of alarms (p(trend) war demolition. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Eltahir, E. A. B.; Ibrahim, H. D.
The Middle East has an arid climate and very little freshwater from river runoff, which has forced a rapid expansion of desalination plants in the region in order to meet current and future freshwater demand due to rising population. The Gulf is the source of feedwater and sink of concentrated discharge (brine) for plants producing more than half of the world's desalination capacity. Moreover, the Gulf is one of the most saline water bodies in the world due to large evaporation that far exceeds the input of freshwater from precipitation and river runoff. An increase in salinity at the regional scale due to brine discharge may reduce the quality of feedwater to plants and efficiency of desalination, and at the basin scale, a rise in salinity may change the dynamics of water circulation and adversely impact the marine biota. Here we present modeling results from simulating the impact of desalination on the natural Gulf environment using a coupled Gulf-atmosphere regional model (GARM). GARM is the first two-way coupled model developed for the Gulf system. The hydrodynamic component of GARM is the unstructured grid finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) and the atmosphere component of GARM is the MIT regional climate model (MRCM), both of which have been widely used in simulating regional ocean and atmospheric dynamics. Desalination activity is incorporated into GARM as a boundary condition and the Gulf system is simulated for a ten-year time period in order to quantify the impact of brine discharge both at regional and basin scales. These results will be useful for desalination plant design and planning for current and future water security in the region.
Brewer, Noel T.; Hallman, William K.; Kipen, Howard M.
Noticing medical symptoms can cause one to search for explanatory labels such as “ate bad food” or even “exposed to anthrax,” and perhaps these labels may cause new symptom reports. The present study examined whether there is empirical support for this symptom-label “symmetry rule.” We interviewed veterans (N = 362) from the Gulf War Registry in 1995 and 2002 about their medical symptoms and about their exposure to war-related hazards and stressors. Health symptom reports were strongly correlated between the two time periods and showed relatively stable mean levels, whereas recall of war-related exposures was notably unstable. Veterans starting with fewer medical symptoms recalled fewer war-related exposures seven years later. Initial recollection of chemical and biological warfare exposure (but not other exposures) longitudinally predicted novel medical symptoms. The findings generally support the symmetry rule hypotheses, although the evidence for the label to symptom link was less strong. The findings account for some variability in symptoms and exposure recall over time, but they do not, on their own, account for the Gulf War veterans’ elevated number of unexplained medical symptoms. PMID:18795995
fatigue relief in veterans with GWI. Pain scale and fatigue scale decreased during the intervention . EMG data in both groups shows increased mean EMG...advancements in acupressure intervention for veterans with GWI. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18...conclusive treatment. Veterans with GWI rely on pharmaceutical treatment, physical therapy, and/or nutritional supplements to temporarily alleviate their
reflux, without inflammation (530.81 ); irritable colon, not elsewhere specified (564.1); contact dermatitis and other eczema , unspecified cause...reported exposure to neurotoxic chemical com- binations in the Gulf War: a cross-sectional epidemiologic study. JAMA 1997; 277:231-7. 10. Centers for
the Middle East as a thesis topic. To my “clique” and Fadjus, your friendship and support in all matters both inside and outside of the classroom ...goal that is coupled with on-going diversification efforts within the Gulf states’ oil-driven economies. In the near-term, the GCC members will rely
MIR MEHRDAD MIRSANJARI
Full Text Available Mirsanjari MM, Sheybanifar F, Arjmand F. 2014. The study of forest Hara Biosphere Reserve in coast of Persian Gulf and the importance of heavy metal accumulation; Case study: feathers of great cormorant. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 159-164. In recent years, concerns about the long term effects of heavy metals as environmental polluters have arisen, since considerable quantities of heavy metals have been released into the environment as a result of extensive human activities. Heavy metal has been determined as a serious threat to the stability of ecosystems. In this study, we examined the levels of zinc‚ copper‚ lead, and cadmium in the feathers of twenty great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo, collected from Hara Biosphere Reserve during November and December in 2012. The results revealed that the mean concentration of heavy metals in the feathers of males is significantly higher than females (P < 0.05. In addition‚ no significant difference was observed in heavy metal concentration between juvenile and adult birds. Moreover, according to the results, the high concentration of heavy metals in some samples indicated this fact that birds are potentially exposed to the risk of heavy metals in their habitat.
Differential image processing analysis were utilized to detect changes occurred in the significant coral reef communities located around the Kish Island in the northern side of the Persian Gulf. In this regard, multi-temporal bands of two QuickBird images (for years 2005 and 2008) were applied to implement change detection analysis. The methodology conducted in this research was based on integration of class-wised and pixel-wised change detection methodologies to highlight the variations in situation of corals. Moreover, some historical field observations from the study area were employed to fulfill required image classifications, as well as for assessment and validation of the obtained results. The results demonstrated that most of coral reefs of the study area were under stress between 2005 and 2008. Furthermore, field observations proved that most of these stresses come from the bleaching happened in August 2007, which caused a massive degradation and mass moralities in coral reef communities. Finally, it is resulted that multi-temporal/multi-spectral high resolution satellite imagery is beneficial to utilize for investigation of degradation in the coral reefs, particularly for inaccessible islands and in absence of field observations.
Full Text Available : Turbotoxins are marine secondary metabolites that produce in Turbinidae family and were isolated from Japanese Turbo marmorata for the first time. A few research has been done on these metabolites so far. Another species, Turbo coronatus exists in Iran. The main aim of the current project was to investigate some biological effects of the crude extract of Turbo coronatus from the Persian Gulf . Materials and methods: In this study, 18 rats were selected in three groups including the control group. The experimental groups received ½ and 1/3 lethal doses intravenously and serum levels of liver and muscle enzymes, electrolytes and complete blood counts (CBC were measured after 24 hours. : The levels of liver and muscle enzymes, amylase, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus, ferrous, haptoglobin, albumin and creatinine were significantly increased in experimental group compared with the control group by injection of crude extract of Turbo coronatus; however, hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV, red blood cell count, magnesium, and glucose levels were significantly decreased in the experimental group compared with the control group. : Intravenous injection of ½ and 1/3 lethal doses of the crude extract of Turbo coronatus to rats produced rhabdomyolysis and hepatocytes injury. In addition, the crude extract injection acted as a haematoxin and decreased hemoglobin and MCV.
Full Text Available The majority of all deaths attributable to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs are in developing countries. There is now a pressing need for developing countries to define and implement preventive interventions for CVDs. We used WHO MONICA Project protocols to measure trends in coronary risk factors in Bushehr Port in the Persian Gulf Healthy Heart Project. Coronary risk factors of 2092 , aged >= 25 years men and women were evaluated in a cross-sectional study. Of the studied population, 97.7% had at least one coronary risk factor, 44.3% of men and 69% of women had at least two coronary risk factors. The high prevalence rates of diabetes mellitus (8.6%, central obesity (59.4%, obesity (26.8%, hypertension (24.5%, smoking (15.7%, physical inactivity (71.1%, hypercholesterolemia (24% and low HDL-cholesterol (61.5% showed that coronary risk factors prevail in Bushehr Port. Therefore, preventive strategies should be implemented immediately to avoid cardiovascular epidemic in the near future.
Full Text Available Abstract Background The metabolic syndrome together with insulin resistance and their consequences are basic factors in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Chronic infections with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1, cytomegalovirus (CMV, and Chlamydia pneumoniae are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. The infectious aspects of metabolic syndrome have not been investigated. Methods In a cross-sectional, population-based study, we used National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III criteria in 1791 subjects, aged 25 years and over, selected by cluster random sampling in three Iranian ports in the northern Persian Gulf. Sera were analyzed for IgG antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae, HSV-1, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and CMV using ELISA. Results In multiple logistic regression analysis, of the infectious agents, CMV [OR = 1.81 (1.05–3.10; p = 0.03], H. pylori [OR = 1.50 (1.12–2.00; p = 0.007] and Chlamydia pneumoniae [OR = 1.69 (1.27–2.25; p Conclusion The metabolic syndrome, which occurs very frequently in the general population, has a significant association with prior infection with Chlamydia pneumoniae, Helicobacter pylori, cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus type 1. Hypothesis about participation of infection in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome should be investigated.
Sinaei, Mahmood; araghi, Peyman Eghtesadi; Mashinchian, Ali; Fatemi, Mohamadreza; Riazi, Gholamhossein
In this study, selected biomarkers-The retention time (RT) performed on haemocytes, the Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility (EOF) and the Glutathione-S Transferase (GST) activity in the liver- were measured in mudskipper (i.e., Boleophthalmus dussumieri) obtained from the Persian Gulf. Chemical analyses included the assessment of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the sediment and mudskipper liver. Total PAH concentrations in the sediment and the liver tissues ranged between 113.50-3384.34 ng g(-1) dw and 3.99-46.64 ng g(-1) dw, respectively. Spatial evaluation indicated that RT had a significant difference (pmudskippers showed significant differences (p0.05) was observed between Arvand, Zangi and Samayeli. Additionally, significant correlations were found between total PAHs levels and selected biomarkers (p<0.01). The biomarkers measured in this study were useful as a first investigation into the biological effects of PAHs pollution as well as in determining the bioavailability of pollution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: Marine algae are shown to contain a wide range of bioactive compounds, which have commercial application in pharmaceutical, medical, cosmetic, nutraceutical, food and agricultural industries. The biological activity of the natural bio-active compounds in algae has wide effects on bacteria, tumors and antioxidant activities. The purpose of this study was to determine antioxidant and antibacterial activity of the marine algae. Materials and Methods: The ethanol extracts of three species of green, brown and red algae were done by soaking method from northern coast of the Persian Gulf in Busheher province. Antibacterial activity of L. monocytogenes and E. Coli were performed using disk diffusion and well method, and also antioxidant activities of ethanol extracts of added three species accomplished using DPPH, FRAP and PMB tests. Results: The highest antioxidant activity was belonged to brown algae C. trinodis. Meanwhile Algae extraction was not revealed antibacterial activity against E. coli, but showed antibacterial activity against L. monocytogenes. Conclusion: In this study algae species was exhibited excellent antioxidant activity when compared with their antibacterial effects. The highest anti-oxidant activitie was found in brown algae C. trinodis.
Wittich, A C
Tripler Army Medical Center initiated the Department of Defense's Persian Gulf Illness Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program (CCEP) on June 15, 1994. In the first 5 months, 100 patients enrolled in this program. Sixteen (16%) were women who served in the Persian Gulf during Desert Shield/ Desert Storm, and 1 (1%) was the dependent wife of a Gulf War veteran who is experiencing illness that may be related to the Persian Gulf War. All 17 women enrolled in the CCEP were evaluated in the Tripler Army Medical Center Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinic between June 17 and November 10, 1994. Each patient underwent gynecologic history, pelvic exam, Pap smear, and screen for fecal occult blood. Ten patients underwent baseline mammograms and 13 patients underwent urogenital and cervical cultures for aerobic bacteria, chlamydia and herpes simplex. The 1 patient with an abnormal Pap smear underwent cervical and endocervical biopsies and colposcopy (histology demonstrated no dysplasia or neoplasia). Half of the 16 Gulf War veterans experienced gynecologic problems while serving in the Gulf and 43% admitted gynecologic problems since returning in 1991. Of 6 patients who became pregnant after returning, 5 had normal pregnancies and 1 suffered four miscarriages.
event of war. (WP) NYT has calendar on moon , tides, religious holidays in Gulf. 1 Dec 90 Sat Iraq accepts talks with U.S., repeats link to Palestinian...retaliatory strike by Israel. Egypt say it would tolerate retaliation. Jordanian Parliament labels U.S. a " great Satan." U.S. dropped 2500 tons of ordnance...offer with many conditions. Text in WP. U.S. and allies reject proposal. Bush calling it a "cruel hoax ." Bush also calls for overthrow of Saddam
Hooper, Tomoko I; DeBakey, Samar F; Nagaraj, Barbara E; Bellis, Kimberly S; Smith, Besa; Smith, Tyler C; Gackstetter, Gary D
Background Despite more than a decade of extensive, international efforts to characterize and understand the increased symptom and illness-reporting among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, concern over possible long-term health effects related to this deployment continue. The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term hospitalization experience of the subset of U.S. Gulf War veterans still on active duty between 1994 and 2004. Methods Gulf War veterans on active duty rosters as of October 1, 1994, were identified (n = 211 642) and compared with veterans who had separated from military service and then assessed for attrition at three-year intervals during a 10-year follow-up period, examining demographic and military service characteristics, Gulf War exposure variables, and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to evaluate independent predictors of all-cause hospitalization among those still on active duty and to estimate cumulative probability of hospitalization, 1994–2004, by service branch. Results Members of our 1994 active duty cohort were more likely to be officers, somewhat older, and married compared with those who had separated from the military after serving in the 1991 Gulf War. Selected war-related exposures or experiences did not appear to influence separation with the exception of in-theater presence during the brief ground combat phase. Overall the top three diagnostic categories for hospitalizations were musculo-skeletal, injury and poisoning, and digestive disorders. Diseases of the circulatory system and symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions increased proportionately over time. In-theater hospitalization was the only significant independent predictor of long-term hospitalization risk among selected war-related exposures or experiences examined. The cumulative probability of hospitalization was highest for Army and lowest for Marines. Conclusion Our results were generally consistent with a previous
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite more than a decade of extensive, international efforts to characterize and understand the increased symptom and illness-reporting among veterans of the 1991 Gulf War, concern over possible long-term health effects related to this deployment continue. The purpose of this study was to describe the long-term hospitalization experience of the subset of U.S. Gulf War veterans still on active duty between 1994 and 2004. Methods Gulf War veterans on active duty rosters as of October 1, 1994, were identified (n = 211 642 and compared with veterans who had separated from military service and then assessed for attrition at three-year intervals during a 10-year follow-up period, examining demographic and military service characteristics, Gulf War exposure variables, and hospitalization data. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to evaluate independent predictors of all-cause hospitalization among those still on active duty and to estimate cumulative probability of hospitalization, 1994–2004, by service branch. Results Members of our 1994 active duty cohort were more likely to be officers, somewhat older, and married compared with those who had separated from the military after serving in the 1991 Gulf War. Selected war-related exposures or experiences did not appear to influence separation with the exception of in-theater presence during the brief ground combat phase. Overall the top three diagnostic categories for hospitalizations were musculo-skeletal, injury and poisoning, and digestive disorders. Diseases of the circulatory system and symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions increased proportionately over time. In-theater hospitalization was the only significant independent predictor of long-term hospitalization risk among selected war-related exposures or experiences examined. The cumulative probability of hospitalization was highest for Army and lowest for Marines. Conclusion Our results were generally consistent
Full Text Available The oil-exporting countries of the Persian Gulf have failed economically and socially. It is time for a radical new approach to managing oil revenues while oil and gas reserves last. We propose an approach to cut the level of oil revenues available to governments to zero while incorporating a formal "Oil Fund for All Generations". Others have proposed and implemented oil funds but in our proposal the government would (in time lose all access to oil revenues; by taking easy money away from governments and rulers, waste, corruption, military expenditures and wars will be reduced, there will be better chance of adopting and implementing rational economic policies, and equity across generations may be enhanced. Hope may be slowly restored to a region that has lost hope. I paesi del Golfo Persico esportatori di petrolio hanno fallito dal punto di vista economico e sociale. È tempo di adottare un approccio radicalmente nuovo alla gestione dei ricavi petroliferi finché vi sono ancora riserve di petrolio e di gas. Noi proponiamo un approccio finalizzato ad azzerare il livello dei ricavi disponibili per i governi, istituendo allo stesso tempo un formale “Fondo petrolifero per tutte le generazioni”. Fondi petroliferi sono stati ipotizzati e realizzati anche da altri, ma nella nostra proposta il governo perderebbe (col tempo qualunque accesso ai ricavi petroliferi; sottraendo denaro facile ai governi e ai sovrani, la probabilità di sprechi, corruzione e guerre risulterebbe ridotta, e vi sarebbe maggiore possibilità di adottare e mettere in pratica politiche economiche razionali finalizzate ad accrescere l’equità tra le generazioni. JEL Codes: O13, O53, Q48Keywords: Gas; Oil
... Southwest Asia theater of operations during the Gulf War. The Committee will review VA program activities... each day. A sign-up sheet for five-minute comments will be available at the meeting. Individuals who...
... service in the Southwest Asia theater of operations during the Gulf War. The Committee will review VA... comments will be limited to five minutes each. A sign-up sheet will be made available for those who wish to...
Ranjbar Jafarabadi, Ali; Riyahi Bakhtiari, Alireza; Aliabadian, Mansour; Shadmehri Toosi, Amirhossein
This study is the first quantitative report on petroleum biomarkers from the coral reefs systems of the Persian Gulf. 120 reef surface sediment samples from ten fragile coral reef ecosystems were collected and analyzed for grain size, biogenic elements, elemental ratios, and petroleum biomarkers (n-alkanes, PAHs1 and Hopanes) to assess the sources and early diagenesis of sedimentary organic matter. The mean grain size of the reef sediments ranged from 13.56 to 37.11% (Clay), 26.92 to 51.73% (Sand) and 35.97 to 43.85% (Silt). TOC2 (3.35-9.72 mg.g-1) and TON3 (0.4-1.10 mg.g-1) were identified as influencing factors on the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons, whilst BC4 (1.08-3.28 mg.g-1) and TIN5 (0.13-0.86) did not exhibit any determining effect. Although BC and TIN demonstrated heterogeneous spatial distribution, TOC and TON indicated homogenous distribution with continually upward trend in concentration from the east to west ward of the Gulf. The mean calculated TOC/TN ratios vacillated according to the stations (p hydrocarbons between most sampling locations. Some sampling sites especially Kharg, Lavan, Siri and Lark indicated higher concentration of n-alkanes due to the higher maintenance of organic matter by high clay content in the sediments. Furthermore, most sediment samples, except for Hormoz, Qeshm and Hengam showed an even carbon preference for n-alkanes which could be correlated to bacterial input. NPMDS7 analysis also demonstrated that among the congeners of petroleum biomarkers, n-C12,n-C14, n-C16,n-C18 and n-C20 for n-alkanes, Phe8 and Naph9 along with their Alkyl homologues for PAHs (2-3 rings accounted for 60%) and C30αβ and C29αβ for Hopanes were discriminated from their other congeners in the whole study area. Our results based on the PCA10 analysis and diagnostic indices of AHs11 and PAHs along with ring classification of PAHs, in addition, the ubiquitous presence of UCM,12 and Hopanes revealed that the main sources of the pollution
low dose naltrexone have established benefits in syndromes related to Gulf War Illness such as fibromyalgia . We have successfully enrolled 41 subjects...encountered drop out. Nonetheless, as we enter the last year of the study, our initial power analysis based on the use of study drugs for syndromes ...Hom J. Is there a Gulf War Syndrome ? Searching for syndromes by factor analysis of symptoms. JAMA. 1997;277:215-22. Erratum in: JAMA 1997 Aug 6;278(5
Full Text Available Gulf War Illness (GWI, which affects at least one fourth of the 700,000 veterans deployed to the Gulf War (GW, is characterized by persistent and heterogeneous symptoms, including pain, fatigue and cognitive problems. As a consequence, this illness remains difficult to diagnose. Rodent models have been shown to exhibit different symptomatic features of GWI following exposure to particular GW agents (e.g. pyridostigmine bromide, permethrin and DEET and/or stress. Preclinical analyses have shown the activation of microglia and astroglia as a pathological hallmark in these mouse and rat models. Although much has been learned in recent years from these different rodent models and independent clinical studies, characterization studies to identify overlapping features of GWI in animals and humans have been missing. Thus, we aimed to identify biomarkers that co-occur in the plasma of rodent models of GWI and human GWI patients. We observed increases of multiple phospholipid (PL species across all studied cohorts. Furthermore, these data suggested dysfunction within ether and docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid containing PL species in relation to GWI. As these PL species play a role in inflammatory processes, these findings suggest a possible role for inflammatory imbalance in GWI. Overall, we show that the peripheral lipid disturbances are present both in human GWI patients and in the preclinical rodent models of GWI, highlighting the importance of lipidomics as a potential platform for further biomarker discovery and supporting the value of GW agent exposed models of GWI.
Tuite, James J; Haley, Robert W
Coalition bombings on the night of 18-19 January 1991, early in the Gulf War, targeted the Iraqi chemical weapons infrastructure. On 19 January 1991, nerve agent alarms sounded within Coalition positions hundreds of kilometers to the south, and the trace presence of sarin vapor was identified by multiple technologies. Considering only surface dispersion of plumes from explosions, officials concluded that the absence of casualties around bombed sites precluded long-distance transit of debris to US troop positions to explain the alarms and detections. Consequently, they were discounted as false positives, and low-level nerve agent exposure early in the air war was disregarded in epidemiologic investigations of chronic illnesses. Newly assembled evidence indicates that plumes from those nighttime bombings of Iraqi chemical facilities would have traversed the stable nocturnal boundary layer and penetrated the residual layer where they would be susceptible to rapid transit by supergeostrophic winds. This explanation is supported by plume height predictions, available weather charts, weather satellite images showing transit of a hot air mass, effects of solar mixing of atmospheric layers, and observations of a stationary weather front and thermal inversion in the region. Current evidence supports long-distance transit. Epidemiologic studies of chronic postwar illness should be reassessed using veterans' reports of hearing nerve agent alarms as the measure of exposure. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the coastal sea water, the surface sediment and Mudskipper Boleophthalmus dussumieri from coastal areas of the Persian Gulf: source investigation, composition pattern and spatial distribution.
Sinaei, Mahmood; Mashinchian, Ali
Persian Gulf is an exposed and stressed area as a result of oil pollution and other fossil fuels containing PAHs. The susceptibility of using mudskippers to monitor marine pollution, like PAHs, points to the fact that mudskippers are able to accumulate and record the PAHs presented in the coastal environments. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were examined in the coastal waters, the sediments and biota (i.e., Boleophthalmus dussumieri) along the coast of the Persian Gulf. PAHs concentrations were measured with HPLC method. Total PAH concentrations in the sea water, the sediments, the liver and the gill tissues ranged between 0.80-18.34 μg/l, 113.50-3384.34 ng g-1 (d w), 3.99-46.64 ng g-1 (d w) and 3.11-17.76 ng g-1 (d w), respectively. PAHs distribution patterns in the sediment and the liver tissue samples were dominated by three-and four-ring structures whereas two-and three-rings were dominated in the water and the gill. This finding revealed a negative eco-risk effects occasionally occur in this area. The higher presence of low condensate ring structures reflected a predominant origin of petrogenic and some cases of pyrolitic sources.
pharmaceutical treatment, physical therapy , and/or nutritional supplements to temporarily alleviate their symptoms, with limited effect. The severity of...listed in table 1 for the Acupressure group and Reiki group. A 6-week Acupressure intervention produced fatigue relief and pain alleviation...management in veterans with GWI. The results from the four subjects who have completed the intervention look promising and are indicative of the
syndrome (CFS) and 50 irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) non-veterans) will be analyzed in this study from several current and prior studies using stored...central nervous system, biomarkers, irritable bowel syndrome , chronic fatigue syndrome 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT... syndrome , irritable bowel syndrome 3. Accomplishments • What were the major goals of the project? o The major goals of the project as stated in the
GWI) and from 200 controls (100 healthy GW controls, 100 disease controls). Preliminary results using Western blot assay showed increased levels of...Department of Math and Computer Science, Menoufia University, Shebin ElKom, Egypt6, Department of Biostatistics & Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical...included. The results show significantly elevated levels of circulating Ig-G-class autoantibodies in the veterans with GWI, compared to controls. This
breathing with any restrictive or obstructive pulmonary disease , but these illnesses were used as part of a stratified randomization procedure (see...movement disorder, and/or sleep-disordered breathing with any restrictive or obstructive pulmonary disease . They only found out their treatment...Persian Gulf War (GW). Many of these GW Veterans continue to experience a complex of troubling chronic symptoms, at a significantly higher rate than
Full Text Available Persian Dari is a language which has been used not only by the people of Madain and western cities on the coast of Arvand river but also by the people in eastern cities like Balkh and Marv . Nevertheless most of the researchers of Persian language or literature are trying to prove that Dari has been a limited language or a dialect of Persian belonged to some eastern districts of Iran and it has been extended to other parts of Iran by some Samanid governors. This article tries to clarify this subject as far as possible and prove that Dari title has been derived from Sasanid Darbar and has not any relation with eastern governors in third or fourth century.
sectional epidemiologic study. JAMA. 1997:15;277:231-7. Younger J, Noor N, McCue R, Mackey S. Low-dose naltrexone for the treatment of fibromyalgia ...Neither treatment had a significant impact on pain. The authors concluded that CBT and/or exercise provided...ground breaking concept that could provide, both an enhanced understanding of, and beneficial treatment for, Gulf War Illnesses. Research at the National
Kelsall, Helen Louise; McKenzie, Dean Philip; Forbes, Andrew Benjamin; Roberts, Minainyo Helen; Urquhart, Donna Michelle; Sim, Malcolm Ross
Occupational activities such as lifting loads, working in constrained spaces, and training increase the risk of pain-related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in military veterans. Few studies have investigated MSD and psychological disorder in veterans, and previous studies had limitations. This cross-sectional study compared pain-related MSD and psychological comorbidity and well-being between 1381 male Australian 1990-1991 Gulf War veterans (veterans) and a military comparison group (n=1377, of whom 39.6% were serving and 32.7% had previously deployed). At a medical assessment, 2000-2002, reported doctor-diagnosed arthritis or rheumatism, back or neck problems, joint problems, and soft tissue disorders were rated by medical practitioners as nonmedical, unlikely, possible, or probable diagnoses. Only probable MSDs were analysed. Psychological disorders in the past 12 months were measured using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. The Short-Form Health Survey (SF-12) assessed 4-week physical and mental well-being. Almost one-quarter of veterans (24.5%) and the comparison group (22.4%) reported an MSD. Having any or specific MSD was associated with depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but not alcohol disorders. Physical and mental well-being was poorer in those with an MSD compared to those without, in both study groups (eg, veterans with any MSD, difference in SF-12 physical component summary scale medians = -10.49: 95% confidence interval -12.40, -8.57), and in those with MSD and psychological comorbidity compared with MSD alone. Comorbidity of any MSD and psychological disorder was more common in veterans, but MSDs were associated with depression, PTSD, and poorer well-being in both groups. Psychological comorbidity needs consideration in MSD management. Longitudinal studies are needed to assess directionality and causality. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights
Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Stoltenberg, Christian Ditlev Gabriel; Vedtofte, Mia Sadowa
/hypnotic medication, and (3) number of postdeployment psychiatric contacts. The association between outcomes and GWVs status was studied by using time-to-event analysis. The index date was the return date from the last deployment to the Gulf. The follow-up period was the time from index date until December 31, 2014....... FINDINGS: GWVs had an elevated average risk over time for use of both types of medication compared with NV. For use of antidepressants the average hazard rate (HR) was 2.56, with 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.04-3.21 (p medication the corresponding results were....... Incident use of anxiolytic/hypnotic medication was one and a half that of NV after 10 years, but nearly three times that of NV after 20 years. There was no difference in rate of postdeployment psychiatric contacts. DISCUSSION/IMPACT/RECOMMENDATIONS: The findings of increased use of antidepressants...
Tillman, Gail D.; Calley, Clifford S.; Green, Timothy A.; Buhl, Virginia I.; Biggs, Melanie M.; Spence, Jeffrey S.; Briggs, Richard W.; Haley, Robert W.; Kraut, Michael A.; Hart, John
An exaggerated response to emotional stimuli is among the many symptoms widely reported by veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War. These symptomologies have been attributed to damage and dysfunction associated with deployment-related exposures. We collected event-related potential data from 22 veterans meeting Haley criteria for Gulf War (GW) Syndromes 1-3 and from 8 matched GW veteran controls, who were deployed but not symptomatic, while they performed a visual three-condition oddball task where images authenticated to be associated with the 1991 Persian Gulf War were the distractor stimuli. Hyperarousal reported by ill veterans was significantly greater than that by control veterans, but this was not paralleled by higher amplitude P3a in their ERP responses to GW-related distractor stimuli. Whereas previous studies of PTSD patients have shown higher amplitude P3b responses to target stimuli that are placed amid trauma-related nontarget stimuli, ill veterans in this study showed P3b amplitudes to target stimuli—placed amid GW-related nontarget stimuli—that were significantly lower than those of the control group. Hyperarousal scores reliably predicted P3b, but not P3a, amplitudes. Although many factors may contribute to P3b amplitude differences—most notably depression and poor sleep quality, symptoms that are prevalent in the GW syndrome groups—our findings in context of previous studies on this population are consistent with the contention that dysfunction in cholinergic and dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems, and in white matter and basal ganglia may be contributing to impairments in GW veterans. PMID:23149040
Villa, Valentine M; Harada, Nancy D; Washington, Donna; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn
This analysis examines the self-rated health and functioning of World War II, Vietnam era, Korean Conflict, and Persian Gulf War veterans participating in the Veteran Identity Program Survey 2001. The results indicate that although World War II veterans are more likely to report poor health status and functioning, Vietnam-era veterans report more difficulty with specific activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living than any other era of veterans. These relationships remain when controlling for race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, disease prevalence, and mental health status. These findings suggest that there are characteristics unique to the Vietnam experience that negatively affect this cohort of veterans. We suggest that further analysis examine the specific pathways through which the experience of being a Vietnam veteran affects health. In the meantime, health and social service planning within the Department of Veterans Affairs should explore the services that should be developed and targeted to this cohort of veterans so that they may remain independent in the community.
Yehuda, Rachel; Golier, Julia A; Bierer, Linda M; Mikhno, Arthur; Pratchett, Laura C; Burton, Charles L; Makotkine, Iouri; Devanand, D P; Pradhaban, Gnanavalli; Harvey, Philip D; Mann, J John
Neuroendocrine, cognitive and hippocampal alterations have been described in Gulf War (GW) veterans, but their inter-relationships and significance for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have not been described. Hydrocortisone (Hcort) was administered to GW veterans with (PTSD+ n=12) and without (PTSD- n=8) chronic PTSD in a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind challenge. Changes in plasma ACTH, memory, and hippocampal [(18)F]FDG uptake on positron emission tomography were assessed. The low-dose dexamethasone suppression test was also administered. The PTSD+ group showed greater cortisol and ACTH suppression, reflecting greater peripheral glucocorticoid receptor (GR) responsiveness, and did not show an Hcort-induced decrement in delayed recall or retention. The groups had comparable relative regional hippocampal [(18)F]FDG uptake at baseline, but only the PTSD- group had an Hcort-associated decrease in hippocampal [(18)F]FDG uptake. Asymmetry in hippocampal hemispheric volumes differed between PTSD+ and PTSD- groups. This asymmetry was associated with cortisol, ACTH, retention and functional hippocampal asymmetry before, but not after, Hcort administration. Differences in brain metabolic responses between GW veterans with and without PTSD may reflect differences in peripheral and central GR responsiveness. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Improving Vocational Rehabilitation Access and Return to Work and Career Outcomes among African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War, and Vietnam War Era Veterans with Disabilities: A White Paper Series
Moore, Corey L., Ed.: Johnson, Jean E., Ed.; Washington, Andre L., Ed.
The purpose of this monograph is to present documents that discuss issues related to improving access to vocational rehabilitation services and return to work rates of African American Wounded Warriors, Gulf War and Vietnam War Era veterans with disabilities. This monograph also includes a review of relevant literature on barriers to employment…
data will be used to optimize a GWI case definition, based on current symptoms, and to provide insights concerning rates of other medical conditions... questionnaires by mail or online, and to participate in the 1991 Veterans Research and Information Network (91VetNet), a national research and information...be used to update and optimize a GWI case definition, based on veterans’ current health status, and to provide important insights concerning rates of
AllahTavakoli, Yahya; Safari, Abdolreza
This paper is counted as a numerical investigation into the capability of Poisson's Partial Differential Equation (PDE) at Earth's surface to extract the near-surface mass-density from land-based gravity data. For this purpose, first it focuses on approximating the gradient tensor of Earth's gravitational potential by means of land-based gravity data. Then, based on the concepts of both the gradient tensor and Poisson's PDE at the Earth's surface, certain formulae are proposed for the mass-density determination. Furthermore, this paper shows how the generalized Tikhonov regularization strategy can be used for enhancing the efficiency of the proposed approach. Finally, in a real case study, the formulae are applied to 6350 gravity stations located within a part of the north coast of the Persian Gulf. The case study numerically indicates that the proposed formulae, provided by Poisson's PDE, has the ability to convert land-based gravity data into the terrain mass-density which has been used for depicting areas of salt diapirs in the region of the case study.
Kambuziya, Aliyeh Kord-e Zafaranlu; Dehghan, Masoud
This paper investigates epenthesis process in Persian to catch some results in relating to vowel and consonant insertion in Persian lexicon. This survey has a close relationship to the description of epenthetic consonants and the conditions in which these consonants are used. Since no word in Persian may begin with a vowel, so that hiatus can't be…
I have based my bachelor Thesis on the presentation of a completely different musical world, compared with the western musical world, which is Persian Music. As a Persian, I started to study music as a Persian Setar player; then I followed my musical experience through western classical music by playing classical guitar. As an ambition I have always thought about how to express Persian music in an understandable way for that of non-Persians. In this thesis I began with a short history of Pers...
Hyams, Kenneth C; Brown, Mark; White, David S
In the last 15 years, the US and UK have fought two major wars in the Persian Gulf region. Controversy has arisen over the nature and causes of health problems among military veterans of these two wars. Toxic exposures have been hypothesised to cause the majority of the long-term health problems experienced by veterans of the 1991 Gulf War. The assessment of these toxic exposures and the resolution of controversy about their health effects provide a unique case study for understanding how toxicological disputes are settled in the US. Neither clinical examination of ill war veterans nor scientific research studies have been sufficient to answer contentious questions about toxic exposures. Numerous expert review panels have also been unable to resolve these controversies except for the US National Academy of Sciences Institute of Medicine (IOM). The IOM has conducted exhaustive and independent investigations based on peer-reviewed scientific literature related to potential health risks during the two Gulf Wars. In four recent studies, IOM committees identified a wide range of previously documented illnesses associated with common occupational and environmental exposures after considering thousands of relevant publications; however, they did not identify a new medical syndrome or a specific toxic exposure that caused widespread health problems among Gulf War veterans. These IOM studies have, therefore, added little to our basic knowledge of environmental hazards because most of the health effects were well known. Nevertheless, this expert review process, which is on-going, has been generally acceptable to a wide range of competing interests because the findings of the IOM have been perceived as scientifically credible and independent, and because none of the postulated toxicological risks have been completely ruled-out as possible causes of ill health among veterans.
Alizadeh, Bahram; Najjari, Saeid; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali
Intelligent and statistical techniques were used to extract the hidden organic facies from well log responses in the Giant South Pars Gas Field, Persian Gulf, Iran. Kazhdomi Formation of Mid-Cretaceous and Kangan-Dalan Formations of Permo-Triassic Data were used for this purpose. Initially GR, SGR, CGR, THOR, POTA, NPHI and DT logs were applied to model the relationship between wireline logs and Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN). The correlation coefficient (R2) between the measured and ANN predicted TOC equals to 89%. The performance of the model is measured by the Mean Squared Error function, which does not exceed 0.0073. Using Cluster Analysis technique and creating a binary hierarchical cluster tree the constructed TOC column of each formation was clustered into 5 organic facies according to their geochemical similarity. Later a second model with the accuracy of 84% was created by ANN to determine the specified clusters (facies) directly from well logs for quick cluster recognition in other wells of the studied field. Each created facies was correlated to its appropriate burial history curve. Hence each and every facies of a formation could be scrutinized separately and directly from its well logs, demonstrating the time and depth of oil or gas generation. Therefore potential production zone of Kazhdomi probable source rock and Kangan- Dalan reservoir formation could be identified while well logging operations (especially in LWD cases) were in progress. This could reduce uncertainty and save plenty of time and cost for oil industries and aid in the successful implementation of exploration and exploitation plans.
Gulf. x 1 UNITED STATES-GULF COOPERATION COUNCIL SECURITY COOPERATION IN A MULTIPOLAR WORLD INTRODUCTION For the United States, the Arabian Gulf...Kuwait Program on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States, 2010; Thierry Kellner, “The GCC States of the Persian Gulf and Asia
Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani
Full Text Available There are numerous manuscripts, poems and stories that describe, specifically and in detail, the different techniques used in Persian swordsmanship. The present article explains the origins and the techniques of Persian swordsmanship. The article also describes the traditional code of conduct for Persian warriors. Additionally, it describes an array of techniques that were deployed in actual combat in Iran’s history. Some of these techniques are represented via the miniatures that are reproduced herein. This is the first article on Persian swordsmanship published in any periodical.
in this cascade produces depressive symptoms and memory impairments, and inhibiting this system with pharmacological or genetic manipulation affords...1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0478 TITLE: Novel Therapeutic Approaches for the Treatment of Depression and Cognitive Deficits in a Rodent Model...the Treatment of Depression and Cognitive Deficits in a Rodent Model of Gulf War Veterans’ Illness 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0478 5c
MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14...prevalence of CMI in those deployed to the recent military conflicts to that in vet- erans of the 1991 Gulf War. METHODS Study population The Millennium...sex, birth date, highest educational level, mari- tal status, race/ethnicity, deployment in support of wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, pay grade, service
Haley, R W; Kurt, T L; Hom, J
To search for syndromes in Persian Gulf War veterans. Two hundred forty-nine (41%) of the 606 Gulf War veterans of the Twenty-fourth Reserve Naval Mobile Construction Battalion living in 5 southeastern states participated; 145 (58%) had retired from service, and the rest were still serving in the battalion. Participants completed a standardized survey booklet measuring the anatomical distributions or characteristics of each symptom, a booklet measuring wartime exposures, and a standard psychological personality assessment inventory. Two-stage factor analysis was used to disentangle ambiguous symptoms and identify syndromes. Factor analysis-derived syndromes. Of 249 participants, 175 (70%) reported having had serious health problems that most attributed to the war, and 74 (30%) reported no serious health problems. Principal factor analysis yielded 6 syndrome factors, explaining 71% of the variance. Dichotomized syndrome indicators identified the syndromes in 63 veterans (25%). Syndromes 1 ("impaired cognition," characterized by problems with attention, memory, and reasoning, as well as insomnia, depression, daytime sleepiness, and headaches), 2 ("confusion-ataxia," characterized by problems with thinking, disorientation, balance disturbances, vertigo, and impotence), and 3 ("arthro-myo-neuropathy," characterized by joint and muscle pains, muscle fatigue, difficulty lifting, and extremity paresthesias) represented strongly clustered symptoms; whereas, syndromes 4 ("phobia-apraxia"), 5 ("fever-adenopathy"), and 6 ("weakness-incontinence") involved weaker clustering and mostly overlapped syndromes 2 and 3. Veterans with syndrome 2 were 12.5 times (95% confidence interval, 3.5-44.8) more likely to be unemployed than those with no health problems. A psychological profile, found in 48.4% of those with the syndromes, differed from posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, somatoform disorder, and malingering. These findings support the hypothesis that clusters of symptoms
Murphy, Dominic; Hooper, Richard; French, Claire; Jones, Margaret; Rona, Roberto; Wessely, Simon
Following the 1991 Gulf War (GW) there was much controversy surrounding service-related health effects. Evidence from the Vietnam experience suggested that self-reported ill health following that conflict might be related to how service during the conflict is framed. The aim of this article is to determine if a GW health effect persisted when the same questions were asked in a "non-GW" context. Prevalence of physical and psychological health problems were ascertained in a study assessing health screening from a random sample of UK Armed Forces. Record linkage between the screening survey and service history was conducted to obtain information on participation in the GW. Differences in health outcomes were found between the GW and the non-GW groups. This difference existed for symptomatic measures (OR=1.84, 95% CI, 1.17-2.91) rather than psychological or behavioral measures. No differences were found in psychological measures such as PTSD or behavioral measures such as alcohol consumption. Those deployed to the GW had a poorer self-perception of health (OR=1.47, 95% CI 1.02-2.11). Even in the absence of framing, a Gulf-related ill health effect was found.
Sochi Ardabi l Bakhtaran Bam Bandar Abb Kerman Aqtau Al Khaluf Salalah Ordzhonik idze Medina Mecca Berbera Atbara Port Sudan k Al Ghaydan Al Mukal la...such as the U.S.-promoted boycott of the Moscow 1980 Olympic summer games, which seems to have had no appreciable impact on the Soviets but did...author had counseled that the United States participate in the Olympics and “win one for the Gipper” in regard to Afghanistan. 9 In one of history’s
V 349 495 265 270 12 MEMPHIS, TN 129 610 2 236 0 MIAMI, FL 280 1317 14 78 10 o MILES CITY, MT 8 12 0 0 0 MILWAUKEE ,I j 1120 1664 20 95 0 MINNEAPOLIS...6) those who responded positively (anything other than 0) to suicidal/ homicidal items on the BSI and/or M-PTSD. The three suicidal/ homicidal items...suicidal/ homicidal items on the M-PTSD were "if someone pushes me too far, I am likely to become violent", "when I think of some of the things I have
As the small states that line the Arabian Peninsula spend their billions of petrodollars picking up luxury hotels, first-class airlines, and high-tech weaponry, three of the emirates--Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Qatar--have been engaged in a high-stakes game of one-upmanship involving universities, American universities in particular. Recent reports…
This volulme features eight original papers dedicated to the theme “Persian Architecture and Mathematics,” guest edited by Reza Sarhangi. All papers were approved through a rigorous process of blind peer review and edited by an interdisciplinary scientific editorial committee. Topics range from symmetry in ancient Persian architecture to the elaborate geometric patterns and complex three-dimensional structures of standing monuments of historical periods, from the expression of mathematical ideas to architectonic structures, and from decorative ornament to the representation of modern group theory and quasi-crystalline patterns. The articles discuss unique monuments Persia, including domed structures and two-dimensional patterns, which have received significant scholarly attention in recent years. This book is a unique contribution to studies of Persian architecture in relation to mathematics.
..., Drug abuse, Health care, Health facilities, Health professions, Health records, Homeless, Medical.... 17.400;''. 0 3. Amend Sec. 17.108(e)(2) by removing ``or post-Gulf War combat- exposed veterans'' and adding, in its place, ``post-Gulf War combat- exposed veterans, or Camp Lejeune veterans pursuant to Sec...
Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.
This two-way dictionary is a supplement to the Persian 12-Week Course. It consists of a Persian-English and an English-Persian section. Phonetic symbols are used for indicating Persian pronunciations. In addition to vocabulary, the Persian-English section contains idioms and expressions. With the infinitives, the present and past simple roots of…
Qafisheh, Hamdi A.
This volume, developed for an introductory course in Gulf Arabic, utilizes the dialect of Abu Dhabi, a leading member of the Federation of Arab Emirates on the Persian Gulf. Although specifically developed for the University of Arizona Environmental Research Laboratory personnel, it can be used as a beginning textbook for college students and…
The first Western honors program to be established in the Arab Gulf is offered in Doha, Qatar, on a small satellite campus of an American university. Doha is the capital city of Qatar, a sovereign Arab state physically located on a small peninsula bordering Saudi Arabia in the south and jutting into the Persian Gulf. With a population of only 1.7…
pediatric disorders and reproductive risks (e.g., miscarriage , infertility). The linkage study will expand information gained from and fill information...Stillbirth/ Miscarriage Preterm Live Birth (birth at less than 37 weeks) Fullterm Live Birth (birth at 37 weeks or later) Infant Death (within 12 months of...Insomnia Recurrent Headaches Stomach Cramps/Diarrhea Muscle Ache/Pain Blisters or Cold Sores Unusual Fatigue Swollen Lymph Glands/ Recurrent sore throat
...) for review and comment. The PRA submission describes the nature of the information collection and its... National Cohort of Gulf War and Gulf Era Veterans, VA Form 10-0488 and Consent Form for Release of Medical... veterans. b. VA Form 10-0488a is completed by claimants to request release of medical records from their...
Abolfazl MOSAFFA JAHROMI
Full Text Available It has generally been argued that Persian does not include dummy elements called expletives, in spite of the existence of the morpheme ǐn which shows the behavior of an expletive in specific constructions. The morpheme is not a part of the argument structure and has no meaning. In Persian, which is a pro-drop language, the morpheme ǐn as expletive is generated only in [SPEC CP] of an independent clause. This element may occur in a subject position, object position, or as an object of a preposition. In subject and object positions it is optional when S′ moves to the end of the sentence, or is adjoined to it, in other cases it is obligatory. As an object of a preposition it is always obligatory, no matter whether the structure is the result of a movement or not. The aim of this article is to provide evidence in favor of the existence of expletives, and their projection in Persian.-----V jezikoslovju prevladuje miselnost, da perzijščina ne vsebuje mašil, navkljub obstoju morfema ǐn, ki v specifičnih strukturah izkazuje lastnosti mašila. Ta morfem ne predstavlja argumenta in ne nosi pomena. V perzijščini, ki spada med “pro-drop” jezike (tj. nekateri zaimki so lahko pod določenimi pogoji izpuščeni, se morfem ǐn pojavlja le v strukturi [SPEC CP] neodvisnega stavka, in sicer kot osebek, predmet ali pa kot predložni predmet. V primeru, ko je S′ na koncu stavka, oz. mu je le-ta priključen, je morfem ǐn, ki nastopa kot osebek ali povedek, poljuben, v vseh drugih primerih je obvezen. Kot predložni predmet je vedno obvezen. Namen tega članka je pokazati obstoj mašil teoretično in na konkretnih primerih.
Lofti, Ahmad R.
Full Text Available This article investigates agreement as a number marking mechanism in Persian. The mechanism differs from number marking on nominals in that with an inanimate plural subject, the SG verbal ending signals a collective conceptualization of the experience where the members of the group are considered together as a single unit. The PL ending, on the other hand, signals a distributive conceptualization where the entities are individuated; hence, they are considered to be dispersed over space, or distinct in sort or time. Autonomy - whether the entity is conceived of as governing the course of events or not - seems to underlie the choice between SG and PL.
Many servicemembers who served in the Persian Gulf War have subsequently experienced health problems such as fatigue, muscle and joint pain, gastrointestinal complaints, headaches, memory loss, and sleep disturbances...
Full Text Available Gulf War Illness (GWI is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component such as memory deficits, neurological, and musculoskeletal problems. There are ample data that demonstrate that exposure to Gulf War (GW agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB and pesticides such as permethrin (PER, were key contributors to the etiology of GWI post deployment to the Persian GW. In the current study, we examined the consequences of acute (10 days exposure to PB and PER in C57BL6 mice. Learning and memory tests were performed at 18 days and at 5 months post-exposure. We investigated the relationship between the cognitive phenotype and neuropathological changes at short and long-term time points post-exposure. No cognitive deficits were observed at the short-term time point, and only minor neuropathological changes were detected. However, cognitive deficits emerged at the later time point and were associated with increased astrogliosis and reduction of synaptophysin staining in the hippocampi and cerebral cortices of exposed mice, 5 months post exposure. In summary, our findings in this mouse model of GW agent exposure are consistent with some GWI symptom manifestations, including delayed onset of symptoms and CNS disturbances observed in GWI veterans.
Wright, Breanna K; Kelsall, Helen L; Sim, Malcolm R; Clarke, David M; Creamer, Mark C
Pretrauma factors of psychiatric history and neuroticism have been important in highlighting vulnerability to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), whereas posttrauma support mechanisms have been associated with positive health and well-being outcomes, particularly in veterans. The relationship between these factors and PTSD has not been the subject of a systematic review in veterans. An online search was conducted, supplemented by reference list and author searches. Two investigators systematically and independently examined eligible studies. From an initial search result of 2,864, 17 met inclusion criteria. A meta-analysis of unit cohesion involving 6 studies found that low unit cohesion was associated with PTSD, standardised mean difference of -1.62, 95% confidence interval (CI) [-2.80, -0.45]. A meta-analysis of social support involving 7 studies found that low social support was associated with PTSD, standardised mean difference of - 12.40, 95% CI [-3.42, -1.38]. Three of 5 studies found a significant relationship between low-family support and PTSD; insufficient data precluded a meta-analysis. Regarding pretrauma vulnerability, 2 studies on psychiatric history and 1 on neuroticism found positive relationships with PTSD. Posttrauma factors of low support were associated with higher reporting of PTSD. Cross-sectional methodology may be inadequate to capture complex relationships between support and PTSD; more longitudinal research is required. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies.
Full Text Available Background and Aim: The current study has been designed based on the framework of the Stress Deafness Model (SDM, and aims at investigating native listeners’ general perceptual sensitivity to theacoustic correlates of stress in Persian, a language with predictable stress. According to SDM, more regularity in a language implies poorer perceptual sensitivity of its native speakers, as regular stress patterns will not require lexical encoding.Methods: The experiment was a modified method of adjustment task where subjects had to simulate stimuli played to them. A total of thirty five Persian speakers took part in the experiment and wereplaced in three groups based on their linguistic background. In addition to overall perceptual sensitivity, the effect of exposure to English and phonetic knowledge were also tested.Results: Persian speakers showed a weak perception of stress correlates. It was found, however, that exposure to English will improve stress deafness among Persian natives (p<0.0001. However, the results failed to show any significant effect by phonetic knowledge. It was also shown that the duration had the most erroneous perception by participants (p=0.0001, while there was no statistically significant difference between understanding fundamental frequency clues and intensity perception by listeners.Conclusion: Since Persian speakers showed an overall weak perception of stress correlates, the results support the predictions made by SDM.
The United States has enduring strategic interests in the Persian Gulf region. To understand these interests and the Usa policy towards the Arab Gulf Monarchies, the french institute of international relations (IFRI) proposes this document. The following chapters are detailed: the United States and the Arab Gulf Monarchies, overview, Chief Unites States Objective: Access to oil, re-evaluating United States Foreign Policy in the Gulf, the second term (Usa strategy). (A.L.B.)
Sørensen, Birgitte Refslund
social identity and find a meaningful life in the civilian world. When doing so, they need to navigate an ambiguous political environment and emergent public imaginaries of the veteran while also wrestling with their own military socialization and personal experiences of war. The certainty previously...... experiences, present conditions, and future ambitions are embedded in webs of concealment, disclosure, exposure, deception, lying, silence, and so forth, only partially controlled by the veterans themselves. The intricacies and anxieties associated with secrecy work are discussed in relation to three veteran...
... VA that is similar to the Persian Gulf War Veterans Health Registry. Registry examinations is provided to veterans who served in Korea in 1968 or 1969, and/or any U.S. veteran who may have been exposed...
... VA that is similar to the Persian Gulf War Veterans Health Registry. Registry examination is provided to veterans who served in Korea in 1968 or 1969, and/or any U.S. veteran who may have been exposed to...
Department of Veterans Affairs — This report summarizes the history of women Veterans in the military and as Veterans. It profiles the characteristics of women Veterans in 2015, and illustrates how...
... code here VA » Veterans Health Administration Veterans Health Administration Veterans – Here's how to Avoid Getting the Flu ... Read more » VA Medical Centers The Veterans Health Administration is home to the United States’ largest integrated ...
health care and rehabilitation services for homeless veterans (the Health Care for Homeless Veterans and Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans...Health Care for Homeless Veterans ................................................................................... 19 Domiciliary Care for Homeless...for Homeless Veterans (HCHV), Domiciliary Care for Homeless Veterans (DCHV), the Compensated Work Therapy/Therapeutic Residences Program, and the
Â Abstract In following article, surveys and researches about Persian style were categorized in two branches of historical and formalistic styles Mohammad Taghi Bahar founded stylistics as an autonomous knowledge by publishing his book, History of the evolution of Persian prose (1331), for teaching in University of Tehran. This book which has been influenced by verbal instructions of qajar dynastyâs scholars made the way generally has been followed by researchers in Persian stylistics up ...
selective attention). As this will be the first trial of intranasal insulin in Gulf War veterans, a dose-finding clinical trial is proposed using two...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0585 TITLE: Intranasal Insulin: A Novel Treatment for Gulf War Multisymptom Illness PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Julia...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Intranasal Insulin: A Novel Treatment for Gulf War Multisymptom Illness 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0585
Making and being among the things of Persian domestic worlds in Australia - the dish Kesh Mesh. Polou, the hanging of carefully detailed Persian miniatures on the lounge room wall, creating the smellscapes of simmering oiled 'traditional' food, and the slurpy soundscapes of sipping sugary tea - is not simply or only about ...
Kambuziya, Aliye Kord Zafaranlu; Hashemi, Eftekhar Sadat
In this paper we analyzed some of the phonological rules of Russian loanword adaptation in Persian, on the view of Optimal Theory (OT) (Prince & Smolensky, 1993/2004). It is the first study of phonological process on Russian loanwords adaptation in Persian. By gathering about 50 current Russian loanwords, we selected some of them to analyze. We…
Full Text Available It is in itself impossible to separate Persian mysticism from Islamic mysticism in general. When talking about the literary expression of Persian Sufism, the author restricts himself to works written in New Persian language, i.e. a limitation based on literary and not religious criteria. This is easily comprehensible considering the fact that one and the same Sufi shaykh or poet often wrote both in Persian and Arabic—or in some other of the languages of the Islamic cultural community, as e.g. Turkish or Urdu. With this in mind the author sketches the origin and development of four literary forms within the boundaries of classical Persian literature (c. 900-1600 A.D..
Usher, D. (Marine Pollution Control Co., Detroit, MI (United States))
The accidental Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska and the deliberate dumping of crude oil into the Persian Gulf as a tactic of war contain both glaring differences and surprising similarities. Public reaction and public response was much greater to the Exxon Valdez spill in pristine Prince William Sound than to the war-related tragedy in the Persian Gulf. More than 12,000 workers helped in the Alaskan cleanup; only 350 have been involved in Kuwait. But in both instances, environmental damages appear to be less than anticipated. Natures highly effective self-cleansing action is primarily responsible for minimizing the damages. One positive action growing out of the two incidents is increased international cooperation and participation in oil-spill clean-up efforts. In 1990, in the aftermath of the Exxon Valdez spill, 94 nations signed an international accord on cooperation in future spills. The spills can be historic environmental landmarks leading to creation of more sophisticated response systems worldwide.
The peoples of Iran used lunisolar calendars until the early fifth century BCE when the 365-day calendar with 30 months and 5 epagomenal days was introduced. This calendar was not corrected to the actual length of the tropical year, and therefore, seasonal festivals gradually moved away from their seasons. Finally, around the turn of the fifth century CE, a partially successful calendar reform was undertaken, and the feasts were restored to their original seasons. In that time, Sasanian kings were interested in astrology, and some Greek and Hindu astrological texts were translated into Persian, but there is no evidence of indigenous contributions to skywatching.
Iraki harbor Unin Qasr and the delivery of several Soviet3 P-6 torpedo craft and several patrol ships of the SO-I Class from 1959-1962 to Irak still...and plunged the Iranian /210 Navy into a crisis , which was caused on the one hand in the distingetragtion, of the Integrity of the of ficer corps as a...missiles might already have been expended in the interim. The war with Irak has nov according to press reports resulted in efforts by the Khomeini
They are also present on Mayotte Island in the Comoros group (where they are well located to exert control over the Mozambique Channel) with its good... fishing areas; areas earmarked for scientific, technical, and military experiments (e.g., the experimental nuclear center in the Pacific, and the...190 or Mayotte . Moreover, West German military power has never been used abroad since 1945 (with the exception of the Mogadishu operation by Bonn’s
Lee, Jason S; Ray, Richard I; Little, Brenda J
... of storage and environmental conditions. Exposure to an anaerobic atmosphere containing a mixed gas of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen generated the highest microflora concentration, especially sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB...
sea level. In that study, the carboxylation and citrulline synthesis in rat liver mitochondria : subjects exercised at the same absolute work load that...Increase in levels of palmityl CoA synthetase, capacity observed with altitude acclimatization (16). carnitine palmityltransferase and palmityl CoA...BLOMQUIST, J. H. MITCHELL, R. L. JOHNSON, K. of ammonia on the respiration of rat liver mitochondria . Ejoehim. WIU)ENTHAI., AND C. B. CHAPMAN
As the small states that line the Arabian Peninsula spend billions of petrodollars picking up luxury hotels, satellite television stations, first-class airlines, and high-tech weaponry, three of the emirates (Dubai, Abu Dhabi, and Qatar) are engaged in a high-stakes game of one-upmanship involving universities, American universities in particular.…
microalgae . Yet the presence and activities of these organisms are usually not quantified or considered in corrosion experiments. Dexter’ concluded that...anaerobic treatment of high-sulfate wastewater . However, SRB in biofilms depend on other organisms to remove oxygen and produce nutrients, so they can...34Methylene blue method 228 C," Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater , 13th Ed, Vol.(Washington, D.C.: American Water Works Association
to give objectivity to the Bushehr Province coastline region, so as to be able to pinpoint areas requiring ecological protection. With this objective, initially, the boundaries of the area under evaluation were first established, based on the findings of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management plan (ICZM). Then, based on these ...
Jun 17, 2008 ... population genetic structure and pelagic larval duration in coral reef fishes on the Great Barrier Reef. Marine boil. Bell LJ, Moyer TJ, Numachi K (1982). Morphological and genetic variation in Japanese populations of the anemonefish Amphiprion clarkii. Mar. Biol 72: 99-108. Cairns SD (1999). Species ...
Coastal area sensitivity evaluation is in fact, the evaluation of an extraordinary ecological rich region. This study has been based on established criteria and values. The aim of this sensitivity evaluation has been to give objectivity to the Bushehr Province coastline region, so as to be able to pinpoint areas requiring ...
Full Text Available Background: In verbal communication in addition of semantic and grammatical aspects, includes: vocabulary, syntax and phoneme, some special voice characteristics were use that called speech prosody. Speech prosody is one of the important factors of communication which includes: intonation, duration, pitch, loudness, stress, rhythm and etc. The aim of this survey is studying some factors of prosody as duration, fundamental frequency range and intonation contour. Materials and Methods: This study is performed with cross-sectional and descriptive-analytic approach. The participants include 134 male and female between 18-30 years old who normally speak Persian. Two sentences include: an interrogative and one declarative sentence were studied. Voice samples were analyzed by Dr. Speech software (real analysis software and data were analyzed by statistical test of unilateral variance analysis and in depended T test, and intonation contour was drawn for sentences. Results: Mean of duration between kinds of sentences had a significant difference. Mean of duration had significant difference between female and male. Fundamental frequency range between kinds of sentences had not significant difference. Fundamental frequency range in female is higher than male. Conclusion: Duration is an affective factor in Persian prosody. The higher fundamental frequency range in female is because of different anatomical and physiological mechanisms in phonation system. In addition higher fundamental frequency range in female is the result of an authority of language use in Farsi female. The end part of intonation contour in yes/no question is rising, in declarative sentence is falling.
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Full Text Available Â Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as âAlqab-o-shoaraâ among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets. Â The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of âpen-namesâ and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poetsâ inner beliefs are associated too. .
Full Text Available Abstract Pen-name (Takhalloss is one of the main features of Persian poetry. It has been a matter of concern among many of Persian language geography poets in the orient at least up to the Mashrouteh era. Pen-name has been promoted among the other Muslim nations throuph Persian poetry. Although it is not as famous in the Arab nations as in the Persian speaking nations, it is known as “Alqab-o-shoara” among the Arab nations and, through this way, it has affected the poetrical wealth of the Arabic poets. The Present paper, using description-analystic approach, compares the pen-names of Persian and Arabic poets under the title of “pen-names” and investigates their features in both cultures. The main research question is: What are the similarities and differences of poetic-names, in Persian and Arabic poets in terms of the type of name, position and importance? The results showed that Pseudonym by its amazing expansion in Persian poetry has also influenced Arabic poetry. In addition to the factors affecting in the choice of pen-names (like pseudonym, pen-name, nickname..., sometimes such external factors as events, commends, community benefactors and climate, as well as internal factors including the poets’ inner beliefs are associated too. .
... Health Administration » Health Programs for Veterans Veterans Health Administration Health Programs for Veterans Beyond the doctors and ... families of patients receiving medical care at major military and VA medical centers Geriatrics & Extended Care Geriatric ...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The caring responders at the Veterans Crisis Line are specially trained and experienced in helping Veterans of all ages and circumstances. Some of the responders are...
Hayer, Supriya D; Rabago, David P; Amaza, Iliya P; Kille, Tony; Coe, Christopher L; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Zakletskaia, Larissa; Mundt, Marlon P; Krahn, Dean; Obasi, Chidi N; Molander, Rachel C
Gulf War Illness (GWI) affects 1 in 7 returned Persian Gulf War veterans. Quality-of-life impact is large; there is no cure. Chronic sinus symptoms and fatigue are common. Nasal irrigation with saline (NI-S) or xylitol (NI-X) improve sinus symptoms and fatigue in the general population. This trial will assess the effect of NI-S and NI-X on sinus and fatigue symptoms, economic outcomes and pro-inflammatory milieu among participants with GWI. 75 participants (age 35 to 65 years, 25 in each of three arms) with GWI will be recruited from the Veteran's Administration and the community. They will use routine care for sinus symptoms and fatigue and be randomized to continued usual care alone or additional therapy with NI-S or NI-X. Participants will be able to adjust specific elements of the NI procedure. The primary outcome (Sinonasal Outcome Test, SNOT-20) and other self-reported assessments will occur at baseline, 8 and 26 weeks; lab assessment of pro-inflammatory cellular and cytokine profiles will occur at baseline and 26 weeks. Other outcomes will include fatigue-specific and overall health-related quality of life, pro-inflammatory cellular and cytokine profiles, cost-effectiveness and participant satisfaction. Baseline demographic and clinical data from the first 10 participants show effective participant recruitment, enrollment, randomization, retention and data collection. Early study conduct suggests that our participant-oriented approach will yield high rates of participant adherence and data capture, facilitating robust analysis. Results of this study will clarify the value of NI for chronic sinus symptoms and fatigue among patients with GWI. clinicaltrials.gov identifier NCT01700725. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Leila Mahmoudi Farahani
Full Text Available Culture and identity in a society can be represented in the architecture and the meanings intertwined with it. In this sense, the architecture and design are the interface for transferring meaning and identity to the nation and future generations. Persian gardens have been evolved through the history of Persian Empire in regard to the culture and beliefs of the society. This paper aims to investigate the patterns of design and architecture in Persian gardens and the meanings intertwined with their patterns and significant elements such as water and trees. Persian gardens are not only about geometries and shapes; but also manifest different design elements, each representing a specific symbol and its significance among the society. This paper seeks to explore Persian gardens in terms of their geometric structure, irrigation system, network construction and pavilions alongside design qualities such as hierarchy, symmetry, centrality, rhythm and harmony. In the second stage, the paper investigates the fundamental symbols and their philosophy in the creation of Persian gardens and in relation to the architecture and design.
... various organizations and individuals are doing to challenge perceptions about women Veterans. Learn more » #VeteranOfTheDay - Nominate a Veteran Today! Veteran of the Day has been a tradition on VA’s social media pages for more than two years now. This ...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2007 Veterans Employability Research Survey (VERS) was conducted to determine the factors that impact veterans' employability resulting from participation in the...
Shiraz, Isfahan, Tabriz, Bushire, Kermanshah , and the cities of Khuzistan in Iran . The precision of these air strikes varied enormously, but, in general...Urban Warfare Persian Gulf Iran 1O, ABSTRACT (CaCutlae am nivets ei fH nreo m• m,ad Identify by block number) This study deals with the largest single...the battlcfield. Our interview/questionnaire data have been limited to the Iraqi side. Coverage of Iran has depended upon journalistic coverage
Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Today is Armistice Day, renamed Veterans Day in 1954, to honor our Nation's Veterans. In Washington the rhetoric from both the political right and left supports our Veterans. My cynical side reminds me that this might have something to do with Veterans voting in a higher percentage than the population as a whole, but let me give the politicians this one. Serving our Country in the military is something that deserves to be honored. I was proud to serve our Veterans over 30 years at the four Department of Veterans Affairs (VA hospitals. However, the VA has had a very bad year. First, in Washington there were the resignations of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, Eric Shinseki; the undersecretary for the Veterans Health Administration, Robert Petzel; and the undersecretary for the Veterans Benefits Administration, Allison Hickey. Locally, in the light of the VA wait scandal there were the firing of ...
Full Text Available Persian master builders had introduced an architectural innovation which had an imperishable effect on dome architecture in the Middle East and Central Asia: surmounting a dome on squinches. This paper aims to provide a broader perspective of Persian domes as the most significant feature of Eastern domes in the Middle East. As opposed to previous general historic studies, this paper introduces a new analytical approach directed towards analysis of architectural concepts and stylistic attributes of Persian domes based on an epistemological premise of their space syntax. By analytic reviewing of examples, the paper addresses the origin of Persian domes, their formal morphological constitutions, and their typological forms based on the diversity of the external shell over the specific timeline, from the pre-Islamic era through the Qajar period in Iran. The study of the Persian dome’s characteristics can illustrate undiscovered information about the essences of developing dome constructions in the Middle East. It can also establish new design standards regarding the frameworks of domical building configurations to be used for creating typological diversity in dome design and to renew the morphological principles of the traditional dome compositions in contemporary architectural designs. Finally, the insights gained can inform conservation efforts on domical structures in the region and elsewhere.
Full Text Available Memory and mood deficits are the enduring brain-related symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI. Both animal model and epidemiological investigations have indicated that these impairments in a majority of GW veterans are linked to exposures to chemicals such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB, an anti nerve gas drug, permethrin (PM, an insecticide and DEET (a mosquito repellant encountered during the Persian Gulf War-1. Our previous study in a rat model has shown that combined exposures to low doses of GWI-related (GWIR chemicals PB, PM and DEET with or without 5-minutes of restraint stress (a mild stress paradigm causes hippocampus-dependent spatial memory dysfunction in a water maze test and increased depressive-like behavior in a forced swim test. In this study, using a larger cohort of rats exposed to GWIR-chemicals and stress, we investigated whether the memory deficiency identified earlier in a water maze test is reproducible with an alternative and stress free hippocampus-dependent memory test such as the object location test. We also ascertained the possible co-existence of hippocampus-independent memory dysfunction using a novel object recognition test, and alterations in mood function with additional tests for motivation and depression. Our results provide new evidence that exposure to low doses of GWIR-chemicals and stress for four weeks causes deficits in hippocampus-dependent object location memory and perirhinal cortex-dependent novel object recognition memory. An open field test performed prior to other behavioral analyses revealed that memory impairments were not associated with increased anxiety or deficits in general motor ability. However, behavioral tests for mood function such as a voluntary physical exercise paradigm and a novelty suppressed feeding test showed decreased motivation and depression. Thus, exposure to GWIR-chemicals and stress causes both hippocampus-dependent and hippocampus-independent memory impairments as well as
.... The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) estimates that it has served approximately 300 returning veterans in its homeless programs and has identified over 1,000 more as being at risk of homelessness...
... for VA health care services and are experiencing homelessness. VA case managers may connect these Veterans with ... Veterans who have experienced long-term or repeated homelessness. As of Sept. 30, 2015, HUD had allocated ...
Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...
Department of Veterans Affairs — This report is the first comprehensive report that chronicles the history of racial and ethnic minorities in the military and as Veterans, profiles characteristics...
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Department of Veterans Affairs — As of June 28, 2010, the Master Veteran Index (MVI) database based on the enhanced Master Patient Index (MPI) is the authoritative identity service within the VA,...
Full Text Available Aiming to study the freshness of Persian information, the study attempted to explore the indexing speed of Persian newspapers in Google, Yahoo and Bing. The present study was conducted using a webometric method. The population study comprised all the online newspapers published in Persian. The study sample was identified using a targeted method. It included those Persian newspapers listed on the Magiran database with their electronic versions regularly published on their respective websites. The results revealed that Google outperforms the two other search engines in terms of timely indexing the Persian newspapers. Furthermore, it generally enjoys a more consistent and stable indexing model. Yahoo and Bing are not only slower in indexing the newspapers, but also experience a comparably lower consistency level in their indexing models. Yahoo and Bing show to be comparable in their indexing speeds. In this study, the indexing status of Persian newspapers on different internet search engines was investigated for the first time. Results showed that those accessing these newspapers using internet search engines will have a higher chance of accessing their most updated versions using Google.
Mahmoodi, Maryam; Varnamkhasti, Mohammad Mahmoodi
Currently there are lots of plagiarism detection approaches. But few of them implemented and adapted for Persian languages. In this paper, our work on designing and implementation of a plagiarism detection system based on pre-processing and NLP technics will be described. And the results of testing on a corpus will be presented.
Zohreh Gooniband Shooshtari
Full Text Available This article intended to illustrate a profile of the role and impact of English in magazine print advertising in Iran, by examining the quantitative results obtained from discourse analysis. Three issues of Khanevadeh Sabz and two issues of Zendegi Ideal were collected and a total of 261 advertisements were analyzed. Results indicated that English has consistently been utilized in Persian magazine advertisements, representing attention-getting, persuasion, international brands, prestige, modernity, globalization, premium quality, fun, innovation and creativity. However, using English in Persian magazine advertisements is culturally and linguistically constrained. Culturally, in advertising traditional products English is only employed to introduce the name and e-mail address. Linguistically, although some English written slogans in Persian magazines had puns in them; the English used in Persian magazine advertisements mostly consists of easy-to-read vocabulary. Overall, in spite of the public’s generally low proficiency in English, it is predicted that English mixing will continue to thrive in magazine advertising discourse in Iran.
Nodoushan, Mohammad Ali Salmani; Allami, Hamid
This paper reports the findings of a study designed to investigate the types of supportive discourse moves employed by Persian speakers in their Requestive Speech Acts. 372 respondents took a Discourse Completion Test (DCT) with six scenarios ranging from formal to informal degrees of Perceived Situational Seriousness, and returned 2232 Requestive…
Morphological consequences of hybridization were studied in two interbreeding taxa of genus Oenanthe. The breeding ranges of Kurdish Wheatear (Oenanthe xanthoprymna ) and Persian Wheatear (O.chrysopygia ) overlap in west and north west of Iran where intermediate color variants can be found. Field works were ...
Full Text Available In Iran, a large group of patients are elderly people and they intend to have natural remedies as treatment. These remedies are rooted in historical of Persian and humoral medicine with a backbone of more than 1000 years. The current study was conducted to draw together medieval pharmacological information related to geriatric medicine from some of the most often manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plants through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In the medieval Persian documents, digestible and a small amount of food such as chicken broth, honey, fig and plum at frequent intervals as well as body massage and morning unctioning are highly recommended. In the field of pharmacotherapy, 35 herbs related to 25 families were identified. Plants were classified as tonic, anti-aging, appetizer, memory and mood enhancer, topical analgesic and laxative as well as health improvement agents. Other than historical elucidation, this paper presents medical and pharmacological approaches that medieval Persian practitioners applied to deal with geriatric complications.
Full Text Available Â Abstract In following article, surveys and researches about Persian style were categorized in two branches of historical and formalistic styles Mohammad Taghi Bahar founded stylistics as an autonomous knowledge by publishing his book, History of the evolution of Persian prose (1331, for teaching in University of Tehran. This book which has been influenced by verbal instructions of qajar dynastyâs scholars made the way generally has been followed by researchers in Persian stylistics up to now. However, researchers and critics have introduced various theories and approaches during last four decades. Â Stagnation in Persian stylistic researches is the main problem which is considered in current article. The main questions are: What branch of stylistics should be the performed Persian stylistic researches? âwhat are the weak points of surveysâ and âwhat should be done for getting rid of this stagnation?â The main objective of current article is taking steps for removing stagnation from Persian stylistics. Â Malek osh-Shoara Bahar used periodization in studying prose styles and analyzed revolution of Persian prose in lexical aspect (obsolete words, Arabic words, synonyms, words repetition, morphological aspect (verbal prefixes, comparative adjective suffixes, syntactic aspect (precedence of verb over its belongings, omission of verbs and rhetorical aspect (simile and allegory, metonymy and metaphor, prolixity and periphrasis, riming prose and harmony. In fact he tried to show both health and strength and laxity and corruption period of prose. We call Bahar stylistics and all researches done in his way historical stylistics with traditional attitude. In this method, styles' consistency and evolution through history have been studied and preiodization of styles has been taken into account. Mentioned researches periodized styles, finding formal similarities and differences. Since, neglecting meaning and text
Full Text Available Abstract In following article, surveys and researches about Persian style were categorized in two branches of historical and formalistic styles Mohammad Taghi Bahar founded stylistics as an autonomous knowledge by publishing his book, History of the evolution of Persian prose (1331, for teaching in University of Tehran. This book which has been influenced by verbal instructions of qajar dynasty’s scholars made the way generally has been followed by researchers in Persian stylistics up to now. However, researchers and critics have introduced various theories and approaches during last four decades. Stagnation in Persian stylistic researches is the main problem which is considered in current article. The main questions are: What branch of stylistics should be the performed Persian stylistic researches? “what are the weak points of surveys” and “what should be done for getting rid of this stagnation?” The main objective of current article is taking steps for removing stagnation from Persian stylistics. Malek osh-Shoara Bahar used periodization in studying prose styles and analyzed revolution of Persian prose in lexical aspect (obsolete words, Arabic words, synonyms, words repetition, morphological aspect (verbal prefixes, comparative adjective suffixes, syntactic aspect (precedence of verb over its belongings, omission of verbs and rhetorical aspect (simile and allegory, metonymy and metaphor, prolixity and periphrasis, riming prose and harmony. In fact he tried to show both health and strength and laxity and corruption period of prose. We call Bahar stylistics and all researches done in his way historical stylistics with traditional attitude. In this method, styles' consistency and evolution through history have been studied and preiodization of styles has been taken into account. Mentioned researches periodized styles, finding formal similarities and differences. Since, neglecting meaning and text functionality they have only paid
Zahra Aghababaii Khuzani
Full Text Available Where is the beloved of Persian poem from? From which climates is this beauty taken? Does this region which is famous for having beautiful people in Persian poem, have the same feature in geographical books? Is the beauty of this beloved a Persian beauty or a mixture of different beauties of various regions? According to ancient people, each race and region is well known for a characteristic. Deilam people are famous for corpulence, Turks are brave and Zangis are famous for dance & music. How do races and regions manifest in Persian poem? In this article, after studying regions in Persian poem and comparing them in geographical books and Persian poems, the mentioned questions are answered.
Kabiri, Marya; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Sohrabvand, Farnaz; Bioos, Soodabeh; Babaeian, Mohammad
Comprehensive explanation about milk oversupply is not available in the current literature because few studies have been done on this topic. In traditional Persian medicine, milk oversupply and its management have been described. The aim of this study was to investigate milk oversupply from the perspective of medieval Persian practitioners. In this study, some main medical resources of traditional Persian medicine such as Al-Havi and the Canon of Medicine were studied to extract valuable information about milk oversupply. Etiology of milk overproduction according to traditional Persian medicine is based on humors theory and cannot be easily compared with current medical concepts. Diet modifications and natural remedies have been applied for managing this condition but the majority of traditional Persian medicine interventions for reducing milk oversupply have not been scientifically investigated in modern medicine. The knowledge of milk oversupply in traditional Persian medicine may be helpful to conduct further related studies.
Full Text Available AbstractÂ Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Caesura is a pause in a line of poetry that were used primarily in Greek poetry and moreover in the poetry of most indo- European languages: Latin, Sanskrit, Avestan, German and old English. Although in Persian prosody, Caesura has an important place critics have paid little attention to it and consequently, its relations with prosodic meter of Persian poetry remains unclear. In first view it seems that the main situation of caesuras in Persian prosody is between two hemistiches of line or in middle of hemistiches with cyclical (symmetrical meter but in this study we tried to observe other inter-hemistich caesuras. The principle question we follow is the functions of caesura in Persian prosodic poem. We tried to prove that caesura is rarely the basic element of meter and in most cases, its main assistant. Primarily, we recognized caesuras in two kinds of meter: meter with obligatory caesura (that caesura is the main factor of its rhythm and meter with voluntary caesura (that caesura is an assistant of its rhythm. Meter with obligatory caesura In prosodic Persian poetry, these meters are low usage and in order to their rhythm be heard, it is necessary to set caesuras strictly in proper place. It must notice that these meters, contrary to most of Persian prosodic ones, are not composed of two syllable types (long & short syllables. They are made exclusively of long syllables. It seems that caesura in this kind of meter, is replaced with short syllables and made possible to form syllabic ordered sets so these meters could be considered as a different kind of ordinary quantitative
Full Text Available Abstract Caesura is a pause in a line of poetry that were used primarily in Greek poetry and moreover in the poetry of most indo- European languages: Latin, Sanskrit, Avestan, German and old English. Although in Persian prosody, Caesura has an important place critics have paid little attention to it and consequently, its relations with prosodic meter of Persian poetry remains unclear. In first view it seems that the main situation of caesuras in Persian prosody is between two hemistiches of line or in middle of hemistiches with cyclical (symmetrical meter but in this study we tried to observe other inter-hemistich caesuras. The principle question we follow is the functions of caesura in Persian prosodic poem. We tried to prove that caesura is rarely the basic element of meter and in most cases, its main assistant. Primarily, we recognized caesuras in two kinds of meter: meter with obligatory caesura (that caesura is the main factor of its rhythm and meter with voluntary caesura (that caesura is an assistant of its rhythm. Meter with obligatory caesura In prosodic Persian poetry, these meters are low usage and in order to their rhythm be heard, it is necessary to set caesuras strictly in proper place. It must notice that these meters, contrary to most of Persian prosodic ones, are not composed of two syllable types (long & short syllables. They are made exclusively of long syllables. It seems that caesura in this kind of meter, is replaced with short syllables and made possible to form syllabic ordered sets so these meters could be considered as a different kind of ordinary quantitative Persian prosodic meter. Meter with voluntary caesura In this kind, Caesura is an assistant of meter and so, there is no obligation to pause at its place, however, on the one hand it
Full Text Available Abstract Poetic return movement was started by a group of poets like Moshtagh and Shole Esfehani in the second half of 12 century. Their goal was restoring Persian poem and deliverance of Hindi style decline. Esfahan’s poets initiative was considered only in Iran but in other Persian language and literature areas like India, Afghanistan and Transoxiana it was ignored. After the failure of constitutional Movement in Afghanistan, motion similar poetic return was happened that caused poetic themes, which had gone towards modernism, return to Hindi style again.The present paper attempts to analyze the poetic atmosphere in Afghanistan synchronous the poetic return movement in Iran and investigate socio- political backgrounds of return to Hindi style in Afghanistan after constitution failure.
Full Text Available Ammianus Marcellinus’ information and knowledge of the Sasanian Persians is often criticised for being stereotypical and reliant on traditional tropes and ideas. This is a result of a scholarly focus on the historian’s long Persian digression, which is based predominantly on ethnographic traditions and older writers. When the focus is switched instead to the wider narrative of the Res Gestae the information Ammianus Marcellinus presents of the Persians and their empire is usually accurate and reliable, and can be corroborated by Roman and Sasanian sources. Beyond the digression we can find useful knowledge on the Persian army, kingship, ideology, frontiers and cultural permeability can be found.
S.Mohammadreza Ebnorrasool; Mohammad Rahimi khoigani
Abstract Diversity of suffix â-iâ, called âyaâ, in Persian language, which is of important consideration, for any reason, has not been able to attract scholars and grammarians in the field of Persian language. Here is an attempt to mention different kinds of âyaâ and to explain their applications, relying on grammar books, dictionaries, and today native application. The character generally has three types of applications in Persian language. It is firstly one of the Persian alphabet, so i...
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Laleh Dehghani Tafti; Seyyed Mahyar Shariatpanahi; Mahmoud Mahdavi Damghani; Behjat Javadi
Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI) ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM....
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Vahid Shahidi Pour
Full Text Available The present study was an attempt to investigate differences in the use of compliments in Persian across age as a social variable. Data was gathered through a Discourse Completion Task (DCT with imaginary situations in which 200 native Persian speakers were asked to put themselves in those situations and give compliments. The results indicated that the most frequently used compliment strategies by Persian native speakers were explicit unbound semantic formula and non-compliment strategies. However, the participants used 'other' strategies, future reference, contrast, and request strategies the least. The results also suggested the effect of age on the distribution of compliments. While the younger participants preferred non-compliment strategies the most, the older participants preferred explicit unbound semantic formula strategies the most. However, despite minor differences, all age-groups rarely tended to use future reference, contrast, request, and 'other' strategies. The results cashed light on the cultural and socio-cultural factors affecting the way people offer compliments.
One in three veterans has arthritis. This podcast provides information on how veterans can improve their quality of life with physical activity and other arthritis management strategies. Created: 11/9/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP). Date Released: 11/9/2015.
Torres, O.; Bhartia, P. K.; Larko, D.
During the 1991 Persian Gulf War, over 700 oil wells in Kuwait were set ablaze by the withdrawing Iraqi army with the apparent intent of hindering satellite reconnaissance and intelligence gathering activities by the coalition of forces repelling Iraq from occupied Kuwait. The oil fires that burned for an estimated 10 months, created a huge smoke plume whose spatial extent went at times beyond the Persian Gulf region, mobilized across the Saharan Desert reaching as far west as the North Atlantic Ocean. The Nimbus-7 TOMS Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, in operation from October 1978 to May 1993, measured the near UV radiances that in the mid-1990's became the input in the calculation of the well know Absorbing Aerosol Index that represented a major breakthrough in satellite-based aerosol remote sensing. Thus, unknowingly to the world, the N7-TOMS sensor was collecting in 1991 an unprecedented daily record of what can be considered the worst environmental catastrophe affecting the atmosphere since the beginning of the era of space-based remote sensing in the 1970's. An overview of the temporal and spatial extent of the synoptic scale 1991 Gulf War smoke plume as seen by the Nimbus-7 TOMS Absorbing Aerosol Index will be presented.
exposure-related postwar illnesses(1-7). Military personnel returning from the 1991 Gulf War have reported a wide range of symptoms including fatigue ...following conditions: 5 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, diabetes, fibromyalgia, malignant neoplasms, mono- neuritis, muscular dystrophy, nephritis...the first 1000 Gulf war veterans in the Ministry of Defence’s medical assessment programme. BMJ 1999;318(7179):290-4. 7. Sim M, Abramson M, Forbes
This study aimed to discover semantic and syntactic problems Persian native speakers might have while reading English and Persian texts and different strategies they use to overcome those problems. To this end, a convenient sample of 40 intermediate students studying English Literature at Shiraz University was selected. Twenty of them were asked…
Hamedi, Azadeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman
In Iran, conventional production methods of herbal oils are widely used by local practitioners. Administration of oils is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 3000 years. Scientific evaluation of these historical documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in current medicine. The current study (i) compiled an inventory of herbal oils used in ancient and medieval Persia and (ii) compared the preparation methods and therapeutic applications of ancient times to current findings of medicinal properties in the same plant species. Information on oils, preparation methods and related clinical administration was obtained from ancient Persian documents and selected manuscripts describing traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plant species used for herbal oils through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. In Iran, the application of medicinal oils date back to ancient times. In medieval Persian documents, 51 medicinal oils produced from 31 plant species, along with specific preparation methods, were identified. Flowers, fruits and leaves were most often used. Herbal oils have been traditionally administered via oral, topical and nasal routes for gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neural diseases, respectively. According to current investigations, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Medicinal oils are currently available in Iranian medicinal plant markets and are prepared using traditional procedures for desirable clinical outcomes. Other than historical clarification, the present study provides data on clinical applications of the oils that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use.
Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali
Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204
Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali
Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy.
Cavana, Paola; Vittone, Valentina; Capucchio, Maria T; Farca, Anna M
This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma. A 17-year-old male Persian cat was presented for evaluation of a ventral cervical mass. The cat was inappetent and showed weight loss, polydipsia and vomiting. Serum biochemistry and urinalysis revealed moderate hypercalcaemia, a mild increase of creatinine, isosthenuria and proteinuria. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-agarose gel electrophoresis showed a mixed tubular proteinuric pattern, in accordance with histological examination that revealed interstitial nephritis and glomerulonephritis. Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was based on histopathological findings.
Seccombe, I J; Lawless, R I
"This article demonstrates that foreign worker dependence in the [Persian] Gulf dates from the establishment of the oil industry in the early twentieth century. The composition of labor inflows [was] mainly determined by political and strategic, rather than commercial, concerns. Contrasting patterns of labor force composition evolved between those areas under British control, which imported labor from the Indian sub-continent, and the independent Saudi Arabia where labor was drawn from more diverse sources including the Italian settlers in Eritrea." excerpt
Al Kaabi, Yousef H.; Al Kaabi, Khaled M.
The Arabian Gulf represents a significant part in the world because of its oil wealth. During the last thirty years, three wars have taken place in the region resulting in regional and global instability: the Iran-Iraq war; the Persian Gulf War of 1990-1991, and the U.S. led invasion of Iraq in 2003. The fall of Iraq made Iran more powerful in the region, and as a domination strategy, Iran launched its nuclear program. Iran represents a major power in the region; it can destabilize the region...
Feary, David A.
Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter \\'Gulf\\') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Fiht Months of Desert Shield/Desert Siorn, Appendix E. 90Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, p 413. 109 CINCMAC’S personal intervention to get twenty KC...Organiation, Bases, and Units’" Aola 0 A6.DP I No t 7 ]. WN U~f Mi MAID %"TAWP "N TA WP -maw im ONp MWe lowczar "mw ammm I k IVA 140 AL KAP .J ": NOTh: On 23...for diesel in tanks. The biggest operational problem cited was the lack of smoke -generating capability with JET A-I in tankG. Because diesel smokes
Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA's Veteran Health Administration, in support of the Open Data Initiative, is providing the Veterans Affairs Suicide Prevention Synthetic Dataset (VASPSD). The...
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Engel, Charles C.; Hyams, Kenneth C.; Scott, Ken
After the 1991 Gulf War, veterans of the conflict from the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and other nations described chronic idiopathic symptoms that became popularly known as ‘Gulf War Syndrome’. Nearly 15 years later, some 250 million dollars in United States medical research has failed to confirm a novel war-related syndrome and controversy over the existence and causes of idiopathic physical symptoms has persisted. Wartime exposures implicated as possible causes of subs...
Iannacchione, Vincent G; Dever, Jill A; Bann, Carla M; Considine, Kathleen A; Creel, Darryl; Carson, Christopher P; Best, Heather; Haley, Robert W
A case definition of Gulf War illness with 3 primary variants, previously developed by factor analysis of symptoms in a US Navy construction battalion and validated in clinic veterans, identified ill veterans with objective abnormalities of brain function. This study tests prestated hypotheses of its external validity. A stratified probability sample (n = 8,020), selected from a sampling frame of the 3.5 million Gulf War era US military veterans, completed a computer-assisted telephone interview survey. Application of the prior factor weights to the subjects' responses generated the case definition. The structural equation model of the case definition fit both random halves of the population sample well (root mean-square error of approximation = 0.015). The overall case definition was 3.87 times (95% confidence interval, 2.61-5.74) more prevalent in the deployed than the deployable nondeployed veterans: 3.33 (1.10-10.10) for syndrome variant 1; 5.11 (2.43-10.75) for variant 2, and 4.25 (2.33-7.74) for variant 3. Functional status on SF-12 was greatly reduced (effect sizes, 1.0-2.0) in veterans meeting the overall and variant case definitions. The factor case definition applies to the full Gulf War veteran population and has good characteristics for research. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kazem AlaviPanah, Seyed; Taghavibayat, Aida; Behifar, Maedeh; Alavipanah, Sadroddin
Almost everybody knows that soils are the foundation of food production and foodsecurity, supplying plants with nutrients, water and supports for their roots, but how many people or policy makes know that: Soil is a Complex, Dynamic, Open System and life also is the same! Increasing public awareness about soil-related outreach involves the dissemination and acceptance of information about soil to stakeholders who have not been aware of its importance. Public awareness can support efforts to involve private sector, indigenous and local communities and NGOs to engage on soil related activities. In this regard utilization of cultural and traditional understanding of soil issues (ethnopedology, art, literature, customs, and poems) is essential and vital to promote soil awareness among policy-makers, donors and the general public in order to find better understanding of soil's role in global issues such as climate change. In this paper we extensively analysis Persian and Iranian poems in order to get better understanding of cultural patterns of soils and its contribution to society. In ancient Cultures Classical elements (earth(Soil), water, air, fire,) explained the nature of all matters around the world, same as many other, in Persian. Each of these elements has their nature and personalities. Soil also refers to one part of human's life cycle. After death we join to soil. Therefore in Persian culture and poetry there is lots of poem which express these concepts such as poem below of Umar Khayyam Neyshabouri which noted the importance and the nature of soil and its relation to vegetation, and their cause-effect relationships about one thousand years ago. "Every unique herb vegetated next to a stream/ is as if grown from the lip of an angelical beauty/ don't stampede (degrade) that herb/ because it is vegetated from the soil of a beauty whose face is like a tulip". and Look how the morning breeze has helped the rosebud bloom/ And how at the sight of the rose the
Smith, Tyler C; Smith, Besa; Ryan, Margaret A K; Gray, Gregory C; Hooper, Tomoko I; Heller, Jack M; Dalager, Nancy A; Kang, Han K; Gackstetter, Gary D
For more than a decade after the Gulf War, there has been concern that wartime exposures have resulted in significant morbidity among Gulf War veterans. After the end of the war, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) initiated health registries to provide systematic clinical evaluations of Gulf War veterans who chose to participate. By September 1999, there were 32,876 participants in the DoD Comprehensive Clinical Evaluation Program and 70,385 participants in the VA Gulf War Registry Health Examination Program. We identified demographic and military service factors, as well as potential war-related exposures associated with subsequent registry participation after 10 years of observation. Veterans potentially exposed to oil well fire smoke, those near Khamisiyah, Reserve and National Guard, Army veterans, and veterans in the theater of operations during intense combat periods were most likely to elect to participate in a registry. These findings support the hypothesis that certain occupational factors and wartime exposures may influence subsequent health care-seeking behavior.
MacGregor, Casey; Heilemann, MarySue V
Veterans recently returned from Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) experience many health and mental health problems after deployment. These OEF/OIF veterans are applying and appealing for veterans' disability compensation (VDC) at rapidly increasing rates, often for "invisible conditions" such as posttraumatic stress disorder. Little is known about how veterans experience the process of applying and receiving VDC. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with OEF/OIF veterans ages 35 and younger (N = 18). This article addresses how veterans perceive themselves, and other veterans, of being deserving and undeserving of VDC. Veterans' rationales can be categorized into four primary areas: (1) risking and suffering, (2) the cause of the condition, (3) intentions to become self-sufficient, and (4) putting VDC to "good use." © 2017 National Association of Social Workers.
N V Slobodian
Full Text Available Russia’s national interests in the Persian Gulf region are distinguished at the article. The main foreign policy tools to promote Russian national interests in the Gulf region are considered. There were studied the stages of formation and legislative consolidation of the national interests of Russia in the Middle East region, shows the importance of this region to strengthen national security of the Russian Federation. Identified and analysed policy elements of «soft power» of the Soviet Union in the region, and distinguished tools of expansion and strengthening of Russian presence in the Persian Gulf using educational diplomacy, economic cooperation and other components of the policy of «soft power».
Tansaz, Mojgan; Tajadini, Haleh
Leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the pelvic that is associated with reproductive problems such as infertility, frequent abortions, and undesirable prenatal outcomes. High prevalence of leiomyoma and its relation with important gynecological complications, especially during reproductive ages, on the one hand, and high medical expenses and significant complications of common treatments, on the other, made us search traditional Persian medicine texts for a similar disease. In traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to leiomyoma (Oram-e-rahem). In this article, by collecting materials from traditional medicine texts on leiomyoma, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topic, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to leiomyoma. When modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment, reviewing of traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. © The Author(s) 2015.
Seifaddini, Rostam; Tajadini, Haleh; Choopani, Rasool
The most common cognitive disorder that is disabling is dementia. During the medieval period, traditional Persian medicine was an outstanding source of medicine that was used as standard references in medical schools of in the West and Middle East. In ancient manuscripts of traditional Persian medicine, a condition has been introduced similar to dementi (raoonat and homgh). In this article, by collecting materials of traditional medicine texts on dementia, we aim to provide theories for further studies on this topics, as there is an obvious difference between traditional Persian medicine and modern medicine with regard to dementia; however, since modern medicine has not found a suitable response to treatment for all diseases, reviewing traditional Persian medicine for finding better treatment strategies is wise. Use of all medical potentials approved by the World Health Organization beside classic medicine like traditional medicine and considering the availability and acceptability among people is recommended. © The Author(s) 2015.
This dissertation examines masculinities in relation to Pahlavi-era Iran, the Islamic Republic of Iran, within diaspora, as well as the limitations of an ethno-cultural/gender study through ideologies of postidentification. "Performing Persianicity" functions as trope and designation throughout of constructed formulations and manifestations of masculinities, as well as anchoring reminder of performance as primary filter for the analyses undertaken. "Performing Persianicity" examines citings o...
Derakhshan Rokni, Tina
The present thesis: “Address forms in Persian language based on Iranian movies”, investigates address forms as socio-linguistic forms which are directly related to social factors such as age, gender and social class. In the Persian language there is a strong tradition of addressing each other in various ways, changing from one context to another. Addressing is a universal phenomenon, but the rules that govern the choice are different from one language to another. So, the hierarchical struc...
Department of Veterans Affairs — This speadsheet contains data from the 2014 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...
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Department of Veterans Affairs — This dataset provide a count of Veteran by their religious affiliation and state of residence. The dataset set covers all 50 states, District of Columbia and other...
Department of Veterans Affairs — This spreadsheet contains data from the 2015 American Community Survey and shows the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of Veterans who live in rural and...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Measuring the impacts of oral conditions on quality of life is an important part of oral health needs assessment. For this purpose a variety of oral health-related quality of life instruments have been developed. To use a scale in a new context or with a different groups of people, it is necessary to re-establish its psychometric properties. The objectives of this study are to develop and test the reliability and validity of the Persian version of Oral Impacts on Daily Performances (OIDP index. Methods The Persian version of OIDP index was developed through a linguistic translation exercise. The psychometric properties of the Persian version of OIDP were evaluated in terms of face, content, construct and criterion validity in addition to internal and test-retest reliability. A convenience sample of 285 working adults aged 20–50 living in Mashad was recruited (91% response rate to evaluate the Persian version. Results The Persian version of OIDP had excellent validity and reliability charactersitics. Weighted Kappa was 0.91. Cronbachs alpha coefficient was 0.79. The index showed significant associations with self-rated oral and general health status, as well as perceived dental treatment needs, satisfaction with mouth and prevalence of pain in mouth (P Conclusion The Persian version of OIDP index is a valid and reliable measure for use in 20 to 50 year old working Iranians.
Full Text Available Cross-cultural studies of speech acts in different linguistic contexts might have interesting implications for language researchers and practitioners. Drawing on the Speech Act Theory, the present study aimed at conducting a comparative study of request speech act in Persian and English. Specifically, the study endeavored to explore the request strategies used in daily interactions of Persian and English speakers based on directness level and supportive moves. To this end, English and Persian TV series were observed and requestive utterances were transcribed. The utterances were then categorized based on Blum-Kulka and Olshtain’s Cross-Cultural Study of Speech Act Realization Pattern (CCSARP for directness level and internal and external mitigation devises. According to the results, although speakers of both languages opted for the direct level as their most frequently used strategy in their daily interactions, the English speakers used more conventionally indirect strategies than the Persian speakers did, and the Persian speakers used more non-conventionally indirect strategies than the English speakers did. Furthermore, the analyzed data revealed the fact that American English speakers use more mitigation devices in their daily interactions with friends and family members than Persian speakers.
Full Text Available The present study investigates the applicability of word association model to the second language word processing abilities of Kurdish learners of Persian. The aim of this study was to examine whether beginning L2 learners use their L1 as a mediating tool to process L2 words, or whether pictures representing pre-existing concepts facilitate L2 word processing. 10 Kurdish-Persian bilingual adults at the beginning stages of learning Persian were compared with 10 native speakers of Persian who were fluent in Kurdish. Participants in two groups performed a translation-recognition task. They had to decide whether words in two languages were translation equivalents. They were also compared in a picture recognition task in order to compare the reaction times (RTs of L1-L2 and picture-L2.The findings showed that Kurdish- Persian bilinguals performed faster in L1-L2 than in picture-L2 but the performance of Persian- Kurdish bilinguals were comparable on both L1-L2 and picture-L2, predicted by the word association model. These results suggested that L1 and pictures have different effects on the word processing abilities of bilinguals.
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Ferruolo, David M
Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming.
Hinojosa, Ramon; Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Högnäs, Robin S
Twenty Reserve component (Army and Marines) and Army National Guard male veterans of Operational Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom discuss their deployment and postdeployment family reintegration experiences. A Grounded Theory approach is used to highlight some of the ways in which family miscommunication during deployment can occur. Communication with civilian family members is affected by the needs of operational security, technical problems with communication tools, miscommunication between family members, or because veterans have "nothing new to say" to family back home. These communication difficulties may lead to an initial gulf of understanding between veterans and family members that can cause family strain during postdeployment family reintegration. We end with a discussion of veteran family reintegration difficulties.
Marković-Savić Olivera S.
Full Text Available The paper discusses how war veterans perceive themselves and how they answer the question 'Who am I?'. War veterans face many challenges in the process of re-socialization from a state of war and war traumatization to a peacetime society. There are several reasons why their re-socialization is a slow process: the first one is that a war engagement is in itself a highly stressful situation which carries traumas of different degrees, the other reason is the changed system of values in relation to war engagement. Namely, at the time they went to war, they had a strong social support, but at the time of their return and today this support is lost to the point of judgment. And the third reason which limits their re-socialization is the situation of social transition they found on their return from war, which specifically means that a large percentage of the population in general, and thus the war veterans after returning from the war, lost their jobs, creating a large social group of 'transition losers'. Such a condition often generates an identity crisis. This set of socio-cultural circumstances together with the ontological insecurity carried by war trauma generate an identity crisis, which is manifested among the respondents in nihilistic answers when responding to questions about their own personality. Studying the identity of war veterans, it was found that a strong attachment to the veteran identity is dominant. In fact, this paper discusses the different ways in which this attachment is refracted in the personality and identity of subjects, from negative attitudes to the pride in belonging to a group of war veterans and personal fulfillment in the activism in associations of war participants.
Mahtab Bazyari Meymand
Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, one of the most important concepts in the health system associated with the treatment and reduction of chronic spinal pain is self- management. According to the gap of a tool to measure this concept, this study was performed with the aim of construction and validation of Persian version of self- management scale of chronic spinal pains. Materials & Methods: The present study was descriptive and correlational study that it was performed in 2016 on 301 patients with chronic spinal pains who were referred to the Persian Gulf Martyrs Hospital, Salman Farsi, Physiotherapeutic centers and orthopedist and physical medicine and spine rehabilitation doctors' offices in Bushehr by using convenient simple sampling. In this study, the statistical methods of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis, convergent and content validity and test-retest reliability and Cronbach's alpha using SPSS 21 software and AMOS 20 were used. Results: Based on the results three factors including medical emotional and functional self management were extracted which overall, it could explain 39.32% of self-management variable of chronic spinal pain. Also, fitness indexes were estimated at an acceptable level (AGFI=0.91, GFI=0.95, NFI=0.92, GFI=0.95, RMSEA=0.08, c2/df=2.65. Content validity (0.80, convergent validity (with Nicolas self management of chronic pain, psychological hardiness, self-efficacy of pain, pain catastrophic thoughts and beliefs and perception of pain with coefficient 0.68, 0.47, 0.50, -0.26 and -0.33, test-retest reliability (0.87 and reliability using Cronbach's alpha (0.79 were confirmed. Conclusion: According to all the indicators of reliability and validity were estimated in a satisfactory condition, so it can be used in areas of research, evaluation and treatment of chronic spinal pain.
helper 2 type immune activation in Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illness Anna Skowera, Matthew Hotopf, EI2bieta Sawicka, Ruben Varela- Calvino ...Ruben Varela- Calvino 1, PhD, Post-doctoral Fellow Catherine Unwin2 , MSc, Study co-ordinator Vasilis Nikolaou 3, MSc, Bio-statistician Lisa Hlull 2
Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg
Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407
The Persian Gulf War forced millions of migrant workers in the region to return home, causing hardship not only on the workers but also on their home countries. Prior to the war, the region's oil wealth had attracted migrants from around the world. By 1990, some 3 million resided in Iraq and Kuwait alone. Many more worked in other Gulf countries. But only 2 months after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, over 2 million workers had fled the region or had been returned home. Yemenis and Egyptians alone accounted for 750,000 and 1/2 million workers, respectively. There were also an estimated 600,000 Asians. Although many of the migrants were unskilled laborers, many also were skilled laborers and professionals. Jordanians and Palestinians made up much of the Kuwaiti civil service. As the war unfolded, it became clear that the migrant workers lacked any of the legal rights and protection granted to other citizens. Many workers were not allowed to return home because of their importance to the economy. Others, like some 35,000 Sri Lankan housemaids in Kuwait, were stranded in the war zone, lacking the money and means to return home. In most cases, the workers also suffered from frozen bank accounts, unpaid wages and benefits, and property loss. Their return home also created problems for their countries. Jordan's population increased by 10% in 1990 due to the returning population. Yemen's unemployment increased from 10% to 25%. As a result of the Gulf war experience, the UN General Assembly adopted the International Convention on the Rights of Migrant Workers and their Families, which must now be ratified by 20 nations before implementation begins.
Full Text Available Aim: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr Province, southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin’s solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Results: Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl–Neelsen staining method. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area.
Yaghoobi, Kambiz; Sarkari, Bahador; Mansouri, Majid; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein
Aim: Wild boars, Sus scrofa, are potential reservoirs of many zoonotic diseases, and there are a possibility of transmission of the zoonotic diseases from these animals to humans and also domestic animals. This study aimed to evaluate the protozoan contamination of wild boars in the Persian Gulf’s coastal area (Bushehr Province), southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods: A total of 25 crossbred boars were collected during a course of vertebrate pest control in Bushehr province, in 2013. Samples were collected from the gastrointestinal tracts of each boar in 5% formalin, Bouin’s solution, sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin, and polyvinyl alcohol fixatives. Fixed stool smears examined by trichrome and Ziehl–Neelsen staining. Results: Each of the 25 wild boars was infected with at least one of the intestinal protozoans. The rate of contamination with intestinal protozoan was 64% for Balantidium coli, 76% for Iodamoeba sp., 52% for Entamoeba polecki, 44% for Blastocystis sp. and 8% for Chilomastix sp. No intestinal coccidian was detected in studied boars when the stool samples were evaluated by Ziehl–Neelsen staining method. Conclusion: Findings of this study demonstrated that wild boars in the Persian Gulf coastal area are contaminated by many protozoans, including zoonotic protozoan, which poses a potential risk to locals as well as the domestic animals of the area. PMID:27847411
Samiei, Mercedeh; Moradi, Afsaneh; Noori, Roya; Aryanfard, Sepideh; Rafiey, Hassan; Naranjiha, Hooman
Background As the most populated Persian Gulf country, in Iran, engagement with drug injection and unsafe sex are the main routes of HIV transmission among some drug-dependent women. Objectives The current study explored the barriers that a group of drug-dependent women reported in accessing and adhering to HIV services in drug use treatment. Patients and Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 47 Persian women at five outpatient drug treatment centers between January and December 2011. Five focus group interviews were conducted with ten key informants (KI). The interviews made use of a semi-structured interview guide, which facilitated discussion regarding the barriers. The interview transcripts were analyzed thematically using Atlas-ti software. Results The interview accounts highlighted a number of barriers, including stigmatization, a considerable lack of knowledge about free HIV centers in the community, previous traumatic events, misconceptions about the quality of HIV services, and a poor supportive referral system among drug treatment and HIV centers. Conclusions The findings highlight a need for removing stigma and providing high quality women-only HIV services. Increasing trust and knowledge of available HIV services are needed for this group of women. Increasing staff knowledge is a priority. An integrated supportive network among drug treatment and HIV centers is suggested in Iran. PMID:27622170
Department of Veterans Affairs — Total Veteran and Non-Veteran Interments at National Cemetery, and shown by Interment Type of Casket or Cremain, FY2000 to FY2012. Non-Veteran includes dependents,...
Full Text Available Context Traditional persian medicine (TPM is an ancient temperamental medicine with a rich literature about aging mechanism. Temperament has an important function in maintaining the ideal healthy status of human body. Aging process and skin aging could be postponed by applying herbal medicine and some specific traditional rules. Evidence Acquisition The aim of this review study was gathering and discussing the mechanism of whole body aging and skin aging from perspective of TPM and introducing remedies to prevent it. Skin aging is caused by external and internal factors. According to TPM, loss of fat and water content in different skin layers is the main cause of skin aging and it could be avoided by considering simple essential commands. Results Skin aging begins with whole body aging process and entire body gets cold and dry in elderly. Wrinkle formation is highly associated with loss of “skin natural moisture”. In the management, specific food supplements, simple massage therapy as well as herbal drugs were suggested. The current investigation was performed to show the knowledge of ancient Iranian scientists on aging process and related interventions. Conclusions Reported herbal drugs might be beneficial for further studies for the management of skin aging and aging process.
Zare, Roghayeh; Hosseinkhani, Ayda
During the last decades, there have been great advancements in the field of preventive medicine. Research has demonstrated that nutrition plays a crucial role in the prevention of chronic diseases. The concept of functional food was first introduced in Japan during the 1980s. It proposes to consider food not only vital to survive, but also a mean for mental and physical well-being, contributing to the prevention and reduction of risk factors for diseases. However, there is evidence that the concept was believed by ancient physicians as well. One of the traditional systems of medicines is traditional Persian medicine (TPM). Rhazes said; "as long as a disease could be treated with food, medicine should be avoided". We carried out a review of Avicenna's Canon of medicine and Rhazes books for the definition of food and drug and similar concepts of functional food. We listed the identified concepts along with their examples. The classification of food and their therapeutic use were explained in Canon of medicine. Rhazes has a book called 'Manafe al-Aghziyeh', in which he writes about the medicinal benefits of different nutrition. Five concepts (food, drug, medicinal food, nutritional medicine and antidote or poison) were noted in these books. There are many recommendations on food for the prevention and treatment of diseases in TPM books, which can be the basis for novel research studies.
intraarterial IVUS, intraaterial flow, cardiopulmonary test, and bone density scan. As successful endpoint evaluation is dependent on the data from 70...cardiopulmonary exercise testing and other muscle functions, (3) expression of genes relevant to endothelial function and mitochondrial function in muscle... Exercise and Cardiopulmonary Stress Testing Schedule Visit 2 ( Exercise and cardiopulmonary stress tests) 3-28 Scheduling for Visit 1 continues to
.... Although the precise reason for GWI remains unknown, symptoms nearly identical to GWI are noted in several syndromes that occur at a high rate in the general population, including fibromyalgia...
Boston Healthcare System and Boston University School of Medicine on 09- Apr-2016. These quick initial responses give a good indication of the large...In particular, pyridostigmine and nerve gases are anticholinesterase agents that potentially have long term effects on the balance of
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a new approach to offline OCR (optical character recognition for printed Persian subwords using wavelet packet transform. The proposed algorithm is used to extract font invariant and size invariant features from 87804 subwords of 4 fonts and 3 sizes. The feature vectors are compressed using PCA. The obtained feature vectors yield a pictorial dictionary for which an entry is the mean of each group that consists of the same subword with 4 fonts in 3 sizes. The sets of these features are congregated by combining them with the dot features for the recognition of printed Persian subwords. To evaluate the feature extraction results, this algorithm was tested on a set of 2000 subwords in printed Persian text documents. An encouraging recognition rate of 97.9% is got at subword level recognition.
Full Text Available Mohammad Moin has been considered as one of the most committed literary men of the present time who recorded a considerable amount of Persian words, expressions, and declarations in his own 6 volumes Persian dictionary according to scientific research methods and in a different way in comparison to the previous dictionaries. This article argues the quality of colloquial infinitives which have been recorded in Moin Persian Dictionary. The most important obstacles in all researches related to literature and colloquial language is the recognition criterion of "being colloquial". In this article, the recognition criterion is that of Moin's criterion who was a great master in this field. In the other words, any infinitives in front of which he put the abbreviation "Ɂam", have been extracted and at the next stage, according to the syntactic resources, have been divided into 8 categories. Finally, the examples of each category have been presented through tables.
Laleh Dehghani Tafti
Full Text Available Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM. TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc.
Tafti, Laleh Dehghani; Shariatpanahi, Seyyed Mahyar; Damghani, Mahmoud Mahdavi; Javadi, Behjat
Drug delivery across the skin is used for several millennia to ease gastrointestinal (GI) ailments in Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM). TPM topical remedies are generally being applied on the stomach, lower abdomen, lower back and liver to alleviate GI illnesses such as dyspepsia, gastritis, GI ulcers, inflammatory bowel disease, intestinal worms and infections. The aim of the present study is to survey the topical GI remedies and plant species used as ingredients for these remedies in TPM. In addition, pharmacological activities of the mentioned plants have been discussed. For this, we searched major TPM textbooks to find plants used to cure GI problems in topical use. Additionally, scientific databases were searched to obtain pharmacological data supporting the use of TPM plants in GI diseases. Rosa × damascena, Pistacia lentiscus, Malus domestica, Olea europaea and Artemisia absinthium are among the most frequently mentioned ingredients of TPM remedies. β-asarone, amygdalin, boswellic acids, guggulsterone, crocin, crocetin, isomasticadienolic acid, and cyclotides are the most important phytochemicals present in TPM plants with GI-protective activities. Pharmacological studies demonstrated GI activities for TPM plants supporting their extensive traditional use. These plants play pivotal role in alleviating GI disorders through exhibiting numerous activities including antispasmodic, anti-ulcer, anti-secretory, anti-colitis, anti-diarrheal, antibacterial and anthelmintic properties. Several mechanisms underlie these activities including the alleviation of oxidative stress, exhibiting cytoprotective activity, down-regulation of the inflammatory cytokines, suppression of the cellular signaling pathways of inflammatory responses, improving re-epithelialization and angiogenesis, down-regulation of anti-angiogenic factors, blocking activity of acetylcholine, etc. PMID:28392893
Department of Veterans Affairs — The 2001 National Survey of Veterans (NSV) is the fifth in a series of comprehensivenationwide surveys designed to help the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) plan...
Department of Veterans Affairs — The Profile of Vietnam War Veterans uses the 2015 ACS to provide a view into the demographic characteristics and socioeconomic conditions of the Vietnam War Veteran...
and data analysis to the VBA and stakeholders. PA&I developed the VBA Enterprise Data Warehouse to enable the generation of recurring and ad hoc...reports in response to VBA decision-making and business needs. PA&I will be a primary source of information on Veteran education, vocational...Servicemembers UI Unemployment Insurance URL Uniform Resource Locator USB Under Secretary for Benefits VA Department of Veterans Affairs VBA Veterans
Bergman, Beverly P; Mackay, Daniel F; Pell, Jill P
In 2003, it was reported that motor neurone disease was linked to military service in the 1990-1991 Gulf War. A large study in the US confirmed an association with military service but found no association with specific conflicts or length of service. Non-veteran studies have suggested an association with physical activity, smoking and other risk factors. We used data from the Scottish Veterans Health Study to investigate the association between motor neurone disease and military service in UK veterans. Retrospective cohort study of 57,000 veterans born 1945-1985, and 173,000 demographically matched civilians, using Cox proportional hazard models to compare the risk of motor neurone disease overall, and by sex, birth cohort, length of service and year of recruitment. We had no data on smoking prevalence. Veterans had an increased risk of motor neurone disease compared with non-veterans (adjusted HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.01 to 2.21, p=0.046). The increase was independent of birth cohort, length or period of service, or year of recruitment. Risk was associated with a history of trauma or road traffic accident in veterans and non-veterans. We confirmed an increased risk of motor neurone disease in military veterans, although the absolute risk is extremely low. We found no evidence that the increased risk was associated with any specific conflict. We could not rule out that smoking (and perhaps other lifestyle factors) may be responsible for our findings. Trauma may play a role in the increased risk but further studies are needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Full Text Available ... About About the Veterans Crisis Line FAQs Veteran Suicide Spread the Word Videos Homeless Resources Additional Information ... About About the Veterans Crisis Line FAQs Veteran Suicide The Veterans Crisis Line text-messaging service does ...
Ayyoub Malek; Iesa Hekmati; Shahrokh Amiri; Jaber Pirzadeh; Hossein Gholizadeh
BACKGROUND: The present study aims to design and standardize the verbal fluency test (VFT) among bilingual (Turkish-Persian) adolescents in Tabriz, Iran. METHODS: In the designing stage, 190 adolescents who were already selected randomly from among the guidance and high school students in Tabriz were classified into three age groups (11-12, 13-15, 16-18). The screening test including 33 Persian letters and three ‘animal’, ‘fruit’, and ‘supermarket stuff’ categories, and SDQ was administered t...
Golier, Julia A; Caramanica, Kimberly; Yehuda, Rachel
Alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity have been observed in Gulf War veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) which differ from those observed in other veteran groups, raising the possibility that there is a unique neuroendocrine profile in this group of veterans. This study seeks to further characterize the effects of PTSD, military cohort (Vietnam, 1991 Gulf War, Operations Enduring Freedom/Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF)), and their interaction on the neuroendocrine response to synthetic corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) stimulation. 51 male veterans were studied consisting of 21 from the Vietnam era, 16 from the Gulf War era, and 14 from the OEF/OIF era. 16 of these veterans were deployed to a war zone and had chronic PTSD (PTSD+), 25 were deployed to a war zone and did not have chronic PTSD (PTSD-), and 10 were not deployed to a war zone and did not have PTSD (non-exposed). The participants underwent the CRF stimulation test in the afternoon (approximately 2:00 p.m.), which measures the integrity and sensitivity of the pituitary-adrenal axis. Plasma cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured at baseline and at intervals over a 2h period following intravenous administration of 1 μg/kg of ovine CRF (o-CRF, max 100 μg). In a small subset of participants, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and cortisol binding globulin (CBG) were also assessed. There was a significant group by era interaction in the response of ACTH to CRF, in addition to a main effect of group (PTSD+, PTSD-, non-exposed). The interaction reflected that group differences were only evident in the Gulf War cohort; among Gulf War era veterans, the PTSD+ group had higher elevations in ACTH levels following CRF than the PTSD- group and the non-exposed group. Additionally, the peak change in ACTH was associated with a self-reported environmental exposure (pyridostigmine bromide ingestion) which has been found to be linked to the excess morbidity found in
Chronic Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Nrf2 Activation and Inflammation in the Hippocampus Accompany Heightened Systemic Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in an Animal Model of Gulf War Illness.
Shetty, Geetha A; Hattiangady, Bharathi; Upadhya, Dinesh; Bates, Adrian; Attaluri, Sahithi; Shuai, Bing; Kodali, Maheedhar; Shetty, Ashok K
Memory and mood dysfunction are the key symptoms of Gulf war illness (GWI), a lingering multi-symptom ailment afflicting >200,000 veterans who served in the Persian Gulf War-1. Research probing the source of the disease has demonstrated that concomitant exposures to anti-nerve gas agent pyridostigmine bromide (PB), pesticides, and war-related stress are among the chief causes of GWI. Indeed, exposures to GWI-related chemicals (GWIR-Cs) and mild stress in animal models cause memory and mood impairments alongside reduced neurogenesis and chronic low-level inflammation in the hippocampus. In the current study, we examined whether exposure to GWIR-Cs and stress causes chronic changes in the expression of genes related to increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation in the hippocampus. We also investigated whether GWI is linked with chronically increased activation of Nrf2 (a master regulator of antioxidant response) in the hippocampus, and inflammation and enhanced oxidative stress at the systemic level. Adult male rats were exposed daily to low-doses of PB and pesticides (DEET and permethrin), in combination with 5 min of restraint stress for 4 weeks. Analysis of the hippocampus performed 6 months after the exposure revealed increased expression of many genes related to oxidative stress response and/or antioxidant activity (Hmox1, Sepp1, and Srxn1), reactive oxygen species metabolism (Fmo2, Sod2, and Ucp2) and oxygen transport (Ift172 and Slc38a1). Furthermore, multiple genes relevant to mitochondrial respiration (Atp6a1, Cox6a1, Cox7a2L, Ndufs7, Ndufv1, Lhpp, Slc25a10, and Ucp1) and neuroinflammation (Nfkb1, Bcl6, Csf2, IL6, Mapk1, Mapk3, Ngf, N-pac, and Prkaca) were up-regulated, alongside 73-88% reduction in the expression of anti-inflammatory genes IL4 and IL10, and nuclear translocation and increased expression of Nrf2 protein. These hippocampal changes were associated with elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines
Chronic Oxidative Stress, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, Nrf2 Activation and Inflammation in the Hippocampus Accompany Heightened Systemic Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in an Animal Model of Gulf War Illness
Geetha A. Shetty
Full Text Available Memory and mood dysfunction are the key symptoms of Gulf war illness (GWI, a lingering multi-symptom ailment afflicting >200,000 veterans who served in the Persian Gulf War-1. Research probing the source of the disease has demonstrated that concomitant exposures to anti-nerve gas agent pyridostigmine bromide (PB, pesticides, and war-related stress are among the chief causes of GWI. Indeed, exposures to GWI-related chemicals (GWIR-Cs and mild stress in animal models cause memory and mood impairments alongside reduced neurogenesis and chronic low-level inflammation in the hippocampus. In the current study, we examined whether exposure to GWIR-Cs and stress causes chronic changes in the expression of genes related to increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation in the hippocampus. We also investigated whether GWI is linked with chronically increased activation of Nrf2 (a master regulator of antioxidant response in the hippocampus, and inflammation and enhanced oxidative stress at the systemic level. Adult male rats were exposed daily to low-doses of PB and pesticides (DEET and permethrin, in combination with 5 min of restraint stress for 4 weeks. Analysis of the hippocampus performed 6 months after the exposure revealed increased expression of many genes related to oxidative stress response and/or antioxidant activity (Hmox1, Sepp1, and Srxn1, reactive oxygen species metabolism (Fmo2, Sod2, and Ucp2 and oxygen transport (Ift172 and Slc38a1. Furthermore, multiple genes relevant to mitochondrial respiration (Atp6a1, Cox6a1, Cox7a2L, Ndufs7, Ndufv1, Lhpp, Slc25a10, and Ucp1 and neuroinflammation (Nfkb1, Bcl6, Csf2, IL6, Mapk1, Mapk3, Ngf, N-pac, and Prkaca were up-regulated, alongside 73–88% reduction in the expression of anti-inflammatory genes IL4 and IL10, and nuclear translocation and increased expression of Nrf2 protein. These hippocampal changes were associated with elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and
The extended studies on urbanisation in the Gulf region that came up in the early 2000s concentrated on the main centres with their worldwide-admired mega-projects and branding strategies. Only rather recently did a more general interest arise in the second-tier range of Gulf cities, which also s...
Herrmann, Douglas; Raybeck, Douglas; Wilson, Roland
Last summer Congress passed the new GI Bill, and the president signed it into law. Americans can take great pride in such a program, one that helps veterans attend college after they return home. However, few are aware that many of those veterans will also encounter a variety of non-financial problems that require substantial adjustment as they…
Full Text Available Introduction: Auditory temporal resolution and auditory temporal ordering are two major components of the auditory temporal processing abilities that contribute to speech perception and language development. Auditory temporal resolution and auditory temporal ordering can be evaluated by gap-in-noise (GIN and pitch-pattern-sequence (PPS tests, respectively. In this survey, the effect of bilingualism as a potential confounding factor on auditory temporal processing abilities was investigated in early Azari-Persian bilinguals. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional non-interventional study, GIN and PPS tests were performed on 24 (12 men and 12 women early Azari-Persian bilingual persons and 24 (12 men and 12 women Persian monolingual subjects in the age range of 18–30 years, with a mean age of 24.57 years in bilingual and 24.68 years in monolingual subjects. Data were analyzed with t-test using SPSS software version 16. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between mean gap threshold and mean percentages of the correct response of the GIN test and average percentage of correct responses in the PPS test between early Azari-Persian bilinguals and Persian monolinguals (P≥0.05. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, bilingualism did not have notable effect on auditory temporal processing abilities.
with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE APR 2010 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED...folding time scale of 1–76 days. GDEM3 is a global gridded ocean temperature and salinity clima - tology with a horizontal resolution of 1/38 and has 40...run with the control run reveals that wind stress forcing does have a major impact on the overall circulation pattern (Fig. 9). The ICC is strong (40 cm
Eliseo C., Lance Corporal, USMC Fielder , Douglas L., Sergeant, USA Finneral, George S., Aviation Machinist’s Mate Third Class, USN Fitz, Michael L...benefited from the leadership of previous Presidents, government, congressional, and DOD leaders. The forces in Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm...Prepositioning of USAF equipment in Oman in support of CENTCOM missions began. 6 April, 1984 At the National Leadership Forum of the Center for
Prasad, T.G.; Ikeda, M.; PrasannaKumar, S.
accounts for changes in the characteristics of PGW along these paths. Associated with the Findlater Jet during summer, the entire thermohaline structure is vertically displaced along the coasts of Somalia and Arabia. Ekman convergence in the central Arabian...
... cause long-term adverse health effects. NAS did not include mycoplasma infection among the conditions.... (iii) Coxiella burnetii (Q fever). (iv) Malaria. (v) Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (vi) Nontyphoid... qualifying period of service as specified in paragraph (c)(3)(ii) of this section. Malaria must have become...
... specific underlying cause. VA is drafting a Federal Register notice announcing the Secretary's... known to cause long-term adverse health effects. The nine diseases are: Brucellosis, Campylobacter jejuni, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), Malaria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Nontyphoid Salmonella, Shigella...
Full Text Available Background: sea urchins belonging to phylum echinoderms of marine invertebrates them found to possess excellent. Inflammation can be considered a set of complex processes that many body systems including the immune and nervous system are involved. The aim of the present research was undertaken to study the anti- inflammatory activity of different extracts, coelomic fluid and pigments shells and spines of sea urchin of Echinodermata mathaei. Material and method: Isolation of different tissues extracts (spine, shell, gonad and aristotol lantern sea urchin by three solvents (n- hexan, ethyl acetate, methanol. Isolation coelomic fluid by buffered mode and pigments shell and spine by HCl of sea urchin evaluation antioxidant (DPPH radical scavenging and anti- inflammatory activity investigated through inhibition albumin serum denaturation. Resuts: According to the results of the study, the spine- methanoli and coelomic fluid (CF had the highest activity in the DPPH radical scavenging and aristotol lantern- ethyl acetate and pigment shell highest activity in the anti- inflammatory methods. Significant differences were observed at P<0.05. Conclusion: The result of this research indicated that sea urchin of E.mathaei due to the high antioxidant activity, have anti- inflammatory activities too.
El Golfo Pérsico ha sido una de las prioridades fundamentales en el diseño de la Política Exterior de Irán a lo largo de su historia. El mantenimiento de la integridad territorial y la defensa de su frontera marítima ha dependido por lo tanto del control que Irán pudiera ejercer sobre las aguas del Golfo y sobre su entrada, el Estrecho de Ormuz. la relación entre la Republica Islámica y los países árabes ribereños del Golfo Pérsico adquiere notable relevancia para garantizar la estabilidad y ...
Engineering Center concluded that the probable cause of the color change was exposure to nitric or nitrous oxide fumes.3 These materials may have been present... vestibular dysfunction, CNS vasculitis, sleep disorders, compression neuropathies and various common skin conditions including nevi, warts and fungal...in the industrial area in which the Navy unit was billeted. Tests using a wide range of industrial acids, bases and oxidizers were used to determine
bless you ! [Celebrate] with a banquet, even if you slaughter no more than one sheep." If people were to adhere to this noble tradition, to the pure prophetic tradition, they would have the warning they need against their extravagance and their waste whose harmful effects are evident to everyone. If a young man wants to marry to relieve himself of boredom or [to avoid] the danger of committing acts that are forbidden, he has no recourse but to borrow money. Then when he has a wife, he parts with happiness because he is preoccupied with his debts and
Conclusion: Scorpionfish attacks are the common cause of marine animal exposures in south Iran and should be taken seriously. Men at young ages are the victims of this environmental and occupational hazard.
Full Text Available Remote sensing data can provide valuable information about the surface expression of regional geomorphologic and geological features of arid regions. In the present study, several processing techniques were applied to reveal such in the Qatar Peninsula. Those included preprocessing for radiometric and geometric correction, various enhancement methods, classification, accuracy assessment, contrast stretching, color composition, and principal component analyses. Those were coupled with field groundtruthing and lab analyses. Field groundtruthing included one hundred and forty measurements of spectral reflectance for various sediment exposures representing main sand types in the four studied parts in Qatar. Lab investigations included grain size analysis, X-ray diffraction and laboratory measurements of spectral reflectance. During the course of this study three sand types have been identified: (i sabkha-derived salt-rich, quartz sand, and (ii beach-derived calcareous sand and (iii aeolian dune quartz. Those areas are spectrally distinct in the VNIR, suggesting that VNIR spectral data can be used to discriminate them. The study found that the main limitation of the ground spectral reflectance study is the difficulty of covering large areas. The study also found that ground and laboratory spectral radiance are generally higher in reflectance than those of Landsat TM. This is due to several factors such as atmospheric conditions, the low altitude or different scales. Whereas for areas with huge size of dune sand, the Landsat TM spectral has higher reflectance than those from field and laboratory. The study observed that there is a good correspondence or correlation of the wavelengths maximum sensitivity between the three spectral measurements i.e lab, field and space-borne measurements.
shop had only one table saw, one band saw and one radial arm saw. In addition there were no pneumatic nailers . With more than a billion dollars of...selection is a critical consideration in the initial deployment plan, a packaging spe- cialist should be included. Such things as communications, electric ...equipped and supplied. This would require radial arm saws, table saws, band saws, pneumatic nailers , hand saws, hand tools, spare blades and saw parts, air
Farasat,Massoumeh; Ramazan-Ali KHAVARI-NEJAD; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Namjooyan, Foroogh
Background Ulva genus, an edible seaweed, and an important food source in many south-east Asian countries is also recognized by its synonymous name as Enteromorpha. Objectives This study was carried out to evaluate antioxidant activity, contents of total phenolics, and flavonoids of methanolic extracts of edible green seaweeds including Ulva clathrata (Roth) C. Agardh and three samples of Ulva prolifera O.F.Müller grown at different parts of Bushehr Province along the northern coasts of the P...
alliance members by citing the work of the nineteenth-century German social scientist, Georg Simmel . According to Simmel , inter-grc’ip conflict tends to...ncrmally would h;,ve it--l if 19 any contact with each other. 17 Holsti, et al., p. 95. 18 Georg Simmel , Conflict (New York: Free Press, 1955), p. 92. 19 Hc...Tragic Encounter with Iran. New York: Random House, 1985. Simmel , Georg . Conflict. New York: Free Press, 1955. Sloan, Stanley R. NATO’s Future: Toward
Komachi, Y.; Tabeshpour, M. R.; Golafshani, A. A.
A friction damper device (FDD) is used for vibration control of an existing steel jacket platform under seismic excitation. First, the damping is presented for vibration mitigation of structures located in seismically active zones. A new method for quick design of friction or yielding damping...
Conclusion: Considerable phytochemicals, high antioxidant potential, and moderate cytotoxic activity of G. salicornia and G. corticata make them appropriate candidates for further studies and identification of their bioactive principles.
are not classified as specific types of Adjustment Disorder . Clearly, many of the same symptoms (e.g., psychological withdrawl, restlessness... Disorder 2 2.0 Paranoid Disorder 3 3.0 Organic Delusional Disorder 1 1.0 Psychotic episode 6 6.1 Group V 4 4.0 Schizophrenia 1 1.0 Schizoaffective Disorder 1...experienced a great deal of psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder . Lastly, several military women were hospitalized with a psychiatric
councIl, Iraq strengthened ties with fellow member states Egypt, Jordan , and Yemen. 6 Beyond these arrangements, Saddam assumed Arab states would tolerate...ed. Micheal Howard and Peter Paret (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976) p. 198. 5 Ibid., p. 199, 6 Bruce W. Watson et al., Hilitary Lessons
Full Text Available Background: The venomous jellyfish Cassiopea andromeda can produce envenomation and different toxicological and biological effects by their nematocysts. The phospholipase A2 enzymes (PLA2 are toxic and induce various pharmacological effects including neurotoxicity, myotoxicity and anticoagulant activities. The main aim of the current project was to screen the in vitro PLA2 activity of the C. andromeda crude venom. To better understand the experimental result; a molecular docking study was also performed. Materials and methods: The live specimens were collected from Nayband lagoon, by a trawl net, and separation of their tentacles was done according to Bloom 's et al., method. The PLA2 activity of crude venom was performed according to the acidimetric method of Tan and Tan. The lyophilized venom was subjected to Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectroscopy, and the obtained structures were used for docking study against PLA2. The indoxam was considered as standard control. Results: The PLA2 activity of the jellyfish crude venom was 413 ±0.08 µmol/min/mg. Analysis of the crude venom detected seven compounds (i-vii using GC-MS. Docking data was also confirmed the experimental results. According to the docking results, the highest affinity (-6.7 (kcal/mol was observed in the compound “Pregn-5-ene-3,11-dione, 17,20:20,21 bis [methylenebis(oxy]-, cyclic 3-(1,2-ethane diyl acetal”. Conclusions: A high PLA2 level was found in the venom of C. andromeda. There was a good correlation between in vitro and in silico studies.
AV Alborzi; GhR Hatam; M Mohebali; MH Motazedian; Q Asgari; Fakhar, M.
Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a sever disease that is prevalent in Iran. We report a case of VL in a 3.5 year-old boy. Prolonged fever, chill, abdominal distention, and weight loss were important symptoms. Blood count showed pancytopenia and hypohemoglobinemia. Specific anti-leishmanial antibodies were detected by serological test (IFAT, DAT) but no Leishman body was observed in bone marrow. However, a 145 bp band of KDNA belong to L. infantum was detected by PCR method. Glucantime was admin...
Full Text Available The present study was performed on 59 drillhole cuttings from Pabdeh Formation in Nosrat oil field using Rock- Eval VI pryrolysis. Geochemical analysis indicated that Pabdeh Formation possesses poor to good hydrocarbon potential. Plotting S1 against TOC suggests that samples were not affected by polluting substances such as crude oil and lubricants while drilling operation. Jones organic fancies diagram shows B-BC area indicating that Pabdeh Formation was deposited in marine anoxic to oxic environments. HI vesus Tmax shows that most samples initially have had type II kerogen and now reflecting a mixture of type II to III kerogen (capable of generating oil that have already entered oil generation window. In addition, S1+S2 versus TOC plot also suggests that Pabdeh Formation can be considered as a capable hydrocarbon generating source rock in the study area.
Full Text Available The present study was performed on 59 drillhole cuttings from Pabdeh Formation in Nosrat oil field using Rock- Eval VI pryrolysis. Geochemical analysis indicated that Pabdeh Formation possesses poor to good hydrocarbon potential. Plotting S1 against TOC suggests that samples were not affected by polluting substances such as crude oil and lubricants while drilling operation. Jones organic fancies diagram shows B-BC area indicating that Pabdeh Formation was deposited in marine anoxic to oxic environments. HI vesus Tmax shows that most samples initially have had type II kerogen and now reflecting a mixture of type II to III kerogen (capable of generating oil that have already entered oil generation window. In addition, S1+S2 versus TOC plot also suggests that Pabdeh Formation can be considered as a capable hydrocarbon generating source rock in the study area.
Kuwait, most of them seeking refuge in Jordan. Many of these people arrive malnourished and ill, having been exposed to the elements. They are the...certainly be the growing numbers of the poor, homeless, sick and elderly . The corrosive effects on our nation will be felt especially by racial ethnic
Full Text Available Southern Iran hosts abundant salt karst phenomena in numerous salt diapirs. This paper provides a new insight into the relationships among climate, cap soil and salt karst hydrogeology. Cave systems were documented and mapped. Soil, drip, stream, and flood waters from different environments were studied at several diapirs. It was revealed that the soil water chemistry depends on both the climate and cap soil thickness. In semi-arid climates, a thick cap soil forms (>3 m and water has very low TDS values (0.15 g/l. In arid climates, a shallow cap soil forms, and soil water is gypsum-saturated with low dissolved halite contents. In both environments, drip waters from salt caves and springs displayed high TDS values (255 to 347 g/l. This is explained by the dissolution of halite and minor anhydrite/gypsum, a K-Mg sulfate and sylvite. Spring water plots on a local meteoric water line, whereas drips in caves have an evaporative signature. The flash flood runoff is dominated by event rain water based on isotopic data, while springs are dominantly supplied by a base flow component. The mean residence time of water on the diapirs is controlled by the cap soil thickness. Water residence times may reach several hundreds of years on a thick cap soil based on an exponential model butsoil.
Minister Shamir on strategic cooperation if a war should break out. Israeli Defense Minister Moshe Arens subsequently said on Israeli radio that...destabilizing in Jordan . Herman Eilts testified that: King Hussein has lost much prestige in the Arab world and in the Wes: by the position he has taken...now, but this is largely because he is following populist sentiment rather than seeking to mold it Yet Jordan is suffering badly in an economic sense
Griffith, Thomas E
.... Sometimes these concepts are well-suited to the situation, but history is replete with examples of individuals "fighting the last war" because of an inability to understand how current circumstances...
Jafari, Mohammad Ali; Seyfabadi, Jafar; Shokri, Mohammad Reza
Internal macrobioeroders and their erosion rate in three live and dead coral genera (Favia, Platygyra and Porites) from the intertidal zone of the Hormuz Island were studied by collecting five live and five dead colonies from each genus, from which 4 mm cross-sections were cut and photographed. Photos were analyzed using the Coral Point Count with Excel extensions. Totally, 9 taxa were identified: four bivalve species, one sponge, three polychaetes, and one barnacle. Bioerosion rate did not significantly differ among the three live corals, but among the dead ones only Porites was significantly more eroded than Favia. Sponge had the highest role in the erosion of the dead Platygyra, while barnacles were the most effective eroding organism in the live Platygyra. Polychaetes, followed by bivalves, were the most destructive bioeroders on the dead and live Porites. Further, none of the bioeroding organisms had selectively chosen either the dead or live Favia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background: The marine environment is anexceptional reservoir of bioactive natural products, many of them exhibit structural/chemical features that not found in terrestrial natural products.Glycosaminoglycans are one of this various bioactive compounds. Heparin, as a well known glycosaminoglycan, is a sulfated glycosaminoglycan that has natural anticoagulant properties. Heparin and heparin-like compounds are used as anticoagulants in many aspects of medicine. However, for two main reasons: 1. Contamination in heparin samples obtained from pig intestine or bovine lung pathogens and other pathogens, 2 .resource for use of heparin is limited and there are a lot of requirements for new compounds from natural resources. According to GAGs importance and widespread using of heparin in medicine, in the present study, GAGs compounds extracted from sea anemones and anticoagulant properties of the human blood is investigated. Materials and Methods: GAGs compound was extracted by using cetylpyridinium chloride. Anticoagulation activity of extracted GAGs (the extracted tentacle was tested in human blood plasma, using manual procedures, and assay system, prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT. Results: In this study the amount of the crude GAGs was 24 mg per gram of tentacle dry weight. The results ofanticoagulant activity extracted on human blood plasma showed that these compounds prolonged clotting time compared to the control. In APTT and PT assay of the extracted GAGs from the sea anemone also clotting time prolonged in compared to the control. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that anticoagulant compounds existed in the tentacle of the sea anemone, and although their effects is weaker than the heparin, but they can be substituted for heparin, at least in laboratory conditions.
Roman Zadunaisky report of intprnational conference "Armed Forces and Military Service in a Law-Governed State" and commen- tary by Sergey Bogdanov...Greenwich London SE109NN UNITED KINGDOM (via air mail) Dr. Henry Trofimenko Campus Box 2350 Elon College, North Carolina 27244 Dr. Harlan K. Ullman
.... This report makes a series of recommendations, some general, and some quasi-specific for future patterns of research into the somatic and other consequences of combat stress, deployment stress...
many cases of interdiction mining, the minefields are covertly laid off enemy ports or assets. Once such a minefield is discovered , the port in...few days, and density-driven currents or thermohaline circulation varies over a period of weeks. The strong tidal currents create a bottom, mechanical
oasis village near Al-Kibrit, the area contained no water sources between Kuwait and the town of An-Nu’ariyah along the Tapline Road, which would have...Marines) Infantry Battalion (Senegal) 6th Mech Infantry Regiment ( Moroccan Forces) JFC-E Troops Qatar Mech Infantry Battalion 1st East Bengal INF BN
.... Cases were defined as those registrants assigned code diagnoses such as somatization disorder, myalgia and myositis unspecified, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, unexplained musculoskeletal...
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) Voice of the Veteran (VOV...) of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3501-21), this notice announces that the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA...-0782.'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) Voice of the Veteran...
... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) Voice of the Veteran (VOV... U.S.C. 3501-21), this notice announces that the Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA), Department... INFORMATION: Title: Veterans Benefits Administration (VBA) Voice of the Veteran (VOV) Pilot Surveys. a...
Full Text Available Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles.
Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir
Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles. PMID:22851956
Full Text Available Most parts of Iran have water shortage, so we do regard it as a land with limited water sources. At least Iran is not among the lands having high water levels. In Iran water is considered a holy element, and having a garden for relaxing was one of the concerns of Persian ancestors. Therefore, Persians really tried to create gardens to associate with Paradise in their minds. Persian garden is one of the best effects of meaning that has come from Persian beliefs. Persians have become experts in creating gardens and their unique style is now one of the four main styles in designing gardens. The most amazing element in Persian gardens is water, because it is a land, where there is no rain for six-seven months in the year and people always pray for rain. Every year there is a great religious ceremony appealing to the God for rain.
... veteran at a Department of Veterans Affairs hospital, center or domiciliary activity while receiving care... of the Department of Veterans Affairs hospital, center, or domiciliary activity having jurisdiction...
Soltani, Majid; Ashayeri, Hasan; Modarresi, Yahya; Salavati, Mahyar; Ghomashchi, Hamed
This study was designed to investigate changes in fundamental frequency (F0) across the life span in Persian speakers. Four hundred children and adults were asked to produce a sustained phonation of vowel /a/ and their voice samples were studied in 10 age groups. F0 was analyzed using the software Praat (Version 5.1.17.). The results revealed that (1) the mean F0 in both sexes decreases from childhood to adulthood; (2) significant F0 differences between boys and girls begin at the age of 12 years; and (3) the range of F0 changes in the life span is greater in men (178.38 Hz) than in women (113.57 Hz). These findings provide new data for Persian-speaking children, women, and men and could be beneficial for Iranian speech and language pathologists. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Jamilian, Abdolreza; Darnahal, Alireza; Hamedi, Roya; Kamali, Zinat; Toopchi, Shabnam
When facial photographs are analyzed for the purpose of identifying esthetics norms, differences in dentofacial relationships among ethnic and racial groups must be taken into consideration. Therefore, it is necessary to establish standards for various populations. The purpose of this study was to establish norms of photogrammetric soft tissue profile analysis for Persian adults. Pretreatment lateral photographs of 147 subjects (66 men and 81 women aged 18-35 years) with a Class I skeletal pattern were collected. Twelve angular parameters were evaluated in the subjects. Values for men and women were compared with a t test. Statistically significant sexual dimorphism was found for nasofrontal (P < 0.059), nasal (P < 0.059), nasal dorsum (P < 0.001), cervicomental (P < 0.001), facial convexity (P < 0.004), and total facial convexity (P < 0.002) angles. The mean values obtained from this study can assist in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for Persian adults.
Vahab, Maryam; Zandiyan, Azadeh; Falahi, Mohammad Hadi; Howell, Peter
This article explores the effect that words from different lexical categories have on disfluency in 12 Persian children, ten boys and two girls, who stutter. They were aged 7 years 5 months to 10 years 6 months. Words from the participants' narrative and reading samples (sub-tests of the Reading and Dyslexia Test validated for Persian school-aged children) were categorized as content, function, or content-function, and stuttering-like disfluencies were coded in each speech sample. Content and content-function words were significantly more likely to show stuttering-like disfluencies than function words. The distribution of symptom types over content and content-function words was similar, and differed from the distribution seen in function words. The symptom type analysis also supported the view that whole-word repetitions should not be grouped with other stuttering-like disfluencies.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gulf of Mexico Shrimp Landings - This data set contains catch (landed catch) and effort for fishing trips made by the larger vessels that fish near and offshore for...
Full Text Available The present study builds on recent claims that investigating the L3 initial state provides another test case for UG's involvement in adult language acquisition (Leung, 2005, 2006, 2007; Rothman & Cabrelli, 2007. It focuses on two competing approaches to adult language acquisition, so-called Failed Functional Features approaches (FFFAs (Beck, 1998; Franceschina, 2001 and Full Access approaches (FAAs (Duffield & White, 1999; Schwartz & Sprouse, 1996. Crucially, each approach makes different predictions for L2 ultimate attainment and thus indirectly makes different predictions for possible transfer at the L3 initial state. FFFAs claim that adult L2 learners are unable to acquire new functional features. In contrast, FAAs claim that adult L2 learners have continued full access to UG. Assuming transfer, both FFFAs and FAAs make contrasting predictions for the initial state of L3 acquisition. FFFAs predict that learners at the L3 initial state are restricted to transfer of features available from the L1. Conversely, because FAAs claim that it is possible for L2 learners to acquire new features, they predict that L3 learners can start with an initial state that demonstrates either L1 or L2 functional feature transfer. The present study tests the predictions made by these two competing approaches by examining the L3 initial state of three types of groups of L3 learners of English such as Azerbaijani – Persian, Armenian –Persian and Gilaki- Persian bilinguals via knowledge of adjective order. The instrument of this study was a grammatical test which consisted of three parts. The findings of this research were in accordance with the predictions of (FFFH hypothesis where L1 transfer being hypothesized. L3 learners performed significantly higher than L2 learners as their interlanguage grammar seemed to reflect more of the parameter values of their L1s.
Jazani, Arezoo Moini; Azgomi, Ramin Nasimi Doost; Shirbeigi, Leila
Pruritus is an unpleasant feeling that can cause the desire of scratching in a person and can be the symptoms of systemic, infectious, and neurological diseases. Pruritus is the most common clinical manifestation of skin diseases. Pruritus prevalence is 8-38% in the general population. Causes and treatments of pruritus have been described by traditional Persian medicine scientists. The aim of this study was to derive general principles of the proposed treatment to reduce or relieve pruritus. This descriptive study, review traditional medicine books including Al canon fil tibb, Al-Hawi, Makhzan ul-adviyyah, Al-Abniyah an-Haghyegh el-adviyah, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Exir-e-Azam. The above-mentioned documents were derived and classified by keywords such as pruritus, hakka, jarab and sherry. In traditional Persian medicine, there are different causes for pruritus such as accumulation of vapors or acute humors in subcutaneous tissue or weakness of expulsive (Dafi'a) faculty and its treatment is based on removing the causes. Proper nutrition, bathing, and removing pathogenic humors are involved in the treatment. According to this study, some plants such as Cassia fistula, Purslane, Violets, Fumaria, Barley, Coriander, Rose and Terminalia chebula are anti-itching. Proper nutrition is the most important point in health and treatment of humors production with appropriate quality and quantity. Pruritus can be treated by lifestyle modification and using medicinal plants. It could be concluded that traditional Persian medicine therapies can be effective in the treatment of pruritus with mild side effects. By further investigation and research, we can reach more effective treatment methods in the field of traditional Persian medicine along with other new medical therapies.
... even make it worse. Return to top Military sexual trauma and women veterans Military sexual trauma (MST) is ... any lost self-esteem. Getting help for military sexual trauma If you've experience military sexual trauma (MST), ...
Department of Veterans Affairs — This service is used to create, read, delete and update additional information captured during the EVSS Disability Compensation interview in an effort to align with...
Service members and veterans face some different health issues from civilians. Their families also face some unique challenges. Families may have to cope with Separation from their loved ones Anxiety over loved ones' safety in combat ...
Farahani, Mohammad N; De Raad, Boele; Farzad, Valiolla; Fotoohie, Mahmood
We described the development of a taxonomy of Persian personality-descriptive terms in two studies. In Study 1, judges scanned Persian dictionaries and several Persian novels for person-descriptive terms. The resulting set of person-descriptive terms was classified into different categories of description, including the category of dispositional trait-descriptive adjectives. Of the 544 most familiar traits, 126 traits were selected to collect self-ratings. In Study 2, self-ratings were provided by 2400 students. Ratings were factor analysed (Principal Components Analysis) followed by Varimax rotation. Factor structures with two to six factors were discussed. The two-factor structure and the three-factor structure confirm the Big Two and the Big Three, respectively. Of the structures with five and six factors, the five-factor structure appears to be the more appropriate choice, with the factors labelled Morality, Positive versus Negative Emotionality, Achievement, Thoughtfulness and Affection. Gender differences were measured on both the five-factor structure and the six-factor structure. The discussion section emphasised both cross-cultural commonalities and cultural deviations in reference to the Big Five. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.
Shahram Jamali Nesari
Full Text Available This research investigated the word reading performance of Persian speaking dyslexic children through the use of a reading test. For this reason, 15 Persian elementary developmental dyslexic student with the mean age of 9.6, (SD= 1.5 and 15 Persian unimpaired elementary student with the mean age of 9.6 ( SD= 1.4 were compared. The performance of the two groups was examined according to the effect of transparency variable. Participants were required to read a list of 32 one syllabic word and nonwords in order to compare the reaction times and error rates of reading transparent and opaque words and nonwords. Overall, the finding showed that dyslexic children encountered more problems in reading both transparent and opaque words than did unimpaired children. The finding also showed that reading the opaque words was harder than reading the transparent words for both groups. The results of this research show that specific charactristics of writing systems affect the word processing ability of individuals in the reading task.
Full Text Available Objectives: Increasingly people are using the internet to find information about medical and educational issues and one of the simplest ways to obtain information is internet. Persian Cued Speech is a very new system to Iranian families with deaf child and the professionals and a few educators have enough knowledge about it, so the purpose of this study was to introduce Persian Cued Speech website to deaf educators and rehabilitation professionals and assess their views about the website and their accessibility to important information through its use. Methods:The sample group was randomly selected fromdeaf educators and rehabilitation professionals working in different educational settings for deaf children in Tehran, our capital .They completed a questionnaire which was adopted from different website assessing questionnaires. Researchers also completed an interview with the sample group. Results: Our findings show that from the deaf educators and rehabilitation professionals point of view,the Persian Cued Speech website was a helpful and informing website. They also wanted more pictures and videos,bigger font sizes and more practical parts.So we decide to change some parts of the website to be more usable for them. Discussion: Using informational websites can be a very helpful tool in the internet area. Helpful websites are those which are more accessible, readable and appropriately designed and are user-friendly.
Climate models currently struggle with the more traditional, coarse ( O(100 km) ) representation of the ocean. In these coarse ocean simulations, western boundary currents are notoriously difficult to model accurately. The modeled Gulf Stream is typically seen exhibiting a mean pathway that is north of observations, and is linked to a warm sea-surface temperature bias in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Although increased resolution ( O(10 km) ) improves the modeled Gulf Stream position, there is no clean recipe for obtaining the proper pathway. The 70 year history of literature on the Gulf Stream separation suggests that we have not reached a resolution on the dynamics that control the current's pathway just south of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Without a concrete knowledge on the separation dynamics, we cannot provide a clean recipe for accurately modeling the Gulf Stream at increased resolutions. Further, any reliable parameterization that yields a realistic Gulf Stream path must express the proper physics of separation. The goal of this dissertation is to determine what controls the Gulf Stream separation. To do so, we examine the results of a model intercomparison study and a set of numerical regional terraforming experiments. It is argued that the separation is governed by local dynamics that are most sensitive to the steepening of the continental shelf, consistent with the topographic wave arrest hypothesis of Stern (1998). A linear extension of Stern's theory is provided, which illustrates that wave arrest is possible for a continuously stratified fluid.
Full Text Available Â AbstractÂ Persian as the second language of the world of Islam is closely related to the teachings of this divine religion, so learning Persian besides Islamic and Shia teachings would be helpful for Islamic scholars. In this regard, Jameâat al-Mostafa al-âalamiye in the context of the Persian language tries to train Islamic scholars, translators and missioners.Â Center of language education and Islamic teachings which is the subset of Jameâat al-Mostafa, has formulated a collection of eight books named Persian to Persian teaching which is taught in different centers of Jameâat al-Mostafa inside and outside of the country.Â High goals of this Shia association represents the importance of authoring and analyzing education books. So their accuracy needs more attention and research. This essay aimed at describing and grammatical analyzing of this educational series. The present study deals with the importance and methods of teaching grammar to non-Persian speakers after introducing the Jameâat al-Mostafa al-âalamiye; also, besides introducing the required grammatical issues, it describes eight volumes books of teaching Persian-to-Persian grammatically.Â Then the grammatical difficulties of these books are investigated in ten separate sections with giving some examples. The study ends with providing some strategies to improve the grammatical issues of this educational set and other books of teaching Persian language to non-Persian speakers.Â In the early years after the Islamic revolution, some foreign students came to Iran to study Islamic studies so the supervisory board of non-Iranian students was established to answer and to organize their educational and livelihood status in 1979. âJameâat al-Mostafa al-âalamiyeâ was founded in Qom and other cities after the continuous changes in 2007. This center tries to grow the Islamic scholar, translator, and missionary by teaching Persian
Full Text Available Abstract Persian as the second language of the world of Islam is closely related to the teachings of this divine religion, so learning Persian besides Islamic and Shia teachings would be helpful for Islamic scholars. In this regard, Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye in the context of the Persian language tries to train Islamic scholars, translators and missioners. Center of language education and Islamic teachings which is the subset of Jame’at al-Mostafa, has formulated a collection of eight books named Persian to Persian teaching which is taught in different centers of Jame’at al-Mostafa inside and outside of the country. High goals of this Shia association represents the importance of authoring and analyzing education books. So their accuracy needs more attention and research. This essay aimed at describing and grammatical analyzing of this educational series. The present study deals with the importance and methods of teaching grammar to non-Persian speakers after introducing the Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye; also, besides introducing the required grammatical issues, it describes eight volumes books of teaching Persian-to-Persian grammatically. Then the grammatical difficulties of these books are investigated in ten separate sections with giving some examples. The study ends with providing some strategies to improve the grammatical issues of this educational set and other books of teaching Persian language to non-Persian speakers. In the early years after the Islamic revolution, some foreign students came to Iran to study Islamic studies so the supervisory board of non-Iranian students was established to answer and to organize their educational and livelihood status in 1979. “Jame’at al-Mostafa al-‘alamiye” was founded in Qom and other cities after the continuous changes in 2007. This center tries to grow the Islamic scholar, translator, and missionary by teaching Persian language; in this way, center of language and
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Bregenholt, S; Ishøy, T; Skovgaard, L T
mononuclear cells kept at -139 degrees C for a period of 50 to 380 days prior to NK cell analysis of freshly thawed cells. Significant differences in NK-cell activity were not observed by direct comparison of the levels of natural cytotoxic activity in the two groups. However, NK-cell cytotoxicity...
lines from the GW veterans themselves, given that genetic and possibly epigenetic factors potentially relevant to disease susceptibility would be pre...organophosphate DFP exposure leads to the development of depression and cognitive impairment in a rat model of Gulf War Illness. Neurotoxicology...of genetic or epigenetic background to the disease, and because disease-vulnerable proteins and pathways may be different in humans relative to
Full Text Available Persian writing system deviates from the ideal one due to the lack of one-to-one correspondence between graphemes and phonemes. The present study deals with this question that in spite of the absence of short vowels in Persian writing system and one-to-many and many-to-one relationships between the graphemes and phonemes, how can Persian speakers read out of vocabulary words? This study introduces a probabilistic- structural method that Persian speakers use to read out of vocabulary words in which structural information (including Persian morphology and morphophonemic rules as well as Arabic morphological templates are considered. In order to test how the introduced method works, Persian speakers were asked to read a list of out of vocabulary words. The mentioned list was used by ID3 and MLP (two methods which are used in machine learning as input, then the outputs of the method and those of ID3 and MLP were compared with Persian speakers` pronunciations the results proved that the introduced method functions similar to Persian speakers in reading out of vocabulary words.
Jafari, Azita; Sedigh Ziabari, Roya
In broad terms, this paper is concerned with adjunct construction in Persian, which is an Indo-Iranian Language. During the recent century, specially in its final decades, different researches have been done about adjuncts and adjunction among different languages, but despite the fact that they are very important in Persian language, no attempts…
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Department of Veterans Affairs — The Veterans Affairs Central Cancer Registry (VACCR) receives and stores information on cancer diagnosis and treatment constraints compiled and sent in by the local...
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Department of Veterans Affairs — This quick facts summarizes the Veteran new hires into the Federal government by disabled and by 30 percent and higher disabled groups for 2008 to 2015. It shows the...
Hajmohammadi, Mohammad Sadegh; Ibrahim, Roliana
Persian language is the official language of Iran, Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Local online users often represent their opinions and experiences on the web with written Persian. Although the information in those reviews is valuable to potential consumers and sellers, the huge amount of web reviews make it difficult to give an unbiased evaluation to a product. In this paper, standard machine learning techniques SVM and naive Bayes are incorporated into the domain of online Persian Movie reviews to automatically classify user reviews as positive or negative and performance of these two classifiers is compared with each other in this language. The effects of feature presentations on classification performance are discussed. We find that accuracy is influenced by interaction between the classification models and the feature options. The SVM classifier achieves as well as or better accuracy than naive Bayes in Persian movie. Unigrams are proved better features than bigrams and trigrams in capturing Persian sentiment orientation.
Bernard, Didem M; Selden, Thomas M
Veteran access to care is an important policy issue that has not previously been examined with population-based survey data. This study compares access to care for nonelderly adult Veterans versus comparable non-Veterans, overall and within subgroups defined by simulated eligibility for health care from the Veterans Health Administration and by insurance status. We use household survey data from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey from 2006 to 2011. We use iterative proportional fitting to standardize (control for) differences in age, sex, income, medical conditions, disability, Census region, and Metropolitan Statistical Area. Nonelderly Veterans and comparable non-Veterans. For medical, dental, and prescription medicine treatments, we use 4 access measures: delaying care, inability to obtain care, perceiving delay as a big problem, and perceiving inability to obtain care as a big problem. We also examine having a usual source of care. Frequencies of access barriers are similar for nonelderly Veterans and comparable non-Veterans for dental and prescription medicine treatments. For medical treatment, we find that Veterans eligible for VA health care and Veterans with VA use who are uninsured report fewer access problems than the comparable non-Veteran populations for 2 measures: inability to obtain care and reporting inability to obtain care as a big problem. Our results show that uninsured Veterans, the most policy-relevant group, have better access to care than comparable non-Veterans. Our results highlight the importance of adjusting Veteran and non-Veteran comparisons to account for the higher than average health care needs of Veterans.
This final rule establishes regulations for contracting with community-based treatment facilities in the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) program of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). The HCHV program assists certain homeless veterans in obtaining treatment from non-VA community-based providers. The final rule formalizes VA's policies and procedures in connection with this program and clarifies that veterans with substance use disorders may qualify for the program.
Population Survey (CPS), the difference between veteran and non-veteran youth unemployment increased substantially between 2008 and 2011, but then...the veteran youth unemployment rate averaged 10.7 percent compared to 8.0 percent among non-veteran youth . But the unemployment rates of older...Labor NLSY97 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth PaYS U.S. Army Partnership for Youth Success TAP Transition Assistance Program UCX Unemployment
hospital, nursing home, or domiciliary care facility; and (2) a plot allowance for a veteran eligible for burial in a national cemetery who is not... domiciliary care . The VA was permitted to enter into contracts to provide the burial and funeral services for veterans who died in VA facilities...Veterans Affairs (VA) provides a range of benefits and services to veterans who meet certain eligibility rules; benefits include hospital and medical care
Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Parviz, Mohsen; Sheibani, Behnam; Schiess, Nicoline; Ghorbanifar, Zahra; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Nazem, Esmail; Sadeghpour, Omid; Rezaeizadeh, Hossein
Traditional Persian Medicine (TPM) was the prevailing practice of medicine in the Eurasia region up through the 18th century, a practice of medicine stemming back to Hippocrates and to the 5000 year old civilization of the region. It is a school of medicine which touches on many a delicate points which may seem unimaginable within the realm of modern allopathic medicine. This practice of ancient medicine besides shedding light on various possible theoretical modern day disorders serves as a vast resource for therapeutics. In this paper we present study of the manuscripts of this ancient medical practice in search of symptom presentations coinciding with presentation of multiple sclerosis (MS). Material &Methods: This paper represents a comprehensive search through TPM texts and manuscripts with the intention to seek possible clues on MS from potentially valuable age-old resources. We predominantly focused our search on the works of five eminent physicians of Medieval Persia: Avicenna (980-1037 AD), Haly Abbas (949-982 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Averroes (1126-1198 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD). In this paper, the authors attempt a theory and conclude with high probability that a conjunction of a series of signs, symptoms found in TPM texts under the terms khadar, isterkha and falej form the symptoms and the disease pattern of modern day MS. This theory draws upon existent similarities in terms of disease pathology, disease patterns and predisposing factors seen between MS and the related morbidities within Persian Medicine. We recommend further examinations of such potentially valuable long-standing resources, examining the diagnoses and treatments as set forth by Persian Medicine through international collaboration within the global scientific community. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at firstname.lastname@example.org.
An adult learning to speak a foreign language normally retains an "accent" which may affect the intelligibility of certain sounds, but more often simply conveys the fact that the speaker is a non-native speaker. Various scholars have experimented and discussed the elements involved in a foreign accent. However, in Iran very few researchers have attempted to verify scientifically what are the phonetic and phonological aspects of an "accent." This author tried to determine whether or not a selected group of words, emphasizing stop voicing, produced by native speakers of Persian had significant phonetic and phonemic differences from those achieved by the American students. Subjects for the experiments were three groups of students, one Iranian, two American. A contrastive analysis of the Persian and the English stop consonants was made. An identical measurement test for all three groups was administered. Utilized was a Kay Sona-graph for acoustic analysis, and all spoken data from the Iranian group were compared with those of the American groups. An examination of acoustic correlates of Tehran stops produced by American students shows that the phonetically different but similar feature of /voice/ found in Tehran, Persian and English stops is intuitive to the Americans, and that the language learner cannot readily disassociate a phonological feature from habits of articulation. The results of this research support using the phonetic method for adult learners who want to improve their pronunciation ability. Further research and experimentation is necessary on the effect of the suprasegmental elements on a foreign accent and the most effective teaching materials and methods and to explore other possible techniques in the teaching process.
... Proclamation 8598--Veterans Day, 2010 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol... President ] Proclamation 8598 of November 5, 2010 Veterans Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On Veterans Day, we come together to pay tribute to the men and women who...
Vick, Brandon; Fontanella, Gabrielle
This paper analyzes earnings outcomes of Iraq/Afghanistan-era veterans. We utilize the 2009-2013 American Community Survey and a worker-matching methodology to decompose wage differences between veteran and non-veteran workers. Among fully-employed, 25-40 year-olds, veteran workers make 3% less than non-veteran workers. While male veterans make 9% less than non-veterans, female and black veterans experience a wage premium (2% and 7% respectively). Decomposition of the earnings gap identifies some of its sources. Relatively higher rates of disability and lower rates of educational attainment serve to increase the overall wage penalty against veterans. However, veterans work less in low-paying occupations than non-veterans, serving to reduce the wage penalty. Finally, among male and white subgroups, non-veterans earn more in the top quintile due largely to having higher educational attainment and greater representation in higher-paying occupations, such as management. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... Veterans' Reintegration Program AGENCY: Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS), Department of...: Section 2021 of Title 38 of the United States Code (U.S.C.) reauthorizes the Homeless Veterans Reintegration Program (HVRP) through fiscal year (FY) 2012 and indicates: ``the Secretary of Labor shall conduct...
Akbari, Mohsen; Goodarzi, Nader; Tavafi, Majid
The functions of the mammalian kidney are closely related to its structure. This suggests that renal function can be completely characterized by accurate knowledge of its quantitative morphological features. The aim of this study was to investigate the histomorphometric features of the kidney using design-based and unbiased stereological methods in the Persian squirrel (Sciurus anomalus), which is the only representative of the Sciuridae family in the Middle East. The left kidneys of five animals were examined. Total volume of the kidney, cortex, and medulla were determined to be 960.75 ± 87.4, 754.31 ± 77.09 and 206.1 ± 16.89 mm3, respectively. The glomerular number was 32844.03 ± 1069.19, and the total glomerular volume was estimated to be 36.7 ± 1.45 mm3. The volume and length of the proximal convoluted tubule were estimated at 585.67 ± 60.7 mm3 and 328.8 ± 14.8 m, respectively, with both values being greater than those reported in the rat kidney. The volume and length of the distal convoluted tubule were calculated at 122.34 ± 7.38 mm3 and 234.4 ± 17.45 m, respectively, which are also greater than those reported in the rat kidney. Despite the comparable body weight, the total number and mean individual volume of glomeruli in the Persian squirrel kidney were greater than those in the rat kidney. Overall, the stereological variables of the kidneys elucidated in this study are exclusive to the Persian squirrel. Our findings, together with future renal physiological data, will contribute to a better understanding of the renal structure-function relationship in the Persian squirrel.
Full Text Available Learning a second language for Iranian students may not be simple at all parts, and it may be difficult for them, especially in some parts that is different from their first language principles. One of these parts is Metaphor, which is different in most languages according to their culture and history. This article is a kind of comparative study which aimed to describe some differences between English and Persian interpretation of animal metaphor. We have three categorization for animal metaphor and different examples according to cultures of both languages. Keywords: Animal metaphor, Contrastive analysis, Error analysis, Figurative language
Mohammad Rahimi khoigani
Full Text Available Abstract Diversity of suffix â-iâ, called âyaâ, in Persian language, which is of important consideration, for any reason, has not been able to attract scholars and grammarians in the field of Persian language. Here is an attempt to mention different kinds of âyaâ and to explain their applications, relying on grammar books, dictionaries, and today native application. The character generally has three types of applications in Persian language. It is firstly one of the Persian alphabet, so it primarily functions as a âphonemeâ. It is applied in its second function when appears in the form of âmorphemeâ, such as â-iâ in âmardi rad shodâ (a man passed with usage of indefinite article. The third function appears when it comes in the place of a word, because it is one of the six types of pronouns. So, âyaâ is applied in three forms: phoneme, morpheme and word. In continue, it is attempted to explain these kinds in more details. âyaâ as indefinite maker (Nakare: This kind of âyaâ is called the mark of indefinite by many of the Persian grammarians, including doctor Mohammad Moin. Dehkhoda says âyaâ is added to the end of the word to make it an indefinite one, such as the last word and it is a sign of indefinite types " of " is unknown, such asâ-iâ in âpesari ra didamâ (I saw a boy. âyaâ as numerical suffix means one (vahdat:Â This kind is added to the lastÂ of the word, and means "one". The difference between this one and the previous, âyaâ as indefinite maker, is just in their meanings. âyaâ as attributive suffix: This âyaâ is joined by various kinds of Persian words an attributes them to someone, some place or something, such as âShiraziâ(from shiraz, âfarsiâ(Persian, âIraniâ(Iraian, Barmaki (Barmakian. This kind also sometimes has other meanings
Full Text Available Abstract Diversity of suffix ‘-i’, called ‘ya’, in Persian language, which is of important consideration, for any reason, has not been able to attract scholars and grammarians in the field of Persian language. Here is an attempt to mention different kinds of ‘ya’ and to explain their applications, relying on grammar books, dictionaries, and today native application. The character generally has three types of applications in Persian language. It is firstly one of the Persian alphabet, so it primarily functions as a ‘phoneme’. It is applied in its second function when appears in the form of ’morpheme’, such as ‘-i’ in ‘mardi rad shod’ (a man passed with usage of indefinite article. The third function appears when it comes in the place of a word, because it is one of the six types of pronouns. So, ‘ya’ is applied in three forms: phoneme, morpheme and word. In continue, it is attempted to explain these kinds in more details. ‘ya’ as indefinite maker (Nakare: This kind of ‘ya’ is called the mark of indefinite by many of the Persian grammarians, including doctor Mohammad Moin. Dehkhoda says ‘ya’ is added to the end of the word to make it an indefinite one, such as the last word and it is a sign of indefinite types " of " is unknown, such as‘-i’ in ‘pesari ra didam’ (I saw a boy. ‘ya’ as numerical suffix means one (vahdat: This kind is added to the last of the word, and means "one". The difference between this one and the previous, ‘ya’ as indefinite maker, is just in their meanings. ‘ya’ as attributive suffix: This ‘ya’ is joined by various kinds of Persian words an attributes them to someone, some place or something, such as ‘Shirazi’(from shiraz, ‘farsi’(Persian, ‘Irani’(Iraian, Barmaki (Barmakian. This kind also sometimes has other meanings like emphasis, adverbial, degradation, similarity, vehicle, type, distance, and so on. ‘ya’ as addressing suffix (khetab
Jensen, Mai Tødsø; Karmsteen, Kirstine; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint
to the veteran or the mental health of the partner while relatively few publications deal with the veteran family as a whole or its members social relations outside the primary family. Furthermore, there are relatively few publications focusing on relatives to veterans deployed other places than Iraq...... and Afghanistan, publications focusing on relatives of veterans with physical injuries and few publications dealing with relatives to female veterans. The overall conclusion is that there is a potential need for addressing psychosocial functioning and health among these groups of relatives in research to provide...
Azadeh Sharifi MOGHADDAM
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to propose a model of semantic change which corresponds to synchronic analysis of the data set. For this purpose, the study examined semantic change orientation of French loanwords in Persian. Zomorrodian’s (1373/1994 book on European loanwords in Persian was selected as the database from which 1878 French loanwords were extracted. The data was analyzed semantically by consulting Bellows and Bellows’ (1919 dictionary in order to compare meanings of the original lexical items against the present meaning of the loanwords. A number of 330 loaned items were found to have undergone a type of semantic change. The corpus was examined against the existing semantic change typologies. Finding these models to be incomplete, a new model was proposed. This model, being synchronic and non-linear, is of a more elaborate design with the following advantages: a all items (loanwords of the corpus could be contained in it, and b all categories of this model were filled up by loaned items.
Heydarirad, Ghazaleh; Choopani, Rasool; Mehdi, Pasalar; Jafari, Jamileh Mahdavi
Mucilage compounds are pharmaceutically important polysaccharides that have an extensive range of applications, including binding agents, thickeners, water retention agents, emulsion stabilizers, suspending agents, disintegrates, film formers, and gelling agents. A historical approach to medical science written by Iranian scholars could help in identifying excellent ideas and provide valuable information in this field for proper application. The aim of the current study was to introduce some mucilage uses derived from traditional Persian medicine (TPM). In this literature review, we assessed a few main traditional manuscripts of Iranian medicine, including the books Al Havi, Canon of Medicine, Qarabadine-kabir, Zakhireh-ye Khwarazm shahi, Tuhfat ul-Momineen and Makhzan-ul-Adwiah. The word "loab" in the aforementioned books were searched and all data about mucilage compounds were collected. The use of medicinal plants containing mucilage in Iran dates back to ancient times. In traditional Persian manuscripts, mucilage is one of the most cited applications of medicinal plants for therapeutic objectives. There are various mucilage-producing plants in TPM such as Malva silvestris, Linum usitissimum, Althaea officinalis, Plantago psyllium, Descureania sophia and Ziziphus vulgaris. They have been used traditionally via oral or topical routes for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary, musculoskeletal, and genital systems as well as skin disorders. Certain applications are unique and promising for today's chronic ailments. A scientific assessment of these valuable manuscripts would provide a better insight into the thoughts of the past sages and applicable for clinical use of the mucilage compounds. This may lead to research opportunities in the future.
Full Text Available This qualitative study is conducted to answer four questions: First, whether there is a difference between the grammatical competence development of a group of children aged 2.6 (two years and six months and a group of children aged 3.6 (three years and six months. Second, whether there is a significant difference between the two age groups concerning their Mean Length of Utterance (MLU. Third, whether there is a relationship between the children’s MLU and that of the caretakers. Fourth, whether the normal limit proposed by Brown (1973 is observed in the acquisition of Persian. To this end, language samples of six children and their caretakers’ were recorded during a six-week period and studied afterwards. The results indicated neither an unequivocal yes nor a definitive no answer to the question of age difference and grammatical competence development, that is to say, in some cases there was a difference whereas in some other cases there was no difference at all. As for the difference between the two age groups concerning their MLU, there was a significant difference between the two. However, no significant relationship was found between the children’s MLU and their caretakers’. Finally, the limit proposed by Brown (1973 was observed in the acquisition of Persian.
Material and Methods — This research was a cross sectional study carried out in the medical school of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Our statistical population included all medical students who were studying in clerkship and internship in 2016. Data collected by using the Persian version of 14-item Whiteley Index and general health questionnaire. The reliability of the questionnaire determined using Cronbach's alpha and test-retest. The construct validity evaluated by principal component analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. Results — Three hundred and ten medical students participated. The reliability of Whiteley Index was 0.88 and 0.82 using Cronbach's alpha and intra class correlation coefficients. In the principal component analysis, two factors were extracted with the total amount of 50.4% explained variance. In confirmatory factor analysis the models had acceptable goodness of fit indices. Conclusion — Persian version of 14-item Whiteley Index can be used as a reliable and valid instrument for assessing Health anexity among Iranian young population.
Ghahnavieh, Amir Ebrahimi; Enayati, Mahmoud; Raie, Abolghasem A.
A large dataset of Persian license plate characters is introduced. These extracted characters are provided by Bani Nick Pardazesh Company, which is a pioneer in the intelligent transportation systems field, and its license plate recognition system has been used for many applications in Iran. Natural scene vehicle images delivered from this company were in various conditions. Most of them were taken with visible light during day and a few of them by infrared light with 850 nm wavelength during night. The vehicle images were achieved by color, black and white, or infrared cameras from front view and back view of automobiles in ˜20 different indoor and outdoor locations, such as streets, roads, and parking lots, for different purposes, such as traffic control, issuing fines, etc. The images are different in size and angle and were taken in light and dark backgrounds, where the direction and intensity of the light varied. Also, some of the license plates were muddy and had parts that were shadowed. Out of all the available images, ˜20,145 Persian characters were extracted by an intelligent system and verified by human observers. The extracted images are different in size, and some of them suffer from elimination, distortion, rotation, and noise.
Nimrouzi, Majid; Mahbodi, Ali; Jaladat, Amir-Mohammad; Sadeghfard, Abbas; Zarshenas, Mohammad M
Traditional Persian medicine is based on humoral medical concepts. In the case of abundant blood in the body, tabi'at (body nature) deals with this imbalance by elimination of the morbid substances via some controlling mechanisms. If tabi'at could not react properly, the physician should prescribe an intervention to let the extra blood out. This can be done through phlebotomy, wet cupping, and the use of leech or scarification of the ears. Cupping with scarification may eliminate the morbid substance through the scarified skin, and cupping without scarification evacuates the morbid materials from the compromised organs. Wet cupping in health state is meant to be applied for preventing the blood humor dominance in susceptible individuals. In disease condition, wet cupping is defined as a treatment in which the patients confront the abundance of blood. Wet cupping may have harmful complications in extremely thin or obese patients. Wet cupping should be postponed in patients compromised by diseases especially in the thick phlegm abundance. In Asia, Iranian people, because of religious beliefs, are very interested in cupping therapy. Many unsupervised cupping procedures are performed in Iran, whereas benefits and risks of these procedures are undetermined by providers and clients. In this study, the most important indications and contraindications of wet cupping have been reviewed based on the traditional Persian medicine resources.
Moeini, Reihaneh; Gorji, Narjes
Due to negligence, Persian (Iranian) traditional medicine has had a weak presence in the world of research for a long time. However, in recent years, a variety of activates by research and faculty centers have created awareness and a platform to introduce and promote Persian medicine to the world. The aim of this study is to present and analyze scientific achievements of Persian medicine in the world of research. Articles were collected from PubMed database using keywords such as "Persian medicine", "Persian traditional medicine", "Iranian medicine", and "Iranian traditional medicine". All data were classified based on the type of research (review, intervention, case reports, etc.), the field of study (neurology, cardiovascular, metabolic, historical studies, etc.), publication year, and journal type. A total of 501 articles were identified until the end of 2015, comprising of 222 reviews and 219 interventional (108 animal, 57 clinical and 54 cellular). Most studies were on neurology (20.1%), gastroenterology (14.5%), and cardiovascular diseases (10.4%). The publications in 2015 and 2014 had the highest hit rate with 139 and 132 articles, respectively, with 1:2 publication ratio between foreign and Iranian journals. The most published articles, both foreign and Iranian, were in "Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine" and "Iranian Red Crescent Medicine" journals. The contribution of foreign authors was 5%. The primary focus of the articles was on "Basic concepts of Persian medicine", "Healthy lifestyle according to Persian medicine", and "Historical aspects", by 3.1%, 2.9%, and 6.7%, respectively. During the last 2 years, the number of articles published in Persian (Iranian) medicine, particularly clinical studies had significant growth in comparison with the years before. The tendency of foreign researchers to use the keywords "Iranian" or "Persian" medicine is notable. This research was only based on the designated keyword and other keywords were
... eligible homeless veterans, such as the Health Care for Homeless Veterans (HCHV) Program, the Grant and Per... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 62 RIN 2900-AN53 Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program AGENCY: Department... concerning the Supportive Services for Veteran Families Program (SSVF Program) of the Department of Veterans...
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... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Veteran-student services.... Chapter 31 Monetary Assistance Services § 21.272 Veteran-student services. (a) Eligibility. Veterans who.... Veteran-student services may be utilized in connection with: (1) VA outreach service program as carried...
Pavao, Joanne; Turchik, Jessica A; Hyun, Jenny K; Karpenko, Julie; Saweikis, Meghan; McCutcheon, Susan; Kane, Vincent; Kimerling, Rachel
Military sexual trauma (MST) is the Veteran Health Administration's (VHA) term for sexual assault and/or sexual harassment that occurs during military service. The experience of MST is associated with a variety of mental health conditions. Preliminary research suggests that MST may be associated with homelessness among female Veterans, although to date MST has not been examined in a national study of both female and male homeless Veterans. To estimate the prevalence of MST, examine the association between MST and mental health conditions, and describe mental health utilization among homeless women and men. National, cross-sectional study of 126,598 homeless Veterans who used VHA outpatient care in fiscal year 2010. All variables were obtained from VHA administrative databases, including MST screening status, ICD-9-CM codes to determine mental health diagnoses, and VHA utilization. Of homeless Veterans in VHA, 39.7 % of females and 3.3 % of males experienced MST. Homeless Veterans who experienced MST demonstrated a significantly higher likelihood of almost all mental health conditions examined as compared to other homeless women and men, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, other anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, bipolar disorders, personality disorders, suicide, and, among men only, schizophrenia and psychotic disorders. Nearly all homeless Veterans had at least one mental health visit and Veterans who experienced MST utilized significantly more mental health visits compared to Veterans who did not experience MST. A substantial proportion of homeless Veterans using VHA services have experienced MST, and those who experienced MST had increased odds of mental health diagnoses. Homeless Veterans who had experienced MST had higher intensity of mental health care utilization and high rates of MST-related mental health care. This study highlights the importance of trauma-informed care among homeless Veterans and the success of VHA homeless
Hayley J Koslik
Full Text Available Approximately 1/3 of 1990-1 Gulf War veterans developed chronic multisymptom health problems. Implicated exposures bear mechanisms that adversely affect mitochondria. Symptoms emphasize fatigue, cognition and muscle (brain and muscle are aerobically demanding; with protean additional domains affected, compatible with mitochondrial impairment. Recent evidence supports treatments targeting cell bioenergetics (coenzyme10 to benefit Gulf War illness symptoms. However, no evidence has directly documented mitochondrial or bioenergetic impairment in Gulf War illness.We sought to objectively assess for mitochondrial dysfunction, examining post-exercise phosphocreatine-recovery time constant (PCr-R using (31Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy ((31P-MRS, in Gulf War veterans with Gulf War illness compared to matched healthy controls. PCr-R has been described as a "robust and practical" index of mitochondrial status.Case-control study from 2012-2013. Fourteen community-dwelling Gulf War veterans and matched controls from the San Diego area comprised 7 men meeting CDC and Kansas criteria for Gulf War illness, and 7 non-deployed healthy controls matched 1:1 to cases on age, sex, and ethnicity.Calf muscle phosphocreatine was evaluated by (31P-MRS at rest, through 5 minutes of foot pedal depression exercise, and in recovery, to assess PCr-R. Paired t-tests compared cases to matched controls.PCr-R was significantly prolonged in Gulf War illness cases vs their matched controls: control values, mean ± SD, 29.0 ± 8.7 seconds; case values 46.1 ± 18.0 seconds; difference 17.1 ± 14.9 seconds; p = 0.023. PCr-R was longer for cases relative to their matched controls for all but one pair; moreover while values clustered under 31 seconds for all but one control, they exceeded 35 seconds (with a spread up to 70 seconds for all but one case.These data provide the first direct evidence supporting mitochondrial dysfunction in Gulf War illness. Findings merit
Hasan Eftekhar Ardebili
Conclusions: According to the results, the Persian version of the AMS questionnaire has high validity and reliability and may be used to assess the health-related quality of life of men between 40 and 65 years old.
Hosseinkhani, Ayda; Falahatzadeh, Maryam; Raoofi, Elahe; Zarshenas, Mohammad M
Research on wound healing agents is a developing area in biomedical sciences. Traditional Persian medicine is one of holistic systems of medicine providing valuable information on natural remedies. To collect the evidences for wound-healing medicaments from traditional Persian medicine sources, 5 main pharmaceutical manuscripts in addition to related contemporary reports from Scopus, PubMed, and ScienceDirect were studied. The underlying mechanisms were also saved and discussed. Totally, 65 herbs used in traditional Persian medicine for their wound healing properties was identified. Related anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and wound-healing activities of those remedies were studied. Forty remedies had at least one of those properties and 10 of the filtered plants possessed all effects. The medicinal plants used in wound healing treatment in traditional Persian medicine could be a good topic for further in vivo and clinical research. This might lead to development of effective products for wound treatment. © The Author(s) 2016.
Full Text Available The vast quantity of scientific information has made linguistic analysis almost impossible without application of linguistic software. Stemming is considered to be one of the essentials of information retrieval systems. This paper introduces a stemmer for Persian intransitive verbs, made by the author. In this software, rule-based algorithms and Bruth Force algorithms and also syntactic and morphological analyzers are used. Persian intransitive verbs are generally divided into 8 groups and the rest listed under exceptions, available to users when necessary. This stemmer is able to perform the followings in the shortest time: (1 Identifying infinitives from Persian verb stems 2. Identifying Persian infinitive-maker suffixes (3 Removing infinitive-maker suffixes and providing past stems (4 Removing suffixes and offering present stems (5 Identifying exceptions and offering their stems. This software can be applied in the areas of information retrieval, language teaching, syntax, morphology and grammar writing
Ahern, Aaron; Foster, Michael; Head, Darlene
This chapter outlines the birth and growth of a veterans' program in Salt Lake City, Utah, and discusses next steps in spurring additional innovations and advancements to improve service for student veterans in community colleges.
Full Text Available Putting human commonsense knowledge into computers has always been a long standing dream of artificial intelligence (AI. The cost of several tens of millions of dollars and times have been covered so that the computers could know about “objects falling, not rising.”,” running is faster than walking. The large database was built, automated and semi-automated methods were introduced and volunteers’ efforts were utilized to achieve this, but an automated, high-throughput and low-noise method for commonsense collection still remains as the holy grail of AI. The aim of this study was to build commonsense knowledge ontology using three approaches namely Hearst method, machine translation and using structured resources. Using three Persian corpuse and Applying aforementioned methods, we could extract 7 different relations. 70000 assertions have been extracted. Finally, average accuracy of Hearst, MT and structured resource were 75%, 75% and 100% respectively.
Full Text Available Abstract Proverbs along with metaphors, idioms, axioms and expressions are among the materials whose quality and quantity contribute to the enrichment of every language. In this article, the objective is, after defining it, to deal with this lingual category in two lexical and syntactic levels. In the lexical level, the proverbial terms and lexicon will be investigated from different angles. 1. The usage frequency of alien, folkloric, or common terms, determined via the samples extracted from well-known proverbs, show that 14.4 percent is Arabic, two percent common and folkloric and about one percent others like "Shekasteh". Such studies are carried out comparatively to convey the frequency of the mentioned lexicon compared to the standard prose and other literary forms like legends, lullabies and proverbs. 2. Prohibited or taboo words form 2.75 percent of the total lexicon. 3. In the part of lingual advantage of proverbial terms, the function of proverbial lexicon and its influence on durability of Persian terms and in lingual studies are discussed. 4. Transformation and displacement of the terms in substitutive level is one of the features of proverbs whose causes will be studied in details. In syntactic level, issues like proverbial expressions, the constituents of proverbial expressions and their sequence, verbal types, structure and mode will be studied. Moreover, omission of constituents of proverbial expressions in eight grammatical types will be examined by presenting adequate evidence and also the quality and kinds of these omissions will be determined. In the end, the written and verbal categories will be rendered. The methodology is descriptive-analytical based on the samples and case studies. 50 proverbs from five recorded proverbial sources in standard Persian have been provided. Therefore, spoken cases have not been included in this research.
Tafazoli, Vahid; Nimrouzi, Majid; Daneshfard, Babak
The authors of this manuscript aimed to show the importance of porosity and condensation in health according to traditional Persian medicine (TPM) with consideration of new evidence in conventional medicine. Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts were searched for the traditional terms of takhalkhol (porosity) and takassof (condensity) focused on preventive methods. The findings were classified and compared with new medical findings. According to traditional Persian medicine, porosity and condensity are the two crucial items that contribute to human health. Somatotype is a taxonomy based on embryonic development, which may be considered in parallel with porosity and condensation. However, these terms are not completely the same. There are many causes for acquired porosity comprising hot weather, too much intercourse, rage, starvation, and heavy exercises. In general, porosity increases the risk of diseases as it makes the body organs vulnerable to external hot and cold weather. On the other hand, the porose organs are more susceptible to accumulation of morbid matters because the cellular wastes cannot be evacuated in the normal way. There are some common points between traditional and conventional medicine in the context of porosity and condensity. The relation between diet and somatotype is an example. Condensity and porosity are the two basic items cited in the TPM resources and contribute to health maintenance and disease prevention of body organs. Creating a balance between these two states in different body organs, strongly contributes to disease prevention, treatment and diminishing chronic diseases period. Choosing proper modality including diet, drug therapy, and manual therapy depends on the amount porosity and stiffness of the considered organ and the preferred porosity of the affected organ keeping in a normal healthy state.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The present study aims to design and standardize the verbal fluency test (VFT among bilingual (Turkish-Persian adolescents in Tabriz, Iran. METHODS: In the designing stage, 190 adolescents who were already selected randomly from among the guidance and high school students in Tabriz were classified into three age groups (11-12, 13-15, 16-18. The screening test including 33 Persian letters and three ‘animal’, ‘fruit’, and ‘supermarket stuff’ categories, and SDQ was administered to them. The results were the three letters ‘M’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ for phonological fluency, and two ‘animal’ and ‘supermarket stuff’ categories for semantic fluency in the Persian language. In the standardization stage, the letters and categories specified in the designing stage were administered in the same order to 302 adolescents. Moreover, 28 adolescents diagnosed with ADHD were selected to estimate the discriminant validity of VFT. RESULTS: Pearson correlation coefficient between test-retest of the three letters ‘M’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ for phonological fluency were estimated at 0.67, 0.66, and 0.75, respectively. Furthermore, for the two categories of ‘animal’ and ‘supermarket stuff’ it was estimated to be 0.80 and 0.65, respectively. All these amounts were significant (P < 0.01. The discriminant validity, which was estimated through comparison between the scores of normal and ADHD adolescents, showed that the obtained t value for all indices except for the letter ‘B’ was meaningful. The results of MANOVA between two gender groups were significant at P < 0.05 for three ‘M’, ‘D’, and ‘B’ variables of verbal fluency and ‘animal’ semantic fluency. In both verbal and semantic fluency the mean of subjects’ performance scores showed that females outperformed males. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the current study indicated that VFT is reliable in the studied sample group, and has a valid psychometric
Rakib U Rayhan
Full Text Available Nearly 30% of the approximately 700,000 military personnel who served in Operation Desert Storm (1990-1991 have developed Gulf War Illness, a condition that presents with symptoms such as cognitive impairment, autonomic dysfunction, debilitating fatigue and chronic widespread pain that implicate the central nervous system. A hallmark complaint of subjects with Gulf War Illness is post-exertional malaise; defined as an exacerbation of symptoms following physical and/or mental effort. To study the causal relationship between exercise, the brain, and changes in symptoms, 28 Gulf War veterans and 10 controls completed an fMRI scan before and after two exercise stress tests to investigate serial changes in pain, autonomic function, and working memory. Exercise induced two clinical Gulf War Illness subgroups. One subgroup presented with orthostatic tachycardia (n = 10. This phenotype correlated with brainstem atrophy, baseline working memory compensation in the cerebellar vermis, and subsequent loss of compensation after exercise. The other subgroup developed exercise induced hyperalgesia (n = 18 that was associated with cortical atrophy and baseline working memory compensation in the basal ganglia. Alterations in cognition, brain structure, and symptoms were absent in controls. Our novel findings may provide an understanding of the relationship between the brain and post-exertional malaise in Gulf War Illness.
Washington, Donna L; Yano, Elizabeth M; McGuire, James; Hines, Vivian; Lee, Martin; Gelberg, Lillian
Women veterans are three to four times more likely than non-veteran women to become homeless. However, their risk factors for homelessness have not been defined. Case-control study of non-institutionalized homeless women veterans (n533) and age-matched housed women veterans (n=165). Health, health care, and factors associated with homelessness were assessed using multiple logistic regression with a Monte Carlo algorithm to estimate exact standard errors of the model coefficients and p-values. Characteristics associated with homelessness were sexual assault during military service, being unemployed, being disabled, having worse overall health, and screening positive for an anxiety disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. Protective factors were being a college graduate or married. Efforts to assess housed women veterans' risk factors for homelessness should be integrated into clinical care programs within and outside the Veterans Administration. Programs that work to ameliorate risk factors may prevent these women's living situations from deteriorating over time.
Hallaj Zahra; Rafiey Hasan; Momtaz Yadollah Abolfathi; Teimori Robab; Haroni Qholamreza Qaed Amini; Sahaf Robab
Objective: The aim of this study was to measure the validity and reliability of Persian version of spirituality scale among elderly Iranian people. Methods: Based on the international quality of life assessment (IQOLA) project approach, Persian version of the spirituality scale was prepared. Data on 200 elderly people (over 60 years old) were entered into SPSS software. Results: The findings of the descriptive results of the current study showed that there was no correlation between the demog...
In his article "Ecocriticism and Persian and Greek Myths about the Origin of Fire" Massih Zekavat argues that some contemporary ecological biases are rooted in ancient thought. Further, Zekavat argues that the study of mythology is relevant to the understanding of culture and ecology thus assisting ecocriticism. The investigation of man/woman, culture/nature, and human/nature binary oppositions conveys that Greek and Persian myths are mostly anthropocentric and androcentric. Zekavat postulate...
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