Lewis, Richard F.; Clendaniel, Richard A.; Zee, David S.; Shelhamer, M. J. (Principal Investigator)
The gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) normally depends on the distance between the subject and the visual target, but it remains uncertain whether vergence angle can be linked to changes in VOR gain through a process of context-dependent adaptation. In this study, we examined this question with an adaptation paradigm that modified the normal relationship between vergence angle and retinal image motion. Subjects were rotated sinusoidally while they viewed an optokinetic (OKN) stimulus through either diverging or converging prisms. In three subjects the diverging prisms were worn while the OKN stimulus moved out of phase with the head, and the converging prisms were worn when the OKN stimulus moved in-phase with the head. The relationship between the vergence angle and OKN stimulus was reversed in the fourth subject. After 2 h of training, the VOR gain at the two vergence angles changed significantly in all of the subjects, evidenced by the two different VOR gains that could be immediately accessed by switching between the diverged and converged conditions. The results demonstrate that subjects can learn to use vergence angle as the contextual cue that retrieves adaptive changes in the angular VOR.
Fushiki, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Motoyoshi; Shojaku, Hideo
We examined plastic changes in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) during low-frequency vertical head rotation, a condition under which otolith inputs from the vestibular system are essential for VOR generation. For adaptive conditioning of the vertical VOR, 0.02Hz sinusoidal pitch rotation for one hour about the earth's horizontal axis was synchronized with out-of-phase vertical visual stimulation from a random dot pattern. A vertical VOR was well evoked when the upright animal rotated around the earth-horizontal axis (EHA) at low frequency due to the changing gravity stimulus and dynamic stimulation of the otoliths. After adaptive conditioning, the amplitude of the vertical VOR increased by an average of 32.1%. Our observations showing plasticity in the otolithic contribution to the VOR may provide a new strategy for visual-vestibular mismatch training in patients with otolithic disorders. This low-frequency vertical head rotation protocol also provides a model for investigating the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of VORs mediated by otolith activation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kara H Beaton
Full Text Available Individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability may permit customized training protocols for optimum learning. Here, we sought to forecast individual adaptive capabilities in the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR. Subjects performed 400 head-rotation steps (400 trials during a baseline test, followed by 20 min of VOR gain adaptation. All subjects exhibited mean baseline VOR gain of approximately 1.0, variable from trial to trial, and showed desired reductions in gain following adaptation with variation in extent across individuals. The extent to which a given subject adapted was inversely proportional to a measure of the strength and duration of baseline inter-trial correlations (β. β is derived from the decay of the autocorrelation of the sequence of VOR gains, and describes how strongly correlated are past gain values; it thus indicates how much the VOR gain on any given trial is informed by performance on previous trials. To maximize the time that images are stabilized on the retina, the VOR should maintain a gain close to 1.0 that is adjusted predominantly according to the most recent error; hence, it is not surprising that individuals who exhibit smaller β (weaker inter-trial correlations also exhibited the best adaptation. Our finding suggests that the temporal structure of baseline behavioral data contains important information that may aid in forecasting adaptive capacities. This has significant implications for the development of personalized physical therapy protocols for patients, and for other cases when it is necessary to adjust motor programs to maintain movement accuracy in response to pathological and environmental changes.
Dieterich, M; Brandt, T
Recent animal and clinical studies on the vestibulo-ocular reflex deal with a number of physiological and clinical aspects from which three were chosen for this review: (1) the torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex and its disorders; (2) the otolith contribution to the vestibulo-ocular reflex; and (3) neurotransmitters, neuropharmacological aspects, and medical treatment. Disorders of the vestibulo-ocular reflex can be classified according to the three major planes of action, yaw plane, pitch plane, and roll plane, which equate with horizontal nystagmus, upbeat or downbeat nystagmus, and torsional nystagmus, respectively. The particular interest in the torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex arises from new methods for measuring ocular torsion, especially the three-dimensional eye-movement recordings with scleral coils. These methods make it possible to do three-dimensional analysis of the differential effects of horizontal and vertical semicircular canal function and their individual disorders of the torsional vestibulo-ocular reflex. Otolith and semicircular canal inputs converge at the level of the vestibular nuclei to subserve static graviceptive and dynamic torsional and pitch function. The elaboration of the particular sensorial weight of the input from either the otoliths or the semicircular canal is currently a challenge for both physiologists and neurologists. Disorders of otolith function, still absent from the diagnostic repertoire of most neurologists, are increasingly being reported. The most promising developments in therapeutic measures may come from research on vestibular neurotransmitters, their agonists and antagonists. A number of pharmacological agents are effective suppressants of pathological eye movements. However, systematic prospective studies are needed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
adaptation achieved within the first 16 minutes only. A direction adaptation stimulus would be utilized per Khater , et al. (1990). This method of...the vestibular organs within each inner ear. video-oculography (VOG): a method of collecting eye movement data using video recording techniques. Often...Other methods for measuring the VOR also exist (Halmagyi, 1995; Sharpe & Barber, 1993; Shelhamer, Robinson, & Tan, 1992). Gain and phase are the
The evolutionary and developmental changes in the eye muscle innervation, the inner ear, and the vestibulo-ocular reflex are examined. Three eye muscle patterns, based on the innervation by distinct ocular motoneurons populations, can be identified: a lamprey, an elasmobranch, and a bony fish/tetrapod pattern. Four distinct patterns of variation in the vestibular system are described: a hagfish pattern, a lamprey pattern, an elasmobranch pattern, and a bony fish/tetrapod pattern. Developmental data suggest an influence of the hindbrain on ear pattern formation, thus potentially allowing a concomitant change of eye muscle innervation and ear variation. The connections between the ear and the vestibular nuclei and between the vestibular nuclei and ocular motoneurons are reviewed, and the role of neurotrophins for pattern specification is discussed. Three patterns are recognized in central projections: a hagfish pattern, a lamprey pattern, and a pattern for jawed vertebrates. Second-order connections show both similarities and differences between distantly related species such as lampreys and mammals. For example, elasmobranchs lack an internuclear system, which is at best poorly developed in lampreys. It is suggested that the vestibulo-ocular system shows only a limited degree of variation because of the pronounced functional constraints imposed on it.
Dai, Chenkai; Fridman, Gene Y.; Chiang, Bryce; Davidovics, Natan; Melvin, Thuy-Anh; Cullen, Kathleen E.; Della Santina, Charles C.
By sensing three-dimensional (3D) head rotation and electrically stimulating the three ampullary branches of a vestibular nerve to encode head angular velocity, a multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) can restore vestibular sensation to individuals disabled by loss of vestibular hair cell function. However, current spread to afferent fibers innervating non-targeted canals and otolith endorgans can distort the vestibular nerve activation pattern, causing misalignment between the perceived and actual axis of head rotation. We hypothesized that over time, central neural mechanisms can adapt to correct this misalignment. To test this, we rendered five chinchillas vestibular-deficient via bilateral gentamicin treatment and unilaterally implanted them with a head mounted MVP. Comparison of 3D angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) responses during 2 Hz, 50°/s peak horizontal sinusoidal head rotations in darkness on the first, third and seventh days of continual MVP use revealed that eye responses about the intended axis remained stable (at about 70% of the normal gain) while misalignment improved significantly by the end of one week of prosthetic stimulation. A comparable time course of improvement was also observed for head rotations about the other two semicircular canal axes and at every stimulus frequency examined (0.2–5 Hz). In addition, the extent of disconjugacy between the two eyes progressively improved during the same time window. These results indicate that the central nervous system rapidly adapts to multichannel prosthetic vestibular stimulation to markedly improve 3D aVOR alignment within the first week after activation. Similar adaptive improvements are likely to occur in other species, including humans. PMID:21374081
Nagao, S; Kitazawa, H
Adaptation of the horizontal smooth pursuit eye movement was examined using step-ramp moving target paradigms in chronically prepared Macaca fuscata. Monkeys were trained to pursue a small target which moved in the horizontal plane in a 3 degrees step-10 degrees/s ramp or a 0 degrees step-10 degrees/s ramp mode for 300-400 ms. When the target moved from central fixation point in a step-ramp mode, the monkeys usually responded with an initial pursuit eye movement (latency, 100-120 ms) which reached to a nearly constant velocity of 4 degrees/s in 50 100 ms, followed by a 1-3.5 degrees catch-up saccade (latency, 170-230 ms). The catch-up saccade was followed by a 7-8 degrees/s post-saccadic pursuit. The post-saccadic pursuit velocity was measured 40-90 ms after the end of the catch-up saccade. When the target velocity was doubled (20 degrees/s) for 100-200 ms immediately after the onset of the catch-up saccade, the post-saccadic pursuit velocity increased by 40%. When the target velocity was decreased by half (5 degrees/s) immediately after the onset of the catch-up saccade for 150 ms, the post-saccadic pursuit velocity decreased by 30%. These increases or decreases of post-saccadic pursuit were observable within just 50-150 trials. The adaptation of post-saccadic pursuit occurred independent of the position of the target. The amplitude and latency of the catch-up saccade also increased correspondingly when the post-saccadic pursuit velocity was adaptively increased. Adaptation of smooth pursuit did not affect the dynamics of reflex eye movements, including the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR) gain and phase measured by 0.33 Hz-10 degrees (peak-to-peak) turntable oscillations in darkness. Conversely, adaptation of the HVOR gain induced by a 2 h sustained oscillation of the turntable and screen in reversed direction at 0.33 Hz-10 degrees affected little the velocity of post-saccadic pursuit or the amplitude of the catch-up saccade. These results suggest that
Minor, Lloyd B; Lasker, David M
Processes of vestibular compensation mediate recovery of many aspects of vestibular dysfunction following unilateral vestibular injury. The VOR in response to high-frequency, high-acceleration head movements, however, retains an enduring asymmetry. Head movements that are inhibitory with respect to semicircular canals on the intact side lead to a diminished VOR whereas head movements that are excitatory for semicircular canals on the intact side lead to a VOR that returns close to normal. We review our work directed toward understanding the processes of VOR compensation to high-frequency, high-acceleration head movements and the related topic of adaptation to changes in the visual requirements for a compensatory VOR. Our work has shown that the processes of both compensation and adaptation to these stimuli can be described by a mathematical model with inputs from tonic and phasic components. We have further shown that the dynamics of regular afferents have close resemblance to the tonic pathway whereas the dynamics of irregular afferents match those of the phasic pathway.
Highstein, S. M.
Structure-function studies at the systems level are an effective method for understanding the relationship of the central nervous system to behavior. Motor learning or adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex is a clear example wherein this approach has been productive. During a vestibulo-ocular reflex the brain converts a head velocity signal, transduced through the vestibular semicircular canals, into an eye movement command delivered to the extraocular muscles. If the viewed target remains on the fovea of the retina, the reflex is compensatory, and its gain, eye velocity/head velocity, is one. When the image of the viewed object slips across the retina, visual acuity decreases, and the gain of the reflex, which is no longer one, is plastically adapted or adjusted until retinal stability is restored. The anatomic substrate for this plasticity thus involves brain structures in which visual-vestibular interaction can potentially occur, as well as vestibular and visual sensory and oculomotor motor structures. Further, it has been known for many years that removal of the flocculus of the cerebellum permanently precludes further vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation, demonstrating the involvement of the cerebellum in this behavior. Maekawa and Simpson (J Neurophysiol 1973;36: 649-66) discovered that one visual input to the flocculus involved the accessory optic system and the inferior olive. Ensuing work has demonstrated that the visual signals used to adapt the vestibulo-ocular reflex are transmitted by this accessory optic system to the flocculus and subsequently to brain stem structures involved in vestibulo-ocular reflex plasticity. Presently the inclusive list of anatomic sites involved in vestibulo-ocular reflex circuitry and its adaptive plasticity is small. Our laboratory continues to believe that this behavior should be caused by interactions within this small class of neurons. By studying each class of identified neuron and its interactions with others within
Branoner, Francisco; Chagnaud, Boris P; Straka, Hans
Vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR) ensure gaze stability during locomotion and passively induced head/body movements. In precocial vertebrates such as amphibians, vestibular reflexes are required very early at the onset of locomotor activity. While the formation of inner ears and the assembly of sensory-motor pathways is largely completed soon after hatching, angular and translational/tilt VOR display differential functional onsets and mature with different time courses. Otolith-derived eye movements appear immediately after hatching, whereas the appearance and progressive amelioration of semicircular canal-evoked eye movements is delayed and dependent on the acquisition of sufficiently large semicircular canal diameters. Moreover, semicircular canal functionality is also required to tune the initially omnidirectional otolith-derived VOR. The tuning is due to a reinforcement of those vestibulo-ocular connections that are co-activated by semicircular canal and otolith inputs during natural head/body motion. This suggests that molecular mechanisms initially guide the basic ontogenetic wiring, whereas semicircular canal-dependent activity is required to establish the spatio-temporal specificity of the reflex. While a robust VOR is activated during passive head/body movements, locomotor efference copies provide the major source for compensatory eye movements during tail- and limb-based swimming of larval and adult frogs. The integration of active/passive motion-related signals for gaze stabilization occurs in central vestibular neurons that are arranged as segmentally iterated functional groups along rhombomere 1-8. However, at variance with the topographic maps of most other sensory systems, the sensory-motor transformation of motion-related signals occurs in segmentally specific neuronal groups defined by the extraocular motor output targets.
Favilla, M; Ghelarducci, B; La Noce, A; Starita, A
The effect of ketamine has been tested on the phase of the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex of rabbits sinusoidally oscillated at various frequencies. A significant phase lag, predominantly affecting the macular component of the reflex, was observed. This action resembles that induced by Nembutal in the same preparation. A specific action of ketamine on synaptic transmission is suggested. Erroneous phase relationship between natural stimuli responses can be obtained in experiments employing ketamine.
Full Text Available The vestibular organs consist of complementary sensors: the semicircular canals detect rotations while the otoliths detect linear accelerations, including the constant pull of gravity. Several fundamental questions remain on how the vestibular system would develop and/or adapt to prolonged changes in gravity such as during long-term space journey. How do vestibular reflexes develop if the appropriate assembly of otoliths and semi-circular canals is perturbed? The aim of present work was to evaluate the role of gravity sensing during ontogeny of the vestibular system. In otoconia-deficient mice (ied, gravity cannot be sensed and therefore maculo-ocular reflexes (MOR were absent. While canals-related reflexes were present, the ied deficit also led to the abnormal spatial tuning of the horizontal angular canal-related VOR. To identify putative otolith-related critical periods, normal C57Bl/6J mice were subjected to 2G hypergravity by chronic centrifugation during different periods of development or adulthood (Adult-HG and compared to non-centrifuged (control C57Bl/6J mice. Mice exposed to hypergravity during development had completely normal vestibulo-ocular reflexes 6 months after end of centrifugation. Adult-HG mice all displayed major abnormalities in maculo-ocular reflexe one month after return to normal gravity. During the next 5 months, adaptation to normal gravity occurred in half of the individuals. In summary, genetic suppression of gravity sensing indicated that otolith-related signals might be necessary to ensure proper functioning of canal-related vestibular reflexes. On the other hand, exposure to hypergravity during development was not sufficient to modify durably motor behaviour. Hence, 2G centrifugation during development revealed no otolith-specific critical period.
Beraneck, Mathieu; Bojados, Mickael; Le Séac'h, Anne; Jamon, Marc; Vidal, Pierre-Paul
The vestibular organs consist of complementary sensors: the semicircular canals detect rotations while the otoliths detect linear accelerations, including the constant pull of gravity. Several fundamental questions remain on how the vestibular system would develop and/or adapt to prolonged changes in gravity such as during long-term space journey. How do vestibular reflexes develop if the appropriate assembly of otoliths and semi-circular canals is perturbed? The aim of present work was to evaluate the role of gravity sensing during ontogeny of the vestibular system. In otoconia-deficient mice (ied), gravity cannot be sensed and therefore maculo-ocular reflexes (MOR) were absent. While canals-related reflexes were present, the ied deficit also led to the abnormal spatial tuning of the horizontal angular canal-related VOR. To identify putative otolith-related critical periods, normal C57Bl/6J mice were subjected to 2G hypergravity by chronic centrifugation during different periods of development or adulthood (Adult-HG) and compared to non-centrifuged (control) C57Bl/6J mice. Mice exposed to hypergravity during development had completely normal vestibulo-ocular reflexes 6 months after end of centrifugation. Adult-HG mice all displayed major abnormalities in maculo-ocular reflexe one month after return to normal gravity. During the next 5 months, adaptation to normal gravity occurred in half of the individuals. In summary, genetic suppression of gravity sensing indicated that otolith-related signals might be necessary to ensure proper functioning of canal-related vestibular reflexes. On the other hand, exposure to hypergravity during development was not sufficient to modify durably motor behaviour. Hence, 2G centrifugation during development revealed no otolith-specific critical period.
Wood, Scott J.; Appelbaum, Meghan
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) stabilizes vision on earth-fixed targets by eliciting eyes movements in response to changes in head position. How well the eyes perform this task can be functionally measured by the dynamic visual acuity (DVA) test. We designed a passive, horizontal DVA test to specifically study the acuity and reaction time when looking in different target locations. Visual acuity was compared among 12 subjects using a standard Landolt C wall chart, a computerized static (no rotation) acuity test and dynamic acuity test while oscillating at 0.8 Hz (+/-60 deg/s). In addition, five trials with yaw oscillation randomly presented a visual target in one of nine different locations with the size and presentation duration of the visual target varying across trials. The results showed a significant difference between the static and dynamic threshold acuities as well as a significant difference between the visual targets presented in the horizontal plane versus those in the vertical plane when comparing accuracy of vision and reaction time of the response. Visual acuity increased proportional to the size of the visual target and increased between 150 and 300 msec duration. We conclude that dynamic visual acuity varies with target location, with acuity optimized for targets in the plane of rotation. This DVA test could be used as a functional diagnostic test for visual-vestibular and neuro-cognitive impairments by assessing both accuracy and reaction time to acquire visual targets.
van de Berg, Raymond; Guinand, Nils; Nguyen, T A Khoa; Ranieri, Maurizio; Cavuscens, Samuel; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Stokroos, Robert; Kingma, Herman; Perez-Fornos, Angelica
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) shows frequency-dependent behavior. This study investigated whether the characteristics of the electrically evoked VOR (eVOR) elicited by a vestibular implant, showed the same frequency-dependency. Twelve vestibular electrodes implanted in seven patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) were tested. Stimuli consisted of amplitude-modulated electrical stimulation with a sinusoidal profile at frequencies of 0.5, 1, and 2 Hz. The main characteristics of the eVOR were evaluated and compared to the "natural" VOR characteristics measured in a group of age-matched healthy volunteers who were subjected to horizontal whole body rotations with equivalent sinusoidal velocity profiles at the same frequencies. A strong and significant effect of frequency was observed in the total peak eye velocity of the eVOR. This effect was similar to that observed in the "natural" VOR. Other characteristics of the (e)VOR (angle, habituation-index, and asymmetry) showed no significant frequency-dependent effect. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, at least at the specific (limited) frequency range tested, responses elicited by a vestibular implant closely mimic the frequency-dependency of the "normal" vestibular system.
Raymond eVan De Berg
Full Text Available The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR shows frequency-dependent behavior. This study investigated whether the characteristics of the electrically evoked VOR (eVOR elicited by a vestibular implant, showed the same frequency-dependency.Twelve vestibular electrodes implanted in 7 patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction were tested. Stimuli consisted of amplitude-modulated electrical stimulation with a sinusoidal profile at frequencies of 0.5Hz, 1Hz, and 2Hz. The main characteristics of the eVOR were evaluated and compared to the natural VOR characteristics measured in a group of age-matched healthy volunteers who were subjected to horizontal whole body rotations with equivalent sinusoidal velocity profiles at the same frequencies.A strong and significant effect of frequency was observed in the total peak eye velocity of the eVOR. This effect was similar to that observed in the natural VOR. Other characteristics of the (eVOR (angle, habituation-index, and asymmetry showed no significant frequency-dependent effect. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that, at least at the specific (limited frequency range tested, responses elicited by a vestibular implant closely mimic the frequency-dependency of the normal vestibular system.
Full Text Available The Mal de Debarquement Syndrome (MdDS, a continuous feeling of swaying, rocking and/or bobbing, generally follows travel on the sea. The associated symptoms cause considerable distress. The underlying neural mechanisms are unknown, and to date there have been no effective treatments for this condition. Results in monkeys and humans suggested that MdDS was caused by maladaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR to roll of the head during rotation. We studied twenty-four subjects with persistent MdDS (3 males, 21 females; 19.1 ± 33 months. Physical findings included body oscillation at 0.2Hz, oscillating vertical nystagmus when the head was rolled from side-to-side in darkness, and unilateral rotation during the Fukuda stepping test. We posited that the maladapted rocking and the physical symptoms could be diminished or extinguished by readapting the VOR. Subjects were treated by rolling the head from side-to-side while watching a rotating full-field visual stimulus. Seventeen of the twenty-four subjects had a complete or substantial recovery on average for approximately one year. Six were initially better, but the symptoms recurred. One subject did not respond to treatment. Thus, readaptation of the VOR has led to a cure or substantial improvement in 70% of the subjects with MdDS. We conclude that the adaptive processes associated with roll-while-rotating are responsible for producing MdDS, and that the symptoms can be reduced or resolved by readapting the VOR.
Dai, Mingjia; Cohen, Bernard; Smouha, Eric; Cho, Catherine
The mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS), a continuous feeling of swaying, rocking, and/or bobbing, generally follows travel on the sea. The associated symptoms cause considerable distress. The underlying neural mechanisms are unknown, and to date there have been no effective treatments for this condition. Results in monkeys and humans suggested that MdDS was caused by maladaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) to roll of the head during rotation. We studied 24 subjects with persistent MdDS (3 males, 21 females; 19.1 ± 33 months). Physical findings included body oscillation at 0.2 Hz, oscillating vertical nystagmus when the head was rolled from side-to-side in darkness, and unilateral rotation during the Fukuda stepping test. We posited that the maladapted rocking and the physical symptoms could be diminished or extinguished by readapting the VOR. Subjects were treated by rolling the head from side-to-side while watching a rotating full-field visual stimulus. Seventeen of the 24 subjects had a complete or substantial recovery on average for approximately 1 year. Six were initially better, but the symptoms recurred. One subject did not respond to treatment. Thus, readaptation of the VOR has led to a cure or substantial improvement in 70% of the subjects with MdDS. We conclude that the adaptive processes associated with roll-while-rotating are responsible for producing MdDS, and that the symptoms can be reduced or resolved by readapting the VOR.
Mark F Walker
Full Text Available The otolith-driven translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (tVOR generates compensatory eye movements to linear head accelerations. Studies in humans indicate that the cerebellum plays a critical role in the neural control of the tVOR, but little is known about mechanisms of this control or the functions of specific cerebellar structures. Here, we chose to investigate the contribution of the nodulus and uvula, which have been shown by prior studies to be involved in the processing of otolith signals in other contexts.We recorded eye movements in two rhesus monkeys during steps of linear motion along the interaural axis before and after surgical lesions of the cerebellar uvula and nodulus. The lesions strikingly reduced eye velocity during constant-velocity motion but had only a small effect on the response to initial head acceleration. We fit eye velocity to a linear combination of head acceleration and velocity and to a dynamic mathematical model of the tVOR that incorporated a specific integrator of head acceleration. Based on parameter optimization, the lesion decreased the gain of the pathway containing this new integrator by 62%. The component of eye velocity that depended directly on head acceleration changed little (gain decrease of 13%. In a final set of simulations, we compared our data to the predictions of previous models of the tVOR, none of which could account for our experimental findings.Our results provide new and important information regarding the neural control of the tVOR. Specifically, they point to a key role for the cerebellar nodulus and uvula in the mathematical integration of afferent linear head acceleration signals. This function is likely to be critical not only for the tVOR but also for the otolith-mediated reflexes that control posture and balance.
Schmid, R. M.
The vestibulo-ocular system is examined from the standpoint of system theory. The evolution of a mathematical model of the vestibulo-ocular system in an attempt to match more and more experimental data is followed step by step. The final model explains many characteristics of the eye movement in vestibularly induced nystagmus. The analysis of the dynamic behavior of the model at the different stages of its development is illustrated in time domain, mainly in a qualitative way.
Ranjbaran, Mina; Galiana, Henrietta L.
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is an involuntary eye movement evoked by head movements. It is also influenced by viewing distance. This paper presents a hybrid nonlinear bilateral model for the horizontal angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (AVOR) in the dark. The model is based on known interconnections between saccadic burst circuits in the brainstem and ocular premotor areas in the vestibular nuclei during fast and slow phase intervals of nystagmus. We implemented a viable switching strategy for the timing of nystagmus events to allow emulation of real nystagmus data. The performance of the hybrid model is evaluated with simulations, and results are consistent with experimental observations. The hybrid model replicates realistic AVOR nystagmus patterns during sinusoidal or step head rotations in the dark and during interactions with vergence, e.g., fixation distance. By simply assigning proper nonlinear neural computations at the premotor level, the model replicates all reported experimental observations. This work sheds light on potential underlying neural mechanisms driving the context dependent AVOR and explains contradictory results in the literature. Moreover, context-dependent behaviors in more complex motor systems could also rely on local nonlinear neural computations. PMID:25709578
Full Text Available The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR is an involuntary eye movement evoked by head movements. It is also influenced by viewing distance. This paper presents a hybrid nonlinear bilateral model for the horizontal angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (AVOR in the dark. The model is based on known interconnections between saccadic burst circuits in the brainstem and ocular premotor areas in the vestibular nuclei during fast and slow phase intervals of nystagmus. We implemented a viable switching strategy for the timing of nystagmus events to allow emulation of real nystagmus data. The performance of the hybrid model is evaluated with simulations, and results are consistent with experimental observations. The hybrid model replicates realistic AVOR nystagmus patterns during sinusoidal or step head rotations in the dark and during interactions with vergence, e.g. fixation distance. By simply assigning proper nonlinear neural computations at the premotor level, the model replicates all reported experimental observations. This work sheds light on potential underlying neural mechanisms driving the context dependent AVOR and explains contradictory results in the literature. Moreover, context-dependent behaviors in more complex motor systems could also rely on local nonlinear neural computations.
Ranjbaran, Mina; Galiana, Henrietta L
Studies of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) have revealed that this type of involuntary eye movement is influenced by viewing distance. This paper presents a bilateral model for the horizontal angular VOR in the dark based on realistic physiological mechanisms. It is shown that by assigning proper nonlinear neural computations at the premotor level, the model is capable of replicating target-distance-dependent VOR responses that are in agreement with geometrical requirements. Central premotor responses in the model are also shown to be consistent with experimental observations. Moreover, the model performance after simulated unilateral canal plugging also reproduces experimental observations, an emerging property. Such local nonlinear computations could similarly generate context-dependent behaviors in other more complex motor systems.
Johnston, Janine L; Daye, Pierre M; Thomson, Glen T. D
.... The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is greatly reduced at the onset of large eye–head (gaze) saccades and resumes before the end of the saccades to stabilize eye-in-orbit and ensure accurate target acquisition...
Shelhamer, M.; Merfeld, D. M.; Mendoza, J. C.; Paloski, W. H. (Principal Investigator)
We measured the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex (LVOR) and vergence, using binocular search coils, in 3 humans. The subjects were accelerated sinusoidally at 0.5 Hz and 0.2 g peak acceleration, in complete darkness, while performing three different tasks: i) mental arithmetic; ii) tracking a remembered target at either 0.34 m or 0.14 m distance; and iii) maintaining vergence at either of these distances by means of audio biofeedback based on vergence. Subjects could control vergence using the audio feedback; there was greater convergence with the near audio target. However, there was no significant difference in vergence between the near and far remembered target conditions. With audio feedback, the amplitude of smooth tracking was not consistently different for the near and the far conditions. However, the amplitude of tracking (saccades and smooth component) in the remembered target conditions was greater for near than for far targets. These results suggest that linear VOR amplitude is not determined by vergence alone.
Sato, T; Yokoyama, R; Fukushima, J; Fukushima, K
To examine the latency of smooth pursuit induced, short-term modifications of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), Japanese monkeys were rewarded for tracking a vertically moving target spot synchronized with horizontal whole body rotation. Eye movements induced by equivalent rotation in complete darkness were examined before and after training. Before training, the horizontal trapezoidal rotation (peak acceleration approximately 78%/s2) resulted in a collinear VOR with a mean latency of 15.3 ms, and no orthogonal component in any of the three monkeys tested. After training, the collinear VOR remained unchanged but an orthogonal, cross-axis VOR developed. It had a mean latency of 42.4 ms with gain (eye/chair) of 0.19, followed by a decaying phase that had a mean time constant of 80 ms. These results suggest that the cross-axis VOR induced by pursuit-vestibular interaction is different from previously reported cross-axis VOR induced by optokinetic-vestibular interaction.
Perez Fornos, Angelica; Guinand, Nils; van de Berg, Raymond; Stokroos, Robert; Micera, Silvestro; Kingma, Herman; Pelizzone, Marco; Guyot, Jean-Philippe
The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation are limited and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Currently, there is no effective treatment for bilateral vestibular deficits. Research efforts both in animals and humans during the last decade set a solid background to the concept of using electrical stimulation to restore vestibular function. Still, the potential clinical benefit of a vestibular neuroprosthesis has to be demonstrated to pave the way for a translation into clinical trials. An important parameter for the assessment of vestibular function is the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), the primary mechanism responsible for maintaining the perception of a stable visual environment while moving. Here we show that the VOR can be artificially restored in humans using motion-controlled, amplitude modulated electrical stimulation of the ampullary branches of the vestibular nerve. Three patients received a vestibular neuroprosthesis prototype, consisting of a modified cochlear implant providing vestibular electrodes. Significantly higher VOR responses were observed when the prototype was turned ON. Furthermore, VOR responses increased significantly as the intensity of the stimulation increased, reaching on average 79% of those measured in healthy volunteers in the same experimental conditions. These results constitute a fundamental milestone and allow us to envision for the first time clinically useful rehabilitation of patients with bilateral vestibular loss.
Angelica ePerez Fornos
Full Text Available The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation are limited and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Currently there is no effective treatment for bilateral vestibular deficits. Research efforts both in animals and humans during the last decade set a solid background to the concept of using electrical stimulation to restore vestibular function. Still, the potential clinical benefit of a vestibular neuroprosthesis has to be demonstrated to pave the way for a translation into clinical trials. An important parameter for the assessment of vestibular function is the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR, the primary mechanism responsible for maintaining the perception of a stable visual environment while moving. Here we show that the VOR can be artificially restored in humans using motion-controlled, amplitude modulated electrical stimulation of the ampullary branches of the vestibular nerve. Three patients received a vestibular neuroprosthesis prototype, consisting of a modified cochlear implant providing vestibular electrodes. Significantly higher VOR responses were observed when the prototype was turned ON. Furthermore, VOR responses increased significantly as the intensity of the stimulation increased, reaching on average 79% of those measured in healthy volunteers in the same experimental conditions. These results constitute a fundamental milestone and allow us to envision for the first time clinically useful rehabilitation of patients with bilateral vestibular loss.
Weber, Konrad P; Rosengren, Sally M; Michels, Rike; Sturm, Veit; Straumann, Dominik; Landau, Klara
Motor unit activity in human eye muscles during the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is not well understood, since the associated head and eye movements normally preclude single unit recordings. Therefore we recorded single motor unit activity following bursts of skull vibration and sound, two vestibular otolith stimuli that elicit only small head and eye movements. Inferior oblique (IO) and inferior rectus (IR) muscle activity was measured in healthy humans with concentric needle electrodes. Vibration elicited highly synchronous, short-latency bursts of motor unit activity in the IO (latency: 10.5 ms) and IR (14.5 ms) muscles. The activation patterns of the two muscles were similar, but reciprocal, with delayed activation of the IR muscle. Sound produced short-latency excitation of the IO muscle (13.3 ms) in the eye contralateral to the stimulus. Simultaneous needle and surface recordings identified the IO as the muscle of origin of the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) thus validating the physiological basis of this recently developed clinical test of otolith function. Single extraocular motor unit recordings provide a window into neural activity in humans that can normally only be examined using animal models and help identify the pathways of the translational VOR from otoliths to individual eye muscles. PMID:22526888
Full Text Available Anodal direct current stimulation (DCS of the cerebellum facilitates adaptation tasks, but the mechanism underlying this effect is poorly understood. We have evaluated whether the effects of DCS effects depend on plasticity of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs. Here, we have successfully developed a mouse model of cerebellar DCS, allowing us to present the first demonstration of cerebellar DCS driven behavioral changes in rodents. We have utilized a simple gain down vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR adaptation paradigm, that stabilizes a visual image on the retina during brief head movements, as behavioral tool. Our results provide evidence that anodal stimulation has an acute post-stimulation effect on baseline gain reduction of VOR (VOR gain in sham, anodal and cathodal groups are 0.75 ± 0.12, 0.68 ± 0.1, and 0.78 ± 0.05, respectively. Moreover, this anodal induced decrease in VOR gain is directly dependent on the PP2B medicated synaptic long-term potentiation (LTP and intrinsic plasticity pathways of PCs.
Tang, Xuehui; Xu, Youguo; Simpson, Ivra; Jeffcoat, Ben; Mustain, William; Zhou, Wu
It is well known that the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is conjugate when measured in the dark with minimal vergence. But the neural basis of the VOR conjugacy remains to be identified. In the present study, we measured the VOR conjugacy during single labyrinth stimulation to examine whether the VOR conjugacy depends on reciprocal stimulation of the two labyrinths. There are conflicting views on this issue. First, since the vestibular signals carried by the ascending tract of Deiters' are distributed exclusively to the motoneurons of the ipsilateral eye, the neural innervations after single labyrinth stimulation are not symmetrical for the two eyes. Thus, single labyrinth stimulation may generate disjunctive VOR responses. Second, the only published study on this issue was an electrooculography (EOG) study that reported disjunctive VOR responses during unilateral caloric irrigation (Wolfe in Ann Otol 88:79-85, 1979). Third, the VOR during unilateral caloric stimulation performed in clinical vestibular tests is routinely perceived to be conjugate. To resolve these conflicting views, the present study examined the VOR conjugacy during single labyrinth stimulation by recording binocular eye position signals in awake monkeys with a search coil technique. In contradiction to the previous EOG study and the prediction based on the asymmetry of the unilateral brainstem VOR circuits, we found that the VOR during unilateral caloric irrigation was conjugate over a wide range of conditions. We conclude that the net neural innervations received by the two eyes are symmetrical after single labyrinth stimulation, despite the apparent asymmetry in the unilateral VOR pathways. A novel role for the ascending tract of Deiters' in the VOR conjugacy is proposed.
Li, Carol; Layman, Andrew J; Geary, Robert; Anson, Eric; Carey, John P; Ferrucci, Luigi; Agrawal, Yuri
To determine age-related changes in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) function in community-dwelling adults, and evaluate these for associations with demographic characteristics and cardiovascular risk factors. Cross-sectional analysis within the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA), a longitudinal prospective cohort study. Vestibular testing laboratory within an acute care teaching hospital. Community-dwelling adults enrolled in the BLSA. Horizontal VOR gain measurement using video head-impulse testing and visual acuity testing. VOR gain was calculated as the ratio of eye velocity to head velocity. Demographic and cardiovascular risk factor data were collected through study questionnaires. One hundred nine subjects were analyzed with mean age (SD) 69.9 years (14.2), with a range from 26 to 92 years. VOR gain remained stable from age 26 to 79 after which it significantly declined at a rate of 0.012/year (p = 0.033) in adjusted analyses. Individuals aged 80 years or older had a nearly 8-fold increased odds of VOR gain less than 0.80 relative to those aged less than 80 years in multivariate models (prevalence of 13.2% vs. 2.8%; OR 7.79, 95% CI: 1.04-58.38). Otherwise, VOR gain did not differ significantly across demographic or cardiovascular risk groups. We report age-related decline in VOR function in individuals aged 80 years and older. Further analyses are in progress to establish the significance of these VOR abnormalities to functional and mobility outcomes in older individuals.
King, W M
Compensatory counter-rotations of the eyes provoked by head turns are commonly attributed to the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). A recent study in guinea pigs demonstrates, however, that this assumption is not always valid. During voluntary head turns, guinea pigs make highly accurate compensatory eye movements that occur with zero or even negative latencies with respect to the onset of the provoking head movements. Furthermore, the anticipatory eye movements occur in animals with bilateral peripheral vestibular lesions, thus confirming that they have an extra vestibular origin. This discovery suggests the possibility that anticipatory responses might also occur in other species including humans and non-human primates, but have been overlooked and mistakenly identified as being produced by the VOR. This review will compare primate and guinea pig vestibular physiology in light of these new findings. A unified model of vestibular and cerebellar pathways will be presented that is consistent with current data in primates and guinea pigs. The model is capable of accurately simulating compensatory eye movements to active head turns (anticipatory responses) and to passive head perturbations (VOR induced eye movements) in guinea pigs and in human subjects who use coordinated eye and head movements to shift gaze direction in space. Anticipatory responses provide new evidence and opportunities to study the role of extra vestibular signals in motor control and sensory-motor transformations. Exercises that employ voluntary head turns are frequently used to improve visual stability in patients with vestibular hypofunction. Thus, a deeper understanding of the origin and physiology of anticipatory responses could suggest new translational approaches to rehabilitative training of patients with bilateral vestibular loss. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wood, Scott J.; Clement, Gilles
The translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (tVOR) is an otolith-mediated response that stabilizes near vision during linear acceleration at higher frequencies where visually mediated reflexes are not adequate. The modulation of horizontal and vergence eye movements during Off-Vertical Axis Rotation (OVAR) are presumed to reflect the tVOR in response to the continuously varying linear acceleration in the interaural and nasooccipital axes, respectively. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of frequency and fixation distance on the modulation of slow phase eye velocity (SPV) as further evidence that the tVOR is elicited during OVAR. Eighteen subjects were rotated about their longitudinal axis tilted by 30 deg off-vertical. Rotational velocities varied between 18 and 288 deg/sec corresponding to a frequency range of 0.05 to 0.8 Hz. Fixation distance was altered by asking subjects to imagine stationary targets that were briefly presented at 0.5, 1 and 2 m during some rotation cycles. The target flash was 40 msec in the nose-up position at eye level. Oculomotor responses were recorded in the dark using infrared binocular videography. Sinusoidal curve fits were used to derive amplitude, phase and bias velocity of the eye movements across multiple rotation cycles. Consistent with previous studies, the modulation of both horizontal and vergence SPV increased with stimulus frequency. The effect of fixation distance was negligible at lower frequencies. The modulation of horizontal and vergence SPV was; however, proportional to fixation distance during OVAR at 0.8 Hz. This increasing sensitivity and dependence on fixation distance of horizontal and vergence SPV during OVAR is consistent with tVOR characteristics measured during other types of linear motion. We conclude that the modulation of horizontal and vergence SPV will be diagnostically more useful at higher stimulus frequencies where the tVOR is more robust.
Full Text Available Bridgett Wallace,1–4 Jonathan Lifshitz4–8 1360 Balance and Hearing, Department of Physical Therapy, Austin, TX, 2Concussion Health, Department of Clinical Education, Austin, TX, 3Conquering Concussions, Scottsdale, AZ, 4Barrow Neurological Institute at Phoenix Children’s Hospital, Phoenix, AZ, 5Department of Child Health, University of Arizona College of Medicine-Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ, 6The CACTIS Foundation, Scottsdale, 7Phoenix VA Healthcare System, Phoenix, AZ, 8Department of Psychology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, USA Abstract: Normal function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR coordinates eye movement with head movement, in order to provide clear vision during motion and maintain balance. VOR is generated within the semicircular canals of the inner ear to elicit compensatory eye movements, which maintain stability of images on the fovea during brief, rapid head motion, otherwise known as gaze stability. Normal VOR function is necessary in carrying out activities of daily living (eg, walking and riding in a car and is of particular importance in higher demand activities (eg, sports-related activities. Disruption or damage in the VOR can result in symptoms such as movement-related dizziness, blurry vision, difficulty maintaining balance with head movements, and even nausea. Dizziness is one of the most common symptoms following traumatic brain injury (TBI and is considered a risk factor for a prolonged recovery. Assessment of the vestibular system is of particular importance following TBI, in conjunction with oculomotor control, due to the intrinsic neural circuitry that exists between the ocular and vestibular systems. The purpose of this article is to review the physiology of the VOR and the visual-vestibular symptoms associated with TBI and to discuss assessment and treatment guidelines for TBI. Current challenges and future prospects will also be addressed. Keywords: traumatic brain injury, concussion, vestibular, ocular
McCrea, R. A.; Chen-Huang, C.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)
The contributions of vestibular nerve afferents and central vestibular pathways to the angular (AVOR) and linear (LVOR) vestibulo-ocular reflex were studied in squirrel monkeys during fixation of near and far targets. Irregular vestibular afferents did not appear to be necessary for the LVOR, since when they were selectively silenced with galvanic currents the LVOR was essentially unaffected during both far- and near-target viewing. The linear translation signals generated by secondary AVOR neurons in the vestibular nuclei were, on average, in phase with head velocity, inversely related to viewing distance, and were nearly as strong as AVOR-related signals. We suggest that spatial-temporal transformation of linear head translation signals to angular eye velocity commands is accomplished primarily by the addition of viewing distance multiplied, centrally integrated, otolith regular afferent signals to angular VOR pathways.
Daunicht, W J
The eyeball and the extraocular muscles are used as a paradigm to design a linear spatial model of a single joint with a redundant set of muscles. On the basis of this model relations are derived between orientation, torque, motor commands, and proprioceptive signals. These relations show that the tenet underlying the tensorial interpretation of neural signals in sensorimotor systems does not have general validity. A mechanism is proposed to show how proprioception may play a role in optimizing the coordination of muscles during spatial tasks. Further, a new concept is suggested that allows one to predict the neural connectivities mediating the redundant spatial vestibulo-ocular reflex. This concept has the advantage of minimizing both sensorial error and motor effort.
Schweigart, G; Maurer, C; Mergner, T
The interaction of smooth pursuit eye movements, vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) and optokinetic reflex (OKR) is still not well understood. We therefore measured in macaque monkeys horizontal eye movements using transient horizontal rotations of a visual target, of monkeys' heads and/or of an optokinetic background pattern (ten combinations; smoothed position ramps of 16 degrees ). With intermediate peak velocity of target motion (v(max)=12.8 degrees /s), pursuit held the eyes rather well on target, almost independent of concurrent vestibular or optokinetic stimuli (pursuit gain, 0.73-0.91). With v(max)=1.6 degrees /s, in contrast, pursuit gain became strongly modified by the optokinetic stimulus. With v(max)=51.2 degrees /s, pursuit gain became modified by vestibular stimulation. Although not intuitive, the experimental data can be explained by linear interaction (summation) of the neural driving signals for pursuit, VOR and OKR, as ascertained by simulations of a dynamic model.
Roth, Thomas N; Weber, Konrad P; Wettstein, Vincent G; Marks, Guy B; Rosengren, Sally M; Hegemann, Stefan C A
Ethanol affects many parts of the nervous system, from the periphery to higher cognitive functions. Due to the established effects of ethanol on vestibular and oculomotor function, we wished to examine its effect on two new tests of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): the video head impulse test (vHIT) and dynamic visual acuity (DVA). We tested eight healthy subjects with no history of vestibular disease after consumption of standardized drinks of 40% ethanol. We used a repeated measures design to track vestibular function over multiple rounds of ethanol consumption up to a maximum breath alcohol concentration (BrAC) of 1.38 per mil. All tests were normal at baseline. VOR gain measured by vHIT decreased by 25% at the highest BrAC level tested in each subject. Catch-up saccades were negligible at baseline and increased in number and size with increasing ethanol consumption (from 0.13° to 1.43° cumulative amplitude per trial). DVA scores increased by 86% indicating a deterioration of acuity, while static visual acuity (SVA) remained unchanged. Ethanol consumption systematically impaired the VOR evoked by high-acceleration head impulses and led to a functional loss of visual acuity during head movement.
Wood, S. J.; Campbell, D. J.; Reschke, M. F.; Prather, L.; Clement, G.
The translational Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (tVOR) is an important otolith-mediated response to stabilize gaze during natural locomotion. One goal of this study was to develop a measure of the tVOR using a simple hand-operated chair that provided passive vertical motion. Binocular eye movements were recorded with a tight-fitting video mask in ten healthy subjects. Vertical motion was provided by a modified spring-powered chair (swopper.com) at approximately 2 Hz (+/- 2 cm displacement) to approximate the head motion during walking. Linear acceleration was measured with wireless inertial sensors (Xsens) mounted on the head and torso. Eye movements were recorded while subjects viewed near (0.5m) and far (approximately 4m) targets, and then imagined these targets in darkness. Subjects also provided perceptual estimates of target distances. Consistent with the kinematic properties shown in previous studies, the tVOR gain was greater with near targets, and greater with vision than in darkness. We conclude that this portable chair system can provide a field measure of otolith-ocular function at frequencies sufficient to elicit a robust tVOR.
Anastasopoulos, D; Gianna, C C; Bronstein, A M; Gresty, M A
The possibility of synergistic interaction between the canal and otolith components of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was evaluated in human subjects by subtracting the response to pure angular rotation (AVOR) from the response to combined angular and translational motion (ALVOR) and comparing this difference with the VOR to isolated linear motion (LVOR). Assessments were made with target fixation at 60 cm and in darkness. Linear stimuli were acceleration steps attaining 0.25 g in less than 80 ms. To elicit responses to combined translational and angular head movements, the subjects were seated on a Barany chair with the head displaced forwards 40 cm from the axis of rotation. The chair was accelerated at approximately 300 deg/s2 to 127 deg/s peak angular velocity, the tangential acceleration of the head being comparable with that of isolated translation. Estimates of the contribution of smooth pursuit to responses in the light were made from comparisons of isolated pursuit of similar target trajectories. In the dark the slow phase eye movements evoked by combined canal-otolith stimuli were higher in magnitude by approximately a third than the sum of those produced by translation and rotation alone. In the light, the relative target displacement during isolated linear motion was similar to the difference in relative target displacements during eccentric and centred rotation. However, the gain of the translational component of compensatory eye movement during combined translational and angular motion was approximately unity, in contrast to the gain of the response to isolated linear motion, which was approximately a half. Pursuit performance was always poorer than target following during self-motion. The LVOR responses in the light were greater than the sum of the LVOR responses in the dark with pursuit eye movements. We conclude that, in response to transient motion, there is a synergistic enhancement of the translational VOR with concurrent canal
Kim, J S; Sharpe, J A
The effects of aging on the vertical vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), and its interactions with vision during active head motion had not been investigated. We measured smooth pursuit, combined eye-head tracking, the VOR, and its visual enhancement and cancellation during active head motion in pitch using a magnetic search coil technique in 21 younger (age or = 65) subjects. With the head immobile, subjects pursued a target moving sinusoidally with a frequency range of 0.125 to 2.0 Hz, and with peak target accelerations (PTAs) ranging from 12 to 789 degrees /s(2). Combined eye-head tracking, the VOR in darkness, and its visual enhancement during fixation of an earth-fixed target (VVOR) were measured during active sinusoidal head motion with a peak-to-peak amplitude of 20 degrees at frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 Hz. The efficacy of VOR cancellation was determined from VOR gains during combined eye-head tracking. VOR and VVOR gains were symmetrical in both directions and did not change with aging, except for reduced gains of the downward VOR and VVOR at low frequency (0.25 Hz). However, in the elderly, smooth pursuit, and combined eye-head tracking gains and the efficacy of cancellation of the VOR were significantly lower than in younger subjects. In both the young and elderly groups, VOR gain in darkness did not vary with the frequency of active head motion while the gains of smooth pursuit, combined eye-head tracking, and VVOR declined with increasing target frequency. VOR and VVOR performance in the elderly implicates relative preservation of neural structures subserving vertical vestibular smooth eye motion in senescence.
Ramaioli, Cecilia; Colagiorgio, Paolo; Sağlam, Murat; Heuser, Fabian; Schneider, Erich; Ramat, Stefano; Lehnen, Nadine
Patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction cannot fully compensate passive head rotations with eye movements, and experience disturbing oscillopsia. To compensate for the deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), they have to rely on re-fixation saccades. Some can trigger "covert" saccades while the head still moves; others only initiate saccades afterwards. Due to their shorter latency, it has been hypothesized that covert saccades are particularly beneficial to improve dynamic visual acuity, reducing oscillopsia. Here, we investigate the combined effect of covert saccades and the VOR on clear vision, using the Head Impulse Testing Device-Functional Test (HITD-FT), which quantifies reading ability during passive high-acceleration head movements. To reversibly decrease VOR function, fourteen healthy men (median age 26 years, range 21-31) were continuously administrated the opioid remifentanil intravenously (0.15 µg/kg/min). VOR gain was assessed with the video head-impulse test, functional performance (i.e. reading) with the HITD-FT. Before opioid application, VOR and dynamic reading were intact (head-impulse gain: 0.87±0.08, mean±SD; HITD-FT rate of correct answers: 90±9%). Remifentanil induced impairment in dynamic reading (HITD-FT 26±15%) in 12/14 subjects, with transient bilateral vestibular dysfunction (head-impulse gain 0.63±0.19). HITD-FT score correlated with head-impulse gain (R = 0.63, p = 0.03) and with gain difference (before/with remifentanil, R = -0.64, p = 0.02). One subject had a non-pathological head-impulse gain (0.82±0.03) and a high HITD-FT score (92%). One subject triggered covert saccades in 60% of the head movements and could read during passive head movements (HITD-FT 93%) despite a pathological head-impulse gain (0.59±0.03) whereas none of the 12 subjects without covert saccades reached such high performance. In summary, early catch-up saccades may improve dynamic visual function. HITD-FT is an appropriate method
Full Text Available Patients with bilateral vestibular dysfunction cannot fully compensate passive head rotations with eye movements, and experience disturbing oscillopsia. To compensate for the deficient vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, they have to rely on re-fixation saccades. Some can trigger "covert" saccades while the head still moves; others only initiate saccades afterwards. Due to their shorter latency, it has been hypothesized that covert saccades are particularly beneficial to improve dynamic visual acuity, reducing oscillopsia. Here, we investigate the combined effect of covert saccades and the VOR on clear vision, using the Head Impulse Testing Device-Functional Test (HITD-FT, which quantifies reading ability during passive high-acceleration head movements. To reversibly decrease VOR function, fourteen healthy men (median age 26 years, range 21-31 were continuously administrated the opioid remifentanil intravenously (0.15 µg/kg/min. VOR gain was assessed with the video head-impulse test, functional performance (i.e. reading with the HITD-FT. Before opioid application, VOR and dynamic reading were intact (head-impulse gain: 0.87±0.08, mean±SD; HITD-FT rate of correct answers: 90±9%. Remifentanil induced impairment in dynamic reading (HITD-FT 26±15% in 12/14 subjects, with transient bilateral vestibular dysfunction (head-impulse gain 0.63±0.19. HITD-FT score correlated with head-impulse gain (R = 0.63, p = 0.03 and with gain difference (before/with remifentanil, R = -0.64, p = 0.02. One subject had a non-pathological head-impulse gain (0.82±0.03 and a high HITD-FT score (92%. One subject triggered covert saccades in 60% of the head movements and could read during passive head movements (HITD-FT 93% despite a pathological head-impulse gain (0.59±0.03 whereas none of the 12 subjects without covert saccades reached such high performance. In summary, early catch-up saccades may improve dynamic visual function. HITD-FT is an appropriate
Shelhamer, Mark; Peng, Grace C Y.; Ramat, Stefano; Patel, Vivek
Previous studies established that vestibular and oculomotor behaviors can have two adapted states (e.g., gain) simultaneously, and that a context cue (e.g., vertical eye position) can switch between the two states. The present study examined this phenomenon of context-specific adaptation for the oculomotor response to interaural translation (which we term "linear vestibulo-ocular reflex" or LVOR even though it may have extravestibular components). Subjects sat upright on a linear sled and were translated at 0.7 Hz and 0.3 gpeak acceleration while a visual-vestibular mismatch paradigm was used to adaptively increase (x2) or decrease (x0) the gain of the LVOR. In each experimental session, gain increase was asked for in one context, and gain decrease in another context. Testing in darkness with steps and sines before and after adaptation, in each context, assessed the extent to which the context itself could recall the gain state that was imposed in that context during adaptation. Two different contexts were used: head pitch (26 degrees forward and backward) and head roll (26 degrees or 45 degrees, right and left). Head roll tilt worked well as a context cue: with the head rolled to the right the LVOR could be made to have a higher gain than with the head rolled to the left. Head pitch tilt was less effective as a context cue. This suggests that the more closely related a context cue is to the response being adapted, the more effective it is.
Minor, Lloyd B.; Lasker, David M.
Processes of vestibular compensation mediate recovery of many aspects of vestibular dysfunction following unilateral vestibular injury. The VOR in response to high-frequency, high-acceleration head movements, however, retains an enduring asymmetry. Head movements that are inhibitory with respect to semicircular canals on the intact side lead to a diminished VOR whereas head movements that are excitatory for semicircular canals on the intact side lead to a VOR that returns close to normal. We ...
Clopath, Claudia; Badura, Aleksandra; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Brunel, Nicolas
Mechanisms of cerebellar motor learning are still poorly understood. The standard Marr-Albus-Ito theory posits that learning involves plasticity at the parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses under control of the climbing fiber input, which provides an error signal as in classical supervised
Sylvette R. Wiener-Vacher
Full Text Available The video head impulse test (VHIT is widely used to identify semicircular canal function impairments in adults. But classical VHIT testing systems attach goggles tightly to the head, which is not tolerated by infants. Remote video detection of head and eye movements resolves this issue and, here, we report VHIT protocols and normative values for children. Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR gain was measured for all canals of 303 healthy subjects, including 274 children (aged 2.6 months–15 years and 26 adults (aged 16–67. We used the Synapsys® (Marseilles, France VHIT Ulmer system whose remote camera measures head and eye movements. HITs were performed at high velocities. Testing typically lasts 5–10 min. In infants as young as 3 months old, VHIT yielded good inter-measure replicability. VOR gain increases rapidly until about the age of 6 years (with variation among canals, then progresses more slowly to reach adult values by the age of 16. Values are more variable among very young children and for the vertical canals, but showed no difference for right versus left head rotations. Normative values of VOR gain are presented to help detect vestibular impairment in patients. VHIT testing prior to cochlear implants could help prevent total vestibular loss and the resulting grave impairments of motor and cognitive development in patients with residual unilateral vestibular function.
Anastasopoulos, Dimitri; Anagnostou, Evangelos
These findings are in line with previous data on the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) from this laboratory and suggest that eye position signals do not modulate natural vestibular responses. Hence, the Alexander's law (AL) phenomenon cannot be interpreted simply as a consequence of vestibular or oculomotor nuclei activity modulation with desired gaze. AL states that the intensity of the spontaneous nystagmus of a patient with a unilateral vestibular lesion grows with increasing gaze in the direction of the fast phase. Some of the mechanisms proposed to account for the gaze effects assume a direct modification of the normal VOR by eye position signals. We tested the validity of these assumptions and investigated the effects of gaze direction on the normal vertical human VOR in the behaviorally relevant high frequency range. Head and eye movements were recorded with the search coil method during passive head impulses in pitch, while subjects were asked to hold gaze at various elevation angles in 8° steps within ± 16° from the straight ahead reference position. Upward and downward head rotations produced VOR gains of similar magnitude. Furthermore, the gain remained unaffected by eye-in-orbit position for both upward and downward head impulses.
Johnston, Janine L; Daye, Pierre M; Thomson, Glen T D
The primate ocular motor system is designed to acquire peripheral targets of interest by coordinating visual, vestibular, and neck muscle activation signals. The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) is greatly reduced at the onset of large eye-head (gaze) saccades and resumes before the end of the saccades to stabilize eye-in-orbit and ensure accurate target acquisition. Previous studies have relied on manipulating head movements in normal individuals to study VOR suppression and gaze kinematics. We sought to determine if reduced head-on-trunk movement alters VOR suppression and gaze accuracy similar to experiments involving normal subjects and if intentionally increasing head and neck movement affects these dynamics. We measured head and gaze movements using magnetic search coil oculography in eight patients with cervical soft tissue disorders and seven healthy subjects. All participants made horizontal head-free saccades to acquire a laser dot target that stepped pseudorandomly 30-65° to either side of orbital mid-position, first using typical head and eye movements and again after being instructed to increase head amplitudes as much as possible. Compared to healthy subjects, patients made smaller head movements that contributed only 6% to total gaze saccade amplitudes. Head movements were also slowed, prolonged, and delayed. VOR suppression was increased and prolonged. Gaze saccades were inaccurate and delayed with long durations and decreased peak velocities. In patients with chronic neck pain, the internal commands issued for combined eye-head movements have large enough amplitudes to create accurate gaze saccades; however, because of increased neck stiffness and viscosity, the head movements produced are smaller, slower, longer, and more delayed than they should be. VOR suppression is disproportionate to the size of the actual gaze saccades because sensory feedback signals from neck proprioceptors are non-veridical, likely due to prolonged coactivation of cervical
Karmali, Faisal; Whitman, Gregory T; Lewis, Richard F
The brain uses information from different sensory systems to guide motor behavior, and aging is associated with a simultaneous decline in the quality of sensory information provided to the brain and a deterioration in motor control. Correlations between age-dependent decline in sensory anatomical structures and behavior have been demonstrated, and it has recently been suggested that a Bayesian framework could explain these relationships. Here we show that age-dependent changes in a human sensorimotor reflex, the vestibulo-ocular reflex, are explained by a Bayesian optimal adaptation in the brain occurring in response to death of motion-sensing hair cells. Specifically, we found that the temporal dynamics of the reflex as a function of age are predicted (r=0.93, pBayesian framework has been shown to be a general neural principle for multimodal sensory integration and dynamic sensory estimation, these findings provide evidence of longitudinal Bayesian processing over the human lifespan. These results illuminate how the aging brain strives to optimize motor behavior when faced with deterioration in the peripheral and central nervous system, and have implications in the field of vestibular and balance disorders, as they will likely provide guidance for physical therapy and for prosthetic aids that aim to reduce falls in the elderly. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Neurophysiology.
Leon, Hector Barbosa; Garcia-Penalvo, Francisco J.; Rodriguez-Conde, Maria Jose; Morales, Erla M.; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez
Evaluation is a key element in formal education processes; it must be constructed in a way that the item questions within help students understand by adapting them to the learning style as well. The focus of the present research work specifically in the convenience to adapt an associated multimedia material in each single question besides the…
There is analyzing of specific of social-psychological adaptation person by model of adaptation. Structure model of adaptation of women of our age group, which was named “adaptation complex” was made by theoretic analyzes of problem of adaptation adult.
Full Text Available Healthy subjects (N = 10 were exposed to 10-min cumulative pseudorandom bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS on a weekly basis for 12 weeks (120 min total exposure. During each trial subjects performed computerized dynamic posturography and eye movements were measured using digital video-oculography. Follow up tests were conducted 6 weeks and 6 months after the 12-week adaptation period. Postural performance was significantly impaired during GVS at first exposure, but recovered to baseline over a period of 7-8 weeks (70-80 min GVS exposure. This postural recovery was maintained 6 months after adaptation. In contrast, the roll vestibulo-ocular reflex response to GVS was not attenuated by repeated exposure. This suggests that GVS adaptation did not occur at the vestibular end-organs or involve changes in low-level (brainstem-mediated vestibulo-ocular or vestibulo-spinal reflexes. Faced with unreliable vestibular input, the cerebellum reweighted sensory input to emphasize veridical extra-vestibular information, such as somatosensation, vision and visceral stretch receptors, to regain postural function. After a period of recovery subjects exhibited dual adaption and the ability to rapidly switch between the perturbed (GVS and natural vestibular state for up to 6 months.
Joiner, Wilsaan M; Sing, Gary C; Smith, Maurice A
Repeated exposure to a novel physical environment eventually leads to a mature adaptive response whereby feedforward changes in motor output mirror both the amplitude and temporal structure of the environmental perturbations. However, adaptive responses at the earliest stages of learning have been found to be not only smaller, but systematically less specific in their temporal structure compared to later stages of learning. This observation has spawned a lively debate as to whether the temporal structure of the initial adaptive response is, in fact, stereotyped and non-specific. To settle this debate, we directly measured the adaptive responses to velocity-dependent and position-dependent force-field perturbations (vFFs and pFFs) at the earliest possible stage of motor learning in humans-after just a single-movement exposure. In line with previous work, we found these earliest stage adaptive responses to be more similar than the perturbations that induced them. However, the single-trial adaptive responses for vFF and pFF perturbations were clearly distinct, and the disparity between them reflected the difference between the temporal structure of the perturbations that drove them. Critically, we observed these differences between single-trial adaptive responses when vFF and pFF perturbations were randomly intermingled from one trial to the next within the same block, indicating perturbation response specificity at the single trial level. These findings demonstrate that the initial adaptive responses to physical perturbations are not stereotyped. Instead, the neural plasticity in sensorimotor areas is sensitive to the temporal structure of a movement perturbation even at the earliest stage in learning. This insight has direct implications for the development of computational models of early-stage motor adaptation and the evolution of this adaptive response with continued training.
children with hearing-impairment, VOR abnormalities appear to be an important predictor of impairment in motor performance (De Kegel et al., 2012...430. De Kegel , A., Maes, L., Baetens, T., Dhooge, I., and Van Waelvelde, H. (2012). The Influence of a Vestibular Dysfunction on the Motor Development
Di Girolamo, S; Picciotti, P; Sergi, B; Di Nardo, W; Paludetti, G; Ottaviani, F
Immersion in an illusory world is possible by means of virtual reality (VR), where environmental perception is modified by artificial sensorial stimulation. The application of VR for the assessment and rehabilitation of pathologies affecting the vestibular system, in terms of both diagnosis and care, could represent an interesting new line of research. Our perception of reality is in fact based on static and dynamic spatial information perceived by our senses. During head movements in a virtual environment the images on the display and the labyrinthine information relative to the head angular accelerations differ and therefore a visuo-vestibular conflict is present. It is known that mismatches between visual and labyrinthine information may modify the vestibulo-oculomotor reflex (VOR) gain. We studied the post-immersion modifications in 20 healthy subjects (mean age 25 years) exposed to a virtual environment for 20 min by wearing a head-mounted display. VOR gain and phase were measured by means of harmonic sinusoidal stimulation in the dark before, at the end of and 30 min after VR exposure. A VOR gain reduction was observed in all subjects at the end of VR exposure which disappeared after 30 min. Our data show that exposure to a virtual environment can induce a temporary modification of the VOR gain. This finding can be employed to enable an artificial, instrumental modification of the VOR gain and therefore opens up new perspectives in the assessment and rehabilitation of vestibular diseases.
Full Text Available Numerous studies have found that prolonged exposure to grating stimuli reduces sensitivity to subsequently presented gratings, most evidently when the orientations of the adapting and test patterns are similar. The rate of sensitivity loss varies with angular difference indicating both the presence and bandwidths of psychophysical 'orientation channels'. Here we study the orientation dependency of contrast adaptation measured both monoptically and dichoptically. Earlier psychophysical reports show that orientation bandwidths are broader at lower spatial frequencies, and we confirm this with a simple von Mises model using 0.25 vs. 2 c.p.d. gratings. When a single isotropic (orientation invariant parameter is added to this model, however, we find no evidence for any difference in bandwidth with spatial frequency. Consistent with cross-orientation masking effects, we find isotropic adaptation to be strongly low spatial frequency-biased. Surprisingly, unlike masking, we find that the effects of interocular adaptation are purely orientation-tuned, with no evidence of isotropic threshold elevation. This dissociation points to isotropic (or 'cross-orientation' adaptation being an earlier and more magnocellular-like process than that which supports orientation-tuned adaptation and suggests that isotropic masking and adaptation are likely mediated by separate mechanisms.
Cass, John; Johnson, Ameika; Bex, Peter J; Alais, David
Numerous studies have found that prolonged exposure to grating stimuli reduces sensitivity to subsequently presented gratings, most evidently when the orientations of the adapting and test patterns are similar. The rate of sensitivity loss varies with angular difference indicating both the presence and bandwidths of psychophysical 'orientation channels'. Here we study the orientation dependency of contrast adaptation measured both monoptically and dichoptically. Earlier psychophysical reports show that orientation bandwidths are broader at lower spatial frequencies, and we confirm this with a simple von Mises model using 0.25 vs. 2 c.p.d. gratings. When a single isotropic (orientation invariant) parameter is added to this model, however, we find no evidence for any difference in bandwidth with spatial frequency. Consistent with cross-orientation masking effects, we find isotropic adaptation to be strongly low spatial frequency-biased. Surprisingly, unlike masking, we find that the effects of interocular adaptation are purely orientation-tuned, with no evidence of isotropic threshold elevation. This dissociation points to isotropic (or 'cross-orientation') adaptation being an earlier and more magnocellular-like process than that which supports orientation-tuned adaptation and suggests that isotropic masking and adaptation are likely mediated by separate mechanisms.
Emily Elizabeth LeDue
Full Text Available Prolonged viewing of high contrast gratings alters perceived stimulus contrast, and produces characteristic changes in the contrast response functions of neurons in the primary visual cortex (V1. This is referred to as contrast adaptation. Although contrast adaptation has been well studied, its underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated contrast adaptation in mouse V1 with the goal of establishing a quantitative description of this phenomenon in a genetically manipulable animal model. One interesting aspect of contrast adaptation that has been observed both perceptually and in single unit studies is its specificity for the spatial and temporal characteristics of the stimulus. Therefore in the present work we determined if the magnitude of contrast adaptation in mouse V1 neurons was dependent on the spatial frequency and temporal frequency of the adapting grating. We used protocols that were readily comparable with previous studies in cats and primates, and also a novel contrast ramp stimulus that characterized the spatial and temporal specificity of contrast adaptation simultaneously. Similar to previous work in higher mammals, we found that contrast adaptation was strongest when the spatial frequency and temporal frequency of the adapting grating matched the test stimulus. This suggests similar mechanisms underlying contrast adaptation across animal models and indicates that the rapidly advancing genetic tools available in mice could be used to provide insights into this phenomenon.
Schubert, Michael C; Zee, David S
This paper focuses on motor learning within the saccadic and vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) oculomotor systems, vital for our understanding how the brain keeps these subsystems calibrated in the presence of disease, trauma, and the changes that invariably accompany normal development and aging. We will concentrate on new information related to multiple time scales of saccade motor learning, adaptation of the VOR during high-velocity impulses, and the role of saccades in VOR adaptation. The role of the cerebellum in both systems is considered. Review of data involving saccade and VOR motor learning. Data supports learning within the saccadic and VOR oculomotor systems is influenced by 1). Multiple time scales, with different rates of both learning and forgetting (seconds, minutes, hours, days, and months). In the case of forgetting, relearning on a similar task may be faster. 2). Pattern of training, learning and forgetting are not similarly achieved. Different contexts require different motor behaviors and rest periods between training sessions can be important for memory consolidation. The central nervous system has the difficult task of determining where blame resides when motor performance is impaired (the credit assignment problem). Saccade and VOR motor learning takes place at multiple levels within the nervous system, from alterations in ion channel and membrane properties on single neurons, to more complex changes in neural circuit behavior and higher-level cognitive processes including prediction.
Dutz, Silvio; Müller, Robert; Eberbeck, Dietmar; Hilger, Ingrid; Zeisberger, Matthias
Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are used in different biomedical applications, whereby each application requires specific particle properties. To fulfill these requirements, particle properties have to be optimized by means of variation of crystal structure, particle size, and size distribution. To this aim, improved aqueous precipitation procedures for magnetic iron oxide nanoparticle synthesis were developed. One procedure focused on the cyclic growth of MNPs without nucleation of new particle cores during precipitation. The second novel particle type are magnetic multicore nanoparticles, which consist of single cores of approximately 10 nm forming dense clusters in the size range from 40 to 80 nm. Their highest potential features these multicore particles in hyperthermia application. In our in vivo experiments, therapeutically suitable temperatures were reached after 20 s of heating for a particle concentration in the tumor of 1% and field parameters of H=24 kA/m and f=410 kHz. This review on our recent investigations for particle optimization demonstrates that tuning magnetic properties of MNPs can be obtained by the alteration of their structure, size, and size distribution. This can be realized by means of control of particle size during synthesis or subsequent size-dependent fractionation. The here-developed particles show high potential for biomedical applications.
K. N. Naumova
Full Text Available This work studies changes in non-specific adaptive reactions (NSAR of athletes who practice Wushu and Qigong and take Kladorod, a biological product made from plant material. The results of our study demonstrate the effectiveness of Kladorod as a remedy to enhance adaptive capacity with the possibility of application for training of athletes without any restrictions within the criteria of doping control.
Adluru, Nagesh; Singh, Vikas; Alexander, Andrew L
Extracting specific white matter tracts (e.g., uncinate fasciculus) from whole brain tractography has numerous applications in studying individual differences in white matter. Typically specific tracts are extracted manually, following replicable protocols which can be prohibitively expensive for large scale studies. A tract clustering framework is a suitable computational framework but from a neuroanatomical point of view, one of the key challenges is that it is very hard to design a universal similarity function for different types of white matter tracts (e.g., projection, association, commissural tracts). In this paper, we propose an adaptive cuts framework in which, using normalized cuts motivated objective function, we adaptively learn tract-tract similarity for each specific tract class using atlas based training data. Using the learnt similarity function we train an ensemble of binary support vector machines to extract specific tracts from unlabeled whole-brain tractography sets.
Sep 3, 2013 ... gender specific pattern of cardiac adaptation to hypertension and obesity among Nigerians. Methods. The study was a cross sectional study. The study population consisted of 245 hypertensive subjects and 68 normotensive controls. The normal subjects were recruited consecutively from patients' relatives.
General intelligence (g) poses a problem for evolutionary psychology's modular view of the human brain. The author advances a new evolutionary psychological theory of the evolution of general intelligence and argues that general intelligence evolved as a domain-specific adaptation for the originally limited sphere of evolutionary novelty in the…
been translated into about 15 languages. This questionnaire has been used in several interventional and observational studies.[11-15] The MENQOL was modified by Lewis et al.,. Cross Cultural Adaptation of the Menopause Specific. Questionnaire into the Persian Language. Ghazanfarpour M, Kaviani M1, Rezaiee ...
Emma D. Wilson
Full Text Available The adaptive filter model of the cerebellar microcircuit has been successfully applied to biological motor control problems such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR and to sensory processing problems such as the adaptive cancellation of reafferent noise. It has also been successfully applied to problems in robotics such as adaptive camera stabilisation and sensor noise cancellation. In previous applications to inverse control problems the algorithm was applied to the velocity control of a plant dominated by viscous and elastic elements. Naive application of the adaptive filter model to the displacement (as opposed to velocity control of this plant results in unstable learning and control. To be more generally useful in engineering problems it is essential to remove this restriction to enable the stable control of plants of any order. We address this problem here by developing a biohybrid model reference adaptive control (MRAC scheme, which stabilises the control algorithm for strictly proper plants. We evaluate the performance of this novel cerebellar inspired algorithm with MRAC scheme in the experimental control of a dielectric electroactive polymer, a class of artificial muscle. The results show that the augmented cerebellar algorithm is able to accurately control the displacement response of the artificial muscle. The proposed solution not only greatly extends the practical applicability of the cerebellar-inspired algorithm, but may also shed light on cerebellar involvement in a wider range of biological control tasks.
Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, Thomas; Waber, Jack; Stoecker, Roy
Among the well-known ultrasaline terrestrial habitats, the Dead Sea in the Jordan Rift Valley and Don Juan Pond in the Upper Wright Valley represent two of the most extreme. The former is a saturated sodium chloride-magnesium sulfate brine in a hot desert, the latter a saturated calcium chloride brine in an Antarctic desert. Both Dead Sea and Don Juan water bodies themselves are limited in microflora, but the saline Don Juan algal mat and muds contain abundant nutrients and a rich and varied microbiota, including Oscillatoria, Gleocapsa, Chlorella, diatoms, Penicillium and bacteria. In such environments, the existence of an array of specific adaptations is a common, and highly reasonable, presumption, at least with respect to habitat-obligate forms. Nevertheless, many years of ongoing study in our laboratory have demonstrated that lichens (e.g. Cladonia), algae (e.g. Nostoc) and fungi (e.g. Penicillium, Aspergillus) from the humid tropics can sustain metabolism down to -40°C and growth down to -10°C in simulated Dead Sea or Don Juan (or similar) media without benefit of selection or gradual acclimation. Non-selection is suggested in fungi by higher growth rates from vegetative inocula than spores. The importance of nutrient parameters was also evident in responses to potassium and reduced nitrogen compounds. In view of the saline performance of tropical Nostoc, and its presence in the Antarctic dry valley soils, its complete absence in our Don Juan mat samples was and remains a puzzle. We suggest that adaptive capability is already resident in many terrestrial life forms not currently in extreme habitats, a possible reflection of evolutionary selection for wide spectrum environmental adaptability.
Borghans, José A M; De Boer, Rob J
During its primary encounter with a pathogen, the immune system has to decide which type of immune response is most appropriate. Based on signals from the innate immune system and the immunological context in which the pathogen is presented, responding lymphocytes will adopt a particular phenotype, e.g. secrete a particular profile of cytokines. Once stimulated, lymphocytes store the appropriate type of response by differentiating from a naive to a memory phenotype. This allows the appropriate type of immune reaction to be regenerated upon re-stimulation of those memory clones. We developed a computer simulation model in which cross-reacting effector/memory clones contribute to the immunological context of pathogens. If a pathogen is recognized by both naive clones and pre-existing effector/memory clones, the naive lymphocytes adopt the effector mechanism of the memory clone. The adaptive immune system thereby stores immunological decisions and somatically learns to induce the right type of immune response to pathogens sharing epitopes. The influence of effector/memory lymphocytes may be detrimental when they cross-react to new pathogens that require a different kind of immune response. Here, we show that the immune system needs to be sufficiently specific to avoid such mistakes and to profit from the information that is stored in effector/memory lymphocytes. Repertoire diversity is required to reconcile this specificity with reactivity against many pathogens.
van der Kooij, K.; Overvliet, K.E.; Smeets, J.B.J.
Sensorimotor adaptation, the process that reduces movement errors by learning from sensory feedback, is often studied within a session of about half an hour. Within such a single session, adaptation generally reaches plateau before errors are completely removed. However, adaptation may complete on
Pomatto, Laura C D; Carney, Caroline; Shen, Brenda; Wong, Sarah; Halaszynski, Kelly; Salomon, Matthew P; Davies, Kelvin J A; Tower, John
Multiple human diseases involving chronic oxidative stress show a significant sex bias, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, immune dysfunction, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, a possible molecular mechanism for the sex bias in physiological adaptation to oxidative stress remains unclear. Here, we report that Drosophila melanogaster females but not males adapt to hydrogen peroxide stress, whereas males but not females adapt to paraquat (superoxide) stress. Stress adaptation in each sex requires the conserved mitochondrial Lon protease and is associated with sex-specific expression of Lon protein isoforms and proteolytic activity. Adaptation to oxidative stress is lost with age in both sexes. Transgenic expression of transformer gene during development transforms chromosomal males into pseudo-females and confers the female-specific pattern of Lon isoform expression, Lon proteolytic activity induction, and H2O2 stress adaptation; these effects were also observed using adult-specific transformation. Conversely, knockdown of transformer in chromosomal females eliminates the female-specific Lon isoform expression, Lon proteolytic activity induction, and H2O2 stress adaptation and produces the male-specific paraquat (superoxide) stress adaptation. Sex-specific expression of alternative Lon isoforms was also observed in mouse tissues. The results develop Drosophila melanogaster as a model for sex-specific stress adaptation regulated by the Lon protease, with potential implications for understanding sexual dimorphism in human disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Groen, E.L.; Bos, J.E.; Graaf, J.E. de
The dynamic contribution of the otoliths to the human ocular torsion response was examined during passive sinusoidal body roll about an earth-horizontal axis (varying otolith input) and about an earth-vertical axis (unvarying otolith input). At a fixed amplitude of 25°, the stimulus frequency was
especially in the days when things seemed bleak. I would also like to thank several people that were instrumental in this research being accomplished. First...the dark-pupil method the camera was fit with an IR filter. To achieve this purpose a visibly opaque #87 Kodak Wratten 2 Optical Filter was used. A...eye is properly aligned and illuminated with the camera Connect EOG leads using generous amounts of gel Secure wires so not to obstruct or
J. Goumans (Janine)
textabstractThe objective of this thesis was to quantify three-dimensional ocular stability in response to head movements in healthy human subjects and in patients with various types of peripheral vestibular disorders. Despite a large increase in our knowledge from animal and human studies about the
Vargas, Cristian A; Lagos, Nelson A; Lardies, Marco A; Duarte, Cristian; Manríquez, Patricio H; Aguilera, Victor M; Broitman, Bernardo; Widdicombe, Steve; Dupont, Sam
Global stressors, such as ocean acidification, constitute a rapidly emerging and significant problem for marine organisms, ecosystem functioning and services. The coastal ecosystems of the Humboldt Current System (HCS) off Chile harbour a broad physical-chemical latitudinal and temporal gradient with considerable patchiness in local oceanographic conditions. This heterogeneity may, in turn, modulate the specific tolerances of organisms to climate stress in species with populations distributed along this environmental gradient. Negative response ratios are observed in species models (mussels, gastropods and planktonic copepods) exposed to changes in the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) far from the average and extreme pCO2 levels experienced in their native habitats. This variability in response between populations reveals the potential role of local adaptation and/or adaptive phenotypic plasticity in increasing resilience of species to environmental change. The growing use of standard ocean acidification scenarios and treatment levels in experimental protocols brings with it a danger that inter-population differences are confounded by the varying environmental conditions naturally experienced by different populations. Here, we propose the use of a simple index taking into account the natural pCO2 variability, for a better interpretation of the potential consequences of ocean acidification on species inhabiting variable coastal ecosystems. Using scenarios that take into account the natural variability will allow understanding of the limits to plasticity across organismal traits, populations and species.
Conclusions: Structural, functional and geometric LV adaptation to obesity and hypertension varies between the two genders among Nigerians. The impact of isolated obesity on LV adaptation in women appears very significant. Key words: gender, obesity, hypertension, LV geometry, left ventricular hypertrophy ...
Mooij, A.J.; Voorhoeve, M.
Large systems-of-systems are developed by integrating several smaller systems that have been developed independently. System integration often requires adaptation mechanisms for bridging any technical incompatibilities between the systems. In order to develop adapters in a faster way, we study ways
Yakushin, Sergei B
The gain of the vertical angular vestibulo-ocular reflex (aVOR) was adaptively increased and decreased in a side-down head orientation for 4 h in two cynomolgus monkeys. Adaptation was performed at 0.25, 1, 2, or 4 Hz. The gravity-dependent and -independent gain changes were determined over a range of head orientations from left-side-down to right-side-down at frequencies from 0.25 to 10 Hz, before and after adaptation. Gain changes vs. frequency data were fit with a Gaussian to determine the frequency at which the peak gain change occurred, as well as the tuning width. The frequency at which the peak gravity-dependent gain change occurred was approximately equal to the frequency of adaptation, and the width increased monotonically with increases in the frequency of adaptation. The gravity-independent component was tuned to the adaptive frequency of 0.25 Hz but was uniformly distributed over all frequencies when the adaptation frequency was 1-4 Hz. The amplitude of the gravity-independent gain changes was larger after the aVOR gain decrease than after the gain increase across all tested frequencies. For the aVOR gain decrease, the phase lagged about 4° for frequencies below the adaptation frequency and led for frequencies above the adaptation frequency. For gain increases, the phase relationship as a function of frequency was inverted. This study demonstrates that the previously described dependence of aVOR gain adaptation on frequency is a property of the gravity-dependent component of the aVOR only. The gravity-independent component of the aVOR had a substantial tuning curve only at an adaptation frequency of 0.25 Hz.
Siegel, B. Z.; Siegel, S. M.; Speitel, T.; Waber, J.; Stoecker, R.
The question of adaptivity to extremely saline water environments is discussed, with attention given to the evolutionary performance of four common organisms including Cladonia skottsbergii, Penicillium notatum, Nostoc, and Dunaliella salina. Samples of each organism were collected and subjected to experimental conditions similar to extreme marine and limnetic environments in the Dead Sea and Don Juan Pond in the upper Wright valley of Antarctica. Measurements were made of isotope uptake and carbon dioxide production, and photoautotrophs were taken. It is found that all of the organisms responded quickly to the need to adapt to the extreme environments. It is concluded that a degree of uncertainty exists in the perception that the abundance of bulk water on the earth is in itself essential for life.
Schou, Mads Fristrup; Kristensen, Torsten Nygaard; Loeschcke, Volker
Environmental changes may stress organisms and stimulate an adaptive phenotypic response. Effects of inbreeding often interact with the environment and can decrease fitness of inbred individuals exposed to stress more so than that of outbred individuals. Such an interaction may stem from a reduced...... temperatures were assessed for traits known to vary across temperatures, namely abdominal pigmentation, wing size, and wing shape. We found no significant difference in phenotypic plasticity in pigmentation or in wing size between inbred and control populations, but a significantly higher plasticity in wing...... and thus not a general explanation of inbreeding– environment interaction effects on fitness components....
Background: The menopause‑specific quality‑of‑life (MENQOL) was developed as a specific tool to measure the health‑related quality‑of‑life in menopausal women. Recently, it has been translated into about 15 languages. Aim: This study was performed to develop the Persian version of the MENQOL questionnaire from ...
Local adaptation and sexual dimorphism are iconic evolutionary scenarios of intraspecific adaptive differentiation in the face of gene flow. Although theory has traditionally considered local adaptation and sexual dimorphism as conceptually distinct processes, emerging data suggest that they often act concurrently during evolutionary diversification. Here, I merge theories of local adaptation in space and sex-specific adaptation over time, and show that their confluence yields several new predictions about the roles of context-specific selection, migration, and genetic correlations, in adaptive diversification. I specifically revisit two influential predictions from classical studies of clinal adaptation and sexual dimorphism: (1) that local adaptation should decrease with distance from the species' range center and (2) that opposing directional selection between the sexes (sexual antagonism) should inevitably accompany the evolution of sexual dimorphism. I show that both predictions can break down under clinally varying selection. First, the geography of local adaptation can be sexually dimorphic, with locations of relatively high local adaptation differing profoundly between the sexes. Second, the intensity of sexual antagonism varies across the species' range, with subpopulations near the range center representing hotspots for antagonistic selection. The results highlight the context-dependent roles of migration versus sexual conflict as primary constraints to adaptive diversification. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.
Vannucci, Lorenzo; Tolu, Silvia; Falotico, Egidio
Two main classes of reflexes relying on the vestibular system are involved in the stabilization of the human gaze: The vestibulocollic reflex (VCR), which stabilizes the head in space and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which stabilizes the visual axis to minimize retinal image motion. The VOR...
Malone, Brian J; Beitel, Ralph E; Vollmer, Maike; Heiser, Marc A; Schreiner, Christoph E
Amplitude modulations are fundamental features of natural signals, including human speech and nonhuman primate vocalizations. Because natural signals frequently occur in the context of other competing signals, we used a forward-masking paradigm to investigate how the modulation context of a prior signal affects cortical responses to subsequent modulated sounds. Psychophysical "modulation masking," in which the presentation of a modulated "masker" signal elevates the threshold for detecting the modulation of a subsequent stimulus, has been interpreted as evidence of a central modulation filterbank and modeled accordingly. Whether cortical modulation tuning is compatible with such models remains unknown. By recording responses to pairs of sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) tones in the auditory cortex of awake squirrel monkeys, we show that the prior presentation of the SAM masker elicited persistent and tuned suppression of the firing rate to subsequent SAM signals. Population averages of these effects are compatible with adaptation in broadly tuned modulation channels. In contrast, modulation context had little effect on the synchrony of the cortical representation of the second SAM stimuli and the tuning of such effects did not match that observed for firing rate. Our results suggest that, although the temporal representation of modulated signals is more robust to changes in stimulus context than representations based on average firing rate, this representation is not fully exploited and psychophysical modulation masking more closely mirrors physiological rate suppression and that rate tuning for a given stimulus feature in a given neuron's signal pathway appears sufficient to engender context-sensitive cortical adaptation. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355904-13$15.00/0.
Casellato, Claudia; Antonietti, Alberto; Garrido, Jesus A; Carrillo, Richard R; Luque, Niceto R; Ros, Eduardo; Pedrocchi, Alessandra; D'Angelo, Egidio
The cerebellum is involved in a large number of different neural processes, especially in associative learning and in fine motor control. To develop a comprehensive theory of sensorimotor learning and control, it is crucial to determine the neural basis of coding and plasticity embedded into the cerebellar neural circuit and how they are translated into behavioral outcomes in learning paradigms. Learning has to be inferred from the interaction of an embodied system with its real environment, and the same cerebellar principles derived from cell physiology have to be able to drive a variety of tasks of different nature, calling for complex timing and movement patterns. We have coupled a realistic cerebellar spiking neural network (SNN) with a real robot and challenged it in multiple diverse sensorimotor tasks. Encoding and decoding strategies based on neuronal firing rates were applied. Adaptive motor control protocols with acquisition and extinction phases have been designed and tested, including an associative Pavlovian task (Eye blinking classical conditioning), a vestibulo-ocular task and a perturbed arm reaching task operating in closed-loop. The SNN processed in real-time mossy fiber inputs as arbitrary contextual signals, irrespective of whether they conveyed a tone, a vestibular stimulus or the position of a limb. A bidirectional long-term plasticity rule implemented at parallel fibers-Purkinje cell synapses modulated the output activity in the deep cerebellar nuclei. In all tasks, the neurorobot learned to adjust timing and gain of the motor responses by tuning its output discharge. It succeeded in reproducing how human biological systems acquire, extinguish and express knowledge of a noisy and changing world. By varying stimuli and perturbations patterns, real-time control robustness and generalizability were validated. The implicit spiking dynamics of the cerebellar model fulfill timing, prediction and learning functions.
Full Text Available The cerebellum is involved in a large number of different neural processes, especially in associative learning and in fine motor control. To develop a comprehensive theory of sensorimotor learning and control, it is crucial to determine the neural basis of coding and plasticity embedded into the cerebellar neural circuit and how they are translated into behavioral outcomes in learning paradigms. Learning has to be inferred from the interaction of an embodied system with its real environment, and the same cerebellar principles derived from cell physiology have to be able to drive a variety of tasks of different nature, calling for complex timing and movement patterns. We have coupled a realistic cerebellar spiking neural network (SNN with a real robot and challenged it in multiple diverse sensorimotor tasks. Encoding and decoding strategies based on neuronal firing rates were applied. Adaptive motor control protocols with acquisition and extinction phases have been designed and tested, including an associative Pavlovian task (Eye blinking classical conditioning, a vestibulo-ocular task and a perturbed arm reaching task operating in closed-loop. The SNN processed in real-time mossy fiber inputs as arbitrary contextual signals, irrespective of whether they conveyed a tone, a vestibular stimulus or the position of a limb. A bidirectional long-term plasticity rule implemented at parallel fibers-Purkinje cell synapses modulated the output activity in the deep cerebellar nuclei. In all tasks, the neurorobot learned to adjust timing and gain of the motor responses by tuning its output discharge. It succeeded in reproducing how human biological systems acquire, extinguish and express knowledge of a noisy and changing world. By varying stimuli and perturbations patterns, real-time control robustness and generalizability were validated. The implicit spiking dynamics of the cerebellar model fulfill timing, prediction and learning functions.
Selam W. Habtegiorgis
Full Text Available Image skew is one of the prominent distortions that exist in optical elements, such as in spectacle lenses. The present study evaluates adaptation to image skew in dynamic natural images. Moreover, the cortical levels involved in skew coding were probed using retinal specificity of skew adaptation aftereffects. Left and right skewed natural image sequences were shown to observers as adapting stimuli. The point of subjective equality (PSE, i.e., the skew amplitude in simple geometrical patterns that is perceived to be unskewed, was used to quantify the aftereffect of each adapting skew direction. The PSE, in a two-alternative forced choice paradigm, shifted toward the adapting skew direction. Moreover, significant adaptation aftereffects were obtained not only at adapted, but also at non-adapted retinal locations during fixation. Skew adaptation information was transferred partially to non-adapted retinal locations. Thus, adaptation to skewed natural scenes induces coordinated plasticity in lower and higher cortical areas of the visual pathway.
John R W Menzies
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR gain adaptation, a longstanding experimental model of cerebellar learning, utilizes sites of plasticity in both cerebellar cortex and brainstem. However, the mechanisms by which the activity of cortical Purkinje cells may guide synaptic plasticity in brainstem vestibular neurons are unclear. Theoretical analyses indicate that vestibular plasticity should depend upon the correlation between Purkinje cell and vestibular afferent inputs, so that, in gain-down learning for example, increased cortical activity should induce long-term depression (LTD at vestibular synapses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we expressed this correlational learning rule in its simplest form, as an anti-Hebbian, heterosynaptic spike-timing dependent plasticity interaction between excitatory (vestibular and inhibitory (floccular inputs converging on medial vestibular nucleus (MVN neurons (input-spike-timing dependent plasticity, iSTDP. To test this rule, we stimulated vestibular afferents to evoke EPSCs in rat MVN neurons in vitro. Control EPSC recordings were followed by an induction protocol where membrane hyperpolarizing pulses, mimicking IPSPs evoked by flocculus inputs, were paired with single vestibular nerve stimuli. A robust LTD developed at vestibular synapses when the afferent EPSPs coincided with membrane hyperpolarization, while EPSPs occurring before or after the simulated IPSPs induced no lasting change. Furthermore, the iSTDP rule also successfully predicted the effects of a complex protocol using EPSP trains designed to mimic classical conditioning. CONCLUSIONS: These results, in strong support of theoretical predictions, suggest that the cerebellum alters the strength of vestibular synapses on MVN neurons through hetero-synaptic, anti-Hebbian iSTDP. Since the iSTDP rule does not depend on post-synaptic firing, it suggests a possible mechanism for VOR adaptation without compromising gaze-holding and VOR
Xu, Xinxiu; Yu, Xiongjie; He, Jufang; Nelken, Israel
The ability to detect unexpected or deviant events in natural scenes is critical for survival. In the auditory system, neurons from the midbrain to cortex adapt quickly to repeated stimuli but this adaptation does not fully generalize to other rare stimuli, a phenomenon called stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA). Most studies of SSA were conducted with pure tones of different frequencies, and it is by now well-established that SSA to tone frequency is strong and robust in auditory cortex. Here we tested SSA in the auditory cortex to the ear of stimulation using broadband noise. We show that cortical neurons adapt specifically to the ear of stimulation, and that the contrast between the responses to stimulation of the same ear when rare and when common depends on the binaural interaction class of the neurons. PMID:25126058
Full Text Available The ability to detect unexpected or deviant events in natural scenes is critical for survival. In the auditory system, neurons from the midbrain to cortex adapt quickly to repeated stimuli but this adaptation does not fully generalize to other, rare stimuli, a phenomenon called stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA. Most studies of SSA were conducted with pure tones of different frequencies, and it is by now well-established that SSA to tone frequency is strong and robust in auditory cortex. Here we tested SSA in the auditory cortex to the ear of stimulation using broadband noise. We show that cortical neurons adapt specifically to the ear of stimulation, and that the contrast between the responses to stimulation of the same ear when rare and when common depends on the binaural interaction class of the neurons.
T S Pilishvili
Full Text Available The article is devoted to studying the characteristics of adaptation to the new socio-cultural environment in connection with a long-acting stressful situation caused by the military and political events occurring in the homeland. It analyzes the activity-passivity specifics of the Arabic young men and women in the process of cross-cultural adaptation, as well as the display of aggressiveness as a confrontational defensive reaction in the adaptation of Arabic students studying in the Peoples' Friendship University of Russia.
Full Text Available Receptive fields of sensory neurons are considered to be dynamic and depend on the stimulus history. In the auditory system, evidence of dynamic frequency-receptive fields has been found following stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA. However, the underlying mechanism and circuitry of SSA have not been fully elucidated. Here, we studied how frequency-receptive fields of neurons in rat inferior colliculus (IC changed when exposed to a biased tone sequence. Pure tone with one specific frequency (adaptor was presented markedly more often than others. The adapted tuning was compared with the original tuning measured with an unbiased sequence. We found inhomogeneous changes in frequency tuning in IC, exhibiting a center-surround pattern with respect to the neuron’s best frequency. Central adaptors elicited strong suppressive and repulsive changes while flank adaptors induced facilitative and attractive changes. Moreover, we proposed a two-layer model of the underlying network, which not only reproduced the adaptive changes in the receptive fields but also predicted novelty responses to oddball sequences. These results suggest that frequency-specific adaptation in auditory midbrain can be accounted for by an adapted frequency channel and its lateral spreading of adaptation, which shed light on the organization of the underlying circuitry.
De La Garza, Bryan H; Li, Guang; Shih, Yen-Yu I; Duong, Timothy Q
To employ functional manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to image layer-specific changes in calcium-dependent activities in the rat retina during light versus dark adaptation. Functional MEMRI at 20 × 20 × 700 μm was used to study light and dark adaptation in the same animals (N = 10) in which one eye was covered and the fellow eye was not. The activity encoding of the light and dark adaptation was achieved in awake conditions and imaged under anesthesia. T(1)-weighted MRI at 11.7 tesla (T) was performed using two identical radiofrequency transceiver coils to allow interleaved MRI acquisitions of the two eyes. An intravascular contrast agent was also used to verify layer assignments. MEMRI detected contrasts among the inner retina, outer retina, and choroid. Independent confirmation of the vascular layers and boundaries between layers was documented with an intravascular contrast agent. The retinal layer thicknesses agreed with published data. The outer retina had lower MEMRI activity in light compared with dark adaption (P dark current." The inner retina had higher MEMRI activity in light compared with dark adaption (P dark adaptation (P > 0.05). This study demonstrated a high-resolution MEMRI protocol to image functional activities among different layers of the retinas in awake animals during light and dark adaptation. This approach could have potential applications in animal models of retinal dysfunction.
Wang, Wei-peng; Ni, Kun-yi; Zhou, Guo-hua
An improved approach for increasing the multiplex level of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing by adapter ligation-mediated allele-specific amplification (ALM-ASA) has been developed. Based on an adapter ligation, each reaction requires n allele-specific primers plus an adapter-specific primer that is common for all SNPs. Thus, only n+1 primers are used for an n-plex PCR amplification. The specificity of ALM-ASA was increased by a special design of the adapter structure and PCR suppression. Given that the genetic polymorphisms in the liver enzyme cytochrome P450 CYP2D6 (debrisoquine 4-hydroxylase) have profound effects on responses of individuals to a particular drug, we selected 17 SNPs in the CYP2D6 gene as an example for the multiplex SNP typing. Without extensive optimization, we successfully typed 17-plex SNPs in the CYP2D6 gene by ALM-ASA. The results for genotyping 70 different genome samples by the 17-plex ALM-ASA were completely consistent with those obtained by both Sanger's sequencing and PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis. ALM-ASA is a potential method for SNP typing at an ultra-low cost because of a high multiplex level and a simple optimization step for PCR. High-throughput SNP typing could be readily realized by coupling ALM-ASA with a well-developed automation device for sample processing.
Finn, Roderick Nigel; Chauvigné, François; Hlidberg, Jón Baldur; Cutler, Christopher P.; Cerdà, Joan
A major physiological barrier for aquatic organisms adapting to terrestrial life is dessication in the aerial environment. This barrier was nevertheless overcome by the Devonian ancestors of extant Tetrapoda, but the origin of specific molecular mechanisms that solved this water problem remains largely unknown. Here we show that an ancient aquaporin gene cluster evolved specifically in the sarcopterygian lineage, and subsequently diverged into paralogous forms of AQP2, -5, or -6 to mediate wa...
Prunier, Julien; Gérardi, Sébastien; Laroche, Jérôme; Beaulieu, Jean; Bousquet, Jean
In response to selective pressure, adaptation may follow different genetic pathways throughout the natural range of a species due to historical differentiation in standing genetic variation. Using 41 populations of black spruce (Picea mariana), the objectives of this study were to identify adaptive genetic polymorphisms related to temperature and precipitation variation across the transcontinental range of the species, and to evaluate the potential influence of historical events on their geographic distribution. Population structure was first inferred using 50 control nuclear markers. Then, 47 candidate gene SNPs identified in previous genome scans were tested for relationship with climatic factors using an F(ST) -based outlier method and regressions between allele frequencies and climatic variations. Two main intraspecific lineages related to glacial vicariance were detected at the transcontinental scale. Within-lineage analyses of allele frequencies allowed the identification of 23 candidate SNPs significantly related to precipitation and/or temperature variation, among which seven were common to both lineages, eight were specific to the eastern lineage and eight were specific to the western lineage. The implication of these candidate SNPs in adaptive processes was further supported by gene functional annotations. Multiple evidences indicated that the occurrence of lineage-specific adaptive SNPs was better explained by selection acting on historically differentiated gene pools rather than differential selection due to heterogeneity of interacting environmental factors and pleiotropic effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that standing genetic variation of potentially adaptive nature has been modified by historical events, hence affecting the outcome of recent selection and leading to different adaptive routes between intraspecific lineages. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Xin, Yao; Li, Will X Y; Zhang, Zhaorui; Cheung, Ray C C; Song, Dong; Berger, Theodore W
Neural coding is an essential process for neuroprosthetic design, in which adaptive filters have been widely utilized. In a practical application, it is needed to switch between different filters, which could be based on continuous observations or point process, when the neuron models, conditions, or system requirements have changed. As candidates of coding chip for neural prostheses, low-power general purpose processors are not computationally efficient especially for large scale neural population coding. Application specific integrated circuits (ASICs) do not have flexibility to switch between different adaptive filters while the cost for design and fabrication is formidable. In this research work, we explore an application specific instruction set processor (ASIP) for adaptive filters in neural decoding activity. The proposed architecture focuses on efficient computation for the most time-consuming matrix/vector operations among commonly used adaptive filters, being able to provide both flexibility and throughput. Evaluation and implementation results are provided to demonstrate that the proposed ASIP design is area-efficient while being competitive to commercial CPUs in computational performance.
ADAPT DESIGN: A METHODOLOGY FOR ENABLING MODULAR DESIGN FOR MISSION SPECIFIC SUAS Zachary C. Fisher David Locascio K. Daniel Cooksey...imposing a logistical burden on the Solider of having to carry a portfolio of assets. FIGURE 1: THREE APPROACHES TO SUAS DEVELOPMENT ADDRESSING...DIVERSE MISSION NEEDS BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW The design methodology presented in this paper couples concepts from product family design
Mohammad, Maha T; Whitney, Susan L; Marchetti, Gregory F; Sparto, Patrick J; Ward, Bryan K; Furman, Joseph M
The purpose of the study was to investigate the test-retest reliability and response stability of the Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) and Gaze Stabilization Test (GST) in patients with vestibular disorders. Twenty-nine patients with vestibular disease (16-78 years) participated. Subjects performed the GST and DVA in pitch and yaw planes, twice in one session and once after 7-10 days. The GST output is the maximum head velocity at which the patient was able to identify orientation of the letter E. The DVA output is the change in visual acuity when moving the head compared to static acuity. Subjects indicated their level of dizziness and visual blurring using a visual analog scale. Within- and between-sessions intraclass correlation coefficients ranged between 0-0.5 for the DVA and GST measures, with better correlations for within-session assessments. Response stability (standard error of measurement / mean) of the GST ranged between 21-32% and the DVA ranged between 25-69% with vertical DVA being most influenced by measurement error. Subjects' symptoms did not correlate with performance on either test. The current test protocol needs refinement to enhance reliability and stability in persons with vestibular disorders.
Migliaccio, Americo A; Della Santina, Charles C; Carey, John P
Vergence is one of several viewing contexts that require an increase in the angular vestibular-ocular reflex (aVOR) response. A previous monkey study found that the vergence-mediated gain (eye/head velocity) increase of the aVOR was attenuated by 64 % when anodic currents, which preferentially lower the activity of irregularly firing vestibular afferents, were delivered to both labyrinths. We sought to determine whether there was similar evidence implicating a role for irregular afferents in the vergence-mediated gain increase of the human aVOR. Our study is based upon analysis of the aVOR evoked by head rotations, delivered passively while subjects viewed a near (15 cm) or far (124 cm) target and applying galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) via surface electrodes. We tested 12 subjects during 2-3 sessions each. Vestibular stimuli consisted of passive whole-body rotations (sinusoids from 0.05-3 Hz and 12-25°/s, and transients with peak ~15°, 50°/s, 500°/s(2)) and head-on-body impulses (peak ~30°, 150°/s, 3,000°/s(2)). GVS was on for 10 s every 20 s. All polarity combinations were tested, with emphasis on uni- and bi-lateral anodic inhibition. The average stimulus current was 5.9 ± 1.6 mA (range: 3-9.5 mA), vergence angle (during near viewing) was 22.6 ± 2.8° and slow-phase eye velocity caused by left anodic current stimulation with head stationary was -3.4 ± 1.1°/s, -0.2 ± 0.6°/s and 2.5 ± 1.4°/s (torsion, vertical, horizontal). No statistically significant GVS effects were observed, suggesting that surface electrode GVS has no effect on the vergence-mediated gain increase of the aVOR at the current levels (~6 mA) tolerated by most humans. We conclude that clinically practical transmastoid GVS does not effectively silence irregular afferents and hypothesize that currents >10 mA are needed to reproduce the monkey results.
..., incoordination, ocular motor dysfunction, and dysarthria due to degeneration of cerebellar and brainstem neurons. Recent studies have established that there are more than 16 genetically distinct subtypes...
Anzidei, L.; Cecchi, P.; Cevolani, S.; Gallina, M.; Petrizzi, L.; Rado, V.; Talarico, C.; Violante, V.; Vettraino, V.; Zampaglione, V. (Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Frascati (Italy)); Proust, E.; Giancarli, L.; Raepsaet, X.; Szczepanski, J.; Vallette, F.; Baraer, L.; Bielak, B.; Mercier, J. (Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, DRN/DMT/SERMA, C.E.N. Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France))
The DEMO specifications defined so as to ensure the consistency of the various blanket conceptual design studies performed within the framework of the European Test Blanket Programme have been recently updated. A very first attempt has been made to adapt the European Ceramic Breeder Inside-Tube DEMO blanket to these new specifications. Two solutions have been investigated. The first would ensure tritium self-sufficiency of the plant with a large safety margin. The other one, which fully preserves the design simplicity and reliability of the initial design, appears to be somewhat marginal from the tritium breeding capability point of view, but to offer good improvement prospects. (orig.).
Chung, Wen-Sung; Marshall, N. Justin
In common with their major competitors, the fish, squid are fast moving visual predators that live over a great range of depths in the ocean. Both squid and fish show a variety of adaptations with respect to optical properties, receptors and their underlying neural circuits, and these adaptations are often linked to the light conditions of their specific niche. In contrast to the extensive investigations of adaptive strategies in fish, vision in response to the varying quantity and quality of available light, our knowledge of visual adaptations in squid remains sparse. This study therefore undertook a comparative study of visual adaptations and capabilities in a number of squid species collected between 0 and 1,200 m. Histology, magnetic resonance imagery (MRI), and depth distributions were used to compare brains, eyes, and visual capabilities, revealing that the squid eye designs reflect the lifestyle and the versatility of neural architecture in its visual system. Tubular eyes and two types of regional retinal deformation were identified and these eye modifications are strongly associated with specific directional visual tasks. In addition, a combination of conventional and immuno-histology demonstrated a new form of a complex retina possessing two inner segment layers in two mid-water squid species which they rhythmically move across a broad range of depths (50–1,000 m). In contrast to their relatives with the regular single-layered inner segment retina live in the upper mesopelagic layer (50–400 m), the new form of retinal interneuronal layers suggests that the visual sensitivity of these two long distance vertical migrants may increase in response to dimmer environments. PMID:28286484
The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk). Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min), interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk). Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix) and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius) muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity. Key PointsSingle high-intensity exercise induces a significant increase in TBARS content
Baheti, Pawan K.
Computational imaging (CI) systems are hybrid imagers in which the optical and post-processing sub-systems are jointly optimized to maximize the task-specific performance. In this dissertation we consider a form of CI system that measures the linear projections (i.e., features) of the scene optically, and it is commonly referred to as feature-specific imaging (FSI). Most of the previous work on FSI has been concerned with image reconstruction. Previous FSI techniques have also been non-adaptive and restricted to the use of ambient illumination. We consider two novel extensions of the FSI system in this work. We first present an adaptive feature-specific imaging (AFSI) system and consider its application to a face-recognition task. The proposed system makes use of previous measurements to adapt the projection basis at each step. We present both statistical and information-theoretic adaptation mechanisms for the AFSI system. The sequential hypothesis testing framework is used to determine the number of measurements required for achieving a specified misclassification probability. We demonstrate that AFSI system requires significantly fewer measurements than static-FSI (SFSI) and conventional imaging at low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). We also show a trade-off, in terms of average detection time, between measurement SNR and adaptation advantage. Experimental results validating the AFSI system are presented. Next we present a FSI system based on the use of structured light. Feature measurements are obtained by projecting spatially structured illumination onto an object and collecting all of the reflected light onto a single photodetector. We refer to this system as feature-specific structured imaging (FSSI). Principal component features are used to define the illumination patterns. The optimal LMMSE operator is used to generate object estimates from the measurements. We demonstrate that this new imaging approach reduces imager complexity and provides improved image
Shi, Zhongrong; Liu, Chuancai
The objective function of sparse representation to be minimized mainly consists of two parts: reconstruction error and sparsity-inducing regularization (e.g., ℓ0 norm or ℓ1 norm). A regularization parameter allows a trade-off between the two parts. In practical applications, solutions for sparse representation models are highly sensitive to the regularization parameter. To alleviate this phenomenon and improve the discrimination of sparse representation, a reweighted ℓ1 norm minimization-based sparse representation, named class-specific adaptive sparse representation (CSASR), is proposed. In CSASR, a class-specific weight matrix derived from observations of a class is applied to substitute the regularization parameter. The CSASR model mainly has the following two advantages: (i) the class-specific weight matrix can be calculated adaptively from observations; therefore, it is a parameter-free model and (ii) each class has a unique class-specific weight matrix, which enhances the discrimination of sparse representation. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves superior classification performance compared to traditional sparse representation-based classification algorithms.
Full Text Available Stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA is the specific decrease in the response to a frequent ('standard' stimulus, which does not generalize, or generalizes only partially, to another, rare stimulus ('deviant'. Stimulus-specific adaptation could result simply from the depression of the responses to the standard. Alternatively, there may be an increase in the responses to the deviant stimulus due to the violation of expectations set by the standard, indicating the presence of true deviance detection. We studied SSA in the auditory cortex of halothane-anesthetized rats, recording local field potentials and multi-unit activity. We tested the responses to pure tones of one frequency when embedded in sequences that differed from each other in the frequency and probability of the tones composing them. The responses to tones of the same frequency were larger when deviant than when standard, even with inter-stimulus time intervals of almost 2 seconds. Thus, SSA is present and strong in rat auditory cortex. SSA was present even when the frequency difference between deviants and standards was as small as 10%, substantially smaller than the typical width of cortical tuning curves, revealing hyper-resolution in frequency. Strong responses were evoked also by a rare tone presented by itself, and by rare tones presented as part of a sequence of many widely spaced frequencies. On the other hand, when presented within a sequence of narrowly spaced frequencies, the responses to a tone, even when rare, were smaller. A model of SSA that included only adaptation of the responses in narrow frequency channels predicted responses to the deviants that were substantially smaller than the observed ones. Thus, the response to a deviant is at least partially due to the change it represents relative to the regularity set by the standard tone, indicating the presence of true deviance detection in rat auditory cortex.
Full Text Available Pyruvate kinase (PYK is a critical allosterically regulated enzyme that links glycolysis, the primary energy metabolism, to cellular metabolism. Lactic acid bacteria rely almost exclusively on glycolysis for their energy production under anaerobic conditions, which reinforces the key role of PYK in their metabolism. These organisms are closely related, but have adapted to a huge variety of native environments. They include food-fermenting organisms, important symbionts in the human gut, and antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In contrast to the rather conserved inhibition of PYK by inorganic phosphate, the activation of PYK shows high variability in the type of activating compound between different lactic acid bacteria. System-wide comparative studies of the metabolism of lactic acid bacteria are required to understand the reasons for the diversity of these closely related microorganisms. These require knowledge of the identities of the enzyme modifiers. Here, we predict potential allosteric activators of PYKs from three lactic acid bacteria which are adapted to different native environments. We used protein structure-based molecular modeling and enzyme kinetic modeling to predict and validate potential activators of PYK. Specifically, we compared the electrostatic potential and the binding of phosphate moieties at the allosteric binding sites, and predicted potential allosteric activators by docking. We then made a kinetic model of Lactococcus lactis PYK to relate the activator predictions to the intracellular sugar-phosphate conditions in lactic acid bacteria. This strategy enabled us to predict fructose 1,6-bisphosphate as the sole activator of the Enterococcus faecalis PYK, and to predict that the PYKs from Streptococcus pyogenes and Lactobacillus plantarum show weaker specificity for their allosteric activators, while still having fructose 1,6-bisphosphate play the main activator role in vivo. These differences in the specificity of allosteric
Park, Heewon; Shimamura, Teppei; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru
There is currently much discussion about sample (patient)-specific gene regulatory network identification, since the efficiently constructed sample-specific gene networks lead to effective personalized cancer therapy. Although statistical approaches have been proposed for inferring gene regulatory networks, the methods cannot reveal sample-specific characteristics because the existing methods, such as an L1-type regularization, provide averaged results for all samples. Thus, we cannot reveal sample-specific characteristics in transcriptional regulatory networks. To settle on this issue, the NetworkProfiler was proposed based on the kernel-based L1-type regularization. The NetworkProfiler imposes a weight on each sample based on the Gaussian kernal function for controlling effect of samples on modeling a target sample, where the amount of weight depends on similarity of cancer characteristics between samples. The method, however, cannot perform gene regulatory network identification well for a target sample in a sparse region (i.e., for a target sample, there are only a few samples having a similar characteristic of the target sample, where the characteristic is considered as a modulator in sample-specific gene network construction), since a constant bandwidth in the Gaussian kernel function cannot effectively group samples for modeling a target sample in sparse region. The cancer characteristics, such as an anti-cancer drug sensitivity, are usually nonuniformly distributed, and thus modeling for samples in a sparse region is also a crucial issue. We propose a novel kernel-based L1-type regularization method based on a modified k-nearest neighbor (KNN)-Gaussian kernel function, called an adaptive NetworkProfiler. By using the modified KNN-Gaussian kernel function, our method provides robust results against the distribution of modulators, and properly groups samples according to a cancer characteristic for sample-specific analysis. Furthermore, we propose a sample-specific
Weber, Zachary R; Srinivasan, Divya; Côté, Julie N
The objectives of this study were to assess the sex-specific relationships between motor and sensory adaptations to repetitive arm motion-induced neck/shoulder fatigue, and to measure how additional sensory stimulation affects these adaptations. Twenty-three participants performed two sessions of a repetitive pointing task until scoring 8 on the Borg CR10 scale for neck/shoulder exertion or for a maximum of 45 min, with and without sensory stimulation (i.e., light touch) applied on the fatiguing shoulder. Just before reaching the task termination criteria, all participants showed changes in mean and variability of arm joint angles and experienced a fivefold increase in anterior deltoid sensory threshold in the stimulus-present condition. Women with the greatest increases in anterior deltoid sensory thresholds demonstrated the greatest increases in shoulder variability (r = .66), whereas men with the greatest increases in upper-trapezius sensory thresholds demonstrated the greatest changes in shoulder angle (r = -.60) and coordination (r = .65) variability. Thus, sensory stimulation had no influence on time to termination but affected how men and women differently adapted, suggesting sex differences in sensorimotor fatigue response mechanisms.
De Block, Marjan; Pauwels, Kevin; Van Den Broeck, Maarten; De Meester, Luc; Stoks, Robby
Temperature effects on predator-prey interactions are fundamental to better understand the effects of global warming. Previous studies never considered local adaptation of both predators and prey at different latitudes, and ignored the novel population combinations of the same predator-prey species system that may arise because of northward dispersal. We set up a common garden warming experiment to study predator-prey interactions between Ischnura elegans damselfly predators and Daphnia magna zooplankton prey from three source latitudes spanning >1500 km. Damselfly foraging rates showed thermal plasticity and strong latitudinal differences consistent with adaptation to local time constraints. Relative survival was higher at 24 °C than at 20 °C in southern Daphnia and higher at 20 °C than at 24 °C, in northern Daphnia indicating local thermal adaptation of the Daphnia prey. Yet, this thermal advantage disappeared when they were confronted with the damselfly predators of the same latitude, reflecting also a signal of local thermal adaptation in the damselfly predators. Our results further suggest the invasion success of northward moving predators as well as prey to be latitude-specific. We advocate the novel common garden experimental approach using predators and prey obtained from natural temperature gradients spanning the predicted temperature increase in the northern populations as a powerful approach to gain mechanistic insights into how community modules will be affected by global warming. It can be used as a space-for-time substitution to inform how predator-prey interaction may gradually evolve to long-term warming. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Full Text Available Geographic partitioning is postulated to foster divergence of Helicobacter pylori populations as an adaptive response to local differences in predominant host physiology. H. pylori's ability to establish persistent infection despite host inflammatory responses likely involves active management of host defenses using bacterial proteins that may themselves be targets for adaptive evolution. Sequenced H. pylori genomes encode a family of eight or nine secreted proteins containing repeat motifs that are characteristic of the eukaryotic Sel1 regulatory protein, whereas the related Campylobacter and Wolinella genomes each contain only one or two such "Sel1-like repeat" (SLR genes ("slr genes". Signatures of positive selection (ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous mutations, dN/dS = omega > 1 were evident in the evolutionary history of H. pylori slr gene family expansion. Sequence analysis of six of these slr genes (hp0160, hp0211, hp0235, hp0519, hp0628, and hp1117 from representative East Asian, European, and African H. pylori strains revealed that all but hp0628 had undergone positive selection, with different amino acids often selected in different regions. Most striking was a divergence of Japanese and Korean alleles of hp0519, with Japanese alleles having undergone particularly strong positive selection (omegaJ > 25, whereas alleles of other genes from these populations were intermingled. Homology-based structural modeling localized most residues under positive selection to SLR protein surfaces. Rapid evolution of certain slr genes in specific H. pylori lineages suggests a model of adaptive change driven by selection for fine-tuning of host responses, and facilitated by geographic isolation. Characterization of such local adaptations should help elucidate how H. pylori manages persistent infection, and potentially lead to interventions tailored to diverse human populations.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of intermittent hypoxia at rest and in combination with long-term high-intensity swimming exercise on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system adaptation in skeletal muscles differing in fiber type composition. High-intensity chronic exercise was performed as swimming training with load that corresponded to ~ 75 % VO2max (30 min·day-1, 5 days·wk-1, for 4 wk. Intermittent hypoxic training (IHT consisted of repeated episodes of hypoxia (12%O2, 15 min, interrupted by equal periods of recovery (5 sessions/day, for 2 wk. Sessions of IHT were used during the first two weeks and during the last two weeks of chronic exercise. Oxidative (red gastrocnemius and soleus, mix and glycolytic (white gastrocnemius muscles were sampled. Our results indicated that high-intensity swim training in combination with sessions of IHT induced more profound antioxidative adaptations in skeletal muscles than the exercise training only. This adaptation has muscle fiber type specificity and is reflected in significantly elevated superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in highly oxidative muscle only. Training adaptation of GSH system (reduced glutathione content, activities of glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, NADPH-supplying enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase occurred both in slow- and fast-twitch muscles. However, this process was more effective in oxidative muscles. IHT attenuated the increase in TBARS content induced by high-intensity swimming training. The test on exercise tolerance demonstrated a significant elevation of the swimming time to exhaustion after IHT at rest and after IHT in conjunction with high-intensity exercise in comparison with untrained and chronically exercised rats. These results confirmed that sessions of IHT might improve exercise tolerance and increase maximal work capacity
Prešern, Janez; Triblehorn, Jeffrey D; Schul, Johannes
In many neural systems, repeated stimulation leads to stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), with responses to repeated signals being reduced while responses to novel stimuli remain unaffected. The underlying mechanisms of SSA remain mostly hypothetical. One hypothesis is that dendritic processes generate SSA. Evidence for such a mechanism was recently described in an insect auditory interneuron (TN-1 in Neoconocephalus triops). Afferents, tuned to different frequencies, connect with different parts of the TN-1 dendrite. The specific adaptation of these inputs relies on calcium and sodium accumulation within the dendrite, with calcium having a transient and sodium a tonic effect. Using imaging techniques, we tested here whether the accumulation of these ions remained limited to the stimulated parts of the dendrite. Stimulation with a fast pulse rate, which results in strong adaptation, elicited a transient dendritic calcium signal. In contrast, the sodium signal was tonic, remaining high during the fast pulse rate stimulus. These time courses followed the predictions from the previous pharmacological experiments. The peak positions of the calcium and sodium signals differed with the carrier frequency of the stimulus; at 15 kHz, peak locations were significantly more rostral than at 40 kHz. This matched the predictions made from neuroanatomical data. Our findings confirm that excitatory postsynaptic potentials rather than spiking cause the increase of dendritic calcium and sodium concentrations and that these increases remain limited to the stimulated parts of the dendrite. This supports the hypothesis of "dynamic dendritic compartmentalization" underlying SSA in this auditory interneuron. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Balshaw, Thomas G; Massey, Garry J; Maden-Wilkinson, Thomas M; Tillin, Neale A; Folland, Jonathan P
Training specificity is considered important for strength training, although the functional and underpinning physiological adaptations to different types of training, including brief explosive contractions, are poorly understood. This study compared the effects of 12 wk of explosive-contraction (ECT, n = 13) vs. sustained-contraction (SCT, n = 16) strength training vs. control (n = 14) on the functional, neural, hypertrophic, and intrinsic contractile characteristics of healthy young men. Training involved 40 isometric knee extension repetitions (3 times/wk): contracting as fast and hard as possible for ∼1 s (ECT) or gradually increasing to 75% of maximum voluntary torque (MVT) before holding for 3 s (SCT). Torque and electromyography during maximum and explosive contractions, torque during evoked octet contractions, and total quadriceps muscle volume (QUADSVOL) were quantified pre and post training. MVT increased more after SCT than ECT [23 vs. 17%; effect size (ES) = 0.69], with similar increases in neural drive, but greater QUADSVOL changes after SCT (8.1 vs. 2.6%; ES = 0.74). ECT improved explosive torque at all time points (17-34%; 0.54 ≤ ES ≤ 0.76) because of increased neural drive (17-28%), whereas only late-phase explosive torque (150 ms, 12%; ES = 1.48) and corresponding neural drive (18%) increased after SCT. Changes in evoked torque indicated slowing of the contractile properties of the muscle-tendon unit after both training interventions. These results showed training-specific functional changes that appeared to be due to distinct neural and hypertrophic adaptations. ECT produced a wider range of functional adaptations than SCT, and given the lesser demands of ECT, this type of training provides a highly efficient means of increasing function. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.
Sun, Virginia; Grant, Marcia; McMullen, Carmit K; Altschuler, Andrea; Mohler, M Jane; Hornbrook, Mark C; Herrinton, Lisa J; Baldwin, Carol M; Krouse, Robert S
The purpose of this article was to describe persistent ostomy-specific concerns and adaptations in long-term (>5 years) colorectal cancer survivors with ostomies. Thirty-three colorectal cancer survivors who participated in 8 gender- and health-related quality of life stratified focus groups and 130 colorectal cancer survivors who provided written comments to 2 open-ended questions on ostomy location and pouch problems participated in the study. Data were collected on health maintenance organization members in Oregon, southwestern Washington, and northern California. Qualitative data were analyzed for the 8 focus groups and written comments from 2 open-ended survey questions. Discussions from the focu s groups were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using content analysis. Written content from the open-ended questions was derived from a mailed questionnaire on health-related quality of life in survivors with ostomies and analyzed using content analysis. Discussions related to persistent ostomy-related issues more than 5 years after formation were common. Persistent ostomy-related issues were focused on clothing restrictions and adaptations, dietary concerns, issues related to ostomy equipment and self-care, and the constant need to find solutions to adjust and readjust to living with an ostomy. Ostomy-specific concerns persist 5 years and more for long-term colorectal cancer survivors after initial ostomy formation. Adaptations tend to be individualized and based on trial and error. Findings underscore the need to develop long-term support mechanisms that survivors can access to promote better coping and adjustment to living with an ostomy.
Sun, Virginia; Grant, Marcia; McMullen, Carmit K.; Altschuler, Andrea; Mohler, M. Jane; Hornbrook, Mark C.; Herrinton, Lisa J.; Baldwin, Carol M.; Krouse, Robert S.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe persistent ostomy-specific concerns and adaptations in long-term (> 5 years) colorectal cancer survivors with ostomies. Subjects and Settings Thirty three colorectal cancer survivors who participated in eight gender- and health related Quality of life (HRQOL) stratified focus groups and 130 colorectal cancer survivors who provided written comments to two open-ended questions on ostomy location and pouch problems participated in the study. Data were collected on health maintenance organization members in Oregon, southwestern Washington and northern California. Methods Qualitative data were analyzed for the 8 focus groups and written comments from 2 open-ended survey questions. Discussions from the focus groups were recorded, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Written content from the open-ended questions was derived from a mailed questionnaire on health related quality of life in survivors with ostomies and analyzed using content analysis. Results Discussions related to persistent ostomy-related issues more than 5 years after formation were common. Persistent ostomy-related issues were focused on clothing restrictions and adaptations, dietary concerns, issues related to ostomy equipment and self-care, and the constant need to find solutions to adjust and re-adjust to living with an ostomy. Conclusions Ostomy-specific concerns persist 5 years and more for long-term colorectal cancer survivors after initial ostomy formation. Adaptations tend to be individualized and based on trial and error. Findings underscore the need to develop long-term support mechanisms that survivors can access to promote better coping and adjustment to living with an ostomy. PMID:23222968
Linster, Christiane; Menon, Alka V.; Singh, Christopher Y.; Wilson, Donald A.
Segmentation of target odorants from background odorants is a fundamental computational requirement for the olfactory system and is thought to be behaviorally mediated by olfactory habituation memory. Data from our laboratory have shown that odor-specific adaptation in piriform neurons, mediated at least partially by synaptic adaptation between…
Richardson Jason H
Full Text Available Abstract Background Several observations support the hypothesis that vector-driven selection plays an important role in shaping dengue virus (DENV genetic diversity. Clustering of DENV genetic diversity at a particular location may reflect underlying genetic structure of vector populations, which combined with specific vector genotype × virus genotype (G × G interactions may promote adaptation of viral lineages to local mosquito vector genotypes. Although spatial structure of vector polymorphism at neutral genetic loci is well-documented, existence of G × G interactions between mosquito and virus genotypes has not been formally demonstrated in natural populations. Here we measure G × G interactions in a system representative of a natural situation in Thailand by challenging three isofemale families from field-derived Aedes aegypti with three contemporaneous low-passage isolates of DENV-1. Results Among indices of vector competence examined, the proportion of mosquitoes with a midgut infection, viral RNA concentration in the body, and quantity of virus disseminated to the head/legs (but not the proportion of infected mosquitoes with a disseminated infection strongly depended on the specific combinations of isofemale families and viral isolates, demonstrating significant G × G interactions. Conclusion Evidence for genetic specificity of interactions in our simple experimental design indicates that vector competence of Ae. aegypti for DENV is likely governed to a large extent by G × G interactions in genetically diverse, natural populations. This result challenges the general relevance of conclusions from laboratory systems that consist of a single combination of mosquito and DENV genotypes. Combined with earlier evidence for fine-scale genetic structure of natural Ae. aegypti populations, our finding indicates that the necessary conditions for local DENV adaptation to mosquito vectors are met.
Finn, Roderick Nigel; Chauvigné, François; Hlidberg, Jón Baldur; Cutler, Christopher P; Cerdà, Joan
A major physiological barrier for aquatic organisms adapting to terrestrial life is dessication in the aerial environment. This barrier was nevertheless overcome by the Devonian ancestors of extant Tetrapoda, but the origin of specific molecular mechanisms that solved this water problem remains largely unknown. Here we show that an ancient aquaporin gene cluster evolved specifically in the sarcopterygian lineage, and subsequently diverged into paralogous forms of AQP2, -5, or -6 to mediate water conservation in extant Tetrapoda. To determine the origin of these apomorphic genomic traits, we combined aquaporin sequencing from jawless and jawed vertebrates with broad taxon assembly of >2,000 transcripts amongst 131 deuterostome genomes and developed a model based upon Bayesian inference that traces their convergent roots to stem subfamilies in basal Metazoa and Prokaryota. This approach uncovered an unexpected diversity of aquaporins in every lineage investigated, and revealed that the vertebrate superfamily consists of 17 classes of aquaporins (Aqp0 - Aqp16). The oldest orthologs associated with water conservation in modern Tetrapoda are traced to a cluster of three aqp2-like genes in Actinistia that likely arose >500 Ma through duplication of an aqp0-like gene present in a jawless ancestor. In sea lamprey, we show that aqp0 first arose in a protocluster comprised of a novel aqp14 paralog and a fused aqp01 gene. To corroborate these findings, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of five syntenic nuclear receptor subfamilies, which, together with observations of extensive genome rearrangements, support the coincident loss of ancestral aqp2-like orthologs in Actinopterygii. We thus conclude that the divergence of sarcopterygian-specific aquaporin gene clusters was permissive for the evolution of water conservation mechanisms that facilitated tetrapod terrestrial adaptation.
Roderick Nigel Finn
Full Text Available A major physiological barrier for aquatic organisms adapting to terrestrial life is dessication in the aerial environment. This barrier was nevertheless overcome by the Devonian ancestors of extant Tetrapoda, but the origin of specific molecular mechanisms that solved this water problem remains largely unknown. Here we show that an ancient aquaporin gene cluster evolved specifically in the sarcopterygian lineage, and subsequently diverged into paralogous forms of AQP2, -5, or -6 to mediate water conservation in extant Tetrapoda. To determine the origin of these apomorphic genomic traits, we combined aquaporin sequencing from jawless and jawed vertebrates with broad taxon assembly of >2,000 transcripts amongst 131 deuterostome genomes and developed a model based upon Bayesian inference that traces their convergent roots to stem subfamilies in basal Metazoa and Prokaryota. This approach uncovered an unexpected diversity of aquaporins in every lineage investigated, and revealed that the vertebrate superfamily consists of 17 classes of aquaporins (Aqp0 - Aqp16. The oldest orthologs associated with water conservation in modern Tetrapoda are traced to a cluster of three aqp2-like genes in Actinistia that likely arose >500 Ma through duplication of an aqp0-like gene present in a jawless ancestor. In sea lamprey, we show that aqp0 first arose in a protocluster comprised of a novel aqp14 paralog and a fused aqp01 gene. To corroborate these findings, we conducted phylogenetic analyses of five syntenic nuclear receptor subfamilies, which, together with observations of extensive genome rearrangements, support the coincident loss of ancestral aqp2-like orthologs in Actinopterygii. We thus conclude that the divergence of sarcopterygian-specific aquaporin gene clusters was permissive for the evolution of water conservation mechanisms that facilitated tetrapod terrestrial adaptation.
Berkowitz, Bruce A; Roberts, Robin; Goebel, Dennis J; Luan, Hongmei
To test the hypothesis that high-resolution (23.4 microm intraretinal resolution) manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) can be used to noninvasively and simultaneously record from distinct layers of the rat retina cellular demand for ions associated with functional adaptation. In control rats, high-resolution images were collected with or without systemic injection of MnCl2 during light or dark adaptation; inner and outer retinal signal intensities were compared. In separate experiments, 1 month after systemic administration of MnCl2 to awake dark-adapted control rats, possible toxic effects of Mn2+ on ocular health were assessed with the use of the following metrics: retinal layer thickness, intraocular pressure, and blood retinal barrier integrity. In nonmanganese-injected rats, the signal intensity difference between light and dark states for inner and outer retina was not significantly different (P>0.05). In contrast, after manganese administration, the change in outer retinal signal intensity under light/dark conditions was significantly greater than that of inner retina. At 1 month after MnCl2 injection, comparisons with controls revealed no evidence for deleterious ocular health effects as assessed by whole and inner retinal thickness, intraocular pressure, and blood retinal barrier integrity. The present MEMRI examination was a safe (i.e., nontoxic) and relatively straightforward procedure that appeared to robustly reflect layer-specific retinal ion demand that correlates with normal retinal physiology responses associated with light and dark visual processing. Comprehensive MEMRI measures of retinal ion demand may be envisioned in a range of animal models for the study of normal development and aging.
Alt, T; Nodler, Y T; Severin, J; Knicker, A J; Strüder, H K
The Nordic Hamstring Exercise (NHE) is effective for selective hamstring strengthening to improve muscle balance between knee flexors and extensors. The purpose of this study (within subject design of repeated measures) was to determine the effects of a standardized 4-week NHE training on thigh strength and muscle balance with concomitant kinetic and kinematic monitoring. Sixteen male sprinters (22 years, 181 cm, 76 kg) performed a standardized 4-week NHE training consisting of three sessions per week (each 3×3 repetitions). Six rope-assisted and six unassisted sessions were performed targeting at a constant knee extension angular velocity of ~15°/s across a ~90-100° knee joint range of motion. Kinetic (peak and mean moment, impulse) and kinematic parameters (eg, ROM to downward acceleration, ROMDWA ) were recorded during selected sessions. Unilateral isokinetic tests of concentric and eccentric knee flexors and extensors quantified muscle group-, contraction mode-, and velocity-specific training adaptations. Peak moments and contractional work demonstrated strong interactions of time with muscle group, contraction modes, and angular velocities (η²>.150). NHE training increased eccentric hamstring strength by 6%-14% as well as thigh muscle balance with biggest adaptations at 150°/s 2 weeks after NHE training. Throughout the training period significant increases (P.05). A 4-week NHE training significantly strengthened the hamstrings and improved muscle balance between knee flexors and extensors. Despite the slow training velocity, biggest adaptations emerged at the highest velocity 2 weeks after training ended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Rife, Trevor W; Poland, Jesse A; Nalley, Lawton Lanier
The impact of climate change on crop yields has become widely measured; however, the linkages for winter wheat are less studied due to dramatic weather changes during the long growing season that are difficult to model. Recent research suggests significant reductions under warming. A potential adaptation strategy involves the development of heat resistant varieties by breeders, combined with alternative variety selection by producers. However, the impact of heat on specific wheat varieties remains relatively unstudied due to limited data and the complex genetic basis of heat tolerance. Here, we provide a novel econometric approach that combines field-trial data with a genetic cluster mapping to group wheat varieties and estimate a separate extreme heat impact (temperatures over 34 °C) across 24 clusters spanning 197 varieties. We find a wide range of heterogeneous heat resistance and a trade-off between average yield and resistance. Results suggest that recently released varieties are less heat resistant than older varieties, a pattern that also holds for on-farm varieties. Currently released - but not yet adopted - varieties do not offer improved resistance relative to varieties currently grown on farm. Our findings suggest that warming impacts could be significantly reduced through advances in wheat breeding and/or adoption decisions by producers. However, current adaptation-through-adoption potential is limited under a 1 °C warming scenario as increased heat resistance cannot be achieved without a reduction in average yields. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Narendra, Ajay; Reid, Samuel F.; Greiner, Birgit; Peters, Richard A.; Hemmi, Jan M.; Ribi, Willi A.; Zeil, Jochen
Animals are active at different times of the day and their activity schedules are shaped by competition, time-limited food resources and predators. Different temporal niches provide different light conditions, which affect the quality of visual information available to animals, in particular for navigation. We analysed caste-specific differences in compound eyes and ocelli in four congeneric sympatric species of Myrmecia ants, with emphasis on within-species adaptive flexibility and daily activity rhythms. Each caste has its own lifestyle: workers are exclusively pedestrian; alate females lead a brief life on the wing before becoming pedestrian; alate males lead a life exclusively on the wing. While workers of the four species range from diurnal, diurnal-crepuscular, crepuscular-nocturnal to nocturnal, the activity times of conspecific alates do not match in all cases. Even within a single species, we found eye area, facet numbers, facet sizes, rhabdom diameters and ocelli size to be tuned to the distinct temporal niche each caste occupies. We discuss these visual adaptations in relation to ambient light levels, visual tasks and mode of locomotion. PMID:20926444
Pjetri, E; Adan, R A; Herzog, H; de Haas, R; Oppelaar, H; Spierenburg, H A; Olivier, B; Kas, M J
The neuropeptide Y (NPY) system in the brain regulates a wide variety of behavioral, metabolic and hormonal homeostatic processes required for energy balance control. During times of limited food availability, NPY promotes behavioral hyperactivity necessary to explore and prepare for novel food resources. As NPY can act via 5 different receptor subtypes, we investigated the path through which NPY affects different behavioral components relevant for adaptation to such conditions. We tested NPY Y1 and Y2 receptor knockout mice and their wild-type littermate controls in a daily scheduled limited food access paradigm with unlimited access to running wheel. Here we show that NPY Y1 receptor deficient mice lack the expression of appetitive behavior and that NPY Y2 receptors control the level of hyperactive behavior under these conditions. Thus, receptor specificity determines the differential expression of NPY-mediated behavioral adaptations to overcome a negative energy status. © 2011 The Authors. Genes, Brain and Behavior © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.
Full Text Available Biomarker-guided clinical trial designs, which focus on testing the effectiveness of a biomarker-guided approach to treatment in improving patient health, have drawn considerable attention in the era of stratified medicine with many different designs being proposed in the literature. However, planning such trials to ensure they have sufficient power to test the relevant hypotheses can be challenging and the literature often lacks guidance in this regard. In this study, we focus on the parallel subgroup-specific design, which allows the evaluation of separate treatment effects in the biomarker-positive subgroup and biomarker-negative subgroup simultaneously. We also explore an adaptive version of the design, where an interim analysis is undertaken based on a fixed percentage of target events, with the option to stop each biomarker-defined subgroup early for futility or efficacy. We calculate the number of events and patients required to ensure sufficient power in each of the biomarker-defined subgroups under different scenarios when the primary outcome is time-to-event. For the adaptive version, stopping probabilities are also explored. Since multiple hypotheses are being tested simultaneously, and multiple interim analyses are undertaken, we also focus on controlling the overall type I error rate by way of multiplicity adjustment.
Daniil M Prigozhin
Full Text Available Beta-lactam antibiotics target penicillin-binding proteins including several enzyme classes essential for bacterial cell-wall homeostasis. To better understand the functional and inhibitor-binding specificities of penicillin-binding proteins from the pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we carried out structural and phylogenetic analysis of two predicted D,D-carboxypeptidases, Rv2911 and Rv3330. Optimization of Rv2911 for crystallization using directed evolution and the GFP folding reporter method yielded a soluble quadruple mutant. Structures of optimized Rv2911 bound to phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and Rv3330 bound to meropenem show that, in contrast to the nonspecific inhibitor, meropenem forms an extended interaction with the enzyme along a conserved surface. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Rv2911 and Rv3330 belong to different clades that emerged in Actinobacteria and are not represented in model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. Clade-specific adaptations allow these enzymes to fulfill distinct physiological roles despite strict conservation of core catalytic residues. The characteristic differences include potential protein-protein interaction surfaces and specificity-determining residues surrounding the catalytic site. Overall, these structural insights lay the groundwork to develop improved beta-lactam therapeutics for tuberculosis.
Alsaleh, Samar M; Aviles, Angelica I; Sobrevilla, Pilar; Casals, Alicia; Hahn, James K
Minimally invasive surgical and diagnostic systems rely on endoscopic images of internal organs to assist medical tasks. Specular highlights are common on those images due to the strong reflectivity of the mucus layer on the organs and the relatively high intensity of the light source. This is a significant source of error that can affect the systems' performance. In this paper, we propose a segmentation method of the specular regions based on an automatic color-adaptive threshold and a gradient-based edge detector. The segmented regions are then recovered using a robust mask-specific Sobolev inpainting approach. Experimental results demonstrate the precision and efficiency of the proposed method. In contrast to the existing approaches, the proposed solution does not require manual threshold selection or complex computations to achieve accurate results. Moreover, our method has a real-time performance and can be generalized to various applications.
Vinken, Kasper; Vogels, Rufin; Op de Beeck, Hans
From an ecological point of view, it is generally suggested that the main goal of vision in rats and mice is navigation and (aerial) predator evasion [1-3]. The latter requires fast and accurate detection of a change in the visual environment. An outstanding question is whether there are mechanisms in the rodent visual system that would support and facilitate visual change detection. An experimental protocol frequently used to investigate change detection in humans is the oddball paradigm, in which a rare, unexpected stimulus is presented in a train of stimulus repetitions . A popular "predictive coding" theory of cortical responses states that neural responses should decrease for expected sensory input and increase for unexpected input [5, 6]. Despite evidence for response suppression and enhancement in noninvasive scalp recordings in humans with this paradigm [7, 8], it has proven challenging to observe both phenomena in invasive action potential recordings in other animals [9-11]. During a visual oddball experiment, we recorded multi-unit spiking activity in rat primary visual cortex (V1) and latero-intermediate area (LI), which is a higher area of the rodent ventral visual stream. In rat V1, there was only evidence for response suppression related to stimulus-specific adaptation, and not for response enhancement. However, higher up in area LI, spiking activity showed clear surprise-based response enhancement in addition to stimulus-specific adaptation. These results show that neural responses along the rat ventral visual stream become increasingly sensitive to changes in the visual environment, suggesting a system specialized in the detection of unexpected events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ramu, Vemanna S; Swetha, Thavarekere N; Sheela, Shekarappa H; Babitha, Chandrashekar K; Rohini, Sreevathsa; Reddy, Malireddy K; Tuteja, Narendra; Reddy, Chandrashekar P; Prasad, Trichi Ganesh; Udayakumar, Makarla
Adaptation of crops to drought-prone rain-fed conditions can be achieved by improving plant traits such as efficient water mining (by superior root characters) and cellular-level tolerance mechanisms. Pyramiding these drought-adaptive traits by simultaneous expression of genes regulating drought-adaptive mechanisms has phenomenal relevance in improving stress tolerance. In this study, we provide evidence that peanut transgenic plants expressing Alfalfa zinc finger 1 (Alfin1), a root growth-associated transcription factor gene, Pennisetum glaucum heat-shock factor (PgHSF4) and Pea DNA helicase (PDH45) involved in protein turnover and protection showed improved tolerance, higher growth and productivity under drought stress conditions. Stable integration of all the transgenes was noticed in transgenic lines. The transgenic lines showed higher root growth, cooler crop canopy air temperature difference (less CCATD) and higher relative water content (RWC) under drought stress. Low proline levels in transgenic lines substantiate the maintenance of higher water status. The survival and recovery of transgenic lines was significantly higher under gradual moisture stress conditions with higher biomass. Transgenic lines also showed significant tolerance to ethrel-induced senescence and methyl viologen-induced oxidative stress. Several stress-responsive genes such as heat-shock proteins (HSPs), RING box protein-1 (RBX1), Aldose reductase, late embryogenesis abundant-5 (LEA5) and proline-rich protein-2 (PRP2), a gene involved in root growth, showed enhanced expression under stress in transgenic lines. Thus, the simultaneous expression of regulatory genes contributing for drought-adaptive traits can improve crop adaptation and productivity under water-limited conditions. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Brain neurons offer diverse responses to stresses and detrimental factors during development and aging, and as a result of both neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders. This multiplicity of responses can be ascribed to the great diversity among neuronal populations. Here we have determined the metabolomic profile of three healthy adult human brain regions—entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, and frontal cortex—using mass spectrometry-based technologies. Our results show the existence of a lessened energy demand, mitochondrial stress, and lower one-carbon metabolism (particularly restricted to the methionine cycle specifically in frontal cortex. These findings, along with the better antioxidant capacity and lower mTOR signaling also seen in frontal cortex, suggest that this brain region is especially resistant to stress compared to the entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, which are more vulnerable regions. Globally, our results show the presence of specific metabolomics adaptations in three mature, healthy human brain regions, confirming the existence of cross-regional differences in cell vulnerability in the human cerebral cortex.
Rhea Matthew R.
Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of training at different ranges of motion during the squat exercise on joint-angle specific strength adaptations. Methods. Twenty eight men were randomly assigned to one of three training groups, differing only in the depth of squats (quarter squat, half squat, and full squat performed in 16-week training intervention. Strength measures were conducted in the back squat pre-, mid-, and post-training at all three depths. Vertical jump and 40-yard sprint time were also measured. Results. Individuals in the quarter and full squat training groups improved significantly more at the specific depth at which they trained when compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05. Jump height and sprint speed improved in all groups (p < 0.05; however, the quarter squat had the greatest transfer to both outcomes. Conclusions. Consistently including quarter squats in workouts aimed at maximizing speed and jumping power can result in greater improvements.
Albers, Christian; Schmiedt, Joscha T; Pawelzik, Klaus R
Learning and memory formation are processes which are still not fully understood. It is widely believed that synaptic plasticity is the most important neural substrate for both. However, it has been observed that large-scale theta band oscillations in the mammalian brain are beneficial for learning, and it is not clear if and how this is linked to synaptic plasticity. Also, the underlying dynamics of synaptic plasticity itself have not been completely uncovered yet, especially for non-linear interactions between multiple spikes. Here, we present a new and simple dynamical model of synaptic plasticity. It incorporates novel contributions to synaptic plasticity including adaptation processes. We test its ability to reproduce non-linear effects on four different data sets of complex spike patterns, and show that the model can be tuned to reproduce the observed synaptic changes in great detail. When subjected to periodically varying firing rates, already linear pair based spike timing dependent plasticity (STDP) predicts a specific susceptibility of synaptic plasticity to pre- and postsynaptic firing rate oscillations in the theta-band. Our model retains this band-pass property, while for high firing rates in the non-linear regime it modifies the specific phase relation required for depression and potentiation. For realistic parameters, maximal synaptic potentiation occurs when the postsynaptic is trailing the presynaptic activity slightly. Anti-phase oscillations tend to depress it. Our results are well in line with experimental findings, providing a straightforward and mechanistic explanation for the importance of theta oscillations for learning.
Maeno, Shintaro; Tanizawa, Yasuhiro; Kanesaki, Yu; Kubota, Eri; Kumar, Himanshu; Dicks, Leon; Salminen, Seppo; Nakagawa, Junichi; Arita, Masanori; Endo, Akihito
Lactobacillus kunkeei is classified as a sole obligate fructophilic lactic acid bacterium that is found in fructose-rich niches, including the guts of honeybees. The species is differentiated from other lactobacilli based on its poor growth with glucose, enhanced growth in the presence of oxygen and other electron acceptors, and production of high concentrations of acetate from the metabolism of glucose. These characteristics are similar to phylogenetically distant Fructobacillus spp. In the present study, the genomic structure of L. kunkeei was characterized by using 16 different strains, and it had significantly less genes and smaller genomes when compared with other lactobacilli. Functional gene classification revealed that L. kunkeei had lost genes specifically involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism. The species also lacked most of the genes for respiration, although growth was enhanced in the presence of oxygen. The adhE gene of L. kunkeei, encoding a bifunctional alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH)/aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) protein, lacked the part encoding the ADH domain, which is reported here for the first time in lactic acid bacteria. The deletion resulted in the lack of ADH activity, implying a requirement for electron acceptors in glucose assimilation. These results clearly indicated that L. kunkeei had undergone a specific reductive evolution in order to adapt to fructose-rich environments. The reduction characteristics were similar to those of Fructobacillus spp., but distinct from other lactobacilli with small genomes, such as Lactobacillus gasseri and Lactobacillus vaginalis. Fructose-richness thus induced an environment-specific gene reduction in phylogenetically distant microorganisms. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
May, Francis J.; Baer, Lisa A.; Lehnig, Adam C.; So, Kawai; Chen, Emily Y.; Gao, Fei; Narain, Niven R; Gushchina, Liubov; Rose, Aubrey; Doseff, Andrea I.; Kiebish, Michael A.; Goodyear, Laurie J.; Stanford, Kristin I.
Exercise improves whole-body metabolic health through adaptations to various tissues, including adipose tissue, but the effects of exercise training on the lipidome of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are unknown. Here, we utilize MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics to determine the molecular signatures of exercise-induced adaptations to subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and BAT. Three weeks of exercise training decrease specific molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatid...
Akinpelu, Aderonke O.; Odetunde, Marufat O.; Odole, Adesola C.
Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted…
Bahrndorff, Simon; Ward, Jacqueline; Pettigrove, Vincent; Hoffmann, Ary A
Chironomids may adapt to pollution stress but data are confined to species that can be reared in the laboratory. A microcosm approach was used to test for adaptation and species differences in heavy metal tolerance. In one experiment, microcosms containing different levels of contaminants were placed in polluted and reference locations. The response of Chironomus februarius to metal contaminants suggested local adaptation: relatively more flies emerged from clean sediment at the reference site and the reverse pattern occurred at the polluted site. However, maternal effects were not specifically ruled out. In another species, Kiefferulus intertinctus, there was no evidence for adaptation. In a second experiment, microcosms with different contaminant levels were placed at two polluted and two unpolluted sites. Species responded differently to contaminants, but there was no evidence for adaptation in the species where this could be tested. Adaptation to heavy metals may be uncommon and species specific, but more sensitive species need to be tested across a range of pollution levels. Factors influencing the likelihood of adaptation are briefly discussed.
Lockie, Robert G; Farzad, Jalilvand; Orjalo, Ashley J; Giuliano, Dominic V; Moreno, Matthew R; Wright, Glenn A
Lockie, RG, Jalilvand, F, Orjalo, AJ, Giuliano, DV, Moreno, MR, and Wright, GA. A methodological report: Adapting the 505 change-of-direction speed test specific to American football. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 539-547, 2017-The 505 involves a 10-m sprint past a timing gate, followed by a 180° change-of-direction (COD) performed over 5 m. This methodological report investigated an adapted 505 (A505) designed to be football-specific by changing the distances to 10 and 5 yd. Twenty-five high school football players (6 linemen [LM]; 8 quarterbacks, running backs, and linebackers [QB/RB/LB]; 11 receivers and defensive backs [R/DB]) completed the A505 and 40-yd sprint. The difference between A505 and 0 to 10-yd time determined the COD deficit for each leg. In a follow-up session, 10 subjects completed the A505 again and 10 subjects completed the 505. Reliability was analyzed by t-tests to determine between-session differences, typical error (TE), and coefficient of variation. Test usefulness was examined via TE and smallest worthwhile change (SWC) differences. Pearson's correlations calculated relationships between the A505 and 505, and A505 and COD deficit with the 40-yd sprint. A 1-way analysis of variance (p ≤ 0.05) derived between-position differences in the A505 and COD deficit. There were no between-session differences for the A505 (p = 0.45-0.76; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.84-0.95; TE = 2.03-4.13%). Additionally, the A505 was capable of detecting moderate performance changes (SWC0.5 > TE). The A505 correlated with the 505 and 40-yard sprint (r = 0.58-0.92), suggesting the modified version assessed similar qualities. Receivers and defensive backs were faster than LM in the A505 for both legs, and right-leg COD deficit. Quarterbacks, running backs, and linebackers were faster than LM in the right-leg A505. The A505 is reliable, can detect moderate performance changes, and can discriminate between football position groups.
Full Text Available The specific adaptation of 15 rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis clones was assessed by analyzing yield during a normal year (1997-98 and a year (1998-99 in which the yield was exceptional. Differences in yield in response to changes in weather conditions over the years were evident with clones RRII 203, RRIM 703, PB 5/51 and PB 235 which all exhibited a negative trend with increasing wind velocity during 1997-98, these clones also exhibited a negative correlation with minimum temperature during 1998-99. The prominent yield differences across the years made selection based on both yield and stability inevitable through computing weather variables and environmental index as covariant. To determine the contribution of variable(s to genotype-environment (GE interactions, the GE interaction was partitioned into heterogeneity and residual GE interaction. Heterogeneity only for environmental index was highly significant (p = 0.01, meaning that stability or instability of clones was due to a linear effect of the environmental index. The non-significant values of heterogeneity for the weather variables revealed that none of these factors individually was sufficient to explain heterogeneity. A QBASIC computer program called STABLE was used to select simultaneously for yield and stability. Clones PB 235, RRII 118, RRII 203, RRIM 703 and RRIM 600 were stable over the years investigated.
Reches, Amit; Gutfreund, Yoram
Abrupt orientation to novel stimuli is a critical, memory-dependent task performed by the brain. In the present study, we examined two gaze control centers of the barn owl: the optic tectum (OT) and the arcopallium gaze fields (AGFs). Responses of neurons to long sequences of dichotic sound bursts comprised of two sounds differing in the probability of appearance were analyzed. We report that auditory neurons in the OT and in the AGFs tend to respond stronger to rarely presented sounds (novel sounds) than to the same sounds when presented frequently. This history-dependent phenomenon, known as stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA), was demonstrated for rare sound frequencies, binaural localization cues [interaural time difference (ITD) and level difference (ILD)] and sound amplitudes. The manifestation of SSA in such a variety of independent acoustic features, in the midbrain and in the forebrain, supports the notion that SSA is involved in sensory memory and novelty detection. To track the origin of SSA, we analyzed responses of neurons in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICX; the source of auditory input to the OT) to similar sequences of sound bursts. Neurons in the ICX responded stronger to rare sound frequencies, but did not respond differently to rare ITDs, ILDs, or sound amplitudes. We hypothesize that part of the SSA reported here is computed in high-level networks, giving rise to novelty signals that modulate tectal responses in a context-dependent manner.
Yaneri eAguilar Ayala
Full Text Available Deviancy detection in the continuous flow of sensory information into the central nervous system is of vital importance for animals. The task requires neuronal mechanisms that allow for an efficient representation of the environment by removing statistically redundant signals. Recently, the neuronal principles of auditory deviance detection have been approached by studying the phenomenon of stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA. SSA is a reduction in the responsiveness of a neuron to a common or repetitive sound while the neuron remains highly sensitive to rare sounds (Ulanovsky et al., 2003. This phenomenon could enhance the saliency of unexpected, deviant stimuli against a background of repetitive signals. SSA shares many similarities with the evoked potential known as the ‘mismatch negativity,’ and it has been linked to cognitive process such as auditory memory and scene analysis (Winkler et al., 2009 as well as to behavioral habituation (Netser et al., 2011. Neurons exhibiting SSA can be found at several levels of the auditory pathway, from the inferior colliculus (IC up to the auditory cortex (AC. In this review, we offer an account of the state-of-the art of SSA studies in the IC with the aim of contributing to the growing interest in the single-neuron electrophysiology of auditory deviance detection. The dependence of neuronal SSA on various stimulus features, e.g., probability of the deviant stimulus and repetition rate, and the roles of the AC and inhibition in shaping SSA at the level of the IC are addressed.
Wu, Zeguang; Qin, Ruifang; Wang, Li; Bosso, Matteo; Scherer, Myriam; Stamminger, Thomas; Hotter, Dominik; Mertens, Thomas; Frascaroli, Giada
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) persistently infects 40% to 100% of the human population worldwide. Experimental and clinical evidence indicates that humoral immunity to HCMV plays an important role in restricting virus dissemination and protecting the infected host from disease. Specific immunoglobulin preparations from pooled plasma of adults selected for high titers of HCMV antibodies have been used for the prevention of CMV disease in transplant recipients and pregnant women. Even though incubation of HCMV particles with these preparations leads to the neutralization of viral infectivity, it is still unclear whether the antibody-treated HCMV particles (referred to here as HCMV-Ab) enter the cells and modulate antiviral immune responses. Here we demonstrate that HCMV-Ab did enter macrophages. HCMV-Ab did not initiate the expression of immediate early antigens (IEAs) in macrophages, but they induced an antiviral state and rendered the cells less susceptible to HCMV infection upon challenge. Resistance to HCMV infection seemed to be due to the activation of intrinsic restriction factors and was independent of interferons. In contrast to actively infected cells, autologous NK cells did not degranulate against HCMV-Ab-treated macrophages, suggesting that these cells may not be eliminated by innate effector cells. Interestingly, HCMV-Ab-treated macrophages stimulated the proliferation of autologous adaptive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Our findings not only expand the current knowledge on virus-antibody immunity but may also be relevant for future vaccination strategies.IMPORTANCE Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a common herpesvirus, establishes benign but persistent infections in immunocompetent hosts. However, in subjects with an immature or dysfunctional immune system, HCMV is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Passive immunization has been used in different clinical settings with variable clinical results. Intravenous hyperimmune globulin preparations (IVIg) are
H.G. Lemij (Hans); H. Collewijn (Han)
textabstractAbstract Recently it has been demonstrated that saccades become different in size in the two eyes if a subject is adapted to anisometropic spectacles, which provide visual images of different magnitude to the two eyes. These nonconjugate adaptations adequately meet the requirements of
Fukushima, K; Wells, S G; Yamanobe, T; Takeichi, N; Shinmei, Y; Fukushima, J
The smooth pursuit system interacts with the vestibular system to maintain the accuracy of eye movements in space. To understand neural mechanisms of short-term modifications of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) induced by pursuit-vestibular interactions, we used a cross-axis procedure in trained monkeys. We showed earlier that pursuit training in the plane orthogonal to the rotation plane induces adaptive cross-axis VOR in complete darkness. To further study the properties of adaptive responses, we examined here the initial eye movements during tracking of a target while being rotated with a trapezoidal waveform (peak velocity 30 or 40 degrees/s). Subjects were head-stabilized Japanese monkeys that were rewarded for accurate pursuit. Whole body rotation was applied either in the yaw or pitch plane while presenting a target moving in-phase with the chair with the same trajectory but in the orthogonal plane. Eye movements induced by equivalent chair rotation with or without the target were examined before and after training. Before training, chair rotation alone resulted only in the collinear VOR, and smooth eye movement-tracking of orthogonal target motion during rotation had a normal smooth pursuit latency (ca 100 ms). With training, the latency of orthogonal smooth tracking eye movements shortened, and the mean latency after 1 h of training was 42 ms with a mean gain, at 100 ms after stimulus onset, of 0.4. The cross-axis VOR induced by chair rotation in complete darkness had identical latencies with the orthogonal smooth tracking eye movements, but its gains were pursuit training, target movement alone without chair rotation induced smooth pursuit eye movements with latencies ca 100 ms. Pursuit training alone for 1 h using the same trajectory but without chair rotation did not result in any clear change in pursuit latency (ca 100 ms) or initial eye velocity. When a new target velocity was presented during identical chair rotation after training, eye velocity was
Triblehorn, Jeffrey D; Schul, Johannes
Reduced neuronal activation to repetitive stimulation is a common feature of information processing in nervous systems. Such stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) occurs in many systems, but the underlying neural mechanisms are not well understood. The Neoconocephalus (Orthoptera, Tettigoniidae) TN-1 auditory neuron exhibits an SSA-like process, characterized by reliably detecting deviant pulses after response cessation to common standard pulses. Therefore, TN-1 provides a model system to study the cellular mechanisms underlying SSA with an identified neuron. Here we test the hypothesis that dendritic mechanisms underlie TN-1 response cessation to fast-pulse rate repeated signals. Electrically stimulating TN-1 with either high-rate or continuous-current pulses resulted in a decreased ability in TN-1 to generate action potentials but failed to elicit cessation of spiking activity as observed with acoustic stimulation. BAPTA injection into TN-1 delayed the onset of response cessation to fast-pulse rate acoustic stimuli in TN-1 but did not eliminate it. These results indicate that calcium-mediated processes contribute to the fast cessation of spiking activity in TN-1 but are insufficient to cause spike cessation on its own. Replacing normal saline with low-Na(+) saline (replacing sodium chloride with either lithium chloride or choline chloride) eliminated response cessation, and TN-1 no longer responded selectively to the deviant pulses. Sodium-mediated potassium channels are the most likely candidates underlying sodium-mediated response suppression in TN-1, triggered by Na(+) influx in dendritic regions activated by acoustic stimuli. On the basis of these results, we present a model for a cellular mechanism for SSA in a single auditory neuron.
Sen, Avijit; Sen, Sangita; Samanta, Pradipta Kumar; Mukherjee, Debashis
We present here a comprehensive account of the formulation and pilot applications of the second-order perturbative analogue of the recently proposed unitary group adapted state-specific multireference coupled cluster theory (UGA-SSMRCC), which we call as the UGA-SSMRPT2. We also discuss the essential similarities and differences between the UGA-SSMRPT2 and the allied SA-SSMRPT2. Our theory, like its parent UGA-SSMRCC formalism, is size-extensive. However, because of the noninvariance of the theory with respect to the transformation among the active orbitals, it requires the use of localized orbitals to ensure size-consistency. We have demonstrated the performance of the formalism with a set of pilot applications, exploring (a) the accuracy of the potential energy surface (PES) of a set of small prototypical difficult molecules in their various low-lying states, using natural, pseudocanonical and localized orbitals and compared the respective nonparallelity errors (NPE) and the mean average deviations (MAD) vis-a-vis the full CI results with the same basis; (b) the efficacy of localized active orbitals to ensure and demonstrate manifest size-consistency with respect to fragmentation. We found that natural orbitals lead to the best overall PES, as evidenced by the NPE and MAD values. The MRMP2 results for individual states and of the MCQDPT2 for multiple states displaying avoided curve crossings are uniformly poorer as compared with the UGA-SSMRPT2 results. The striking aspect of the size-consistency check is the complete insensitivity of the sum of fragment energies with given fragment spin-multiplicities, which are obtained as the asymptotic limit of super-molecules with different coupled spins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pankratz, Franziska; Bemtgen, Xavier; Zeiser, Robert; Leonhardt, Franziska; Kreuzaler, Sheena; Hilgendorf, Ingo; Smolka, Christian; Helbing, Thomas; Höfer, IE; Esser, Jennifer S; Kustermann, Max; Moser, Martin; Bode, Christoph; Grundmann, Sebastian
BACKGROUND: Adaptive neovascularization after arterial occlusion is an important compensatory mechanism in cardiovascular disease and includes both the remodeling of pre-existing vessels to collateral arteries (arteriogenesis) and angiogenic capillary growth. We now aimed to identify regulatory
Racz, Sarah Jensen; Putnick, Diane L; Suwalsky, Joan T D; Hendricks, Charlene; Bornstein, Marc H
Children's and adolescents' cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors are broadly associated with each other at the bivariate level; however, the direction, ordering, and uniqueness of these associations have yet to be identified. Developmental cascade models are particularly well-suited to (1) discern unique pathways among psychological domains and (2) model stability in and covariation among constructs, allowing for conservative tests of longitudinal associations. The current study aimed to identify specific cascade effects among children's cognitive abilities, social adaptation, and externalizing behaviors, beginning in preschool and extending through adolescence. Children (46.2 % female) and mothers (N = 351 families) provided data when children were 4, 10, and 14 years old. Cascade effects highlighted significant stability in these domains. Unique longitudinal associations were identified between (1) age-10 cognitive abilities and age-14 social adaptation, (2) age-4 social adaptation and age-10 externalizing behavior, and (3) age-10 externalizing behavior and age-14 social adaptation. These findings suggest that children's social adaptation in preschool and externalizing behavior in middle childhood may be ideal intervention targets to enhance adolescent well-being.
Tomasz D Szwedowski
Full Text Available Bone adaptation after total hip arthroplasty is associated with the change in internal load environment, and can result in compromised bone stock, which presents a considerable challenge should a revision procedure be required. Under the assumption of a generic mechano-regulatory algorithm for governing bone adaptation, the aim of this study was to understand the contribution of subject specific loading conditions towards explaining the local periprosthetic remodelling variations in patients. CT scans of 3 consecutive THA patients were obtained and used for the construction of subject specific finite element models using verified musculoskeletal loading and physiological boundary conditions. Using either strain energy density or equivalent strain as mechano-transduction signals, predictions of bone adaptation were compared to DEXA derived BMD changes from 7 days to 12 months post-implantation. Individual changes in BMD of up to 33.6% were observed within the 12 month follow-up period, together with considerable inter-patient variability of up to 26%. Estimates of bone adaptation using equivalent strain and balanced loading conditions led to the best agreement with in vivo measured BMD, with RMS errors of only 3.9%, 7.3% and 7.3% for the individual subjects, compared to errors of over 10% when the loading conditions were simplified.This study provides evidence that subject specific loading conditions and physiological boundary constraints are essential for explaining inter-patient variations in bone adaptation patterns. This improved knowledge of the rules governing the adaptation of bone following THA helps towards understanding the interplay between mechanics and biology for better identifying patients at risk of excessive or problematic periprosthetic bone atrophy.
Stark-Inbar, Alit; Raza, Meher; Taylor, Jordan A; Ivry, Richard B
In standard taxonomies, motor skills are typically treated as representative of implicit or procedural memory. We examined two emblematic tasks of implicit motor learning, sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning, asking whether individual differences in learning are correlated between these tasks, as well as how individual differences within each task are related to different performance variables. As a prerequisite, it was essential to establish the reliability of learning measures for each task. Participants were tested twice on a visuomotor adaptation task and on a sequence learning task, either the serial reaction time task or the alternating reaction time task. Learning was evident in all tasks at the group level and reliable at the individual level in visuomotor adaptation and the alternating reaction time task but not in the serial reaction time task. Performance variability was predictive of learning in both domains, yet the relationship was in the opposite direction for adaptation and sequence learning. For the former, faster learning was associated with lower variability, consistent with models of sensorimotor adaptation in which learning rates are sensitive to noise. For the latter, greater learning was associated with higher variability and slower reaction times, factors that may facilitate the spread of activation required to form predictive, sequential associations. Interestingly, learning measures of the different tasks were not correlated. Together, these results oppose a shared process for implicit learning in sensorimotor adaptation and sequence learning and provide insight into the factors that account for individual differences in learning within each task domain. We investigated individual differences in the ability to implicitly learn motor skills. As a prerequisite, we assessed whether individual differences were reliable across test sessions. We found that two commonly used tasks of implicit learning, visuomotor adaptation and the
The effects of selective adaptation on familiar face perception were examined. After prolonged exposure to photographs of a celebrity, participants saw a series of ambiguous morphs that were varying mixtures between the face of that person and a different celebrity. Participants judged fewer of the morphs to resemble the celebrity to which they…
Bruinsma, Caroline F; Schonewille, Martijn; Gao, Zhenyu; Aronica, Eleonora M A; Judson, Matthew C; Philpot, Benjamin D; Hoebeek, Freek E; van Woerden, Geeske M; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Elgersma, Ype
Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurological disorder that is associated with prominent movement and balance impairments that are widely considered to be due to defects of cerebellar origin. Here, using the cerebellar-specific vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) paradigm, we determined that cerebellar
Fagerlund, Åse; Åse, Fagerlund; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Ilona, Autti-Rämö; Kalland, Mirjam; Mirjam, Kalland; Santtila, Pekka; Pekka, Santtila; Hoyme, H Eugene; Eugene, Hoyme H; Mattson, Sarah N; Sarah, Mattson N; Korkman, Marit; Marit, Korkman
Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a leading cause of intellectual disability in the western world. Children and adolescents with FASD are often exposed to a double burden in life, as their neurological sequelae are accompanied by adverse living surroundings exposing them to further environmental risk. In the present study, the adaptive abilities of a group of children and adolescents with FASD were examined using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) and compared to those of a group of IQ-matched children with specific learning disorder (SLD) as well as with typically developing controls (CON). The results showed significantly different adaptive abilities among the groups: Children with FASD performed worse than IQ-matched children with SLD, who in turn performed worse than typically developing children on all domains (communication, daily living skills and socialization) on the VABS. Compared to the other groups, social skills declined with age in the FASD group. These results support previous studies of adaptive behaviour deficits in children with FASD and provide further evidence of the specificity of these deficits. On a societal level, more efforts and resources should be focused on recognizing and diagnosing FASD and supporting communication skills, daily living skills and most of all social skills across diagnostic groups within FASD. Without adequate intervention, adolescents and young adults with FASD run a great risk of marginalization and social maladjustment, costly not only to society but also to the lives of the many young people with FASD. © Springer-Verlag 2012
Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Kalland, Mirjam; Santtila, Pekka; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Mattson, Sarah N.; Korkman, Marit
Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a leading cause of intellectual disability in the western world. Children and adolescents with FASD are often exposed to a double burden in life, as their neurological sequelae are accompanied by adverse living surroundings exposing them to further environmental risk. In the present study, the adaptive abilities of a group of children and adolescents with FASD were examined using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) and compared to those of a group of IQ-matched children with specific learning disorder (SLD) as well as with typically developing controls (CON). The results showed significantly different adaptive abilities among the groups: Children with FASD performed worse than IQ-matched children with SLD, who in turn performed worse than typically developing children on all domains (communication, daily living skills and socialization) on the VABS. Compared to the other groups, social skills declined with age in the FASD group. These results support previous studies of adaptive behaviour deficits in children with FASD and provide further evidence of the specificity of these deficits. On a societal level, more efforts and resources should be focused on recognizing and diagnosing FASD and supporting communication skills, daily living skills and most of all social skills across diagnostic groups within FASD. Without adequate intervention, adolescents and young adults with FASD run a great risk of marginalization and social maladjustment, costly not only to society but also to the lives of the many young people with FASD. PMID:22358422
Laboratory experiments indicate that changes in retinal image size result in adaptive recalibration or suppression of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Myopia correction with spectacles or contact lenses also leads to retinal image size changes, and may bring about similar vestibulo-ocular reflex alterations. A hypothesis-generating preliminary investigation was conducted. In this cross-sectional study, findings of electronystagmography including bithermal caloric testing were compared between 17 volunteer myopes using spectacles or contact lenses and 17 volunteer emmetropes (with no refractive error). Bilateral hypoactive caloric responses were demonstrated in 6 of 11 spectacle users, in 1 of 6 contact lens users and in 1 of 17 emmetropes. Hypoactive caloric responses were significantly more likely in spectacle users than in emmetropes (p spectacles have vestibulo-ocular reflex suppression, as demonstrated by the caloric test. This has implications for the interpretation of electronystagmography and videonystagmography results, and highlights spectacle use as a possible cause of vestibular impairment. Further corroboration of these findings is warranted, with more precise and direct vestibulo-ocular reflex tests such as rotational tests and the head impulse test.
Buz, Esteban; Tanenhaus, Michael K.; Jaeger, T. Florian
We ask whether speakers can adapt their productions when feedback from their interlocutors suggests that previous productions were perceptually confusable. To address this question, we use a novel web-based task-oriented paradigm for speech recording, in which participants produce instructions towards a (simulated) partner with naturalistic response times. We manipulate (1) whether a target word with a voiceless plosive (e.g., pill) occurs in the presence of a voiced competitor (bill) or an unrelated word (food) and (2) whether or not the simulated partner occasionally misunderstands the target word. Speakers hyper-articulated the target word when a voiced competitor was present. Moreover, the size of the hyper-articulation effect was nearly doubled when partners occasionally misunderstood the instruction. A novel type of distributional analysis further suggests that hyper-articulation did not change the target of production, but rather reduced the probability of perceptually ambiguous or confusable productions. These results were obtained in the absence of explicit clarification requests, and persisted across words and over trials. Our findings suggest that speakers adapt their pronunciations based on the perceived communicative success of their previous productions in the current environment. We discuss why speakers make adaptive changes to their speech and what mechanisms might underlie speakers’ ability to do so. PMID:27375344
Buz, Esteban; Tanenhaus, Michael K; Jaeger, T Florian
We ask whether speakers can adapt their productions when feedback from their interlocutors suggests that previous productions were perceptually confusable. To address this question, we use a novel web-based task-oriented paradigm for speech recording, in which participants produce instructions towards a (simulated) partner with naturalistic response times. We manipulate (1) whether a target word with a voiceless plosive (e.g., pill) occurs in the presence of a voiced competitor (bill) or an unrelated word (food) and (2) whether or not the simulated partner occasionally misunderstands the target word. Speakers hyper-articulated the target word when a voiced competitor was present. Moreover, the size of the hyper-articulation effect was nearly doubled when partners occasionally misunderstood the instruction. A novel type of distributional analysis further suggests that hyper-articulation did not change the target of production, but rather reduced the probability of perceptually ambiguous or confusable productions. These results were obtained in the absence of explicit clarification requests, and persisted across words and over trials. Our findings suggest that speakers adapt their pronunciations based on the perceived communicative success of their previous productions in the current environment. We discuss why speakers make adaptive changes to their speech and what mechanisms might underlie speakers' ability to do so.
Akintunde, A A; Oladosu, Y; Opadijo, O G
Cardiac adaptation to hypertension and obesity may be related to many factors such as race, gender and haemodynamic status. Some gender specific associations with left ventricular structure and function have been described among Caucasians. To describe the sex specific pattern of left ventricular adaptations to obesity and hypertension among Nigerians. It was a cross sectional study carried out at LAUTECH Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria. 313 subjects had full echocardiography performed. Participants were divided into four groups: normal, obese, hypertensives and obese-hypertensives. Indices of LV adaptation were compared between the groups. SPSS 16.0 was used for analysis. Relative to normal subjects, LV mass (LVM), LV mass index (LVMI) and wall thickness were significantly higher among hypertensive men and obese hypertensive men. They were similar between normal and obese men. However, LVM, LVMI and wall thickness were increased among obese women compared to normal women while they were similar among obese, hypertensive and obese-hypertensive women. Men with concurrent obesity and hypertension presented with a further increase of LVM and wall thickness above values in the merely obese or hypertensive subjects. Female obese-hypertensive seem to present more with eccentric hypertrophy than male obese-hypertensive subjects (17.2% vs. 9.1% respectively, pobese-hypertensive seem to present more with concentric hypertrophy (54.5% vs. 43.1% respectively, p>0.05) than female obese-hypertensive subjects. Structural, functional and geometric LV adaptation to obesity and hypertension varies between the two genders among Nigerians. The impact of isolated obesity on LV adaptation in women appears very significant.
Gómez-Valero, Sara; García-Pérez, Fernando; Flórez-García, Mariano Tomás; Miangolarra-Page, Juan Carlos
The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the quality of the transcultural adaptation procedure and the clinimetric properties of the self-administered hip-disability functional assessment questionnaires adapted for the Spanish population. We searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and Web of Science databases (from inception until June 2016) to locate all the scales adapted to Spanish and to analyze the different phases of the adaptation process and its psychometric properties. Eight scales were identified, and were grouped into three sections, according to the type of diseases in which they can be used: a) lower limb: Lower Limb Functional Index (LLFI), Lower Extremity Functional Scale (LEFS) and Arthrosis of Membres Inférieurs et Qualité de vie (AMICAL); b) knee and/or hip: Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis (WOMAC) index, Osteoarthritis Knee and Hip Quality of Life (OAKHQOL) and Hip and Knee Questionnaire (HKQ); and c) specific for hip: Hip Outcome Score (HOS) and International Hip Outcome Tool-33 (iHOT-33). The transcultural adaptation procedure was satisfactory in all cases, albeit somewhat less rigorous for the HKQ and LLFI than for the remaining questionnaires. No study evaluated all the psychometric properties. We currently have 8 hip-disability functional assessment questionnaires adapted to Spanish with satisfactory psychometric properties. We can measure the patient's perceived impact of his or her hip disease by selecting, among the different options, those alternatives that best fit our clinical or research objectives. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Visuo-motor adaptation to optical prisms displacing the visual scene (prism adaptation, PA is a method used for investigating visuo-motor plasticity in healthy individuals and, in clinical settings, for the rehabilitation of unilateral spatial neglect. In the standard paradigm, the adaptation phase involves repeated pointings to visual targets, while wearing optical prisms displacing the visual scene laterally. Here we explored differences in PA, and its aftereffects (AEs, as related to the sensory modality of the target. Visual, auditory, and multisensory – audio-visual – targets in the adaptation phase were used, while participants wore prisms displacing the visual field rightward by 10°. Proprioceptive, visual, visual-proprioceptive, auditory-proprioceptive straight-ahead shifts were measured. Pointing to auditory and to audio-visual targets in the adaptation phase produces proprioceptive, visual-proprioceptive, and auditory-proprioceptive AEs, as the typical visual targets did. This finding reveals that cross-modal plasticity effects involve both the auditory and the visual modality, and their interactions (Experiment 1. Even a shortened PA phase, requiring only 24 pointings to visual and audio-visual targets (Experiment 2, is sufficient to bring about AEs, as compared to the standard 92-pointings procedure. Finally, pointings to auditory targets cause AEs, although PA with a reduced number of pointings (24 to auditory targets brings about smaller AEs, as compared to the 92-pointings procedure (Experiment 3. Together, results from the three experiments extend to the auditory modality the sensorimotor plasticity underlying the typical AEs produced by PA to visual targets. Importantly, PA to auditory targets appears characterized by less accurate pointings and error correction, suggesting that the auditory component of the PA process may be less central to the building up of the AEs, than the sensorimotor pointing activity per se. These
Page, A E; Stills, H F; Chander, Y; Gebhart, C J; Horohov, D W
Lawsonia intracellularis is the causative agent of equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE), a disease for which no large-scale seroprevalence studies have been conducted. To validate and use an equine-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for L. intracellularis to determine the seroprevalence of L. intracellularis on numerous farms. An ELISA, in which purified antigen was used, was adapted from previous work in swine. A total of 337 Thoroughbreds from 25 central Kentucky farms were enrolled and monthly serum samples collected from August 2010 to January/February 2011. Samples were screened for L. intracellularis-specific antibodies using a modified ELISA. Farms were classified into one of 3 groups based on 3 year prior history with EPE. The ELISA intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) was 6.73 and inter-assay CV was 9.60. An overall seroprevalence of 68% was obtained, with farm-specific seroprevalances ranging from 14 to 100%. A significant difference was found in the average seroprevalence (P<0.05) on farms with a confirmed recent history of EPE cases. Additionally, both lower average ELISA unit (EU) values (P = 0.079) and maximum EU values (P = 0.056) were detected on farms with no recent EPE history when compared to the other groups. A bimodal exposure distribution to L. intracellularis was detected in the fall and winter months. Recent history of EPE was associated with higher average seroprevalence indicating increased exposure on farms with prior cases of EPE. Seasonally bimodal exposure was also observed. The adapted ELISA appears to be useful for determination of L. intracellularis-specific antibody levels. The high farm-specific seroprevalences and bimodal distribution of exposure to L. intracellularis were unexpected and suggest that farms with a previous history of EPE remain at risk due to heightened exposure levels beyond early winter. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.
Luong Vy A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Scotopic function is an important marker of many retinal diseases and is increasingly used as an outcome measure in clinical trials, such as those investigating gene therapy for Lebers congenital amaurosis. Scotopic visual function has traditionally been measured using an adapted perimetry system such as the Humphrey field analyser (HFA. However this system does not control for fixation errors or poor fixation stability. Here we evaluate the use of an adapted microperimeter to measure visual function at defined retinal regions under scotopic conditions. Methods A MP-1 microperimeter (Nidek Technologies, Italy was modified by adding a 1 log unit Neutral Density filter and a 530nm shortpass filter within the optical path of the instrument. Stray light was shielded. Fine matrix mapping perimetry was performed on five younger (65 years subjects with no eye disease and good vision. All subjects were fully dark adapted before testing and pupils were dilated with 1% tropicamide. Tests was performed once on the modified MP-1 microperimeter and once using a modified HFA, in a counterbalanced order. Results A foveal scotopic scotoma with a sensitivity reduction of >1 log unit was found using each instrument. In addition, the MP-1 system showed the retinal location of the foveal scotoma. Mean test time was 25 minutes for the MP-1 and 32 minutes for the HFA. Discussion A modified MP-1 microperimeter can be used to measure scotopic retinal function, creating results which are comparable to the modified Humphrey field analyser. Advantages of the MP-1 system include the ability to track the retina through testing, retinal localisation of the scotoma and a faster test time.
Fedhila, Sinda; Msadek, Tarek; Nel, Patricia; Lereclus, Didier
ClpP and ClpC are subunits of the Clp ATP-dependent protease, which is ubiquitous among prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The role of these proteins in stress tolerance, stationary-phase adaptive responses, and virulence in many bacterial species has been demonstrated. Based on the amino acid sequences of the Bacillus subtilis clpC and clpP genes, we identified one clpC gene and two clpP genes (designated clpP1 and clpP2) in Bacillus thuringiensis. Predicted proteins ClpP1 and ClpP2 have ...
Soons, Z.I.T.A.; Voogt, J.A.; Straten, van G.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.
Monitoring and control of production processes for biopharmaceuticals have become standard requirements to support consistency and quality. In this paper, a constant specific growth rate in fed-batch cultivation of Bordetella pertussis is achieved by a newly designed specific growth rate controller.
Shan, Lei; Wu, Qi; Wang, Le; Zhang, Lei; Wei, Fuwen
Bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs) mediate bitterness perception in mammals. It is believed that these genes evolved in response to species-specific diets. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani) in the order Carnivora are specialized herbivores with an almost exclusive bamboo diet (>90% bamboo). Because bamboo is full of bitter tasting compounds, we hypothesized that adaptive evolution have occurred at TAS2R genes in giant and red pandas throughout the course of their dietary shift. Here, we characterized 195 TAS2Rs in nine Carnivora species and examined selective pressures on these genes. We found that both pandas harbour more putative functional TAS2Rs than other carnivores, and pseudogenized TAS2Rs in the giant panda are different from the red panda. The purifying selection on TAS2R1, TAS2R9 and TAS2R38 in the giant panda, and TAS2R62 in the red panda, has been strengthened throughout the course of adaptation to bamboo diet, while selective constraint on TAS2R4 and TAS2R38 in the red panda is relaxed. Remarkably, a few positively selected sites has been lineage-specifically detected on TAS2R42 in the giant panda. These results suggest an adaptive response in both pandas to a dietary shift from carnivory to herbivory, and TAS2Rs evolved independently in the two pandas. Our findings provide new insights into the molecular basis of mammalian sensory evolution and the process of adaptation to new ecological niches. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Laura M J Ylinen
Full Text Available TRIMCyps are anti-retroviral proteins that have arisen independently in New World and Old World primates. All TRIMCyps comprise a CypA domain fused to the tripartite domains of TRIM5alpha but they have distinct lentiviral specificities, conferring HIV-1 restriction in New World owl monkeys and HIV-2 restriction in Old World rhesus macaques. Here we provide evidence that Asian macaque TRIMCyps have acquired changes that switch restriction specificity between different lentiviral lineages, resulting in species-specific alleles that target different viruses. Structural, thermodynamic and viral restriction analysis suggests that a single mutation in the Cyp domain, R69H, occurred early in macaque TRIMCyp evolution, expanding restriction specificity to the lentiviral lineages found in African green monkeys, sooty mangabeys and chimpanzees. Subsequent mutations have enhanced restriction to particular viruses but at the cost of broad specificity. We reveal how specificity is altered by a scaffold mutation, E143K, that modifies surface electrostatics and propagates conformational changes into the active site. Our results suggest that lentiviruses may have been important pathogens in Asian macaques despite the fact that there are no reported lentiviral infections in current macaque populations.
Raymond, Donald D; Stewart, Shaun M; Lee, Jiwon; Ferdman, Jack; Bajic, Goran; Do, Khoi T; Ernandes, Michael J; Suphaphiphat, Pirada; Settembre, Ethan C; Dormitzer, Philip R; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Finco, Oretta; Kang, Tae Hyun; Ippolito, Gregory C; Georgiou, George; Kepler, Thomas B; Haynes, Barton F; Moody, M Anthony; Liao, Hua-Xin; Schmidt, Aaron G; Harrison, Stephen C
For broad protection against infection by viruses such as influenza or HIV, vaccines should elicit antibodies that bind conserved viral epitopes, such as the receptor-binding site (RBS). RBS-directed antibodies have been described for both HIV and influenza virus, and the design of immunogens to elicit them is a goal of vaccine research in both fields. Residues in the RBS of influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) determine a preference for the avian or human receptor, α-2,3-linked sialic acid and α-2,6-linked sialic acid, respectively. Transmission of an avian-origin virus between humans generally requires one or more mutations in the sequences encoding the influenza virus RBS to change the preferred receptor from avian to human, but passage of a human-derived vaccine candidate in chicken eggs can select for reversion to avian receptor preference. For example, the X-181 strain of the 2009 new pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, derived from the A/California/07/2009 isolate and used in essentially all vaccines since 2009, has arginine at position 226, a residue known to confer preference for an α-2,3 linkage in H1 subtype viruses; the wild-type A/California/07/2009 isolate, like most circulating human H1N1 viruses, has glutamine at position 226. We describe, from three different individuals, RBS-directed antibodies that recognize the avian-adapted H1 strain in current influenza vaccines but not the circulating new pandemic 2009 virus; Arg226 in the vaccine-strain RBS accounts for the restriction. The polyclonal sera of the three donors also reflect this preference. Therefore, when vaccines produced from strains that are never passaged in avian cells become widely available, they may prove more capable of eliciting RBS-directed, broadly neutralizing antibodies than those produced from egg-adapted viruses, extending the established benefits of current seasonal influenza immunizations.
Francis J. May
Full Text Available Exercise improves whole-body metabolic health through adaptations to various tissues, including adipose tissue, but the effects of exercise training on the lipidome of white adipose tissue (WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT are unknown. Here, we utilize MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics to determine the molecular signatures of exercise-induced adaptations to subcutaneous WAT (scWAT and BAT. Three weeks of exercise training decrease specific molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA, phosphatidylcholines (PC, phosphatidylethanolamines (PE, and phosphatidylserines (PS in scWAT and increase specific molecular species of PC and PE in BAT. Exercise also decreases most triacylglycerols (TAGs in scWAT and BAT. In summary, exercise-induced changes to the scWAT and BAT lipidome are highly specific to certain molecular lipid species, indicating that changes in tissue lipid content reflect selective remodeling in scWAT and BAT of both phospholipids and glycerol lipids in response to exercise training, thus providing a comprehensive resource for future studies of lipid metabolism pathways.
May, Francis J; Baer, Lisa A; Lehnig, Adam C; So, Kawai; Chen, Emily Y; Gao, Fei; Narain, Niven R; Gushchina, Liubov; Rose, Aubrey; Doseff, Andrea I; Kiebish, Michael A; Goodyear, Laurie J; Stanford, Kristin I
Exercise improves whole-body metabolic health through adaptations to various tissues, including adipose tissue, but the effects of exercise training on the lipidome of white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) are unknown. Here, we utilize MS/MSALL shotgun lipidomics to determine the molecular signatures of exercise-induced adaptations to subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) and BAT. Three weeks of exercise training decrease specific molecular species of phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylcholines (PC), phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), and phosphatidylserines (PS) in scWAT and increase specific molecular species of PC and PE in BAT. Exercise also decreases most triacylglycerols (TAGs) in scWAT and BAT. In summary, exercise-induced changes to the scWAT and BAT lipidome are highly specific to certain molecular lipid species, indicating that changes in tissue lipid content reflect selective remodeling in scWAT and BAT of both phospholipids and glycerol lipids in response to exercise training, thus providing a comprehensive resource for future studies of lipid metabolism pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sunderland, Matthew; Batterham, Philip; Carragher, Natacha; Calear, Alison; Slade, Tim
Highly efficient assessments that better account for comorbidity between mood and anxiety disorders (internalizing) are required to identify individuals who are most at risk of psychopathology in the community. The current study examined the efficiency and validity associated with a multidimensional computerized adaptive test (CAT) to measure broad and specific levels of internalizing psychopathology. The sample comprised 3,175 respondents to an online survey. Items from five banks (generalized anxiety, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder) were jointly calibrated using a bifactor item response theory model. Simulations indicated that an adaptive algorithm could accurately ( rs ≥ 0.90) estimate general internalizing and specific disorder scores using on average 44 items in comparison with the full 133-item bank (67% reduction in items). Scores on the CAT demonstrate convergent and divergent validity with previously validated short severity scales and could significantly differentiate cases of DSM-5 disorder. As such, the CAT validly measures both broad and specific constructs of internalizing disorders in a manner similar to the full item bank and a static brief form but with greater gains in efficiency and, therefore, a reduced degree of respondent burden.
Larsen, P.F.; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, M.M.
of the haemoglobin alpha and beta subunit genes was studied in reciprocally transplanted European flounder Platichthys flesus from the highly saline North Sea and the brackish Baltic Sea. Clear differences in expression patterns of haemoglobin alpha and beta subunit genes were found among different types of tissue....... Finally, for kidney tissue a stress response was observed in one population, with gene up-regulation when North Sea flounders were transplanted to low salinity. This study underlines the importance of tissue specific gene expression and the significance of gene expression for evolution of local adaptation...... in high gene flow marine fishes. © 2013 The Genetics Society of Korea...
Wust, R.C.; Jaspers, R.T.; Heyst, A.F.J. van; Hopman, M.T.E.; Hoofd, L.J.C.; Laarse, W.J. van der; Degens, H.
Chronic exposure to hypoxia is associated with muscle atrophy (i.e., a reduction in muscle fiber cross-sectional area), reduced oxidative capacity, and capillary growth. It is controversial whether these changes are muscle and fiber type specific. We hypothesized that different regions of the same
Gan, Pamela; Narusaka, Mari; Kumakura, Naoyoshi; Tsushima, Ayako; Takano, Yoshitaka; Narusaka, Yoshihiro; Shirasu, Ken
Members from Colletotrichum genus adopt a diverse range of lifestyles during infection of plants and represent a group of agriculturally devastating pathogens. In this study, we present the draft genome of Colletotrichum incanum from the spaethianum clade of Colletotrichum and the comparative analyses with five other Colletotrichum species from distinct lineages. We show that the C. incanum strain, originally isolated from Japanese daikon radish, is able to infect both eudicot plants, such as certain ecotypes of the eudicot Arabidopsis, and monocot plants, such as lily. Being closely related to Colletotrichum species both in the graminicola clade, whose members are restricted strictly to monocot hosts, and to the destructivum clade, whose members are mostly associated with dicot infections, C. incanum provides an interesting model system for comparative genomics to study how fungal pathogens adapt to monocot and dicot hosts. Genus-wide comparative genome analyses reveal that Colletotrichum species have tailored profiles of their carbohydrate-degrading enzymes according to their infection lifestyles. In addition, we show evidence that positive selection acting on secreted and nuclear localized proteins that are highly conserved may be important in adaptation to specific hosts or ecological niches. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.
Bedada, Girma; Westerbergh, Anna; Müller, Thomas; Galkin, Eyal; Bdolach, Eyal; Moshelion, Menachem; Fridman, Eyal; Schmid, Karl J
Wild barley is adapted to highly diverse environments throughout its geographical distribution range. Transcriptome sequencing of differentially adapted wild barley ecotypes from contrasting environments contributes to the identification of genes and genetic variation involved in abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation. Two differentially adapted wild barley ecotypes from desert (B1K2) and Mediterranean (B1K30) environments were analyzed for drought stress response under controlled conditions. The desert ecotype lost more water under both irrigation and drought, but exhibited higher relative water content (RWC) and better water use efficiency (WUE) than the coastal ecotype. We sequenced normalized cDNA libraries from drought-stressed leaves of both ecotypes with the 454 platform to identify drought-related transcripts. Over half million reads per ecotype were de novo assembled into 20,439 putative unique transcripts (PUTs) for B1K2, 21,494 for B1K30 and 28,720 for the joint assembly. Over 50% of PUTs of each ecotype were not shared with the other ecotype. Furthermore, 16% (3,245) of B1K2 and 17% (3,674) of B1K30 transcripts did not show orthologous sequence hits in the other wild barley ecotype and cultivated barley, and are candidates of ecotype-specific transcripts. Over 800 unique transcripts from each ecotype homologous to over 30 different stress-related genes were identified. We extracted 1,017 high quality SNPs that differentiated the two ecotypes. The genetic distance between the desert ecotype and cultivated barley was 1.9-fold higher than between the Mediterranean ecotype and cultivated barley. Moreover, the desert ecotype harbored a larger proportion of non-synonymous SNPs than the Mediterranean ecotype suggesting different demographic histories of these ecotypes. The results indicate a strong physiological and genomic differentiation between the desert and Mediterranean wild barley ecotypes and a closer relationship of the Mediterranean to cultivated
Full Text Available Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion, which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones or aposymbiotic (also called bleached A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm. A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both
Ganot, Philippe; Moya, Aurélie; Magnone, Virginie; Allemand, Denis; Furla, Paola; Sabourault, Cécile
Trophic endosymbiosis between anthozoans and photosynthetic dinoflagellates forms the key foundation of reef ecosystems. Dysfunction and collapse of symbiosis lead to bleaching (symbiont expulsion), which is responsible for the severe worldwide decline of coral reefs. Molecular signals are central to the stability of this partnership and are therefore closely related to coral health. To decipher inter-partner signaling, we developed genomic resources (cDNA library and microarrays) from the symbiotic sea anemone Anemonia viridis. Here we describe differential expression between symbiotic (also called zooxanthellate anemones) or aposymbiotic (also called bleached) A. viridis specimens, using microarray hybridizations and qPCR experiments. We mapped, for the first time, transcript abundance separately in the epidermal cell layer and the gastrodermal cells that host photosynthetic symbionts. Transcriptomic profiles showed large inter-individual variability, indicating that aposymbiosis could be induced by different pathways. We defined a restricted subset of 39 common genes that are characteristic of the symbiotic or aposymbiotic states. We demonstrated that transcription of many genes belonging to this set is specifically enhanced in the symbiotic cells (gastroderm). A model is proposed where the aposymbiotic and therefore heterotrophic state triggers vesicular trafficking, whereas the symbiotic and therefore autotrophic state favors metabolic exchanges between host and symbiont. Several genetic pathways were investigated in more detail: i) a key vitamin K-dependant process involved in the dinoflagellate-cnidarian recognition; ii) two cnidarian tissue-specific carbonic anhydrases involved in the carbon transfer from the environment to the intracellular symbionts; iii) host collagen synthesis, mostly supported by the symbiotic tissue. Further, we identified specific gene duplications and showed that the cnidarian-specific isoform was also up-regulated both in the
Swarmistha Devi Aribam
Full Text Available Salmonella-specific antibodies play an important role in host immunity; however, the mechanisms of Salmonella clearance by pathogen-specific antibodies remain to be completely elucidated since previous studies on antibody-mediated protection have yielded inconsistent results. These inconsistencies are at least partially attributable to the use of polyclonal antibodies against Salmonella antigens. Here, we developed a new monoclonal antibody (mAb-449 and identified its related immunogen that protected BALB/c mice from infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In addition, these data indicate that the mAb-449 immunogen is likely a major protective antigen. Using in vitro infection studies, we also analyzed the mechanism by which mAb-449 conferred host protection. Notably, macrophages infected with mAb-449-treated S. Typhimurium showed enhanced pathogen uptake compared to counterparts infected with control IgG-treated bacteria. Moreover, these macrophages produced elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and nitric oxide, indicating that mAb-449 enhanced macrophage activation. Finally, the number of intracellular bacteria in mAb-449-activated macrophages decreased considerably, while the opposite was found in IgG-treated controls. Based on these findings, we suggest that, although S. Typhimurium has the potential to survive and replicate within macrophages, host production of a specific antibody can effectively mediate macrophage activation for clearance of intracellular bacteria.
Margaritis, Thanasis; Lijnzaad, Philip; van Leenen, Dik; Bouwmeester, Diane; Kemmeren, Patrick; van Hooff, Sander R; Holstege, Frank C P
DNA microarray technology is a powerful tool for monitoring gene expression or for finding the location of DNA-bound proteins. DNA microarrays can suffer from gene-specific dye bias (GSDB), causing some probes to be affected more by the dye than by the sample. This results in large measurement errors, which vary considerably for different probes and also across different hybridizations. GSDB is not corrected by conventional normalization and has been difficult to address systematically because of its variance. We show that GSDB is influenced by label incorporation efficiency, explaining the variation of GSDB across different hybridizations. A correction method (Gene- And Slide-Specific Correction, GASSCO) is presented, whereby sequence-specific corrections are modulated by the overall bias of individual hybridizations. GASSCO outperforms earlier methods and works well on a variety of publically available datasets covering a range of platforms, organisms and applications, including ChIP on chip. A sequence-based model is also presented, which predicts which probes will suffer most from GSDB, useful for microarray probe design and correction of individual hybridizations. Software implementing the method is publicly available.
Aribam, Swarmistha Devi; Harada, Tomoyuki; Elsheimer-Matulova, Marta; Iwata, Taketoshi; Kanehira, Katsushi; Hikono, Hirokazu; Matsui, Hidenori; Ogawa, Yohsuke; Shimoji, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Masahiro
Salmonella-specific antibodies play an important role in host immunity; however, the mechanisms of Salmonella clearance by pathogen-specific antibodies remain to be completely elucidated since previous studies on antibody-mediated protection have yielded inconsistent results. These inconsistencies are at least partially attributable to the use of polyclonal antibodies against Salmonella antigens. Here, we developed a new monoclonal antibody (mAb)-449 and identified its related immunogen that protected BALB/c mice from infection with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. In addition, these data indicate that the mAb-449 immunogen is likely a major protective antigen. Using in vitro infection studies, we also analyzed the mechanism by which mAb-449 conferred host protection. Notably, macrophages infected with mAb-449-treated S. Typhimurium showed enhanced pathogen uptake compared to counterparts infected with control IgG-treated bacteria. Moreover, these macrophages produced elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine TNFα and nitric oxide, indicating that mAb-449 enhanced macrophage activation. Finally, the number of intracellular bacteria in mAb-449-activated macrophages decreased considerably, while the opposite was found in IgG-treated controls. Based on these findings, we suggest that, although S. Typhimurium has the potential to survive and replicate within macrophages, host production of a specific antibody can effectively mediate macrophage activation for clearance of intracellular bacteria.
Stasi, Stephanie L. Di; Hartigan, Erin H.; Snyder-Mackler, Lynn
STUDY DESIGN Controlled longitudinal laboratory study. OBJECTIVES Compare sagittal plane gait mechanics of men and women before and up to 6 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). BACKGROUND Aberrant gait patterns are ubiquitous after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture and persist after ACLR despite skilled physical therapy. Sex influences post-operative function and second ACL injury risk, but its influence on gait adaptations after injury have not been investigated. METHODS Sagittal plane knee and hip joint excursions during midstance and internal knee and hip extension moments at peak knee flexion were collected on 12 women and 27 men using 3-dimensional gait analysis before (Screen) and after pre-operative physical therapy (Pre-sx), and 6 months after ACLR (6mo). Repeated measures analysis of variance models were used to determine whether limb asymmetries changed differently over time in men and women. RESULTS Significant time x limb x sex interactions were identified for hip and knee excursions and internal knee extension moments (P≤.007). Both sexes demonstrated smaller knee excursions on the involved compared to the uninvolved knee at each time point (P≤.007), but only women demonstrated a decrease in the involved knee excursion from pre-sx to 6mo (P=.03). Women also demonstrated smaller hip excursions (P<.001) and internal knee extension moments (P=.005) on the involved limb compared to the uninvolved limb at 6mo. Men demonstrated smaller hip excursions and knee moments on the involved limb compared to the uninvolved limb (main effects, P<.001). CONCLUSION The persistence of limb asymmetries in men and women 6 months after ACLR indicates that current rehabilitation efforts are inadequate for some individuals following ACLR. PMID:25627155
Fedhila, Sinda; Msadek, Tarek; Nel, Patricia; Lereclus, Didier
ClpP and ClpC are subunits of the Clp ATP-dependent protease, which is ubiquitous among prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. The role of these proteins in stress tolerance, stationary-phase adaptive responses, and virulence in many bacterial species has been demonstrated. Based on the amino acid sequences of the Bacillus subtilis clpC and clpP genes, we identified one clpC gene and two clpP genes (designated clpP1 and clpP2) in Bacillus thuringiensis. Predicted proteins ClpP1 and ClpP2 have approximately 88 and 67% amino acid sequence identity with ClpP of B. subtilis, respectively. Inactivation of clpC in B. thuringiensis impaired sporulation efficiency. The clpP1 and clpP2 mutants were both slightly susceptible to salt stress, whereas disruption of clpP2 negatively affected sporulation and abolished motility. Virulence of the clp mutants was assessed by injecting bacteria into the hemocoel of Bombyx mori larvae. The clpP1 mutant displayed attenuated virulence, which appeared to be related to its inability to grow at low temperature (25 degrees C), suggesting an essential role for ClpP1 in tolerance of low temperature. Microscopic examination of clpP1 mutant cells grown at 25 degrees C showed altered bacterial division, with cells remaining attached after septum formation. Analysis of lacZ transcriptional fusions showed that clpP1 was expressed at 25 and 37 degrees C during the entire growth cycle. In contrast, clpP2 was expressed at 37 degrees C but not at 25 degrees C, suggesting that ClpP2 cannot compensate for the absence of ClpP1 in the clpP1 mutant cells at low temperature. Our study demonstrates that ClpP1 and ClpP2 control distinct cellular regulatory pathways in B. thuringiensis.
Background Lyme disease is caused by spirochete bacteria from the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (B. burgdorferi s.l.) species complex. To reconstruct the evolution of B. burgdorferi s.l. and identify the genomic basis of its human virulence, we compared the genomes of 23 B. burgdorferi s.l. isolates from Europe and the United States, including B. burgdorferi sensu stricto (B. burgdorferi s.s., 14 isolates), B. afzelii (2), B. garinii (2), B. “bavariensis” (1), B. spielmanii (1), B. valaisiana (1), B. bissettii (1), and B. “finlandensis” (1). Results Robust B. burgdorferi s.s. and B. burgdorferi s.l. phylogenies were obtained using genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms, despite recombination. Phylogeny-based pan-genome analysis showed that the rate of gene acquisition was higher between species than within species, suggesting adaptive speciation. Strong positive natural selection drives the sequence evolution of lipoproteins, including chromosomally-encoded genes 0102 and 0404, cp26-encoded ospC and b08, and lp54-encoded dbpA, a07, a22, a33, a53, a65. Computer simulations predicted rapid adaptive radiation of genomic groups as population size increases. Conclusions Intra- and inter-specific pan-genome sizes of B. burgdorferi s.l. expand linearly with phylogenetic diversity. Yet gene-acquisition rates in B. burgdorferi s.l. are among the lowest in bacterial pathogens, resulting in high genome stability and few lineage-specific genes. Genome adaptation of B. burgdorferi s.l. is driven predominantly by copy-number and sequence variations of lipoprotein genes. New genomic groups are likely to emerge if the current trend of B. burgdorferi s.l. population expansion continues. PMID:24112474
Overkamp, Wout; Ercan, Onur; Herber, Martijn; van Maris, Antonius J A; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Kuipers, Oscar P
Nutrient scarcity is a common condition in nature, but the resulting extremely low growth rates (below 0.025 h(-1) ) are an unexplored research area in Bacillus subtilis. To understand microbial life in natural environments, studying the adaptation of B. subtilis to near-zero growth conditions is relevant. To this end, a chemostat modified for culturing an asporogenous B. subtilis sigF mutant strain at extremely low growth rates (also named a retentostat) was set up, and biomass accumulation, culture viability, metabolite production and cell morphology were analysed. During retentostat culturing, the specific growth rate decreased to a minimum of 0.00006 h(-1) , corresponding to a doubling time of 470 days. The energy distribution between growth and maintenance-related processes showed that a state of near-zero growth was reached. Remarkably, a filamentous cell morphology emerged, suggesting that cell separation is impaired under near-zero growth conditions. To evaluate the corresponding molecular adaptations to extremely low specific growth, transcriptome changes were analysed. These revealed that cellular responses to near-zero growth conditions share several similarities with those of cells during the stationary phase of batch growth. However, fundamental differences between these two non-growing states are apparent by their high viability and absence of stationary phase mutagenesis under near-zero growth conditions. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Balboni, Giulia; Incognito, Oriana; Belacchi, Carmen; Bonichini, Sabrina; Cubelli, Roberto
The evaluation of adaptive behavior is informative in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or specific learning disorders (SLD). However, the few investigations available have focused only on the gross level of domains of adaptive behavior. To investigate which item subsets of the Vineland-II can discriminate children with ADHD or SLD from peers with typical development. Student's t-tests, ROC analysis, logistic regression, and linear discriminant function analysis were used to compare 24 children with ADHD, 61 elementary students with SLD, and controls matched on age, sex, school level attended, and both parents' education level. Several item subsets that address not only ADHD core symptoms, but also understanding in social context and development of interpersonal relationships, allowed discrimination of children with ADHD from controls. The combination of four item subsets (Listening and attending, Expressing complex ideas, Social communication, and Following instructions) classified children with ADHD with both sensitivity and specificity of 87.5%. Only Reading skills, Writing skills, and Time and dates discriminated children with SLD from controls. Evaluation of Vineland-II scores at the level of item content categories is a useful procedure for an efficient clinical description. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Narayanan, R; Werahera, P N; Barqawi, A; Crawford, E D; Shinohara, K; Simoneau, A R; Suri, J S
when TRUS guided biopsies are assisted by the 3D prostate cancer atlas compared to the current standard of care. The fast registration algorithm we have developed can easily be adapted for clinical applications for the improved diagnosis of prostate cancer.
Trude, Alison M; Duff, Melissa C; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah
A hallmark of human speech perception is the ability to comprehend speech quickly and effortlessly despite enormous variability across talkers. However, current theories of speech perception do not make specific claims about the memory mechanisms involved in this process. To examine whether declarative memory is necessary for talker-specific learning, we tested the ability of amnesic patients with severe declarative memory deficits to learn and distinguish the accents of two unfamiliar talkers by monitoring their eye-gaze as they followed spoken instructions. Analyses of the time-course of eye fixations showed that amnesic patients rapidly learned to distinguish these accents and tailored perceptual processes to the voice of each talker. These results demonstrate that declarative memory is not necessary for this ability and points to the involvement of non-declarative memory mechanisms. These results are consistent with findings that other social and accommodative behaviors are preserved in amnesia and contribute to our understanding of the interactions of multiple memory systems in the use and understanding of spoken language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Akinpelu, Aderonke O; Odetunde, Marufat O; Odole, Adesola C
Stroke-Specific Quality of Life 2.0 (SS-QoL 2.0) scale is used widely and has been cross-culturally adapted to many languages. This study aimed at the cross-cultural adaptation of SS-QoL 2.0 to Yoruba, the indigenous language of south-western Nigeria, and to carry out an initial investigation on its validity. English SS-QoL 2.0 was first adapted to Yoruba language by including Yoruba culture-specific examples in items SC4, UE2 and UE6. The adapted English version (AEV) was independently translated into Yoruba by two language experts who later agreed on a consensus translation, which was then back translated, subjected to an expert committee review and pretested; a cognitive debriefing interview was also carried out to generate the Yoruba translated version (YTV). Thirty-five stroke survivors completed the AEV and Yoruba version (YV) in English and Yoruba. The order of administration was randomized. Data were analysed using Spearman's rank order correlation and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test at a P value less than 0.05. The mean age of the participants (23 men, 12 women) was 58.5±11.3 years. The domain scores of the participants on AEV and YV did not differ significantly, except in the work/productivity domain. In both versions, the mean domain score of the participants was the highest in the language domain [22.6±3.8 (AEV) and 22.7±3.4 (YV)] and the lowest in the work domain [9.0±3.7 (AEV) and 8.0±3.3 (YTV)]. Domain scores on both versions correlated significantly (P<0.05). Participants' ratings of their current state and prestroke state correlated significantly (P<0.01) in all the general areas, except energy and mood. The YTV of SS-QoL 2.0 fulfilled the initial criteria for validity.
Andrew B Allison
Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV emerged as a new pandemic pathogen of dogs in the 1970s and is closely related to feline panleukopenia virus (FPV, a parvovirus of cats and related carnivores. Although both viruses have wide host ranges, analysis of viral sequences recovered from different wild carnivore species, as shown here, demonstrated that>95% were derived from CPV-like viruses, suggesting that CPV is dominant in sylvatic cycles. Many viral sequences showed host-specific mutations in their capsid proteins, which were often close to sites known to control binding to the transferrin receptor (TfR, the host receptor for these carnivore parvoviruses, and which exhibited frequent parallel evolution. To further examine the process of host adaptation, we passaged parvoviruses with alternative backgrounds in cells from different carnivore hosts. Specific mutations were selected in several viruses and these differed depending on both the background of the virus and the host cells in which they were passaged. Strikingly, these in vitro mutations recapitulated many specific changes seen in viruses from natural populations, strongly suggesting they are host adaptive, and which were shown to result in fitness advantages over their parental virus. Comparison of the sequences of the transferrin receptors of the different carnivore species demonstrated that many mutations occurred in and around the apical domain where the virus binds, indicating that viral variants were likely selected through their fit to receptor structures. Some of the viruses accumulated high levels of variation upon passage in alternative hosts, while others could infect multiple different hosts with no or only a few additional mutations. Overall, these studies demonstrate that the evolutionary history of a virus, including how long it has been circulating and in which hosts, as well as its phylogenetic background, has a profound effect on determining viral host range.
Allum, John H J; Scheltinga, Alja; Honegger, Flurin
Patients with an acute unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit (aUPVD), presumed to be caused by vestibular neuritis, show asymmetrical vestibular ocular reflexes (VORs) that improve over time. Questions arise regarding how much of the VOR improvement is due to peripheral recovery or central compensation, and whether differences in peripheral recovery influence balance control outcomes. Thirty patients were examined at aUPVD onset and 3, 6, and 13 weeks later with four different VOR tests: caloric tests; rotating (ROT) chair tests performed in yaw with angular accelerations of 5 and 20 degrees/s; and video head impulse tests (vHIT) in the yaw plane. ROT and vHIT responses and balance control of 11 patients who had a caloric canal paresis (CP) more than 90% at aUPVD onset and no CP recovery (no-CPR) at 13 weeks in caloric tests were compared with those of 19 patients with CP recovery (CPR) to less than 30%, on average. Balance control was measured with a gyroscope system (SwayStar) recording trunk sway during stance and gait tasks. ROT and vHIT asymmetries of no-CPR and CPR patients reduced over time. The reduction was less at 13 weeks (36.2% vs. 83.5% on average) for the no-CPR patients. The no-CPR group asymmetries at 13 weeks were greater than those of CPR patients who had normal asymmetries. The greater asymmetries were caused by weaker deficit side responses which remained deficient in no-CPR patients at 13 weeks. Contra-deficit side vHIT and ROT responses remained normal. For all balance tests, sway was slightly greater for no-CPR compared with CPR patients at aUPVD onset and 3 weeks later. At 13 weeks, only sway during walking eyes closed was greater for the no-CPR group. A combination of 5 degrees/s ROT and balance tests could predict at onset (90% accuracy) which patients would have no-CPR at 13 weeks. These results indicate that for ROT and vHIT tests, central compensation is observed in CPR and no-CPR patients. It acts primarily by increasing deficit side responses. Central compensation provides approximately 60% of the VOR improvement for CPR patients. The rest of the improvement is due to peripheral recovery which appears necessary to reduce VOR asymmetry to normal at 13 weeks on average. Balance control improvement is more rapid than that of the VOR and marginally affected by the lack of peripheral recovery. Both VOR and balance control measures at onset provide indicators of future peripheral recovery. For these reasons VOR and balance control needs to be tested at aUPVD onset and at 13 weeks.
Contador, C A; Rodríguez, V; Andrews, B A; Asenjo, J A
The first manually curated genome-scale metabolic model for Salinispora tropica strain CNB-440 was constructed. The reconstruction enables characterization of the metabolic capabilities for understanding and modeling the cellular physiology of this actinobacterium. The iCC908 model was based on physiological and biochemical information of primary and specialised metabolism pathways. The reconstructed stoichiometric matrix consists of 1169 biochemical conversions, 204 transport reactions and 1317 metabolites. A total of 908 structural open reading frames (ORFs) were included in the reconstructed network. The number of gene functions included in the reconstructed network corresponds to 20% of all characterized ORFs in the S. tropica genome. The genome-scale metabolic model was used to study strain-specific capabilities in defined minimal media. iCC908 was used to analyze growth capabilities in 41 different minimal growth-supporting environments. These nutrient sources were evaluated experimentally to assess the accuracy of in silico growth simulations. The model predicted no auxotrophies for essential amino acids, which was corroborated experimentally. The strain is able to use 21 different carbon sources, 8 nitrogen sources and 4 sulfur sources from the nutrient sources tested. Experimental observation suggests that the cells may be able to store sulfur. False predictions provided opportunities to gain new insights into the physiology of this species, and to gap fill the missing knowledge. The incorporation of modifications led to increased accuracy in predicting the outcome of growth/no growth experiments from 76 to 93%. iCC908 can thus be used to define the metabolic capabilities of S. tropica and guide and enhance the production of specialised metabolites.
Reches, Amit; Netser, Shai; Gutfreund, Yoram
Neural adaptation and visual auditory integration are two well studied and common phenomena in the brain, yet little is known about the interaction between them. In the present study, we investigated a visual forebrain area in barn owls, the entopallium (E), which has been shown recently to encompass auditory responses as well. Responses of neurons to sequences of visual, auditory, and bimodal (visual and auditory together) events were analyzed. Sequences comprised two stimuli, one with a low probability of occurrence and the other with a high probability. Neurons in the E tended to respond more strongly to low probability visual stimuli than to high probability stimuli. Such a phenomenon is known as stimulus-specific adaptation (SSA) and is considered to be a neural correlate of change detection. Responses to the corresponding auditory sequences did not reveal an equivalent tendency. Interestingly, however, SSA to bimodal events was stronger than to visual events alone. This enhancement was apparent when the visual and auditory stimuli were presented from matching locations in space (congruent) but not when the bimodal stimuli were spatially incongruent. These findings suggest that the ongoing task of detecting unexpected events can benefit from the integration of visual and auditory information.
Armony, Jorge L; Aubé, William; Angulo-Perkins, Arafat; Peretz, Isabelle; Concha, Luis
Several studies have identified, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a region within the superior temporal gyrus that preferentially responds to musical stimuli. However, in most cases, significant responses to other complex stimuli, particularly human voice, were also observed. Thus, it remains unknown if the same neurons respond to both stimulus types, albeit with different strengths, or whether the responses observed with fMRI are generated by distinct, overlapping neural populations. To address this question, we conducted an fMRI experiment in which short music excerpts and human vocalizations were presented in a pseudo-random order. Critically, we performed an adaptation-based analysis in which responses to the stimuli were analyzed taking into account the category of the preceding stimulus. Our results confirm the presence of a region in the anterior STG that responds more strongly to music than voice. Moreover, we found a music-specific adaptation effect in this area, consistent with the existence of music-preferred neurons. Lack of differences between musicians and non-musicians argues against an expertise effect. These findings provide further support for neural separability between music and speech within the temporal lobe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zube, Christina; Rössler, Wolfgang
Olfaction plays a key role in mediating ant behavior, and ant societies are characterized by caste- and sex-specific division of labor. We propose that caste- and sex-specific adaptations in the olfactory pathway promote differences in olfactory behavior. This study compares olfactory centers in the brain of large (major) workers, small (minor) workers, virgin queens, and males of the carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus. The number of glomeruli in the antennal lobe was similar in the female castes, although the glomerular volumes differed. Males had approximately 45% fewer glomeruli compared to females (approximately 258 and approximately 434) and one antennal sensory tract was absent. A dual output pathway to the mushroom bodies was present in males. In contrast to females, however, the number of glomeruli connected to the medial antennocerebral tract was substantially smaller than those associated with the lateral tract. All glomeruli in the male antennal lobe contained serotonergic processes, whereas in the female castes glomeruli in the large tract six cluster lacked serotonergic innervations. We conclude that differences in general glomerular organization are subtle among the female castes, but sex-specific differences in the number, connectivity and neuromodulatory innervation of glomeruli are substantial and likely to underlie differences in olfactory processing and learning.
Full Text Available Receptor expression enhancing proteins (REEPs were identified by their ability to enhance cell surface expression of a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs, specifically GPCRs that have proven difficult to express in heterologous cell systems. Further analysis revealed that they belong to the Yip (Ypt-interacting protein family and that some REEP subtypes affect ER structure. Yip family comparisons have established other potential roles for REEPs, including regulation of ER-Golgi transport and processing/neuronal localization of cargo proteins. However, these other potential REEP functions and the mechanism by which they selectively enhance GPCR cell surface expression have not been clarified. By utilizing several REEP family members (REEP1, REEP2, and REEP6 and model GPCRs (α2A and α2C adrenergic receptors, we examined REEP regulation of GPCR plasma membrane expression, intracellular processing, and trafficking. Using a combination of immunolocalization and biochemical methods, we demonstrated that this REEP subset is localized primarily to ER, but not plasma membranes. Single cell analysis demonstrated that these REEPs do not specifically enhance surface expression of all GPCRs, but affect ER cargo capacity of specific GPCRs and thus their surface expression. REEP co-expression with α2 adrenergic receptors (ARs revealed that this REEP subset interacts with and alter glycosidic processing of α2C, but not α2A ARs, demonstrating selective interaction with cargo proteins. Specifically, these REEPs enhanced expression of and interacted with minimally/non-glycosylated forms of α2C ARs. Most importantly, expression of a mutant REEP1 allele (hereditary spastic paraplegia SPG31 lacking the carboxyl terminus led to loss of this interaction. Thus specific REEP isoforms have additional intracellular functions besides altering ER structure, such as enhancing ER cargo capacity, regulating ER-Golgi processing, and interacting with select cargo
Björk, Susann; Hurt, Carl M; Ho, Vincent K; Angelotti, Timothy
Receptor expression enhancing proteins (REEPs) were identified by their ability to enhance cell surface expression of a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), specifically GPCRs that have proven difficult to express in heterologous cell systems. Further analysis revealed that they belong to the Yip (Ypt-interacting protein) family and that some REEP subtypes affect ER structure. Yip family comparisons have established other potential roles for REEPs, including regulation of ER-Golgi transport and processing/neuronal localization of cargo proteins. However, these other potential REEP functions and the mechanism by which they selectively enhance GPCR cell surface expression have not been clarified. By utilizing several REEP family members (REEP1, REEP2, and REEP6) and model GPCRs (α2A and α2C adrenergic receptors), we examined REEP regulation of GPCR plasma membrane expression, intracellular processing, and trafficking. Using a combination of immunolocalization and biochemical methods, we demonstrated that this REEP subset is localized primarily to ER, but not plasma membranes. Single cell analysis demonstrated that these REEPs do not specifically enhance surface expression of all GPCRs, but affect ER cargo capacity of specific GPCRs and thus their surface expression. REEP co-expression with α2 adrenergic receptors (ARs) revealed that this REEP subset interacts with and alter glycosidic processing of α2C, but not α2A ARs, demonstrating selective interaction with cargo proteins. Specifically, these REEPs enhanced expression of and interacted with minimally/non-glycosylated forms of α2C ARs. Most importantly, expression of a mutant REEP1 allele (hereditary spastic paraplegia SPG31) lacking the carboxyl terminus led to loss of this interaction. Thus specific REEP isoforms have additional intracellular functions besides altering ER structure, such as enhancing ER cargo capacity, regulating ER-Golgi processing, and interacting with select cargo proteins
De Mita, Stéphane; Santoni, Sylvain; Ronfort, Joëlle; Bataillon, Thomas
Background The NODULATION RECEPTOR KINASE (NORK) gene encodes a Leucine-Rich Repeat (LRR)-containing receptor-like protein and controls the infection by symbiotic rhizobia and endomycorrhizal fungi in Legumes. The occurrence of numerous amino acid changes driven by directional selection has been reported in this gene, using a limited number of messenger RNA sequences, but the functional reason of these changes remains obscure. The Medicago genus, where changes in rhizobial associations have been previously examined, is a good model to test whether the evolution of NORK is influenced by rhizobial interactions. Results We sequenced a region of 3610 nucleotides (encoding a 392 amino acid-long region of the NORK protein) in 32 Medicago species. We confirm that positive selection in NORK has occurred within the Medicago genus and find that the amino acid positions targeted by selection occur in sites outside of solvent-exposed regions in LRRs, and other sites in the N-terminal region of the protein. We tested if branches of the Medicago phylogeny where changes of rhizobial symbionts occurred displayed accelerated rates of amino acid substitutions. Only one branch out of five tested, leading to M. noeana, displays such a pattern. Among other branches, the most likely for having undergone positive selection is not associated with documented shift of rhizobial specificity. Conclusion Adaptive changes in the sequence of the NORK receptor have involved the LRRs, but targeted different sites than in most previous studies of LRR proteins evolution. The fact that positive selection in NORK tends not to be associated to changes in rhizobial specificity indicates that this gene was probably not involved in evolving rhizobial preferences. Other explanations (e.g. coevolutionary arms race) must be tested to explain the adaptive evolution of NORK. PMID:17986323
Monk, Jonathan M; Charusanti, Pep; Aziz, Ramy K; Lerman, Joshua A; Premyodhin, Ned; Orth, Jeffrey D; Feist, Adam M; Palsson, Bernhard Ø
Genome-scale models (GEMs) of metabolism were constructed for 55 fully sequenced Escherichia coli and Shigella strains. The GEMs enable a systems approach to characterizing the pan and core metabolic capabilities of the E. coli species. The majority of pan metabolic content was found to consist of alternate catabolic pathways for unique nutrient sources. The GEMs were then used to systematically analyze growth capabilities in more than 650 different growth-supporting environments. The results show that unique strain-specific metabolic capabilities correspond to pathotypes and environmental niches. Twelve of the GEMs were used to predict growth on six differentiating nutrients, and the predictions were found to agree with 80% of experimental outcomes. Additionally, GEMs were used to predict strain-specific auxotrophies. Twelve of the strains modeled were predicted to be auxotrophic for vitamins niacin (vitamin B3), thiamin (vitamin B1), or folate (vitamin B9). Six of the strains modeled have lost biosynthetic pathways for essential amino acids methionine, tryptophan, or leucine. Genome-scale analysis of multiple strains of a species can thus be used to define the metabolic essence of a microbial species and delineate growth differences that shed light on the adaptation process to a particular microenvironment.
Full Text Available The WHOQOL instrument was adapted as a health-related QOL instrument for a population-based epidemiologic study of eye diseases in southern India, the Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study (APEDS. A follow-up question was added to each item in WHOQOL to determine whether the decrease in QOL was due to any health reasons including eye-related reasons. Modifications in WHOQOL and translation in local language were done through the use of the focus groups including health professionals and people not related to health care. The modified instrument has 28 items across 6 domains of the WHOQOL and was translated into the local language, Telugu, using the pragmatic approach. It takes 10-20 minutes to be administered by a trained interviewer. Reliability was within acceptable range. This health-related QOL instrument is being used in the population-based study APEDS to develop a vision-specific QOL instrument which could potentially be used to assess the impact of visual impairment on QOL across different cultures and for use in evaluating eye-care interventions. This health-related QOL instrument could also be used to develop other disease-specific instruments as it allows assessment of the extent to which various aspects of QOL are affected by a variety of health problems.
Mulay, Amit M; Ahuja, Aarti; Ahuja, Rajeev B
The burn specific health scale-brief (BSHS-B) has found wide acceptance as a quality of life (Qol) assessment tool. However, BSHS has rarely been employed in a very low income country like India, where burns is endemic and burns are more severe. To modify, culturally adapt and to translate BSHS-B in Hindi. Five questions were added to the original BSHS-B (40 questions). Two questions on walking and squatting were added to the domain 'simple abilities' which was renamed 'simple abilities and mobility'; a question on itching was added to domain of 'heat sensitivity' which was renamed 'skin sensitivity'; and two questions on family income and assets were added to the domain of 'work', which was renamed 'work and economic impact'. The modified assessment scale was accorded an acronym BSHS-RBA (revised brief and adapted). Twenty patients of thermal burns (mean age 30.95 yr) with mean TBSA burns of 39.75%, and who were between six months to a year from healing of burn wounds were included in this validation study. All questionnaires were filled by interviews. The kappa value for inter-rater variability was 0.748. The Cronbach's α for internal consistency of various domains ranged from 0.443 (simple abilities and mobility) to 0.908 (sexuality), the scale showed good discriminant validity in 31 of 36 domain correlations, which confirms the construct validity of the instrument. BSHS-RBA with five additional items, on mobility, economic impact and itch is a reliable and valid instrument. It is currently seen to be very useful in assessment of Qol in low income countries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Opiates, one of the oldest known drugs, are the benchmark for treating pain. Regular opioid exposure also induces euphoria making these compounds addictive and often misused, as shown by the current epidemic of opioid abuse and overdose mortalities. In addition to the effect of opioids on their cognate receptors and signaling cascades, these compounds also induce multiple adaptations at cellular and behavioral levels. As omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs play a ubiquitous role in behavioral and cellular processes, we proposed that supplemental n-3 PUFAs, enriched in docosahexanoic acid (DHA, could offset these adaptations following chronic opioid exposure. We used an 8 week regimen of n-3 PUFA supplementation followed by 8 days of morphine in the presence of this diet. We first assessed the effect of morphine in different behavioral measures and found that morphine increased anxiety and reduced wheel-running behavior. These effects were reduced by dietary n-3 PUFAs without affecting morphine-induced analgesia or hyperlocomotion, known effects of this opiate acting at mu opioid receptors. At the cellular level we found that morphine reduced striatal DHA content and that this was reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Chronic morphine also increased glutamatergic plasticity and the proportion of Grin2B-NMDARs in striatal projection neurons. This effect was similarly reversed by supplemental n-3 PUFAs. Gene analysis showed that supplemental PUFAs offset the effect of morphine on genes found in neurons of the dopamine receptor 2 (D2-enriched indirect pathway but not of genes found in dopamine receptor 1(D1-enriched direct-pathway neurons. Analysis of the D2 striatal connectome by a retrogradely transported pseudorabies virus showed that n-3 PUFA supplementation reversed the effect of chronic morphine on the innervation of D2 neurons by the dorsomedial prefontal and piriform cortices. Together these changes outline specific behavioral and
Ezekiel K. Bore
Full Text Available Although biogeochemical models designed to simulate carbon (C and nitrogen (N dynamics in high-latitude ecosystems incorporate extracellular parameters, molecular and biochemical adaptations of microorganisms to freezing remain unclear. This knowledge gap hampers estimations of the C balance and ecosystem feedback in high-latitude regions. To analyze microbial metabolism at subzero temperatures, soils were incubated with isotopomers of position-specifically 13C-labeled glucose at three temperatures: +5 (control, -5, and -20°C. 13C was quantified in CO2, bulk soil, microbial biomass, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC after 1, 3, and 10 days and also after 30 days for samples at -20°C. Compared to +5°C, CO2 decreased 3- and 10-fold at -5 and -20°C, respectively. High 13C recovery in CO2 from the C-1 position indicates dominance of the pentose phosphate pathway at +5°C. In contrast, increased oxidation of the C-4 position at subzero temperatures implies a switch to glycolysis. A threefold higher 13C recovery in microbial biomass at -5 than +5°C points to synthesis of intracellular compounds such as glycerol and ethanol in response to freezing. Less than 0.4% of 13C was recovered in DOC after 1 day, demonstrating complete glucose uptake by microorganisms even at -20°C. Consequently, we attribute the fivefold higher extracellular 13C in soil than in microbial biomass to secreted antifreeze compounds. This suggests that with decreasing temperature, intracellular antifreeze protection is complemented by extracellular mechanisms to avoid cellular damage by crystallizing water. The knowledge of sustained metabolism at subzero temperatures will not only be useful for modeling global C dynamics in ecosystems with periodically or permanently frozen soils, but will also be important in understanding and controlling the adaptive mechanisms of food spoilage organisms.
Martin-Sanz, Eduardo; Rueda, Almudena; Esteban-Sanchez, Jonathan; Yanes, Joaquin; Rey-Martinez, Jorge; Sanz-Fernandez, Ricardo
To evaluate vestibular restoration and the evolution of the compensatory saccades in acute severe inflammatory vestibular nerve paralysis, including vestibular neuritis and Ramsay Hunt syndrome with vertigo. Prospective. Tertiary referral center. Vestibular neuritis (n = 18) and Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients with vertigo (n = 13) were enrolled. After treatment with oral corticosteroids, patients were followed up for 6 months. Functional recovery of the facial nerve was scored according to the House-Brackman grading system. Caloric and video head impulse tests were performed in every patient at the time of enrolment. Subsequently, successive video head impulse test (vHIT) exploration was performed at the 1, 3, and 6-month follow-up. Eighteen patients with vestibular neuritis and 13 with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and associated vertigo were included. Vestibular function was significantly worse in patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome than in those with vestibular neuritis. Similar compensatory saccades velocity and latency values were observed in both groups, in both the caloric and initial vHIT tests. Successive vHIT results showed a significantly higher vestibulo-ocular reflex gain recovery in vestibular neuritis patients than in Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients. A significantly faster reduction in the latency, velocity, and organization of the compensatory saccades was observed in neuritis than in Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients. In addition to the recovery of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, the reduction of latency, velocity and the organization of compensatory saccades play a role in vestibular compensation.
Aline Mansueto Mourao
Full Text Available Objective To translate and to perform the cross-cultural adaptation of the “Questionnaire of Life Quality Specific for Myasthenia Gravis - 15 items” (MG-QOL15. Method The original English version of the questionnaire was translated into Portuguese. This version was revised and translated back into English. Later, both English versions were compared and the divergences were corrected in the Portuguese text. At a second stage, ten patients with MG followed at the Neuromuscular Diseases Clinic from the University Hospital, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais answered the questionnaire. The authors analyzed the difficulties and misunderstandings in the application of the questionnaire. Results The questions 8, 13 and 15 were considered difficult to understand and were modified in the final Portuguese version. Most patients (70% had a total score above 25, and the statements 3, 8 and 9 showed the highest scores. Conclusion The Brazilian version of the questionnaire MG-QOL15 seems to be a promising tool for the assessment of Brazilian patients with MG.
Full Text Available Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp. encounter markedly different (nutritional environments during their complex life cycles in the mosquito and human hosts. Adaptation to these different host niches is associated with a dramatic rewiring of metabolism, from a highly glycolytic metabolism in the asexual blood stages to increased dependence on tricarboxylic acid (TCA metabolism in mosquito stages. Here we have used stable isotope labelling, targeted metabolomics and reverse genetics to map stage-specific changes in Plasmodium berghei carbon metabolism and determine the functional significance of these changes on parasite survival in the blood and mosquito stages. We show that glutamine serves as the predominant input into TCA metabolism in both asexual and sexual blood stages and is important for complete male gametogenesis. Glutamine catabolism, as well as key reactions in intermediary metabolism and CoA synthesis are also essential for ookinete to oocyst transition in the mosquito. These data extend our knowledge of Plasmodium metabolism and point towards possible targets for transmission-blocking intervention strategies. Furthermore, they highlight significant metabolic differences between Plasmodium species which are not easily anticipated based on genomics or transcriptomics studies and underline the importance of integration of metabolomics data with other platforms in order to better inform drug discovery and design.
Krishnamurthy, S L; Sharma, P C; Sharma, D K; Ravikiran, K T; Singh, Y P; Mishra, V K; Burman, D; Maji, B; Mandal, S; Sarangi, S K; Gautam, R K; Singh, P K; Manohara, K K; Marandi, B C; Padmavathi, G; Vanve, P B; Patil, K D; Thirumeni, S; Verma, O P; Khan, A H; Tiwari, S; Geetha, S; Shakila, M; Gill, R; Yadav, V K; Roy, S K B; Prakash, M; Bonifacio, J; Ismail, Abdelbagi; Gregorio, G B; Singh, Rakesh Kumar
In the present study, a total of 53 promising salt-tolerant genotypes were tested across 18 salt-affected diverse locations for three years. An attempt was made to identify ideal test locations and mega-environments using GGE biplot analysis. The CSSRI sodic environment was the most discriminating location in individual years as well as over the years and could be used to screen out unstable and salt-sensitive genotypes. Genotypes CSR36, CSR-2K-219, and CSR-2K-262 were found ideal across years. Overall, Genotypes CSR-2K-219, CSR-2K-262, and CSR-2K-242 were found superior and stable among all genotypes with higher mean yields. Different sets of genotypes emerged as winners in saline soils but not in sodic soils; however, Genotype CSR-2K-262 was the only genotype that was best under both saline and alkaline environments over the years. The lack of repeatable associations among locations and repeatable mega-environment groupings indicated the complexity of soil salinity. Hence, a multi-location and multi-year evaluation is indispensable for evaluating the test sites as well as identifying genotypes with consistently specific and wider adaptation to particular agro-climatic zones. The genotypes identified in the present study could be used for commercial cultivation across edaphically challenged areas for sustainable production.
Full Text Available Serine hydroxymethyltransferase from the psychrophilic microorganism Psychromonas ingrahamii was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified as a His-tag fusion protein. The enzyme was characterized with respect to its spectroscopic, catalytic, and thermodynamic properties. The properties of the psychrophilic enzyme have been contrasted with the characteristics of the homologous counterpart from E. coli, which has been structurally and functionally characterized in depth and with which it shares 75% sequence identity. Spectroscopic measures confirmed that the psychrophilic enzyme displays structural properties almost identical to those of the mesophilic counterpart. At variance, the P. ingrahamii enzyme showed decreased thermostability and high specific activity at low temperature, both of which are typical features of cold adapted enzymes. Furthermore, it was a more efficient biocatalyst compared to E. coli serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT particularly for side reactions. Many β-hydroxy-α-amino acids are SHMT substrates and represent important compounds in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and food additives. Thanks to these attractive properties, this enzyme could have a significant potential for biotechnological applications.
Srivastava, Anubhav; Philip, Nisha; Hughes, Katie R; Georgiou, Konstantina; MacRae, James I; Barrett, Michael P; Creek, Darren J; McConville, Malcolm J; Waters, Andrew P
Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) encounter markedly different (nutritional) environments during their complex life cycles in the mosquito and human hosts. Adaptation to these different host niches is associated with a dramatic rewiring of metabolism, from a highly glycolytic metabolism in the asexual blood stages to increased dependence on tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolism in mosquito stages. Here we have used stable isotope labelling, targeted metabolomics and reverse genetics to map stage-specific changes in Plasmodium berghei carbon metabolism and determine the functional significance of these changes on parasite survival in the blood and mosquito stages. We show that glutamine serves as the predominant input into TCA metabolism in both asexual and sexual blood stages and is important for complete male gametogenesis. Glutamine catabolism, as well as key reactions in intermediary metabolism and CoA synthesis are also essential for ookinete to oocyst transition in the mosquito. These data extend our knowledge of Plasmodium metabolism and point towards possible targets for transmission-blocking intervention strategies. Furthermore, they highlight significant metabolic differences between Plasmodium species which are not easily anticipated based on genomics or transcriptomics studies and underline the importance of integration of metabolomics data with other platforms in order to better inform drug discovery and design.
Steinberg, Christian; Laurent, Julie; Edel-Hermann, Véronique; Barbezant, Marie; Sixt, Nathalie; Dalle, Frédéric; Aho, Serge; Bonnin, Alain; Hartemann, Philippe; Sautour, Marc
Members of the Fusarium group were recently detected in water distribution systems of several hospitals in the world. An epidemiological investigation was conducted over 2 years in hospital buildings in Dijon and Nancy (France) and in non-hospital buildings in Dijon. The fungi were detected only within the water distribution systems of the hospital buildings and also, but at very low concentrations, in the urban water network of Nancy. All fungi were identified as Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) and Fusarium dimerum species complex (FDSC) by sequencing part of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1α) gene. Very low diversity was found in each complex, suggesting the existence of a clonal population for each. Density and heterogeneous distributions according to buildings and variability over time were explained by episodic detachments of parts of the colony from biofilms in the pipes. Isolates of these waterborne populations as well as soilborne isolates were tested for their ability to grow in liquid medium in the presence of increasing concentrations of sodium hypochlorite, copper sulfate, anti-corrosion pipe coating, at various temperatures (4°-42 °C) and on agar medium with amphotericin B and voriconazole. The waterborne isolates tolerated higher sodium hypochlorite and copper sulfate concentrations and temperatures than did soilborne isolates but did not show any specific resistance to fungicides. In addition, unlike waterborne isolates, soilborne isolates did not survive in water even supplemented with glucose, while the former developed in the soil as well as soilborne isolates. We concluded the existence of homogeneous populations of FOSC and FDSC common to all contaminated hospital sites. These populations are present at very low densities in natural waters, making them difficult to detect, but they are adapted to the specific conditions offered by the complex water systems of public hospitals in Dijon and Nancy and probably other
Lopes, Adriana R; Sato, Paloma M; Terra, Walter R
Insect digestive chymotrypsins are present in a large variety of insect orders but their substrate specificity still remains unclear. Four insect chymotrypsins from 3 different insect orders (Dictyoptera, Coleoptera, and two Lepidoptera) were isolated using affinity chromatography. Enzymes presented molecular masses in the range of 20 to 31 kDa and pH optima in the range of 7.5 to 10.0. Kinetic characterization using different colorimetric and fluorescent substrates indicated that insect chymotrypsins differ from bovine chymotrypsin in their primary specificity toward small substrates (like N-benzoyl-L-Tyr p-nitroanilide) rather than on their preference for large substrates (exemplified by Succynil-Ala-Ala-Pro-Phe p-nitroanilide). Chloromethyl ketones (TPCK, N- alpha-tosyl-L-Phe chloromethyl ketone and Z-GGF-CK, N- carbobenzoxy-Gly-Gly-Phe-CK) inactivated all chymotrypsins tested. Inactivation rates follow apparent first-order kinetics with variable second order rates (TPCK, 42 to 130 M(-1) s(-1); Z-GGF-CK, 150 to 450 M(-1) s(-1)) that may be remarkably low for S. frugiperda chymotrypsin (TPCK, 6 M(-1) s(-1); Z-GGF-CK, 6.1 M(-1) s(-1)). Homology modelling and sequence alignment showed that in lepidopteran chymotrypsins, differences in the amino acid residues in the neighborhood of the catalytic His 57 may affect its pKa value. This is proposed as the cause of the decrease in His 57 reactivity toward chloromethyl ketones. Such amino acid replacement in the active site is proposed to be an adaptation to the presence of dietary ketones. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mata, Karina M; Li, Wei; Reslan, Ossama M; Siddiqui, Waleed T; Opsasnick, Lauren A; Khalil, Raouf A
Normal pregnancy is associated with adaptive hemodynamic, hormonal, and vascular changes, and estrogen (E2) may promote vasodilation during pregnancy; however, the specific E2 receptor (ER) subtype, post-ER signaling mechanism, and vascular bed involved are unclear. We tested whether pregnancy-associated vascular adaptations involve changes in the expression/distribution/activity of distinct ER subtypes in a blood vessel-specific manner. Blood pressure (BP) and plasma E2 were measured in virgin and pregnant (day 19) rats, and the thoracic aorta, carotid artery, mesenteric artery, and renal artery were isolated for measurements of ERα, ERβ, and G protein-coupled receptor 30 [G protein-coupled ER (GPER)] expression and tissue distribution in parallel with relaxation responses to E2 (all ERs) and the specific ER agonist 4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)-tris-phenol (PPT; ERα), diarylpropionitrile (DPN; ERβ), and G1 (GPER). BP was slightly lower and plasma E2 was higher in pregnant versus virgin rats. Western blots revealed increased ERα and ERβ in the aorta and mesenteric artery and GPER in the aorta of pregnant versus virgin rats. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the increases in ERs were mainly in the intima and media. In phenylephrine-precontracted vessels, E2 and PPT caused relaxation that was greater in the aorta and mesenteric artery but similar in the carotid and renal artery of pregnant versus virgin rats. DPN- and G1-induced relaxation was greater in the mesenteric and renal artery than in the aorta and carotid artery, and aortic relaxation to G1 was greater in pregnant versus virgin rats. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester with or without the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin with or without the EDHF blocker tetraethylammonium or endothelium removal reduced E2, PPT, and G1-induced relaxation in the aorta of pregnant rats, suggesting an endothelium-dependent mechanism, but did not affect E2-, PPT
Trisha D Scribbans
Full Text Available The current study involved the completion of two distinct experiments. Experiment 1 compared fibre specific and whole muscle responses to acute bouts of either low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIT or moderate-intensity continuous endurance exercise (END in a randomized crossover design. Experiment 2 examined the impact of a six-week training intervention (END or LV-HIT; 4 days/week, on whole body and skeletal muscle fibre specific markers of aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Six recreationally active men (Age: 20.7 ± 3.8 yrs; VO2peak: 51.9 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min reported to the lab on two separate occasions for experiment 1. Following a muscle biopsy taken in a fasted state, participants completed an acute bout of each exercise protocol (LV-HIT: 8, 20-second intervals at ∼ 170% of VO2peak separated by 10 seconds of rest; END: 30 minutes at ∼ 65% of VO2peak, immediately followed by a muscle biopsy. Glycogen content of type I and IIA fibres was significantly (p<0.05 reduced, while p-ACC was significantly increased (p<0.05 following both protocols. Nineteen recreationally active males (n = 16 and females (n = 3 were VO2peak-matched and assigned to either the LV-HIT (n = 10; 21 ± 2 yrs or END (n = 9; 20.7 ± 3.8 yrs group for experiment 2. After 6 weeks, both training protocols induced comparable increases in aerobic capacity (END: Pre: 48.3 ± 6.0, Mid: 51.8 ± 6.0, Post: 55.0 ± 6.3 mL/kg/min LV-HIT: Pre: 47.9 ± 8.1, Mid: 50.4 ± 7.4, Post: 54.7 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min, fibre-type specific oxidative and glycolytic capacity, glycogen and IMTG stores, and whole-muscle capillary density. Interestingly, only LV-HIT induced greater improvements in anaerobic performance and estimated whole-muscle glycolytic capacity. These results suggest that 30 minutes of END exercise at ∼ 65% VO2peak or 4 minutes of LV-HIT at ∼ 170% VO2peak induce comparable changes in the intra-myocellular environment (glycogen content and signaling activation
Scribbans, Trisha D; Edgett, Brittany A; Vorobej, Kira; Mitchell, Andrew S; Joanisse, Sophie D; Matusiak, Jennifer B L; Parise, Gianni; Quadrilatero, Joe; Gurd, Brendon J
The current study involved the completion of two distinct experiments. Experiment 1 compared fibre specific and whole muscle responses to acute bouts of either low-volume high-intensity interval training (LV-HIT) or moderate-intensity continuous endurance exercise (END) in a randomized crossover design. Experiment 2 examined the impact of a six-week training intervention (END or LV-HIT; 4 days/week), on whole body and skeletal muscle fibre specific markers of aerobic and anaerobic capacity. Six recreationally active men (Age: 20.7 ± 3.8 yrs; VO2peak: 51.9 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min) reported to the lab on two separate occasions for experiment 1. Following a muscle biopsy taken in a fasted state, participants completed an acute bout of each exercise protocol (LV-HIT: 8, 20-second intervals at ∼ 170% of VO2peak separated by 10 seconds of rest; END: 30 minutes at ∼ 65% of VO2peak), immediately followed by a muscle biopsy. Glycogen content of type I and IIA fibres was significantly (ptraining protocols induced comparable increases in aerobic capacity (END: Pre: 48.3 ± 6.0, Mid: 51.8 ± 6.0, Post: 55.0 ± 6.3 mL/kg/min LV-HIT: Pre: 47.9 ± 8.1, Mid: 50.4 ± 7.4, Post: 54.7 ± 7.6 mL/kg/min), fibre-type specific oxidative and glycolytic capacity, glycogen and IMTG stores, and whole-muscle capillary density. Interestingly, only LV-HIT induced greater improvements in anaerobic performance and estimated whole-muscle glycolytic capacity. These results suggest that 30 minutes of END exercise at ∼ 65% VO2peak or 4 minutes of LV-HIT at ∼ 170% VO2peak induce comparable changes in the intra-myocellular environment (glycogen content and signaling activation); correspondingly, training-induced adaptations resulting for these protocols, and other HIT and END protocols are strikingly similar.
Morris, E.D.; Glide-Hurst, C. [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Klahr, P. [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)
Purpose: While 4DCT provides organ/tumor motion information, it often samples data over 10–20 breathing cycles. For patients presenting with compromised pulmonary function, breathing patterns can change over the acquisition time, potentially leading to tumor delineation discrepancies. This work introduces a novel adaptive velocity-modulated binning (AVB) 4DCT algorithm that modulates the reconstruction based on the respiratory waveform, yielding a patient-specific 4DCT solution. Methods: AVB was implemented in a research reconstruction configuration. After filtering the respiratory waveform, the algorithm examines neighboring data to a phase reconstruction point and the temporal gate is widened until the difference between the reconstruction point and waveform exceeds a threshold value—defined as percent difference between maximum/minimum waveform amplitude. The algorithm only impacts reconstruction if the gate width exceeds a set minimum temporal width required for accurate reconstruction. A sensitivity experiment of threshold values (0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 12%) was conducted to examine the interplay between threshold, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and image sharpness for phantom and several patient 4DCT cases using ten-phase reconstructions. Individual phase reconstructions were examined. Subtraction images and regions of interest were compared to quantify changes in SNR. Results: AVB increased signal in reconstructed 4DCT slices for respiratory waveforms that met the prescribed criteria. For the end-exhale phases, where the respiratory velocity is low, patient data revealed a threshold of 0.5% demonstrated increased SNR in the AVB reconstructions. For intermediate breathing phases, threshold values were required to be >10% to notice appreciable changes in CT intensity with AVB. AVB reconstructions exhibited appreciably higher SNR and reduced noise in regions of interest that were photon deprived such as the liver. Conclusion: We demonstrated that patient-specific
Cooper, P M; Pivik, R T
The vestibulo-ocular response to caloric irrigation and the effect of vestibular activation on eye movements were examined during light and dark testing conditions--the latter to assess these measures under conditions attenuating possible cerebellar-vestibular interaction present in the light-adapting condition. Subjects were psychiatric patients (23 actively-ill psychotic patients and 23 remitted psychotic patients) and normal controls (23 with no history of psychiatric illness). Standardize...
Fagerlund, Åse; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Kalland, Mirjam; Santtila, Pekka; Hoyme, H. Eugene; Mattson, Sarah N.; Korkman, Marit
Foetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) is a leading cause of intellectual disability in the western world. Children and adolescents with FASD are often exposed to a double burden in life, as their neurological sequelae are accompanied by adverse living surroundings exposing them to further environmental risk. In the present study, the adaptive abilities of a group of children and adolescents with FASD were examined using the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales (VABS) and compared to those of...
Verhoeven, K J F; Poorter, H; Nevo, E; Biere, A
Understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation requires insight in the fitness effects of individual loci under natural field conditions. While rapid progress is made in the search for genes that control differences between plant populations, it is typically unknown whether the genes under study are in fact key targets of habitat-specific natural selection. Using a quantitative trait loci (QTL) approach, we show that a QTL associated with flowering-time variation between two locally adapted wild barley populations is an important determinant of fitness in one, but not in the other population's native habitat. The QTL mapped to the same position as a habitat-specific QTL for field fitness that affected plant reproductive output in only one of the parental habitats, indicating that the genomic region is under differential selection between the native habitats. Consistent with the QTL results, phenotypic selection of flowering time differed between the two environments, whereas other traits (growth rate and seed weight) were under selection but experienced no habitat-specific differential selection. This implies the flowering-time QTL as a driver of adaptive population divergence. Our results from phenotypic selection and QTL analysis are consistent with local adaptation without genetic trade-offs in performance across environments, i.e. without alleles or traits having opposing fitness effects in contrasting environments.
Mitochondria-specific antioxidant supplementation does not influence endurance exercise training-induced adaptations in circulating angiogenic cells, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity or maximal oxygen uptake.
Shill, Daniel D; Southern, W Michael; Willingham, T Bradley; Lansford, Kasey A; McCully, Kevin K; Jenkins, Nathan T
Reducing excessive oxidative stress, through chronic exercise or antioxidants, can decrease the negative effects induced by excessive amounts of oxidative stress. Transient increases in oxidative stress produced during acute exercise facilitate beneficial vascular training adaptations, but the effects of non-specific antioxidants on exercise training-induced vascular adaptations remain elusive. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) are an exercise-inducible subset of white blood cells that maintain vascular integrity. We investigated whether mitochondria-specific antioxidant (MitoQ) supplementation would affect the response to 3 weeks of endurance exercise training in CACs, muscle mitochondrial capacity and maximal oxygen uptake in young healthy men. We show that endurance exercise training increases multiple CAC types, an adaptation that is not altered by MitoQ supplementation. Additionally, MitoQ does not affect skeletal muscle or whole-body aerobic adaptations to exercise training. These results indicate that MitoQ supplementation neither enhances nor attenuates endurance training adaptations in young healthy men. Antioxidants have been shown to improve endothelial function and cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effects of antioxidants on exercise training-induced vascular adaptations remain elusive. General acting antioxidants combined with exercise have not impacted circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). We investigated whether mitochondria-specific antioxidant (MitoQ) supplementation would affect the response to 3 weeks of endurance exercise training on CD3+ , CD3+ /CD31+ , CD14+ /CD31+ , CD31+ , CD34+ /VEGFR2+ and CD62E+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), muscle mitochondrial capacity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max ) in healthy men aged 22.1 ± 0.7 years, with a body mass index of 26.9 ± 0.9 kg m-2 , and 24.8 ± 1.3% body fat. Analysis of main effects revealed that training induced 33, 105 and 285% increases in CD14+ /CD31+ , CD62E
Bakker, C.; van Bodegom, P.M.; Nelissen, H.J.M.; Aerts, R.
The preference of wetland angiosperms for waterlogged soils has been explained by several hypotheses: (1) wetland species are adapted to waterlogging and sensitive to drought; (2) wetland species are tolerant to drought, but inferior competitors at drier conditions; (3) wetland species have narrow
Han, Hyojung; Rojewski, Jay W.
A Korean national database, the High School Graduates Occupational Mobility Survey, was used to examine the influence of perceived social supports (family and school) and career adaptability on the subsequent job satisfaction of work-bound adolescents 4 months after their transition from high school to work. Structural equation modeling analysis…
Squires, David R.
The aim of this paper is to examine the potential and effectiveness of m-learning in the field of Education and Learning domains. The purpose of this research is to illustrate how mobile technology can and is affecting novel change in instruction, from m-learning and the link to adaptive learning, to the uninitiated learner and capacities of…
Hansen, S.; Caye-Thomasen, P.; Boesen, J.
Vestibular neuritis is the second most common cause of peripheral vestibular vertigo. Its assumed cause is a reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 infection. Methylprednisolone significantly improves the recovery of peripheral vestibular function in patients with vestibular neuritis. Clinical...... studies suggest that specific vestibular exercises improve vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-ocular compensation in patients with vestibular neuritis. This review discusses the above and comments etiology, epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnostic procedures and differential diagnosis Udgivelsesdato: 2008/5/19...
Oliveira, Indiara Soares; da Cunha Menezes Costa, Lucíola; Fagundes, Felipe Ribeiro Cabral; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes
To assess the procedures of translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and measurement properties of breast cancer-specific quality-of-life questionnaires. Searches were conducted in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and SciELO using the keywords: "Questionnaires," "Quality of life," and "Breast cancer." The studies were analyzed in terms of methodological quality according to the guidelines for the procedure of cross-cultural adaptation and the quality criteria for measurement properties of questionnaires. We found 24 eligible studies. Most of the articles assessed the translation and measurement properties of the instrument EORTC QLQ-BR23. Description about translation and cross-cultural adaptation was incomplete in 11 studies. Translation and back translation were the most tested phases, and synthesis of the translation was the most omitted phase in the articles. Information on assessing measurement properties was provided incompletely in 23 articles. Internal consistency was the most tested property in all of the eligible articles, but none of them provided information on agreement. Construct validity was adequately tested in only three studies that used the FACT-B and QLQ-BR23. Eight articles provided information on reliability; however, only four found positive classification. Responsiveness was tested in four articles, and ceiling and floor effects were tested in only three articles. None of the instruments showed fully adequate quality. There is limited evidence on cross-cultural adaptations and measurement properties; therefore, it is recommended that caution be exercised when using breast cancer-specific quality-of-life questionnaires that have been translated, adapted, and tested.
Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus is a human pathogen that can cause a wide range of diseases. Although formerly regarded as extracellular pathogen, it has been shown that S. aureus can also be internalized by host cells and persist within these cells. In the present study, we comparatively analyzed survival and physiological adaptation of S. aureus HG001 after internalization by two human lung epithelial cell lines (S9 and A549, and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293. Combining enrichment of bacteria from host-pathogen assays by cell sorting and quantitation of the pathogen´s proteome by mass spectrometry we characterized S. aureus adaptation during the initial phase between 2.5 h and 6.5 h post-infection. Starting with about 2x106 bacteria, roughly 1,450 S. aureus proteins, including virulence factors and metabolic enzymes were identified by spectral comparison and classical database searches. Most of the bacterial adaptation reactions, such as decreases in levels of ribosomal proteins and metabolic enzymes or increases in amounts of proteins involved in arginine and lysine biosynthesis, coding for terminal oxidases and stress responsive genes or activation of the sigma factor SigB were observed after internalization into any of the three cell lines studied. However, differences were noted in central carbon metabolism including regulation of fermentation and threonine degradation. Since these differences coincided with different intracellular growth behavior, complementary profiling of the metabolome of the different non-infected host cell types was performed. This revealed similar levels of intracellular glucose but host cell specific differences in the amounts of amino acids such as glycine, threonine or glutamate. With this comparative study we provide an impression of the common and specific features of the adaptation of S. aureus HG001 to specific host cell environments as a starting point for follow-up studies with different strain isolates and
Mrinal K. Nath
Full Text Available Aim: To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA in piglets of vaccinated sows. Materials and Methods: A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0 and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days after vaccination and were analyzed by liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, MDA titre was detected in the serum of piglets at 21 and 42 days of age after farrowing of the vaccinated sows. Results: On 28 days after vaccination, serum samples of 83.33% vaccinated pigs showed the desirable level of antibody titer (log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution, whereas 100% animals showed log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution after 42 days of vaccination. Animals received a booster dose at 28 and 180 days post vaccination showed stable high-level antibody titre till the end of the study period. Further, piglets born from pigs vaccinated 1 month after conception showed the desirable level of MDA up to 42 days of age. Conclusion: CSF causes major losses in pig industry. Lapinised vaccines against CSFV are used routinely in endemic countries. In the present study, a cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine has been evaluated. Based on the level of humoral immune response of vaccinated pigs and MDA titer in piglets born from immunized sows, it may be concluded that the more effective vaccination schedule for prevention of CSF is primary vaccination at 2 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 28 and 180 days post primary vaccination and at 1 month of gestation.
Ehl, Stefan; Ebertshäuser, Marlene; Gros, Patrick; Schmitt, Thomas
High mountain ecosystems are extreme habitats, and adaptation strategies to this ecosystem are still poorly understood in most groups. To unravel such strategies, we performed a MRR study in the Hohe Tauern National Park (Salzburg, Austria) with two nymphalid butterfly species, Boloria pales and B. napaea. We analysed their population structure over one flight period by studying the development of population size and wing wear. B. pales had more individuals and a higher survival probability than B. napaea; the sensitivity to extreme weather conditions or other external influences was higher in B. napaea. We only observed proterandry in B. pales. Imagines of both species survived under snow for at least some days. Additionally, we observed a kind of risk-spreading, in that individuals of both species, and especially B. pales, have regularly emerged throughout the flight period. This emergence pattern divided the population's age structure into three phases: an initial phase with decreasing wing quality (emergence > mortality), followed by an equilibrium phase with mostly constant average wing condition (emergence = mortality) and a final ageing phase with strongly deteriorating wing condition (mortality » emergence). Consequently, neither species would likely become extinct because of particularly unsuitable weather conditions during a single flight period. The observed differences between the two species suggest a better regional adaptation of B. pales, which is restricted to high mountain systems of Europe. In contrast, the arctic-alpine B. napaea might be best adapted to conditions in the Arctic and not the more southern high mountain systems. However, this needs to be examined during future research in the Arctic.
Brad Thomas Townsley
Full Text Available Next Generation Sequencing (NGS is driving rapid advancement in biological understanding and RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq has become an indispensable tool for biology and medicine. There is a growing need for access to these technologies although preparation of NGS libraries remains a bottleneck to wider adoption. Here we report a novel method for the production of strand specific RNA-seq libraries utilizing inherent properties of double-stranded cDNA to capture and incorporate a sequencing adapter. Breath Adapter Directional sequencing (BrAD-seq reduces sample handling and requires far fewer enzymatic steps than most available methods to produce high quality strand-specific RNA-seq libraries. The method we present is optimized for 3-prime Digital Gene Expression (DGE libraries and can easily extend to full transcript coverage shotgun (SHO type strand-specific libraries and is modularized to accommodate a diversity of RNA and DNA input materials. BrAD-seq offers a highly streamlined and inexpensive option for RNA-seq libraries.
Lin, Wan-Feng; Chow, Chi-Wai; Yeh, Chien-Hung
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is a promising candidate for light emitting diode (LED)-based optical wireless communication (OWC); however, precise channel estimation is required for synchronization and equalization. In this work, we study and discover that the channel response of the white-lightLED-based OWC was smooth and stable. Hence we propose and demonstrate using a specific and adaptive arrangement of grid-type pilot scheme to estimate the LED OWC channel response. Experimental results show that our scheme can achieve better transmission performance and with some transmission capacity enhancement when compared with the method using training-symbol scheme (also called block-type pilot scheme).
Ribera, Berta; Casal, Bruno; Cantarero, David; Pascual, Marta
Because of the progressive increase in the number of immigrants and the uncertainty about the capacity of the Spanish health service to deal with the quantitative and qualitative increases in demand, the possibility of introducing changes to adapt our services to the new situation should be considered. Beginning with an analysis of the factors that influence health status and use of the health service, based on the National Health Survey (NHS), the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) and the European Community Household Panel (ECHP), we compare the health profiles and patterns of medical resources utilization between the national and foreign populations. The pattern of demand for health services in the immigrant population corresponds basically to the needs of a young population in good health. According to NHS data, resource utilization among immigrants can even be lower than that among the national population. Assessing the link between health status and demand for healthcare from a dynamic point of view, by identifying variations in patterns of health and patterns of demand for healthcare, is important to identify imbalances in resources and to establish an appropriate hierarchy of preventive and treatment priorities.
Yu, Xiao-Jing; Zheng, Hong-Kun; Wang, Jun
Comparative genetic analysis between human and chimpanzee may detect genetic divergences responsible for human-specific characteristics. Previous studies have identified a series of genes that potentially underwent Darwinian positive selection during human evolution. However, without a closely...... related species as outgroup, it is difficult to identify human-lineage-specific changes, which is critical in delineating the biological uniqueness of humans. In this study, we conducted phylogeny-based analyses of 2633 human brain-expressed genes using rhesus macaque as the outgroup. We identified 47...... candidate genes showing strong evidence of positive selection in the human lineage. Genes with maximal expression in the brain showed a higher evolutionary rate in human than in chimpanzee. We observed that many immune-defense-related genes were under strong positive selection, and this trend was more...
Föcker, Felix; Houdek, Frank; Daun, Marian; Weyer, Thorsten
Model-based engineering is a well-established approach to cope with the complexity of today's embedded systems. Furthermore, model-based engineering can address industry needs for highly automated development solutions to foster correctness of safety-critical systems. In contrast, there is a vital lack of accessible specification documents for researchers for evaluation purposes. Evaluation of proposed engineering methods often relies on academic examples, automatically created unrealistic ar...
Susann Björk; Hurt, Carl M.; Ho, Vincent K.; Timothy Angelotti
Receptor expression enhancing proteins (REEPs) were identified by their ability to enhance cell surface expression of a subset of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), specifically GPCRs that have proven difficult to express in heterologous cell systems. Further analysis revealed that they belong to the Yip (Ypt-interacting protein) family and that some REEP subtypes affect ER structure. Yip family comparisons have established other potential roles for REEPs, including regulation of ER-Golgi t...
Boza, Juliana Catucci; Kundu, Roopal V; Fabbrin, Amanda; Horn, Roberta; Giongo, Natalia; Cestari, Tania Ferreira
Vitiligo, although asymptomatic, highly compromises patients' quality of life (QoL). Therefore, an adequate evaluation of QoL is essential. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation of VitiQol (Vitiligo-specific health-related quality of life instrument) into Brazilian Portuguese. The study was conducted in two stages; the first stage was the translation and cultural/linguistic adaptation of the instrument; the second stage was the instrument's validation. The translated VitiQol showed high internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.944) and high test-retest reliability and intraclass correlation coefficient=0.95 (CI 95% 0.86 - 0.98), p<0.001. There was no statistically significant difference between the means of the first completion of the VitiQoL questionnaire and the retest, p = 0.661. There was a significant correlation between VitiQoL and DLQI (r = 0.776, p <0.001) and also between VitiQoL-PB and subjects' assessment of the severity of their disease (r = 0.702, p <0.001). The impact of vitiligo on the QoL of Brazilian patients can be assessed by a specific questionnaire.
Oar, Ella L; Farrell, Lara J; Ollendick, Thomas H
Blood-injection-injury (BII) phobia is a chronic and debilitating disorder, which has largely been neglected in the child literature. The present paper briefly reviews the aetiology of specific phobias with particular attention to BII and provides an integrated developmental model of this disorder in youth. Evidence-based treatments for child-specific phobias are discussed, and the development of a modified one session treatment (OST) approach to enhance treatment outcomes for BII phobia in children and adolescents is described. This approach is illustrated in two children with a primary diagnosis of BII phobia. The cases illustrate the unique challenges associated with treating BII in youth and the need for a modified intervention. Modifications included addressing the role of pain (e.g., psychoeducation, more graduated exposure steps) and disgust (e.g., disgust eliciting exposure tasks) in the expression of the phobia and fainting in the maintenance of this phobia. Moreover, it is recommended that parents be more actively involved throughout treatment (e.g., education session prior to OST, contingency management training, guidance regarding planning exposure tasks following treatment) and for families to participate in a structured e-therapy maintenance programme post-treatment.
Lamers, Susanna L; Nolan, David J; Rife, Brittany D; Fogel, Gary B; McGrath, Michael S; Burdo, Tricia H; Autissier, Patrick; Williams, Kenneth C; Goodenow, Maureen M; Salemi, Marco
While a clear understanding of the events leading to successful establishment of host-specific viral populations and productive infection in the central nervous system (CNS) has not yet been reached, the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected rhesus macaque provides a powerful model for the study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) intrahost evolution and neuropathogenesis. The evolution of the gp120 and nef genes, which encode two key proteins required for the establishment and maintenance of infection, was assessed in macaques that were intravenously inoculated with the same viral swarm and allowed to naturally progress to simian AIDS and potential SIV-associated encephalitis (SIVE). Longitudinal plasma samples and immune markers were monitored until terminal illness. Single-genome sequencing was employed to amplify full-length env through nef transcripts from plasma over time and from brain tissues at necropsy. nef sequences diverged from the founder virus faster than gp120 diverged. Host-specific sequence populations were detected in nef (~92 days) before they were detected in gp120 (~182 days). At necropsy, similar brain nef sequences were found in different macaques, indicating convergent evolution, while gp120 brain sequences remained largely host specific. Molecular clock and selection analyses showed weaker clock-like behavior and stronger selection pressure in nef than in gp120, with the strongest nef selection in the macaque with SIVE. Rapid nef diversification, occurring prior to gp120 diversification, indicates that early adaptation of nef in the new host is essential for successful infection. Moreover, the convergent evolution of nef sequences in the CNS suggests a significant role for nef in establishing neurotropic strains. The SIV-infected rhesus macaque model closely resembles HIV-1 immunopathogenesis, neuropathogenesis, and disease progression in humans. Macaques were intravenously infected with identical viral swarms to investigate
Fleming, Chris; Cai, Yihua; Sun, Xuan; Jala, Venkatakrishna R; Xue, Feng; Morrissey, Samantha; Wei, Yu-Ling; Chien, Yueh-Hsiu; Zhang, Huang-Ge; Haribabu, Bodduluri; Huang, Jian; Yan, Jun
IL-17-producing γδT cells (γδT17) promote autoinflammatory diseases and cancers. Yet, γδT17 peripheral regulation has not been thoroughly explored especially in the context of microbiota-host interaction. The potent antigen-presenting CD103(+) dendritic cell (DC) is a key immune player in close contact with both γδT17 cells and microbiota. This study presents a novel cellular network among microbiota, CD103(+) DCs, and γδT17 cells. Immunophenotyping of IL-17r(-/-) mice and IL-17r(-/-) IRF8(-/-) mice were performed by ex vivo immunostaining and flow cytometric analysis. We observed striking microbiome differences in the oral cavity and gut of IL-17r(-/-) mice by sequencing 16S rRNA gene (v1-v3 region) and analyzed using QIIME 1.9.0 software platform. Principal coordinate analysis of unweighted UniFrac distance matrix showed differential clustering for WT and IL-17r(-/-) mice. We found drastic homeostatic expansion of γδT17 in all major tissues, most prominently in cervical lymph nodes (cLNs) with monoclonal expansion of Vγ6 γδT17 in IL-17r(-/-) mice. Ki-67 staining and in vitro CFSE assays showed cellular proliferation due to cell-to-cell contact stimulation with microbiota-activated CD103(+) DCs. A newly developed double knockout mice model for IL-17r and CD103(+) DCs (IL-17r(-/-)IRF8(-/-)) showed a specific reduction in Vγ6 γδT17. Vγ6 γδT17 expansion is inhibited in germ-free mice and antibiotic-treated specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. Microbiota transfer using cohousing of IL-17r(-/-) mice with wildtype mice induces γδT17 expansion in the wildtype mice with increased activated CD103(+) DCs in cLNs. However, microbiota transfer using fecal transplant through oral gavage to bypass the oral cavity showed no difference in colon or systemic γδT17 expansion. These findings reveal for the first time that γδT17 cells are regulated by microbiota dysbiosis through cell-to-cell contact with activated CD103(+) DCs leading to drastic systemic
Pamboukian, Marilena Martins; Pereira, Carlos Augusto; Augusto, Elisabeth de Fatima Pires; Tonso, Aldo
Monitoring the specific respiration rate (Q(O2)) is a valuable tool to evaluate cell growth and physiology. However, for low Q(O2) values the accuracy may depend on the measurement methodology, as it is the case in animal cell culture. The widely used "Dynamic Method" imposes serious difficulties concerning oxygen transfer cancellation, especially through membrane oxygenation. This paper presents an improved procedure to this method, through an automated control of the gas inlet composition that can minimize the residual oxygen transfer driving force during the Q(O2) measurement phase. The improved technique was applied to animal cell cultivation, particularly three recombinant S2 (Drosophila melanogaster) insect cell lines grown in a membrane aeration bioreactor. The average measurements of the proposed method reached 98% of stationary liquid phase balance method, taken as a reference, compared to 21% when the traditional method was used. Furthermore, this methodology does not require knowledge of the volumetric transfer coefficient k(L)a, which may vary during growth. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Full Text Available The brain needs mechanisms able to correlate plastic changes with local circuit activity and internal functional states. At the cerebellum input stage, uncontrolled induction of long-term potentiation or depression (LTP or LTD between mossy fibres and granule cells can saturate synaptic capacity and impair cerebellar functioning, which suggests that neuromodulators are required to gate plasticity processes. Cholinergic systems innervating the cerebellum are thought to enhance procedural learning and memory. Here we show that a specific subtype of acetylcholine receptors, the α7-nAChRs, are distributed both in cerebellar mossy fibre terminals and granule cell dendrites and contribute substantially to synaptic regulation. Selective α7-nAChR activation enhances the postsynaptic calcium increase, allowing weak mossy fibre bursts, which would otherwise cause LTD, to generate robust LTP. The local microperfusion of α7-nAChR agonists could also lead to in vivo switching of LTD to LTP following sensory stimulation of the whisker pad. In the cerebellar flocculus, α7-nAChR pharmacological activation impaired vestibulo-ocular-reflex adaptation, probably because LTP was saturated, preventing the fine adjustment of synaptic weights. These results show that gating mechanisms mediated by specific subtypes of nicotinic receptors are required to control the LTD/LTP balance at the mossy fibre-granule cell relay in order to regulate cerebellar plasticity and behavioural adaptation.
Wilburn, Jeanette; McKenna, Stephen P; Kutlay, Şehim; Bender, Tamas; Braun, Jürgen; Castillo-Gallego, Concepcion; Favero, Marta; Geher, Pal; Kiltz, Uta; Martin-Mola, Emilio; Ramonda, Roberta; Rouse, Matthew; Tennant, Alan; Küçükdeveci, Ayşe A
The Osteoarthritis Quality of Life scale (OAQoL) is specific to individuals with osteoarthritis. The present study describes the adaptation of the OAQoL for use in the following five European languages: German, Hungarian, Italian, Spanish and Turkish. The study involved three stages in each language; translation, cognitive debriefing (face and content validity) and validation. The validation stage assessed internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), reproducibility (test-retest reliability using Spearman's rank correlations), convergent and divergent validity (correlations with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Index of osteoarthritis and Nottingham Health Profile) and known group validity. The OAQoL was successfully translated into the target languages with minimal problems. Cognitive debriefing interviewees found the measures easy to complete and identified few problems with content. Internal consistency ranged from 0.94 to 0.97 and test-retest reliability (reproducibility) from 0.87 to 0.98. These values indicate that the new language versions produce very low levels of measurement error. Median OAQoL scores were higher for patients reporting a current flare of osteoarthritis in all countries. Scores were also related, as expected, to perceived severity of osteoarthritis. The OAQoL was successfully adapted for use in Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Turkey. The addition of these new language versions will prove valuable to multinational clinical trials and to clinical practice in the respective countries.
Iannoli, P; Miller, J H; Ryan, C K; Gu, L H; Ziegler, T R; Sax, H C
After massive enterectomy (ME), remnant intestine undergoes compensatory adaptation. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and human growth hormone (hGH) have each been shown to enhance total length small intestine nutrient transport after ME. This study aims to determine the differential effects of EGF and hGH on proximal and distal small intestinal remnants after ME. New Zealand white rabbits underwent 70% mid-jejunoileal resection. After 1 week, animals received hGH (0.2 mg/kg/day), EGF (1.5 micrograms/kg/hr), hGH + EGF, or vehicle (equal volume) for 7 days. Sodium-dependent uptake of glucose, glutamine, alanine, leucine, and arginine into brush border membrane vesicles was quantitated. Serum insulin-like growth factor-I concentrations as well as proximal and distal villus and microvillus heights were measured. IGF binding protein-3 and -4 mRNA expression was determined in full-thickness proximal and distal gut remnants. Concomitant hGH and EGF treatment up-regulates glucose (100%), glutamine (80%), and leucine (60%) transport in the proximal remnant; alanine (150%) and arginine (400%) transport in the distal remnant; and microvillus height (25% to 35%) both proximally and distally. Serum IGF-I levels and gross villus heights were not different among groups. Co-infusion of hGH and EGF accelerates intestinal adaptation after ME in an additive, nutrient-dependent, and site-specific fashion via enhanced nutrient transport as well as microvillus hypertrophy.
Kuechler, R. R.; Beckmann, B.; Dupont, L.; Schefuß, E.
strong export of plant material during such aridification events (e.g., Trauth et al., 2009). Overall, δDwax values express a pronounced variability with an average amplitude of about 32‰ VSMOW between humid and arid periodes. δ13Cwax values of the same compounds vary between -25.6‰ and -23‰ VPDB and confirm a predominance (70-90 %) of C4 plants. The most striking observation is the consistent anti-correlation of hydrogen and carbon isotopes in plant lipids reflecting a higher C4 plant contribution under humid conditions and vice versa. This is interpreted as a specific catchment sensitive to low precipitation intensities such as the Sahara-Sahel-transition. During increased aridity, even C4 plants get water-stressed, leading to a decline of such a C4-dominated vegetation cover. This in turn results in a relative contribution increase of C3 plant material derived from the more stable tree savannah in the southern parts of the Sahel. Compared to other studies, our isotopic records show only a rough correlation with variations in AMOC strength and summer insolation in the northern hemisphere, whereas the timing of humid phases is in good agreement with mammalian/hominin migrations.
Wagner, Monika; Khoury, Hanane; Willet, Jacob; Rindress, Donna; Goetghebeur, Mireille
The multiplicity of issues, including uncertainty and ethical dilemmas, and policies involved in appraising interventions for rare diseases suggests that multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA) based on a holistic definition of value is uniquely suited for this purpose. The objective of this study was to analyze and further develop a comprehensive MCDA framework (EVIDEM) to address rare disease issues and policies, while maintaining its applicability across disease areas. Specific issues and policies for rare diseases were identified through literature review. Ethical and methodological foundations of the EVIDEM framework v3.0 were systematically analyzed from the perspective of these issues, and policies and modifications of the framework were performed accordingly to ensure their integration. Analysis showed that the framework integrates ethical dilemmas and issues inherent to appraising interventions for rare diseases but required further integration of specific aspects. Modification thus included the addition of subcriteria to further differentiate disease severity, disease-specific treatment outcomes, and economic consequences of interventions for rare diseases. Scoring scales were further developed to include negative scales for all comparative criteria. A methodology was established to incorporate context-specific population priorities and policies, such as those for rare diseases, into the quantitative part of the framework. This design allows making more explicit trade-offs between competing ethical positions of fairness (prioritization of those who are worst off), the goal of benefiting as many people as possible, the imperative to help, and wise use of knowledge and resources. It also allows addressing variability in institutional policies regarding prioritization of specific disease areas, in addition to existing uncertainty analysis available from EVIDEM. The adapted framework measures value in its widest sense, while being responsive to rare disease
Kok, H. Petra, E-mail: H.P.Kok@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ciampa, Silvia [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Kroon-Oldenhof, Rianne de; Steggerda-Carvalho, Eva J.; Stam, Gerard van; Zum Vörde Sive Vörding, Paul J.; Stalpers, Lukas J.A.; Geijsen, Elisabeth D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bardati, Fernando [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); Bel, Arjan; Crezee, Johannes [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
Purpose: Hyperthermia is the clinical application of heat, in which tumor temperatures are raised to 40°C to 45°C. This proven radiation and chemosensitizer significantly improves clinical outcome for several tumor sites. Earlier studies of the use of pre-treatment planning for hyperthermia showed good qualitative but disappointing quantitative reliability. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) can be used more reliably for online adaptive treatment planning during locoregional hyperthermia treatments. Methods and Materials: This study included 78 treatment sessions for 15 patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. At the start of treatments, temperature rise measurements were performed with 3 different antenna settings optimized for each patient, from which the absorbed power (specific absorption rate [SAR]) was derived. HTP was performed based on a computed tomography (CT) scan in treatment position with the bladder catheter in situ. The SAR along the thermocouple tracks was extracted from the simulated SAR distributions. Correlations between measured and simulated (average) SAR values were determined. To evaluate phase steering, correlations between the changes in simulated and measured SAR values averaged over the thermocouple probe were determined for all 3 combinations of antenna settings. Results: For 42% of the individual treatment sessions, the correlation coefficient between measured and simulated SAR profiles was higher than 0.5, whereas 58% showed a weak correlation (R of <0.5). The overall correlation coefficient between measured and simulated average SAR was weak (R=0.31; P<.001). The measured and simulated changes in average SAR after adapting antenna settings correlated much better (R=0.70; P<.001). The ratio between the measured and simulated quotients of maximum and average SARs was 1.03 ± 0.26 (mean ± SD), indicating that HTP can also correctly predict the relative amplitude of
Angelaki, D. E.; Hess, B. J.; Arai, Y.; Suzuki, J.
torsional component resembled those of the adapted horizontal slow-phase responses: gain decreased and large phase leads were introduced at frequencies below approximately 0.05-0.1 Hz. Torsional responses elicited by roll oscillations in supine position, on the other hand, were indistinguishable in their dynamics from intact animals. No consistent vertical nystagmus was elicited during yaw rotation. 6. Our results show that there is a slow, frequency-specific recovery of horizontal VOR after selective inactivation of the lateral semicircular canals. Both the spatial organization and the dynamic properties of the adapted VOR responses are distinctly different from responses in intact animals, suggesting complex changes in the underlying vestibuloocular circuitry.
Full Text Available Introduction: celiac disease is a chronic condition that requires continued treatment, with the resultant impact on health-related quality of life (HRQOL of people who suffer it. Most studies in this field have used generic questionnaires to measure HRQOL in celiac patients. It was therefore decided to conduct a study to translate into Spanish and validate a specific questionnaire for celiac disease, the Celiac Disease Quality Of Life Survey (CD-QOL. Objectives: to translate and validate in Spanish the specific celiac disease questionnaire CD-QOL. Methods: a multicenter, prospective, observational study was designed consisting of two phases: In the first phase, the questionnaire was translated and adapted into Spanish using the translation/back translation procedure and an understandability study. In the second phase, internal consistency of the translated questionnaire was analyzed. For this, results of the CD-QOL were compared to those of EuroQol and the Daily Fatigue Impact Scale (D-FIS. Understandability of the translated and adapted questionnaire was tested in six patients, and the validation study was done in 298 celiac patients (201 treated with a gluten-free diet and 97 at diagnosis. Results: in both celiac groups, Cronbach's alpha coefficient was high (0.90, feasibility was excellent (99.2 % of patients completed all questions, and there were no ceiling and floor effects. Spearman correlation to EuroQol and D-FIS was statistically significant (p < 0.05. CD-QOL score was different depending on whether state of health was good, fair, or poor based on the EuroQol score. Conclusion: the Spanish version of the CD-QOL is a valid tool for measuring HRQOL in celiac patients.
Wetmore, Daniel Z; Mukamel, Eran A; Schnitzer, Mark J
A basic question for theories of learning and memory is whether neuronal plasticity suffices to guide proper memory recall. Alternatively, information processing that is additional to readout of stored memories might occur during recall. We formulate a "lock-and-key" hypothesis regarding cerebellum-dependent motor memory in which successful learning shapes neural activity to match a temporal filter that prevents expression of stored but inappropriate motor responses. Thus, neuronal plasticity by itself is necessary but not sufficient to modify motor behavior. We explored this idea through computational studies of two cerebellar behaviors and examined whether deep cerebellar and vestibular nuclei neurons can filter signals from Purkinje cells that would otherwise drive inappropriate motor responses. In eyeblink conditioning, reflex acquisition requires the conditioned stimulus (CS) to precede the unconditioned stimulus (US) by >100 ms. In our biophysical models of cerebellar nuclei neurons this requirement arises through the phenomenon of postinhibitory rebound depolarization and matches longstanding behavioral data on conditioned reflex timing and reliability. Although CS-US intervals100 ms. This bound reflects the minimum time for deinactivation of rebound currents such as T-type Ca2+. In vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation, hyperpolarization-activated currents in vestibular nuclei neurons may underlie analogous dependence of adaptation magnitude on the timing of visual and vestibular stimuli. Thus, the proposed lock-and-key mechanisms link channel kinetics to recall performance and yield specific predictions of how perturbations to rebound depolarization affect motor expression.
Argôlo-Filho, Ronaldo Costa; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used successfully as a biopesticide for more than 60 years. More recently, genes encoding their toxins have been used to transform plants and other organisms. Despite the large amount of research on this bacterium, its true ecology is still a matter of debate, with two major viewpoints dominating: while some understand Bt as an insect pathogen, others see it as a saprophytic bacteria from soil. In this context, Bt’s pathogenicity to other taxa and the possibility that insects may not be the primary targets of Bt are also ideas that further complicate this scenario. The existence of conflicting research results, the difficulty in developing broader ecological and genetics studies, and the great genetic plasticity of this species has cluttered a definitive concept. In this review, we gathered information on the aspects of Bt ecology that are often ignored, in the attempt to clarify the lifestyle, mechanisms of transmission and target host range of this bacterial species. As a result, we propose an integrated view to account for Bt ecology. Although Bt is indeed a pathogenic bacterium that possesses a broad arsenal for virulence and defense mechanisms, as well as a wide range of target hosts, this seems to be an adaptation to specific ecological changes acting on a versatile and cosmopolitan environmental bacterium. Bt pathogenicity and host-specificity was favored evolutionarily by increased populations of certain insect species (or other host animals), whose availability for colonization were mostly caused by anthropogenic activities. These have generated the conditions for ecological imbalances that favored dominance of specific populations of insects, arachnids, nematodes, etc., in certain areas, with narrower genetic backgrounds. These conditions provided the selective pressure for development of new hosts for pathogenic interactions, and so, host specificity of certain strains. PMID:26462580
Ronaldo Costa Argôlo-Filho
Full Text Available Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt has been used successfully as a biopesticide for more than 60 years. More recently, genes encoding their toxins have been used to transform plants and other organisms. Despite the large amount of research on this bacterium, its true ecology is still a matter of debate, with two major viewpoints dominating: while some understand Bt as an insect pathogen, others see it as a saprophytic bacteria from soil. In this context, Bt’s pathogenicity to other taxa and the possibility that insects may not be the primary targets of Bt are also ideas that further complicate this scenario. The existence of conflicting research results, the difficulty in developing broader ecological and genetics studies, and the great genetic plasticity of this species has cluttered a definitive concept. In this review, we gathered information on the aspects of Bt ecology that are often ignored, in the attempt to clarify the lifestyle, mechanisms of transmission and target host range of this bacterial species. As a result, we propose an integrated view to account for Bt ecology. Although Bt is indeed a pathogenic bacterium that possesses a broad arsenal for virulence and defense mechanisms, as well as a wide range of target hosts, this seems to be an adaptation to specific ecological changes acting on a versatile and cosmopolitan environmental bacterium. Bt pathogenicity and host-specificity was favored evolutionarily by increased populations of certain insect species (or other host animals, whose availability for colonization were mostly caused by anthropogenic activities. These have generated the conditions for ecological imbalances that favored dominance of specific populations of insects, arachnids, nematodes, etc., in certain areas, with narrower genetic backgrounds. These conditions provided the selective pressure for development of new hosts for pathogenic interactions, and so, host specificity of certain strains.
Argôlo-Filho, Ronaldo Costa; Loguercio, Leandro Lopes
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has been used successfully as a biopesticide for more than 60 years. More recently, genes encoding their toxins have been used to transform plants and other organisms. Despite the large amount of research on this bacterium, its true ecology is still a matter of debate, with two major viewpoints dominating: while some understand Bt as an insect pathogen, others see it as a saprophytic bacteria from soil. In this context, Bt's pathogenicity to other taxa and the possibility that insects may not be the primary targets of Bt are also ideas that further complicate this scenario. The existence of conflicting research results, the difficulty in developing broader ecological and genetics studies, and the great genetic plasticity of this species has cluttered a definitive concept. In this review, we gathered information on the aspects of Bt ecology that are often ignored, in the attempt to clarify the lifestyle, mechanisms of transmission and target host range of this bacterial species. As a result, we propose an integrated view to account for Bt ecology. Although Bt is indeed a pathogenic bacterium that possesses a broad arsenal for virulence and defense mechanisms, as well as a wide range of target hosts, this seems to be an adaptation to specific ecological changes acting on a versatile and cosmopolitan environmental bacterium. Bt pathogenicity and host-specificity was favored evolutionarily by increased populations of certain insect species (or other host animals), whose availability for colonization were mostly caused by anthropogenic activities. These have generated the conditions for ecological imbalances that favored dominance of specific populations of insects, arachnids, nematodes, etc., in certain areas, with narrower genetic backgrounds. These conditions provided the selective pressure for development of new hosts for pathogenic interactions, and so, host specificity of certain strains.
Full Text Available The haemagglutinin (HA glycan binding selectivity of H1N1 influenza viruses is an important determinant for the host range of the virus and egg-adaption during vaccine production. This study integrates glycan binding data with structure-recognition models to examine the impact of the K123N, D225G and Q226R mutations (as seen in the HA of vaccine strains of the pandemic 2009 H1N1 swine influenza A virus. The glycan-binding selectivity of three A/California/07/09 vaccine production strains, and purified recombinant A/California/07/09 HAs harboring these mutations was examined via a solid-phase ELISA assay. Wild-type A/California/07/09 recombinant HA bound specifically to α2,6-linked sialyl-glycans, with no affinity for the α2,3-linked sialyl-glycans in the array. In contrast, the vaccine virus strains and recombinant HA harboring the Q226R HA mutation displayed a comparable pattern of highly specific binding to α2,3-linked sialyl-glycans, with a negligible affinity for α2,6-linked sialyl-glycans. The D225G A/California/07/09 recombinant HA displayed an enhanced binding affinity for both α2,6- and α2,3-linked sialyl-glycans in the array. Notably its α2,6-glycan affinity was generally higher compared to its α2,3-glycan affinity, which may explain why the double mutant was not naturally selected during egg-adaption of the virus. The K123N mutation which introduces a glycosylation site proximal to the receptor binding site, did not impact the α2,3/α2,6 glycan selectivity, however, it lowered the overall glycan binding affinity of the HA; suggesting glycosylation may interfere with receptor binding. Docking models and ‘per residues’ scoring were employed to provide a structure-recognition rational for the experimental glycan binding data. Collectively, the glycan binding data inform future vaccine design strategies to introduce the D225G or Q226R amino acid substitutions into recombinant H1N1 viruses.
Ibáñez-Vea, María; Huang, Honggang; Martínez de Morentin, Xabier; Pérez, Estela; Gato, Maria; Zuazo, Miren; Arasanz, Hugo; Fernández-Irigoyen, Joaquin; Santamaría, Enrique; Fernandez-Hinojal, Gonzalo; Larsen, Martin R; Escors, David; Kochan, Grazyna
Protein S-nitrosylation is a cysteine post-translational modification mediated by nitric oxide. An increasing number of studies highlight S-nitrosylation as an important regulator of signaling involved in numerous cellular processes. Despite the significant progress in the development of redox proteomic methods, identification and quantification of endogeneous S-nitrosylation using high-throughput mass-spectrometry-based methods is a technical challenge because this modification is highly labile. To overcome this drawback, most methods induce S-nitrosylation chemically in proteins using nitrosylating compounds before analysis, with the risk of introducing nonphysiological S-nitrosylation. Here we present a novel method to efficiently identify endogenous S-nitrosopeptides in the macrophage total proteome. Our approach is based on the labeling of S-nitrosopeptides reduced by ascorbate with a cysteine specific phosphonate adaptable tag (CysPAT), followed by titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) chromatography enrichment prior to nLC-MS/MS analysis. To test our procedure, we performed a large-scale analysis of this low-abundant modification in a murine macrophage cell line. We identified 569 endogeneous S-nitrosylated proteins compared with 795 following exogenous chemically induced S-nitrosylation. Importantly, we discovered 579 novel S-nitrosylation sites. The large number of identified endogenous S-nitrosylated peptides allowed the definition of two S-nitrosylation consensus sites, highlighting protein translation and redox processes as key S-nitrosylation targets in macrophages.
Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Roig-Zamboni, Véronique; Peumans, Willy J.; Rougé, Pierre; Van Damme, Els J.M.; Bourne, Yves
A lectin from the phytopathogenic ascomycete Sclerotina sclerotiorum that shares only weak sequence similarity with characterized fungal lectins has recently been identified. Sclerotina sclerotiorum agglutinin (SSA) is a homodimeric protein consisting of two identical subunits of ∼17 kDa and displays specificity primarily towards Gal/GalNAc. Glycan array screening indicates that SSA readily interacts with Gal/GalNAc-bearing glycan chains. The crystal structures of SSA in the ligand-free form and in complex with the Gal-β1,3-GalNAc (T-antigen) disaccharide have been determined at 1.6 and 1.97 Å resolution, respectively. SSA adopts a β-trefoil domain as previously identified for other carbohydrate-binding proteins of the ricin B-like lectin superfamily and accommodates terminal non-reducing galactosyl and N-acetylgalactosaminyl glycans. Unlike other structurally related lectins, SSA contains a single carbohydrate-binding site at site α. SSA reveals a novel dimeric assembly markedly dissimilar to those described earlier for ricin-type lectins. The present structure exemplifies the adaptability of the β-trefoil domain in the evolution of fungal lectins. PMID:20566411
Immig, Kerstin; Gericke, Martin; Menzel, Franziska; Merz, Felicitas; Krueger, Martin; Schiefenhövel, Fridtjof; Lösche, Andreas; Jäger, Kathrin; Hanisch, Uwe-Karsten; Biber, Knut; Bechmann, Ingo
The brain's immune privilege has been also attributed to the lack of dendritic cells (DC) within its parenchyma and the adjacent meninges, an assumption, which implies maintenance of antigens rather than their presentation in lymphoid organs. Using mice transcribing the green fluorescent protein under the promoter of the DC marker CD11c (itgax), we identified a juxtavascular population of cells expressing this DC marker and demonstrated their origin from bone marrow and local microglia. We now phenotypically compared this population with CD11c/CD45 double-positive cells from lung, liver, and spleen in healthy mice using seven-color flow cytometry. We identified unique, site-specific expression patterns of F4/80, CD80, CD86, CX3CR1, CCR2, FLT3, CD103, and MHC-II. Furthermore, we observed the two known CD45-positive populations (CD45(high) and CD45(int) ) in the brain, whereas liver, lung, and spleen exhibited a homogeneous CD45(high) population. CD11c-positive microglia lacked MHC-II expression and CD45(high) /CD11c-positive cells from the brain have a lower percentage of MHC-II-positive cells. To test whether phenotypical differences are fixed by origin or specifically develop due to environmental factors, we transplanted brain and spleen mononuclear cells on organotypic slice cultures from brain (OHSC) and spleen (OSSC). We demonstrate that adaption and ramification of MHC-II-positive splenocytes is paralleled by down-regulation of MHC-II, whereas brain-derived mononuclear cells neither ramified nor up-regulated MHC-II in OSSCs. Thus, brain-derived mononuclear cells maintain their MHC-II-negative phenotype within the environment of an immune organ. Intraparenchymal CD11c-positive cells share immunophenotypical characteristics of DCs from other organs but remain unique for their low MHC-II expression. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zagatto, A; Miranda, M F; Gobatto, C A
The purposes of this study were to determine and to compare the critical power concept adapted for the specific table tennis test (critical frequency - C F ) estimated from 5 mathematical models and using 2 different exhaustion criteria (voluntary and technical exhaustions). Also, it was an aim to assess the relationship between C F estimated from mathematical models and respiratory compensation point (RCP), peak oxygen uptake ( V˙O (2PEAK)) and minimal intensity at which V˙O (2PEAK) ( F V˙O (2PEAK)) appears. 9 male table tennis players [18(1) years; 62.3(4.4) kg] performed the maximal incremental test and 3-4 exhaustive exercise bouts to estimate C F s (balls · min (-1)). The exhaustion time and C F obtained were independent of the exhaustion criteria. The C F from 3-parameter model [45.2(7.0)-voluntary, 43.2(5.6)-technical] was lower than C F estimated by linear 2-parameter models, frequency-time (-1) [53.5(3.6)-voluntary, 53.5(3.5)-technical] and total ball thrown-time [52.2(3.5)-voluntary, 52.2(3.5)-technical] but significantly correlated. C F values from 2 linear models were significantly correlated with RCP [47.4(3.4) balls · min (-1)], and C F values of the linear and nonlinear models were correlated with F V˙O (2PEAK) [56.7(3.4) balls · min (-1)]. However, there were no significant correlations between C F values and V˙O (2PEAK) [49.8(1.1)ml · kg (-1) · min (-1)]. The results were not modified by exhaustion criteria. The 2 linear and non-linear 2-parameter models can be used to estimate aerobic endurance in specific table tennis tests. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Kamamoto, Cristhine de Souza Leão; Hassun, Karime Marques; Bagatin, Ediléia; Tomimori, Jane
many studies about the psychosocial impact of acne have been reported in international medical literature describing quality of life as a relevant clinical outcome. It is well known that the patient's perception about the disease may be different from the physician's evaluation. Therefore, it is important to use validated instruments that turn the patient's subjective opinion into objective information. to translate into Brazilian-Portuguese language and to culturally adapt a quality of life questionnaire, the Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (Acne-QoL), as well as to evaluate its reliability and validity. measurement properties were assessed: 1) validity: comparison between severity and Acne-QoL domain scores, correlations between acne duration and Acne-QoL domain scores, and correlation between Acne-QoL domain scores and SF-36 components; 2) internal consistency: Cronbach's α coefficient; 3) test-retest reproducibility: intraclass correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon test. Eighty subjects with a mean age of 20.5 ± 4.8 years presenting mild (33.8%), moderate (36.2%) and severe (30%) facial acne were enrolled. Acne-QoL domain scores were similar among the different acne severity groups except for role-social domain. Subjects with shorter acne duration presented significant higher scores. Acne-QoL domains showed significant correlations, both between themselves and with SF-36 role-social and mental health components. Internal consistency (0.925-0.952) and test-retest reproducibility were considered acceptable (0.768-0.836). the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Acne-QoL is a reliable and valid satisfactory outcome measure to be used in facial acne studies.
Kamamoto, Cristhine de Souza Leão; Hassun, Karime Marques; Bagatin, Ediléia; Tomimori, Jane
BACKGROUND many studies about the psychosocial impact of acne have been reported in international medical literature describing quality of life as a relevant clinical outcome. It is well known that the patient's perception about the disease may be different from the physician's evaluation. Therefore, it is important to use validated instruments that turn the patient's subjective opinion into objective information. OBJECTIVES to translate into Brazilian-Portuguese language and to culturally adapt a quality of life questionnaire, the Acne-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (Acne-QoL), as well as to evaluate its reliability and validity. METHODS measurement properties were assessed: 1) validity: comparison between severity and Acne-QoL domain scores, correlations between acne duration and Acne-QoL domain scores, and correlation between Acne-QoL domain scores and SF-36 components; 2) internal consistency: Cronbach's α coefficient; 3) test-retest reproducibility: intraclass correlation coefficient and Wilcoxon test. RESULTS Eighty subjects with a mean age of 20.5 ± 4.8 years presenting mild (33.8%), moderate (36.2%) and severe (30%) facial acne were enrolled. Acne-QoL domain scores were similar among the different acne severity groups except for role-social domain. Subjects with shorter acne duration presented significant higher scores. Acne-QoL domains showed significant correlations, both between themselves and with SF-36 role-social and mental health components. Internal consistency (0.925-0.952) and test-retest reproducibility were considered acceptable (0.768-0.836). CONCLUSIONS the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Acne-QoL is a reliable and valid satisfactory outcome measure to be used in facial acne studies. PMID:24626652
Coratella, Giuseppe; Beato, Marco; Milanese, Chiara; Longo, Stefano; Limonta, Eloisa; Rampichini, Susanna; Cè, Emiliano; Bisconti, Angela Valentina; Schena, F; Esposito, F
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of weighted jump squat (WJST) vs body mass squat jump training (BMSJT) on quadriceps muscle architecture, lower-limb lean-mass (LM) and muscle strength, performance in change of direction (COD), sprint and jump in recreational soccer-players. Forty-eight healthy soccer-players participated in an off-season randomized controlled-trial. Before and after an eight-week training intervention, vastus lateralis pennation angle, fascicle length, muscle thickness, LM, squat 1-RM, quadriceps and hamstrings isokinetic peak-torque, agility T-test, 10 and 30m sprint and squat-jump (SJ) were measured. Although similar increases in muscle thickness, fascicle length increased more in WJST (ES=1.18, 0.82-1.54) than in BMSJT (ES=0.54, 0.40-0.68) and pennation angle only increased in BMSJT (ES=1.03, 0.78-1.29). Greater increases in LM were observed in WJST (ES=0.44, 0.29-0.59) than in BMSJT (ES=0.21, 0.07-0.37). Agility T-test (ES=2.95, 2.72-3.18), 10m (ES=0.52, 0.22-0.82) and 30m-sprint (ES=0.52, 0.23-0.81) improved only in WJST, while SJ improved in BMSJT (ES=0.89, 0.43-1.35) more than in WJST (ES=0.30, 0.03-0.58). Similar increases in squat 1-RM and peak-torque occurred in both groups. The greater inertia accumulated within the landing-phase in WJST vs BMSJT has increased the eccentric workload, leading to specific eccentric-like adaptations in muscle architecture. The selective improvements in COD in WJST may be related to the increased braking ability generated by the enhanced eccentric workload.
Full Text Available People live in a world in which they are surrounded by potential disgust elicitors such as ``used'' chairs, air, silverware, and money as well as excretory activities. People function in this world by ignoring most of these, by active avoidance, reframing, or adaptation. The issue is particularly striking for professions, such as morticians, surgeons, or sanitation workers, in which there is frequent contact with major disgust elicitors. In this study, we study the ``adaptation'' process to dead bodies as disgust elicitors, by measuring specific types of disgust sensitivity in medical students before and after they have spent a few months dissecting a cadaver. Using the Disgust Scale, we find a significant reduction in disgust responses to death and body envelope violation elicitors, but no significant change in any other specific type of disgust. There is a clear reduction in discomfort at touching a cold dead body, but not in touching a human body which is still warm after death.
Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin
Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, ppain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zemirline, N.; Bourda, Y.; Reynaud, C.
Today, there is a real challenge to enable personalized access to information. Several systems have been proposed to address this challenge including Adaptive Hypermedia Systems (AHSs). However, the specification of adaptation strategies remains a difficult task for creators of such systems. In this paper, we consider the problem of the definition…
Scheel, Troels Kasper Høyer; Gottwein, Judith M; Carlsen, Thomas H R
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an important cause of chronic liver disease, and interferon-based therapy cures only 40 to 80% of patients, depending on HCV genotype. Research was accelerated by genotype 2a (strain JFH1) infectious cell culture systems. We previously developed viable JFH1-based...... (HC-TN and DH6), 1b (DH1 and DH5), and 3a (DBN) isolates, using previously identified adaptive mutations. Introduction of mutations from isolates of the same subtype either led to immediate efficient virus production or accelerated culture adaptation. The DH6 and DH5 recombinants without introduced......) but not to ED43 (4a). The mutations permitting robust virus production in Huh7.5 cells had no apparent effect on viral replication but allowed efficient assembly of intracellular infectious HCV for adapted novel or previously developed recombinants. In conclusion, previously identified mutations permitted...
Verhoeven, K.J.F.; Poorter, H.; Nevo, E.; Biere, A.
Understanding the genetic basis of local adaptation requires insight in the fitness effects of individual loci under natural field conditions. While rapid progress is made in the search for genes that control differences between plant populations, it is typically unknown whether the genes under
Michelle Gonçalves de Souza Tavares
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To translate the Asthma Control and Communication Instrument (ACCI to Portuguese and adapt it for use in Brazil. Methods: The ACCI was translated to Portuguese and adapted for use in Brazil in accordance with internationally accepted guidelines. The protocol included the following steps: permission and rights of use granted by the original author; translation of the ACCI from English to Portuguese; reconciliation; back-translation; review and harmonization of the back-translation; approval from the original author; review of the Portuguese version of the ACCI by an expert panel; cognitive debriefing (the clarity, understandability, and acceptability of the translated version being tested in a sample of the target population; and reconciliation and preparation of the final version. Results: During the cognitive debriefing process, 41 asthma patients meeting the inclusion criteria completed the ACCI and evaluated the clarity of the questions/statements. The clarity index for all ACCI items was > 0.9, meaning that all items were considered to be clear. Conclusions: The ACCI was successfully translated to Portuguese and culturally adapted for use in Brazil, the translated version maintaining the psychometric properties of the original version. The ACCI can be used in clinical practice because it is easy to understand and easily applied.
Full Text Available Deep-sea fishes provide a unique opportunity to study the physiology and evolutionary adaptation to extreme environments. We carried out a high throughput sequencing analysis on a 454 GS-FLX titanium plate using unnormalized cDNA libraries from six tissues of A. carbo. Assemblage and annotations were performed by Newbler and InterPro/Pfam analyses, respectively. The assembly of 544,491 high quality reads provided 8,319 contigs, 55.6% of which retrieved blast hits against the NCBI nonredundant database or were annotated with ESTscan. Comparison of functional genes at both the protein sequences and protein stability levels, associated with adaptations to depth, revealed similarities between A. carbo and other bathypelagic fishes. A selection of putative genes was standardized to evaluate the correlation between number of contigs and their normalized expression, as determined by qPCR amplification. The screening of the libraries contributed to the identification of new EST simple-sequence repeats (SSRs and to the design of primer pairs suitable for population genetic studies as well as for tagging and mapping of genes. The characterization of the deep-sea fish A. carbo first transcriptome is expected to provide abundant resources for genetic, evolutionary, and ecological studies of this species and the basis for further investigation of depth-related adaptation processes in fishes.
Stefanni, Sergio; Bettencourt, Raul; Pinheiro, Miguel; Moro, Gianluca De; Bongiorni, Lucia; Pallavicini, Alberto
Deep-sea fishes provide a unique opportunity to study the physiology and evolutionary adaptation to extreme environments. We carried out a high throughput sequencing analysis on a 454 GS-FLX titanium plate using unnormalized cDNA libraries from six tissues of A. carbo. Assemblage and annotations were performed by Newbler and InterPro/Pfam analyses, respectively. The assembly of 544,491 high quality reads provided 8,319 contigs, 55.6% of which retrieved blast hits against the NCBI nonredundant database or were annotated with ESTscan. Comparison of functional genes at both the protein sequences and protein stability levels, associated with adaptations to depth, revealed similarities between A. carbo and other bathypelagic fishes. A selection of putative genes was standardized to evaluate the correlation between number of contigs and their normalized expression, as determined by qPCR amplification. The screening of the libraries contributed to the identification of new EST simple-sequence repeats (SSRs) and to the design of primer pairs suitable for population genetic studies as well as for tagging and mapping of genes. The characterization of the deep-sea fish A. carbo first transcriptome is expected to provide abundant resources for genetic, evolutionary, and ecological studies of this species and the basis for further investigation of depth-related adaptation processes in fishes. PMID:25309900
Full Text Available Vestibulo-ocular reflexes ensure gaze stability during locomotion and passively induced head/body movements. In precocial vertebrates such as amphibians, vestibular reflexes are required very early at the onset of locomotor activity. While the formation of inner ears and the assembly of sensory-motor pathways is largely completed soon after hatching, angular and translational/tilt vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VOR display differential functional onsets and mature with different time courses. Otolith-derived eye movements appear immediately after hatching, whereas the appearance and progressive amelioration of semicircular canal-evoked eye movements is delayed and dependent on the acquisition of sufficiently large semicircular canal diameters. Moreover, semicircular canal functionality is also required to tune the initially omnidirectional otolith-derived VOR. The tuning is due to a reinforcement of those vestibulo-ocular connections that are co-activated by semicircular canal and otolith inputs during natural head/body motion. This suggests that molecular mechanisms initially guide the basic ontogenetic wiring, whereas semicircular canal-dependent activity is required to establish the spatio-temporal specificity of the reflex. While a robust VOR is activated during passive head/body movements, locomotor efference copies provide the major source for compensatory eye movements during tail- and limb-based swimming of larval and adult frogs. The integration of active/passive motion-related signals for gaze stabilization occurs in central vestibular neurons that are arranged as segmentally iterated functional groups along rhombomere 1-8. However, at variance with the topographic maps of most other sensory systems, the sensory-motor transformation of motion-related signals occurs in segmentally specific neuronal groups defined by the extraocular motor output targets.
Muir, Eric R; Chandra, Saurav B; De La Garza, Bryan H; Velagapudi, Chakradhar; Abboud, Hanna E; Duong, Timothy Q
To employ high-resolution manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to study abnormal calcium activity in different cell layers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retinas, and to determine whether MEMRI detects changes at earlier time points than previously reported. Sprague-Dawley rats were studied 14 days (n = 8) and 30 days (n = 5) after streptozotocin (STZ) or vehicle (n = 7) injection. Manganese-enhanced MRI at 20 × 20 × 700 μm, in which contrast is based on manganese as a calcium analogue and an MRI contrast agent, was obtained in light and dark adaptation of the retina in the same animals in which one eye was covered and the fellow eye was not. The MEMRI activity encoding of the light and dark adaptation was achieved in awake conditions and imaged under anesthesia. Manganese-enhanced MRI showed three layers, corresponding to the inner retina, outer retina, and the choroid. In normal animals, the outer retina showed higher MEMRI activity in dark compared to light; the inner retina displayed lower activity in dark compared to light; and the choroid showed no difference in activity. Manganese-enhanced MRI activity changed as early as 14 days after hyperglycemia and decreased with duration of hyperglycemia in the outer retina in dark relative to light adaptation. The choroid also had altered MEMRI activity at 14 days, which returned to normal by 30 days. No differences in MEMRI activity were detected in the inner retina. Manganese-enhanced MRI detects progressive reduction in calcium activity with duration of hyperglycemia in the outer retina as early as 14 days after hyperglycemia, earlier than any other time point reported in the literature.
Krehenwinkel, Henrik; Tautz, Diethard
Poleward range expansions are observed for an increasing number of species, which may be an effect of global warming during the past decades. However, it is still not clear in how far these expansions reflect simple geographical shifts of species ranges, or whether new genetic adaptations play a role as well. Here, we analyse the expansion of the wasp spider Argiope bruennichi into Northern Europe during the last century. We have used a range-wide sampling of contemporary populations and historical specimens from museums to trace the phylogeography and genetic changes associated with the range shift. Based on the analysis of mitochondrial, microsatellite and SNP markers, we observe a higher level of genetic diversity in the expanding populations, apparently due to admixture of formerly isolated lineages. Using reciprocal transplant experiments for testing overwintering tolerance, as well as temperature preference and tolerance tests in the laboratory, we find that the invading spiders have possibly shifted their temperature niche. This may be a key adaptation for survival in Northern latitudes. The museum samples allow a reconstruction of the invasion's genetic history. A first, small-scale range shift started around 1930, in parallel with the onset of global warming. A more massive invasion of Northern Europe associated with genetic admixture and morphological changes occurred in later decades. We suggest that the latter range expansion into far Northern latitudes may be a consequence of the admixture that provided the genetic material for adaptations to new environmental regimes. Hence, global warming could have facilitated the initial admixture of populations and this resulted in genetic lineages with new habitat preferences. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Muir, Eric R.; Chandra, Saurav B.; De La Garza, Bryan H.; Velagapudi, Chakradhar; Abboud, Hanna E.; Duong, Timothy Q.
Purpose. To employ high-resolution manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) to study abnormal calcium activity in different cell layers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat retinas, and to determine whether MEMRI detects changes at earlier time points than previously reported. Methods. Sprague-Dawley rats were studied 14 days (n = 8) and 30 days (n = 5) after streptozotocin (STZ) or vehicle (n = 7) injection. Manganese-enhanced MRI at 20 × 20 × 700 μm, in which contrast is based on manganese as a calcium analogue and an MRI contrast agent, was obtained in light and dark adaptation of the retina in the same animals in which one eye was covered and the fellow eye was not. The MEMRI activity encoding of the light and dark adaptation was achieved in awake conditions and imaged under anesthesia. Results. Manganese-enhanced MRI showed three layers, corresponding to the inner retina, outer retina, and the choroid. In normal animals, the outer retina showed higher MEMRI activity in dark compared to light; the inner retina displayed lower activity in dark compared to light; and the choroid showed no difference in activity. Manganese-enhanced MRI activity changed as early as 14 days after hyperglycemia and decreased with duration of hyperglycemia in the outer retina in dark relative to light adaptation. The choroid also had altered MEMRI activity at 14 days, which returned to normal by 30 days. No differences in MEMRI activity were detected in the inner retina. Conclusions. Manganese-enhanced MRI detects progressive reduction in calcium activity with duration of hyperglycemia in the outer retina as early as 14 days after hyperglycemia, earlier than any other time point reported in the literature. PMID:26098468
Taylor, Tonya N; Dolezal, Curtis; Tross, Susan; Holmes, William C
We sought to assess the reliability and construct validity of the HIV/AIDS-Targeted Quality of Life instrument (HAT-QoL) and the Medical Outcomes Study HIV Health Survey (MOS-HIV) adapted for use in Shona-speaking rural Zimbabwe. HAT-QoL and MOS-HIV were translated and culturally adapted into Shona, and administered to a convenience-sample of 400 patients with HIV-related opportunistic infections. HIV disease severity and bereavement history were assessed. Factor analysis of the HAT-QoL items produced seven factors that were nearly identical to the factor structure reported for an American sample that was the basis for the current HAT-QoL scales. Factor analysis of the MOS-HIV scales resulted in a single factor, not the expected two-factor structure (physical and mental). Convergent and discriminant validity assessments confirmed, in general, that similar Shona HAT-QoL and MOS-HIV dimensions were correlated and dissimilar ones not correlated. Construct validity assessments indicated that, on the whole, most Shona HAT-QoL and MOS-HIV dimensions were capturing anticipated subgroup differences. The exceptions were the Shona MOS-HIV dimensions of general health perceptions, cognitive function, and the quality of life (QoL) item. The reliability and validity of most Shona-adapted HAT-QoL and MOS-HIV dimensions suggest that both instruments are likely useful in measuring the QoL of rural, Shona-speaking populations in Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Zambia, and Botswana.
John Innes; Linda A. Joyce; Seppo Kellomaki; Bastiaan Louman; Aynslie Ogden; Ian Thompson; Matthew Ayres; Chin Ong; Heru Santoso; Brent Sohngen; Anita Wreford
This chapter develops a framework to explore examples of adaptation options that could be used to ensure that the ecosystem services provided by forests are maintained under future climates. The services are divided into broad areas within which managers can identify specific management goals for individual forests or landscapes. Adaptation options exist for the major...
Paulsen, A; Odgaard, A; Overgaard, S
The Oxford hip score (OHS) is a 12-item questionnaire designed and developed to assess function and pain from the perspective of patients who are undergoing total hip replacement (THR). The OHS has been shown to be consistent, reliable, valid and sensitive to clinical change following THR. It has been translated into different languages, but no adequately translated, adapted and validated Danish language version exists. The OHS was translated and cross-culturally adapted into Danish from the original English version, using methods based on best-practice guidelines. The translation was tested for psychometric quality in patients drawn from a cohort from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Register (DHR). The Danish OHS had a response rate of 87.4%, no floor effect and a 19.9% ceiling effect (as expected in post-operative patients). Only 1.2% of patients had too many items missing to calculate a sum score. Construct validity was adequate and 80% of our predefined hypotheses regarding the correlation between scores on the Danish OHS and the other questionnaires were confirmed. The intraclass correlation (ICC) of the different items ranged from 0.80 to 0.95 and the average limits of agreement (LOA) ranged from -0.05 to 0.06. The Danish OHS had a high internal consistency with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.99 and an average inter-item correlation of 0.88. This Danish version of the OHS is a valid and reliable patient-reported outcome measurement instrument (PROM) with similar qualities to the original English language version.
Adaptive Architecture concerns buildings that are specifically designed to adapt to their inhabitants and to their environments. Work in this space has a very long history, with a number of adaptive buildings emerging during the modernist period, such as Rietveld’s Schröder house, Gaudi’s Casa Batlló and Chareau's Maison de Verre. Such early work included manual adaptivity, even if that was motor-assisted. Today, buildings have started to combine this with varying degrees of automation and de...
Rist, Lucy; Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Frost, Peter
Adaptive management (AM) emerged in the literature in the mid-1970s in response both to a realization of the extent of uncertainty involved in management, and a frustration with attempts to use modelling to integrate knowledge and make predictions. The term has since become increasingly widely used...... in scientific articles, policy documents and management plans, but both understanding and application of the concept is mixed. This paper reviews recent literature from conservation and natural resource management journals to assess diversity in how the term is used, highlight ambiguities and consider how...... the concept might be further assessed. AM is currently being used to describe many different management contexts, scales and locations. Few authors define the term explicitly or describe how it offers a means to improve management outcomes in their specific management context. Many do not adhere to the idea...
Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister
Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.
Park, Michael A.; Darmofal, David L.
An adaptive method that robustly produces high aspect ratio tetrahedra to a general 3D metric specification without introducing hybrid semi-structured regions is presented. The elemental operators and higher-level logic is described with their respective domain-decomposed parallelizations. An anisotropic tetrahedral grid adaptation scheme is demonstrated for 1000-1 stretching for a simple cube geometry. This form of adaptation is applicable to more complex domain boundaries via a cut-cell approach as demonstrated by a parallel 3D supersonic simulation of a complex fighter aircraft. To avoid the assumptions and approximations required to form a metric to specify adaptation, an approach is introduced that directly evaluates interpolation error. The grid is adapted to reduce and equidistribute this interpolation error calculation without the use of an intervening anisotropic metric. Direct interpolation error adaptation is illustrated for 1D and 3D domains.
Scribbans, Trisha D; Ma, Jasmin K; Edgett, Brittany A; Vorobej, Kira A; Mitchell, Andrew S; Zelt, Jason G E; Simpson, Craig A; Quadrilatero, Joe; Gurd, Brendon J
The present study examined the effect of concurrent exercise training and daily resveratrol (RSV) supplementation (150 mg) on training-induced adaptations following low-dose high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Sixteen recreationally active (∼22 years, ∼51 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) men were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to either the RSV or placebo group with both groups performing 4 weeks of HIIT 3 days per week. Before and after training, participants had a resting muscle biopsy taken, completed a peak oxygen uptake test, a Wingate test, and a submaximal exercise test. A main effect of training (p training (p training: 54.5 ± 1.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), effect size (ES) = 0.93; RSV - pretraining: 49.6 ± 2.2, post-training: 52.3 ± 2.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), ES = 0.50) and Wingate peak power (placebo: pretraining: 747 ± 39, post-training: 809 ± 31 W, ES = 0.84; RSV - pretraining: 679 ± 39, post-training: 691 ± 43 W, ES = 0.12). Fibre-type distribution was unchanged, while a main effect of training (p training was significantly (p training and RSV supplementation may alter the normal training response induced by low-volume HIIT.
Carbonell, Alberto; Maliogka, Varvara I; Pérez, José de Jesús; Salvador, Beatriz; León, David San; García, Juan Antonio; Simón-Mateo, Carmen
Plum pox virus (PPV)-D and PPV-R are two isolates from strain D of PPV that differ in host specificity. Previous analyses of chimeras originating from PPV-R and PPV-D suggested that the N terminus of the coat protein (CP) includes host-specific pathogenicity determinants. Here, these determinants were mapped precisely by analyzing the infectivity in herbaceous and woody species of chimeras containing a fragment of the 3' region of PPV-D (including the region coding for the CP) in a PPV-R backbone. These chimeras were not infectious in Prunus persica, but systemically infected Nicotiana clevelandii and N. benthamiana when specific amino acids were modified or deleted in a short 30-amino-acid region of the N terminus of the CP. Most of these mutations did not reduce PPV fitness in Prunus spp. although others impaired systemic infection in this host. We propose a model in which the N terminus of the CP, highly relevant for virus systemic movement, is targeted by a host defense mechanism in Nicotiana spp. Mutations in this short region allow PPV to overcome the defense response in this host but can compromise the efficiency of PPV systemic movement in other hosts such as Prunus spp.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether B cell-derived immune defenses of the gastro-intestinal tract are activated to produce HIV-specific antibodies in children continuously exposed to HIV via breast-feeding. METHODS: Couples of HIV-1-infected mothers (n = 14 and their breastfed non HIV-infected (n = 8 and HIV-infected (n = 6 babies, and healthy HIV-negative mothers and breastfed babies (n = 10 as controls, were prospectively included at the Complexe Pédiatrique of Bangui, Central African Republic. Immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG and IgM and anti-gp160 antibodies from mother's milk and stools of breastfed children were quantified by ELISA. Immunoaffinity purified anti-gp160 antibodies were characterized functionally regarding their capacity to reduce attachment and/or infection of R5- and X4- tropic HIV-1 strains on human colorectal epithelial HT29 cells line or monocyte-derived-macrophages (MDM. RESULTS: The levels of total IgA and IgG were increased in milk of HIV-infected mothers and stools of HIV-exposed children, indicating the activation of B cell-derived mucosal immunity. Breast milk samples as well as stool samples from HIV-negative and HIV-infected babies exposed to HIV by breast-feeding, contained high levels of HIV-specific antibodies, mainly IgG antibodies, less frequently IgA antibodies, and rarely IgM antibodies. Relative ratios of excretion by reference to lactoferrin calculated for HIV-specific IgA, IgG and IgM in stools of HIV-exposed children were largely superior to 1, indicating active production of HIV-specific antibodies by the intestinal mucosa. Antibodies to gp160 purified from pooled stools of HIV-exposed breastfed children inhibited the attachment of HIV-1NDK on HT29 cells by 63% and on MDM by 77%, and the attachment of HIV-1JRCSF on MDM by 40%; and the infection of MDM by HIV-1JRCSF by 93%. CONCLUSIONS: The intestinal mucosa of children exposed to HIV by breast-feeding produces HIV-specific antibodies harbouring
Cross-cultural adaptation of the Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS to be used with Brazilian burned patients Adaptación transcultural de la "Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS" para ser aplicada en pacientes quemados brasileños Adaptação transcultural da "Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS" para ser aplicada em pacientes queimados brasileiros
María Elena Echevarría-Guanilo
Full Text Available This study aimed at translating and adapting the Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - BSPAS and the Impact of Event Scale - IES into Portuguese; making available two simple, short and easily applicable instruments and describing the study participants according to their scores on the Visual Analogue Scale and the Trait-State Anxiety Inventory. The cross-cultural adaptation process involved the following steps: translation of the scales; reaching a consensus in Portuguese; evaluation by an expert committee; back-translation; obtaining a consensus in Dutch; comparing the original versions with the consensus in Dutch; semantic analysis and pretest of the Portuguese versions. The results showed that both scales present high values of internal consistency between the scale items. Participants' average pain scores were higher after bathing and wound dressing. Participants' average anxiety scores were low or medium.Los objetivos del estudio fueron traducir y adaptar la "Burns Specific Pain Anxiety Scale - SPAS" y la "Impact Event Scale - IES" para el portugués, poner a disposición dos instrumentos simples, cortos y de fácil aplicación y describir los participantes del estudio, según los scores obtenidos por medio de la aplicación de la Escala Visual Analógica y del Inventario de Ansiedad Trazo-Estado. El proceso de adaptación de las escalas siguió las siguientes etapas: traducción de las escalas; obtención del consenso en portugués; evaluación por un comité de jueces; "back-translation"; obtención del consenso en holandés; comparación de las versiones originales y en holandés; análisis semántica y pretest de las versiones en portugués. Los resultados mostraron índices elevados de consistencia interna de los ítems de la escala. La media de los escores de dolor fueron más altos después del baño y curaciones. Los scores medios de ansiedad fueron clasificados como bajos o medios.Este estudo teve como objetivos traduzir e adaptar a
Melissa D. Kurman
acidification in the long term, it is possible that some genotypes may prove to be more resilient than others, particularly to short perturbations of the carbonate system. These results provide evidence that populations of L. pertusa in the Gulf of Mexico may contain the genetic variability necessary to support an adaptive response to future ocean acidification.
David G Angeler
Full Text Available The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011 data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.
Angeler, David G.; Allen, Craig R.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Gunderson, Lance H.; Hjerne, Olle; Winder, Monika
The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994–2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.
Xue, Cheng; Tang, Fuk-Hay
A patient specific registration model based on finite element method was investigated in this study. Image registration of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and Magnetic Resonance imaging (MRI) has been studied a lot. Surface-based registration is extensively applied in medical imaging. We develop and evaluate a registration method combine surface-based registration with biomechanical modeling. .Four sample cases of patients with PET and MRI breast scans performed within 30 days were collected from hospital. K-means clustering algorithm was used to segment images into two parts, which is fat tissue and neoplasm . Instead of placing extrinsic landmarks on patients' body which may be invasive, we proposed a new boundary condition to simulate breast deformation during two screening. Then a three dimensional model with meshes was built. Material properties were assigned to this model according to previous studies. The whole registration was based on a biomechanical finite element model, which could simulate deformation of breast under pressure.
Armstrong, Stuart D; Xia, Dong; Bah, Germanus S; Krishna, Ritesh; Ngangyung, Henrietta F; LaCourse, E James; McSorley, Henry J; Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A; Chounna-Ndongmo, Patrick W; Wanji, Samuel; Enyong, Peter A; Taylor, David W; Blaxter, Mark L; Wastling, Jonathan M; Tanya, Vincent N; Makepeace, Benjamin L
Despite 40 years of control efforts, onchocerciasis (river blindness) remains one of the most important neglected tropical diseases, with 17 million people affected. The etiological agent, Onchocerca volvulus, is a filarial nematode with a complex lifecycle involving several distinct stages in the definitive host and blackfly vector. The challenges of obtaining sufficient material have prevented high-throughput studies and the development of novel strategies for disease control and diagnosis. Here, we utilize the closest relative of O. volvulus, the bovine parasite Onchocerca ochengi, to compare stage-specific proteomes and host-parasite interactions within the secretome. We identified a total of 4260 unique O. ochengi proteins from adult males and females, infective larvae, intrauterine microfilariae, and fluid from intradermal nodules. In addition, 135 proteins were detected from the obligate Wolbachia symbiont. Observed protein families that were enriched in all whole body extracts relative to the complete search database included immunoglobulin-domain proteins, whereas redox and detoxification enzymes and proteins involved in intracellular transport displayed stage-specific overrepresentation. Unexpectedly, the larval stages exhibited enrichment for several mitochondrial-related protein families, including members of peptidase family M16 and proteins which mediate mitochondrial fission and fusion. Quantification of proteins across the lifecycle using the Hi-3 approach supported these qualitative analyses. In nodule fluid, we identified 94 O. ochengi secreted proteins, including homologs of transforming growth factor-β and a second member of a novel 6-ShK toxin domain family, which was originally described from a model filarial nematode (Litomosoides sigmodontis). Strikingly, the 498 bovine proteins identified in nodule fluid were strongly dominated by antimicrobial proteins, especially cathelicidins. This first high-throughput analysis of an Onchocerca spp
Armstrong, Stuart D.; Xia, Dong; Bah, Germanus S.; Krishna, Ritesh; Ngangyung, Henrietta F.; LaCourse, E. James; McSorley, Henry J.; Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A.; Chounna-Ndongmo, Patrick W.; Wanji, Samuel; Enyong, Peter A.; Taylor, David W.; Blaxter, Mark L.; Wastling, Jonathan M.; Tanya, Vincent N.; Makepeace, Benjamin L.
Despite 40 years of control efforts, onchocerciasis (river blindness) remains one of the most important neglected tropical diseases, with 17 million people affected. The etiological agent, Onchocerca volvulus, is a filarial nematode with a complex lifecycle involving several distinct stages in the definitive host and blackfly vector. The challenges of obtaining sufficient material have prevented high-throughput studies and the development of novel strategies for disease control and diagnosis. Here, we utilize the closest relative of O. volvulus, the bovine parasite Onchocerca ochengi, to compare stage-specific proteomes and host-parasite interactions within the secretome. We identified a total of 4260 unique O. ochengi proteins from adult males and females, infective larvae, intrauterine microfilariae, and fluid from intradermal nodules. In addition, 135 proteins were detected from the obligate Wolbachia symbiont. Observed protein families that were enriched in all whole body extracts relative to the complete search database included immunoglobulin-domain proteins, whereas redox and detoxification enzymes and proteins involved in intracellular transport displayed stage-specific overrepresentation. Unexpectedly, the larval stages exhibited enrichment for several mitochondrial-related protein families, including members of peptidase family M16 and proteins which mediate mitochondrial fission and fusion. Quantification of proteins across the lifecycle using the Hi-3 approach supported these qualitative analyses. In nodule fluid, we identified 94 O. ochengi secreted proteins, including homologs of transforming growth factor-β and a second member of a novel 6-ShK toxin domain family, which was originally described from a model filarial nematode (Litomosoides sigmodontis). Strikingly, the 498 bovine proteins identified in nodule fluid were strongly dominated by antimicrobial proteins, especially cathelicidins. This first high-throughput analysis of an Onchocerca spp
Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper
differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases......Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...
Bonald, Thomas; Indre, Raluca-Maria; Oueslati, Sara
International audience; We propose a modified version of Optical Burst Switching (OBS) that adapts the size of switched data units to the network load. Specifically, we propose a two-way reservation OBS scheme in which every active source-destination pair attempts to reserve a lightpath and for every successful reservation, transmits an optical burst whose size is proportional to the number of active data flows. We refer to this technique as Adaptive Optical Burst Switching. We prove that the...
Myravyova, E. A.; Sharipov, M. I.; Radakina, D. S.
During writing this work, the fuzzy controller with a double base of rules was studied, which was applied for the synthesis of the automated control system. A method for fuzzy controller adaptation has been developed. The adaptation allows the fuzzy controller to automatically compensate for parametric interferences that occur at the control object. Specifically, the fuzzy controller controlled the outlet steam temperature in the boiler unit BKZ-75-39 GMA. The software code was written in the programming support environment Unity Pro XL designed for fuzzy controller adaptation.
Considering the Specific Impact of Harsh Conditions and Oil Weathering on Diversity, Adaptation, and Activity of Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacteria in Strategies of Bioremediation of Harsh Oily-Polluted Soils
Zulfa Al Disi
Full Text Available Weathering processes change properties and composition of spilled oil, representing the main reason of failure of bioaugmentation strategies. Our purpose was to investigate the metabolic adaptation of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria at harsh conditions to be considered to overcome the limitations of bioaugmentation strategies at harsh conditions. Polluted soils, exposed for prolonged periods to weathered oil in harsh soils and weather conditions, were used. Two types of enrichment cultures were employed using 5% and 10% oil or diesel as sole carbon sources with varying the mineral nitrogen sources and C/N ratios. The most effective isolates were obtained based on growth, tolerance to toxicity, and removal efficiency of diesel hydrocarbons. Activities of the newly isolated bacteria, in relation to the microenvironment from where they were isoalted and their interaction with the weathered oil, showed individual specific ability to adapt when exposed to such factors, to acquire metabolic potentialities. Among 39 isolates, ten identified ones by 16S rDNA genes similarities, including special two Pseudomonas isolates and one Citrobacter isolate, showed particularity of shifting hydrocarbon-degrading ability from short chain n-alkanes (n-C12–n-C16 to longer chain n-alkanes (n-C21–n-C25 and vice versa by alternating nitrogen source compositions and C/N ratios. This is shown for the first time.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) Project Lead: Scott Poll Subject Fault diagnosis in electrical power systems Description The Advanced...
Full Text Available Adaptive skills are defined as a collection of conceptual, social and practical skills that are learned by people in order to function in their everyday lives. They include an individual's ability to adapt to and manage her or his surroundings to effectively function and meet social or community expectations. Good adaptive skills promote individual's independence in different environments, whereas poorly developed adaptive skills are connected to individual's dependency and with greater need for control and help with everyday tasks. Assessment of adaptive skills is often connected to assessment of intellectual disability, due to the reason that the diagnosis of intellectual disability includes lower levels of achievements on standardized tests of intellectual abilities as well as important deficits in adaptive skills. Assessment of adaptive behavior is a part of standard assessment battery with children and adults with different problems, disorders or disabilities that affect their everyday functioning. This contribution also presents psychometric tools most regularly used for assessment of adaptive skills and characteristics of adaptive skills with individual clinical groups.
Bioinformatic identification of cytochrome b5 homologues from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans highlights the crucial role of A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b₅ in parasitic adaptation.
Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Mita, Toshihiro; Yokota, Takehiro; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ueno, Takashi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi
We previously reported that adult Ascaris suum possesses NADH-metmyoglobin and NADH-methaemoglobin reductase systems that are located in the cells of the body wall and in the extracellular perienteric fluid, respectively, which helps them adapt to environmental hypoxia by recovering the differential functions of myoglobin and haemoglobin. A. suum cytochrome b5, an adult-specific secretory protein and an essential component of the NADH-metmyo (haemo) globin reductase system, has been extensively studied, and its unique nature has been determined. However, the relationship between A. suum cytochrome b5 and the canonical cytochrome b5 proteins, from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unclear. Here, we have characterised four cytochrome b5-like proteins from C. elegans (accession numbers: CAB01732, CCD68984, CAJ58492, and CAA98498) and three from A. suum (accession numbers: ADY48796, ADY46277, and ADY48338) and compared them with A. suum cytochrome b5 in silico. Bioinformatic and molecular analyses showed that CAA98498 from C. elegans is equivalent of A. suum cytochrome b5, which was not expressed as a mature mRNA. Further, the CAA98498 possessed no secretory signal peptide, which occurs in A. suum cytochrome b5 precursor. These results suggest that this free-living nematode does not need a haemoprotein such as the A. suum cytochrome b5 and highlight the crucial function of this A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b5 in parasitic adaptation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
cognitive - behavioral therapy strategies packaged and sequenced to target the three high base-rate combat and operational traumas, namely, life-threat...to determine whether AD is as least as effective as CPT, cognitive only version (CPT-C), in terms of its impact on deployment-related psychological ...Bryant, R. A. (2009). Early cognitive - behavioral interventions for adults. In E. B. Foa, T. M. Keane, M. J. Friedman, J. A. Cohen, E. B. Foa, T. M
comK Prophage Junction Fragments as Markers for Listeria monocytogenes Genotypes Unique to Individual Meat and Poultry Processing Plants and a Model for Rapid Niche-Specific Adaptation, Biofilm Formation, and Persistence ▿ †
Verghese, Bindhu; Lok, Mei; Wen, Jia; Alessandria, Valentina; Chen, Yi; Kathariou, Sophia; Knabel, Stephen
Different strains of Listeria monocytogenes are well known to persist in individual food processing plants and to contaminate foods for many years; however, the specific genotypic and phenotypic mechanisms responsible for persistence of these unique strains remain largely unknown. Based on sequences in comK prophage junction fragments, different strains of epidemic clones (ECs), which included ECII, ECIII, and ECV, were identified and shown to be specific to individual meat and poultry processing plants. The comK prophage-containing strains showed significantly higher cell densities after incubation at 30°C for 48 h on meat and poultry food-conditioning films than did strains lacking the comK prophage (P Listeria's rapid niche adaptation, biofilm formation, persistence, and subsequent transmission to foods. Also, comK prophage junction fragment sequences may permit accurate tracking of persistent strains back to and within individual food processing operations and thus allow the design of more effective intervention strategies to reduce contamination and enhance food safety. PMID:21441318
comK prophage junction fragments as markers for Listeria monocytogenes genotypes unique to individual meat and poultry processing plants and a model for rapid niche-specific adaptation, biofilm formation, and persistence.
Verghese, Bindhu; Lok, Mei; Wen, Jia; Alessandria, Valentina; Chen, Yi; Kathariou, Sophia; Knabel, Stephen
Different strains of Listeria monocytogenes are well known to persist in individual food processing plants and to contaminate foods for many years; however, the specific genotypic and phenotypic mechanisms responsible for persistence of these unique strains remain largely unknown. Based on sequences in comK prophage junction fragments, different strains of epidemic clones (ECs), which included ECII, ECIII, and ECV, were identified and shown to be specific to individual meat and poultry processing plants. The comK prophage-containing strains showed significantly higher cell densities after incubation at 30°C for 48 h on meat and poultry food-conditioning films than did strains lacking the comK prophage (P Listeria's rapid niche adaptation, biofilm formation, persistence, and subsequent transmission to foods. Also, comK prophage junction fragment sequences may permit accurate tracking of persistent strains back to and within individual food processing operations and thus allow the design of more effective intervention strategies to reduce contamination and enhance food safety.
Møller Larsen, Marcus; Lyngsie, Jacob
We investigate why some exchange relationships terminate prematurely. We argue that investments in informal governance structures induce premature termination in relationships already governed by formal contracts. The formalized adaptive behavior of formal governance structures and the flexible...... and reciprocal adaptation of informal governance structure create ambiguity in situations of contingencies, which, subsequently, increases the likelihood of premature relationship termination. Using a large sample of exchange relationships in the global service provider industry, we find support for a hypothesis...
Opt, Susan K.
Courses: Introduction to Communication, Public Speaking, Persuasion, Business Communication. Objective: This activity increases students' understanding of audience adaptation and improves their ability to adapt presentations to specific audiences.
Gottwein, Judith M.; Jensen, Sanne B.; Serre, Stéphanie B. N.; Ghanem, Lubna; Scheel, Troels K. H.; Jensen, Tanja B.; Krarup, Henrik; Uzcategui, Nathalie; Mikkelsen, Lotte S.
To facilitate studies of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS4A, we aimed at developing J6/JFH1-based recombinants with genotype 1- to 7-specific NS4A proteins. We developed efficient culture systems expressing NS4A proteins of genotypes (isolates) 1a (H77 and TN), 1b (J4), 2a (J6), 4a (ED43), 5a (SA13), 6a (HK6a), and 7a (QC69), with peak infectivity titers of ∼3.5 to 4.5 log10 focus-forming units per ml. Except for genotype 2a (J6), growth depended on adaptive mutations identified in long-term culture. Genotype 1a, 1b, and 4a recombinants were adapted by amino acid substitutions F772S (p7) and V1663A (NS4A), while 5a, 6a, and 7a recombinants required additional substitutions in the NS3 protease and/or NS4A. We demonstrated applicability of the developed recombinants for study of antivirals. Genotype 1 to 7 NS4A recombinants showed similar responses to the protease inhibitors telaprevir (VX-950), boceprevir (Sch503034), simeprevir (TMC435350), danoprevir (ITMN-191), and vaniprevir (MK-7009), to alpha interferon 2b, and to the putative NS4A inhibitor ACH-806. The efficacy of ACH-806 was lower than that of protease inhibitors and was not influenced by changes at amino acids 1042 and 1065 (in the NS3 protease), which have been suggested to mediate resistance to ACH-806 in replicons. Genotype 1a, 1b, and 2a recombinants showed viral spread under long-term treatment with ACH-806, without acquisition of resistance mutations in the NS3-NS4A region. Relatively high concentrations of ACH-806 inhibited viral assembly, but not replication, in a single-cycle production assay. The developed HCV culture systems will facilitate studies benefitting from expression of genotype-specific NS4A in a constant backbone in the context of the complete viral replication cycle, including functional studies and evaluations of the efficacy of antivirals. PMID:24060868
Justin C. Fay
Full Text Available Adaptive evolution has provided us with a unique set of characteristics that define us as humans, including morphological, physiological and cellular changes. Yet, natural selection provides no assurances that adaptation is without human health consequences; advantageous mutations will increase in frequency so long as there is a net gain in fitness. As such, the current incidence of human disease can depend on previous adaptations. Here, I review genome-wide and gene-specific studies in which adaptive evolution has played a role in shaping human genetic disease. In addition to the disease consequences of adaptive phenotypes, such as bipedal locomotion and resistance to certain pathogens, I review evidence that adaptive mutations have influenced the frequency of linked disease alleles through genetic hitchhiking. Taken together, the links between human adaptation and disease highlight the importance of their combined influence on functional variation within the human genome and offer opportunities to discover and characterize such variation.
Jørgensen, Frances; Boer, Harry
In this paper, data from a longitudinal case study in an organization attempting to adapt its internal work processes to changes in its external context are presented, analyzed and discussed. Specifically, functionally structured work teams in one department of a Danish production facility were...
Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho adaptar um pulverizador de tração humana para aplicação localizada de herbicidas. Para o desenvolvimento do circuito eletrônico, foi elaborado um programa computacional em linguagem Assembly, com informações sobre a variação da resistência elétrica no LDR (Resistor Dependente de Luz referente à radiação global incidente e refletida para quatro tipos de superfícies diferentes (plantas dicotiledôneas, plantas monocotiledôneas, palhada de trigo e solo. Concluiu-se que é possível e economicamente viável a utilização do sensor LDR para detecção de plantas daninhas.The objective of this work was to adapt a manual spray for herbicide application at specific site. For the development of the electronic circuit, a computer program in Assembly language was elaborated, with information on the variation of the electric resistance in LDR (Light Dependent Resistance, referring to the incident and reflected global radiation for four types of different surfaces (dicotyledonous plants, monocotyledonous plants, wheat straw and soil. It was concluded that it is possible and economically viable to utilize the LDR sensor to detect weeds.
J. Dits (Joyce); W.M. King; J. van der Steen (Hans)
textabstractVestibulo-ocular reflexes are the fastest compensatory reflex systems. One of these is the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex (TVOR) which stabilizes the gaze at a given fixation point during whole body translations. For a proper response of the TVOR the eyes have to counter rotate in
Emerson, Kirk; Gerlak, Andrea K.
Adaptation and the adaptive capacity of human and environmental systems have been of central concern to natural and social science scholars, many of whom characterize and promote the need for collaborative cross-boundary systems that are seen as flexible and adaptive by definition. Researchers who study collaborative governance systems in the public administration, planning and policy literature have paid less attention to adaptive capacity specifically and institutional adaptation in general. This paper bridges the two literatures and finds four common dimensions of capacity, including structural arrangements, leadership, knowledge and learning, and resources. In this paper, we focus on institutional adaptation in the context of collaborative governance regimes and try to clarify and distinguish collaborative capacity from adaptive capacity and their contributions to adaptive action. We posit further that collaborative capacities generate associated adaptive capacities thereby enabling institutional adaptation within collaborative governance regimes. We develop these distinctions and linkages between collaborative and adaptive capacities with the help of an illustrative case study in watershed management within the National Estuary Program.
Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin
offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...... to be static, and no longer acts as a kind of spatial constancy maintaining stability and order? Moreover, what new potentials open in lighting design? This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research project entitled LED Lighting; Interdisciplinary LED Lighting Research...
Kjeldsen, Lars Peter; Eriksen, Mette Rose
Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale.......Artikelen er en evaluering af de adaptive tests, som blev indført i folkeskolen. Artiklen sætter særligt fokus på evaluering i folkeskolen, herunder bidrager den med vejledning til evaluering, evalueringsværktøjer og fagspecifkt evalueringsmateriale....
Past and future corollaries of theories on causes of metabolic syndrome and obesity related co-morbidities part 2: a composite unifying theory review of human-specific co-adaptations to brain energy consumption.
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) predicts type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, and their rates have escalated over the last few decades. Obesity related co-morbidities also overlap the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, understanding of the syndrome's underlying causes may have been misapprehended. The current paper follows on from a theory review by McGill, A-T in Archives of Public Health, 72: 30. This accompanying paper utilises research on human evolution and new biochemistry to theorise on why MetS and obesity arise and how they affect the population. The basis of this composite unifying theory is that the proportionately large, energy-demanding human brain may have driven co-adaptive mechanisms to provide, or conserve, energy for the brain. A 'dual system' is proposed. 1) The enlarged, complex cortico-limbic-striatal system increases dietary energy by developing strong neural self-reward/motivation pathways for the acquisition of energy dense food, and (2) the nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) cellular protection system amplifies antioxidant, antitoxicant and repair activity by employing plant chemicals. In humans who consume a nutritious diet, the NRF2 system has become highly energy efficient. Other relevant human-specific co-adaptations are explored. In order to 'test' this composite unifying theory it is important to show that the hypothesis and sub-theories pertain throughout the whole of human evolution and history up till the current era. Corollaries of the composite unifying theory of MetS are examined with respect to past under-nutrition and malnutrition since agriculture began 10,000 years ago. The effects of man-made pollutants on degenerative change are examined. Projections are then made from current to future patterns on the state of 'insufficient micronutrient and/or unbalanced high energy malnutrition with central obesity and metabolic dysregulation' or 'malnubesity'. Forecasts
metabolic inflammation, or metaflammation, allow susceptibility to infectious, degenerative atherosclerotic cardiovascular, autoimmune, neurodegenerative and dysplastic diseases. Other relevant human-specific co-adaptations are examined, and encompass the unusual ability to store fat, certain vitamin pathways, the generalised but flexible intestine and microbiota, and slow development and longevity. This theory has significant past and future corollaries, which are explored in a separate article by McGill, A-T, in Archives of Public Health, 72: 31.
Full Text Available Adaptation to climate change has gained a prominent place next to mitigation on global, national and local policy agendas. However, while an abundance of adaptation strategies, plans and programmes have been developed, progress in turning these into action has been slow. The development of a sound knowledge basis to support adaptation globally is suggested to accelerate progress, but has lagged behind. The emphasis in both current and newly proposed programmes is very much on practice-oriented research with strong stakeholder participation. This paper supports such practice-oriented research, but argues that this is insufficient to support adaptation policy and practice in a productive manner. We argue that there is not only a need for science for adaptation, but also a science of adaptation. The paper argues that participatory, practice-oriented research is indeed essential, but has to be complemented by and connected to more fundamental inquiry and concept development, which takes into account knowledge that has been developed in disciplinary sciences and on issues other than climate change adaptation. At the same time, the level and method of participation in science for adaptation should be determined on the basis of the specific project context and goals. More emphasis on science of adaptation can lead to improved understanding of the conditions for successful science for adaptation.
be given greater access to relevant information to help them adapt their farming practices and socio- economic strategies to climate change? To address this challenge, the project “InfoClim,” led by Senegal's. Ecological Monitoring Centre. (CSE) with support from the. CCAA program, aims at improving the access of farmers ...
and local adaptive capacity. During a monitoring and evaluation session, farmers indicated that the downscaled climate outlook has helped them to make more appropriate on-farm decisions. Figure 2 illustrates the effects of seasonal forecasts on the decisions farmers made in regards to the type/ variety of seeds to plant.
This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...
Full Text Available RESUMEN El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar la adaptación de la Escala de Satisfacción Vital en Dominios Específicos para su uso en adultos de Buenos Aires. En una primera etapa, se trabajó en la equivalencia lingüística y conceptual. En la segunda etapa, se aplicó la versión local de la escala a una muestra de 187 adultos (mujeres = 56.10 % con una edad media de 31.20 (DE = 10.70. Se estudió la capacidad de discriminación de los ítems, la confiabilidad, validez de constructo y de contenido. Los resultados mostraron que la escala posee adecuada validez de contenido para ser aplicada en adultos de nuestro medio y presenta claras evidencias de validez de constructo y adecuada precisión para casi todas las subescalas. Se discuten los resultados considerando la importancia de generar nuevos desarrollos conceptuales e instrumentales relativos a los conceptos de la Psicología Positiva. ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to present the adaptation of the Life Satisfaction Scale in Specific Domains to be used in adults from Buenos Aires. In a first stage, work was done in the linguistic and conceptual equivalence. In the second stage, the local version of the scale was applied to a sample by 187 adults (women = 56.10 % with an average age of 31.20 (SD = 10.70. We studied the ability of discrimination of items, the reliability, construct validity and content. The results showed that the scale has adequate content validity to be applied in adults of our environment, and presents clear evidence of construct validity and adequate precision for almost all the subscales. The results are discussed in view of the importance of generating new conceptual and instrumental developments relating to the concepts of positive psychology.
Shi, Wenjia; Ma, Wenzhe; Xiong, Liyang; Zhang, Mingyue; Tang, Chao
Biochemical adaptation is one of the basic functions that are widely implemented in biological systems for a variety of purposes such as signal sensing, stress response and homeostasis. The adaptation time scales span from milliseconds to days, involving different regulatory machineries in different processes. The adaptive networks with enzymatic regulation (ERNs) have been investigated in detail. But it remains unclear if and how other forms of regulation will impact the network topology and other features of the function. Here, we systematically studied three-node transcriptional regulatory networks (TRNs), with three different types of gene regulation logics. We found that the topologies of adaptive gene regulatory networks can still be grouped into two general classes: negative feedback loop (NFBL) and incoherent feed-forward loop (IFFL), but with some distinct topological features comparing to the enzymatic networks. Specifically, an auto-activation loop on the buffer node is necessary for the NFBL class. For IFFL class, the control node can be either a proportional node or an inversely-proportional node. Furthermore, the tunability of adaptive behavior differs between TRNs and ERNs. Our findings highlight the role of regulation forms in network topology, implementation and dynamics.
Full Text Available The ribosome is an ancient machine, performing the same function across organisms. Although functionally unitary, recent experiments suggest specialized roles for some ribosomal proteins. Our central thesis is that ribosomal proteins function in a modular fashion to decode genetic information in a context dependent manner. We show through large data analyses that although many ribosomal proteins are essential with consistent effect on growth in different conditions in yeast and similar expression across cell and tissue types in mice and humans, some ribosomal proteins are used in an environment specific manner. The latter set of variable ribosomal proteins further function in a coordinated manner forming modules, which are adapted to different environmental cues in different organisms. We show that these environment specific modules of ribosomal proteins in yeast have differential genetic interactions with other pathways and their 5'UTRs show differential signatures of selection in yeast strains, presumably to facilitate adaptation. Similarly, we show that in higher metazoans such as mice and humans, different modules of ribosomal proteins are expressed in different cell types and tissues. A clear example is nervous tissue that uses a ribosomal protein module distinct from the rest of the tissues in both mice and humans. Our results suggest a novel stratification of ribosomal proteins that could have played a role in adaptation, presumably to optimize translation for adaptation to diverse ecological niches and tissue microenvironments.
Efforts to help the world's poor will face crises in coming decades as climate change radically alters conditions. Action Research for Community Adapation in Bangladesh (ARCAB) is an action-research programme on responding to climate change impacts through community-based adaptation. Set in Bangladesh at 20 sites that are vulnerable to floods, droughts, cyclones and sea level rise, ARCAB will follow impacts and adaptation as they evolve over half a century or more. National and international 'research partners', collaborating with ten NGO 'action partners' with global reach, seek knowledge and solutions applicable worldwide. After a year setting up ARCAB, we share lessons on the programme's design and move into our first research cycle.
Odriozola, Iñigo; Lazkano, Elena; Sierra, Basi
This paper investigates the improvement of the Vector Field Histogram (VFH) local planning algorithm for mobile robot systems. The Adaptive Vector Field Histogram (AVFH) algorithm has been developed to improve the effectiveness of the traditional VFH path planning algorithm overcoming the side effects of using static parameters. This new algorithm permits the adaptation of planning parameters for the different type of areas in an environment. Genetic Algorithms are used to fit the best VFH parameters to each type of sector and, afterwards, every section in the map is labelled with the sector-type which best represents it. The Player/Stage simulation platform has been chosen for making all sort of tests and to prove the new algorithm's adequateness. Even though there is still much work to be carried out, the developed algorithm showed good navigation properties and turned out to be softer and more effective than the traditional VFH algorithm.
This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles....... to design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...
Andersen, Torben Juul
This article provides an overview of theoretical contributions that have influenced the discourse around strategic adaptation including contingency perspectives, strategic fit reasoning, decision structure, information processing, corporate entrepreneurship, and strategy process. The related conc....... This model incorporates elements of central strategizing, autonomous entrepreneurial behavior, interactive information processing, and open communication systems that enhance the organization's ability to observe exogenous changes and respond effectively to them....
Björn PETERS, M.Sc.
Full Text Available Twenty subjects with lower limb disabilities participated in a simulator study. The purpose of the study was to investigate how an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC system together with two different hand controls for accelerator and brake influenced workload, comfort and driving behaviour and to further develop a method to evaluate vehicle adaptations for drivers with disabilities. The installed ACC system could maintain a constant speed selected and set by the driver and it also adapted speed in order to keep a safe distance to a leading vehicle. Furthermore, it included a stop-and-go function. Two common types of hand controls for accelerator and brake were used. The hand controls were different both with respect to function, single or dual levers, and position, on the steering column or between the front seats. The subjects were all experienced drivers of adapted cars equipped with hand controls. All subjects drove 100km at two occasions, with and without the ACC system available but with the same hand control. Subjective workload was found to be significantly lower and performance better for the ACC condition. The difference in speed variation between manual and ACC supported driving increased with the distance driven which seems to support the previous finding. The subjects thought they could control both speed and distance to leading vehicles better while the ACC was available. ACC driving did not influence reaction time, speed level, lateral position or variation in lateral position. Headway during car following situations was shorter for the ACC condition compared to manual driving. The ACC was well received, trusted and wanted. It was concluded that the ACC system substantially decreased workload, increased comfort and did not influence safety negatively. The only difference found between the two types of hand controls was that drivers using the dual lever system had less variation in lateral position. The applied evaluation method proved
Full Text Available , and it is not clear when to make use of a particular approach given a specific amount of adaptation data. In this work we investigate the use of standard feature normalisation and model adaptation techniques, for the scenario where adaptation between narrow- and wide...
Full Text Available In spite of the noticeable practices within the field of Adaptation, Adaptation theory seems to be lagging behind whilst perpetuating various fallacies. Geoffrey Wagner’s types of Adaptation and Kamilla Elliott’s proposed concepts for examining adaptations have proved useful but due to their general applicability they seem to perpetuate the fallacies existing within the field of Adaptation. This article will propose a context-specific concept pertaining to Media Franchise Culture for the purpose of examining Adaptations and re-assessing long-held debates concerning the Original, the Content/Form debate and Fidelity issues that cater to the twelve fallacies discussed by Thomas Leitch.
Perrachione, Tyler K; Del Tufo, Stephanie N; Winter, Rebecca; Murtagh, Jack; Cyr, Abigail; Chang, Patricia; Halverson, Kelly; Ghosh, Satrajit S; Christodoulou, Joanna A; Gabrieli, John D E
Identification of specific neurophysiological dysfunctions resulting in selective reading difficulty (dyslexia) has remained elusive. In addition to impaired reading development, individuals with dyslexia frequently exhibit behavioral deficits in perceptual adaptation. Here, we assessed neurophysiological adaptation to stimulus repetition in adults and children with dyslexia for a wide variety of stimuli, spoken words, written words, visual objects, and faces. For every stimulus type, individuals with dyslexia exhibited significantly diminished neural adaptation compared to controls in stimulus-specific cortical areas. Better reading skills in adults and children with dyslexia were associated with greater repetition-induced neural adaptation. These results highlight a dysfunction of rapid neural adaptation as a core neurophysiological difference in dyslexia that may underlie impaired reading development. Reduced neurophysiological adaptation may relate to prior reports of reduced behavioral adaptation in dyslexia and may reveal a difference in brain functions that ultimately results in a specific reading impairment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie Alice Octavia
Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticity...
Abdel-Khalik, Hany Samy
numerical solutions to demanding computational models, matrix methods are often employed to produce approximately equivalent discretized computational models that may be manipulated further by computers. The discretized models are described by matrix operators that are often rank-deficient, i.e. ill-posed. We introduce a novel set of matrix algorithms, denoted by Efficient Subspace Methods (ESM), intended to approximate the action of very large, dense, and numerically rank-deficient matrix operators. We demonstrate that significant reductions in both computational and storage burdens can be attained for a typical BWR core simulator adaption problem without compromising the quality of the adaption. We demonstrate robust and high fidelity adaption utilizing a virtual core, e.g. core simulator predicted observables with the virtual core either based upon a modified version of the core simulator whose input data are to be adjusted or an entirely different core simulator. Further, one specific application of ESM is demonstrated, that is being the determination of the uncertainties of important core attributes such as core reactivity and core power distribution due to the available ENDF/B cross-sections uncertainties. The use of ESM is however not limited to adaptive core simulation techniques only, but a wide range of engineering applications may easily benefit from the introduced algorithms, e.g. machine learning and information retrieval techniques highly depends on finding low rank approximations to large scale matrices. In the appendix, we present a stand-alone paper that presents a generalized framework for ESM, including the mathematical theory behind the algorithms and several demonstrative applications that are central to many engineering arenas---(a) sensitivity analysis, (b) parameter estimation, and (c) uncertainty analysis. We choose to do so to allow other engineers, applied mathematicians, and scientists from other scientific disciplines to take direct advantage of
Green, D.J; Spence, A; Rowley, N; Thijssen, D.H.J; Naylor, L.H
Whilst the existence of a specific phenotype characterized as 'athlete's heart' is generally acknowledged, the question of whether athletes exhibit characteristic vascular adaptations has not been specifically addressed...
Vannucci, Lorenzo; Falotico, Egidio; Tolu, Silvia
based on the coordination of VCR and VOR and OKR. The model, inspired by neuroscientific cerebellar theories, is provided with learning and adaptation capabilities based on internal models. We present the results for the gaze stabilization model on three sets of experiments conducted on the SABIAN robot......Gaze stabilization is essential for clear vision; it is the combined effect of two reflexes relying on vestibular inputs: the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR), which stabilizes the head in space and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which stabilizes the visual axis to minimize retinal image motion...... and on the iCub simulator, validating the robustness of the proposed control method. The first set of experiments focused on the controller response to a set of disturbance frequencies along the vertical plane. The second shows the performances of the system under three-dimensional disturbances. The last set...
Whitney, Susan L; Alghwiri, Alia; Alghadir, Ahmad
Persons with vestibular disorders experience symptoms of dizziness and balance dysfunction, resulting in falls, as well as impairments of daily life. Various interventions provided by physical therapists have been shown to decrease dizziness and improve postural control. In the present review, we will focus on the role of physical therapy in the management of vestibular symptoms in patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Persons with both acute and chronic central and peripheral vestibular disorders improve with vestibular rehabilitation. New interventions during the past 5 years have been designed to enhance recovery from problems with balance and dizziness. Examples include the use of virtual reality, vibrotactile feedback, optokinetic flow, YouTube videos, and innovative methods to change the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Patients with central and peripheral vestibular disorders benefit from physical therapy interventions. Advances in physical therapy interventions include new methods to stimulate adaptation of the VOR and the vestibulospinal systems.
... Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Specific phobias Treatment More information on specific phobias A specific ... psychotherapy. Return to top More information on Specific phobias Explore other publications and websites Phobias (Copyright © Mayo ...
Mills, Peter H
... model for its business logic, and to perform workflow composition from a goal and specifications to executable model in a manner that enables feedback mechanisms that can assess and adapt the process...
One line summary Metabolic syndrome and obesity-related co-morbidities are largely explained by co-adaptations to the energy use of the large human brain in the cortico-limbic-striatal and NRF2 systems. The medical, research and general community is unable to effect significantly decreased rates of central obesity and related type II diabetes mellitus (TIIDM), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer. All conditions seem to be linked by the concept of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but the und...
Gupta, J.; Klostermann, J.E.M.; Bergsma, E.; Jong, P.; Albrecht, E.; Schmidt, M.; Mißler-Behr, M.; Spyra, S.P.N.
Although climate change has been prominently featured on the global scientific and political agendas since the World Climate Conference in 1979 (WCC 1979), the specific importance of adaptation to climate change has only been underlined about 20 years later. The Netherlands, because it lies largely
Kurtz, Joachim; Armitage, Sophie A O
Vertebrate adaptive immunity is characterized by challenge-specific long-term protection. This specific memory is achieved through the vast diversity of somatically rearranged immunological receptors such as antibodies. Whether or not invertebrates are capable of a comparable phenotypic plasticity and memory has long been a matter of debate. A recent study on Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes now establishes Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (Dscam) as a key immune surveillance factor with characteristics analogous to antibodies.
Kravcik, Milos; Specht, Marcus; Naeve, Ambjorn
Kravcik, M., Specht, M., & Naeve, A. (2008). Personalized Adaptive Learning. Presentation of PROLEARN WP1 Personalized Adaptive Learning at the final review meeting. February, 27, 2008, Hannover, Germany.
Fuller, Charles A. (Editor); Cogoli, Augusto (Editor); Hargens, Alan R. (Editor); Smith, Arthur H. (Editor)
The following topics were covered: System Specificity in Responsiveness to Intermittent -Gx Gravitation during Simulated Microgravity in Rats; A Brief Overview of Animal Hypergravity Studies; Neurovestibular Adaptation to Short Radius Centrifugation; Effect of Artificial Gravity with Exercise Load by Using Short-Arm Centrifuge with Bicycle Ergometer as a Countermeasure Against Disused Osteoporosis; Perception of Body Vertical in Microgravity during Parabolic Flight; Virtual Environment a Behavioral and Countermeasure Tool for Assisted Gesture in Weightlessness: Experiments during Parabolic Flight; Artificial Gravity: Physiological Perspectives for Long-Term Space Exploration; Comparison of the Effects of DL-threo-Beta-Benzyloxyaspartate on the Glutamate Release from Synaptosomes before and after Exposure of Rats to Artificial Gravity; Do Perception and Postrotatory Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex Share the Same Gravity Reference?; Vestibular Adaptation to Changing Gravity Levels and the Orientation of Listing's Plane; Compound Mechanism Hypothesis on +Gz - Induced Brain Injury and Dysfunction of Learning and Memory; Environmental Challenge Impairs Prefrontal Brain Functions; Effect of 6-Days of Support Withdrawal on Characteristics of Balance Function; Hypergravity-Induced Changes of Neuronal Activities in CA1 Region of Rat Hippocampus; Audiological Findings in Antiorthostatic Position Modelling Microgravitation; Investigating Human Cognitive Performance during Spaceflight; The Relevance of the Minimization of Torque Exchange with the Environment in Weightlessness is Confirmed by Asimulation Study; Characteristics of the Eyes Pursuit Function during Readaptation to Terrestrial Gravity after Prolonged Flights Aboard the International Space Station; Comparison of Cognitive Performance Tests for Promethazine Pharmacodynamics in Human Subjects; Structural Reappraisal of Dendritic Tree of Cerebellar Purkinje Cell for Novel Functional Modeling of Elementary Sensorimotor Adaptive
Full Text Available Gene expression levels are important quantitative traits that link genotypes to molecular functions and fitness. In Drosophila, population-genetic studies have revealed substantial adaptive evolution at the genomic level, but the evolutionary modes of gene expression remain controversial. Here, we present evidence that adaptation dominates the evolution of gene expression levels in flies. We show that 64% of the observed expression divergence across seven Drosophila species are adaptive changes driven by directional selection. Our results are derived from time-resolved data of gene expression divergence across a family of related species, using a probabilistic inference method for gene-specific selection. Adaptive gene expression is stronger in specific functional classes, including regulation, sensory perception, sexual behavior, and morphology. Moreover, we identify a large group of genes with sex-specific adaptation of expression, which predominantly occurs in males. Our analysis opens an avenue to map system-wide selection on molecular quantitative traits independently of their genetic basis.
Cooper, P M; Pivik, R T
The vestibulo-ocular response to caloric irrigation and the effect of vestibular activation on eye movements were examined during light and dark testing conditions--the latter to assess these measures under conditions attenuating possible cerebellar-vestibular interaction present in the light-adapting condition. Subjects were psychiatric patients (23 actively-ill psychotic patients and 23 remitted psychotic patients) and normal controls (23 with no history of psychiatric illness). Standardized clinical electronystagmographic procedures were used, together with electrographic measures to assess visual fixation and level of arousal. During the light condition previous findings of impaired smooth pursuit tracking and reduced fixation suppression in actively psychotic patients were replicated. These patients also exhibited hyperresponsive vestibulo-ocular responses. Remitted patients' performance levels on test measures fell between those of controls and actively-ill patients on the majority of response measures. However, remitted patients were found to have impaired smooth pursuit tracking and failure of fixation suppression relative to controls. The dark testing condition effected a normalization of several patient-control differences, including smooth pursuit tracking and the elimination of vestibular hyperresponsiveness. In many respects the present results parallel findings of eye movement aberrations in cerebellar patients. These similarities include evidence of an intact but hyperresponsive vestibular system, the normalization of previously disordered pursuit tracking during dark-testing, the failure of fixation suppression, and the decrease in this measure during dark conditions. These findings suggest that cerebellar dysfunction may contribute to irregularities in smooth pursuit tracking and fixation suppression found in psychotic patients.
Eliana Teixeira Maranhão
Full Text Available Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs.Objective To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls.Method Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals – thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls.Results Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity.Conclusion Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.
ABSTRACT. The study investigated farmers adaptation strategies to the effect of climate variation on yam production in Ekiti State with the specific objectives of assessing the socio-economic characteristics of farmers, farmers' climate related constraints, the adaptation strategies employed by farmers, and yam farmers' level ...
Turrin, M.; Von Buelow, P.; Kilian, A.; Stouffs, R.M.F.
In this paper we address performance oriented design applied to adaptive architecture in order to satisfy the performance requirements for changing contextual conditions. The domain of adaptive architecture is defined and specific focus is given to form-active architecture, in which geometric
Maria Janowiak; Patricia Butler; Chris Swanston; Matt St. Pierre; Linda. Parker
In this chapter, we demonstrate how the Adaptation Workbook (Chapter 3) can be used with the Adaptation Strategies and Approaches (Chapter 2) to develop adaptation tactics for two real-world management issues. The two illustrations in this chapter are intended to provide helpful tips to managers completing the Adaptation Workbook, as well as to show how the anticipated...
Micarelli, Alessandro; Viziano, Andrea; Augimeri, Ivan; Micarelli, Domenico; Alessandrini, Marco
Considering the emerging advantages related to virtual reality implementation in clinical rehabilitation, the aim of the present study was to discover possible (i) improvements achievable in unilateral vestibular hypofunction patients using a self-assessed head-mounted device (HMD)-based gaming procedure when combined with a classical vestibular rehabilitation protocol (HMD group) as compared with a group undergoing only vestibular rehabilitation and (ii) HMD procedure-related side effects. Therefore, 24 vestibular rehabilitation and 23-matched HMD unilateral vestibular hypofunction individuals simultaneously underwent a 4-week rehabilitation protocol. Both otoneurological measures (vestibulo-ocular reflex gain and postural arrangement by studying both posturography parameters and spectral values of body oscillation) and performance and self-report measures (Italian Dizziness Handicap Inventory; Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale; Zung Instrument for Anxiety Disorders, Dynamic Gait Index; and Simulator Sickness Questionnaire) were analyzed by means of a between-group/within-subject analysis of variance model. A significant post-treatment between-effect was found, and the HMD group demonstrated an overall improvement in vestibulo-ocular reflex gain on the lesional side, in posturography parameters, in low-frequency spectral domain, as well as in Italian Dizziness Handicap Inventory and Activities-specific Balance Confidence scale scores. Meanwhile, Simulator Sickness Questionnaire scores demonstrated a significant reduction in symptoms related to experimental home-based gaming tasks during the HMD procedure. Our findings revealed the possible advantages of HMD implementation in vestibular rehabilitation, suggesting it as an innovative, self-assessed, low-cost, and compliant tool useful in maximizing vestibular rehabilitation outcomes.
Cláudio César Zoppi
Full Text Available Training is known to induce several adaptations. Physiological and biochemical changes induced by exercise training are already demonstrated in specific literature and therefore already well known. On the other hand, scanty data concerning intracellular signaling molecules and pathways, as well, are available. Here, we provided a recent literature review, about the differences in the models adopted by endurance and resistance training to induce their own specific skeletal muscle adaptations.
Hess, Jeremy J; McDowell, Julia Z; Luber, George
Climate change is expected to have a range of health impacts, some of which are already apparent. Public health adaptation is imperative, but there has been little discussion of how to increase adaptive capacity and resilience in public health systems. We explored possible explanations for the lack of work on adaptive capacity, outline climate-health challenges that may lie outside public health's coping range, and consider changes in practice that could increase public health's adaptive capacity. We conducted a substantive, interdisciplinary literature review focused on climate change adaptation in public health, social learning, and management of socioeconomic systems exhibiting dynamic complexity. There are two competing views of how public health should engage climate change adaptation. Perspectives differ on whether climate change will primarily amplify existing hazards, requiring enhancement of existing public health functions, or present categorically distinct threats requiring innovative management strategies. In some contexts, distinctly climate-sensitive health threats may overwhelm public health's adaptive capacity. Addressing these threats will require increased emphasis on institutional learning, innovative management strategies, and new and improved tools. Adaptive management, an iterative framework that embraces uncertainty, uses modeling, and integrates learning, may be a useful approach. We illustrate its application to extreme heat in an urban setting. Increasing public health capacity will be necessary for certain climate-health threats. Focusing efforts to increase adaptive capacity in specific areas, promoting institutional learning, embracing adaptive management, and developing tools to facilitate these processes are important priorities and can improve the resilience of local public health systems to climate change.
Distel, Andreas Philipp
This dissertation explores capabilities that enable firms to strategically adapt to environmental changes and preserve competitiveness over time – often referred to as dynamic capabilities. While dynamic capabilities being a popular research domain, too little is known about what these capabilities...... on capabilities for sensing and seizing new business opportunities and reconfiguring corporate resources. More specifically, the dissertation examines the role of key organization members, such as knowledge workers and top managers, in defining and building these capabilities. Moreover, it investigates how...... empirical studies through the dynamic capabilities lens and develops propositions for future research. The second paper is an empirical study on the origins of firm-level absorptive capacity; it explores how organization-level antecedents, through their impact on individual-level antecedents, influence...
Lee, Joyce Yi‐Hui; Panteli, Niki; Bülow, Anne Marie
This paper explores the context of email‐based communication in anestablished but fragile, inter‐organisational partnership, which wasoften overlain with conflict. Drawing upon adaptation theory, thisstudy explores how participants adapt to the use of email to handleconflict. Extensive data were...... obtained during a 6‐month field studyof a case of cross‐border inter‐organisational collaboration in EastAsia. We observed that the individuals involved in the cross‐borderpartnership used email as a lean form of communication to stopcovert conflict from explicitly emerging. In contrast to prior researchon...... the leanness of email in managing conflict, we found that underthe described conflict situation the very leanness of emailwas appreciated and thus, exploited by those concerned tomanage the conflict situation. Specifically, we identified 4 keyconflict‐triggered adaptation strategies, namely...
Mertz, Ole; Halsnæs, Kirsten; Olesen, Jørgen E.
countries. It is concluded that although many useful steps have been taken in the direction of ensuring adequate adaptation in developing countries, much work still remains to fully understand the drivers of past adaptation efforts, the need for future adaptation, and how to mainstream climate into general......Adaptation to climate change is given increasing international attention as the confidence in climate change projections is getting higher. Developing countries have specific needs for adaptation due to high vulnerabilities, and they will in this way carry a great part of the global costs...... of climate change although the rising atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations are mainly the responsibility of industrialized countries. This article provides a status of climate change adaptation in developing countries. An overview of observed and projected climate change is given, and recent literature...
Comparative proteomics of chloroplast envelopes from C3 and C4 plants reveals specific adaptations of the plastid envelope to C4 photosynthesis and candidate proteins required for maintaining C4 metabolite fluxes.
Bräutigam, Andrea; Hoffmann-Benning, Susanne; Hofmann-Benning, Susanne; Weber, Andreas P M
C(4) plants have up to 10-fold higher apparent CO(2) assimilation rates than the most productive C(3) plants. This requires higher fluxes of metabolic intermediates across the chloroplast envelope membranes of C(4) plants in comparison with those of C(3) plants. In particular, the fluxes of metabolites involved in the biochemical inorganic carbon pump of C(4) plants, such as malate, pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and phosphoenolpyruvate, must be considerably higher in C(4) plants because they exceed the apparent rate of photosynthetic CO(2) assimilation, whereas they represent relatively minor fluxes in C(3) plants. While the enzymatic steps involved in the C(4) biochemical inorganic carbon pump have been studied in much detail, little is known about the metabolite transporters in the envelope membranes of C(4) chloroplasts. In this study, we used comparative proteomics of chloroplast envelope membranes from the C(3) plant pea (Pisum sativum) and mesophyll cell chloroplast envelopes from the C(4) plant maize (Zea mays) to analyze the adaptation of the mesophyll cell chloroplast envelope proteome to the requirements of C(4) photosynthesis. We show that C(3)- and C(4)-type chloroplasts have qualitatively similar but quantitatively very different chloroplast envelope membrane proteomes. In particular, translocators involved in the transport of triosephosphate and phosphoenolpyruvate as well as two outer envelope porins are much more abundant in C(4) plants. Several putative transport proteins have been identified that are highly abundant in C(4) plants but relatively minor in C(3) envelopes. These represent prime candidates for the transport of C(4) photosynthetic intermediates, such as pyruvate, oxaloacetate, and malate.
GoorhuisBrouwer, SM; WijnbergWilliams, BJ
In children with specific language impairment (SLI) their problems are supposed to be specifically restricted to language. However, both on a theoretical basis as well as on a practical basis it is often difficult to make a sharp distinction between specific and nonspecific language disorders. In a
Hofmann, S G; Lehman, C L; Barlow, D H
To study the generality of fears among specific phobic individuals and controls, 31 individuals with a DSM-IV diagnosis of specific phobia (natural environmental type: n = 13; blood-injection-injury type: n = 10; and situational type: n = 8) and 33 never mentally ill control subjects participated in an interview and questionnaire study. Based on subjects' fear ratings on the Fear Survey Schedule, subjects were classified as either positive or negative with regard to fear categories that correspond to the five diagnostic subtypes of specific phobia. Phobics showed overall a more generalized form of fear than controls. Furthermore, situational fears were more common among specific phobics who did not meet criteria for specific phobia, situational type, than among controls. These results add to the literature on the functional relationship among different fears and suggest that specific phobias are not as "specific" as is implied by the current diagnostic system.
The composition of the cellular proteome is commonly thought to strictly adhere to the genetic code. However, accumulating evidence indicates that cells also regulate the synthesis of mutant protein molecules that deviate from the genetic code. Production of mutant proteins varies in amounts and specificity and generally occurs when cells are stressed or undergo environmental adaptation. The deliberate synthesis of protein mutants suggests that some of these proteins can be useful in cellular...
Palutikof, J. P
Adaptation is the poor cousin of the climate change challenge - the glamour of international debate is around global mitigation agreements, while the bottom-up activities of adaptation, carried out...
Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi
In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user...... test set, the results are important as a proof of existence of differences and of the need for adaptation. The fact that there are individual differences makes the results significant for the development of games and interaction. It indicates that it is necessary to adapt the game and interaction......, if we desire to make the most appropriate game and interaction for the individual. Hence, we investigate adaptation as an important issue for playware. With simple playware games, we show that the adaptation will speed the game up and down to find the appropriate level that matches the reaction speed...
Volchik Vyacheslav, V.
Full Text Available The economic literature focused on understanding decision-making and choice processes reveals a vast collection of approaches to human rationality. Theorists’ attention has moved from absolutely rational, utility-maximizing individuals to boundedly rational and adaptive ones. A number of economists have criticized the concepts of adaptive rationality and adaptive behavior. One of the recent trends in the economic literature is to consider humans irrational. This paper offers an approach which examines adaptive behavior in the context of existing institutions and constantly changing institutional environment. It is assumed that adaptive behavior is a process of evolutionary adjustment to fundamental uncertainty. We emphasize the importance of actors’ engagement in trial and error learning, since if they are involved in this process, they obtain experience and are able to adapt to existing and new institutions. The paper aims at identifying relevant institutions, adaptive mechanisms, informal working rules and practices that influence actors’ behavior in the field of Higher Education in Russia (Rostov Region education services market has been taken as an example. The paper emphasizes the application of qualitative interpretative methods (interviews and discourse analysis in examining actors’ behavior.
Huang, Honggang; Pedersen, Martin Haar; Ibañez-Vea, Maria
to selectively label cysteine-containing peptides (Cys peptides) followed by their enrichment with titanium dioxide (TiO2) and subsequent mass spectrometric analysis. The CysPAT strategy was developed using a synthetic peptide, a standard protein and subsequently the strategy was applied to protein lysates from...... Hela cells, achieving high specificity and enrichment efficiency. In particular, for Cys proteome analysis, the method led to the identification of 7509 unique Cys peptides from 500 μg of HeLa cell lysate starting material. Furthermore, the method was developed to simultaneously enrich Cys peptides...... and phosphorylated peptides. This strategy was applied to SILAC labeled Hela cells subjected to 5 min epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. In total, 10440 unique reversibly modified Cys peptides (3855 proteins) and 7339 unique phosphopeptides (2234 proteins) were simultaneously identified from 250 μg starting...
Gottwein, Judith M; Jensen, Sanne B; Serre, Stéphanie B N
To facilitate studies of hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS4A, we aimed at developing J6/JFH1-based recombinants with genotype 1- to 7-specific NS4A proteins. We developed efficient culture systems expressing NS4A proteins of genotypes (isolates) 1a (H77 and TN), 1b (J4), 2a (J6), 4a (ED43), 5a (SA13), 6a......), boceprevir (Sch503034), simeprevir (TMC435350), danoprevir (ITMN-191), and vaniprevir (MK-7009), to alpha interferon 2b, and to the putative NS4A inhibitor ACH-806. The efficacy of ACH-806 was lower than that of protease inhibitors and was not influenced by changes at amino acids 1042 and 1065 (in the NS3...
Adaptive phenotypic plasticity is more specific; it is the ability of a single genotype to produce an array of phenotypes depending on the environmental extent. We investigated differences in adaptive phenotypic plasticity as well as local adaptations measured by reaction norms of two extreme populations (Leeu Gamka, arid ...
History and BackgroundIntroductionHistoryPhysical OpticsTerms in Adaptive OpticsSources of AberrationsAtmospheric TurbulenceThermal BloomingNonatmospheric SourcesAdaptive Optics CompensationPhase ConjugationLimitations of Phase ConjugationArtificial Guide StarsLasers for Guide StarsCombining the LimitationsLinear AnalysisPartial Phase ConjugationAdaptive Optics SystemsAdaptive Optics Imaging SystemsBeam Propagation Syst
Carmin, J.; Tierney, K.; Chu, E.; Hunter, L.M.; Roberts, J.T.; Shi, L.; Dunlap, R.E.; Brulle, R.J.
Climate change adaptation involves major global and societal challenges such as finding adequate and equitable adaptation funding and integrating adaptation and development programs. Current funding is insufficient. Debates between the Global North and South center on how best to allocate the
Zäske, Romi; Fritz, Christiane; Schweinberger, Stefan R
Adaptation to male voices causes a subsequent voice to be perceived as more female, and vice versa. Similar contrastive aftereffects have been reported for phonetic perception, and in vision for face perception. However, while aftereffects in the perception of phonetic features of speech have been reported to persist even when adaptors were processed inattentively, face aftereffects were previously reported to be abolished by inattention to adaptors. Here we demonstrate that auditory aftereffects of adaptation to voice gender are eliminated when the male and female adaptor voices are spatially unattended. Participants simultaneously heard gender-specific male or female adaptor voices in one ear and gender-neutral (androgynous) adaptor voices in the contralateral ear. They selectively attended to the adaptor voices in a designated ear, by either classifying voice gender (Exp. 1) or spoken syllable (Exp. 2). Voice aftereffects were found only if the gender-specific voices were spatially attended, suggesting capacity limits in the processing of voice gender for the unattended ear. Remarkably, gender-specific adaptors in the attended ear elicited comparable aftereffects in test voices, regardless of prior attention to voice gender or phonetic content. Thus, within the attended ear, voice gender was processed even when it was irrelevant for the task at hand, suggesting automatic processing of gender along with linguistic information. Overall, voice gender adaptation requires spatial, but not dimensional, selective attention.
Felgenhauer, T. N.
The ability to adapt to climate change is delineated by capacity thresholds, after which climate damages begin to overwhelm the adaptation response. Such thresholds depend upon physical properties (natural processes and engineering parameters), resource constraints (expressed through market prices), and societal preferences (from prices as well as cultural norms). Exceedance of adaptation capacity will require substitution either with other pre-existing policy responses or with new adaptation responses that have yet to be developed and tested. Previous modeling research shows that capacity limited adaptation will play a policy-significant role in future climate change decision-making. The aim of this study is to describe different types of adaptation response and climate damage systems and postulate how these systems might behave when the limits to adaptation are reached. The hypothesis is that this behavior will be governed by the characteristics and level of the adaptation limit, the shape of the damage curve in that specific damage area, and the availability of alternative adaptation responses once the threshold is passed, whether it is more of the old technology, a new response type, or a transformation of the climate damage and response system itself.
Full Text Available The paper is embedded in the following fields: strategic management in terms of behavioural strategy concept, adaptability construct, and micro-foundations realm as well as organizational theory and psychology. Moreover, the paper concerns to some extent a multi-level approach in strategic management involving individual, team, and organizational level. The aim of the paper is to contribute to extend, on one hand, the ascertainment set in the field of behavioural strategy as behavioural strategy encompasses a mindboggling diversity of topics and methods and its conceptual unity has been hard to achieve (Powell, Lovallo, Fox 2011, p. 1371, and on the other hand, to order mixed approaches to adaptability especially to gain insights on micro-level adapting processes (individual adaptability and adaptive performance in terms of the multi-level approach. The method that has been used is literature studies and the interference is mostly deductive. The structure of the manuscript is four-fold. The first part involves the considerations in the field of adaptability and adaptive performance at the individual level. The issues of adaptability and adaptive performance at the team level have been presented in the second part. The third part encompasses the organizational adaptability assertions. Finally, the conclusion, limitations of the considerations highlighted as well as the future research directions have been emphasized. The overarching key finding is that the behavioural strategy concept may constitute the boundary spanner in exploring and explaining adaptability phenomenon at different levels of analysis.
This paper tackles the accusation that applied ethics is no serious academic enterprise because it lacks theoretical bracing. It does so in two steps. In the first step I introduce and discuss a highly acclaimed method to guarantee stability in ethical theories: Henry Richardson's specification. The discussion shows how seriously ethicists take the stability of the connection between the foundational parts of their theories and their further development as well as their "application" to particular problems or cases. A detailed scrutiny of specification leads to the second step, where I use insights from legal theory to inform the debate around stability from that point of view. This view reveals some of specification's limitations. I suggest that, once specification is sufficiently specified, it appears astonishingly similar to deduction as used in legal theory. Legal theory also provides valuable insight into the functional range of deduction and its relation to other forms of reasoning. This leads to a richer understanding of stability in normative theories and to a smart division of labor between deduction and other forms of reasoning. The comparison to legal theory thereby provides a framework for how different methods such as specification, deduction, balancing, and analogy relate to one another.
Grivet, Delphine; Climent, José; Zabal-Aguirre, Mario; Neale, David B; Vendramin, Giovanni G; González-Martínez, Santiago C
Mediterranean pines represent an extremely heterogeneous assembly. Although they have evolved under similar environmental conditions, they diversified long ago, ca. 10 Mya, and present distinct biogeographic and demographic histories. Therefore, it is of special interest to understand whether and to what extent they have developed specific strategies of adaptive evolution through time and space. To explore evolutionary patterns, the Mediterranean pines' phylogeny was first reconstructed analyzing a new set of 21 low-copy nuclear genes with multilocus Bayesian tree reconstruction methods. Secondly, a phylogenetic approach was used to search for footprints of natural selection and to examine the evolution of multiple phenotypic traits. We identified two genes (involved in pines' defense and stress responses) that have likely played a role in the adaptation of Mediterranean pines to their environment. Moreover, few life-history traits showed historical or evolutionary adaptive convergence in Mediterranean lineages, while patterns of character evolution revealed various evolutionary trade-offs linking growth-development, reproduction and fire-related traits. Assessing the evolutionary path of important life-history traits, as well as the genomic basis of adaptive variation is central to understanding the past evolutionary success of Mediterranean pines and their future response to environmental changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zarlenga, Dante; Wang, Zhengyuan; Mitreva, Makedonka
, especially those involved in sensory perception, metabolism, and transcription/translation. New protein gains with functions related to regulating transcription and translation, and protein family expansions with functions related to morphology and body development have occurred in association with parasitism. Further gains occurred as a result of lateral gene transfer and in particular, with the cyanase protein family In contrast, reductions and/or losses have occurred in protein families with functions related to metabolic process and signal transduction. Taking advantage of the independent occurrences of parasitism in nematodes, which enabled us to distinguish changes associated with parasitism from species specific niche adaptation, our study provides valuable insights into nematode parasitism at a proteome level using T. spiralis as a benchmark for early adaptation to or acquisition of parasitism. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hybrid free-space optical (FSO)/radio-frequency (RF) systems have emerged as a promising solution for high-data-rate wireless communications. In this paper, we consider power adaptation strategies based on truncated channel inversion for the hybrid FSO/RF system employing adaptive combining. Specifically, we adaptively set the RF link transmission power when FSO link quality is unacceptable to ensure constant combined signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiver. Two adaptation strategies are proposed. One strategy depends on the received RF SNR, whereas the other one depends on the combined SNR of both links. Analytical expressions for the outage probability of the hybrid system with and without power adaptation are obtained. Numerical examples show that the hybrid FSO/RF system with power adaptation achieves a considerable outage performance improvement over the conventional system.
The investigation reported in this volume attempts to clarify some issues relating to the existence, nature, and causes of specific dyslexia. Based on an extended study of 98 boys of at least average intelligence with severe reading and spelling problems, the report provides detailed data relating to their developmental and perinatal histories,…
National Adaptation Programmes of Action (NAPAs) by the Least Developed Countries (LDCs). These NAPAs are meant to provide LDCs the means to identify pressing adaptation needs at the national level, 'those whose further delay could increase vulnerability, or lead to increased costs at a later stage'. On negotiations more specifically, Bali helped emphasizing adaptation by giving it an important place on the road-map to Copenhagen. (author)
Täckström, Oscar; McDonald, Ryan; Nivre, Joakim
We study multi-source transfer parsing for resource-poor target languages; specifically methods for target language adaptation of delexicalized discriminative graph-based dependency parsers. We first show how recent insights on selective parameter sharing, based on typological and language-family features, can be applied to a discriminative parser by carefully decomposing its model features. We then show how the parser can be relexicalized and adapted using unlabeled target language data and ...
Csibra, Gergely; Gergely, György
We propose that the cognitive mechanisms that enable the transmission of cultural knowledge by communication between individuals constitute a system of 'natural pedagogy' in humans, and represent an evolutionary adaptation along the hominin lineage. We discuss three kinds of arguments that support this hypothesis. First, natural pedagogy is likely to be human-specific: while social learning and communication are both widespread in non-human animals, we know of no example of social learning by communication in any other species apart from humans. Second, natural pedagogy is universal: despite the huge variability in child-rearing practices, all human cultures rely on communication to transmit to novices a variety of different types of cultural knowledge, including information about artefact kinds, conventional behaviours, arbitrary referential symbols, cognitively opaque skills and know-how embedded in means-end actions. Third, the data available on early hominin technological culture are more compatible with the assumption that natural pedagogy was an independently selected adaptive cognitive system than considering it as a by-product of some other human-specific adaptation, such as language. By providing a qualitatively new type of social learning mechanism, natural pedagogy is not only the product but also one of the sources of the rich cultural heritage of our species.
Kirtane, M V
Adaptation, habitution and compensation are the mechanisms involved in rehabilitation of vertigo patients. In Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy (VRT), patients are advised to perform a series of maneuvers involving head, eye and body movements which stimulate the in-built adaptive mechanisms. Cawthorne and Cooksey were the first to describe adaptation exercises, which are further modified. Norre has designed VRT test battery of specific exercises. Drug treatment used along with VRT should not interfere with the compensation mechanism. Anti-vertigo drug Betahistine has been shown to hasten the compensation and hence is suitable for use with VRT.
Tanik, A.; Tekten, D.
The paper will be a review work on the recent strategies of EU in general, and will underline the inspected sectoral based adaptation practices and action plans of 7 countries; namely Germany, France, Spain, Italy, Denmark, USA and Kenya from Africa continent. Although every countries’ action plan have some similarities on sectoral analysis, each country in accordance with the specific nature of the problem seems to create its own sectoral analysis. Within this context, green and white documents of EU adaptation to climate change, EU strategy on climate change, EU targets of 2020 on climate change and EU adaptation support tools are investigated.
Biagini, Bonizella; Kuhl, Laura; Gallagher, Kelly Sims; Ortiz, Claudia
Technology alone will not be able to solve adaptation challenges, but it is likely to play an important role. As a result of the role of technology in adaptation and the importance of international collaboration for climate change, technology transfer for adaptation is a critical but understudied issue. Through an analysis of Global Environment Facility-managed adaptation projects, we find there is significantly more technology transfer occurring in adaptation projects than might be expected given the pessimistic rhetoric surrounding technology transfer for adaptation. Most projects focused on demonstration and early deployment/niche formation for existing technologies rather than earlier stages of innovation, which is understandable considering the pilot nature of the projects. Key challenges for the transfer process, including technology selection and appropriateness under climate change, markets and access to technology, and diffusion strategies are discussed in more detail.
Full Text Available This paper aims at modelling an electronically coupled distributed energy resource with an adaptive protection scheme. The electronically coupled distributed energy resource is a microgrid framework formed by coupling the renewable energy source electronically. Further, the proposed adaptive protection scheme provides a suitable protection to the microgrid for various fault conditions irrespective of the operating mode of the microgrid: namely, grid connected mode and islanded mode. The outstanding aspect of the developed adaptive protection scheme is that it monitors the microgrid and instantly updates relay fault current according to the variations that occur in the system. The proposed adaptive protection scheme also employs auto reclosures, through which the proposed adaptive protection scheme recovers faster from the fault and thereby increases the consistency of the microgrid. The effectiveness of the proposed adaptive protection is studied through the time domain simulations carried out in the PSCAD⧹EMTDC software environment.
The problem of adaptation is to explain the apparent design of organisms. Darwin solved this problem with the theory of natural selection. However, population geneticists, whose responsibility it is to formalize evolutionary theory, have long neglected the link between natural selection and organismal design. Here, I review the major historical developments in theory of organismal adaptation, clarifying what adaptation is and what it is not, and I point out future avenues for research.
A central feature of Darwin’s theory of natural selection is that it explains the purpose of biological adaptation. Here, I: emphasise the scientific importance of understanding what adaptations are for, in terms of facilitating the derivation of empirically-testable predictions; discuss the population genetical basis for Darwin’s theory of the purpose of adaptation, with reference to the “fundamental theorem of natural selection”; and show that a deeper understanding of the purpose of adapta...
Catalin Mihail BARBU
In this paper I discussed the factors that influence the cultural adaptation of products. Globalization determines the companies to operate abroad; therefore the firms sell their products to markets where the consumer patterns might differ from their national market. It is of high importance to be able to understand and to adapt to local consumer habits. The culture has a strong influence on products adaptation in particular, and on international marketing in general. Companies must be able t...
We provide a review of the experimental and theoretical research in the field of quantum tomography with an emphasis on recently developed adaptive protocols. Several statistical frameworks for adaptive experimental design are discussed. We argue in favor of the Bayesian approach, highlighting both its advantages for a statistical reconstruction of unknown quantum states and processes, and utility for adaptive experimental design. The discussion is supported by an analysis of several recent e...
Straupe, S. S.
We provide a review of the experimental and theoretical research in the field of quantum tomography with an emphasis on recently developed adaptive protocols. Several statistical frameworks for adaptive experimental design are discussed. We argue in favor of the Bayesian approach, highlighting both its advantages for a statistical reconstruction of unknown quantum states and processes, and utility for adaptive experimental design. The discussion is supported by an analysis of several recent experimental implementations and numerical recipes.
This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissi......This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed post-conference proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Adaptive Multimedia Retrieval, AMR 2012, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in October 2012. The 17 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless technologies are an increasingly attractive means for spatial data, input, manipulation, and distribution. Mobitrum is proposing an innovative Adaptive...
Martinez, Tony R.; Vidal, Jacques J.
Adaptive, self-organizing concurrent systems (ASOCS) that combine self-organization with massive parallelism for such applications as adaptive logic devices, robotics, process control, and system malfunction management, are presently discussed. In ASOCS, an adaptive network composed of many simple computing elements operating in combinational and asynchronous fashion is used and problems are specified by presenting if-then rules to the system in the form of Boolean conjunctions. During data processing, which is a different operational phase from adaptation, the network acts as a parallel hardware circuit.
A central feature of Darwin's theory of natural selection is that it explains the purpose of biological adaptation. Here, I: emphasize the scientific importance of understanding what adaptations are for, in terms of facilitating the derivation of empirically testable predictions; discuss the population genetical basis for Darwin's theory of the purpose of adaptation, with reference to Fisher's 'fundamental theorem of natural selection'; and show that a deeper understanding of the purpose of adaptation is achieved in the context of social evolution, with reference to inclusive fitness and superorganisms.
Evans, G.W. (Univ. of California, Irvine) Jacobs, S.V.; Frager, N.B.
This study examined the health effects of human adaptation to photochemical smog. A group of recent arrivals to the Los Angeles air basin were compared to long-term residents of the basin. Evidence for adaptation included greater irritation and respiratory problems among the recent arrivals and desensitization among the long-term residents in their judgments of the severity of the smog problem to their health. There was no evidence for biochemical adaptation as measured by hemoglobin response to oxidant challenge. The results were discussed in terms of psychological adaption to chronic environmental stressors.
Full Text Available Requirements specifications are often inconsistent. Inconsistencies may arise because multiple conflicting requirements are embodied in these specifications, or because the specifications themselves are in a transient stage of evolutionary development. In this paper we argue that such inconsistencies, rather than being undesirable, are actually useful drivers for changing the requirements specifications in which they arise. We present a formal technique to reason about inconsistency handling changes. Our technique is an adaptation of logical abduction - adapted to generate changes that address some specification inconsistencies, while leaving others. We represent our specifications in quasi-classical (QC logic - an adaptation of classical logic that allows continued reasoning in the presence of inconsistency. The paper develops a sound algorithm for automating our abductive reasoning technique and presents illustrative examples drawn from a library system case study.
Triantafillou, Evangelos; Georgiadou, Elissavet; Economides, Anastasios A.
Current research in computerised adaptive testing (CAT) focuses on applications, in small and large scale, that address self assessment, training, employment, teacher professional development for schools, industry, military, assessment of non-cognitive skills, etc. Dynamic item generation tools and automated scoring of complex, constructed…
Burlew, A. Kathleen; Copeland, Valire Carr; Ahuama-Jonas, Chizara; Calsyn, Donald A.
The changing ethnic composition of the nation and increasing requirements to use evidence-based treatments (EBTs) challenge mental health professionals to adapt treatments and interventions to be appropriate for their clients. This article applies the available information on cultural adaptation to substance abuse. The authors’ review suggests that the most common approaches for adapting substance use interventions include some combination of either community involvement in the adaptation, existing research and literature, and/or consultation from experts to adapt EBTs. The challenges facing the development of culturally adapted interventions include the need for additional research to determine which specific EBTs warrant adaptation, the responsibility of maintaining the balance between fidelity and adaptation, and the challenge of intragroup diversity. PMID:23731430
used to determine treatment efficacy. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Active-duty, Marine Corps, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Cognitive Therapy 16. SECURITY...AD), to address these needs. AD is a hybrid and extension of evidence-informed cognitive -behavioral therapy strategies packaged and sequenced to...produce inner moral conflict (Steenkamp et al., 2011). AD employs a Prolonged Exposure (PE) strategy (imaginal emotional processing of an event) and
Disclosure (AD), to address these needs. AD is a hybrid and extension of evidence-informed cognitive - behavioral therapy strategies packaged and... Cognitive Therapy 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON USAMRMC a...and cognitive - therapy -based techniques used in Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT), but also includes gestalt- therapy techniques designed to target
Borghans, J.A.M.; Boer, R.J. de
During its primary encounter with a pathogen, the immune system has to decide which type of immune response is most appropriate. Based on signals from the innate immune system and the immunological context in which the pathogen is presented, responding lymphocytes will adopt a particular phenotype,
Persian version of the MENQOL questionnaire from the original English language version. Subjects and Methods: This was a ... language and Iranian culture in different subgroups of age, marital status and educational level as well as in ..... estradiol/norethindrone acetate therapy for the management of menopausal signs ...
Tybur, J.M.; Lieberman, D.
Over the past few decades, researchers have become increasingly interested in the adaptations guiding the avoidance of disease-causing organisms. Here we discuss the latest developments in this area, including a recently developed information-processing model of the adaptations underlying pathogen
Andrade, Stefan Bastholm
This article analyses how Danish farm families adapted to harsh and changing conditions in the period after the great western agricultural crisis in the early 1980s. Drawing on Bourdieu's concepts of habitus and adaptation, I analyse the creation and consolidation of different class fractions amo...
Joost Bruin; dr. Koos Zwaan
Introduction book Adapting Idols Since the first series of Pop Idol aired in the UK just over a decade ago, Idols television shows have been broadcast in more than forty countries all over the world. In all those countries the global Idols format has been adapted to local cultures and production
Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)
Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.
Kai N. Lee
Full Text Available Adaptive management is appraised as a policy implementation approach by examining its conceptual, technical, equity, and practical strengths and limitations. Three conclusions are drawn: (1 Adaptive management has been more influential, so far, as an idea than as a practical means of gaining insight into the behavior of ecosystems utilized and inhabited by humans. (2 Adaptive management should be used only after disputing parties have agreed to an agenda of questions to be answered using the adaptive approach; this is not how the approach has been used. (3 Efficient, effective social learning, of the kind facilitated by adaptive management, is likely to be of strategic importance in governing ecosystems as humanity searches for a sustainable economy.
Hogberg, Nicholas Alvin; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose
A turbine system and adapter are disclosed. The adapter includes a turbine attachment portion having a first geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a wheelpost of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion having a second geometry arranged to receive a corresponding geometry of a root portion of a non-metallic turbine bucket. Another adapter includes a turbine attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of wheelposts of a turbine rotor, and a bucket attachment portion arranged to receive a plurality of non-metallic turbine buckets having single dovetail configuration root portions. The turbine system includes a turbine rotor wheel configured to receive metal buckets, at least one adapter secured to at least one wheelpost on the turbine rotor wheel, and at least one non-metallic bucket secured to the at least one adapter.
Pardoe, David; Stone, Peter
In agent-based markets, adapting to the behavior of other agents is often necessary for success. When it is not possible to directly model individual competitors, an agent may instead model and adapt to the market conditions that result from competitor behavior. Such an agent could still benefit from reasoning about specific competitor strategies by considering how various combinations of these strategies would impact the conditions being modeled. We present an application of such an approach to a specific prediction problem faced by the agent TacTex-06 in the Trading Agent Competition's Supply Chain Management scenario (TAC SCM).
Bernocchi, Gian Luca; Cardarilli, Gian Carlo; Re, Andrea Del
In this work a hybrid Residue Number System (RNS) implementation of an adaptive FIR filter is presented. The used adaptation algorithm is the Least Mean Squares (LMS). The filter has been designed to meet the constraints of specific class of applications. In fact, it is suitable for applications...... simplifications. Vice versa, the RNS implementation of the adaptation algorithm needs scaling circuits that are complex and expensive in RNS arithmetic. For this reason, a serial binary implementation of the adaptation algorithm is chosen. The advantages in terms of area and speed of the RNS adaptive filter...
... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 3 RIN 2900-AN21 Specially Adapted Housing and Special Home Adaptation AGENCY... housing and special home adaptation grants. This final rule incorporates certain provisions from the... adapted housing (SAH) grants and special home adaptation (SHA) grants. The public comment period ended on...
van Velsen, Lex Stefan; van der Geest, Thea; Klaassen, R.F.
Adaptive and adaptable systems provide tailored output to various users in various contexts. While adaptive systems base their output on implicit inferences, adaptable systems use explicitly provided information. Since the presentation or output of these systems is adapted, standard user-centered
Full Text Available The ability to adapt is essential to live and survive in an ever-changing environment such as the human ecosystem. Here we review the literature on adaptation effects of face stimuli to give an overview of existing findings in this area, highlight gaps in its research literature, initiate new directions in face adaptation research and help to design future adaptation studies. Furthermore, this review should lead to better understanding of the processing characteristics as well as the mental representations of face-relevant information. The review systematises studies at a behavioral level in respect of a framework which includes 3 dimensions representing the major characteristics of studies in this field of research. These dimensions comprise (1 the specificity of adapting face information, e.g. identity, gender or age aspects of the material to be adapted to, (2 aspects of timing (e.g., the sustainability of adaptation effects, and (3 transfer relations between face images presented during adaptation and adaptation tests (e.g., images of the same or different identities. The review concludes with options for how to combine findings across different dimensions to demonstrate the relevance of our framework for future studies.
In the context of the AIS Project (Advanced Informatics Systems for administration and management) a study has been conducted that resulted in the definition of a high level information systems model. Thirteen proposed systems were defined for detailed analysis. The Finance, Foundation, Human Resources, Logistics and Purchasing areas have been studied in detail. These studies have lead to the purchase and implementation of the ORIAC and SIRIAC packages, the Foundation database, the Oracle HR package, the Triton package and EDH and BHT. This specification describes the Human Resources Toolkit (HRT) intended to be used for accessing data in the HR and Foundation systems. This toolkit should help the divisions carry out their Human Resource management, planning and follow-up. It will have extensive report generation capabilities and offer a variety of standard graphs. It should have an easy-to-use graphical user interface and run on the CERN standard desktop platforms.
de Fine Licht, Henrik Hjarvard; Jensen, Annette Bruun; Eilenberg, Jørgen
.g. Entomophthora, Strongwellsea and Entomophaga). Species diversification of the obligate IPF within Entomophthoromycota thus seems to be primarily driven by co-evolutionary host adaptation to specific insect families, genera or species-complexes, but the underlying genetic factors of host adaptation...... in this fungal order are largely unknown and leave many unanswered questions. For example are the number of virulence factors increasing, or decreasing when fungal pathogens adapt to a narrow range of potential hosts? And, are host specialization based on many genetic changes with small effect or few with large...... differences and similarities in order to detect patterns of host-specific molecular adaptation....
Saskia Elisabeth. Werners
Full Text Available Concerned decision makers increasingly pose questions as to whether current management practices are able to cope with climate change and increased climate variability. This signifies a shift in the framing of climate change from asking what its potential impacts are to asking whether it induces policy failure and unacceptable change. In this paper, we explore the background, feasibility, and consequences of this new framing. We focus on the specific situation in which a social-political threshold of concern is likely to be exceeded as a result of climate change, requiring consideration of alternative strategies. Action is imperative when such a situation is conceivable, and at this point climate change becomes particularly relevant to decision makers. We call this situation an "adaptation turning point." The assessment of adaptation turning points converts uncertainty surrounding the extent of a climate impact into a time range over which it is likely that specific thresholds will be exceeded. This can then be used to take adaptive action. Despite the difficulty in identifying adaptation turning points and the relative newness of the approach, experience so far suggests that the assessment generates a meaningful dialogue between stakeholders and scientists. Discussion revolves around the amount of change that is acceptable; how likely it is that unacceptable, or more favorable, conditions will be reached; and the adaptation pathways that need to be considered under these circumstances. Defining and renegotiating policy objectives under climate change are important topics in the governance of adaptation.
Full Text Available Built form is subject to various types of obsolences in the course of time. Among these functional obsolesences, taking place as an outcome of ever changing modes of production and consumption, are of crucial importance so far as their fate of existing urban fabric is concerned. Defunct buildings become derelict and often subject to demolition which amounts to the eradication of the collective memory. In this connection the process of adaptive reuse can be defined as the task of adjusting functionally obsolete buildings for new program requirements through building conversion. Adaptive reuse projects entail not only alterations within the boundaries of an existing building envelope but also radical changes/transformations in the space configuration so as to accommodate the new set of functional requirements. Therefore, the development of an architectural design scheme in the light of potentials offered and the constraints imposed by an existing architectural entity is essential. Although adaptive reuse projects require case specific approaches depending on the peculiarities of the original structure three main areas of concern can be discerned during the elaboration of the design scheme. These areas of concerns are the space configuration, tectonic aspects of the context within which the project will be realized. The paper addresses itself to the elucidation of these concern areas and the interrelations with the final scheme.
Yukawa, Masahiro; Slavakis, Konstantinos; Yamada, Isao
We propose the multi-domain adaptive learningthat enables us to find a point meeting possibly time-varying specifications simultaneously in multiple domains, e.g. space, time, frequency, etc. The novel concept is based on the idea of feasibility splitting — dealing with feasibility in each individual domain. We show that the adaptive projected subgradient method(Yamada, 2003) realizes the multi-domain adaptive learning by employing (i) a projected gradient operator with respect to a ‘fixed’ proximity function reflecting the time-invariant specifications and (ii) a subgradient projection with respect to ‘time-varying’ objective functions reflecting the time-varying specifications. The resulting algorithm is suitable for real-time implementation, because it requires no more than metric projections onto closed convex sets each of which accommodates the specification in each domain. A convergence analysis and numerical examples are presented.
Gasteiger, Georg; Rudensky, Alexander Y.
Innate lymphocytes, including natural killer (NK) cells and the recently discovered innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) have crucial roles during infection, tissue injury and inflammation. Innate signals regulate the activation and homeostasis of innate lymphocytes. Less well understood is the contribution of the adaptive immune system to the orchestration of innate lymphocyte responses. We review our current understanding of the interactions between adaptive and innate lymphocytes, and propose a model in which adaptive T cells function as antigen-specific sensors for the activation of innate lymphocytes to amplify and instruct local immune responses. We highlight the potential role of regulatory and helper T cells in these processes and discuss major questions in the emerging area of crosstalk between adaptive and innate lymphocytes. PMID:25132095
Full Text Available Adaptive immunity has often been considered the penultimate of immune capacities. That system is now being deconstructed to encompass less stringent rules that govern its initiation, actual effector activity, and ambivalent results. Expanding the repertoire of innate immunity found in all invertebrates has greatly facilitated the relaxation of convictions concerning what actually constitutes innate and adaptive immunity. Two animal models, incidentally not on the line of chordate evolution (C. elegans and Drosophila, have contributed enormously to defining homology. The characteristics of specificity and memory and whether the antigen is pathogenic or nonpathogenic reveal considerable information on homology, thus deconstructing the more fundamentalist view. Senescence, cancer, and immunosuppression often associated with mammals that possess both innate and adaptive immunity also exist in invertebrates that only possess innate immunity. Strict definitions become blurred casting skepticism on the utility of creating rigid definitions of what innate and adaptive immunity are without considering overlaps.
Craig, Robin K.; Ruhl, J.B.; Brown, Eleanor D.; Williams, Byron K.
In this article we examine how federal agencies use adaptive management. In order for federal agencies to implement adaptive management more successfully, administrative law must adapt to adaptive management, and we propose changes in administrative law that will help to steer the current process out of a dead end. Adaptive management is a form of structured decision making that is widely used in natural resources management. It involves specific steps integrated in an iterative process for adjusting management actions as new information becomes available. Theoretical requirements for adaptive management notwithstanding, federal agency decision making is subject to the requirements of the federal Administrative Procedure Act, and state agencies are subject to the states' parallel statutes. We argue that conventional administrative law has unnecessarily shackled effective use of adaptive management. We show that through a specialized 'adaptive management track' of administrative procedures, the core values of administrative law—especially public participation, judicial review, and finality— can be implemented in ways that allow for more effective adaptive management. We present and explain draft model legislation (the Model Adaptive Management Procedure Act) that would create such a track for the specific types of agency decision making that could benefit from adaptive management.
Craig, Robin K.; Ruhl, J. B.; Brown, Eleanor D.; Williams, Byron K.
In this article we examine how federal agencies use adaptive management. In order for federal agencies to implement adaptive management more successfully, administrative law must adapt to adaptive management, and we propose changes in administrative law that will help to steer the current process out of a dead end. Adaptive management is a form of structured decision making that is widely used in natural resources management. It involves specific steps integrated in an iterative process for adjusting management actions as new information becomes available. Theoretical requirements for adaptive management notwithstanding, federal agency decision making is subject to the requirements of the federal Administrative Procedure Act, and state agencies are subject to the states’ parallel statutes. We argue that conventional administrative law has unnecessarily shackled effective use of adaptive management. We show that through a specialized ‘adaptive management track’ of administrative procedures, the core values of administrative law—especially public participation, judicial review, and finality— can be implemented in ways that allow for more effective adaptive management. We present and explain draft model legislation (the Model Adaptive Management Procedure Act) that would create such a track for the specific types of agency decision making that could benefit from adaptive management.
Kalaitzidou, Kyriaki; Crosby, Alfred J.
Adaptable polymer particles that can change geometry, flow characteristics, and adsorption properties upon the stimulation of an environmental change, such as temperature, are fabricated by utilizing the residual stress developed at the interface of a bilayer. We propose a phase diagram that can be used to predict the shape and size of the adaptive polymer particles as a function of the material modulus, thickness ratio, and the bilayer's lateral dimensions. The materials used are gold/titanium and polydimethylsiloxane, but the method is applicable to a wide range of material combinations. Initial demonstrations of this responsive control and its impact on properties of the adaptive polymer particles are also presented.
Full Text Available Conventional adaptive expectation as a mechanism of stabilizing an unstable economic process is reexamined through a generalization to an adaptive adjustment framework. The generic structures of equilibria that can be stabilized through an adaptive adjustment mechanism are identified. The generalization can be applied to a broad class of discrete economic processes where the variables interested can be adjusted or controlled directly by economic agents such as in cobweb dynamics, Cournot games, Oligopoly markets, tatonnement price adjustment, tariff games, population control through immigration etc.
Frühwirth, R; Vanlaer, Pascal
Vertex fitting frequently has to deal with both mis-associated tracks and mis-measured track errors. A robust, adaptive method is presented that is able to cope with contaminated data. The method is formulated as an iterative re-weighted Kalman filter. Annealing is introduced to avoid local minima in the optimization. For the initialization of the adaptive filter a robust algorithm is presented that turns out to perform well in a wide range of applications. The tuning of the annealing schedule and of the cut-off parameter is described, using simulated data from the CMS experiment. Finally, the adaptive property of the method is illustrated in two examples.
Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten
This article develops a model where ownership improves efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only by adapting...... the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously decide housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual adaptation...
Barbara F. M. Marino
Full Text Available We investigated the conceptual processing of nouns referring to objects characterized by a highly typical color and orientation. We used a go/no-go task in which we asked participants to categorize each noun as referring or not to natural entities (e.g., animals after a selective adaptation of color-edge neurons in the posterior LV4 region of the visual cortex was induced by means of a McCollough effect procedure. This manipulation affected categorization: the green-vertical adaptation led to slower responses than the green-horizontal adaptation, regardless of the specific color and orientation of the to-be-categorized noun. This result suggests that the conceptual processing of natural entities may entail the activation of modality-specific neural channels with weights proportional to the reliability of the signals produced by these channels during actual perception. This finding is discussed with reference to the debate about the grounded cognition view.
Catalin Mihail BARBU
Full Text Available In this paper I discussed the factors that influence the cultural adaptation ofproducts. Globalization determines the companies to operate abroad;therefore the firms sell their products to markets where the consumerpatterns might differ from their national market. It is of high importance to beable to understand and to adapt to local consumer habits. The culture has astrong influence on products adaptation in particular, and on internationalmarketing in general. Companies must be able to adapt their products, but, inthe same time, to keep the note of originality, so that the global image ofbrand to gain consistency. Global brands provide a larger advantageregarding the marketing activities and costs. Savy companies are capable torecognize and to use cultural differences in their use.
Kovačević, Branko; Milosavljević, Milan
“Adaptive Digital Filters” presents an important discipline applied to the domain of speech processing. The book first makes the reader acquainted with the basic terms of filtering and adaptive filtering, before introducing the field of advanced modern algorithms, some of which are contributed by the authors themselves. Working in the field of adaptive signal processing requires the use of complex mathematical tools. The book offers a detailed presentation of the mathematical models that is clear and consistent, an approach that allows everyone with a college level of mathematics knowledge to successfully follow the mathematical derivations and descriptions of algorithms. The algorithms are presented in flow charts, which facilitates their practical implementation. The book presents many experimental results and treats the aspects of practical application of adaptive filtering in real systems, making it a valuable resource for both undergraduate and graduate students, and for all others interested in m...
Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.
Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions...
on influence. These two dimensions - adaptation and influence - result in four ideal types: business-dominated social compromise, imposed social compromise, business dominance, and political confrontation. Examples from German welfare state history illustrate these four types. The paper suggests...
Allahverdyan, A E; Babajanyan, S G; Martirosyan, N H; Melkikh, A V
A major limitation of many heat engines is that their functioning demands on-line control and/or an external fitting between the environmental parameters (e.g., temperatures of thermal baths) and internal parameters of the engine. We study a model for an adaptive heat engine, where-due to feedback from the functional part-the engine's structure adapts to given thermal baths. Hence, no on-line control and no external fitting are needed. The engine can employ unknown resources; it can also adapt to results of its own functioning that make the bath temperatures closer. We determine resources of adaptation and relate them to the prior information available about the environment.
Iroshnikov, Nikita G.; Larichev, Andrey V.
We present the experimental implementation of ophthalmic diagnostic systems with adaptive optics compensation of human eye aberration. The systems feature high speed operation and utilize deformable bimorph mirrors for wavefront correction. The results of aberration measurements and correction are discussed.
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of using optical information processing technology for adaptive antenna beamforming and null steering. The adaptive beamforming/null steering problem consists of estimation of the covariance matrix of the noise field and inversion of the covariance matrix to obtain the antenna element weights which optimize the antenna's directional characteristics (gain pattern). This report examines the adaptive beamforming/nulling problem in view of the capabilities of optics and identifies areas where optics can be used to benefit. Benefits and drawbacks of various optical implementations of open and closed loop adaptive algorithms are discussed as well as the issues involved with optically processing digital binary numbers.
The paper is embedded in the following fields: strategic management in terms of behavioural strategy concept, adaptability construct, and micro-foundations realm as well as organizational theory and psychology...
Foged, Isak Worre; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
. The general scopes of this paper are to develop a new adaptive kinetic architectural structure, particularly a reconfigurable architectural structure which can transform body shape from planar geometries to hyper-surfaces using different control strategies, i.e. a transformation into more than one or two......Recent years have seen an increasing variety of applications of adaptive architectural structures for improvement of structural performance by recognizing changes in their environments and loads, adapting to meet goals, and using past events to improve future performance or maintain serviceability...... different shape alternatives. The adaptive structure is a proposal for a responsive building envelope which is an idea of a first level operational framework for present and future investigations towards performance based responsive architectures through a set of responsive typologies. A mock- up concept...
The unique characteristic of web applications is that they are supposed to be used by much bigger and diverse set of users and stakeholders. An example application area is e-Learning or business to business interaction. In eLearning environment, various users with different background use the eLearning......-based applications aim to leave some of their features at the design stage in the form of variables which are dependent on several criteria. The resolution of the variables is called adaptation and can be seen from two perspectives: adaptation by humans to the changed requirements of stakeholders and dynamic system...... adaptation to the changed parameters of environments, user or context. Adaptation can be seen as an orthogonal concern or viewpoint in a design process. In this paper I will discuss design abstractions which are employed in current design methods for web applications. I will exemplify the use...
Brody, Joshua Eric; Larsen, Kasper Green
In this paper, we study the role non-adaptivity plays in maintaining dynamic data structures. Roughly speaking, a data structure is non-adaptive if the memory locations it reads and/or writes when processing a query or update depend only on the query or update and not on the contents of previously...... read cells. We study such non-adaptive data structures in the cell probe model. This model is one of the least restrictive lower bound models and in particular, cell probe lower bounds apply to data structures developed in the popular word-RAM model. Unfortunately, this generality comes at a high cost......: the highest lower bound proved for any data structure problem is only polylogarithmic. Our main result is to demonstrate that one can in fact obtain polynomial cell probe lower bounds for non-adaptive data structures. To shed more light on the seemingly inherent polylogarithmic lower bound barrier, we study...
Full Text Available These lecture notes present adaptive multiresolution schemes for evolutionary PDEs in Cartesian geometries. The discretization schemes are based either on finite volume or finite difference schemes. The concept of multiresolution analyses, including Harten’s approach for point and cell averages, is described in some detail. Then the sparse point representation method is discussed. Different strategies for adaptive time-stepping, like local scale dependent time stepping and time step control, are presented. Numerous numerical examples in one, two and three space dimensions validate the adaptive schemes and illustrate the accuracy and the gain in computational efficiency in terms of CPU time and memory requirements. Another aspect, modeling of turbulent flows using multiresolution decompositions, the so-called Coherent Vortex Simulation approach is also described and examples are given for computations of three-dimensional weakly compressible mixing layers. Most of the material concerning applications to PDEs is assembled and adapted from previous publications [27, 31, 32, 34, 67, 69].
Information and services on the web are accessible for everyone. Users of the web differ in their background, culture, political and social environment, interests and so on. Ambient intelligence was envisioned as a concept for systems which are able to adapt to user actions and needs. With the gr......Information and services on the web are accessible for everyone. Users of the web differ in their background, culture, political and social environment, interests and so on. Ambient intelligence was envisioned as a concept for systems which are able to adapt to user actions and needs...... suit the user profile the most. This paper summarizes the domain engineering framework for such adaptive web applications. The framework provides guidelines to develop adaptive web applications as members of a family. It suggests how to utilize the design artifacts as knowledge which can be used...
Wessel, Jan R
The ability to detect and correct action errors is paramount to safe and efficient goal-directed behaviors. Existing work on the neural underpinnings of error processing and post-error behavioral adaptations has led to the development of several mechanistic theories of error processing. These theories can be roughly grouped into adaptive and maladaptive theories. While adaptive theories propose that errors trigger a cascade of processes that will result in improved behavior after error commission, maladaptive theories hold that error commission momentarily impairs behavior. Neither group of theories can account for all available data, as different empirical studies find both impaired and improved post-error behavior. This article attempts a synthesis between the predictions made by prominent adaptive and maladaptive theories. Specifically, it is proposed that errors invoke a nonspecific cascade of processing that will rapidly interrupt and inhibit ongoing behavior and cognition, as well as orient attention toward the source of the error. It is proposed that this cascade follows all unexpected action outcomes, not just errors. In the case of errors, this cascade is followed by error-specific, controlled processing, which is specifically aimed at (re)tuning the existing task set. This theory combines existing predictions from maladaptive orienting and bottleneck theories with specific neural mechanisms from the wider field of cognitive control, including from error-specific theories of adaptive post-error processing. The article aims to describe the proposed framework and its implications for post-error slowing and post-error accuracy, propose mechanistic neural circuitry for post-error processing, and derive specific hypotheses for future empirical investigations. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Climate Change Adaptation Approaches Presented at the E2S2 Symposium May 11th, 2011 New Orleans, LA...COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Climate Change Adaptation Approaches 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...10/09). One of the four priorities is to maintain readiness in the face of climate change . Addressing Climate Change Risk and Vulnerability: a
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to illustrate in which cases the translators use the adaptation when they are confronted with a term related to sociocultural aspects. We will discuss the notions of equivalence and adaptation and their limits in the translation. Some samples from Arte TV news and from the American film Shrek translated into Polish, German and French will be provided as a support for this article.
Jakobović, Domagoj; Golub, Marin
In this paper we introduce an adaptive, 'self-contained' genetic algorithm (GA) with steady-state selection. This variant of GA utilizes empirically based methods for calculating its control parameters. The adaptive algorithm estimates the percentage of the population to be replaced with new individuals (generation gap). It chooses the solutions for crossover and varies the number of mutations, ail regarding the current population state. The state of the population is evaluated by observing s...
Lee, Hyeongcheol; Tomizuka, Masayoshi
This report presents two different control algorithms for adaptive vehicle traction control, which includes wheel slip control, optimal time control, anti-spin acceleration and anti-skid control, and longitudinal platoon control. The two control algorithms are respectively based on adaptive fuzzy logic control and sliding mode control with on-line road condition estimation. Simulations of the two control methods are conducted using a complex nonlinear vehicle model as well as a simple linear ...
This paper describes the development of an adaptive computer control routine for a robotically, deployed focused, ultrasonic hyperthermia cancer treatment system. The control algorithm developed herein uses physiological models of a tumor and the surrounding healthy tissue regions and transient temperature data to estimate the treatment region`s blood perfusion. This estimate is used to vary the specific power profile of a scanned, focused ultrasonic transducer to achieve a temperature distribution as close as possible to an optimal temperature distribution. The controller is evaluated using simulations of diseased tissue and using limited experiments on a scanned, focused ultrasonic treatment system that employs a 5-Degree-of-Freedom (D.O.F.) robot to scan the treatment transducers over a simulated patient. Results of the simulations and experiments indicate that the adaptive control routine improves the temperature distribution over standard classical control algorithms if good (although not exact) knowledge of the treated region is available. Although developed with a scanned, focused ultrasonic robotic treatment system in mind, the control algorithm is applicable to any system with the capability to vary specific power as a function of volume and having an unknown distributed energy sink proportional to temperature elevation (e.g., other robotically deployed hyperthermia treatment methods using different heating modalities).
Klostermann, J.E.M.; Gupta, J.; Bergsma, E.; Jong, P.
Although climate change has been prominently featured on the global scientific and political agendas since the World Climate Conference in 1979 (WCC 1979), the specific importance of adaptation to climate change has only been underlined about 20 years later. The Netherlands, because it lies largely
Sparrow, Sara S.; Cicchetti, Domenic V.
Results of clinical research involving specific subtypes of psychological disorders in elementary age children are reported. Compared to controls, emotionally disturbed children manifested greatest adaptive behavior deficits in socialization and maladaptive areas of functioning, with less predictable patterns of deficit in such areas as…
J.R. Calamé (Jens)
htmlabstractBehavior-oriented Adaptation in Testing (BAiT) is a toolset, which supports test generation and execution for deterministic and nondeterministic systems with data. It covers the generation of test cases from a (formal) system specification and test purposes, the identification and
Climate change is perhaps the most serious environmental threat facing mankind worldwide. The study was designed to assess the knowledge, perception and adaptation strategies to climate change among farmers in southern agricultural zone of Nasarawa state. The specific objectives were to: identify the sources of ...
Full Text Available With respect to adaptation studies, contemporary Japanese popular culture signifies a unique case, as different types of media (be those textual, auditive, visual or audio-visual are tightly intertwined through the “recycling” of successful characters and stories. As a result, a neatly woven net of intermedial adaptations has been formed - the core of this complex system being the manga-anime-live-action film “adaptational triangle.” On the one hand, the paper addresses the interplay of the various factors by which the very existence of this network is made possible, such as the distinctive cultural attitude to “originality,” the structure of the comics, animation and film industries, and finally, the role of fictitious genealogies of both traditional and contemporary media in the negotiation of national identity. On the other hand, the essay also considers some of the most significant thematic, narrative, and stylistic effects this close interconnectedness has on the individual medium. Special attention is being paid to the nascent trend of merging the adaptive medium with that of the original story (viewing adaptation as integration, apparent in contemporary manga-based live- action comedies, as the extreme case of intermedial adaptation. That is, when the aim of the adaptational process is no longer the transposition of the story but the adaptation (i.e. the incorporation of the medium itself- elevating certain medium-specific devices into transmedial phenomena.
Full Text Available The early stages of the auditory system need to preserve the timing information of sounds in order to extract the basic features of acoustic stimuli. At the same time, different processes of neuronal adaptation occur at several levels to further process the auditory information. For instance, auditory nerve fiber responses already experience adaptation of their firing rates, a type of response that can be found in many other auditory nuclei and may be useful for emphasizing the onset of the stimuli. However, it is at higher levels in the auditory hierarchy where more sophisticated types of neuronal processing take place. For example, stimulus-specific adaptation, where neurons show adaptation to frequent, repetitive stimuli, but maintain their responsiveness to stimuli with different physical characteristics, thus representing a distinct kind of processing that may play a role in change and deviance detection. In the auditory cortex, adaptation takes more elaborate forms, and contributes to the processing of complex sequences, auditory scene analysis and attention. Here we review the multiple types of adaptation that occur in the auditory system, which are part of the pool of resources that the neurons employ to process the auditory scene, and are critical to a proper understanding of the neuronal mechanisms that govern auditory perception.
Alves, Marisa; Ramos, Daniela; Oliveira, Graça; Alves, Helena; Anderson, Ilona; Magalhães, Isabel; Martins, Jorge H; Simões, Margarida; Ferreira, Raquel; Fonseca, Rita; Andrade, Susana; Silva, Luís; Ribeiro, Carlos; Ferreira, Pedro Lopes
The use of adequate assessment tools in health care is crucial for the management of care. The lack of specific tools in Portugal for assessing the performance of children who use cochlear implants motivated the translation and adaptation of the EARS (Evaluation of Auditory Responses to Speech) test battery into European Portuguese. This test battery is today one of the most commonly used by (re)habilitation teams of deaf children who use cochlear implants worldwide. The goal to be achieved with the validation of EARS was to provide (re)habilitation teams an instrument that enables: (i) monitoring the progress of individual (re)habilitation, (ii) managing a (re)habilitation program according to objective results, comparable between different (re)habilitation teams, (iii) obtaining data that can be compared with the results of international teams, and (iv) improving engagement and motivation of the family and other professionals from local teams. For the test battery translation and adaptation process, the adopted procedures were the following: (i) translation of the English version into European Portuguese by a professional translator, (ii) revision of the translation performed by an expert panel, including doctors, speech-language pathologists and audiologists, (iii) adaptation of the test stimuli by the team's speechlanguage pathologist, and (iv) further review by the expert panel. For each of the tests that belong to the EARS battery, the introduced adaptations and adjustments are presented, combining the characteristics and objectives of the original tests with the linguistic and cultural specificities of the Portuguese population. The difficulties that have been encountered during the translation and adaptation process and the adopted solutions are discussed. Comparisons are made with other versions of the EARS battery. We defend that the translation and the adaptation process followed for the EARS test battery into European Portuguese was correctly conducted
Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during the initial exposure to microgravity and during the readapation phase following a return to a gravitational environment. These alterations may lead to disruption in the ability to perform mission critical functional tasks during and after these gravitational transitions. Astronauts show significant inter-subject variation in adaptive capability following gravitational transitions. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which each individual astronaut will be affected would improve the effectiveness of a countermeasure comprised of a training program designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Due to this inherent individual variability we need to develop predictive measures of sensorimotor adaptability that will allow us to predict, before actual space flight, which crewmember will experience challenges in adaptive capacity. Thus, obtaining this information will allow us to design and implement better sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures that will be customized for each crewmember's unique adaptive capabilities. Therefore the goals of this project are to: 1) develop a set of predictive measures capable of identifying individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability, and 2) use this information to design sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures that are customized for each crewmember's individual sensorimotor adaptive characteristics. To achieve these goals we are currently pursuing the following specific aims: Aim 1: Determine whether behavioral metrics of individual sensory bias predict sensorimotor adaptability. For this aim, subjects perform tests that delineate individual sensory biases in tests of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive function. Aim 2: Determine if individual capability for strategic and plastic-adaptive responses predicts sensorimotor adaptability. For this aim, each subject's strategic and plastic-adaptive motor learning abilities are assessed using
Aydin, M.N.; Harmsen, A.F.; van Hillegersberg, Jos; Stegwee, R.A.; Siau, K.
Little specific research has been conducted to date on the adaptation of agile information systems development (ISD) methods. This chapter presents the work practice in dealing with the adaptation of such a method in the ISD department of one of the leading financial institutes in Europe. The
With the increasing adoption of accelerated models of learning comes the necessary step of adapting these models to fit the unique needs of the student population at each individual institution. One such college adapted the ALP (Accelerated Learning Program) model and made specific changes to the target population, structure and scheduling, and…
Michael P. Curran; Douglas G. Maynard; Ronald L. Heninger; Thomas A. Terry; Steven W. Howes; Douglas M. Stone; Thomas Niemann; Richard E. Miller; Robert F. Powers
Soil disturbance guidelines should be based on comparable disturbance categories adapted to specific local soil conditions, validated by monitoring and research. Guidelines, standards, and practices should be continually improved based on an adaptive management process, which is presented in this paper. Core components of this process include: reliable monitoring...
Lizier, Amanda Louise
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline an empirical study of how professionals experience work and learning in complex adaptive organisations. The study uses a complex adaptive systems approach, which forms the basis of a specifically developed conceptual framework for explaining professionals' experiences of work and learning.…
J. Vink (Jaap); W.J.M.I. Verbeke (Willem)
textabstractIn this paper the relationship between adaptive selling and organizational behavior is analysed. Specifically, it is discovered that adaptive behavior is a multifaceted concept which is not linearly related to the organizational characteristics in the way it was operationalized in a
Aydin, M.N.; Harmsen, F.; van Slooten, C.; Stegwee, R.A.
Little specific research has been conducted to date on the adaptation of agile information systems development (ISD) methods. This article presents the work practice in dealing with the adaptation of such a method in the ISD department of one of the leading financial institutes in Europe. Two forms
Mouga, Susana; Almeida, Joana; Café, Cátia; Duque, Frederico; Oliveira, Guiomar
We investigated the influence of specific autism spectrum disorder (ASD) deficits in learning adaptive behaviour, besides intelligence quotient (IQ). Participated 217 school-aged: ASD (N = 115), and other neurodevelopmental disorders (OND) groups (N = 102) matched by Full-Scale IQ. We compared standard scores of Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scale…
Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang
Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.
Thomas R. Rimmele
Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.
Wang, Lei; Wang, Ye; Fu, Wen-long; Cao, Li-hong
The capability of neurons to discriminate between intensity of external stimulus is measured by its dynamic range. A larger dynamic range indicates a greater probability of neuronal survival. In this study, the potential roles of adaptation mechanisms (ion currents) in modulating neuronal dynamic range were numerically investigated. Based on the adaptive exponential integrate-and-fire model, which includes two different adaptation mechanisms, i.e. subthreshold and suprathreshold (spike-triggered) adaptation, our results reveal that the two adaptation mechanisms exhibit rather different roles in regulating neuronal dynamic range. Specifically, subthreshold adaptation acts as a negative factor that observably decreases the neuronal dynamic range, while suprathreshold adaptation has little influence on the neuronal dynamic range. Moreover, when stochastic noise was introduced into the adaptation mechanisms, the dynamic range was apparently enhanced, regardless of what state the neuron was in, e.g. adaptive or non-adaptive. Our model results suggested that the neuronal dynamic range can be differentially modulated by different adaptation mechanisms. Additionally, noise was a non-ignorable factor, which could effectively modulate the neuronal dynamic range. PMID:28469660
Kalaitzidou, Kyriaki; Crosby, Alfred J.
Adaptable polymer particles that can change geometry, flow characteristics, and adsorption properties upon the stimulation of an environmental change, such as temperature are fabricated by utilizing the residual stress developed at the interface of a bilayer. We propose a phase diagram that can be used to predict the shape and the size of the adaptive polymer particles as a function of the materials modulus, thickness ratio and the bilayer's lateral dimensions. The method is applicable to any material combination that satisfies the design equations. The materials used in this work are gold/titanium (Au/Ti) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). Initial demonstrations of this responsive control and its impact on properties of the adaptive polymer particles are also presented. These structures combined with their demonstrated reversibility have potential as capsules in drug delivery systems and novel conductive composites.
An adaptive signal canceller has been evaluated for the enhancement of pulse signal reception during the transmission of a high power ECM jamming signal. The canceller design is based on the use of DRFM(Digital RF Memory) technology as part of an adaptive multiple tapped delay line. The study includes analysis of relationship of tap spacing and waveform bandwidth, survey of related documents in areas of sidelobe cancellers, transversal equalizers, and adaptive filters, and derivation of control equations and corresponding control processes. The simulation of overall processes included geometric analysis of the multibeam transmitting antenna, multiple reflection sources and the receiving antenna; waveforms, tap spacings and bandwidths; and alternate control algorithms. Conclusions are provided regarding practical system control algorithms, design characteristics and limitations.
Lisbôa, Carlos; Carro, Luigi
As embedded systems become more complex, designers face a number of challenges at different levels: they need to boost performance, while keeping energy consumption as low as possible, they need to reuse existent software code, and at the same time they need to take advantage of the extra logic available in the chip, represented by multiple processors working together. This book describes several strategies to achieve such different and interrelated goals, by the use of adaptability. Coverage includes reconfigurable systems, dynamic optimization techniques such as binary translation and trace reuse, new memory architectures including homogeneous and heterogeneous multiprocessor systems, communication issues and NOCs, fault tolerance against fabrication defects and soft errors, and finally, how one can combine several of these techniques together to achieve higher levels of performance and adaptability. The discussion also includes how to employ specialized software to improve this new adaptive system, and...
Maslennikov, O. V.; Nekorkin, V. I.
Dynamical networks are systems of active elements (nodes) interacting with each other through links. Examples are power grids, neural structures, coupled chemical oscillators, and communications networks, all of which are characterized by a networked structure and intrinsic dynamics of their interacting components. If the coupling structure of a dynamical network can change over time due to nodal dynamics, then such a system is called an adaptive dynamical network. The term ‘adaptive’ implies that the coupling topology can be rewired; the term ‘dynamical’ implies the presence of internal node and link dynamics. The main results of research on adaptive dynamical networks are reviewed. Key notions and definitions of the theory of complex networks are given, and major collective effects that emerge in adaptive dynamical networks are described.
Harrison, Spencer H; Sluss, David M; Ashforth, Blake E
Using longitudinal data from 123 newcomers across 12 telemarketing organizations, we examined the role of 2 forms of trait curiosity (specific and diversive) as antecedents of proximal adaptation behaviors (information seeking and positive framing) and more distal, in-role and extra-role behaviors (job performance and taking charge). Results suggest that specific curiosity predicts information seeking behaviors, whereas diversive curiosity promotes positive framing. Results also support the relationship between positive framing and performance and the extra-role behavior of taking charge. Overall, the study validates the role of curiosity as a multifaceted individual difference that serves as an antecedent to newcomer adaptation.
Campa, Alessandro; Esposito, Giuseppe; Belli, Mauro
Cellular response to radiation is often modified by a previous delivery of a small "priming" dose: a smaller amount of damage, defined by the end point being investigated, is observed, and for this reason the effect is called adaptive response. An improved understanding of this effect is essential (as much as for the case of the bystander effect) for a reliable radiation risk assessment when low dose irradiations are involved. Experiments on adaptive response have shown that there are a number of factors that strongly influence the occurrence (and the level) of the adaptation. In particular, priming doses and dose rates have to fall in defined ranges; the same is true for the time interval between the delivery of the small priming dose and the irradiation with the main, larger, dose (called in this case challenging dose). Different hypotheses can be formulated on the main mechanism(s) determining the adaptive response: an increased efficiency of DNA repair, an increased level of antioxidant enzymes, an alteration of cell cycle progression, a chromatin conformation change. An experimental clearcut evidence going definitely in the direction of one of these explanations is not yet available. Modelling can be done at different levels. Simple models, relating the amount of damage, through elementary differential equations, to the dose and dose rate experienced by the cell, are relatively easy to handle, and they can be modified to account for the priming irradiation. However, this can hardly be of decisive help in the explanation of the mechanisms, since each parameter of these models often incorporates in an effective way several cellular processes related to the response to radiation. In this presentation we show our attempts to describe adaptive response with models that explicitly contain, as a dynamical variable, the inducible adaptive agent. At a price of a more difficult treatment, this approach is probably more prone to give support to the experimental studies
Pogrebnjak, A. D.; Bagdasaryan, A. A.; Pshyk, A.; Dyadyura, K.
This paper reviews experimental research on nanocomposite coatings of different chemical composition. For adaptive multi-element and multi-layer systems with specific phase composition, structure, substructure, stress state and high functional properties, formation conditions are reviewed; the behavior under extreme conditions and in tribological applications is examined; the structural, phase, and chemical composition, and the hardness, friction and wear at elevated temperatures are discussed; and the adhesive strength of hierarchical protective coatings is analyzed. Finally, the adaptive behavior at different tribological test conditions of multifunctional, multi-layer coatings as a function of their properties and structure is examined.
Jensen, Henrik; Foss, Nicolai Juul
"Managerial Meta-Knowledge, Uncertainty, and Adaptation: Governance Choice when Firms do not Know their Capabilities" Much research on economic organization (e.g., transaction cost economics) is based on an assumption that firms accurately know their own capabilities. In terms of what managers know...... warranted. We examine the implications for economic organization of less-than-perfect managerial meta-knowledge. Specifically, we show that imperfect managerial meta- knowledge is a cause of surprises in contractual relationships, affects the ability of coordinated adaptation, and an opportunism...
Murai, Norihiko; Funabiki, Kazuo; Naito, Yasushi; Ito, Juichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao
The aim of this study was to investigate validity and limitation of the novel infrared system to record and analyze horizontal visual-vestibular interaction using whole-body rotation rapidly and conveniently in the routine vestibular clinic. We examined 11 patients with cerebellar dysequilibrium and 25 patients with peripheral dysequilibrium for vestibulo-ocular reflex in darkness (DVOR), visually-enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex (VEVOR), and fixation suppression of vestibulo-ocular reflex (FSVOR), and compared the results with those of examination for head-fixed smooth pursuit and fixation suppression during caloric stimulation. The manual rotation stimuli were 0.5-0.75 Hz in frequency and 60-90 degrees /s in maximal angular velocity. Gain of vestibulo-ocular reflex in darkness was not significantly correlated with maximal slow phase velocity (MSPV) of caloric-induced nystagmus at that stimulus condition either in patients with peripheral dysequilibrium or in those with cerebellar dysequilibrium. An index for fixation suppression of vestibulo-ocular reflex during rotation stimulus was significantly lower in patients with cerebellar dysequilibrium than in normal control subjects and those with peripheral dysequilibrium. On the other hand, there was no significant difference among the two disease groups and the normal control group in gain of visually-enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex. In about a half of patients with cerebellar dysequilibrium, measured smooth pursuit gain was lower than estimated smooth pursuit gain calculated based on a simple superposition theory of vestibulo-ocular reflex and smooth pursuit. Testing fixation suppression using the present system is an unusually convenient tool for detection of cerebellar dysequilibrium.
Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan
Kernel smoothing is a widely used non-parametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this contribution, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate...... regression by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms...
Goutte, Cyril; Larsen, Jan
Kernel smoothing is a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique. By nature, it suffers from the curse of dimensionality and is usually difficult to apply to high input dimensions. In this paper, we propose an algorithm that adapts the input metric used in multivariate regression...... by minimising a cross-validation estimate of the generalisation error. This allows one to automatically adjust the importance of different dimensions. The improvement in terms of modelling performance is illustrated on a variable selection task where the adaptive metric kernel clearly outperforms the standard...
Modławska, Joanna; Grudka, Andrzej
We consider multiple teleportation in the Knill-Laflamme-Milburn (KLM) scheme. We introduce adaptive teleportation, i.e., such that the choice of entangled state used in the next teleportation depends on the results of the measurements performed during the previous teleportations. We show that adaptive teleportation enables an increase in the probability of faithful multiple teleportation in the KLM scheme. In particular if a qubit is to be teleported more than once then it is better to use nonmaximally entangled states than maximally entangled ones in order to achieve the highest probability of faithful teleportation.
Radar Resource Management (RRM) is vital for optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars, which are the primary sensor for aircraft, ships, and land platforms. Adaptive Radar Resource Management gives an introduction to radar resource management (RRM), presenting a clear overview of different approaches and techniques, making it very suitable for radar practitioners and researchers in industry and universities. Coverage includes: RRM's role in optimizing the performance of modern phased array radars The advantages of adaptivity in implementing RRMThe role that modelling and
Obagbuwa, Ibidun C.; Abidoye, Ademola P.
An adaptive cockroach swarm optimization (ACSO) algorithm is proposed in this paper to strengthen the existing cockroach swarm optimization (CSO) algorithm. The ruthless component of CSO algorithm is modified by the employment of blend crossover predator-prey evolution method which helps algorithm prevent any possible population collapse, maintain population diversity and create adaptive search in each iteration. The performance of the proposed algorithm on 16 global optimization benchmark function problems was evaluated and compared with the existing CSO, cuckoo search, differential evolution, particle swarm optimization and artificial bee colony algorithms.
Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Skak, Morten
This article develops a model where ownership improves the efficiency of the housing market as it enhances the utility of housing consumption for some consumers. The model is based on an extended Hotelling-Lancaster utility approach in which the ideal variant of housing is obtainable only...... by adapting the home through a supplementary investment. Ownership offers low costs of adaptation, but has high contract costs compared with renting. Consumers simultaneously choose housing demand and tenure, and because of the different cost structure only consumers with strong preferences for individual...
Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; den Dunnen, Jeroen; Gringhuis, Sonja I.
Dendritic cells (DCs) tailor adaptive immune responses to specific pathogens. This diversity is mediated by cooperation between different pattern recognition receptors that are triggered by specific pathogens, DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) is a pattern
Peay, Holly L; Meiser, Bettina; Kinnett, Kathleen; Furlong, Pat; Porter, Kathryn; Tibben, Aad
Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DBMD) cause significant emotional and care-related burden on caregivers, but no studies have evaluated predictors of positive caregiver outcomes, including disorder-specific psychological adaptation...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Most fault adaptive control research addresses the preservation of system stability or functionality in the presence of a specific failure (fault). This paper...
Bruin, de, H.A.R.; Dellink, R.B.
The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation, i.e. adaptation restrictions, on the composition and level of climate change costs and on welfare. Several adaptation restrictions are identified and then simulated in a revised DICE model, extended with ad...
Hvilsom, Christina; Qian, Yu; Bataillon, Thomas
on the dominance of beneficial (adaptive) and deleterious mutations. Here we capture and sequence the complete exomes of 12 chimpanzees and present the largest set of protein-coding polymorphism to date. We report extensive adaptive evolution specifically targeting the X chromosome of chimpanzees with as much...... as 30% of all amino acid replacements being adaptive. Adaptive evolution is barely detectable on the autosomes except for a few striking cases of recent selective sweeps associated with immunity gene clusters. We also find much stronger purifying selection than observed in humans, and in contrast...
Versão em português, adaptação transcultural e validação de questionário para avaliação da qualidade de vida para pacientes portadores de marcapasso: AQUAREL The portuguese version, cross-cultural adaptation and validation of specific quality-of-life questionnaire - AQUAREL - for pacemaker patients
Bruna Guimarães Oliveira
Full Text Available RESUMO OBJETIVO: Traduzir, adaptar culturalmente e avaliar a reprodutibilidade e a validade da versão em português do questionário AQUAREL (Assessment of QUAlity of life and RELetad events, específico para avaliação da qualidade de vida em portadores de marcapasso cardíaco. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 202 pacientes portadores de marcapasso, sendo 63 na etapa de adaptação cultural e 139 pacientes na avaliação da reprodutibilidade e da validade. A tradução do questionário foi revista até que todas as questões alcançassem entendimento correto por > 85% dos pacientes. A reprodutibilidade da versão final foi testada pela aplicação do questionário em duas entrevistas em 69 pacientes, realizadas por um único entrevistador. A validade foi aferida pela correlação entre os escores obtidos nos domínios do AQUAREL e os domínios do questionário SF36, a classificação funcional e a distância caminhada no teste de seis minutos. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna do AQUAREL foi adequada, com índices Alfa de Cronbach variando de 0,59 a 0,85. A reprodutibilidade foi boa, com coeficientes de correlação elevados (0,68-0,89 e distribuição aleatória dos dados obtidos no gráfico de Bland and Altman, sem viés sistemático dos valores obtidos. Houve associação significativa (p OBJECTIVE: To translate, to make the cultural adaptation and to evaluate reproducibility and validity of the Portuguese version of the AQUAREL (Assessment of QUAlity of life and RELated events questionnaire, which is a specific tool to assess quality of life in pacemaker patients. METHODS: We evaluated 202 pacemaker patients: 63 patients during the cross-cultural adaptation stage and 139 during the reproducibility and validity evaluation stages. The questionnaire translation was reviewed repeatedly until > 85% of patients correctly understood the questions. Reproducibility of the final version was tested in 69 patients in whom the interview was performed
This study investigates a hybrid adaptive flight control method as a design possibility for a flight control system that can enable an effective adaptation strategy to deal with off-nominal flight conditions. The hybrid adaptive control blends both direct and indirect adaptive control in a model inversion flight control architecture. The blending of both direct and indirect adaptive control provides a much more flexible and effective adaptive flight control architecture than that with either direct or indirect adaptive control alone. The indirect adaptive control is used to update the model inversion controller by an on-line parameter estimation of uncertain plant dynamics based on two methods. The first parameter estimation method is an indirect adaptive law based on the Lyapunov theory, and the second method is a recursive least-squares indirect adaptive law. The model inversion controller is therefore made to adapt to changes in the plant dynamics due to uncertainty. As a result, the modeling error is reduced that directly leads to a decrease in the tracking error. In conjunction with the indirect adaptive control that updates the model inversion controller, a direct adaptive control is implemented as an augmented command to further reduce any residual tracking error that is not entirely eliminated by the indirect adaptive control.
The video game industry has grown to a multi-billion dollar, worldwide industry. The background music tends adaptively in reference to the specific game content during the game length of the play. Adaptive music should be further explored by looking at the particular condition in the game; such condition is driven by generating a specific music in the background which best fits in with the active game content throughout the length of the gameplay. This research paper outlines the use of condi...
Full Text Available This study analyses the environmental, socio-economic andinstitutional factors that influence community-based adaptation strategies in 16municipalities in the rural Andes of Colombia. The study focuses specifically onthe factors that influence whether communities decide to take measures to managetheir water and micro-watersheds in response to water scarcity caused by climatevariability and land-use changes. The research uses quantitative and qualitativemethods incorporating data from surveys to 104 water user associations,precipitation and land-use data, municipal socio-economic information, and semistructured interviews with key informants. The results reveal 1 the links betweenenvironmental change and the type of adaptation that communities implement,and 2 how, in face of water scarcity changes, external funding facilitatesadaptation. The findings of this study contributes to the common-pool resourceand adaptation literatures by highlighting the important role that external actorsmay have in shaping collective action to adapt to environmental change.
van Oosten, Daan C.; Nijenhuis, Lucas F.J.; Bakkers, André; Vervoort, Wiek
This paper describes a part of the development of an adaptive autonomous machine that is able to move in an unknown world extract knowledge out of the perceived data, has the possibility to reason, and finally has the capability to exchange experiences and knowledge with other agents. The agent is
Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
In this paper, 2 adaptive spectral estimation techniques are analyzed for spectral Doppler ultrasound. The purpose is to minimize the observation window needed to estimate the spectrogram to provide a better temporal resolution and gain more flexibility when designing the data acquisition sequence...
Jørgensen, Ida Kathrine Hammeleff
from television or cinema (Woods 2012). Furthermore, since the early days of digital games, tabletop games have served as a source of inspiration for many video-game designers, and more recently we have seen the occurrence of tabletop game adaptations of popular video-games such as StarCraft (Blizzard...
Icabone, Dona G.
This article describes the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales, a general assessment of personal and social sufficiency of individuals from birth through adulthood to determine areas of strength and weakness. The instrument assesses communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills. Its administration, standardization, reliability,…
Theije, P.A.M. de
A new adaptive method is presented to display large amounts of data on, for example, a computer screen. The algorithm reduces a set of N samples to a single value, using the statistics of the background and cormparing the true peak value in the set of N samples to the expected peak value of this
Constance I. Millar; Kenneth E. Skog; Duncan C. McKinley; Richard A. Birdsey; Christopher W. Swanston; Sarah J. Hines; Christopher W. Woodall; Elizabeth D. Reinhardt; David L. Peterson; James M. Vose
Forest ecosystems respond to natural climatic variability and human-caused climate change in ways that are adverse as well as beneficial to the biophysical environment and to society. Adaptation refers to responses or adjustments madeâwhether passive, reactive, or anticipatoryâto climatic variability and change (Carter et al. 1994). Many adjustments occur whether...
In this dissertation, we address the problem of runtime adaptation of the application to its execution environment. A typical example is changing theprocessing element on which a computation is executed, considering the available processing elements in the system. This is done based on the
for a domain.In this book, we propose a new domain engineering framework which extends a development process of Web applications with techniques required when designing such adaptive customizable Web applications. The framework is provided with design abstractions which deal separately with information served...
This book is an accessible guide to adaptive signal processing methods that equips the reader with advanced theoretical and practical tools for the study and development of circuit structures and provides robust algorithms relevant to a wide variety of application scenarios. Examples include multimodal and multimedia communications, the biological and biomedical fields, economic models, environmental sciences, acoustics, telecommunications, remote sensing, monitoring, and, in general, the modeling and prediction of complex physical phenomena. The reader will learn not only how to design and implement the algorithms but also how to evaluate their performance for specific applications utilizing the tools provided. While using a simple mathematical language, the employed approach is very rigorous. The text will be of value both for research purposes and for courses of study.
Karr, C. Lucas; Harper, Tony R.
Researchers at the U.S. Bureau of Mines have developed adaptive process control systems in which genetic algorithms (GA's) are used to augment fuzzy logic controllers (FLC's). GA's are search algorithms that rapidly locate near-optimum solutions to a wide spectrum of problems by modeling the search procedures of natural genetics. FLC's are rule based systems that efficiently manipulate a problem environment by modeling the 'rule-of-thumb' strategy used in human decision making. Together, GA's and FLC's possess the capabilities necessary to produce powerful, efficient, and robust adaptive control systems. To perform efficiently, such control systems require a control element to manipulate the problem environment, an analysis element to recognize changes in the problem environment, and a learning element to adjust fuzzy membership functions in response to the changes in the problem environment. Details of an overall adaptive control system are discussed. A specific computer-simulated chemical system is used to demonstrate the ideas presented.
Pelosi, Anna; Battista Chirico, Giovanni; Van den Bergh, Joris; Vannitsem, Stephane
Forecasts from numerical weather prediction (NWP) models often suffer from both systematic and non-systematic errors. These are present in both deterministic and ensemble forecasts, and originate from various sources such as model error and subgrid variability. Statistical post-processing techniques can partly remove such errors, which is particularly important when NWP outputs concerning surface weather variables are employed for site specific applications. Many different post-processing techniques have been developed. For deterministic forecasts, adaptive methods such as the Kalman filter are often used, which sequentially post-process the forecasts by continuously updating the correction parameters as new ground observations become available. These methods are especially valuable when long training data sets do not exist. For ensemble forecasts, well-known techniques are ensemble model output statistics (EMOS), and so-called "member-by-member" approaches (MBM). Here, we introduce a new adaptive post-processing technique for ensemble predictions. The proposed method is a sequential Kalman filtering technique that fully exploits the information content of the ensemble. One correction equation is retrieved and applied to all members, however the parameters of the regression equations are retrieved by exploiting the second order statistics of the forecast ensemble. We compare our new method with two other techniques: a simple method that makes use of a running bias correction of the ensemble mean, and an MBM post-processing approach that rescales the ensemble mean and spread, based on minimization of the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS). We perform a verification study for the region of Campania in southern Italy. We use two years (2014-2015) of daily meteorological observations of 2-meter temperature and 10-meter wind speed from 18 ground-based automatic weather stations distributed across the region, comparing them with the corresponding COSMO
Burgess, J. C.
A digital computer simulation of adaptive closed-loop control for a specific application (sound cancellation in a duct) is discussed. The principal element is an extension of Sondhi's adaptive echo canceler and Widrow's adaptive noise canceler from signal processing to control. Thus, the adaptive algorithm is based on the LMS gradient search method. The simulation demonstrates that one or more pure tones can be canceled down to the computer bit noise level (-120 dB). When additive white noise is present, pure tones can be canceled to at least 10 dB below the noise spectrum level for SNRs down to at least 0 dB. The underlying theory suggests that the algorithm allows tracking tones with amplitudes and frequencies that change more slowly with time than the adaptive filter adaptation rate. It also implies that the method can cancel narrow-band sound in the presence of spectrally overlapping broadband sound.
Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Fontaine, Joseph J.; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Hart, Noelle M.; Pope, Kevin L.; Twidwell, Dirac
Adaptive management is an approach to natural resource management that uses structured learning to reduce uncertainties for the improvement of management over time. The origins of adaptive management are linked to ideas of resilience theory and complex systems. Rangeland management is particularly well suited for the application of adaptive management, having sufficient controllability and reducible uncertainties. Adaptive management applies the tools of structured decision making and requires monitoring, evaluation, and adjustment of management. Adaptive governance, involving sharing of power and knowledge among relevant stakeholders, is often required to address conflict situations. Natural resource laws and regulations can present a barrier to adaptive management when requirements for legal certainty are met with environmental uncertainty. However, adaptive management is possible, as illustrated by two cases presented in this chapter. Despite challenges and limitations, when applied appropriately adaptive management leads to improved management through structured learning, and rangeland management is an area in which adaptive management shows promise and should be further explored.
Cultural adaptation and validation of the Neuropathy - and Foot Ulcer - Specific Quality of Life instrument (NeuroQol for Brazilian Portuguese - Phase 1 Adaptación cultural y validación del Neuropathy - and Foot Ulcer - Specific Quality of Life (NeuroQol para el idioma portugués de Brasil - Fase 1 Adaptação cultural e validação do Neuropathy - and Foot Ulcer - Specific Quality of Life (NeuroQol para a língua portuguesa do Brasil - Fase 1
Antonia Tayana da Franca Xavier
Full Text Available This methodological study aimed to adapt the Neuropathy - and Foot Ulcer - Specific Quality of Life instrument - NeuroQol to Brazilian Portuguese and to analyze its psychometric properties. Participants were 50 people with peripheral diabetic neuropathy and foot ulcers. The floor and ceiling effects, the convergent and discriminant validity and the reliability were analyzed. The Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to test the reliability and the Pearson’s correlation coefficient to estimate the convergent validity, the Student’s t test was used to evaluate the discriminant validity in the comparison of the NeuroQol scores between participants with and without ulcers. Floor and ceiling effects were found in some domains of the NeuroQol. The reliability was satisfactory. The correlations between the domains of the NeuroQol and the SF-36 were negative, significant and of moderate to strong magnitude. The findings show that the Brazilian version of the NeuroQol is reliable and valid and may be employed as a useful tool for improving nursing care for people with DM.Estudio metodológico que tuvo como objetivos adaptar el Neuropathy - and Foot Ulcer - Specific Quality of Life - NeuroQol para el idioma portugués de Brasil y analizar sus propiedades psicométricas. Participaron 50 personas con neuropatía diabética periférica y úlceras en los pies. Fueron analizados los efectos floor y ceiling, la validez convergente, la discriminante y la confiabilidad. Fue utilizado el coeficiente alfa de Cronbach para comprobar la confiabilidad y la correlación de Pearson para estimar la validez convergente; el test t-Student fue empleado para evaluar la validez discriminante en la comparación de los puntajes del NeuroQol entre los participantes con y sin úlceras. Se constataron efectos floor y ceiling en algunos dominios del NeuroQol. La confiabilidad fue satisfactoria. Las correlaciones entre los dominios del NeuroQol y SF-36 fueron negativas
Kates, Robert W; Travis, William R; Wilbanks, Thomas J
All human-environment systems adapt to climate and its natural variation. Adaptation to human-induced change in climate has largely been envisioned as increments of these adaptations intended to avoid disruptions of systems at their current locations. In some places, for some systems, however, vulnerabilities and risks may be so sizeable that they require transformational rather than incremental adaptations. Three classes of transformational adaptations are those that are adopted at a much larger scale, that are truly new to a particular region or resource system, and that transform places and shift locations. We illustrate these with examples drawn from Africa, Europe, and North America. Two conditions set the stage for transformational adaptation to climate change: large vulnerability in certain regions, populations, or resource systems; and severe climate change that overwhelms even robust human use systems. However, anticipatory transformational adaptation may be difficult to implement because of uncertainties about climate change risks and adaptation benefits, the high costs of transformational actions, and institutional and behavioral actions that tend to maintain existing resource systems and policies. Implementing transformational adaptation requires effort to initiate it and then to sustain the effort over time. In initiating transformational adaptation focusing events and multiple stresses are important, combined with local leadership. In sustaining transformational adaptation, it seems likely that supportive social contexts and the availability of acceptable options and resources for actions are key enabling factors. Early steps would include incorporating transformation adaptation into risk management and initiating research to expand the menu of innovative transformational adaptations.
Bowen, J L
Graduate medical education has been criticized for failing to adequately prepare young physicians to enter the workforce upon completion of their training. In addressing this criticism, the author makes arguments both for and against this assertion. Broad qualitative changes (graduate medical education training position allocation, subspecialists' role in health care delivery, educational quality, faculty development, and faculty promotion) that graduate medical education has undergone and is undergoing are discussed. Population health management, clinical resource management, teamwork, continuous quality improvement, ethics, and evidence-based medicine are addressed as important curricular elements for residency training. Innovations in graduate medical education that are being introduced as well as those that should be tried are discussed. Finally, the author asserts that although residency education should not be vocationally driven by the needs of managed care organizations, a powerful opportunity exists for collaborative educational research between academic medicine and managed care organizations. In a health care environment undergoing rapid changes, the primary goals of graduate medical education have not significantly changed: to produce compassionate physicians with a passion for lifelong learning who have leadership skills, are critical thinkers, skilled at self-assessment, and able to adapt to the needs of the health care marketplace.
Kramer, P D; Roberts, D C; Shelhamer, M; Zee, D S
Testing of the vestibular system requires a vestibular stimulus (motion) and/or a visual stimulus. We have developed a versatile, low cost, stereoscopic visual display system, using "virtual reality" (VR) technology. The display system can produce images for each eye that correspond to targets at any virtual distance relative to the subject, and so require the appropriate ocular vergence. We elicited smooth pursuit, "stare" optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and after-nystagmus (OKAN), vergence for targets at various distances, and short-term adaptation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), using both conventional methods and the stereoscopic display. Pursuit, OKN, and OKAN were comparable with both methods. When used with a vestibular stimulus, VR induced appropriate adaptive changes of the phase and gain of the angular VOR. In addition, using the VR display system and a human linear acceleration sled, we adapted the phase of the linear VOR. The VR-based stimulus system not only offers an alternative to more cumbersome means of stimulating the visual system in vestibular experiments, it also can produce visual stimuli that would otherwise be impractical or impossible. Our techniques provide images without the latencies encountered in most VR systems. Its inherent versatility allows it to be useful in several different types of experiments, and because it is software driven it can be quickly adapted to provide a new stimulus. These two factors allow VR to provide considerable savings in time and money, as well as flexibility in developing experimental paradigms.
Jill Christine Preston
Full Text Available Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve.
Full Text Available The underwater environment is an extreme environment that requires a process of human adaptation with specific psychophysiological demands to ensure survival and productive activity. From the standpoint of existing models of intelligence, personality and performance, in this explanatory study we have analyzed the contribution of individual differences in explaining the adaptation of military personnel in a stressful environment. Structural equation analysis was employed to verify a model representing the direct effects of psychological variables on individual adaptation to an adverse environment, and we have been able to confirm, during basic military diving courses, the structural relationships among these variables and their ability to predict a third of the variance of a criterion that has been studied very little to date. In this way, we have confirmed in a sample of professionals (N = 575 the direct relationship of emotional adjustment, conscientiousness and general mental ability with underwater adaptation, as well as the inverse relationship of emotional reactivity. These constructs are the psychological basis for working under water, contributing to an improved adaptation to this environment and promoting risk prevention and safety in diving activities.
Kessler, Rachel K; Rhodes, Emma; Giovannetti, Tania
Cognitive functioning, particularly executive functioning, is a strong predictor of functional outcomes in people with schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation has been shown to improve specific cognitive processes, but adjunctive interventions are required for meaningful gains in adaptive functioning, particularly in people with chronic illness. This study examined whether (and how) environmental adaptations, used without training, may circumvent cognitive difficulties and facilitate everyday task performance in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Forty-two individuals with chronic schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder were administered cognitive measures and two versions of the Naturalistic Action Test (NAT)-a standard version (ST-NAT), and a user-centered version (UC-NAT) that incorporated environmental adaptations designed to facilitate task performance. The NAT conditions were counterbalanced across participants. Analyses compared performance between the NAT versions and examined the cognitive correlates of each NAT condition. Individuals with schizophrenia made fewer errors on the UC-NAT as compared to the ST-NAT; this between-group difference was significant for all error types. Compared to the ST-NAT, the UC-NAT performance was not significantly associated with an executive function measure of planning. Environmental adaptations may be implemented without extensive training to improve everyday action in individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Environmental adaptations that reduce planning demands may be most effective in this population.
Preston, Jill C; Sandve, Simen R
Flowering plants initially diversified during the Mesozoic era at least 140 million years ago in regions of the world where temperate seasonal environments were not encountered. Since then several cooling events resulted in the contraction of warm and wet environments and the establishment of novel temperate zones in both hemispheres. In response, less than half of modern angiosperm families have members that evolved specific adaptations to cold seasonal climates, including cold acclimation, freezing tolerance, endodormancy, and vernalization responsiveness. Despite compelling evidence for multiple independent origins, the level of genetic constraint on the evolution of adaptations to seasonal cold is not well understood. However, the recent increase in molecular genetic studies examining the response of model and crop species to seasonal cold offers new insight into the evolutionary lability of these traits. This insight has major implications for our understanding of complex trait evolution, and the potential role of local adaptation in response to past and future climate change. In this review, we discuss the biochemical, morphological, and developmental basis of adaptations to seasonal cold, and synthesize recent literature on the genetic basis of these traits in a phylogenomic context. We find evidence for multiple genetic links between distinct physiological responses to cold, possibly reinforcing the coordinated expression of these traits. Furthermore, repeated recruitment of the same or similar ancestral pathways suggests that land plants might be somewhat pre-adapted to dealing with temperature stress, perhaps making inducible cold traits relatively easy to evolve.