Nunns, D; Mandal, D
AIMS: To objectively assess the psychological and psychosexual morbidity of patients with vulvar vestibulitis. METHODS: 30 patients with variable degrees of vulvar vestibulitis were recruited from a vulval clinic. Each patient underwent a detailed history and clinical examination. Friedrich's criteria were used for the diagnosis of vulvar vestibulitis. Standardised questionnaires to assess psychological and psychosexual function were completed by the patient before review. These questionnaires were the STAI and a modified psychosexual questionnaire introduced by Campion. RESULTS: Patients experienced considerable psychological dysfunction compared with controls. All aspects of psychosexual dysfunction were affected. CONCLUSIONS: When managing patients, psychosexual and psychological issues must be considered in addition to other conventional types of therapy. Vulvar vestibulitis may be a risk factor for developing psychosexual complications including vaginismus, low libido, and orgasmic dysfunction. Consideration of these factors must be an integral part of the management of patients with all chronic vulval conditions. PMID:9582478
McDermott, M.; Prasad, S. K.; Shekhar, S.; Zhou, X.
Discovery of interesting paths and regions in spatio-temporal data sets is important to many fields such as the earth and atmospheric sciences, GIS, public safety and public health both as a goal and as a preliminary step in a larger series of computations. This discovery is usually an exhaustive procedure that quickly becomes extremely time consuming to perform using traditional paradigms and hardware and given the rapidly growing sizes of today's data sets is quickly outpacing the speed at which computational capacity is growing. In our previous work (Prasad et al., 2013a) we achieved a 50 times speedup over sequential using a single GPU. We were able to achieve near linear speedup over this result on interesting path discovery by using Apache Hadoop to distribute the workload across multiple GPU nodes. Leveraging the parallel architecture of GPUs we were able to drastically reduce the computation time of a 3-dimensional spatio-temporal interest region search on a single tile of normalized difference vegetative index for Saudi Arabia. We were further able to see an almost linear speedup in compute performance by distributing this workload across several GPUs with a simple MapReduce model. This increases the speed of processing 10 fold over the comparable sequential while simultaneously increasing the amount of data being processed by 384 fold. This allowed us to process the entirety of the selected data set instead of a constrained window.
St-Hilaire, Hugo; Mithani, Suhail K; Rodriguez, Eduardo D
The significance of the oral vestibule is often underappreciated in composite craniomaxillofacial reconstruction, and its deficiency results in considerable incompetence. Results of traditional vestibuloplasty techniques are unpredictable when the recipient bed is compromised in the setting of trauma or irradiation. The authors present an alternative approach for restoring the intractable oral vestibule with free tissue transfer. An institutional review board-approved retrospective review of patients who underwent oral vestibular reconstruction was conducted at R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center and Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2002 to 2007. Thirteen patients were identified: six defects resulted from tumor extirpation, six resulted from traumatic injury, and one resulted from infection. There were eight men and five women, with a mean age of 46 years. Thirteen free tissue transfers of the oral vestibule were conducted: six ulnar forearm and seven anterolateral thigh perforator flaps. The average follow-up was 17 months. There were no flap failures and only one complication noted, which did not result in negative sequelae. The functional results were good, with all patients experiencing increased labial excursion and subjective improvement in the handling of food bolus and saliva. Preservation of oral vestibular height, width, and volume is essential for aesthetic appearance and functional competence. Free tissue transfer provides an innovative alternative in the management of the intractable and obliterated oral vestibule. It can be performed successfully, providing excellent results predictably.
Horsmans, J D; Godballe, C; Jørgensen, K E
From 1978 to 1992, 66 patients (32 women and 34 men) were treated for carcinoma of the nasal vestibule at Odense University Hospital. The treatment was radiotherapy (41 patients), surgery (13 patients) or a combination of the two modalities (12 patients). Twenty-one patients (32%) developed...
Chrispin, A. R.; Friedland, G. W.; Wright, D. E.
The oesophageal vestibule lies immediately above the stomach and during quiet respiration is located partly in the thorax, partly in the hiatus in the diaphragm, and partly in the abdomen. An analysis of some aspects of function of the vestibule in infants and children who have a non-contractile gullet above the vestibule is presented. Opening of the vestibule is related to deglutition and is independent of the oesophagus above. In its opening and closing the vestibule is shown to have the characteristics of a `muscle throttle'. The rapidity of the event of either opening or closing is accounted for. The important relationship of calibre of lumen of the vestibule to flow through it is analysed. The effect of the indentations of mucosa into the lumen when the vestibule is partially open is analysed from a theoretical standpoint, and it is inferred that the vestibule when only partially open has the characteristics of a highly efficient choke. PMID:6040654
Talmi, Y.P.; Ferlito, A.; Takes, R.P.; Strojan, P.; Langendijk, J.A.; Shaha, A.R.; Rinaldo, A.
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule (SCCNV) is an uncommon malignancy. Our purpose is to define the incidence of simultaneous and delayed regional metastasis in SCCNV according to the available literature. METHODS: Articles discussing SCCNV and addressing the issue of regional
Mohammad Arif Khan
Full Text Available Shallow vestibule along with the inadequate width of attached gingiva is a common cause of the gingival recession. Multiple techniques have been developed, separately, to increase the depth of vestibule and the width of attached gingival but this case report present a single stage surgical procedure for increasing both depth of vestibule and the width of attached gingiva by vestibular deepening procedure.
Chen, Y-K; Chen, C-H; Lin, L-M
A case of metastatic osteosarcoma in the submental vestibule of the oral cavity and the lung is described in an 18-year-old male with primary osteosarcoma occurring in the sacrum. Dissemination of osteosarcoma to other organs, especially early to the lung, is common, but its metastasis to the oral mucosa has been rarely reported. The patient presented 6 years after initial diagnosis, suggesting the need for careful long-term follow-up of patients with osteosarcoma. This case also illustrates that immunohistochemical staining of osteocalcin is useful to confirm the histological diagnosis of oral soft-tissue metastasis.
The laryngeal component of voice quality markers has been quantified in the present study, suggesting that the laryngeal vestibule and lower pharynx play an important role in voice quality. Findings also show that voice quality can be partly described in terms of laryngeal configurations and that a knowledge of these configurations may be useful to the laryngologist, speech pathologist and singer. Twenty-five voice qualities were videorecorded, using a nasal fiberscope. Still photographs were taken for each voice quality and distance measurements made on each one for 15 laryngeal parameters. The raw data were normalized, sorted from high to low, turned into scalar values and processed to establish which parameters exhibited similar functions, which photographs were essentially identical, and in what respect any two photographs were different. Each voice quality was seen to be associated with a different, describable and quantifiable laryngeal configuration.
Lipman, Djoeri; Verhoef, Lia C; Takes, Robert P; Kaanders, Johannes H; Janssens, Geert O
The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcome and toxicity profile after primary brachytherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule. A retrospective study was conducted for patients with Wang classification T1 to 2 cN0 squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule who received primary treatment with brachytherapy between 1992 and 2010. Tumor control, acute skin, mucosal, and late cartilage toxicity were scored. Of 60 patients (T1, 50; T2, 10), 38 were treated with an interstitial implant and 22 by a mold technique. The 3-year local, regional, and locoregional control rates were 91%, 93%, and 84%, respectively. Tumor diameter skin desquamation and confluent mucositis was 64% and 82%, respectively. The actuarial incidence of chondritis and/or chondronecrosis was 19%. Primary brachytherapy for Wang T1 to 2 squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule offers excellent tumor control rates with acceptable toxicity and preservation of anatomy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Schultz, WCMW; Gianotten, WL; vanderMeijden, WI; vandeWiel, HBM; Blindeman, L; Chadha, S; Drogendijk, AC
This article describes the outcome of a behavioral approach with or without preceding surgical intervention in 48 women with the vulvar vestibulitis syndrome. In the first part of the study, 14 women with the vulvar vestibulitis syndrome were randomly assigned to one of two treatment programs:
Akgun, Ugur; Khademi, Shahram
AmtB, a member of the Rh/Amt/MEP superfamily, is responsible for ammonia transport in Escherichia coli. The ammonia pathway in AmtB consists of a narrow hydrophobic lumen in between hydrophilic periplasmic and cytoplasmic vestibules. A series of molecular dynamics simulations (greater than 0.4 μs in total) were performed to determine the mechanism of solute recruitments and selectivity by the periplasmic vestibule. The results show that the periplasmic vestibule plays a crucial role in solute selectivity, and its solute preferences follow the order of NH4(+) > NH3 > CO2. Based on our results, NH4(+) recruitment is initiated by its interaction with either E70 or E225, highly conserved residues located at the entrance of the vestibule. Subsequently, the backbone carbonyl groups at the periplasmic vestibule direct NH4(+) to the conserved aromatic cage at the bottom of the vestibule (known as the Am1 site). The umbrella sampling simulations suggest that the conserved residue D160 is not directly involved in the ammonia conduction; rather its main function is to keep the structure of periplasmic vestibule intact. The MD simulations also revealed that two partially stacked phenyl rings of F107 and F215, separating the periplasmic vestibule from the hydrophobic lumen, flip open and closed simultaneously with a frequency of approximately 10(8) flipping events per second. These results show how the periplasmic vestibule selectively recruits NH4(+) to the Am1 site, and also that the synchronized flipping of two phenyl rings potentially facilitates the solute transition from the periplasmic vestibule to the hydrophobic lumen in the Rh/Amt/MEP superfamily.
Lipman, D.; Verhoef, L.C.G.; Takes, R.P.; Kaanders, J.H.A.M.; Janssens, G.O.R.J.
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcome and toxicity profile after primary brachytherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted for patients with Wang classification T1 to 2 cN0 squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal
Akgun, Ugur; Khademi, Shahram
The transport of ammonia, fundamental to the nitrogen metabolism in all domains of life, is carried out by the Rh/Amt/MEP membrane protein superfamily. The first structure of this family, AmtB from E.Coli shows a pathway for ammonia that includes two vestibules connected by a long and narrow hydrophobic lumen. The accepted mechanism for AmtB is to recruit NH4^+ and conduct neutral NH3 by deprotonation of NH4^+ at the end of periplasmic vestibule. Here we report from various MD simulations performed using a model of trimeric AmtB embedded into POPE lipid bilayer to determine the mechanism of ligands selectivity and conduction in the ammonia channels. Our total more than 500ns simulations reveal that the AmtB periplasmic vestibule prefers NH4^+ over NH3 and CO2. And the rate of ammonia conduction is regulated by the motion of the phenyl rings at the bottom of the vestibule. We also report that the conserved D160 is essential for ligand conduction by stabilizing the NH4^+ at the recruitment site through charge interactions. Our simulations also suggest NH4^+ most likely releases its proton to the bulk of water as it enters to the hydrophobic lumen.
Lagundoye, S B; Martinson, F D; Fajemisin, A A
A 5-year-old deaf-mute girl was shown on petrous bone tomography to have bilateral enlarged vestibules with assimilation of the lateral semicircular cannals, bilateral absence of the cochlea, aplasia of the left internal auditory canal with only the facial nerve compartment being present, and hypoplasia of the right internal auditory canal. The embryological basis of these inner ear abnormalities is discussed.
Full Text Available This paper shows one kind of VOR’s (vestibule ocular reflex implementation. Here, the VOR is built and designed with the instrumentation and automation of an irrigator system. This is done by water irrigation at three different temperatures, in one or both ear cavities, which it can stimulate internally any of the 3 semicircular canals of the vestibular system. This fact produces a measurable Nystagmic response at a glance. The irrigator is formed by analog instrumentation item coupled to a PLC, for its automated operation.
Full Text Available Dentoalveolar injuries are common and are caused by many factors. Dental trauma requires special consideration when a missing tooth or tooth fracture accompanies soft tissue laceration. A tooth or its fragment occasionally penetrates into soft tissue and may cause severe complications. This report presents a case of delayed diagnosis and management of a displaced tooth in the vestibule of the mouth following dentoalveolar injury. This report suggests that radiography can lead to an early diagnosis and surgical removal of an embedded tooth in the soft tissue.
Engman, Maria; Wijma, Klaas; Wijma, Barbro
Fifty-three women with partial vaginismus with or without vulvar vestibulitis and 27 asymptomatic women estimated sensations of burning pain and itch at 20 standardized moments during a standardized penetration situation, including vaginal muscle contractions. Forty-three women with partial vaginismus (81.1%) reported burning pain, 23 (43.4%) itch, and 22 (41.5%) both complaints, compared to 0% of the asymptomatic women. In 17 of 22 cases, burning pain preceded the appearance of itch and in four cases the two complaints coincided. The median time from the moment when burning pain started until itch appeared was 150 seconds.
Full Text Available Explosive growth in geospatial and temporal data as well as the emergence of new technologies emphasize the need for automated discovery of spatiotemporal knowledge. Spatiotemporal data mining studies the process of discovering interesting and previously unknown, but potentially useful patterns from large spatiotemporal databases. It has broad application domains including ecology and environmental management, public safety, transportation, earth science, epidemiology, and climatology. The complexity of spatiotemporal data and intrinsic relationships limits the usefulness of conventional data science techniques for extracting spatiotemporal patterns. In this survey, we review recent computational techniques and tools in spatiotemporal data mining, focusing on several major pattern families: spatiotemporal outlier, spatiotemporal coupling and tele-coupling, spatiotemporal prediction, spatiotemporal partitioning and summarization, spatiotemporal hotspots, and change detection. Compared with other surveys in the literature, this paper emphasizes the statistical foundations of spatiotemporal data mining and provides comprehensive coverage of computational approaches for various pattern families. ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2015, 4 2307 We also list popular software tools for spatiotemporal data analysis. The survey concludes with a look at future research needs.
Bohm-Starke, N; Falconer, C; Rylander, E; Hilliges, M
Although women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome have principal symptoms of inflammation such as local erythema and pain in the mucosa around the vaginal introitus, it is not clear if vestibulitis is an inflammatory condition. Cyclooxygenase 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase are known to be upregulated during inflammation. The aim of the present study was to analyze the expression of these enzymes in the vestibular mucosa in order to evaluate the inflammatory activity in the tissue. Ten women fulfilling Friedrich's criteria of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome and ten control subjects were included in the study. Punch biopsies were obtained from the vestibular mucosa for analysis of cyclooxygenas 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase, using indirect immunohistochemistry and Western dot-blot analyses. Both methods used showed low expression of cyclooxygenas 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the vestibular mucosa of all women. There was no difference observed between the groups. There is a low expression of the inflammatory markers cyclooxygenas 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the vestibular mucosa of women with vulvar vestibulitis syndrome as well as in healthy control subjects. The results indicate no active inflammation present and imply that topical corticosteroids in the treatment of vulvar vestibulitis are unfounded.
Watanabe, Ken-ichi; Inai, Shunta; Hess, Alexander; Michel, Olaf; Yagi, Toshiaki
Loud acoustic stimulation is known to cause inner ear disturbance. We examined immunohistochemically the vestibule of 12 guinea pigs after acoustic stimulation. The animals were divided into two equal groups: a control group and an acoustic stimulation group. The temporal bones were fixed by means of a cardiac infusion of fixative and immunohistochemically stained for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The temporal bones in the control group did not show any iNOS. In the acoustic stimulation group, immunoreactivity for iNOS was detected in the supporting cells and sensory cells of the sensory epithelium, in the dark cell areas and in the vestibular ganglion cells. These findings suggest that free radicals are involved in the pathogenesis of noise-induced inner ear damage. Furthermore, free radicals may cause vestibular damage, as is seen in noise-induced inner ear damage.
Full Text Available Background: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of oral mucosa is a rare and aggressive variant of squamous cell carcinoma. They can be differentiated from squamous cell carcinomas by their distinct clinical and histopathological features. Methods: 45 year old female patient presented with extra oral exophytic mass and intra-oral ulcerative lesion on right buccal mucosa and vestibule. The patient was referred for routine blood examination and radiography followed by incisional biopsy. The biopsy specimen was fixed, processed and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin for further microscopic examination. Results: On microscopic examination basaloid cells were seen proliferating along with dysplastic squamous cells in the connective tissue stroma. Conclusion: Based on the histopathological findings a diagnosis of ′Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma′ was made. The patient was referred to department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery for excision of the lesion followed by radiotherapy.
Nov 27, 2015 ... Keywords. Coupled map lattice; spatiotemporal intermittency; cellular automata. Abstract. The phase diagram of the coupled sine circle map system exhibits a variety of interesting phenomena including spreading regions with spatiotemporal intermittency, non-spreading regions with spatial intermittency, ...
Full Text Available We report a rare case of a large recurrent mucoepidermoid carcinoma (RMEC in an 81-year-old female smoker, which has originated in the right nasal vestibule. The recurrent tumour was inadequately treated for 6 years. It was a slow-growing tumour for 3 years and then began to enlarge at a higher pace. In the next three years it has covered a large part of the face. The patient had refused any medical treatment. The tumour caused breathing and swallowing difficulties. Because of the profuse bleeding from the tumour, the patient underwent emergency surgery. Surgical treatment consisted of rhinectomy and resection of the central upper lip and part of the right cheek. The facial defect was reconstructed immediately. Recovery from surgery was fast with no complications. Postoperative Multislice Computed Tomography scan showed no metastases so the patient did not receive any chemotherapy or radiotherapy. During a 2.5 years’ follow-up period there was no recurrence of the disease.
Ter Kuile, Moniek M; Van Lankveld, Jacques J D M; Vlieland, Corrie Vliet; Willekes, Christine; Weijenborg, Philomeen T M
The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of vulvar vestibulitis syndrome (VVS) in a sample of women suffering from lifelong vaginismus (N=91). Lifelong vaginismus is defined as "having a history of never having been able to experience penile entry of the vagina". The results with respect to VVS are compared with the results of women who are suffering from pain during intercourse (superficial dyspareunia) (N=84). Both patients groups were recruited from two treatment outcome studies. Using a standard physical examination, erythema was found in 77%, pain "on touch" in 69% and erythema and pain on the same location was seen in 56% of the patients with lifelong vaginismus. Furthermore, it was found that erythema (94%), pain (98%) and erythema and pain on the same location (92%) were more frequently found in patients with dyspareunia compared to women with lifelong vaginismus. It is concluded that pain is an integral part of the experiences in the majority of women with lifelong vaginismus.
Milos B Rokic
Full Text Available The binding of ATP to trimeric P2X receptors (P2XR causes an enlargement of the receptor extracellular vestibule, leading to opening of the cation-selective transmembrane pore, but specific roles of vestibule amino acid residues in receptor activation have not been evaluated systematically. In this study, alanine or cysteine scanning mutagenesis of V47-V61 and F324-N338 sequences of rat P2X4R revealed that V49, Y54, Q55, F324, and G325 mutants were poorly responsive to ATP and trafficking was only affected by the V49 mutation. The Y54F and Y54W mutations, but not the Y54L mutation, rescued receptor function, suggesting that an aromatic residue is important at this position. Furthermore, the Y54A and Y54C receptor function was partially rescued by ivermectin, a positive allosteric modulator of P2X4R, suggesting a rightward shift in the potency of ATP to activate P2X4R. The Q55T, Q55N, Q55E, and Q55K mutations resulted in non-responsive receptors and only the Q55E mutant was ivermectin-sensitive. The F324L, F324Y, and F324W mutations also rescued receptor function partially or completely, ivermectin action on channel gating was preserved in all mutants, and changes in ATP responsiveness correlated with the hydrophobicity and side chain volume of the substituent. The G325P mutant had a normal response to ATP, suggesting that G325 is a flexible hinge. A topological analysis revealed that the G325 and F324 residues disrupt a β-sheet upon ATP binding. These results indicate multiple roles of the extracellular vestibule amino acid residues in the P2X4R function: the V49 residue is important for receptor trafficking to plasma membrane, the Y54 and Q55 residues play a critical role in channel gating and the F324 and G325 residues are critical for vestibule widening.
Full Text Available The area of the oral vestibule is often a place where pathologies appear (e.g., peripheral odontomas. The origin of these pathologies is not fully understood. In the present study, we traced a cell population expressing Sonic hedgehog (Shh from the beginning of tooth development using Cre-LoxP system in the lower jaw of wild-type (WT mice. We focused on Shh expression in the area of the early appearing rudimentary incisor germs located anteriorly to the prospective incisors. The localization of the labelled cells in the incisor germs and also in the inner epithelial layer of the vestibular anlage showed that the first very early developmental events in the lower incisor area are common to the vestibulum oris and the prospective incisor primordia in mice. Scanning electron microscopic analysis of human historical tooth-like structures found in the vestibular area of jaws confirmed their relation to teeth and thus the capability of the vestibular tissue to form teeth. The location of labelled cells descendant of the early appearing Shh expression domain related to the rudimentary incisor anlage not only in the rudimentary and functional incisor germs but also in the externally located anlage of the oral vestibule documented the odontogenic potential of the vestibular epithelium. This potential can be awakened under pathological conditions and become a source of pathologies in the vestibular area.
Vital, Domenic; Huber, Gerhard F; Holzmann, David; Moch, Holger; Ikenberg, Kristian
The aim of this study was to analyze the role of Ki-67, p53, and the "aberrant p53 pattern" in squamous cell carcinomas of the nasal vestibule. Patients between 1995 and 2014 were included. Baseline characteristics and outcome were analyzed with respect to immunohistochemical staining of Ki-67 and p53. "Aberrant p53 pattern" was represented by a moderate or strong staining of at least 60% of the tumor cells or a complete absence of immunoreactivity. Forty-six patients were included of whom 31 (67.4%) were available for Ki-67 and 32 (69.9%) for p53 immunohistochemistry. The "aberrant pattern" of p53 was present in 50% of the patients. While immunoreactivity for both Ki-67 and p53 was not related to each other or outcome, the "aberrant p53 pattern" was associated with a worse disease-free survival (p = 0.014). The "aberrant p53 pattern" is a negative prognostic factor in squamous cell carcinoma of the nasal vestibule and might enable a patient-tailored treatment.
Burghouts, G.J.; Broek, S.P. van den; Hove, R.J.M. ten
Human actions are spatio-temporal patterns. A popular representation is to describe the action by features at interest points. Because the interest point detection and feature description are generic processes, they are not tuned to discriminate one particular action from the other. In this paper we
Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup
Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...
Engman, Maria; Wijma, Klaas; Wijma, Barbro
Twenty-four women with partial vaginismus with or without vulvar vestibulitis participated in a semi-structured telephone interview concerning early signs and development of their pain symptoms during/after intercourse. At the onset of the problem, pain after intercourse was more common than pain during penetration. Pain intensity during penetration increased from the onset of the problem to when the women ceased having intercourse. Pain during penetration lasted for 1 minute, and was most often described as sharp/incisive/bursting, while pain after intercourse had a duration of 2 hours and was described as burning and/or smarting. Post-coital pain during micturition was described by 70% of the women.
Watanabe, K; Hess, A; Bloch, W; Michel, O
It is well known that the anti-cancer drug cisplatin has an ototoxic property; however, the details are not yet evident. In this study, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (INOS/NOS II) in the vestibule of guinea pigs after i.p. injections of cisplatin was examined immunohistochemically. Three days after the injection of cisplatin (10 mg/kg) or placebo, animals were sacrificed. Then the temporal bones were removed and subjected to Immunohistochemical studies for iNOS. In the cisplatin group, INOS was detectable, whereas the tissue in the control group was negative for iNOS. The vestibule, the wall of blood vessels and the vestibular ganglion cells showed immunoreactivity for iNOS. It is known that INOS catalyzes an inadequate quantity of NO under pathological conditions. Increased NO levels lead to inner ear dysfunction. Therefore, our results indicate that iNOS could also mediate the vestibulo-toxicity of cisplatin.
Full Text Available As we move into the big data era, data grows not just in size, but also in complexity, containing a rich set of attributes, including location and time information, such as data from mobile devices (e.g., smart phones, natural disasters (e.g., earthquake and hurricane, epidemic spread, etc. We are motivated by the rising challenge and build a visualization tool for exploring generic spatiotemporal data, i.e., records containing time location information and numeric attribute values. Since the values often evolve over time and across geographic regions, we are particularly interested in detecting and analyzing the anomalous changes over time/space. Our analytic tool is based on geographic information system and is combined with spatiotemporal data mining algorithms, as well as various data visualization techniques, such as anomaly grids and anomaly bars superimposed on the map. We study how effective the tool may guide users to find potential anomalies through demonstrating and evaluating over publicly available spatiotemporal datasets. The tool for spatiotemporal anomaly analysis and visualization is useful in many domains, such as security investigation and monitoring, situation awareness, etc.
Full Text Available Simultaneously capturing spatial and temporal dynamics is always a challenge for the remote sensing community. Spatiotemporal fusion has gained wide interest in various applications for its superiority in integrating both fine spatial resolution and frequent temporal coverage. Though many advances have been made in spatiotemporal fusion model development and applications in the past decade, a unified comparison among existing fusion models is still limited. In this research, we classify the models into three categories: transformation-based, reconstruction-based, and learning-based models. The objective of this study is to (i compare four fusion models (STARFM, ESTARFM, ISTAFM, and SPSTFM under a one Landsat-MODIS (L-M pair prediction mode and two L-M pair prediction mode using time-series datasets from the Coleambally irrigation area and Poyang Lake wetland; (ii quantitatively assess prediction accuracy considering spatiotemporal comparability, landscape heterogeneity, and model parameter selection; and (iii discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the three categories of spatiotemporal fusion models.
Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach
Recent advances in communication and information technology, such as the increasing accuracy of GPS technology and the miniaturization of wireless communication devices pave the road for Location-Based Services (LBS). To achieve high quality for such services, spatio-temporal data mining techniques...... are needed. In this paper, we describe experiences with spatio-temporal rule mining in a Danish data mining company. First, a number of real world spatio-temporal data sets are described, leading to a taxonomy of spatio-temporal data. Second, the paper describes a general methodology that transforms...... the spatio-temporal rule mining task to the traditional market basket analysis task and applies it to the described data sets, enabling traditional association rule mining methods to discover spatio-temporal rules for LBS. Finally, unique issues in spatio-temporal rule mining are identified and discussed....
Kinugasa, Yusuke; Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi
It is still unclear whether the longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats (CLCs) are attached to the vagina, although such an attachment, if present, would appear to make an important contribution to the integrated supportive system of the female pelvic floor. Using immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin, we examined semiserial frontal sections of 1) eleven female late-stage fetuses at 28-37 weeks of gestation, 2) two female middle-stage fetus (2 specimens at 13 weeks), and, 3) six male fetuses at 12 and 37 weeks as a comparison of the morphology. In late-stage female fetuses, the CLCs consistently (11/11) extended into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule on the anterior side of the external anal sphincter. Lateral to the CLCs, the external anal sphincter also extended anteriorly toward the vaginal side walls. The anterior part of the CLCs originated from the perimysium of the levator ani muscle without any contribution of the rectal longitudinal muscle layer. However, in 2 female middle-stage fetuses, smooth muscles along the vestibulum extended superiorly toward the levetor ani sling. In male fetuses, the CLCs were separated from another subcutaneous smooth muscle along the scrotal raphe (posterior parts of the dartos layer) by fatty tissue. In terms of topographical anatomy, the female anterior CLCs are likely to correspond to the lateral extension of the perineal body (a bulky subcutaneous smooth muscle mass present in adult women), supporting the vaginal vestibule by transmission of force from the levator ani.
fire personnel, this spatiotemporal anomaly is a well-known location for prostitution . Police RMS data may reveal similar trends to those seen by the...coincident spatiotemporal patterns. If there is any kind of causal connection, it is reasonable to assume that if the prostitution problem is addressed
Arakawa, Takashi; Abe, Hiroshi; Rodríguez-Vízquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Sugihara, Kenichi
Purpose It is still unclear whether the longitudinal anal muscles or conjoint longitudinal coats (CLCs) are attached to the vagina, although such an attachment, if present, would appear to make an important contribution to the integrated supportive system of the female pelvic floor. Materials and Methods Using immunohistochemistry for smooth muscle actin, we examined semiserial frontal sections of 1) eleven female late-stage fetuses at 28-37 weeks of gestation, 2) two female middle-stage fetus (2 specimens at 13 weeks), and, 3) six male fetuses at 12 and 37 weeks as a comparison of the morphology. Results In late-stage female fetuses, the CLCs consistently (11/11) extended into the subcutaneous tissue along the vaginal vestibule on the anterior side of the external anal sphincter. Lateral to the CLCs, the external anal sphincter also extended anteriorly toward the vaginal side walls. The anterior part of the CLCs originated from the perimysium of the levator ani muscle without any contribution of the rectal longitudinal muscle layer. However, in 2 female middle-stage fetuses, smooth muscles along the vestibulum extended superiorly toward the levetor ani sling. In male fetuses, the CLCs were separated from another subcutaneous smooth muscle along the scrotal raphe (posterior parts of the dartos layer) by fatty tissue. Conclusion In terms of topographical anatomy, the female anterior CLCs are likely to correspond to the lateral extension of the perineal body (a bulky subcutaneous smooth muscle mass present in adult women), supporting the vaginal vestibule by transmission of force from the levator ani. PMID:23549829
Meyer, Sebastian; Held, Leonhard; Höhle, Michael
The availability of geocoded health data and the inherent temporal structure of communicable diseases have led to an increased interest in statistical models and software for spatio-temporal data with epidemic features...
Tan, C.; Yan, S.
Organization and management of spatiotemporal data is a key support technology for intelligence in all fields of the smart city. The construction of a smart city cannot be realized without spatiotemporal data. Oriented to support intelligent applications this paper proposes an organizational model for spatiotemporal data, and details the construction of a spatiotemporal big data calculation, analysis, and service framework for highly efficient management and intelligent application of spatiotemporal data for the entire data life cycle.
Watanabe, K; Tomiyama, S; Jinnouchi, K; Hess, A; Michel, O; Yagi, T
This study was undertaken to examine the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS / NOS II) in the hydropic vestibule of guinea pigs. Animals were systemically sensitized with 500 microg of keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Two weeks after the first injection, keyhole limpet hemocyanin (100 microg/5 microl) was injected into the endolymphatic sac following the intradural approach, and the next day temporal bones were removed for the immunohistochemical examination. Endolymphatic hydrops was evidenced by the expansion of the Reissner's membrane in the cochlea after direct injection of keyhole limpet hemocyanin into the endolymphatic sac. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was increased in the sensory cells, supporting cells and vestibular ganglion cells, while temporal bones, where only phosphate buffered saline was injected, did not show any inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity. High levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase-catalyzed nitric oxide were detected prior to the development of the inner ear dysfunction. Our results suggest that the occurrence of inducible nitric oxide synthase immunoreactivity parallels the inner ear disturbance as seen in endolymphatic hydrops.
Mikhail Rabinovich; Lev Tsimring
Pattern formation has traditionally been studied in non-equilibrium physics from the viewpoint of describing the basic structures and their interactions. While this is still an important area of research, the emphasis in the last few years has shifted towards analysis of specific properties of patterns in various complex media. For example, diverse and unexpected phenomena occur in neuro-like media that are characterized by highly non-trivial local dynamics. We carried out an active research program on analysis of spatio-temporal patterns in various physical systems (convection, oscillating fluid layer, soap film), as well as in neuro-like media, with an emphasis on informational aspects of the dynamics. Nonlinear nonequilibrium media and their discrete analogs have a unique ability to represent, memorize, and process the information contained in spatio-temporal patterns. Recent neurophysiological experiments demonstrated a certain universality of spatio-temporal representation of information by neural ensembles. Information processing is also revealed in the spatio-temporal dynamics of cellular patterns in nonequilibrium media. It is extremely important for many applications to study the informational aspects of these dynamics, including the origins and mechanisms of information generation, propagation and storage. Some of our results are: the discovery of self-organization of periodically oscillatory patterns in chaotic heterogeneous media; the analysis of the propagation of the information along a chaotic media as function of the entropy of the signal; the analysis of wave propagation in discrete non-equilibrium media with autocatalytic properties, which simulates the calcium dynamics in cellular membranes. Based on biological experiments we suggest the mechanism by which the spatial sensory information is transferred into the spatio-temporal code in the neural media. We also found a new mechanism of self-pinning in cellular structures and the related phenomenon
Ju, Han; Dranias, Mark R; Banumurthy, Gokulakrishna; VanDongen, Antonius M J
The ability to process complex spatiotemporal information is a fundamental process underlying the behavior of all higher organisms. However, how the brain processes information in the temporal domain remains incompletely understood. We have explored the spatiotemporal information-processing capability of networks formed from dissociated rat E18 cortical neurons growing in culture. By combining optogenetics with microelectrode array recording, we show that these randomly organized cortical microcircuits are able to process complex spatiotemporal information, allowing the identification of a large number of temporal sequences and classification of musical styles. These experiments uncovered spatiotemporal memory processes lasting several seconds. Neural network simulations indicated that both short-term synaptic plasticity and recurrent connections are required for the emergence of this capability. Interestingly, NMDA receptor function is not a requisite for these short-term spatiotemporal memory processes. Indeed, blocking the NMDA receptor with the antagonist APV significantly improved the temporal processing ability of the networks, by reducing spontaneously occurring network bursts. These highly synchronized events have disastrous effects on spatiotemporal information processing, by transiently erasing short-term memory. These results show that the ability to process and integrate complex spatiotemporal information is an intrinsic property of generic cortical networks that does not require specifically designed circuits. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354040-12$15.00/0.
AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0341 TITLE: High Spatiotemporal Resolution Prostate MRI PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Stephen J. Riederer, Ph.D...Resolution Prostate MRI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-15-1-0341 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Stephen J. Riederer E-Mail...overall purpose of this project is to develop improved means using MRI for detecting prostate cancer with the potential for differentiating disease
Full Text Available Analog Parallel Architectures like Cellular Neural Networks (CNN’s have been thoroughly studied not only for their potential in high-speed image processing applications but also for their rich and exciting spatio-temporal dynamics. An interesting behavior such architectures can exhibit is spatio-temporal filtering and pattern formation, aspects that will be discussed in this work for a general structure consisting of linear cells locally and homogeneously connected within a specified neighborhood. The results are generalizations of those regarding Turing pattern formation in CNN’s. Using linear cells (or piecewise linear cells working in the central linear part of their characteristic allows the use of the decoupling technique – a powerful technique that gives significant insight into the dynamics of the CNN. The roles of the cell structure as well as that of the connection template are discussed and models for the spatial modes dynamics are made as well.
Full Text Available Bilateral vestibulopathy is a heterogeneous chronic condition characterized by a bilateral reduced or absent function of the vestibular organs, the vestibular nerves or a combination of both. The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and balance deteriorate and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Nowadays the widely available treatment of bilateral vestibulopathy is vestibular rehabilitation. The aim of the vestibular rehabiltation is to use adaptive mechanisms of brain and to activate compensation mechanisms. In this review, applications of vestibular rehabilitation, different exercise programs and techniques are presented by reviewing recent literature results.
Bilateral vestibulopathy is a heterogeneous chronic condition characterized by a bilateral reduced or absent function of the vestibular organs, the vestibular nerves or a combination of both. The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and balance deteriorate and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Nowadays the widely available treatment...
Shipley, T. F.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.; Tikoff, B.
Reasoning about spatial relations is a critical skill for geoscientists. Within the geosciences different disciplines may reason about different sorts of relationships. These relationships may span vastly different spatial and temporal scales (from the spatial alignment in atoms in crystals to the changes in the shape of plates). As part of work in a research center on spatial thinking in STEM education, we have been working to classify the spatial skills required in geology, develop tests for each spatial skill, and develop the cognitive science tools to promote the critical spatial reasoning skills. Research in psychology, neurology and linguistics supports a broad classification of spatial skills along two dimensions: one versus many objects (which roughly translates to object- focused and navigation focused skills) and static versus dynamic spatial relations. The talk will focus on the interaction of space and time in spatial cognition in the geosciences. We are working to develop measures of skill in visualizing spatiotemporal changes. A new test developed to measure visualization of brittle deformations will be presented. This is a skill that has not been clearly recognized in the cognitive science research domain and thus illustrates the value of interdisciplinary work that combines geosciences with cognitive sciences. Teaching spatiotemporal concepts can be challenging. Recent theoretical work suggests analogical reasoning can be a powerful tool to aid student learning to reason about temporal relations using spatial skills. Recent work in our lab has found that progressive alignment of spatial and temporal scales promotes accurate reasoning about temporal relations at geological time scales.
Soltani, Madjid; Sefidgar, Mostafa; Bazmara, Hossein; Casey, Michael E; Subramaniam, Rathan M; Wahl, Richard L; Rahmim, Arman
Distribution of PET tracer uptake is elaborately modeled via a general equation used for solute transport modeling. This model can be used to incorporate various transport parameters of a solid tumor such as hydraulic conductivity of the microvessel wall, transvascular permeability as well as interstitial space parameters. This is especially significant because tracer delivery and drug delivery to solid tumors are determined by similar underlying tumor transport phenomena, and quantifying the former can enable enhanced prediction of the latter. We focused on the commonly utilized FDG PET tracer. First, based on a mathematical model of angiogenesis, the capillary network of a solid tumor and normal tissues around it were generated. The coupling mathematical method, which simultaneously solves for blood flow in the capillary network as well as fluid flow in the interstitium, is used to calculate pressure and velocity distributions. Subsequently, a comprehensive spatiotemporal distribution model (SDM) is applied to accurately model distribution of PET tracer uptake, specifically FDG in this work, within solid tumors. The different transport mechanisms, namely convention and diffusion from vessel to tissue and in tissue, are elaborately calculated across the domain of interest and effect of each parameter on tracer distribution is investigated. The results show the convection terms to have negligible effect on tracer transport and the SDM can be solved after eliminating these terms. The proposed framework of spatiotemporal modeling for PET tracers can be utilized to comprehensively assess the impact of various parameters on the spatiotemporal distribution of PET tracers.
Michael Patrick McGuire
Full Text Available Many spatiotemporal data mining methods are dependent on how relationships between a spatiotemporal unit and its neighbors are defined. These relationships are often termed the neighborhood of a spatiotemporal object. The focus of this paper is the discovery of spatiotemporal neighborhoods to find automatically spatiotemporal sub-regions in a sensor dataset. This research is motivated by the need to characterize large sensor datasets like those found in oceanographic and meteorological research. The approach presented in this paper finds spatiotemporal neighborhoods in sensor datasets by combining an agglomerative method to create temporal intervals and a graph-based method to find spatial neighborhoods within each temporal interval. These methods were tested on real-world datasets including (a sea surface temperature data from the Tropical Atmospheric Ocean Project (TAO array in the Equatorial Pacific Ocean and (b NEXRAD precipitation data from the Hydro-NEXRAD system. The results were evaluated based on known patterns of the phenomenon being measured. Furthermore, the results were quantified by performing hypothesis testing to establish the statistical significance using Monte Carlo simulations. The approach was also compared with existing approaches using validation metrics namely spatial autocorrelation and temporal interval dissimilarity. The results of these experiments show that our approach indeed identifies highly refined spatiotemporal neighborhoods.
This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered.......This Ph.D. thesis consists of four self-contained essays on valuation of interest rate derivatives. In particular derivatives related to management of interest rate risk care are considered....
Echebarria, Blas; Karma, Alain
Electrical alternans are believed to be linked to the onset of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. Recent studies have shown that alternans can be suppressed temporally by dynamic feedback control of the pacing interval. Here we investigate theoretically whether control can suppress alternans both temporally and spatially in homogeneous tissue paced at a single site. We first carry out ionic model simulations in a one-dimensional cable geometry which show that control is only effective up to a maximum cable length that decreases sharply away from the alternans bifurcation point. We then explain this finding by a linear stability analysis of an amplitude equation that describes the spatiotemporal evolution of alternans. This analysis reveals that control failure above a critical cable length is caused by the formation of standing wave patterns of alternans that are eigenfunctions of a forced Helmholtz equation, and therefore remarkably analogous to sound harmonics in an open pipe. We discuss the implications of these results for using control to suppress alternans in the human ventricles as well as to probe fundamental aspects of alternans morphogenesis.
Chen, P.-C.; Tan, Y.-C.
In the past, time and space characteristics often discussed separately. This study adopts regionalized variables theory, and describes the water quality in terms of its structure in time and space to assess the situation of Yunlin. This study applied the Quantum Bayesian Maximum Entropy Toolbox (QtBME), which is a spatiotemporal statistics function, can be applied to estimate and map a non-stationary and non-homogeneous spatiotemporal process under the platform of Quantum GIS (QGIS) software. Kernel smoothing method is used to divide the original process into a deterministic trend and a stationary and homogeneous spatiotemporal process, assuming that a spatiotemporal process can be divided into high and low frequency. The covariance model of the process of high frequency is selected objectively by particle swarm optimization (PSO) method and Akaike's information criterion (AIC). Bayesian maximum entropy method is then applied to spatiotemporal mapping of the variable of interest. In this study, QtBME estimated the situation of aquifers salinization at Yunlin coastal area in 1992 to 2010. Finally, one investigated the rainfall and aquifers salinization on the degree of impact.
Lu, Meng; Appel, Marius; Pebesma, Edzer
The large variety of remote sensors, model simulations, and in-situ records provide great opportunities to model environmental change. The massive amount of high-dimensional data calls for methods to integrate data from various sources and to analyse spatiotemporal and thematic information jointly. An array is a collection of elements ordered and indexed in arbitrary dimensions, which naturally represent spatiotemporal phenomena that are identified by their geographic locations and recording time. In addition, array regridding (e.g., resampling, down-/up-scaling), dimension reduction, and spatiotemporal statistical algorithms are readily applicable to arrays. However, the role of arrays in big geoscientific data analysis has not been systematically studied: How can arrays discretise continuous spatiotemporal phenomena? How can arrays facilitate the extraction of multidimensional information? How can arrays provide a clean, scalable and reproducible change modelling process that is communicable between mathematicians, computer scientist, Earth system scientist and stakeholders? This study emphasises on detecting spatiotemporal change using satellite image time series. Current change detection methods using satellite image time series commonly analyse data in separate steps: 1) forming a vegetation index, 2) conducting time series analysis on each pixel, and 3) post-processing and mapping time series analysis results, which does not consider spatiotemporal correlations and ignores much of the spectral information. Multidimensional information can be better extracted by jointly considering spatial, spectral, and temporal information. To approach this goal, we use principal component analysis to extract multispectral information and spatial autoregressive models to account for spatial correlation in residual based time series structural change modelling. We also discuss the potential of multivariate non-parametric time series structural change methods, hierarchical
Interest rates can significantly influence people's behavior. When rates decline, homeowners rush to buy new homes and refinance old mortgages; automobile buyers scramble to buy new cars; the stock market soars, and people tend to feel more optimistic about the future. But even though individuals respond to changes in rates, they may not fully…
Wilson, Bruce E.; Palanisamy, Giri; Devarakonda, Ranjeet; Rhyne, B. Timothy; Lindsley, Chris; Green, James
Mercury (http://mercury.ornl.gov) is a set of tools for federated harvesting, searching, and retrieving metadata, particularly spatiotemporal metadata. Version 3.0 of the Mercury toolset provides orders of magnitude improvements in search speed, support for additional metadata formats, integration with Google Maps for spatial queries, facetted type search, support for RSS (Really Simple Syndication) delivery of search results, and enhanced customization to meet the needs of the multiple projects that use Mercury. It provides a single portal to very quickly search for data and information contained in disparate data management systems, each of which may use different metadata formats. Mercury harvests metadata and key data from contributing project servers distributed around the world and builds a centralized index. The search interfaces then allow the users to perform a variety of fielded, spatial, and temporal searches across these metadata sources. This centralized repository of metadata with distributed data sources provides extremely fast search results to the user, while allowing data providers to advertise the availability of their data and maintain complete control and ownership of that data. Mercury periodically (typically daily) harvests metadata sources through a collection of interfaces and re-indexes these metadata to provide extremely rapid search capabilities, even over collections with tens of millions of metadata records. A number of both graphical and application interfaces have been constructed within Mercury, to enable both human users and other computer programs to perform queries. Mercury was also designed to support multiple different projects, so that the particular fields that can be queried and used with search filters are easy to configure for each different project.
Horsager, Alan; Greenberg, Robert J; Fine, Ione
Vision loss due to retinitis pigmentosa affects an estimated 15 million people worldwide. Through collaboration between Second Sight Medical Products, Inc., and the Doheny Eye Institute, six blind human subjects underwent implantation with epiretinal 4 x 4 electrode arrays designed to directly stimulate the remaining cells of the retina, with the goal of restoring functional vision by applying spatiotemporal patterns of stimulation. To better understand spatiotemporal interactions between electrodes during synchronous and asynchronous stimulation, the authors investigated how percepts changed as a function of pulse timing across the electrodes. Pulse trains (20, 40, 80, and 160 Hz) were presented on groups of electrodes with 800, 1600, or 2400 microm center-to-center separation. Stimulation was either synchronous (pulses were presented simultaneously across electrodes) or asynchronous (pulses were phase shifted). Using a same-different discrimination task, the authors were able to evaluate how the perceptual quality of the stimuli changed as a function of phase shifts across multiple electrodes. Even after controlling for electric field interactions, subjects could discriminate between spatiotemporal pulse train patterns based on differences of phase across electrodes as small as 3 ms. These findings suggest that the quality of the percept is affected not only by electric field interactions but also by spatiotemporal interactions at the neural level. During multielectrode stimulation, interactions between electrodes have a significant influence on the quality of the percept. Understanding how these spatiotemporal interactions at the neural level influence percepts during multielectrode stimulation is fundamental to the successful design of a retinal prosthesis.
This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...
Full Text Available This document describes classes and methods designed to deal with different types of spatio-temporal data in R implemented in the R package spacetime, and provides examples for analyzing them. It builds upon the classes and methods for spatial data from package sp, and for time series data from package xts. The goal is to cover a number of useful representations for spatio-temporal sensor data, and results from predicting (spatial and/or temporal interpolation or smoothing, aggregating, or subsetting them, and to represent trajectories. The goals of this paper is to explore how spatio-temporal data can be sensibly represented in classes, and to find out which analysis and visualisation methods are useful and feasible. We discuss the time series convention of representing time intervals by their starting time only. This document is the main reference for the R package spacetime, and is available (in updated form as a vignette in this package.
Avitabile, D.; Desroches, M.; Knobloch, E.
Canards are special solutions to ordinary differential equations that follow invariant repelling slow manifolds for long time intervals. In realistic biophysical single-cell models, canards are responsible for several complex neural rhythms observed experimentally, but their existence and role in spatially extended systems is largely unexplored. We identify and describe a type of coherent structure in which a spatial pattern displays temporal canard behavior. Using interfacial dynamics and geometric singular perturbation theory, we classify spatiotemporal canards and give conditions for the existence of folded-saddle and folded-node canards. We find that spatiotemporal canards are robust to changes in the synaptic connectivity and firing rate. The theory correctly predicts the existence of spatiotemporal canards with octahedral symmetry in a neural field model posed on the unit sphere.
Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Schmidt, Albrecht
We believe that research that concerns aspects of spatio-temporal data management may benefit from taking into account the various standards for spatio-temporal data formats. For example, this may contribute to rendering prototype software “open” and more readily useful. This paper thus identifies...... and briefly surveys standardization in relation to primarily the exchange and integration of spatio-temporal data. An overview of several data exchange languages is offered, along with reviews their potential for facilitating the collection of test data and the leveraging of prototypes. The standards, most...... of which are XML-based, lend themselves to the integration of prototypes into middleware architectures, e.g., as Web services....
Shinjyo, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Yoshiyuki; Ueda, Tetsuo
Yeast extracts exhibit oscillations when the glycolytic system is far away from equilibrium. Spatio-temporal dynamics in this system was studied in the newly developed gel as well as in the solution. Small regions (about 10 um) with very complex shape with high or low concentrations of NADH appeared, and upon these small structures large-scale dynamics were superimposed. Concentration waves propagated, and the source of wave was induced by contact with high ADP. Sink of waves was generated by contacting the reaction gel to two small gels rich in ADP. Upon these spatio-temporal dynamics were superimposed much slower global oscillations throughout the system with a period of about 40 min. Similar dynamics was seen in a solution of yeast extract, but the size of domains was about ten times larger than that in the gel. In this way, the multi-enzyme system of glycolysis exhibits self-organization of hierarchy in spatio-temporal dynamics.
Full Text Available In a previous study, we showed that visual spatiotemporal processing deteriorates with healthy ageing (Roinishvili et al, 2011, Vision Research, 51(4:417-23. Here, we used backward masking to investigate the underlying mechanisms. First, thirty-three older (M = 65.3 years and ten younger adults (M = 24.3 years had to indicate the offset direction of a vernier that was masked by a 5- or 25-element grating. We replicated results from our previous study with stronger masking effects in older compared to younger adults. Interestingly, stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs between target and mask were significantly longer in older adults with individually determined vernier durations above 30msec, compared to older adults with vernier durations similar to younger adults. Second, we used two different masks with either a spatial or a temporal inhomogeneity. Older adults with vernier durations that were similar to young controls were sensitive to temporal and spatial inhomogeneities in the mask indicating fast and spatially intact processing. However, older adults whose individually determined vernier durations were significantly longer than those of younger adults were not as sensitive to temporal and spatial inhomogeneities in the mask, indicating that small spatiotemporal details are filtered out, which is highly likely due to low-pass filtered vision.
Rupe, A.; Kashinath, K.; Prabhat, M.; Crutchfield, J. P.
Coherent structures are ubiquitous in spatiotemporal systems far from equilibrium. These structures provide concise descriptions of the system and its dynamics, and there is often interest in these structures themselves. We present a novel method for automated detection and labeling of coherent structures that can be applied universally to spatiotemporal systems with local dynamics. Adapted from its original development in strictly temporal systems, computational mechanics is a method of inferring a hidden-state model from data which extracts and quantifies structure in the data. Significantly, the structures discovered by computational mechanics are not always readily identifiable from the raw data. Computational mechanics has been successfully applied to identify known structures in cellular automata. Here, we demonstrate the method on two-dimensional DNS hydrodynamic models of vortex shedding. Ultimately, we hope to analyze large-scale climate data for automated detection of extreme weather systems and other (possibly hidden) climatological structures. Current capabilities of the Computational Mechanics in Python (CMPy) software package allows for data parallelization using Berkeley Lab's Cori system, but significant scalability challenges remain to reach more realistic climate simulations. High-resolution simulations produce terabyte-size intermediates that require fully-distributed execution.
Glaciers of the Karakoram Mountains are important climate indicators for densely populated South Central Asia. Glacial meltwater is a significant source of runoff in the Indus River Basin, upon which 60 million people rely for food security, economy and hydropower in Pakistan and India. Contrary to worldwide and also Himalayan trends, Karakoram glaciers have recently been verified in near balance, with some glaciers even gaining mass or surging. This 'Karakoram anomaly' is of interest, and many hypotheses exist for its causes. Complex climatology, coupled with the challenges of field study in this region, illicit notable uncertainties both in observation and prediction of glacial status. Constraining spatiotemporal variations in glacial mass balance will elucidate the extent and possible longevity of this anomaly, and its implications for water resources, as climate continues to change. Depending on snowpack conditions during image acquisition, different snow and ice zones on a glacier are identifiable in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. The identification and monitoring of radar glacier zones over time can provide indicators of relative glacial mass balance to compliment field studies in a region with sparse field measurement. We will present spatiotemporal evolution of basic radar glacier zones such as wet snow, bare ice, percolation, and firn for glaciers feeding into the Upper Indus Basin. We will incorporate both ascending and descending passes of Sentinel-1 series C -band sensors, and possibly ALOS-2 PALSAR-2 L-band images. We may also explore the impacts of these variations on timing and intensity of runoff.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Vectorcardiogram (VCG signals monitor both spatial and temporal cardiac electrical activities along three orthogonal planes of the body. However, the absence of spatiotemporal resolution in conventional VCG representations is a major impediment for medical interpretation and clinical usage of VCG. This is especially so because time-domain features of 12-lead ECG, instead of both spatial and temporal characteristics of VCG, are widely used for the automatic assessment of cardiac pathological patterns. Materials and methods We present a novel representation approach that captures critical spatiotemporal heart dynamics by displaying the real time motion of VCG cardiac vectors in a 3D space. Such a dynamic display can also be realized with only one lead ECG signal (e.g., ambulatory ECG through an alternative lag-reconstructed ECG representation from nonlinear dynamics principles. Furthermore, the trajectories are color coded with additional dynamical properties of space-time VCG signals, e.g., the curvature, speed, octant and phase angles to enhance the information visibility. Results In this investigation, spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is used to characterize various spatiotemporal pathological patterns for healthy control (HC, myocardial infarction (MI, atrial fibrillation (AF and bundle branch block (BBB. The proposed color coding scheme revealed that the spatial locations of the peak of T waves are in the Octant 6 for the majority (i.e., 74 out of 80 of healthy recordings in the PhysioNet PTB database. In contrast, the peak of T waves from 31.79% (117/368 of MI subjects are found to remain in Octant 6 and the rest (68.21% spread over all other octants. The spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is shown to capture the same important heart characteristics as the 12-lead ECG plots and more. Conclusions Spatiotemporal VCG signal representation is shown to facilitate the characterization of space-time cardiac
Full Text Available Research regarding crossmodal interactions has garnered much interest in the last few decades. A variety of studies have demonstrated that multisensory information (vision, audition, tactile sensation, and so on can perceptually interact with each other in the spatial and temporal domains. Findings regarding crossmodal interactions in the spatiotemporal domain (i.e., motion processing have also been reported, with updates in the last few years. In this review, we summarize past and recent findings on spatiotemporal processing in crossmodal interactions regarding perception of the external world. A traditional view regarding crossmodal interactions holds that vision is superior to audition in spatial processing, but audition is dominant over vision in temporal processing. Similarly, vision is considered to have dominant effects over the other sensory modalities (i.e., visual capture in spatiotemporal processing. However, recent findings demonstrate that sound could have a driving effect on visual motion perception. Moreover, studies regarding perceptual associative learning reported that, after association is established between a sound sequence without spatial information and visual motion information, the sound sequence could trigger visual motion perception. Other sensory information, such as motor action or smell, has also exhibited similar driving effects on visual motion perception. Additionally, recent brain imaging studies demonstrate that similar activation patterns could be observed in several brain areas, including the motion processing areas, between spatiotemporal information from different sensory modalities. Based on these findings, we suggest that multimodal information could mutually interact in spatiotemporal processing in the percept of the external world and that common perceptual and neural underlying mechanisms would exist for spatiotemporal processing.
Witker Velásquez, Jorge
In this article the author reflects on the concept of national interest, considering its basic referents: State, nation and power. His analysis describes and examines aspects related to the vulnerability of the Mexican national interest on informal policies of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA.). This article explores, through a series of antithetical elements, such Mexico’s national interest, in the context of NAFTA, producing chiaroscuro effects for the country. The author prov...
Full Text Available Topological relationships between spatio-temporal objects are the most fundamental elements in spatio-temporal database systems, GIS, and image database systems. The research issue of modeling topological relationships has increasingly attracted attention, especially for querying of spatio-temporal objects and reasoning of topological relationships. Currently, topological relationship operating on spatio-temporal objects with precisely defined boundaries has been well studied. However, in the real world, spatio-temporal objects are not always crisp but with the nature of fuzziness and imprecision. Therefore, how to model topological relationship between fuzzy spatio-temporal objects is a significant topic and needs more investigations. This paper presents a study on modeling topological relationships between fuzzy spatio-temporal objects. Firstly, we give a model of fuzzy spatio-temporal objects in three-dimensional space and define those objects as moving fuzzy points, moving fuzzy lines, and moving fuzzy regions. On this basis, we propose a model for identifying basic topological relations between fuzzy spatio-temporal objects. Furthermore, in order to describe the evolution of basic topological relations over time, we give a model of complex topological relationships which are the sequences of basic relationships. The benefit of this model is that the complex topological relationships can be used as fuzzy spatio-temporal query operators in query languages. Finally, we provide some query examples to demonstrate fuzzy spatio-temporal queries in spatio-temporal database.
Lu, Meng; Pebesma, Edzer; Sanchez, Alber; Verbesselt, Jan
Growing availability of long-term satellite imagery enables change modeling with advanced spatio-temporal statistical methods. Multidimensional arrays naturally match the structure of spatio-temporal satellite data and can provide a clean modeling process for complex spatio-temporal analysis over
Full Text Available Explaining the maintenance of communicative behavior in the face of incentives to deceive, conceal information, or exaggerate is an important problem in behavioral biology. When the interests of agents diverge, some form of signal cost is often seen as essential to maintaining honesty. Here, novel computational methods are used to investigate the role of common interest between the sender and receiver of messages in maintaining cost-free informative signaling in a signaling game. Two measures of common interest are defined. These quantify the divergence between sender and receiver in their preference orderings over acts the receiver might perform in each state of the world. Sampling from a large space of signaling games finds that informative signaling is possible at equilibrium with zero common interest in both senses. Games of this kind are rare, however, and the proportion of games that include at least one equilibrium in which informative signals are used increases monotonically with common interest. Common interest as a predictor of informative signaling also interacts with the extent to which agents' preferences vary with the state of the world. Our findings provide a quantitative description of the relation between common interest and informative signaling, employing exact measures of common interest, information use, and contingency of payoff under environmental variation that may be applied to a wide range of models and empirical systems.
Coupled map lattice; spatiotemporal intermittency; cellular automata. PACS Nos 05.45.Ra; 05.45.-a; 05.45.Df; 64.60.Ak. 1. Introduction. The coupled sine circle map lattice has been known to model the mode-locking behaviour  seen commonly in coupled oscillators, Josephson junction arrays, etc., and is also found to be ...
these interrelated changes in the media ecology if we want to grasp the newfound complexity of media consumption. Specifically, it outlines how audience engagement with news and different spatiotemporal configurations made possible by digital technology are trends that complement and reinforce one another in terms...
Spatiotemporal distribution and impact of diamondback moth parasitoids in the Dakar Niayes in Senegal. Babacar ... Conservation biological control, which fosters the optimal use of indigenous natural enemies, is a promising way for reducing pesticide .... R Core, Package 'Facto Mine R'). The rate of parasitism is calculated ...
M. S. Abramovich
Full Text Available The robust version of the spatial scanning statistics for clustering is proposed. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis algorithms were used for the cluster detection of incidence of thyroid carcinoma. Me-thods and algorithms of detection and building clusters for disease on studying territories are consi-dered.
Pedersen, Troels; Pedersen, Claus; Yin, Xuefeng
In this paper we investigate the impact of the spatio-temporal aperture of a channel sounding system equipped with antenna arrays at the transmitter and receiver on the accuracy of joint estimation of Doppler frequency and bi-direction. The contribution of this work is three-fold. Firstly, we state...
Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 57; Issue 5-6. Spatiotemporal solitons in ... Department of Applied Physics, 212 Clark Hall, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science
Wang, Xing-Yuan; Zhang, Hao
By utilizing the fractional calculus techniques and spatiotemporal chaos theory, this paper brings Lorenz system to fractional-order spatiotemporal coupled differential equation for the first time, and proposes the fractional-order spatiotemporal coupled Lorenz system. Based on that, we study the problem of chaotic synchronization of fractional-order spatiotemporal coupled Lorenz systems, design the linear controller and nonlinear controller by utilizing the Lyapunov stability theory and prove the correctness in theory. The numerical simulation results demonstrate the validity of controllers in high-dimension fractional-order spatiotemporal coupled Lorenz system.
Cummings, Scott L
Financial and legal constraints on nonprofit public interest organizations have focused attention on possibilities for pursuing public interest goals from within market-driven private practice. In this context, the private public interest law firm has been held out as an alternative site for “doing well” and “doing good,” allowing lawyers to take on large-scale social change litigation that nonprofit groups cannot because of resource limits—and big-firm pro bono programs will not because of b...
When spatio-temporal datasets are large, the computational burden can lead to failures in the implementation of traditional geostatistical tools. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient Bayesian hierarchical spatio-temporal model in which the spatial dependence is approximated by a Gaussian Markov random field (GMRF) while the temporal correlation is described using a vector autoregressive model. By introducing an auxiliary lattice on the spatial region of interest, the proposed method is not only able to handle irregularly spaced observations in the spatial domain, but it is also able to bypass the missing data problem in a spatio-temporal process. Because the computational complexity of the proposed Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithm is of the order O(n) with n the total number of observations in space and time, our method can be used to handle very large spatio-temporal datasets with reasonable CPU times. The performance of the proposed model is illustrated using simulation studies and a dataset of precipitation data from the coterminous United States.
US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — These boundaries are simplified from the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Real Estate Interest data layer containing polygons representing tracts of land (parcels) in...
Department of Housing and Urban Development — Interest rates to be paid on debentures issued with respect to a loan or mortgage insured by the Federal Housing Commissioner under the provisions of the National...
Political interest fundamentally influences political behavior, knowledge, and persuasion (Brady, Verba, & Schlozman, 1995; Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996; Luskin, 1990; Zukin, Andolina, Keeter, Jenkins, & Delli Carpini, 2006). Since the early 1960s, the American National Election Studies (ANES) has...
Jiang, Zhanhong; Liu, Chao; Akintayo, Adedotun; Henze, Gregor P.; Sarkar, Soumik
This paper presents a novel data-driven technique based on the spatiotemporal pattern network (STPN) for energy/power prediction for complex dynamical systems. Built on symbolic dynamical filtering, the STPN framework is used to capture not only the individual system characteristics but also the pair-wise causal dependencies among different sub-systems. To quantify causal dependencies, a mutual information based metric is presented and an energy prediction approach is subsequently proposed based on the STPN framework. To validate the proposed scheme, two case studies are presented, one involving wind turbine power prediction (supply side energy) using the Western Wind Integration data set generated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) for identifying spatiotemporal characteristics, and the other, residential electric energy disaggregation (demand side energy) using the Building America 2010 data set from NREL for exploring temporal features. In the energy disaggregation context, convex programming techniques beyond the STPN framework are developed and applied to achieve improved disaggregation performance.
Statistical Methods for Spatio-Temporal Systems presents current statistical research issues on spatio-temporal data modeling and will promote advances in research and a greater understanding between the mechanistic and the statistical modeling communities.Contributed by leading researchers in the field, each self-contained chapter starts with an introduction of the topic and progresses to recent research results. Presenting specific examples of epidemic data of bovine tuberculosis, gastroenteric disease, and the U.K. foot-and-mouth outbreak, the first chapter uses stochastic models, such as point process models, to provide the probabilistic backbone that facilitates statistical inference from data. The next chapter discusses the critical issue of modeling random growth objects in diverse biological systems, such as bacteria colonies, tumors, and plant populations. The subsequent chapter examines data transformation tools using examples from ecology and air quality data, followed by a chapter on space-time co...
Vaisman, Alejandro; Zimányi, Esteban
In the last years, extending OLAP (On-Line Analytical Processing) systems with spatial and temporal features has attracted the attention of the GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and database communities. However, there is no a commonly agreed definition of what is a spatio-temporal data warehouse and what functionality such a data warehouse should support. Further, the solutions proposed in the literature vary considerably in the kind of data that can be represented as well as the kind of queries that can be expressed. In this paper we present a conceptual framework for defining spatio-temporal data warehouses using an extensible data type system. We also define a taxonomy of different classes of queries of increasing expressive power, and show how to express such queries using an extension of the tuple relational calculus with aggregated functions.
The starting point and focal point for this thesis was stochastic dynamical modelling of neuronal imaging data with the declared objective of drawing inference, within this model framework, in a large-scale (high-dimensional) data setting. Implicitly this objective entails carrying out three......-temporal array data. This framework was developed with neuron field models in mind but may in turn be applied to other settings conforming to the spatio-temporal array data setup....
Full Text Available A relatively unexplored issue in cybersecurity science and engineering is whether there exist intrinsic patterns of cyberattacks. Conventional wisdom favors absence of such patterns due to the overwhelming complexity of the modern cyberspace. Surprisingly, through a detailed analysis of an extensive data set that records the time-dependent frequencies of attacks over a relatively wide range of consecutive IP addresses, we successfully uncover intrinsic spatiotemporal patterns underlying cyberattacks, where the term "spatio" refers to the IP address space. In particular, we focus on analyzing macroscopic properties of the attack traffic flows and identify two main patterns with distinct spatiotemporal characteristics: deterministic and stochastic. Strikingly, there are very few sets of major attackers committing almost all the attacks, since their attack "fingerprints" and target selection scheme can be unequivocally identified according to the very limited number of unique spatiotemporal characteristics, each of which only exists on a consecutive IP region and differs significantly from the others. We utilize a number of quantitative measures, including the flux-fluctuation law, the Markov state transition probability matrix, and predictability measures, to characterize the attack patterns in a comprehensive manner. A general finding is that the attack patterns possess high degrees of predictability, potentially paving the way to anticipating and, consequently, mitigating or even preventing large-scale cyberattacks using macroscopic approaches.
Degi, Bruce J.
Offers a reflection on the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. Notes how every special-interest group has used the tragedy to support its own point of view, and concludes that teachers have become bystanders in the education of America's children. (SR)
Serrano-Hidalgo, Carmen; Guardiola-Albert, Carolina; Fernandez-Naranjo, Nuria
Doñana natural space (Southwestern Spain) is one of the largest protected wetlands in Europe. The wide marshes present in this natural space have such ecological value that this wetland has been declared a Ramsar reserve in 1982. Apart from the extensive marsh, there are also small lagoons and seasonally flooded areas which are likewise essential to maintain a wide variety of valuable habitats. Hydroperiod, the length of time each point remains flooded along an annual cycle, is a critical ecological parameter that shapes aquatic plants and animals distribution and determines available habitat for many of the living organisms in the marshes. Recently, there have been published two different works estimating the hydroperiod of Doñana lagoons with Landsat Time Series images (Cifuentes et al., 2015; Díaz-Delgado et al., 2016). In both works the flooding cycle hydroperiod in Doñana marshes reveals a flooding regime mainly driven by rainfall, evapotranspiration, topography and local hydrological management actions. The correlation found between rainfall and hydroperiod is studied differently in both works. While in one the rainfall is taken from one raingauge (Cifuentes et al., 2015), the one performed by Díaz-Delgado (2016) uses annual rainfall maps interpolated with the inverse of the distance method. The rainfall spatiotemporal variability in this area can be highly significant; however the amount of this importance has not been quantified at the moment. In the present work the geostatistical tool known as spatiotemporal variogram is used to study the rainfall spatiotemporal variability. The spacetime package implemented in R (Pebesma, 2012) facilities its computation from a high rainfall data base of more than 100 raingauges from 1950 to 2016. With the aid of these variograms the rainfall spatiotemporal variability is quantified. The principal aim of the present work is the study of the relation between the rainfall spatiotemporal variability and the
Freakonomics is more about "entertainment" than it is a serious attempt at popularization. Consequently, rather than conduct a comprehensive fact check, I use the book as a springboard for a broader inquiry into social science research and take issue with the book's surprising premise that "Economics is a science with excellent tools for gaining answers but a serious shortage of interesting questions." Using examples from Freakonomics , I argue that some of the questions the book addresses ar...
Meyer, Sebastian; Höhle, Michael
The availability of geocoded health data and the inherent temporal structure of communicable diseases have led to an increased interest in statistical models and software for spatio-temporal data with epidemic features. The open source R package surveillance can handle various levels of aggregation at which infective events have been recorded: individual-level time-stamped geo-referenced data (case reports) in either continuous space or discrete space, as well as counts aggregated by period and region. For each of these data types, the surveillance package implements tools for visualization, likelihoood inference and simulation from recently developed statistical regression frameworks capturing endemic and epidemic dynamics. Altogether, this paper is a guide to the spatio-temporal modeling of epidemic phenomena, exemplified by analyses of public health surveillance data on measles and invasive meningococcal disease.
Full Text Available The availability of geocoded health data and the inherent temporal structure of communicable diseases have led to an increased interest in statistical models and software for spatio-temporal data with epidemic features. The open source R package surveillance can handle various levels of aggregation at which infective events have been recorded: individual-level time-stamped geo-referenced data (case reports in either continuous space or discrete space, as well as counts aggregated by period and region. For each of these data types, the surveillance package implements tools for visualization, likelihoood inference and simulation from recently developed statistical regression frameworks capturing endemic and epidemic dynamics. Altogether, this paper is a guide to the spatio-temporal modeling of epidemic phenomena, exemplified by analyses of public health surveillance data on measles and invasive meningococcal disease.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — UNDERSTANDING SEVERE WEATHER PROCESSES THROUGH SPATIOTEMPORAL RELATIONAL RANDOM FORESTS AMY MCGOVERN, TIMOTHY SUPINIE, DAVID JOHN GAGNE II, NATHANIEL TROUTMAN,...
David G. Anderson
Full Text Available This article reviews biological and anthropological literatute on wild and tame Rangifer to demonstrate the powerful effect that this species has had on the imaginations of biologists, social scientists and local hunters. Through identifying a general 'human interest' in Rangifer, the author argues that there is great potential for these three communities to work together. To demonstrate this idea, the paper reviews several examples of successful and unsuccessful 'alliances' between local peoples and both natural and social scientists which have had a fundamental impact upon the history of these sciences. The paper examines recent theorerical models which suggest that human action is a major factor in the behaviour and ecology of the animals. The paper also analyses the ideas of many indigenous people for whom there is no categorical difference between semi-domesticated, semi-sedentary and migratory Rangifer through comparison with many 'anomalous' texts in English and Russian language wildlife biology. By reviewing the history of scholarly interest in Rangifer, the author argues that contemporary models of Rangifer behaviour and identity could be 'revitalised' and 'recalibrated' through the establishment of that dialogue between scientists and local peoples which so characterised the 19th century. Such a dialogue, it is argued, would help mediate many of the political conflicts now appearing in those districts where Rangifer migrate.
From Introduction: "In the article Mylov particularly focuses on three aspects: he analyzes the body-based experience of space, which constitutes basic axes and frames of reference (up-down, left-right), and relations between body and objects in the surroundings. He looks at the relation between...... time and space, for instance as spatial representations of time ("we are getting close to deadline" vs "deadline is getting close"). And, thirdly, he presents linguistic foundations of spatio-temporal issues and relations. All these issues are important for and must be taken into consideration when we...
Radojičić Mirjana S.
Full Text Available The nature of the international politics, after the Cold War directed by the U.S. as the only current super-power, are considered in the text. The author’s intention is to stress the main points of divergence between moralistic-valuable rhetoric and the foreign policy practice of the U.S. In that sense, the examples of the American stand, i.e. the active treatment of the Yugoslav crisis, on the one hand, and the crisis in the Persian Gulf, on the other hand, is considered. The author’s conclusion is that the foreign policy of the only current super-power is still directed by interests rather then by values. In the concluding part, the author presents an anthropologic argument in favor of reestablishing "balance of power" as the only guarantee for peace and stability of the world.
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been increased global awareness of Islamic finance. This topic is mainly opened with respect to the great financial crisis that mostly hit the banking system and the financial markets and caused many bank bankruptcies and state interventions. This paper analyzes the basic principles of Islamic banking. The absolute prohibition of receiving and giving interest (Riba and profit-and-loss sharing (PLS paradigms are elaborated in detail; they are primarily based on mudarabah (profit-sharing and musyarakah (joint venture concepts which nowadays are becoming an accepted way of doing business in several Western multinational banks. An overall comparison of the advantages of Islamic vs. conventional banking is also given. Islamic finance technology solutions have matured and they will face various challenges in the following decades, due to conventional banks offering, increasingly, Islamic products. The need for a more comprehensive environment and regulatory framework is emphasized, so that Islamic banking development can be ensured.
In the modern information age, the quantity and complexity of spatiotemporal data is increasing both rapidly and continuously. Sensor systems with multiple feeds that gather multidimensional spatiotemporal data will result in information clusters and overload, as well as a high cognitive load for users of these systems. To meet future…
Nie, Yongwei; Xiao, Chunxia; Sun, Hanqiu; Li, Ping
Video synopsis aims at providing condensed representations of video data sets that can be easily captured from digital cameras nowadays, especially for daily surveillance videos. Previous work in video synopsis usually moves active objects along the time axis, which inevitably causes collisions among the moving objects if compressed much. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for compact video synopsis using a unified spatiotemporal optimization. Our approach globally shifts moving objects in both spatial and temporal domains, which shifting objects temporally to reduce the length of the video and shifting colliding objects spatially to avoid visible collision artifacts. Furthermore, using a multilevel patch relocation (MPR) method, the moving space of the original video is expanded into a compact background based on environmental content to fit with the shifted objects. The shifted objects are finally composited with the expanded moving space to obtain the high-quality video synopsis, which is more condensed while remaining free of collision artifacts. Our experimental results have shown that the compact video synopsis we produced can be browsed quickly, preserves relative spatiotemporal relationships, and avoids motion collisions.
Full Text Available In recent years, disruptive innovation by peer-to-peer platforms in a variety of industries, notably transportation and hospitality have altered the way individuals consume everyday essential services. With growth in sharing economy platforms such as Uber for ridesharing and Airbnb for short-term accommodations, interest in examining spatiotemporal patterns of participation in the sharing economy by suppliers and consumers is increasing. This research is motivated by key questions: who are the sharing economy workers, where are they located, and does their location influence their participation in the sharing economy? This paper is the first systematic effort to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of participation by hosts in the shared accommodation-based economy. Using three different kinds of shared accommodations listed in a 3-year period in the popular short-term accommodation platform, Airbnb, we examine spatiotemporal dimensions of host participation in a major U.S. market, Los Angeles CA. The paper also develops a conceptual model by positing associations of demographic, socioeconomic, occupational, and social capital attributes of hosts, along with their attitudes toward trust and greener consumption with hosts’ participation in a shared accommodation market. Results confirm host participation to be influenced by young dependency ratio, the potential of supplemental income, as well as the sustainability potential of collaborative consumption, along with finance, insurance, and real estate occupation, but not so much by trust for our overall study area. These results add new insights to limited prior knowledge about the sharing economy worker and have policy implications.
Palmblad, Magnus; Torvik, Vetle I
Tropical medicine appeared as a distinct sub-discipline in the late nineteenth century, during a period of rapid European colonial expansion in Africa and Asia. After a dramatic drop after World War II, research on tropical diseases have received more attention and research funding in the twenty-first century. We used Apache Taverna to integrate Europe PMC and MapAffil web services, containing the spatiotemporal analysis workflow from a list of PubMed queries to a list of publication years and author affiliations geoparsed to latitudes and longitudes. The results could then be visualized in the Quantum Geographic Information System (QGIS). Our workflows automatically matched 253,277 affiliations to geographical coordinates for the first authors of 379,728 papers on tropical diseases in a single execution. The bibliometric analyses show how research output in tropical diseases follow major historical shifts in the twentieth century and renewed interest in and funding for tropical disease research in the twenty-first century. They show the effects of disease outbreaks, WHO eradication programs, vaccine developments, wars, refugee migrations, and peace treaties. Literature search and geoparsing web services can be combined in scientific workflows performing a complete spatiotemporal bibliometric analyses of research in tropical medicine. The workflows and datasets are freely available and can be used to reproduce or refine the analyses and test specific hypotheses or look into particular diseases or geographic regions. This work exceeds all previously published bibliometric analyses on tropical diseases in both scale and spatiotemporal range.
Kwon, Hyosung; Park, Hang-soo; Yu, Jewon; Hong, Sunghoi; Choi, Yeonho
Transfection-based cellular control has been widely used in biology; however, conventional transfection methods cannot control spatio-temporal differences in gene expression or the quantity of delivered materials such as external DNA or RNA. Here, we present a non-viral and spatio-temporally controlled transfection technique of a quantitative injection into a single cell. DNA was quantitatively injected into a single cell at a desired location and time, and the optimal gene delivery and expression conditions were determined based on the amount of the delivered DNA and the transfection efficacy. Interestingly, an injection of 1500 DNAs produced an about average 30% gene expression efficiency, which was the optimal condition, and gene expression was sustained for more than 14 days. In a single cell, fluorescent intensity and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results were compared for the quantity of gene expression. The high coincidence of both results suggests that the fluorescence intensity can reveal gene expression level which was investigated by PCR. In addition, 3 multiple DNA genes were successfully expressed in a single cell with different ratio. Overall, these results demonstrate that spatio-temporally controlled transfection by quantitative transfection is a useful technique for regulating gene expression in a single cell, which suggests that this technique may be used for stem cell research, including the creation of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sarkar, A.; Koohikamali, M.; Pick, J. B.
In recent years, disruptive innovation by peer-to-peer platforms in a variety of industries, notably transportation and hospitality have altered the way individuals consume everyday essential services. With growth in sharing economy platforms such as Uber for ridesharing and Airbnb for short-term accommodations, interest in examining spatiotemporal patterns of participation in the sharing economy by suppliers and consumers is increasing. This research is motivated by key questions: who are the sharing economy workers, where are they located, and does their location influence their participation in the sharing economy? This paper is the first systematic effort to analyze spatiotemporal patterns of participation by hosts in the shared accommodation-based economy. Using three different kinds of shared accommodations listed in a 3-year period in the popular short-term accommodation platform, Airbnb, we examine spatiotemporal dimensions of host participation in a major U.S. market, Los Angeles CA. The paper also develops a conceptual model by positing associations of demographic, socioeconomic, occupational, and social capital attributes of hosts, along with their attitudes toward trust and greener consumption with hosts' participation in a shared accommodation market. Results confirm host participation to be influenced by young dependency ratio, the potential of supplemental income, as well as the sustainability potential of collaborative consumption, along with finance, insurance, and real estate occupation, but not so much by trust for our overall study area. These results add new insights to limited prior knowledge about the sharing economy worker and have policy implications.
Sakaguchi, Hirofumi; Yaoi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Okano, Hideyuki; Hisa, Yasuo; Fushiki, Shinji
Musashi1 (Msi 1) is an RNA binding protein associated with asymmetric cell divisions in neural progenitor cells. To investigate the involvement of Msi1 in the inner ear development, we studied the expression of Msi1 in mouse inner ears with RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Msi1 was expressed in all otocyst cells at embryonic day (E) 10 and 12. Msi1 immunoreactivity became lost in hair cells after E14 in vestibule and after E16 in cochlea, whereas it persisted in supporting cells until adulthood. The subcellular localization of Msi1 changed from "cytoplasmic predominance" to "nuclear predominance" during the first 2 weeks after birth. The present data suggested that Msi may play a role in inner ear development.
Observations over spatial, temporal and spatiotemporal grids are expected to have statistical dependencies, and modeling to account for such dependencies adds complexity, but not necessarily value, in many cases of climate and other data analyses. Sometimes however, there may not be any additional dependency beyond what can be accounted for using covariates and fixed and random effects. Additionally, dependency patterns may not besimilar for different quantities of interest, for example, the dependency properties while modeling for a mean may not be the same as those obtained while modeling an extreme quantile. Thus, there is a need to quantify the degree of dependency, and test for different hypotheses including that of a lack of dependency, or structured patterns of dependency. We study a classical Space-Time Index measure suggested for testing spatio-temporal associations and show that it has low power in hypothesis tests and is generally unreliable. Newer, computation-driven statistical and machine learning methods for quantifying and testing dependency patterns are presented, and some of their statistical properties are studied in detail. We conduct a study of spatio-temporal dependency in Indiansummer precipitation data, and particularly the properties of extreme precipitation during Indian monsoons. As expected, we find that the nature of extreme precipitations depend on some global and some local climate features. However, the spatio-temporal relationship between extreme precipitation events depends additionally on the threshold used to define an extreme event. This may be leveraged for a more precise modeling of extreme events, and for reducing uncertainty in predicting such events.
The International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) is set for September 1994. Arms control and control of military interests are as crucial as population control. The expenditure on the military and arms should go to social measures and true socioeconomic development. Women are leading the movement against war and towards peace. Women make up 70% of current refugees of ethnic conflicts. The conquest of free trade with little or no restriction and globalization trends forces developing countries to accept nonessential luxury items which tend to be irrational, hazardous consumer articles and technologies from industrialized countries. The privileged elite in developing countries and the industrialized countries overconsume, while the basic needs of the poor majority are not being met. The rich view the poor as a global threat and a threat for environmental degradation. They believe that free trade will solve all problems, yet it only marginalizes the poor and the vulnerable. The pattern of overconsumption is the threat. The poor are characterized as demons responsible for the population explosion. Women are angry that population control policies are attempts to control women's fertility. Specifically, most contraceptive technologies and most family planning programs target women. Male responsibility is ignored. Religious fundamentalists tell women not to become pregnant, not to use contraception, and not to seek abortion, yet they allow male sex behavior, e.g., sexual violence. This attitude leaves women vulnerable to unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, and AIDS. Developing countries should be concerned about chapter III on Population, Environment, and Development in the ICPD text. Most countries, including India, have formed a consensus on this chapter. The Vatican and some Latin American countries have objections, however. The meeting in Cairo will likely continue to promote the view that the fertility of women in developing
Lindström, Johan; Szpiro, Adam A; Sampson, Paul D; Oron, Assaf P; Richards, Mark; Larson, Tim V; Sheppard, Lianne
The development of models that provide accurate spatio-temporal predictions of ambient air pollution at small spatial scales is of great importance for the assessment of potential health effects of air pollution. Here we present a spatio-temporal framework that predicts ambient air pollution by combining data from several different monitoring networks and deterministic air pollution model(s) with geographic information system (GIS) covariates. The model presented in this paper has been implemented in an R package, SpatioTemporal, available on CRAN. The model is used by the EPA funded Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air) to produce estimates of ambient air pollution; MESA Air uses the estimates to investigate the relationship between chronic exposure to air pollution and cardiovascular disease. In this paper we use the model to predict long-term average concentrations of NOx in the Los Angeles area during a ten year period. Predictions are based on measurements from the EPA Air Quality System, MESA Air specific monitoring, and output from a source dispersion model for traffic related air pollution (Caline3QHCR). Accuracy in predicting long-term average concentrations is evaluated using an elaborate cross-validation setup that accounts for a sparse spatio-temporal sampling pattern in the data, and adjusts for temporal effects. The predictive ability of the model is good with cross-validated R2 of approximately 0.7 at subject sites. Replacing four geographic covariate indicators of traffic density with the Caline3QHCR dispersion model output resulted in very similar prediction accuracy from a more parsimonious and more interpretable model. Adding traffic-related geographic covariates to the model that included Caline3QHCR did not further improve the prediction accuracy.
... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.375 (2\\3/8\\) percent for the January-March quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...
... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.750 (3\\3/4\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...
... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.500 (2\\1/2\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2013. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...
... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 4.000 (4) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2010. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...
... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 4.000 (4) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2010. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...
... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.250 (3\\1/4\\) percent for the October-December quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...
... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.250 (2 \\1/4\\) percent for the April-June quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...
... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 2.500 (2\\1/2\\) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2012. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...
... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.000 (3) percent for the January-March quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third party...
... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This rate will be 3.125 (3\\1/8\\) percent for the October-December quarter of FY 2014. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...
... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional... guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans. This ] rate will be 3.625 (3\\5/8\\) percent for the July-September quarter of FY 2011. Pursuant to 13 CFR 120.921(b), the maximum legal interest rate for any third...
Kushibe, Masanori; Liu, Yun; Ohtsubo, Junji
Control of spatiotemporal chaos in a neural network with discrete time and continuous state variables is investigated. The chaos control is performed with the knowledge of only a part of the target information in the memory patterns. The success rate for the pattern associations and the dependence of the search time on the sampling number in the proposed chaos neural network are studied. By the introduction of the reinforcement factor in the learning process, the recognition rate of the network can be much enhanced. Random and regular samplings of the pattern for the control are tested and the successful results of the associations are demonstrated. The chaotic behavior and recalling ability of the system are evaluated based on the analysis of the Lyapunov spectrum of the network.
Wiersma, Noémi; Marsal, Nicolas; Sciamanna, Marc; Wolfersberger, Delphine
We analyse theoretically the spatiotemporal dynamics of two incoherent counterpropagating Airy beams interacting in a photorefractive crystal under focusing conditions. For a large enough nonlinearity strength the interaction between the two Airy beams leads to light-induced waveguiding. The stability of the waveguide is determined by the crystal length, the nonlinearity strength and the beam’s intensities and is improved when comparing to the situation using Gaussian beams. We further identify the threshold above which the waveguide is no longer static but evolves dynamically either time-periodically or even chaotically. Above the stability threshold, each Airy-soliton moves erratically between privileged output positions that correspond to the spatial positions of the lobes of the counterpropagating Airy beam. These results suggest new ways of creating dynamically varying waveguides, optical logic gates and chaos-based computing. PMID:26315530
Writing and sharing scientific software is a means to communicate scientific ideas for finding scientific consensus, no more and no less than writing and sharing scientific papers is. Important factors for successful communication are adopting an open source environment, and using a language that is understood by many. For many scientist, R's combination of rich data abstraction and highly exposed data structures makes it an attractive communication tool. This paper discusses the development of spatial and spatiotemporal data handling and analysis with R since 2000, and will point to some of R's strengths and weaknesses in a historical perspective. We will also discuss a new, S3-based package for feature data ("Simple Features for R"), and point to a way forward into the data science realm, where pipeline-based workflows are assumed. Finally, we will discuss how, in a similar vein, massive satellite or climate model data sets, potentially held in a cloud environment, can be handled and analyzed with R.
Wiersma, Noémi; Marsal, Nicolas; Sciamanna, Marc; Wolfersberger, Delphine
We analyse theoretically the spatiotemporal dynamics of two incoherent counterpropagating Airy beams interacting in a photorefractive crystal under focusing conditions. For a large enough nonlinearity strength the interaction between the two Airy beams leads to light-induced waveguiding. The stability of the waveguide is determined by the crystal length, the nonlinearity strength and the beam’s intensities and is improved when comparing to the situation using Gaussian beams. We further identify the threshold above which the waveguide is no longer static but evolves dynamically either time-periodically or even chaotically. Above the stability threshold, each Airy-soliton moves erratically between privileged output positions that correspond to the spatial positions of the lobes of the counterpropagating Airy beam. These results suggest new ways of creating dynamically varying waveguides, optical logic gates and chaos-based computing.
Ren, Hai-Peng; Bai, Chao
In this paper, we propose a novel approach to secure communication based on spatiotemporal chaos. At the transmitter end, the state variables of the coupled map lattice system are divided into two groups: one is used as the key to encrypt the plaintext in the N-shift encryption function, and the other is used to mix with the output of the N-shift function to further confuse the information to transmit. At the receiver end, the receiver lattices are driven by the received signal to synchronize with the transmitter lattices and an inverse procedure of the encoding is conducted to decode the information. Numerical simulation and experiment based on the TI TMS320C6713 Digital Signal Processor (DSP) show the feasibility and the validity of the proposed scheme. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61172070) and the Funds from the Science and Technology Innovation Team of Shaanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013CKT-04).
Full Text Available Neurons process information via integration of synaptic inputs from dendrites. Many experimental results demonstrate dendritic integration could be highly nonlinear, yet few theoretical analyses have been performed to obtain a precise quantitative characterization analytically. Based on asymptotic analysis of a two-compartment passive cable model, given a pair of time-dependent synaptic conductance inputs, we derive a bilinear spatiotemporal dendritic integration rule. The summed somatic potential can be well approximated by the linear summation of the two postsynaptic potentials elicited separately, plus a third additional bilinear term proportional to their product with a proportionality coefficient [Formula: see text]. The rule is valid for a pair of synaptic inputs of all types, including excitation-inhibition, excitation-excitation, and inhibition-inhibition. In addition, the rule is valid during the whole dendritic integration process for a pair of synaptic inputs with arbitrary input time differences and input locations. The coefficient [Formula: see text] is demonstrated to be nearly independent of the input strengths but is dependent on input times and input locations. This rule is then verified through simulation of a realistic pyramidal neuron model and in electrophysiological experiments of rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The rule is further generalized to describe the spatiotemporal dendritic integration of multiple excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs. The integration of multiple inputs can be decomposed into the sum of all possible pairwise integration, where each paired integration obeys the bilinear rule. This decomposition leads to a graph representation of dendritic integration, which can be viewed as functionally sparse.
Moore, Brandon; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad
The aortic sinus vortex is a classical flow structure of significant importance to aortic valve dynamics and the initiation and progression of calcific aortic valve disease. We characterize the spatiotemporal characteristics of aortic sinus vortex dynamics in relation to the viscosity of blood analog solution as well as heart rate. High-resolution time-resolved (2 kHz) particle image velocimetry was conducted to capture 2D particle streak videos and 2D instantaneous velocity and streamlines along the sinus midplane using a physiological but rigid aorta model fitted with a porcine bioprosthetic heart valve. Blood analog fluids used include a water-glycerin mixture and saline to elucidate the sensitivity of vortex dynamics to viscosity. Experiments were conducted to record 10 heart beats for each combination of blood analog and heart rate condition. Results show that the topological characteristics of the velocity field vary in timescales as revealed using time bin-averaged vectors and corresponding instantaneous streamlines. There exist small timescale vortices and a large timescale main vortex. A key flow structure observed is the counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus adjacent to the base (lower half) of the leaflet. The spatiotemporal complexity of vortex dynamics is shown to be profoundly influenced by strong leaflet flutter during systole with a peak frequency of 200 Hz and peak amplitude of 4 mm observed in the saline case. While fluid viscosity influences the length and timescales as well as the introduction of leaflet flutter, heart rate influences the formation of counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus. Higher heart rates are shown to reduce the strength of the counter vortex that can greatly influence the directionality and strength of shear stresses along the base of the leaflet. This study demonstrates the impact of heart rate and blood analog viscosity on aortic sinus hemodynamics.
Dobson Honorary Editor, Ken
`May you live in interesting times' - old Chinese curse. First, many thanks to John Avison, the retiring Honorary Editor, for his hard work over the last five years, and the steady development in style and content under his stewardship. I can only hope to live up to the standards that he set. The next five years will take us into a new millenium, an event preceded - in England and Wales at least - by a period of stability, reflection and consolidation in education. Or so we are told - but whether such a self-denying ordinance will actually be maintained by the Government both before and after an election in 1997 remains to be seen. Nevertheless, we shall be thankful for any mercies, however small, that permit forward thinking rather than instant response. One of the things that readers of a journal called Physics Education should be thinking about is the continued decline in the numbers of students studying physics post-16. This is not a purely local phenomenon; most European countries are finding a similar decline. There are exceptions, of course: in Scotland numbers studying physics for Highers are increasing. Is such a decline a good thing or a bad thing? Only a minority of post-16 physics students go on to use the bulk of what they have learned in further studies or vocations. Does a knowledge and understanding of physics contribute to the mental well-being and cultural level - let alone material comfort - of any except those who use physics professionally? Is physics defensible as a contribution to the mental armoury of the educated citizen - compared with chemistry, biology - or Latin, say? Or should one rephrase that last question as `Is physics as we teach it today defensible...?' Such questions, and many others no doubt, may well be in the mind of the new Curriculum Officer appointed by the Institute of Physics `to engage in a wide-ranging consultation throughout the entire physics community on the nature and style of post-16 physics programmes, with a
Full Text Available Spatiotemporal simulation of tourist town growth is important for research on land use/cover change under the influence of urbanization. Many scholars have shown great interest in the unique pattern of driving urban development with tourism development. Based on the cellular automata (CA model, we simulated and predicted the spatiotemporal growth of Sanpo town in Hebei Province, using the tourism urbanization growth model. Results showed that (1 average annual growth rate of the entire region was 1.5 Ha2 per year from 2005 to 2010, 4 Ha2 per year from 2010 to 2015, and 2.5 Ha2 per year from 2015 to 2020; (2 urban growth rate increased yearly, with regional differences, and had a high degree of correlation with the Euclidean distance of town center, traffic route, attractions, and other factors; (3 Gougezhuang, an important village center in the west of the town, demonstrated traffic advantages and increased growth rate since 2010; (4 Magezhuang village has the largest population in the region, so economic advantages have driven the development of rural urbanization. It showed that CA had high reliability in simulating the spatiotemporal evolution of tourist town, which assists the study of spatiotemporal growth under urbanization and rational protection of tourism resources.
Zytowski, Donald G.; England, Raymond J. L.
A combination of high occupational score and a low men-in-general or women-in-general score on the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey is moderately predictive of interest stability and occupational consistency. (Author)
This paper's focus is on the little researched and sometimes vague concept of interest, discussed here in relation to EFL learning and the potential interest-enhancing strategies that learners may employ if they do not find learning English interesting enough. The study was undertaken to investigate how adolescent EFL learners evaluate the…
This paper examines conflict of interest as it may arise in the activities of research advisory committees and ethical review committees. It distinguishes between vested interests and true conflict of interest. It also examines the ways in which stakeholdings differ from vested interests and conflicting interests differ from conflicts of interest. It explores the overlapping terrain of corruption and conflict of interest. The paper further examines the ways in which scientists, communities and the subjects of medical research all have legitimate stakeholdings in medical research. Each group thus has differently vested interests in the outcomes of the research. The vested interests of medical scientists are particularly complex because scientists have moral commitments to the welfare of patients that may compete with professional and personal interests in the outcome of research performed on those patients as research subjects. The more these interests diverge, the more opportunity will arise for conflict of interest. These observations have implications for the constitution of research advisory and ethical review committees, and the ways in which their discussions are conducted. Some practical help with protocols of discussion can be gained from philosophical and management writings.
Dohn, Niels Bonderup
’ interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered......This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students...
In this article, I distinguish between 4 models for thinking about how to balance the interests of parents, families, and a sick child: (1) the oxygen mask model; (2) the wide interests model; (3) the family interests model; and (4) the direct model. The oxygen mask model - which takes its name from flight attendants' directives to parents to put on their own oxygen mask before putting on their child's - says that parents should consider their own interests only insofar as doing so is, ultimately, good for the sick child. The wide interests model suggests that in doing well by my child I am at the very same time doing well by myself. My interests can, and plausibly do, encompass the interests of others; they are, to that extent, wide. There is, then, no sharp separation between the interests of the sick child and the interests of other family members. In the family interests model, families themselves are seen as having interests that are neither identical to the sum, nor a simple function, of the interests of individual family members. The family has goals, values, and aspirations that are essentially corporate rather than individual. According to this model, these family interests can explain why sacrifices can sometimes be demanded of some family members for the sake of others in a medical setting. Finally, the direct model takes a simpler view of family members' interests; it claims that these interests matter simply on their own and should be taken into account in making treatment decisions for a sick child. This model openly considers the competing interests that parents and other family members often have when caring for a sick child, and advocates for weighing those interests when making decisions for and about the sick child. While there is room for all four models at the bedside, I argue that the direct model should be highlighted in clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Silvia, Paul J
Relative to other emotions, interest is poorly understood. On the basis of theories of appraisal process and structure, it was predicted that interest consists of appraisals of novelty (factors related to unfamiliarity and complexity) and appraisals of coping potential (the ability to understand the new, complex thing). Four experiments, using in vivo rather than retrospective methods, supported this appraisal structure. The findings were general across measured and manipulated appraisals, interesting stimuli (random polygons, visual art, poetry), and measures of interest (self-reports, forced-choice, behavioral measures). Furthermore, the appraisal structure was specific to interest (it did not predict enjoyment, a related positive emotion), and appraisals predicted interest beyond relevant traits (curiosity, openness). The appraisal perspective offers a powerful way of construing the causes of interest. Copyright 2005 APA, all rights reserved.
Meyer, Mary Hockenberry
Focus groups arranged by local Native American Master Gardeners on two Minnesota reservations determined community interest in extension-horticulture programs. Topics of interest included food preservation and historical Native-American uses of plants. (SK)
Pan, Y; Billings, S A
Neighborhood detection and local state vector construction for the identification of spatiotemporal systems is considered in this paper. Determining the neighborhood size both in the space and time domain can considerably reduce the complexity of the set of candidate model terms for the identification of coupled map lattice models. The computation requirements of the model identification algorithm can also be greatly reduced instead of the more direct identification approach of searching over the entire spatiotemporal neighborhood in the original space. In this paper, a new neighborhood detection method is introduced based on embedding theory for nonlinear dynamical systems to produce an initial spatiotemporal neighborhood for the identification of spatiotemporal systems. Numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the feasibility and applicability of the new neighborhood detection method.
Spatio-temporal distribution of the infestations of Coelaenomenodera lameensis Berti and Mariau ( Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae ) an oil palm tree ( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) pest in Toumanguié (Côte d'Ivoire)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — R code and dataset to produce spatial models. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Meyer, M., S. Campbell, and J. Johnston. Spatiotemporal...
XIA, J.; Yang, C.; Liu, K.; Huang, Q.; Li, Z.
Big Data becomes increasingly important in almost all scientific domains, especially in geoscience where hundreds to millions of sensors are collecting data of the Earth continuously (Whitehouse News 2012). With the explosive growth of data, various Geospatial Cyberinfrastructure (GCI) (Yang et al. 2010) components are developed to manage geospatial resources and provide data access for the public. These GCIs are accessed by different users intensively on a daily basis. However, little research has been done to analyze the spatiotemporal patterns of user behavior, which could be critical to the management of Big Data and the operation of GCIs (Yang et al. 2011). For example, the spatiotemporal distribution of end users helps us better arrange and locate GCI computing facilities. A better indexing and caching mechanism could be developed based on the spatiotemporal pattern of user queries. In this paper, we use GEOSS Clearinghouse as an example to investigate spatiotemporal patterns of user behavior in GCIs. The investigation results show that user behaviors are heterogeneous but with patterns across space and time. Identified patterns include (1) the high access frequency regions; (2) local interests; (3) periodical accesses and rush hours; (4) spiking access. Based on identified patterns, this presentation reports several solutions to better support the operation of the GEOSS Clearinghouse and other GCIs. Keywords: Big Data, EarthCube, CyberGIS, Spatiotemporal Thinking and Computing, Data Mining, User Behavior Reference: Fayyad, U. M., Piatetsky-Shapiro, G., Smyth, P., & Uthurusamy, R. 1996. Advances in knowledge discovery and data mining. Whitehouse. 2012. Obama administration unveils 'BIG DATA' initiative: announces $200 million in new R&D investments. Whitehouse. Retrieved from http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/microsites/ostp/big_data_press_release_final_2.pdf [Accessed 14 June 2013] Yang, C., Wu, H., Huang, Q., Li, Z., & Li, J. 2011. Using spatial
... Doc No: 2012-23732] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...
... Doc No: 2013-15648] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...
... Doc No: 2012-31295] SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, which could be a basis for sex differences in sensory functions. For example, audition has clear sex differences, which are related to serum testosterone levels. Of all major sensory systems only vision has not been examined for sex differences, which is surprising because occipital lobe (primary visual projection area may have the highest density of testosterone receptors in the cortex. We have examined a basic visual function: spatial and temporal pattern resolution and acuity. Methods We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision. They were screened with a battery of standard tests that examined acuity, color vision, and stereopsis. We sampled the visual system’s contrast-sensitivity function (CSF across the entire spatio-temporal space: 6 spatial frequencies at each of 5 temporal rates. Stimuli were gratings with sinusoidal luminance profiles generated on a special-purpose computer screen; their contrast was also sinusoidally modulated in time. We measured threshold contrasts using a criterion-free (forced-choice, adaptive psychophysical method (QUEST algorithm. Also, each individual’s acuity limit was estimated by fitting his or her data with a model and extrapolating to find the spatial frequency corresponding to 100% contrast. Results At a very low temporal rate, the spatial CSF was the canonical inverted-U; but for higher temporal rates, the maxima of the spatial CSFs shifted: Observers lost sensitivity at high spatial frequencies and gained sensitivity at low frequencies; also, all the maxima of the CSFs shifted by about the same amount in spatial frequency. Main effect: there was a significant (ANOVA sex difference. Across the entire spatio-temporal domain, males were more sensitive, especially at higher spatial frequencies; similarly males had significantly better acuity at all temporal rates. Conclusion As with other sensory systems
Abramov, Israel; Gordon, James; Feldman, Olga; Chavarga, Alla
Cerebral cortex has a very large number of testosterone receptors, which could be a basis for sex differences in sensory functions. For example, audition has clear sex differences, which are related to serum testosterone levels. Of all major sensory systems only vision has not been examined for sex differences, which is surprising because occipital lobe (primary visual projection area) may have the highest density of testosterone receptors in the cortex. We have examined a basic visual function: spatial and temporal pattern resolution and acuity. We tested large groups of young adults with normal vision. They were screened with a battery of standard tests that examined acuity, color vision, and stereopsis. We sampled the visual system's contrast-sensitivity function (CSF) across the entire spatio-temporal space: 6 spatial frequencies at each of 5 temporal rates. Stimuli were gratings with sinusoidal luminance profiles generated on a special-purpose computer screen; their contrast was also sinusoidally modulated in time. We measured threshold contrasts using a criterion-free (forced-choice), adaptive psychophysical method (QUEST algorithm). Also, each individual's acuity limit was estimated by fitting his or her data with a model and extrapolating to find the spatial frequency corresponding to 100% contrast. At a very low temporal rate, the spatial CSF was the canonical inverted-U; but for higher temporal rates, the maxima of the spatial CSFs shifted: Observers lost sensitivity at high spatial frequencies and gained sensitivity at low frequencies; also, all the maxima of the CSFs shifted by about the same amount in spatial frequency. Main effect: there was a significant (ANOVA) sex difference. Across the entire spatio-temporal domain, males were more sensitive, especially at higher spatial frequencies; similarly males had significantly better acuity at all temporal rates. As with other sensory systems, there are marked sex differences in vision. The CSFs we measure
Spatio-temporal covariances are important for describing the spatio-temporal variability of underlying random fields in geostatistical data. For second-order stationary random fields, there exist subclasses of covariance functions that assume a simpler spatio-temporal dependence structure with separability and full symmetry. However, it is challenging to visualize and assess separability and full symmetry from spatio-temporal observations. In this work, we propose a functional data analysis approach that constructs test functions using the cross-covariances from time series observed at each pair of spatial locations. These test functions of temporal lags summarize the properties of separability or symmetry for the given spatial pairs. We use functional boxplots to visualize the functional median and the variability of the test functions, where the extent of departure from zero at all temporal lags indicates the degree of non-separability or asymmetry. We also develop a rank-based nonparametric testing procedure for assessing the significance of the non-separability or asymmetry. Essentially, the proposed methods only require the analysis of temporal covariance functions. Thus, a major advantage over existing approaches is that there is no need to estimate any covariance matrix for selected spatio-temporal lags. The performances of the proposed methods are examined by simulations with various commonly used spatio-temporal covariance models. To illustrate our methods in practical applications, we apply it to real datasets, including weather station data and climate model outputs.
Systems of coupled sine circle maps show regimes of spatiotemporally intermittent behaviour with associated scaling exponents which belong to the DP class, as well as regimes of spatially intermittent behaviour (with associated regular dynamical behaviour) which do not belong to the DP class. Both types of behaviour are seen along the bifurcation boundaries of the synchronized solutions, and contribute distinct signatures to the dynamical characterizers of the system, viz. the distribution of eigenvalues of the one step stability matrix. Within the spatially intermittent (SI) class, the temporal behaviour of the burst solutions can be quasi-periodic or travelling wave. The usual characterizers of bifurcations, i.e. the eigenvalues of the stability matrix crossing the unit circle, pick up the bifurcation from the synchronized solution to SI with quasi-periodic bursts but are unable to pick up the bifurcation of the synchronized solution to SI with TW bursts. Other characterizers, such as the Shannon entropy of the eigenvalue distribution, and the rate of change of the largest eigenvalue with parameter are required to pick up this bifurcation. This feature has also been seen for other bifurcations in this system, e.g. that from the synchronized solution to kink solutions. We therefore conjecture that in the case of high dimensional systems, entropic characterizers provide better signatures of bifurcations from one ordered solution to another.
Venkatesan, Ragav; Zwart, Christine M.; Frakes, David H.; Li, Baoxin
With the advent of progressive format display and broadcast technologies, video deinterlacing has become an important video-processing technique. Numerous approaches exist in the literature to accomplish deinterlacing. While most earlier methods were simple linear filtering-based approaches, the emergence of faster computing technologies and even dedicated video-processing hardware in display units has allowed higher quality but also more computationally intense deinterlacing algorithms to become practical. Most modern approaches analyze motion and content in video to select different deinterlacing methods for various spatiotemporal regions. We introduce a family of deinterlacers that employs spectral residue to choose between and weight control grid interpolation based spatial and temporal deinterlacing methods. The proposed approaches perform better than the prior state-of-the-art based on peak signal-to-noise ratio, other visual quality metrics, and simple perception-based subjective evaluations conducted by human viewers. We further study the advantages of using soft and hard decision thresholds on the visual performance.
Zhang, Xiang; Yan, Qingyun; Yu, Yuhe; Dai, Lili
Bacterioplankton play key roles in the biogeochemical cycle and in organic contaminant degradation. The species richness and abundance of bacterial subgroups are generally distinct from each other, and this is attributed to their different functions in aquatic ecosystems. The spatiotemporal variations of eight phylogenetic subgroups (Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Planctomycetes, alpha-, beta-, and gamma-Proteobacteria) derived from Donghu Lake were investigated using PCR-DGGE fingerprinting, to explore their responses to environmental factors. Results indicate that Actinobacteria and beta-Proteobacteria were the two largest bacterial subgroups detected. These two groups and Bacteroidetes showed clear seasonal patterns in composition of the operational taxonomic unit. Results also suggest that the bacterioplankton subgroups in Donghu Lake were significantly correlated with different environmental factors. In brief, the total nitrogen was one of the major factors regulating all the bacterioplankton except for Actinobacteria. However, total phosphorus, another important eutrophication factor, contributed to the two largest bacterial groups (Actinobacteria and beta-Proteobacteria), as well as to the Cyanobacteria and Firmicutes. Therefore, the responses of bacterioplankton subgroups to environmental factors were different, and this should be attributed to the differences in the functions of different groups.
Ravassard, Pascal; Kees, Ashley; Willers, Bernard; Ho, David; Aharoni, Daniel A; Cushman, Jesse; Aghajan, Zahra M; Mehta, Mayank R
The hippocampal cognitive map is thought to be driven by distal visual cues and self-motion cues. However, other sensory cues also influence place cells. Hence, we measured rat hippocampal activity in virtual reality (VR), where only distal visual and nonvestibular self-motion cues provided spatial information, and in the real world (RW). In VR, place cells showed robust spatial selectivity; however, only 20% were track active, compared with 45% in the RW. This indicates that distal visual and nonvestibular self-motion cues are sufficient to provide selectivity, but vestibular and other sensory cues present in RW are necessary to fully activate the place-cell population. In addition, bidirectional cells preferentially encoded distance along the track in VR, while encoding absolute position in RW. Taken together, these results suggest the differential contributions of these sensory cues in shaping the hippocampal population code. Theta frequency was reduced, and its speed dependence was abolished in VR, but phase precession was unaffected, constraining mechanisms governing both hippocampal theta oscillations and temporal coding. These results reveal cooperative and competitive interactions between sensory cues for control over hippocampal spatiotemporal selectivity and theta rhythm.
Gocic, Milan; Trajkovic, Slavisa
The evaluation of spatiotemporal characteristics of drought was based on monthly precipitation data from 29 synoptic stations for the period of 1948-2012. The percent of normal precipitation was applied to illustrate the driest years in Serbia (1990, 2000, and 2011). The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and S-mode principal component analysis (PCA) were used to capture the drought patterns. Agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis was applied to identify three different drought sub-regions: (1) region R1 includes the north and the northeast part of Serbia; (2) region R2 includes the western part of Central Serbia and southwestern part of Serbia; and (3) region R3 includes central, east, south and southeast part of Serbia. The R2 had the monthly precipitation values above average, while R1 and R3 had the precipitation values under average of Serbia. The year 2000 was the driest and 1955 was the wettest during the observed period. The characteristics of drought were analyzed in terms of the temporal evolution of the SPI-12 values and the frequency of drought for the three identified regions. The percentage of years characterized by drought was 44.62% for R1, 50.77% for R2 and 46.15% for R3. Approximately 70% of the frequency of drought belongs to the near normal drought category.
Pagany, Raphaela; Marquardt, Anna; Zink, Roland
One of the major challenges for mainstream adoption of electric vehicles is the provision of infrastructure for charging the batteries of the vehicles. The charging stations must not only be located dense enough to allow users to complete their journeys, but the electric energy must also be provided from renewable sources in order to truly offer a transportation with less CO2 emissions. The examination of potential locations for the charging of electric vehicles can facilitate the adaption of electromobility and the integration of electronic vehicles in everyday life. A geographic information system (GIS) based model for optimal location of charging stations in a small and regional scale is presented. This considers parameters such as the forecast of electric vehicle use penetration, the relevant weight of diverse point of interests and the distance between parking area and destination for different vehicle users. In addition to the spatial scale the temporal modelling of the energy demand at the different charging locations has to be considerate. Depending on different user profiles (commuters, short haul drivers etc.) the frequency of charging vary during the day, the week and the year. In consequence, the spatiotemporal variability is a challenge for a reliable energy supply inside a decentralized renewable energy system. The presented model delivers on the one side the most adequate identified locations for charging stations and on the other side the interaction between energy supply and demand for electromobility under the consideration of temporal aspects. Using ESRI ArcGIS Desktop, first results for the case study region of Lower Bavaria are generated. The aim of the concept is to keep the model transferable to other regions and also open to integrate further and more detailed user profiles, derived from social studies about i.e. the daily behavior and the perception of electromobility in a next step.
Understanding the dynamics of large-scale brain activity is a tough challenge. One reason for this is the presence of an incredible amount of complexity arising from having roughly 100 billion neurons connected via 100 trillion synapses. Because of the extremely high number of degrees of freedom in the nervous system, the question of how the brain manages to properly function and remain stable, yet also be adaptable, must be posed. Neuroscientists have identified many ways the nervous system makes this possible, of which synaptic plasticity is possibly the most notable one. On the other hand, it is vital to understand how the nervous system also loses stability, resulting in neuropathological diseases such as epilepsy, a disease which affects 1% of the population. In the following work, we seek to answer some of these questions from two different perspectives. The first uses mean-field theory applied to neuronal populations, where the variables of interest are the percentages of active excitatory and inhibitory neurons in a network, to consider how the nervous system responds to external stimuli, self-organizes and generates epileptiform activity. The second method uses statistical field theory, in the framework of single neurons on a lattice, to study the concept of criticality, an idea borrowed from physics which posits that in some regime the brain operates in a collectively stable or marginally stable manner. This will be examined in two different neuronal networks with self-organized criticality serving as the overarching theme for the union of both perspectives. One of the biggest problems in neuroscience is the question of to what extent certain details are significant to the functioning of the brain. These details give rise to various spatiotemporal properties that at the smallest of scales explain the interaction of single neurons and synapses and at the largest of scales describe, for example, behaviors and sensations. In what follows, we will shed some
Dudani, Jaideep S; Jain, Piyush K; Kwong, Gabriel A; Stevens, Kelly R; Bhatia, Sangeeta N
Proteases play diverse and important roles in physiology and disease, including influencing critical processes in development, immune responses, and malignancies. Both the abundance and activity of these enzymes are tightly regulated and highly contextual; thus, in order to elucidate their specific impact on disease progression, better tools are needed to precisely monitor in situ protease activity. Current strategies for detecting protease activity are focused on functionalizing synthetic peptide substrates with reporters that emit detection signals following peptide cleavage. However, these activity-based probes lack the capacity to be turned on at sites of interest and, therefore, are subject to off-target activation. Here we report a strategy that uses light to precisely control both the location and time of activity-based sensing. We develop photocaged activity-based sensors by conjugating photolabile molecules directly onto peptide substrates, thereby blocking protease cleavage by steric hindrance. At sites of disease, exposure to ultraviolet light unveils the nanosensors to allow proteases to cleave and release a reporter fragment that can be detected remotely. We apply this spatiotemporally controlled system to probe secreted protease activity in vitro and tumor protease activity in vivo. In vitro, we demonstrate the ability to dynamically and spatially measure metalloproteinase activity in a 3D model of colorectal cancer. In vivo, veiled nanosensors are selectively activated at the primary tumor site in colorectal cancer xenografts to capture the tumor microenvironment-enriched protease activity. The ability to remotely control activity-based sensors may offer a valuable complement to existing tools for measuring biological activity.
Malka, Victor; Faure, Jérôme; Gauduel, Yann A
Deeply understanding the basic mechanisms of radiation damage in vitro and on living cells, starting from the early radical and molecular processes to mutagenic DNA lesions, cell signalling, genomic instability, apoptosis, microenvironment and Bystander effects, radio sensitivity should have many practical consequences such as the customization of cancer radiotherapy or radioprotection protocols. In this context, innovative laser-plasma accelerators provide ultra-short particle beams (electrons, protons) with parameters of interest for radiation biology and medical physics. This review article approaches some complex links that exist between radiation physics of new pulsed irradiation sources and potential biomedical applications. These links concern mainly the understanding of spatio-temporal events triggered by a radiation, within a fluctuating lapse of time from the initial energy deposition to primary damages of biological interest. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
In an apparent international first, the High Court has allowed a terminally ill 14-year-old to be cryopreserved after her death. The patient, JS, requested this, as she hoped one day to be reanimated and cured. Jackson J focused on the welfare (or best interests) of JS as she approached the end of her life and particularly on her (apparently) competent wish to be cryopreserved. I consider the interests involved in a decision to undergo cryonics, specifically exploring which interests and whose interests are engaged. Starting with autonomy interests, the judgment implicitly supported a relational account of autonomy, but was dominated by a subjective interpretation of autonomy, which prioritized JS's wishes. Questions nevertheless arise about whether the dying person is entitled to legislate for the reanimated person he or she might become. Temporal concerns also feature when we interpret welfare in terms of happiness, because the dying person and the (potential) future reanimated person might have different interests at different times. Finally, I widen the analysis to accommodate the interests of others, by exploring whether cryonics is in, or contrary to, the public interest. Utilizing different accounts of the public interest, I argue that the case for cryonics is not entirely made out. These observations on autonomy, happiness and the public interest combine to suggest that, although there may not be a decisive case for denying a wish like JS's, there is a case for caution, at least while we seek to clarify and resolve the different interests in issue. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.
Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta
on the basis of political and economic institutional factors. Focusing on business interest representation, we show that economic institutions structure the ‘supply’ of interest organizations by affecting the number of potential constituents, the resources available for lobbying and the geographical level......The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union...... of collective action of businesses. In contrast, we do not find consistent evidence that political institutions produce ‘demand’ for interest organizations by making laws, developing public policy or spending money. This is in contrast to the extensive evidence that such factors affect lobbying practices...
Dohn, Niels Bonderup
This paper comprises a presentation of the findings of a case study that investigated how situational factors triggered 12th grade students’ interest during a field trip to a zoo. The purpose was to identify sources of interest and to investigate the attributes that make them interesting. Students......’ interest was investigated by a descriptive interpretive approach, based on data from classroom and field trip observations, video recording, and interviews. The findings provided evidence that substantial situational interest can be generated during a fieldtrip to a zoo. Students’ interest was triggered....... The study implies that zoo visits can provide students with affective experiences, which can be a powerful way to stimulate students’ learning motivation....
de Graaff, V.; de By, R.A.; van Keulen, Maurice; Flokstra, Jan
Trajectories of people contain a vast amount of information on users' interests and popularity of locations. To obtain this information, the places visited by the owner of the device on such a trajectory need to be recognized. However, the location information on a point of interest (POI) in a
Keywords. Interesting positive integers; idoneal numbers; Carmichael numbers; Wieferich primes; Mersenne primes; Fermat primes; Bernoulli numbers; Kaprekar constant; Skewes constants; look-and-say sequence; Graham's constant.
A E Kafirin
Full Text Available The article gives a brief description of historic conditions leading to the formation of nations, and on the basis of attributive features of a nation the set of national interests is identified. Considering national interests as a variable, the author stresses that they depend both on the wishes of ordinary people and on the ability of the state to streamline them in a constructive manner. National interests are classified according to their dynamic characteristics, and the special role of the state as the mouthpiece of national interests is pointed out.
Liu, Chao; Gong, Yongqiang; Laflamme, Simon; Phares, Brent; Sarkar, Soumik
The alarmingly degrading state of transportation infrastructures combined with their key societal and economic importance calls for automatic condition assessment methods to facilitate smart management of maintenance and repairs. With the advent of ubiquitous sensing and communication capabilities, scalable data-driven approaches is of great interest, as it can utilize large volume of streaming data without requiring detailed physical models that can be inaccurate and computationally expensive to run. Properly designed, a data-driven methodology could enable fast and automatic evaluation of infrastructures, discovery of causal dependencies among various sub-system dynamic responses, and decision making with uncertainties and lack of labeled data. In this work, a spatiotemporal pattern network (STPN) strategy built on symbolic dynamic filtering (SDF) is proposed to explore spatiotemporal behaviors in a bridge network. Data from strain gauges installed on two bridges are generated using finite element simulation for three types of sensor networks from a density perspective (dense, nominal, sparse). Causal relationships among spatially distributed strain data streams are extracted and analyzed for vehicle identification and detection, and for localization of structural degradation in bridges. Multiple case studies show significant capabilities of the proposed approach in: (i) capturing spatiotemporal features to discover causality between bridges (geographically close), (ii) robustness to noise in data for feature extraction, (iii) detecting and localizing damage via comparison of bridge responses to similar vehicle loads, and (iv) implementing real-time health monitoring and decision making work flow for bridge networks. Also, the results demonstrate increased sensitivity in detecting damages and higher reliability in quantifying the damage level with increase in sensor network density.
Agarwal, Ankit; Marwan, Norbert; Rathinasamy, Maheswaran; Oeztuerk, Ugur; Merz, Bruno; Kurths, Jürgen
Understanding of the climate sytems has been of tremendous importance to different branches such as agriculture, flood, drought and water resources management etc. In this regard, complex networks analysis and time series analysis attracted considerable attention, owing to their potential role in understanding the climate system through characteristic properties. One of the basic requirements in studying climate network dynamics is to identify connections in space or time or space-time, depending upon the purpose. Although a wide variety of approaches have been developed and applied to identify and analyse spatio-temporal relationships by climate networks, there is still further need for improvements in particular when considering precipitation time series or interactions on different scales. In this regard, recent developments in the area of network theory, especially complex networks, offer new avenues, both for their generality about systems and for their holistic perspective about spatio-temporal relationships. The present study has made an attempt to apply the ideas developed in the field of complex networks to examine connections in regional climate networks with particular focus on multiscale spatiotemporal connections. This paper proposes a novel multiscale understanding of regional climate networks using wavelets. The proposed approach is applied to daily precipitation records observed at 543 selected stations from south Germany for a period of 110 years (1901-2010). Further, multiscale community mining is performed on the same study region to shed more light on the underlying processes at different time scales. Various network measure and tools so far employed provide micro-level (individual station) and macro-level (community structure) information of the network. It is interesting to investigate how the result of this study can be useful for future climate predictions and for evaluating climate models on their implementation regarding heavy
Full Text Available Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs decode brain activity with the aim to establish a direct communication channel with an external device. Albeit they have been hailed to (re-establish communication in persons suffering from severe motor- and/or communication disabilities, only recently BCI applications have been challenging other assistive technologies. Owing to their considerably increased performance and the advent of affordable technological solutions, BCI technology is expected to trigger a paradigm shift not only in assistive technology but also in the way we will interface with technology. However, the flipside of the quest for accuracy and speed is most evident in EEG-based visual BCI where it has led to a gamut of increasingly complex classifiers, tailored to the needs of specific stimulation paradigms and use contexts. In this contribution, we argue that spatiotemporal beamforming can serve several synchronous visual BCI paradigms. We demonstrate this for three popular visual paradigms even without attempting to optimizing their electrode sets. For each selectable target, a spatiotemporal beamformer is applied to assess whether the corresponding signal-of-interest is present in the preprocessed multichannel EEG signals. The target with the highest beamformer output is then selected by the decoder (maximum selection. In addition to this simple selection rule, we also investigated whether interactions between beamformer outputs could be employed to increase accuracy by combining the outputs for all targets into a feature vector and applying three common classification algorithms. The results show that the accuracy of spatiotemporal beamforming with maximum selection is at par with that of the classification algorithms and interactions between beamformer outputs do not further improve that accuracy.
In an apparent international first, the High Court has allowed a terminally ill 14-year-old to be cryopreserved after her death. The patient, JS, requested this, as she hoped one day to be reanimated and cured. Jackson J focused on the welfare (or best interests) of JS as she approached the end of her life and particularly on her (apparently) competent wish to be cryopreserved. I consider the interests involved in a decision to undergo cryonics, specifically exploring which interests and whos...
Medication interest is comparable to literature data: relatively high for acute problems, relatively low for iron supplementation and extremely low for preventative folic acid intake. As to our knowledge, we were the ones to introduce the term »medication interest« into professional literature in Slovenia.
Ufer, Stefan; Rach, Stefanie; Kosiol, Timo
Students' motivational characteristics, e.g., subject-related interest, are considered important predictors for successful learning processes. However, few empirical studies provide evidence for the assumed chain of effects between high interest and high achievement in mathematics. One reason for this result might be that the applied measures of…
Conflict of interest is heavily intertwined with research. The purpose of this study was to examine the literature and regulations in order to describe efforts required to properly monitor and disclose conflict of interest as researchers become steadily involved in innovation and discovery. The public assumes that when a conflict is disclosed, it…
Krausert, Christopher R; Liang, Yufang; Zhang, Yu; Rieves, Adam L; Geurink, Kyle R; Jiang, Jack J
For spatiotemporal analysis to become a relevant clinical tool, it must be applied to human vocal fold vibration. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis will help assess the ability of spatiotemporal parameters to detect pathological vibration. Spatiotemporal parameters of correlation length and entropy were extracted from high-speed videos of 124 subjects, 67 without vocal fold pathology and 57 with either vocal fold polyps or nodules. Mann-Whitney rank sum tests were performed to compare normal vocal fold vibrations to pathological vibrations, and ROC analysis was used to assess the diagnostic value of spatiotemporal analysis. A statistically significant difference was found between the normal and pathological groups in both correlation length (P nodules and polyps groups in either correlation length (P = .227) or entropy (P = .943). The ROC analysis showed an area under the curve of 0.63 for correlation length and 0.51 for entropy. Although they could not effectively distinguish vibration of vocal folds with nodules from those with polyps, the spatiotemporal parameters correlation length and entropy exhibit the ability to differentiate normal and pathological vocal fold vibration and may represent a diagnostic tool for objectively detecting abnormal vibration in the future, especially in neurological voice disorders and vocal folds without a visible lesion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Indexing and query processing is an emerging research field in spatio - temporal data. Most of the real-time applications such as location based services, fleet management, traffic prediction and radio frequency identification and sensor networks are based on spatiotemporal indexing and query processing. All the indexing and query processing applications is any one of the forms, such as spatio index access and supporting queries or spatio-temporal indexing method and support query or temporal dimension, while in spatial data it is considered as the second priority. In this paper, give the survey of the various uncertain indexing and query processing techniques. Most of the existing survey works on spatio-temporal are based on indexing methods and query processing, but presented separately. Both the indexing and querying are related, hence state - of - art of both the indexing and query processing techniques are considered together. This paper gives the details of spatio-temporal data classification, various types of indexing methods, query processing, application areas and research direction of spatio-temporal indexing and query processing.
Full Text Available Aiming at improving the video visual resolution quality and details clarity, a novel learning-based video superresolution reconstruction algorithm using spatiotemporal nonlocal similarity is proposed in this paper. Objective high-resolution (HR estimations of low-resolution (LR video frames can be obtained by learning LR-HR correlation mapping and fusing spatiotemporal nonlocal similarities between video frames. With the objective of improving algorithm efficiency while guaranteeing superresolution quality, a novel visual saliency-based LR-HR correlation mapping strategy between LR and HR patches is proposed based on semicoupled dictionary learning. Moreover, aiming at improving performance and efficiency of spatiotemporal similarity matching and fusion, an improved spatiotemporal nonlocal fuzzy registration scheme is established using the similarity weighting strategy based on pseudo-Zernike moment feature similarity and structural similarity, and the self-adaptive regional correlation evaluation strategy. The proposed spatiotemporal fuzzy registration scheme does not rely on accurate estimation of subpixel motion, and therefore it can be adapted to complex motion patterns and is robust to noise and rotation. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves competitive superresolution quality compared to other state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of both subjective and objective evaluations.
Pedersen, Ove K.
. The paper focuses exclusively on the national policy processes that are involved with managing European Union (EU) issues. More specifically, this paper discusses two aspects of multi-level governance. First is the important role of private interests in the coordination of decision making at the national...... level preceding their government's representation of national interests in the European Council of Ministers and other EU organizations. Second is the effect of all this on national democratic systems.......This paper examines the influence of European integration on the relationship between state administration and private interests in the four Nordic countries - Sweden, Denmark, Norway and Finland. By private interests I mean interest organizations, private corporations and independent experts...
Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Jensen, Niels Odder; Willemoes, Mikkel
Background: Knowledge of spatiotemporal migration patterns is important for our understanding of migration ecology and ultimately conservation of migratory species. We studied the annual migration schedules of European nightjar, a large nocturnal insectivore and compared it with two other larger ...... for understanding spatiotemporal migration patterns and causes of declines in migratory species.......Background: Knowledge of spatiotemporal migration patterns is important for our understanding of migration ecology and ultimately conservation of migratory species. We studied the annual migration schedules of European nightjar, a large nocturnal insectivore and compared it with two other larger...... the annual migrations of nightjars and swifts and compared these with satellite tracking of cuckoo migration. Results: Individuals of the three species migrated to wintering grounds centered in Central Africa, except some common swifts that remained in West Africa, crossing or circumventing the Sahara along...
Akturk, Selcuk; Gu, Xun; Bowlan, Pamela; Trebino, Rick
The electric field of an ultrashort laser pulse often fails to separate into a product of purely temporal and purely spatial factors. These so-called spatio-temporal couplings constitute a broad range of physical effects, which often become important in applications. In this review, we compile some recent experimental and theoretical work on the understanding, avoidance and applications of these effects. We first present a discussion of the characteristics of pulses containing spatio-temporal couplings, including their sources, a mathematical description and the interdependence of different couplings. We then review different experimental methods for their characterization. Finally, we describe different applications of spatio-temporal couplings and suggest further schemes for their exploitation and avoidance.
Esbjerg, Lars; Buck, Nuka; Grunert, Klaus G.
This paper is about how five retail chains in the Danish grocery industry attempt to make low-wage, low-status store-level retail jobs as checkout operators and sales assistants interesting from the perspective of both retailers and employees. Following analysis of the social and institutional...... and make store-level retail jobs interesting to them. Although retailers mainly focus their attention on career seekers, we find that working in retailing is interesting for all employee types because the retailers are currently able to meet their respective motivations and aspirations. Nevertheless, we...
Birrell, Stewart A; Haslam, Roger A
The 3-D gait analysis of military load carriage is not well represented, if at all, within the available literature. This study collected 3-D lower limb kinematics and spatiotemporal parameters in order to assess the subsequent impact of carrying loads in a backpack of up to 32 kg. Results showed the addition of load significantly decreased the range of motion of flexion/extension of the knee and pelvic rotation. Also seen were increases in adduction/abduction and rotation of the hip and pelvis tilt. No changes to ankle kinematics were observed. Alterations to the spatiotemporal parameters of gait were also of considerable interest, namely, an increase in double support and a decrease in preferred stride length as carried load increased. Analysing kinematics during military or recreational load carriage broadens the knowledge regarding the development of exercise-related injuries, while helping to inform the human-centred design process for future load carrying systems. The importance of this study is that limited available research has investigated 3-D lower limb joint kinematics when carrying loads.
Ridier, Karl; Rat, Sylvain; Shepherd, Helena J.; Salmon, Lionel; Nicolazzi, William; Molnár, Gábor; Bousseksou, Azzedine
The spatiotemporal dynamics of the spin transition have been thoroughly investigated in single crystals of the mononuclear spin-crossover (SCO) complex [Fe (HB (tz )3)2] (tz = 1 ,2 ,4-triazol-1-yl) by optical microscopy. This compound exhibits an abrupt spin transition centered at 334 K with a narrow thermal hysteresis loop of ˜1 K (first-order transition). Most single crystals of this compound reveal exceptional resilience upon repeated switching (several hundred cycles), which allowed repeatable and quantitative measurements of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the nucleation and growth processes to be carried out. These experiments revealed remarkable properties of the thermally induced spin transition: high stability of the thermal hysteresis loop, unprecedented large velocities of the macroscopic low-spin/high-spin phase boundaries up to 500 µm/s, and no visible dependency on the temperature scan rate. We have also studied the dynamics of the low-spin → high-spin transition induced by a local photothermal excitation generated by a spatially localized (Ø = 2 μ m ) continuous laser beam. Interesting phenomena have been evidenced both in quasistatic and dynamic conditions (e.g., threshold effects and long incubation periods, thermal activation of the phase boundary propagation, stabilization of the crystal in a stationary biphasic state, and thermal cutoff frequency). These measurements demonstrated the importance of thermal effects in the transition dynamics, and they enabled an accurate determination of the thermal properties of the SCO compound in the framework of a simple theoretical model.
Koh, Ryan G. L.; Nachman, Adrian I.; Zariffa, José
Objective. Extraction of information from the peripheral nervous system can provide control signals in neuroprosthetic applications. However, the ability to selectively record from different pathways within peripheral nerves is limited. We investigated the integration of spatial and temporal information for pathway discrimination in peripheral nerves using measurements from a multi-contact nerve cuff electrode. Approach. Spatiotemporal templates were established for different neural pathways of interest, and used to obtain tailored matched filters for each of these pathways. Simulated measurements of compound action potentials propagating through the nerve in different test cases were used to evaluate classification accuracy, percentage of missed spikes, and ability to reconstruct the original firing rates of the neural pathways. Main results. The mean Pearson correlation coefficients between the original firing rates and estimated firing rates over all tests cases was found to be 0.832 ± 0.161, 0.421 ± 0.145, 0.481 ± 0.340 for our algorithm, Bayesian spatial filters, and velocity selective recordings respectively. Significance. The proposed method shows that the spatiotemporal templates were able to provide more robust spike detection and reliable pathway discrimination than these existing algorithms.
Lin, Jia; Ruan, Xiaogang; Yu, Naigong; Yang, Yee-Hong
Noise and constant empirical motion constraints affect the extraction of distinctive spatiotemporal features from one or a few samples per gesture class. To tackle these problems, an adaptive local spatiotemporal feature (ALSTF) using fused RGB-D data is proposed. First, motion regions of interest (MRoIs) are adaptively extracted using grayscale and depth velocity variance information to greatly reduce the impact of noise. Then, corners are used as keypoints if their depth, and velocities of grayscale and of depth meet several adaptive local constraints in each MRoI. With further filtering of noise, an accurate and sufficient number of keypoints is obtained within the desired moving body parts (MBPs). Finally, four kinds of multiple descriptors are calculated and combined in extended gradient and motion spaces to represent the appearance and motion features of gestures. The experimental results on the ChaLearn gesture, CAD-60 and MSRDailyActivity3D datasets demonstrate that the proposed feature achieves higher performance compared with published state-of-the-art approaches under the one-shot learning setting and comparable accuracy under the leave-one-out cross validation.
The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS) in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.
Bulut, Fatih; Ellsworth, William L.; Bohnhoff, Marco; Aktar, Mustafa; Dresen, Georg
We investigate earthquakes with similar waveforms in order to characterize spatiotemporal microseismicity clusters within the North Anatolian fault zone (NAFZ) in northwest Turkey along the transition between the 1999 ??zmit rupture zone and the Marmara Sea seismic gap. Earthquakes within distinct activity clusters are relocated with cross-correlation derived relative travel times using the double difference method. The spatiotemporal distribution of micro earthquakes within individual clusters is resolved with relative location accuracy comparable to or better than the source size. High-precision relative hypocenters define the geometry of individual fault patches, permitting a better understanding of fault kinematics and their role in local-scale seismotectonics along the region of interest. Temporal seismic sequences observed in the eastern Sea of Marmara region suggest progressive failure of mostly nonoverlapping areas on adjacent fault patches and systematic migration of microearthquakes within clusters during the progressive failure of neighboring fault patches. The temporal distributions of magnitudes as well as the number of events follow swarmlike behavior rather than a mainshock/aftershock pattern.
Christakos, G.; Olea, R.A.; Yu, H.-L.
Background: This work demonstrates the importance of spatiotemporal stochastic modelling in constructing maps of major epidemics from fragmentary information, assessing population impacts, searching for possible etiologies, and performing comparative analysis of epidemics. Methods: Based on the theory previously published by the authors and incorporating new knowledge bases, informative maps of the composite space-time distributions were generated for important characteristics of two major epidemics: Black Death (14th century Western Europe) and bubonic plague (19th-20th century Indian subcontinent). Results: The comparative spatiotemporal analysis of the epidemics led to a number of interesting findings: (1) the two epidemics exhibited certain differences in their spatiotemporal characteristics (correlation structures, trends, occurrence patterns and propagation speeds) that need to be explained by means of an interdisciplinary effort; (2) geographical epidemic indicators confirmed in a rigorous quantitative manner the partial findings of isolated reports and time series that Black Death mortality was two orders of magnitude higher than that of bubonic plague; (3) modern bubonic plague is a rural disease hitting harder the small villages in the countryside whereas Black Death was a devastating epidemic that indiscriminately attacked large urban centres and the countryside, and while the epidemic in India lasted uninterruptedly for five decades, in Western Europe it lasted three and a half years; (4) the epidemics had reverse areal extension features in response to annual seasonal variations. Temperature increase at the end of winter led to an expansion of infected geographical area for Black Death and a reduction for bubonic plague, reaching a climax at the end of spring when the infected area in Western Europe was always larger than in India. Conversely, without exception, the infected area during winter was larger for the Indian bubonic plague; (5) during the
Christakos, G; Olea, R A; Yu, H-L
This work demonstrates the importance of spatiotemporal stochastic modelling in constructing maps of major epidemics from fragmentary information, assessing population impacts, searching for possible etiologies, and performing comparative analysis of epidemics. Based on the theory previously published by the authors and incorporating new knowledge bases, informative maps of the composite space-time distributions were generated for important characteristics of two major epidemics: Black Death (14th century Western Europe) and bubonic plague (19th-20th century Indian subcontinent). The comparative spatiotemporal analysis of the epidemics led to a number of interesting findings: (1) the two epidemics exhibited certain differences in their spatiotemporal characteristics (correlation structures, trends, occurrence patterns and propagation speeds) that need to be explained by means of an interdisciplinary effort; (2) geographical epidemic indicators confirmed in a rigorous quantitative manner the partial findings of isolated reports and time series that Black Death mortality was two orders of magnitude higher than that of bubonic plague; (3) modern bubonic plague is a rural disease hitting harder the small villages in the countryside whereas Black Death was a devastating epidemic that indiscriminately attacked large urban centres and the countryside, and while the epidemic in India lasted uninterruptedly for five decades, in Western Europe it lasted three and a half years; (4) the epidemics had reverse areal extension features in response to annual seasonal variations. Temperature increase at the end of winter led to an expansion of infected geographical area for Black Death and a reduction for bubonic plague, reaching a climax at the end of spring when the infected area in Western Europe was always larger than in India. Conversely, without exception, the infected area during winter was larger for the Indian bubonic plague; (5) during the Indian epidemic, the disease
Helbich, M; Jokar Arsanjani, J
Spatial and spatiotemporal analyses are exceedingly relevant to determine criminogenic factors. The estimation of Poisson and negative binomial models (NBM) is complicated by spatial autocorrelation. Therefore, first, eigenvector spatial filtering (ESF) is introduced as a method for spatiotemporal
Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam
The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...... of lobbying actors coded according to different coding schemes. We systematically assess the performance of different schemes by comparing how actor types in the different schemes differ with respect to a number of background characteristics. This is done in a two-stage approach where we first cluster actors...
. The objectives of the presented thesis are three-fold. First, to extend popular data mining methods to the spatio-temporal domain. Second, to demonstrate the usefulness of the extended methods and the derived knowledge in promising LBS examples. Finally, to eliminate privacy concerns in connection with spatio......-temporal data mining by devising systems for privacy-preserving location data collection and mining.......Location-Based Services (LBS) are continuously gaining popularity. Innovative LBSes integrate knowledge about the users into the service. Such knowledge can be derived by analyzing the location data of users. Such data contain two unique dimensions, space and time, which need to be analyzed...
Shtyrina, Olga V.; Fedoruk, Mikhail P.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Turitsyn, Sergei K.
We analyze spatiotemporal solitons in multimode optical fibers and demonstrate the existence of stable solitons, in a sharp contrast to earlier predictions of collapse of multidimensional solitons in three-dimensional media. We discuss the coexistence of blow-up solutions and collapse stabilization by a low-dimensional external potential in graded-index media, and also predict the existence of stable higher-order nonlinear waves such as dipole-mode spatiotemporal solitons. To support the main conclusions of our numerical studies we employ a variational approach and derive analytically the stability criterion for input powers for the collapse stabilization.
Vieira, Marcos R
This brief presents several new query processing techniques, called complex motion pattern queries, specifically designed for very large spatio-temporal databases of moving objects. The brief begins with the definition of flexible pattern queries, which are powerful because of the integration of variables and motion patterns. This is followed by a summary of the expressive power of patterns and flexibility of pattern queries. The brief then present the Spatio-Temporal Pattern System (STPS) and density-based pattern queries. STPS databases contain millions of records with information about mobi
Huang, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Q.
The amount and location of oceanographic stations vary in different time and the observation information of the same station shows temporality. Hence, ocean observation information has strong spatiotemporal characteristics. This article firstly introduces storage strategy and representation method of spatiotemporal information on tidal level. Then the prototype system was built with the ability of storing, updating, analyzing, and early warning of tidal level in Shandong Peninsula of China. The system achieves the inquiry and visualization of realtime and historical information of oceanographic stations, which provides technical support for oceanographers and decisionmakers.
Haass, Michael Joseph; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Ochoa, Edward M
Tensor (multiway array) factorization and decomposition offers unique advantages for activity characterization in spatio-temporal datasets because these methods are compatible with sparse matrices and maintain multiway structure that is otherwise lost in collapsing for regular matrix factorization. This report describes our research as part of the PANTHER LDRD Grand Challenge to develop a foundational basis of mathematical techniques and visualizations that enable unsophisticated users (e.g. users who are not steeped in the mathematical details of matrix algebra and mulitway computations) to discover hidden patterns in large spatiotemporal data sets.
The purpose of this volume is to provide a brief review of the previous work on model reduction and identifi cation of distributed parameter systems (DPS), and develop new spatio-temporal models and their relevant identifi cation approaches. In this book, a systematic overview and classifi cation on the modeling of DPS is presented fi rst, which includes model reduction, parameter estimation and system identifi cation. Next, a class of block-oriented nonlinear systems in traditional lumped parameter systems (LPS) is extended to DPS, which results in the spatio-temporal Wiener and Hammerstein s
Full Text Available The article gives a brief review the of diagnostics and analysis possibilities by a spatio-temporal approach into electronic system in infrared bandwidth. The two dimensional image grabbed by the thermo vision camera provides information about the surface temperature distribution of an electronic system. The main idea is based on the analysis of the object which consists of a temporal sequence of a spatial thermal images. Advanced analysis is achieved by morphological image gradient spatio-temporal model: The mentioned method provides a total temperature system evaluation as well as it allows separate analysis in the chosen determined temperature area.
Zhang, Lai; Thygesen, Uffe Høgsbro; Banerjee, Malay
intraspecific physiological variations at the individual level. Here we explore the impacts of size variation within species resulting from individual ontogeny, on the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns in a fully size-structured population model. We found that size dependency of animal's diffusivity greatly...... populations. Due to the ubiquity of individual ontogeny in natural ecosystems we conclude that diffusion variability within populations is a significant driving force for the emergence of spatiotemporal patterns. Our results offer a perspective on self-organized phenomena, and pave a way to understand...
Yang, Lei; Zhang, Junshan
This SpringerBrief presents spatio-temporal data analytics for wind energy integration using stochastic modeling and optimization methods. It explores techniques for efficiently integrating renewable energy generation into bulk power grids. The operational challenges of wind, and its variability are carefully examined. A spatio-temporal analysis approach enables the authors to develop Markov-chain-based short-term forecasts of wind farm power generation. To deal with the wind ramp dynamics, a support vector machine enhanced Markov model is introduced. The stochastic optimization of economic di
Lehman, S K; Poggio, A J; Kallman, J S; Meyer, A W; Candy, J V
It is known that focusing of an acoustic field by a time-reversal mirror (TRM) is equivalent to a spatio-temporal matched filter under conditions where the Green's function of the field satisfies reciprocity and is time invariant, i.e. the Green's function is independent of the choice of time origin. In this letter, it is shown that both reciprocity and time invariance can be replaced by a more general constraint on the Green's function that allows a TRM to implement the spatio-temporal matched filter even when conditions are time varying.
Diggle, Peter J
Written by a prominent statistician and author, the first edition of this bestseller broke new ground in the then emerging subject of spatial statistics with its coverage of spatial point patterns. Retaining all the material from the second edition and adding substantial new material, Statistical Analysis of Spatial and Spatio-Temporal Point Patterns, Third Edition presents models and statistical methods for analyzing spatially referenced point process data. Reflected in the title, this third edition now covers spatio-temporal point patterns. It explores the methodological developments from th
Jeon, Byeungwoo; Landgrebe, David A.
A contextual classifier which can utilize both spatial and temporal interpixel dependency contexts is investigated. After spatial and temporal neighbors are defined, a general form of maximum a posterior spatiotemporal contextual classifier is derived. This contextual classifier is simplified under several assumptions. Joint prior probabilities of the classes of each pixel and its spatial neighbors are modeled by the Gibbs random field. The classification is performed in a recursive manner to allow a computationally efficient contextual classification. Experimental results with bitemporal TM data show significant improvement of classification accuracy over noncontextual pixelwise classifiers. This spatiotemporal contextual classifier should find use in many applications of remote sensing, especially when the classification accuracy is important.
D'Agostino, Gregorio; D'Antonio, Fulvio; De Nicola, Antonio; Tucci, Salvatore
We provide a model for diffusion of interests in Social Networks (SNs). We demonstrate that the topology of the SN plays a crucial role in the dynamics of the individual interests. Understanding cultural phenomena on SNs and exploiting the implicit knowledge about their members is attracting the interest of different research communities both from the academic and the business side. The community of complexity science is devoting significant efforts to define laws, models, and theories, which, based on acquired knowledge, are able to predict future observations (e.g. success of a product). In the mean time, the semantic web community aims at engineering a new generation of advanced services by defining constructs, models and methods, adding a semantic layer to SNs. In this context, a leapfrog is expected to come from a hybrid approach merging the disciplines above. Along this line, this work focuses on the propagation of individual interests in social networks. The proposed framework consists of the following main components: a method to gather information about the members of the social networks; methods to perform some semantic analysis of the Domain of Interest; a procedure to infer members' interests; and an interests evolution theory to predict how the interests propagate in the network. As a result, one achieves an analytic tool to measure individual features, such as members' susceptibilities and authorities. Although the approach applies to any type of social network, here it is has been tested against the computer science research community. The DBLP (Digital Bibliography and Library Project) database has been elected as test-case since it provides the most comprehensive list of scientific production in this field.
Ward, W. O. C.; Wilkinson, P. B.; Chambers, J.; Bai, L.
Visualisation is an invaluable tool in the study of near sub-surface processes, whether by mathematical modelling or by geophysical imaging. Quantitative analysis can further assist interpretation of the ongoing physical processes, and it is clear that any reliable model should take direct observations into account. Using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), localised areas can be surveyed to produce 2-D and 3-D time-lapse images. This study investigates combining quantitative results obtained via ERT with spatio-temporal motion models in tracer experiments to interpret and predict fluid flow. As with any indirect imaging technique, ERT suffers specific issues with resolution and smoothness as a result of its inversion process. In addition, artefacts are typical in the resulting volumes. Mathematical models are also a source of uncertainty - and in combining these with ERT images, a trade-off must be made between the theoretical and the observed. Using computational imaging, distinct regions of stable resistivity can be directly extracted from a time-slice of an ERT volume. The automated nature, as well the potential for more than one region-of-interest, means that multiple regions can be detected. Using Kalman filters, it is possible to convert the detections into a process state, taking into account pre-defined models and predicting progression. In consecutive time-steps, newly detected features are assigned, where possible, to existing predictions to create tracks that match the tracer model. Preliminary studies looked at a simple motion model, tracking the centre of mass of a tracer plume with assumed constant velocity and mean resistivity. Extending the model to factor in spatial distribution of the plume, an oriented semi-axis is used to represent the centralised second-order moment, with an increasing factor of magnitude to represent the plume dispersion. Initial results demonstrate the efficacy of the approach, significantly improving reliability as the
Tracey, Terence J. G.
The Unisex Edition of ACT Interest Inventory and career choice certainty measure were completed by 4,676 12th-graders. Hierarchical regressions were conducted on traitedness, measured by interitem consistency and construct similarity using Holland's personality types. All traitedness indices showed a significant moderating effect on…
Genton, Marc G.
We would first like to thank the authors for this paper that highlights the important problem of building models for non-Gaussian space-time processes. We will hereafter refer to the paper as SGV, and we also would like to acknowledge and thank them for providing us with the temporally detrended temperatures, plotted in their Figure 1, along with the coordinates of the twenty-one locations and the posterior means of the parameters for the MA1 model. We find much of interest to discuss in this paper, and as we progress through points of interest, we pose some questions to the authors that we hope they will be able to address.
Ioannis N. Kallianiotis
Full Text Available The paper discusses the current target interest rate, which is closed to zero with the new experiment of quantitative easing since 2009 and has reduced the rate of return and the income and has made the real savings rate negative. This target rate has not reduced unemployment and has not improved growth (it is not optimal, but has increased the debt of individuals and the low taxes on businesses have magnified the budget deficits and the national debt. People were borrowing the present value of their uncertain future wealth and their high debt and low income raise the risk and this high risk premium heighten the interest rate on loans, especially on credit cards. The current monetary system needs to be changed and an interest rate floor on deposits (savings and an interest rate ceiling on individuals‟ loans (borrowings is necessary to improve social welfare, fairness, and justice in our society and not to support only disintermediation (financial markets. The middle class cannot work only to pay taxes and interest on its debt (redistribution of their wealth to government and banks or worse to be in chronic unemployment. Many home owners defaulted on their loans payments and their homes are foreclosed. They will end up without property (real assets. The unconcern towards the middle class will affect negatively the entire socio-economic structure of the nation and after losing its productive power, it will start declining, as history has shown to us with so many empires that do not exist anymore. We hope the leaders (the democratic governments to improve public policies, to regulate the financial market and institutions, and to satisfy their policy ultimate objective, which is citizens‟ perfection and the nation‟s highest point of prosperity.
Rainfall varies over time and space and the study of its variability cannot be over emphasized. This paper examines spatio-temporal patterns of rainfall in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. 30 years data were collected in 3 locations [Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET), Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority (LNRBDA) ...
Sep 6, 2013 ... Spatio-temporal variations of phytoplankton, expressed in terms of species composition and diversity collected at various sampling sites in small water bodies (SWBs) within Lake Victoria basin, Kenya, were investigated monthly from November 2010 to June 2011, in relation to selected physical and.
Sep 6, 2013 ... Spatio-temporal variations of phytoplankton, expressed in terms of species composition and diversity collected at various sampling ... chemical and biological properties of water most often lead to the production of .... Persulfate digestion methods, respectively in the laboratory (APHA,. 2000). Data analysis.
Varlas, George; Christakos, Konstantinos; Cheliotis, Ioannis; Papadopoulos, A.; Steeneveld, G.J.
Marine Renewable Energy (MRE) resources such as wind and wave energy depend on the complex behaviour of weather and climatic conditions which determine the development of MRE technologies, energy grid, supply and prices. This study investigates the spatiotemporal variability of MRE resources along
Tagesson, Håkan Torbern; Fensholt, Rasmus; Cappelaere, Bernard
Semi-arid regions play an increasingly important role as a sink within the global carbon (C) cycle and is the main biome driving inter-annual variability in carbon dioxide (CO2) uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. This indicates the need for detailed studies of spatiotemporal variability in C cycling...
Skovsgaard, Anders; Sidlauskas, Darius; Jensen, Christian S.
that are capable of providing the top-k terms seen in posts in a user-specified spatio-temporal range. The techniques enable interactive response times in the millisecond range in a realistic setting where the arrival rate of posts exceeds today's average tweet arrival rate by a factor of 4-10. The techniques...
Spatiotemporal computation implements a variety of different algorithms. When big data are involved, desktop computer or standalone application may not be able to complete the computation task due to limited memory and computing power. Now that a variety of hardware accelerators and computing platforms are available to improve the performance of geocomputation, different algorithms may have different behavior on different computing infrastructure and platforms. Some are perfect for implementation on a cluster of graphics processing units (GPUs), while GPUs may not be useful on certain kind of spatiotemporal computation. This is the same situation in utilizing a cluster of Intel's many-integrated-core (MIC) or Xeon Phi, as well as Hadoop or Spark platforms, to handle big spatiotemporal data. Furthermore, considering the energy efficiency requirement in general computation, Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) may be a better solution for better energy efficiency when the performance of computation could be similar or better than GPUs and MICs. It is expected that an elastic cloud computing architecture and system that integrates all of GPUs, MICs, and FPGAs could be developed and deployed to support spatiotemporal computing over heterogeneous data types and computational problems.
Logo of the Indian Academy of Sciences. Indian Academy of Sciences. Home · About ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 89; Issue 3. Spatiotemporal soliton clusters in the ( 3 + ... HONG-YU WU1 LI-HONG JIANG1. College of Engineering and Design, Lishui University, Lishui 323000, Zhejiang, China ...
Adibi, Ali; Salari, Ehsan
This paper aims at quantifying the extent of potential therapeutic gain, measured using biologically effective dose (BED), that can be achieved by altering the radiation dose distribution over treatment sessions in fractionated radiotherapy. To that end, a spatiotemporally integrated planning approach is developed, where the spatial and temporal dose modulations are optimized simultaneously. The concept of equivalent uniform BED (EUBED) is used to quantify and compare the clinical quality of spatiotemporally heterogeneous dose distributions in target and critical structures. This gives rise to a large-scale non-convex treatment-plan optimization problem, which is solved using global optimization techniques. The proposed spatiotemporal planning approach is tested on two stylized cancer cases resembling two different tumor sites and sensitivity analysis is performed for radio-biological and EUBED parameters. Numerical results validate that spatiotemporal plans are capable of delivering a larger BED to the target volume without increasing the BED in critical structures compared to conventional time-invariant plans. In particular, this additional gain is attributed to the irradiation of different regions of the target volume at different treatment sessions. Additionally, the trade-off between the potential therapeutic gain and the number of distinct dose distributions is quantified, which suggests a diminishing marginal gain as the number of dose distributions increases. © 2018 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.
Shvyd'ko, Yuri; Lindberg, Ryan
The spatiotemporal response of crystals in x-ray Bragg diffraction resulting from excitation by an ultrashort, laterally confined x-ray pulse is studied theoretically. The theory presents an extension of the analysis in symmetric reflection geometry [R. R. Lindberg and Y. V. Shvyd’ko, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 15, 050706 (2012)PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.050706] to the generic case, which includes Bragg diffraction both in reflection (Bragg) and transmission (Laue) asymmetric scattering geometries. The spatiotemporal response is presented as a product of a crystal-intrinsic plane-wave spatiotemporal response function and an envelope function defined by the crystal-independent transverse profile of the incident beam and the scattering geometry. The diffracted wave fields exhibit amplitude modulation perpendicular to the propagation direction due to both angular dispersion and the dispersion due to Bragg’s law. The characteristic measure of the spatiotemporal response is expressed in terms of a few parameters: the extinction length, crystal thickness, Bragg angle, asymmetry angle, and the speed of light. Applications to self-seeding of hard x-ray free-electron lasers are discussed, with particular emphasis on the relative advantages of using either the Bragg or Laue scattering geometries. Intensity front inclination in asymmetric diffraction can be used to make snapshots of ultrafast processes with femtosecond resolution.
Full Text Available The spatiotemporal response of crystals in x-ray Bragg diffraction resulting from excitation by an ultrashort, laterally confined x-ray pulse is studied theoretically. The theory presents an extension of the analysis in symmetric reflection geometry [R. R. Lindberg and Y. V. Shvyd’ko, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 15, 050706 (2012PRABFM1098-440210.1103/PhysRevSTAB.15.050706] to the generic case, which includes Bragg diffraction both in reflection (Bragg and transmission (Laue asymmetric scattering geometries. The spatiotemporal response is presented as a product of a crystal-intrinsic plane-wave spatiotemporal response function and an envelope function defined by the crystal-independent transverse profile of the incident beam and the scattering geometry. The diffracted wave fields exhibit amplitude modulation perpendicular to the propagation direction due to both angular dispersion and the dispersion due to Bragg’s law. The characteristic measure of the spatiotemporal response is expressed in terms of a few parameters: the extinction length, crystal thickness, Bragg angle, asymmetry angle, and the speed of light. Applications to self-seeding of hard x-ray free-electron lasers are discussed, with particular emphasis on the relative advantages of using either the Bragg or Laue scattering geometries. Intensity front inclination in asymmetric diffraction can be used to make snapshots of ultrafast processes with femtosecond resolution.
Full Text Available Persistent reduction in sensory drive in early development results in multiple plastic changes of different cortical synapses. How these experience-dependent modifications affect the spatio-temporal dynamics of signal propagation in neocortical circuits is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that brief visual deprivation significantly affects the propagation of electrical signals in the primary visual cortex. The spatio-temporal spread of circuit activation upon direct stimulation of its input layer (Layer 4 is reduced, as is the activation of Layer 2/3 – the main recipient of the output from Layer 4. Our data suggest that the decrease in spatio-temporal activation of L2/3 depends on reduced L4 output, and is not intrinsically generated within L2/3. The data shown here suggest that changes in the synaptic components of the visual cortical circuit result not only in alteration of local integration of excitatory and inhibitory inputs, but also in a significant decrease in overall circuit activation. Furthermore, our data indicate a differential effect of visual deprivation on L4 and L2/3, suggesting that while feedforward activation of L2/3 is reduced, its activation by long range, within layer inputs is unaltered. Thus, brief visual deprivation induces experience-dependent circuit re-organization by modulating not only circuit excitability, but also the spatio-temporal patterns of cortical activation within and between layers.
Ning, Hanwen; Jing, Xingjian; Cheng, Li
The identification of nonlinear spatiotemporal systems is of significance to engineering practice, since it can always provide useful insight into the underlying nonlinear mechanism and physical characteristics under study. In this paper, nonlinear spatiotemporal system models are transformed into a class of multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) partially linear systems (PLSs), and an effective online identification algorithm is therefore proposed by using a pruning error minimization principle and least square support vector machines. It is shown that many benchmark physical and engineering systems can be transformed into MIMO-PLSs which keep some important physical spatiotemporal relationships and are very helpful in the identification and analysis of the underlying system. Compared with several existing methods, the advantages of the proposed method are that it can make full use of some prior structural information about system physical models, can realize online estimation of the system dynamics, and achieve accurate characterization of some important nonlinear physical characteristics of the system. This would provide an important basis for state estimation, control, optimal analysis, and design of nonlinear distributed parameter systems. The proposed algorithm can also be applied to identification problems of stochastic spatiotemporal dynamical systems. Numeral examples and comparisons are given to demonstrate our results.
Karssenberg, D.J.; Drost, N.; Schmitz, O.; Jong, K. de; Bierkens, M.F.P.
PCRaster is a software framework for building spatio-temporal models of land surface processes (http://www.pcraster.eu). Building blocks of models are spatial operations on raster maps, including a large suite of operations for water and sediment routing. These operations are available to model
Jun 16, 2017 ... the spatio-temporal variations of drought based on the temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI). The results indicated that ... MODIS remote sensing data would be an effective method to monitor regional drought, moreover, it would be more ...... in high biomass ecosystems; Remote Sens. Environ. 115.
Coutinho Calado Domingues, Ana Rita; Vieira, Antonio; Hendriksen, Rene S.
This study evaluates the usefulness of spatio-temporal statistical tools to detect outbreaks using routine surveillance data where limited epidemiological information is available. A dataset from 2002 to 2007 containing information regarding date, origin, source and serotype of 29 586 Salmonella...... that monitoring non-human reservoirs can be relevant in predicting future Salmonella human cases....
1 Entomology and soil fauna unity, UFR Biosciences, Cocody University, Abidjan (Côte d'Ivoire). 2 Pierre ... relative humidity). Larvae at stages 1, 2, 3 and 4 are mostly responsible of the damages observed in the fields. Key words: Coelaenomenodera lameensis; Elaeis guineensis; spatio-temporal distribution; Côte d'Ivoire.
Brad, T.; Obergfell, C.; van Breukelen, B.M.; van Straalen, N.M.; Roling, W.F.M.
We examined the spatiotemporal changes of microbial communities in relation to hydrochemistry variation over time and space in an aquifer polluted by landfill leachate (Banisveld, The Netherlands). Sampling in 1998, 1999, and 2004 at the same time of the year revealed that the center of the
Hefley, Trevor J.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Hanks, Ephraim M.; Russell, Robin; Walsh, Daniel P.
Analyzing spatial data often requires modeling dependencies created by a dynamic spatio-temporal data generating process. In many applications, a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) is used with a random effect to account for spatial dependence and to provide optimal spatial predictions. Location-specific covariates are often included as fixed effects in a GLMM and may be collinear with the spatial random effect, which can negatively affect inference. We propose a dynamic approach to account for spatial dependence that incorporates scientific knowledge of the spatio-temporal data generating process. Our approach relies on a dynamic spatio-temporal model that explicitly incorporates location-specific covariates. We illustrate our approach with a spatially varying ecological diffusion model implemented using a computationally efficient homogenization technique. We apply our model to understand individual-level and location-specific risk factors associated with chronic wasting disease in white-tailed deer from Wisconsin, USA and estimate the location the disease was first introduced. We compare our approach to several existing methods that are commonly used in spatial statistics. Our spatio-temporal approach resulted in a higher predictive accuracy when compared to methods based on optimal spatial prediction, obviated confounding among the spatially indexed covariates and the spatial random effect, and provided additional information that will be important for containing disease outbreaks.
Cai, Cheng; Lam, Kin-Man; Tan, Zheng
The detection of edits in a video sequence is the first step in video analysis, which segments a video into its basic components. Spatio-temporal slice analysis is an effective method for video partitioning because it can detect and classify different scene breaks. In a spatio-temporal slice, cut and wipe can be detected successfully based on measuring the changes of the color-texture properties of the slices. Dissolve can be measured by means of the parabolic variance curve (PVC) method. However, the statistical information extracted from the horizontal, vertical, and diagonal slices is not enough to show the PVC features. Thus, Support Vector Machine (SVM)-based dissolve detector was proposed, which extracts features based on the Gabor wavelets from a spatio-temporal slice and then identifies dissolves by means of the SVM-based classifier. However, this method is computationally intensive. In our method, we propose an efficient dissolve detector based on the spatio-temporal slices by using three simple second-order filters. Based on the linear estimation of the successive frames in a video shot, dissolve and static scenes exhibit different patterns in the temporal dimension. By applying the three simple filters, we can identify dissolves with arbitrary lengths accurately. Experiments based on the MPEG-7 standard sequences show encouraging results.
Spatio-temporal variations of phytoplankton, expressed in terms of species composition and diversity collected at various sampling sites in small water bodies (SWBs) within Lake Victoria basin, Kenya, were investigated monthly from November 2010 to June 2011, in relation to selected physical and chemical water quality ...
Samulevicius, Saulius; Pitarch, Yoann; Pedersen, Torben Bach
network nodes, fully or partly, in low traffic loads. To accomplish such a dynamic network optimization, it is crucial to predict very accurately low traffic periods. In this paper, we tackle this problem using data mining and propose Spatio-Temporal Ensemble Prediction (STEP). In a nutshell, STEP...
Circuit Formation by Spatio-Temporal Control of Messenger RNA Translation. The connections inside the brain need to be wired in a precise manner during development to ensure its proper function. This project will provide insight into circuit formation to help us understand how axon regeneration can improve clinical ...
Using collective Metrics to inspect Spatio-Temporal relationships between football players. ... Four collective metrics (weighted Centroid, weighted Stretch Index, Surface Area and Effective Area of Play) were computed based on the location of the players at each second of a match. Three matches of a team were analysed ...
context of climate change. Based on daily precipitation data from 63 national meteorological stations on the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain from 1963 to 2012, this paper analyzed the spatiotemporal variations in precipitation in terms of precipitation days and intensity, using spatial interpolation, linear trend estimation and wavelet ...
Rieth, Cory A; Huber, David E
We investigated the role of implicit spatiotemporal learning in the Posner spatial cueing of attention task. During initial training, the proportion of different trial types was altered to produce a complex pattern of spatiotemporal contingencies between cues and targets. For example, in the short invalid and long valid condition, targets reliably appeared either at an uncued location after a short stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA; 100 ms) or at a cued location after a long SOA (350 ms). As revealed by postexperiment questioning, most participants were unaware of these manipulations. Whereas prior studies have examined reaction times during training, the current study examined the long-term effect of training on subsequent testing that removed these contingencies. An initial experiment found training effects only for the long SOAs that typically produce inhibition of return (IOR) effects. For instance, after short invalid and long valid training, there was a benefit at long SOAs rather than an IOR effect. A 2nd experiment ruled out target-cue overlap as an explanation of the difference between learning for long versus short SOAs. Rather than a mix of perfectly predictable spatiotemporal contingencies, Experiment 3 used only short SOA trials during training with a probabilistic spatial contingency. There was a smaller but reliable training effect in subsequent testing. These results demonstrate that implicit learning for specific combinations of location and SOA can affect behavior in spatial cueing paradigms, which is a necessary result if more generally spatial cueing reflects learned spatiotemporal regularities. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy
Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…
Wüstner, Daniel; Faergeman, Nils J
(CTL) combined with advanced image analysis were used to study spatiotemporal sterol distribution in living macrophages, adipocytes and fibroblasts. Sterol endocytosis was directly visualized by time-lapse imaging and noise-robust tracking revealing confined motion of DHE containing vesicles in close...... proximity to the cell membrane. Spatial surface intensity patterns of DHE as well as that of the lipid marker DiIC12 being assessed by statistical image analysis persisted over several minutes in cells having a constant overall curvature. Sites of sterol endocytosis appeared indistinguishable from other......Distribution and dynamics of cholesterol in the plasma membrane as well as internalization pathways for sterol from the cell surface are of great cell biological interest. Here, UV-sensitive wide field microscopy of the intrinsically fluorescent sterols, dehydroergosterol (DHE) and cholestatrienol...
rowing at lower rates would save $0.6 billion The feedback effect of 5 basis points was arbi- in the first year, growing to $3 billion in 1998 trarily...estimate assumes no feedback effects in 1994 and $0.8 billion smaller in 1998 than on interest rates. Some analysts argue, they would have been with no...bread and butter of the Trea- in Britain (which, like other British govern- sury’s financing. Nominal interest rates are ment bonds, are nicknamed gilts
Wang, S.; Zhong, E.; Wang, E.; Zhong, Y.; Cai, W.; Li, S.; Gao, S.
Geospatial data are growing exponentially because of the proliferation of cost effective and ubiquitous positioning technologies such as global remote-sensing satellites and location-based devices. Analyzing large amounts of geospatial data can provide great value for both industrial and scientific applications. Data- and compute- intensive characteristics inherent in geospatial big data increasingly pose great challenges to technologies of data storing, computing and analyzing. Such challenges require a scalable and efficient architecture that can store, query, analyze, and visualize large-scale spatiotemporal data. Therefore, we developed GISpark - a geospatial distributed computing platform for processing large-scale vector, raster and stream data. GISpark is constructed based on the latest virtualized computing infrastructures and distributed computing architecture. OpenStack and Docker are used to build multi-user hosting cloud computing infrastructure for GISpark. The virtual storage systems such as HDFS, Ceph, MongoDB are combined and adopted for spatiotemporal data storage management. Spark-based algorithm framework is developed for efficient parallel computing. Within this framework, SuperMap GIScript and various open-source GIS libraries can be integrated into GISpark. GISpark can also integrated with scientific computing environment (e.g., Anaconda), interactive computing web applications (e.g., Jupyter notebook), and machine learning tools (e.g., TensorFlow/Orange). The associated geospatial facilities of GISpark in conjunction with the scientific computing environment, exploratory spatial data analysis tools, temporal data management and analysis systems make up a powerful geospatial computing tool. GISpark not only provides spatiotemporal big data processing capacity in the geospatial field, but also provides spatiotemporal computational model and advanced geospatial visualization tools that deals with other domains related with spatial property. We
Møller, Jesper; Ghorbani, Mohammad
Statistical methodology for spatio-temporal point processes is in its infancy. We consider second-order analysis based on pair correlation functions and K-functions for first general inhomogeneous spatio-temporal point processes and second inhomogeneous spatio-temporal Cox processes. Assuming......-temporal Gaussian process. Another concerns shot-noise Cox processes with a separable spatio-temporal covariance density. We propose diagnostic procedures for checking hypotheses of second-order spatio-temporal separability, which we apply on simulated and real data (the UK 2001 epidemic foot and mouth disease data)....
The nature of organizational change and the value of headquarters is derived from a model with costs of delay, vested interests and costs of organizational change.The value of headquarters is derived from imposed organizational change. It is viewed as an institution which is able to prevent surplus
Chun, Albert Lee
the best overall for short horizon forecasts of short to medium term yields and inflation. Econometric models with shrinkage perform the best over longer horizons and maturities. Aggregating over a larger set of analysts improves inflation surveys while generally degrading interest rates surveys. We...
Full Text Available The centre of the main interests of the debtor is a legal tool meant to settle conflicts that can arise between jurisdictions in cross-border insolvencies, based on the principles of mutual recognition and co-operation.
The potential for conflict of interest in college and university trustees is high. A 1974 court decision (Stern vs. Sibley Memorial Hospital) established guidelines for trustees of nonprofit organizations, and a survey of 566 colleges and universities reveals how institutions are managing such conflicts through policy statements and…
contribute towards national development. Moreover, the concept of age is attracting more attention from educational psychologists. The girl child is expected to show some level of readiness, and interest in pursuing a vocation with increasing age. Super (1957) reported that reality factors play an increasingly important role ...
Buraschi, Andrea; Whelan, Paul
of Treasury bond markets that the singleagent paradigm finds difficult to reconcile. Empirically, we test predictions from themodel using a large dataset on beliefs about fundamentals and find that: (i) shocksto disagreement lower short term interest rates; (ii) raise the slope of the yield curve;and (iii...
Radojčić Mirjana S.
Full Text Available In this individual project the relationship between interests and moral in politics will be considered, taking into consideration the disintegration of former Yugoslavia and the processes of globalization. The starting thesis of the research is that the main actors of global politics are still guided by the modern principles of real-politics with interests as its basic category and power as its supreme value. In that context the main elements of external politics of USA as the key actor of the processes will be specially considered. In the concluding part of the research author will be argue in favor of the affirmation of a new model of global politics, matching the character and scope of the problems faced by humanity at the turn of the century and the millenium.
Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Wiewiura, Joachim Schmidt
This article contends that certain configurations of information networks facilitate specific cognitive states that are instrumental for decision and action on social media. Group-related knowledge and belief states—in particular common knowledge and pluralistic ignorance—may enable strong public...... signals. Indeed, some network configurations and attitude states foster informational pathologies that may fuel interest bubbles affecting agenda-setting and the generation of narratives in public spheres....
Negative gating modulation by (R)-N-(benzimidazol-2-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthylamine (NS8593) depends on residues in the inner pore vestibule: pharmacological evidence of deep-pore gating of K(Ca)2 channels.
Jenkins, David Paul; Strøbæk, Dorte; Hougaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Marianne L; Hummel, Rene; Sørensen, Ulrik S; Christophersen, Palle; Wulff, Heike
Acting as a negative gating modulator, (R)-N-(benzimidazol-2-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthylamine (NS8593) shifts the apparent Ca(2+)-dependence of the small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels K(Ca)2.1-2.3 to higher Ca(2+) concentrations. Similar to the positive K(Ca) channel-gating modulators 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO) and cyclohexyl-[2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methylpyrimidin-4-yl]-amine (CyPPA), the binding site for NS8593 has been assumed to be located in the C-terminal region, in which these channels interact with their Ca(2+) sensor calmodulin. However, by using a progressive chimeric approach, we were able to localize the site-of-action of NS8593 to the K(Ca)2 pore. For example, when we transferred the C terminus from the NS8593-insensitive intermediate-conductance K(Ca)3.1 channel to K(Ca)2.3, the chimeric channel remained as sensitive to NS8593 as wild-type K(Ca)2.3. In contrast, when we transferred the K(Ca)2.3 pore to K(Ca)3.1, the channel became sensitive to NS8593. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we subsequently identified two specific residues in the inner vestibule of K(Ca)2.3 (Ser507 and Ala532) that determined the effect of NS8593. Mutation of these residues to the corresponding residues in K(Ca)3.1 (Thr250 and Val275) made K(Ca)2.3 insensitive to NS8593, whereas introduction of serine and alanine into K(Ca)3.1 was sufficient to render this channel highly sensitive to NS8593. It is noteworthy that the same two residue positions have been found previously to mediate sensitivity of K(Ca)3.1 to clotrimazole and 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34). The location of Ser507 in the pore-loop near the selectivity filter and Ala532 in an adjacent position in S6 are within the region predicted to contain the K(Ca)2 channel gate. Hence, we propose that NS8593-mediated gating modulation occurs via interaction with gating structures at a position deep within the inner pore vestibule.
Negative Gating Modulation by (R)-N-(Benzimidazol-2-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthylamine (NS8593) Depends on Residues in the Inner Pore Vestibule: Pharmacological Evidence of Deep-Pore Gating of KCa2 ChannelsS⃞
Jenkins, David Paul; Strøbæk, Dorte; Hougaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Marianne L.; Hummel, Rene; Sørensen, Ulrik S.; Christophersen, Palle
Acting as a negative gating modulator, (R)-N-(benzimidazol-2-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-naphthylamine (NS8593) shifts the apparent Ca2+-dependence of the small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels KCa2.1–2.3 to higher Ca2+ concentrations. Similar to the positive KCa channel-gating modulators 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO) and cyclohexyl-[2-(3,5-dimethyl-pyrazol-1-yl)-6-methylpyrimidin-4-yl]-amine (CyPPA), the binding site for NS8593 has been assumed to be located in the C-terminal region, in which these channels interact with their Ca2+ sensor calmodulin. However, by using a progressive chimeric approach, we were able to localize the site-of-action of NS8593 to the KCa2 pore. For example, when we transferred the C terminus from the NS8593-insensitive intermediate-conductance KCa3.1 channel to KCa2.3, the chimeric channel remained as sensitive to NS8593 as wild-type KCa2.3. In contrast, when we transferred the KCa2.3 pore to KCa3.1, the channel became sensitive to NS8593. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we subsequently identified two specific residues in the inner vestibule of KCa2.3 (Ser507 and Ala532) that determined the effect of NS8593. Mutation of these residues to the corresponding residues in KCa3.1 (Thr250 and Val275) made KCa2.3 insensitive to NS8593, whereas introduction of serine and alanine into KCa3.1 was sufficient to render this channel highly sensitive to NS8593. It is noteworthy that the same two residue positions have been found previously to mediate sensitivity of KCa3.1 to clotrimazole and 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34). The location of Ser507 in the pore-loop near the selectivity filter and Ala532 in an adjacent position in S6 are within the region predicted to contain the KCa2 channel gate. Hence, we propose that NS8593-mediated gating modulation occurs via interaction with gating structures at a position deep within the inner pore vestibule. PMID:21363929
Aydin, B.; Angryk, R.; Filali Boubrahimi, S.; Hamdi, S. M.
Solar physics researchers entered the big data era with the launch of NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission, which captures approximately 60,000 high-resolution images every day and generates 0.55 petabytes of raster data each year. The big data trend in solar data is anticipated to be sustained by the ground-based DKIST telescope, which is expected to generate three to five petabytes of data each year. Many software modules continuously work on SDO's image data to detect spatial boundaries of solar events. Recently, a solar event tracking algorithm and interpolation methodologies have been proposed for creating large-scale solar event vector data sets in GSU's Data Mining Lab. The solar event tracking algorithm utilizes the spatial locations and corresponding image parameters for linking the polygon-based instances; therefore, creates spatiotemporal trajectory objects with extended geometric representations. Thus, we can access and make use of vector-based solar event metadata, which is in the form of continuously evolving region trajectories. Spatial and temporal patterns such as co-occurrences, sequences, periodicity and convergences frequently transpire among solar event instances. Here, we will concentrate on spatiotemporal co-occurrences and event sequences. Spatiotemporal co-occurrences are the spatial and temporal overlap among two or more solar event instances. On the other hand, spatiotemporal event sequences appear among the events that are temporally following each other and spatially in close-by locations. Our study includes approximately 120,000 trajectory-based instances of seven solar event types (Active Regions, Coronal Holes, Emerging Flux, Filaments, Flares, Sigmoids, and Sunspots) that occurred between January 2012 and December 2014. The tracked solar events are interpolated at each 10-minute interval. We will present the results of our spatiotemporal co-occurrence pattern mining and spatiotemporal event sequence mining algorithms
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 70.93... Excise and Special (Occupational) Tax Interest § 70.93 Interest rate. (a) In general. The interest rate... annual percentage rate of interest will exceed the prescribed rate of interest. (b) Applicability of...
Shapiro, Jesse M.
A journalist reports to a voter on an unknown, policy-relevant state. Competing special interests can make claims that contradict the facts but seem credible to the voter. A reputational incentive to avoid taking sides leads the journalist to report special interests’ claims to the voter. In equilibrium, the voter can remain uninformed even when the journalist is perfectly informed. Communication is improved if the journalist discloses her partisan leanings. The model provides an account of persistent public ignorance on climate change that is consistent with narrative and quantitative evidence. PMID:28725092
Nonlinear transport phenomena are an increasingly important aspect of modern semiconductor research. This volume deals with complex nonlinear dynamics, pattern formation, and chaotic behavior in such systems. It bridges the gap between two well-established fields: the theory of dynamic systems and nonlinear charge transport in semiconductors. This unified approach helps reveal important electronic transport instabilities. The initial chapters lay a general framework for the theoretical description of nonlinear self-organized spatio-temporal patterns, such as current filaments, field domains, fronts, and analysis of their stability. Later chapters consider important model systems in detail: impact ionization induced impurity breakdown, Hall instabilities, superlattices, and low-dimensional structures. State-of-the-art results include chaos control, spatio-temporal chaos, multistability, pattern selection, activator-inhibitor kinetics, and global coupling, linking fundamental issues to electronic device applications. This book will be of great value to semiconductor physicists and nonlinear scientists alike.
Kolovos, A.; Christakos, G.; Hristopulos, D. T.; Serre, M. L.
Natural processes that relate to climatic variability (such as air circulation, air-water and air-soil energy exchanges) contain inherently stochastic components. Spatiotemporal random fields are frequently employed to model such processes and deal with the uncertainty involved. Covariance functions are statistical tools that are used to express correlations between process values across space and time. This work focuses on a review and visual representation of a series of useful covariance models that have been introduced in the Modern Spatiotemporal Geostatistics literature. Some of their important features are examined and their application can significantly improve the interpretation of space/time correlations that affect the long-term climatic evolution both on a local or a global scale.
Irani, Ramin; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.
Pain is a critical sign in many medical situations and its automatic detection and recognition using computer vision techniques is of great importance. Utilizes this fact that pain is a spatiotemporal process, the proposed system in this paper employs steerable and separable filters to measures e...... energies released by the facial muscles during the pain process. The proposed system not only detects the pain but recognizes its level. Experimental results on the publicly available pain database of UNBC show promising outcome for automatic pain detection and recognition.......Pain is a critical sign in many medical situations and its automatic detection and recognition using computer vision techniques is of great importance. Utilizes this fact that pain is a spatiotemporal process, the proposed system in this paper employs steerable and separable filters to measures...
Jacobsen, Lars Bo; Jensen, Niels Odder; Willemoes, Mikkel
Background: Knowledge of spatiotemporal migration patterns is important for our understanding of migration ecology and ultimately conservation of migratory species. We studied the annual migration schedules of European nightjar, a large nocturnal insectivore and compared it with two other larger...... the annual migrations of nightjars and swifts and compared these with satellite tracking of cuckoo migration. Results: Individuals of the three species migrated to wintering grounds centered in Central Africa, except some common swifts that remained in West Africa, crossing or circumventing the Sahara along...... different routes in spring and fall. Overall, all species showed similar regional and seasonal use of several stopover areas during migration. Among the three species, European nightjars and common cuckoos showed the most similar spatiotemporal migration patterns. The nightjars wintered in SW Central Africa...
Full Text Available Because of high variation in mountainous areas, rainfall data at different spatiotemporal scales may yield potential uncertainty for network design. However, few studies focus on the scaling effect on both the spatial and the temporal scale. By calculating the maximum joint entropy of hourly typhoon events, monthly, six dry and wet months and annual rainfall between 1992 and 2012 for 1-, 3-, and 5-km grids, the relocated candidate rain gauges in the National Taiwan University Experimental Forest of Central Taiwan are prioritized. The results show: (1 the network exhibits different locations for first prioritized candidate rain gauges for different spatiotemporal scales; (2 the effect of spatial scales is insignificant compared to temporal scales; and (3 a smaller number and a lower percentage of required stations (PRS reach stable joint entropy for a long duration at finer spatial scale. Prioritized candidate rain gauges provide key reference points for adjusting the network to capture more accurate information and minimize redundancy.
Shin, Seungwoo; Lee, KyeoReh; Lee, SangYun; Park, YongKeun
Illumination coherence plays a major role in various imaging systems, from microscopy, metrology, digital holography, optical coherence tomography, to ultrasound imaging. Here, we present a systematic study on the effects of degrees of spatiotemporal coherence of an illumination (DSTCI) on imaging quality. An optical field with arbitrary DSTCI was decomposed into wavelets with constituent spatiotemporal frequencies, and the effects on image quality were quantitatively investigated. The results show the synergistic effects on reduction of speckle noise when DSTCI is decreased. This study presents a method to systematically control DSTCI, and the result provides an essential reference on the effects of DSTCI on imaging quality. We believe that the presented methods and results can be implemented in various imaging systems for characterising and improving imaging quality.
Dedication iiiPreface ix1 Introduction 11.1 Why spatial and spatio-temporal statistics? 11.2 Why do we use Bayesian methods for modelling spatial and spatio-temporal structures? 21.3 Why INLA? 31.4 Datasets 32 Introduction to 212.1 The language 212.2 objects 222.3 Data and session management 342.4 Packages 352.5 Programming in 362.6 Basic statistical analysis with 393 Introduction to Bayesian Methods 533.1 Bayesian Philosophy 533.2 Basic Probability Elements 573.3 Bayes Theorem 623.4 Prior and Posterior Distributions 643.5 Working with the Posterior Distribution 663.6 Choosing the Prior Distr
Full Text Available In massive Twitter datasets, tweets deriving from different domains, e.g., civil unrest, can be extracted to constitute spatio-temporal Twitter events for spatio-temporal distribution pattern detection. Existing algorithms generally employ scan statistics to detect spatio-temporal hotspots from Twitter events and do not consider the spatio-temporal evolving process of Twitter events. In this paper, a framework is proposed to discover evolving domain related spatio-temporal patterns from Twitter data. Given a target domain, a dynamic query expansion is employed to extract related tweets to form spatio-temporal Twitter events. The new spatial clustering approach proposed here is based on the use of multi-level constrained Delaunay triangulation to capture the spatial distribution patterns of Twitter events. An additional spatio-temporal clustering process is then performed to reveal spatio-temporal clusters and outliers that are evolving into spatial distribution patterns. Extensive experiments on Twitter datasets related to an outbreak of civil unrest in Mexico demonstrate the effectiveness and practicability of the new method. The proposed method will be helpful to accurately predict the spatio-temporal evolution process of Twitter events, which belongs to a deeper geographical analysis of spatio-temporal Big Data.
Bonnefon, Olivier; Coville, Jérôme; Garnier, Jimmy; Hamel, François; Roques, Lionel
International audience; The notions of pulled and pushed solutions of reaction-dispersal equations introduced by Garnier et al. (2012) and Roques et al. (2012) are based on a decomposition of the solutions into several components. In the framework of population dynamics, this decomposition is related to the spatio-temporal evolution of the genetic structure of a population. The pulled solutions describe a rapid erosion of neutral genetic diversity, while the pushed solutions are associated wi...
Full Text Available Simultaneous spatial and temporal focusing (SSTF of femtosecond laser pulses gives rise to strong suppression of nonlinear self-focusing during the propagation of the femtosecond laser beam. In this paper, we begin with an introduction of the principle of SSTF, followed by a review of our recent experimental results on the characterization and application of the spatiotemporally focused pulses for femtosecond laser micromachining. Finally, we summarize all of the results and give a future perspective of this technique.
Yu, Hwa-Lung; Huang, Tailin; Lee, Chieh-Han
Increasing climatic extremes have caused growing concerns about the health effects and disease outbreaks. The association between climate variation and the occurrence of epidemic diseases play an important role on a country's public health systems. Part of the impacts are direct casualties associated with the increasing frequency and intensity of typhoons, the proliferation of disease vectors and the short-term increase of clinic visits on gastro-intestinal discomforts, diarrhea, dermatosis, or psychological trauma. Other impacts come indirectly from the influence of disasters on the ecological and socio-economic systems, including the changes of air/water quality, living environment and employment condition. Previous risk assessment studies on dengue fever focus mostly on climatic and non-climatic factors and their association with vectors' reproducing pattern. The public-health implication may appear simple. Considering the seasonal changes and regional differences, however, the causality of the impacts is full of uncertainties. Without further investigation, the underlying dengue fever risk dynamics may not be assessed accurately. The objective of this study is to develop an epistemic framework for assessing dynamic dengue fever risk across space and time. The proposed framework integrates cross-departmental data, including public-health databases, precipitation data over time and various socio-economic data. We explore public-health issues induced by typhoon through literature review and spatiotemporal analytic techniques on public health databases. From those data, we identify relevant variables and possible causal relationships, and their spatiotemporal patterns derived from our proposed spatiotemporal techniques. Eventually, we create a spatiotemporal causal network and a framework for modeling dynamic dengue fever risk.
Jeffrey P. Prestemon; María L. Chas-Amil; Julia M. Touza; Scott L. Goodrick
We report daily time series models containing both temporal and spatiotemporal lags, which are applied to forecasting intentional wildfires in Galicia, Spain. Models are estimated independently for each of the 19 forest districts in Galicia using a 1999â2003 training dataset and evaluated out-of-sample with a 2004â06 dataset. Poisson autoregressive models of order P â...
Revesz Peter Z.
Full Text Available The recent recovery of ancient DNA from a growing number of human samples shows that mitochondrial DNA haplogroup I was introduced to Europe after the end of the Last Glacial Maximum. This paper provides a spatio-temporal analysis of the various subhaplogroups of mitochondrial DNA I. The study suggests that haplogroup I diversified into haplogroups I1, I2’3, I4 and I5 at specific regions in Eurasia and then spread southward to Crete and Egypt.
Full Text Available Satellite measurements of the spatiotemporal distributions of atmospheric CO2 concentrations are a key component for better understanding global carbon cycle characteristics. Currently, several satellite instruments such as the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT, SCanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY, and Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 can be used to measure CO2 column-averaged dry air mole fractions. However, because of cloud effects, a single satellite can only provide limited CO2 data, resulting in significant uncertainty in the characterization of the spatiotemporal distribution of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. In this study, a new physical data fusion technique is proposed to combine the GOSAT and SCIAMACHY measurements. On the basis of the fused dataset, a gap-filling method developed by modeling the spatial correlation structures of CO2 concentrations is presented with the goal of generating global land CO2 distribution maps with high spatiotemporal resolution. The results show that, compared with the single satellite dataset (i.e., GOSAT or SCIAMACHY, the global spatial coverage of the fused dataset is significantly increased (reaching up to approximately 20%, and the temporal resolution is improved by two or three times. The spatial coverage and monthly variations of the generated global CO2 distributions are also investigated. Comparisons with ground-based Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON measurements reveal that CO2 distributions based on the gap-filling method show good agreement with TCCON records despite some biases. These results demonstrate that the fused dataset as well as the gap-filling method are rather effective to generate global CO2 distribution with high accuracies and high spatiotemporal resolution.
Cicin-Sain, Damjan; Pulido, Antonio Hermoso; Crombach, Anton; Wotton, Karl R.; Jiménez-Guri, Eva; Taly, Jean-François; Roma, Guglielmo; Jaeger, Johannes
We present SuperFly (http://superfly.crg.eu), a relational database for quantified spatio-temporal expression data of segmentation genes during early development in different species of dipteran insects (flies, midges and mosquitoes). SuperFly has a special focus on emerging non-drosophilid model systems. The database currently includes data of high spatio-temporal resolution for three species: the vinegar fly Drosophila melanogaster, the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita and the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata. At this point, SuperFly covers up to 9 genes and 16 time points per species, with a total of 1823 individual embryos. It provides an intuitive web interface, enabling the user to query and access original embryo images, quantified expression profiles, extracted positions of expression boundaries and integrated datasets, plus metadata and intermediate processing steps. SuperFly is a valuable new resource for the quantitative comparative study of gene expression patterns across dipteran species. Moreover, it provides an interesting test set for systems biologists interested in fitting mathematical gene network models to data. Both of these aspects are essential ingredients for progress toward a more quantitative and mechanistic understanding of developmental evolution. PMID:25404137
Cao, Nan; Lin, Chaoguang; Zhu, Qiuhan; Lin, Yu-Ru; Teng, Xian; Wen, Xidao
The increasing availability of spatiotemporal data continuously collected from various sources provides new opportunities for a timely understanding of the data in their spatial and temporal context. Finding abnormal patterns in such data poses significant challenges. Given that there is often no clear boundary between normal and abnormal patterns, existing solutions are limited in their capacity of identifying anomalies in large, dynamic and heterogeneous data, interpreting anomalies in their multifaceted, spatiotemporal context, and allowing users to provide feedback in the analysis loop. In this work, we introduce a unified visual interactive system and framework, Voila, for interactively detecting anomalies in spatiotemporal data collected from a streaming data source. The system is designed to meet two requirements in real-world applications, i.e., online monitoring and interactivity. We propose a novel tensor-based anomaly analysis algorithm with visualization and interaction design that dynamically produces contextualized, interpretable data summaries and allows for interactively ranking anomalous patterns based on user input. Using the "smart city" as an example scenario, we demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework through quantitative evaluation and qualitative case studies.
Wahid, Ferdous; Begg, Rezaul; Lythgo, Noel; Hass, Chris J; Halgamuge, Saman; Ackland, David C
Normalization of gait data is performed to reduce the effects of intersubject variations due to physical characteristics. This study reports a multiple regression normalization approach for spatiotemporal gait data that takes into account intersubject variations in self-selected walking speed and physical properties including age, height, body mass, and sex. Spatiotemporal gait data including stride length, cadence, stance time, double support time, and stride time were obtained from healthy subjects including 782 children, 71 adults, 29 elderly subjects, and 28 elderly Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Data were normalized using standard dimensionless equations, a detrending method, and a multiple regression approach. After normalization using dimensionless equations and the detrending method, weak to moderate correlations between walking speed, physical properties, and spatiotemporal gait features were observed (0.01 multiple regression method reduced these correlations to weak values (|r| multiple regression approach revealed significant differences in these features as well as in cadence, stance time, and stride time. The proposed multiple regression normalization may be useful in machine learning, gait classification, and clinical evaluation of pathological gait patterns.
Eltoukhy, Moataz; Oh, Jeonghoon; Kuenze, Christopher; Signorile, Joseph
A cost-effective, clinician friendly gait assessment tool that can automatically track patients' anatomical landmarks can provide practitioners with important information that is useful in prescribing rehabilitative and preventive therapies. This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Microsoft Kinect v2 as a potential inexpensive gait analysis tool. Ten healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at 1.3 and 1.6m·s-1, as spatiotemporal parameters and kinematics were extracted concurrently using the Kinect and three-dimensional motion analysis. Spatiotemporal measures included step length and width, step and stride times, vertical and mediolateral pelvis motion, and foot swing velocity. Kinematic outcomes included hip, knee, and ankle joint angles in the sagittal plane. The absolute agreement and relative consistency between the two systems were assessed using interclass correlations coefficients (ICC2,1), while reproducibility between systems was established using Lin's Concordance Correlation Coefficient (rc). Comparison of ensemble curves and associated 90% confidence intervals (CI90) of the hip, knee, and ankle joint angles were performed to investigate if the Kinect sensor could consistently and accurately assess lower extremity joint motion throughout the gait cycle. Results showed that the Kinect v2 sensor has the potential to be an effective clinical assessment tool for sagittal plane knee and hip joint kinematics, as well as some spatiotemporal temporal variables including pelvis displacement and step characteristics during the gait cycle. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Oddo, Calogero M; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spanne, Anton; Enander, Jonas M D; Mogensen, Hannes; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Camboni, Domenico; Micera, Silvestro; Jörntell, Henrik
Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes. Combined with low-noise intra- and extracellular recordings from neocortical neurons in vivo, this approach provided a previously inaccessible high resolution analysis of the representation of tactile information in the neocortical neuronal circuitry. The results indicate high information content in individual neurons and reveal multiple novel neuronal tactile coding features such as heterogeneous and complementary spatiotemporal input selectivity also between neighboring neurons. Such neuronal heterogeneity and complementariness can potentially support a very high decoding capacity in a limited population of neurons. Our results also indicate a potential neuroprosthetic approach to communicate with the brain at a very high resolution and provide a potential novel solution for evaluating the degree or state of neurological disease in animal models.
Cottrell, Ted E.; Tillman, P. Glynn
The green stink bug, Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a pest of cotton in the southeastern United States but little is known concerning its spatiotemporal distribution in corn cropping systems. Therefore, the spatiotemporal distribution of C. hilaris in farmscapes, when corn was adjacent to cotton, peanut, or both, was examined weekly. The spatial patterns of C. hilaris counts were analyzed using Spatial Analysis by Distance Indices methodology. Interpolated maps of C. hilaris density were used to visualize abundance and distribution of C. hilaris in crops in corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. This stink bug was detected in six of seven corn–cotton farmscapes, four of six corn–peanut farmscapes, and in both corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. The frequency of C. hilaris in cotton (89.47%) was significantly higher than in peanut (7.02%) or corn (3.51%). This stink bug fed on noncrop hosts that grew in field borders adjacent to crops. The spatial distribution of C. hilaris in crops and the capture of C. hilaris adults and nymphs in pheromone-baited traps near noncrop hosts indicated that these hosts were sources of this stink bug dispersing into crops, primarily cotton. Significant aggregated spatial distributions were detected in cotton on some dates within corn–peanut–cotton farmscapes. Maps of local clustering indices depicted small patches of C. hilaris in cotton or cotton–sorghum at the peanut–cotton interface. Factors affecting the spatiotemporal dynamics of C. hilaris in corn farmscapes are discussed. PMID:25843581
Urbina, Fabio L; Gomez, Shawn M; Gupton, Stephanie L
Neurite elongation and branching in developing neurons requires plasmalemma expansion, hypothesized to occur primarily via exocytosis. We posited that exocytosis in developing neurons and nonneuronal cells would exhibit distinct spatiotemporal organization. We exploited total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to image vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP)-pHluorin-mediated exocytosis in mouse embryonic cortical neurons and interphase melanoma cells, and developed computer-vision software and statistical tools to uncover spatiotemporal aspects of exocytosis. Vesicle fusion behavior differed between vesicle types, cell types, developmental stages, and extracellular environments. Experiment-based mathematical calculations indicated that VAMP2-mediated vesicle fusion supplied excess material for the plasma membrane expansion that occurred early in neuronal morphogenesis, which was balanced by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Spatial statistics uncovered distinct spatiotemporal regulation of exocytosis in the soma and neurites of developing neurons that was modulated by developmental stage, exposure to the guidance cue netrin-1, and the brain-enriched ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif 9. In melanoma cells, exocytosis occurred less frequently, with distinct spatial clustering patterns. © 2018 Urbina et al.
Oddo, Calogero M.; Mazzoni, Alberto; Spanne, Anton; Enander, Jonas M. D.; Mogensen, Hannes; Bengtsson, Fredrik; Camboni, Domenico; Micera, Silvestro; Jörntell, Henrik
Investigations of the mechanisms of touch perception and decoding has been hampered by difficulties in achieving invariant patterns of skin sensor activation. To obtain reproducible spatiotemporal patterns of activation of sensory afferents, we used an artificial fingertip equipped with an array of neuromorphic sensors. The artificial fingertip was used to transduce real-world haptic stimuli into spatiotemporal patterns of spikes. These spike patterns were delivered to the skin afferents of the second digit of rats via an array of stimulation electrodes. Combined with low-noise intra- and extracellular recordings from neocortical neurons in vivo, this approach provided a previously inaccessible high resolution analysis of the representation of tactile information in the neocortical neuronal circuitry. The results indicate high information content in individual neurons and reveal multiple novel neuronal tactile coding features such as heterogeneous and complementary spatiotemporal input selectivity also between neighboring neurons. Such neuronal heterogeneity and complementariness can potentially support a very high decoding capacity in a limited population of neurons. Our results also indicate a potential neuroprosthetic approach to communicate with the brain at a very high resolution and provide a potential novel solution for evaluating the degree or state of neurological disease in animal models. PMID:28374841
Gangola, Manu Pratap; Parkash, Jai; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Dutt, Som
Antioxidant system is one of the important factors in regulating plant growth, development and adaptation. Thus, in order to have better insights into molecular mechanisms of growth and adaptation of a plant it is prerequisite to have known the status of various components of the antioxidant system of the plant. Here we studied the status of enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of the antioxidant system of picrorhiza (Picrorhiza kurrooa). Picrorhiza is an important medicinal herb of western Himalayan region and has been listed in the Red Data Book as an endangered species. Spatio-temporal analysis of ascorbic acid and glutathione in leaf, root and rhizome during different stages of development revealed differential status of these antioxidant molecules. Of the three tissues, ascorbic acid was found to be highest in leaves and lowest in roots. Interestingly, just opposite to that, glutathione was highest in roots and lowest in leaves. Using degenerate primers based approach followed by rapid amplification of complementary DNA (cDNA) ends method, full length cDNAs of three important genes namely Picrorhiza kurrooa ascorbate peroxidase (pkapx), Picrorhiza kurrooa monodehydroascorbate reductase (pkmdhar) and Picrorhiza kurrooa glutathione reductase (pkgr) of antioxidant system were cloned from picrorhiza. Complementary DNAs of pkapx, pkmdhar and pkgr contained 1,049, 2,016 and 1,664 bp, respectively. Expression analysis showed differential spatio-temporal expression of these genes. Expressions of all the three genes were found higher in roots as compared to rhizome and leaves. Temporal expression analysis of pkapx, pkmdhar and pkgr revealed differential transcript levels. Expression of pkapx exhibited negative correlation with the light intensity. Just opposite to the pkapx, expression pattern of pkgr revealed its positive correlation with light intensity. Expression pattern of pkmdhar revealed its light independent expression behavior. The findings may be useful to
Singh, Jitendra; Sekharan, Sheeba; Karmakar, Subhankar; Ghosh, Subimal; Zope, P. E.; Eldho, T. I.
Mumbai, the commercial and financial capital of India, experiences incessant annual rain episodes, mainly attributable to erratic rainfall pattern during monsoons and urban heat-island effect due to escalating urbanization, leading to increasing vulnerability to frequent flooding. After the infamous episode of 2005 Mumbai torrential rains when only two rain gauging stations existed, the governing civic body, the Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai (MCGM) came forward with an initiative to install 26 automatic weather stations (AWS) in June 2006 (MCGM 2007), which later increased to 60 AWS. A comprehensive statistical analysis to understand the spatio-temporal pattern of rainfall over Mumbai or any other coastal city in India has never been attempted earlier. In the current study, a thorough analysis of available rainfall data for 2006-2014 from these stations was performed; the 2013-2014 sub-hourly data from 26 AWS was found useful for further analyses due to their consistency and continuity. Correlogram cloud indicated no pattern of significant correlation when we considered the closest to the farthest gauging station from the base station; this impression was also supported by the semivariogram plots. Gini index values, a statistical measure of temporal non-uniformity, were found above 0.8 in visible majority showing an increasing trend in most gauging stations; this sufficiently led us to conclude that inconsistency in daily rainfall was gradually increasing with progress in monsoon. Interestingly, night rainfall was lesser compared to daytime rainfall. The pattern-less high spatio-temporal variation observed in Mumbai rainfall data signifies the futility of independently applying advanced statistical techniques, and thus calls for simultaneous inclusion of physics-centred models such as different meso-scale numerical weather prediction systems, particularly the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model.
Full Text Available The growing number of bike sharing systems (BSS in many cities largely facilitates biking for transportation and recreation. Most recent bike sharing systems produce time and location specific data, which enables the study of travel behavior and mobility of each individual. However, despite a rapid growth of interest, studies on massive bike sharing data and the underneath travel pattern are still limited. Few studies have explored and visualized spatiotemporal patterns of bike sharing behavior using flow clustering, nor examined the station functional profiles based on over-demand patterns. This study investigated the spatiotemporal biking pattern in Chicago by analyzing massive BSS data from July to December in 2013 and 2014. The BSS in Chicago gained more popularity. About 15.9% more people subscribed to this service. Specifically, we constructed bike flow similarity graph and used fastgreedy algorithm to detect spatial communities of biking flows. By using the proposed methods, we discovered unique travel patterns on weekdays and weekends as well as different travel trends for customers and subscribers from the noisy massive amount data. In addition, we also examined the temporal demands for bikes and docks using hierarchical clustering method. Results demonstrated the modeled over-demand patterns in Chicago. This study contributes to offer better knowledge of biking flow patterns, which was difficult to obtain using traditional methods. Given the trend of increasing popularity of the BSS and data openness in different cities, methods used in this study can extend to examine the biking patterns and BSS functionality in different cities.
Austin, Roby; Jenkins, David
R.A.E. Austin, R. Kanungo, A. Campbell, S. Colosimo, S. Reeve Saint Mary's University; D.G. Jenkins, C.Aa.Diget, A. Robinson, University of York, UK; P.J. Woods T. Davinson University of Edinburgh; C.-Y. Wu A. Hurst J.A. Becker Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory; G.C. Ball M. Djongolov G. Hackman A.C. Morton, C. Pearson, S.J. Williams TRIUMF; A.A. Phillips, M. Schumaker, University of Guelph H.Boston, A. Grint, D. Oxley, University of Liverpool; D. Cline, A. Hayes, University of Rochester; We describe a prototype experiment to measure resonances of interest in astrophysical reactions. We use the TIGRESS to detect gamma rays in coincidence with charged particles, inelastically scattered in inverse kinematics. The particles are detected with the Bambino detector modified to a δE-E silicon telescope spanning 15-40 degrees in the lab.
Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.
This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination of informa......This study contributes to the understanding of informational approaches to bringing about compliance with environmental regulations with particular attention to differences in the influence of information provided by different information sources. Based on theorizing from a combination...... of information processing and interest group literatures, we develop hypotheses about regulatees' reliance upon and the influence of different sources of information. We test these hypotheses for Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental rules. Our findings show that information plays a role in bringing...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interest rate. 206.21 Section 206... CONVERSION MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility; Endorsement Eligible Mortgages § 206.21 Interest rate. (a) Fixed interest rate. A fixed interest rate is agreed upon by the mortgagor and mortgagee. (b) Adjustable interest...
In referring to issues confronting the energy field in this region and options to be exercised in the future, I would like to mention the fundamental condition of the utmost importance. That can be summed up as follows: any subject in energy area can never be solved by one country alone, given the geographical and geopolitical characteristics intrinsically possessed by energy. So, a regional approach is needed and it is especially necessary for the main players in the region to jointly address problems common to them. Though it may be a matter to be pursued in the distant future, I am personally dreaming a 'Common Energy Market for Northeast Asia,' in which member countries' interests are adjusted so that the market can be integrated and the region can become a most economically efficient market, thus formulating an effective power to encounter the outside. It should be noted that Europe needed forty years to integrate its market as the unified common market. It is necessary for us to follow a number of steps over the period to eventually materialize our common market concept, too. Now is the time for us to take a first step to lay the foundation for our descendants to enjoy prosperity from such a common market.
Full Text Available Abstract A large number of randomized clinical trials with important health outcomes are completed each year. Those with favorable findings are typically reported and published rapidly, while the publication of those with unfavorable results is often delayed or given a positive "spin." This observation applies primarily to industry-sponsored trials. Our objectives are to discuss the responsibility of pharmaceutical firms to the public with respect to timely, complete, and unbiased information from all randomized clinical trials and to propose solutions for improvements. We believe that in addition to financial obligations to their shareholders, pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the public and to health care providers. However, private markets do not reward or compel optimal disclosure of drug safety or inferiority information on a voluntary basis. A problem which has not previously been identified relates to non-comparability of drugs. A case report from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT illustrates how public interests may be violated due to failure to inform about drug inferiority. The current system for dissemination of relevant medical information could be improved if all involved parties collaborated fully. However, full disclosure of trial results is unlikely when research results are unfavorable to the firm. We conclude that expanded government regulations will be required for a satisfactory solution to the problem.
Furberg, Curt D; Hall, Mark A; Sevick, Mary Ann
Alarge number of randomized clinical trials with important health outcomes are completed each year. Those with favorable findings are typically reported and published rapidly, while the publication of those with unfavorable results is often delayed or given a positive "spin." This observation applies primarily to industry-sponsored trials. Our objectives are to discuss the responsibility of pharmaceutical firms to the public with respect to timely, complete, and unbiased information from all randomized clinical trials and to propose solutions for improvements. We believe that in addition to financial obligations to their shareholders, pharmaceutical companies have social responsibilities to the public and to health care providers. However, private markets do not reward or compel optimal disclosure of drug safety or inferiority information on a voluntary basis.A problem which has not previously been identified relates to non-comparability of drugs. A case report from the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT) illustrates how public interests may be violated due to failure to inform about drug inferiority. The current system for dissemination of relevant medical information could be improved if all involved parties collaborated fully. However, full disclosure of trial results is unlikely when research results are unfavorable to the firm. We conclude that expanded government regulations will be required for a satisfactory solution to the problem.
Karssenberg, Derek; Drost, Niels; Schmitz, Oliver; de Jong, Kor; Bierkens, Marc F. P.
PCRaster is a software framework for building spatio-temporal models of land surface processes (http://www.pcraster.eu). Building blocks of models are spatial operations on raster maps, including a large suite of operations for water and sediment routing. These operations are available to model builders as Python functions. The software comes with Python framework classes providing control flow for spatio-temporal modelling, Monte Carlo simulation, and data assimilation (Ensemble Kalman Filter and Particle Filter). Models are built by combining the spatial operations in these framework classes. This approach enables modellers without specialist programming experience to construct large, rather complicated models, as many technical details of modelling (e.g., data storage, solving spatial operations, data assimilation algorithms) are taken care of by the PCRaster toolbox. Exploratory modelling is supported by routines for prompt, interactive visualisation of stochastic spatio-temporal data generated by the models. The high computational requirements for stochastic spatio-temporal modelling, and an increasing demand to run models over large areas at high resolution, e.g. in global hydrological modelling, require an optimal use of available, heterogeneous computing resources by the modelling framework. Current work in the context of the eWaterCycle project is on a parallel implementation of the modelling engine, capable of running on a high-performance computing infrastructure such as clusters and supercomputers. Model runs will be distributed over multiple compute nodes and multiple processors (GPUs and CPUs). Parallelization will be done by parallel execution of Monte Carlo realizations and sub regions of the modelling domain. In our approach we use multiple levels of parallelism, improving scalability considerably. On the node level we will use OpenCL, the industry standard for low-level high performance computing kernels. To combine multiple nodes we will use
In this dissertation two methods for spatio-temporal encoding in medical ultrasound imaging are investigated. The first technique is based on a frequency division approach. Here, the available spectrum of the transducer is divided into a set of narrow bands. A waveform is designed for each band...... are also included in the dissertation. The second method is based on encoding the transmitters with pseudo-random sequences. The signals can be separated after only one transmission using an estimation based technique. Broadband decoding can, therefore, be performed at the receiver after a single...
Echebarria, Blas; Karma, Alain
We derive an equation that governs the spatiotemporal dynamics of small amplitude alternans in paced cardiac tissue. We show that a pattern-forming linear instability leads to the spontaneous formation of stationary or traveling waves whose nodes divide the tissue into regions with opposite phase of oscillation of action potential duration. This instability is important because it creates dynamically a heterogeneous electrical substrate for the formation of conduction blocks and the induction of fibrillation if the tissue size exceeds a fraction of the pattern wavelength. We derive an analytical expression for this wavelength as a function of three basic length scales related to dispersion and intercellular electrical coupling.
Gu, Y. Z.; Qin, K.; Chen, Y. X.; Yue, M. X.; Guo, T.
Massive trajectory data contains wealth useful information and knowledge. Spectral clustering, which has been shown to be effective in finding clusters, becomes an important clustering approaches in the trajectory data mining. However, the traditional spectral clustering lacks the temporal expansion on the algorithm and limited in its applicability to large-scale problems due to its high computational complexity. This paper presents a parallel spatiotemporal spectral clustering based on multiple acceleration solutions to make the algorithm more effective and efficient, the performance is proved due to the experiment carried out on the massive taxi trajectory dataset in Wuhan city, China.
Okkels, Fridolin; Tabeling, Patrick
In this Letter, we reveal a new dynamical phenomenon, called "spatiotemporal resonance," which is expected to take place in a broad range of viscous, periodically forced, open systems. The observation originates from a numerical and theoretical analysis of a micromixer, and is supported...... by preliminary experimental observations. The theoretical model nicely matches the numerical results, which again is supported by the experiment. Because of the general nature of the phenomenon, this phenomenon is not limited to microsystems. Because of the resonances, a slight tuning of the control parameters...
Rimoldi, Cristina; Barland, Stéphane; Prati, Franco; Tissoni, Giovanna
We study extreme events occurring in the transverse (x ,y ) section of the field emitted by a broad-area semiconductor laser with a saturable absorber. The spatiotemporal events on which we perform the statistical analysis are identified as maxima of the field intensity in the three-dimensional space (x ,y ,t ) . We identify regions in the parameter space where extreme events are more likely to occur and we study the connection of those extreme events with the cavity solitons that are known to exist in the same system, both stationary and self-pulsing.
Selmi, F.; Coulibaly, S.; Loghmari, Z.; Sagnes, I.; Beaudoin, G.; Clerc, M. G.; Barbay, S.
Extreme events such as rogue waves in optics and fluids are often associated with the merging dynamics of coherent structures. We present experimental and numerical results on the physics of extreme event appearance in a spatially extended semiconductor microcavity laser with an intracavity saturable absorber. This system can display deterministic irregular dynamics only, thanks to spatial coupling through diffraction of light. We have identified parameter regions where extreme events are encountered and established the origin of this dynamics in the emergence of deterministic spatiotemporal chaos, through the correspondence between the proportion of extreme events and the dimension of the strange attractor.
Full Text Available Considerable effort has been devoted to incorporate temporal trends in disease mapping. In this line, this work describes the importance of including the effect of the seasonality in a particular setting related with suicides. In particular, the number of suicide-related emergency calls is modeled by means of an autoregressive approach to spatio-temporal disease mapping that allows for incorporating the possible interaction between both temporal and spatial effects. Results show the importance of including seasonality effect, as there are differences between the number of suicide-related emergency calls between the four seasons of each year.
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest credit. 3565.211 Section 3565.211... AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED RURAL RENTAL HOUSING PROGRAM Loan Requirements § 3565.211 Interest credit. (a... assistance in the form of interest credit, to the extent necessary to reduce the agreed-upon rate of interest...
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... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1980.320 Section 1980.320 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.320 Interest rate. The interest rate must not... interest rate over the life of the loan. The rate shall be agreed upon by the borrower and the Lender and...
Zhukov, Vladimir P.; Bulgakova, Nadezhda M.
Ultrashort laser pulses are usually described in terms of temporal and spatial dependences of their electric field, assuming that the spatial dependence is separable from time dependence. However, in most situations this assumption is incorrect as generation of ultrashort pulses and their manipulation lead to couplings between spatial and temporal coordinates resulting in various effects such as pulse front tilt and spatial chirp. One of the most intriguing spatiotemporal coupling effects is the so-called "lighthouse effect", the phase front rotation with the beam propagation distance [Akturk et al., Opt. Express 13, 8642 (2005)]. The interaction of spatiotemporally coupled laser pulses with transparent materials have interesting peculiarities, such as the effect of nonreciprocal writing, which can be used to facilitate microfabrication of photonic structures inside optical glasses. In this work, we make an attempt to numerically investigate the influence of the pulse front tilt and the lighthouse effect on the absorption of laser energy inside fused silica glass. The model, which is based on nonlinear Maxwell's equations supplemented by the hydrodynamic equations for free electron plasma, is applied. As three-dimensional solution of such a problem would require huge computational resources, a simplified two-dimensional model has been proposed. It has enabled to gain a qualitative insight into the features of propagation of ultrashort laser pulses with the tilted front in the regimes of volumetric laser modification of transparent materials, including directional asymmetry upon direct laser writing in glass materials.
Kuriakose, Jainy; Ghosh, Anandamohan; Ravi Kumar, V; Kulkarni, B D
Heterogeneous surface reactions exhibiting complex spatiotemporal dynamics and patterns can be studied as processes involving reaction-diffusion mechanisms. In many realistic situations, the surface has fractal characteristics. This situation is studied by isometric graphing and multidimensional scaling (IGMDS) of fractal surfaces for extracting geodesic distances (i.e., shortest scaled distances that obtain edges of neighboring surface nodes and their interconnections) and the results obtained used to model effects of surface diffusion with nonlinear reactions. Further analysis of evolved spatiotemporal patterns may be carried out by IGMDS because high-dimensional snapshot data can be efficiently projected to a transformed subspace with reduced dimensions. Validation of the IGMDS methodology is carried out by comparing results with reduction capabilities of conventional principal component analysis for simple situations of reaction and diffusion on surfaces. The usefulness of the IGMDS methodology is shown for analysis of complex patterns formed on both regular and fractal surfaces, and using generic nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems following FitzHugh Nagumo and cubic reaction kinetics. The studies of these systems with nonlinear kinetics and noise show that effects of surface disorder due to fractality can become very relevant. The relevance is shown by studying properties of dynamical invariants in IGMDS component space, viz., the Lyapunov exponents and the KS entropy for interesting situations of spiral formation and turbulent patterns. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics.
Toutounji, Hazem; Pipa, Gordon
It is a long-established fact that neuronal plasticity occupies the central role in generating neural function and computation. Nevertheless, no unifying account exists of how neurons in a recurrent cortical network learn to compute on temporally and spatially extended stimuli. However, these stimuli constitute the norm, rather than the exception, of the brain's input. Here, we introduce a geometric theory of learning spatiotemporal computations through neuronal plasticity. To that end, we rigorously formulate the problem of neural representations as a relation in space between stimulus-induced neural activity and the asymptotic dynamics of excitable cortical networks. Backed up by computer simulations and numerical analysis, we show that two canonical and widely spread forms of neuronal plasticity, that is, spike-timing-dependent synaptic plasticity and intrinsic plasticity, are both necessary for creating neural representations, such that these computations become realizable. Interestingly, the effects of these forms of plasticity on the emerging neural code relate to properties necessary for both combating and utilizing noise. The neural dynamics also exhibits features of the most likely stimulus in the network's spontaneous activity. These properties of the spatiotemporal neural code resulting from plasticity, having their grounding in nature, further consolidate the biological relevance of our findings.
Xiaolin Zhu; Eileen H. Helmer; Feng Gao; Desheng Liu; Jin Chen; Michael A. Lefsky
Studies of land surface dynamics in heterogeneous landscapes often require remote sensing datawith high acquisition frequency and high spatial resolution. However, no single sensor meets this requirement. This study presents a new spatiotemporal data fusion method, the Flexible Spatiotemporal DAta Fusion (FSDAF) method, to generate synthesized frequent high spatial...
Zijlstra, W; Hof, AL
This paper studies the feasibility of an analysis of spatio-temporal gait parameters based upon accelerometry. To this purpose, acceleration patterns of the trunk and their relationships with spatio-temporal gait parameters were analysed in healthy subjects. Based on model predictions of the body's
Helbich, M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370530349; Plener, P; Hartung, S; Blüml, V
Despite comprehensive prevention programs in Germany, suicide has been on the rise again since 2007. The underlying reasons and spatiotemporal risk patterns are poorly understood. We assessed the spatiotemporal risk of suicide per district attributable to multiple risk and protective factors
Dana, Brenda; Bahabad, Alon
A simple and general formalism for mode coupling by a spatial, temporal or spatiotemporal perturbation in dispersive materials is developed. This formalism can be used for studying various linear and non-linear optical interactions involving a dynamic modulation of the interaction parameters such as non-reciprocal phenomena, time reversal of signals and spatiotemporal quasi phase matching
Oikonomopoulos, A.; Patras, I.; Pantic, Maja
In this paper we address the problem of localisation and recognition of human activities in unsegmented image sequences. The main contribution of the proposed method is the use of an implicit representation of the spatiotemporal shape of the activity which relies on the spatiotemporal localization
Full Text Available Disaster risk is a function of hazard and vulnerability. Risk is defined as the expected losses, including lives, personal injuries, property damages, and economic disruptions, due to a particular hazard for a given area and time period. Risk assessment is one of the key elements of a natural disaster management strategy as it allows for better disaster mitigation and preparation. It provides input for informed decision making, and increases risk awareness among decision makers and other stakeholders. Virtual globes such as Google Earth can be used as a visualization tool. Proper spatiotemporal graphical representations of the concerned risk significantly reduces the amount of effort to visualize the impact of the risk and improves the efficiency of the decision-making process to mitigate the impact of the risk. The spatiotemporal visualization of tsunami waves for disaster management process is an attractive topic in geosciences to assist investigation of areas at tsunami risk. In this paper, a method for coupling virtual globes with tsunami wave arrival time models is presented. In this process we have shown 2D+Time of tsunami waves for propagation and inundation of tsunami waves, both coastal line deformation, and the flooded areas. In addition, the worst case scenario of tsunami on Chabahar port derived from tsunami modelling is also presented using KML on google earth.
Full Text Available plotKML is an R package that provides methods for writing the most common R spatial classes into KML files. It builds up on the existing XML parsing functionality (XML package, and provides similar plotting functionality as the lattice package. Its main objective is to provide a simple interface to generate KML files with a small number of arguments, and allows users to visually explore spatio-temporal data available in R: points, polygons, gridded maps, trajectory-type data, vertical profiles, ground photographs, time series vector objects or raster images, along with the results of spatial analysis such as geostatistical mapping, spatial simulations of vector and gridded objects, optimized sampling designs, species distribution models and similar. A generic plotKML( function automatically determines the parsing order and visualizes data directly from R; lower level functions can be combined to allow for new user-created visualization templates. In comparison to other packages writing KML, plotKML seems to be more object oriented, it links more closely to the existing R classes for spatio-temporal data (sp, spacetime and raster packages than the alternatives, and provides users with the possibility to create their own templates.
Veldhuis, Michiel P; Laso, Francisco J; Olff, Han; Berg, Matty P
The ecological impact of rapid environmental change will depend on the resistance of key ecosystems processes, which may be promoted by species that exert strong control over local environmental conditions. Recent theoretical work suggests that macrodetritivores increase the resistance of African savanna ecosystems to changing climatic conditions, but experimental evidence is lacking. We examined the effect of large fungus-growing termites and other non-fungus-growing macrodetritivores on decomposition rates empirically with strong spatiotemporal variability in rainfall and temperature. Non-fungus-growing larger macrodetritivores (earthworms, woodlice, millipedes) promoted decomposition rates relative to microbes and small soil fauna (+34%) but both groups reduced their activities with decreasing rainfall. However, fungus-growing termites increased decomposition rates strongest (+123%) under the most water-limited conditions, making overall decomposition rates mostly independent from rainfall. We conclude that fungus-growing termites are of special importance in decoupling decomposition rates from spatiotemporal variability in rainfall due to the buffered environment they create within their extended phenotype (mounds), that allows decomposition to continue when abiotic conditions outside are less favorable. This points at a wider class of possibly important ecological processes, where soil-plant-animal interactions decouple ecosystem processes from large-scale climatic gradients. This may strongly alter predictions from current climate change models. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.
Mohammadi, H.; Delavar, M. R.; Sharifi, M. A.; Pirooz, M. D.
Disaster risk is a function of hazard and vulnerability. Risk is defined as the expected losses, including lives, personal injuries, property damages, and economic disruptions, due to a particular hazard for a given area and time period. Risk assessment is one of the key elements of a natural disaster management strategy as it allows for better disaster mitigation and preparation. It provides input for informed decision making, and increases risk awareness among decision makers and other stakeholders. Virtual globes such as Google Earth can be used as a visualization tool. Proper spatiotemporal graphical representations of the concerned risk significantly reduces the amount of effort to visualize the impact of the risk and improves the efficiency of the decision-making process to mitigate the impact of the risk. The spatiotemporal visualization of tsunami waves for disaster management process is an attractive topic in geosciences to assist investigation of areas at tsunami risk. In this paper, a method for coupling virtual globes with tsunami wave arrival time models is presented. In this process we have shown 2D+Time of tsunami waves for propagation and inundation of tsunami waves, both coastal line deformation, and the flooded areas. In addition, the worst case scenario of tsunami on Chabahar port derived from tsunami modelling is also presented using KML on google earth.
C. R. Chen
Full Text Available With rapid developments in wearable device technology, a vast amount of spatiotemporal data, such as people’s movement and physical activities, are generated. Information derived from the data reveals important knowledge that can contribute a long-term care and psychological assessment of the elders’ living condition especially in long-term care institutions. This study aims to develop a method to investigate the spatial-temporal movement patterns of the elders with their outdoor trajectory information. To achieve the goal, GPS based location data of the elderly subjects from long-term care institutions are collected and analysed with geographic information system (GIS. A GIS statistical model is developed to mine the elderly subjects’ spatiotemporal patterns with the location data and represent their daily movement pattern at particular time. The proposed method first finds the meaningful trajectory and extracts the frequent patterns from the time-stamp location data. Then, a density-based clustering method is used to identify the major moving range and the gather/stay hotspot in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The preliminary results indicate that the major moving area of the elderly people encompasses their dorm and has a short moving distance who often stay in the same site. Subjects’ outdoor appearance are corresponded to their life routine. The results can be useful for understanding elders’ social network construction, risky area identification and medical care monitoring.
Full Text Available Primary cilia are organelles extended from virtually all cells and are required for the proper regulation of a number of canonical developmental pathways. The role in cortical development of proteins important for ciliary form and function is a relatively understudied area. Here we have taken a genetic approach to define the role in forebrain development of three intraflagellar transport proteins known to be important for primary cilia function. We have genetically ablated Kif3a, Ift88, and Ttc21b in a series of specific spatiotemporal domains. The resulting phenotypes allow us to draw several conclusions. First, we conclude that the Ttc21b cortical phenotype is not due to the activity of Ttc21b within the brain itself. Secondly, some of the most striking phenotypes are from ablations in the neural crest cells and the adjacent surface ectoderm indicating that cilia transduce critical tissue-tissue interactions in the developing embryonic head. Finally, we note striking differences in phenotypes from ablations only one embryonic day apart, indicating very discrete spatiotemporal requirements for these three genes in cortical development.
Wikle, Christopher K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
This doctoral dissertation is presented as three self-contained papers. An introductory chapter considers traditional spatio-temporal statistical methods used in the atmospheric sciences from a statistical perspective. Although this section is primarily a review, many of the statistical issues considered have not been considered in the context of these methods and several open questions are posed. The first paper attempts to determine a means of characterizing the semiannual oscillation (SAO) spatial variation in the northern hemisphere extratropical height field. It was discovered that the midlatitude SAO in 500hPa geopotential height could be explained almost entirely as a result of spatial and temporal asymmetries in the annual variation of stationary eddies. It was concluded that the mechanism for the SAO in the northern hemisphere is a result of land-sea contrasts. The second paper examines the seasonal variability of mixed Rossby-gravity waves (MRGW) in lower stratospheric over the equatorial Pacific. Advanced cyclostationary time series techniques were used for analysis. It was found that there are significant twice-yearly peaks in MRGW activity. Analyses also suggested a convergence of horizontal momentum flux associated with these waves. In the third paper, a new spatio-temporal statistical model is proposed that attempts to consider the influence of both temporal and spatial variability. This method is mainly concerned with prediction in space and time, and provides a spatially descriptive and temporally dynamic model.
Full Text Available According to the analysis of the present status and existing problems of spatio-temporal data models developed in last 20 years,this paper proposes a process-oriented spatio-temporal data model (POSTDM,aiming at representing,organizing and storing continuity and gradual geographical entities. The dynamic geographical entities are graded and abstracted into process objects series from their intrinsic characteristics,which are process objects,process stage objects,process sequence objects and process state objects. The logical relationships among process entities are further studied and the structure of UML models and storage are also designed. In addition,through the mechanisms of continuity and gradual changes impliedly recorded by process objects,and the modes of their procedure interfaces offered by the customized ObjcetStorageTable,the POSTDM can carry out process representation,storage and dynamic analysis of continuity and gradual geographic entities. Taking a process organization and storage of marine data as an example,a prototype system (consisting of an object-relational database and a functional analysis platform is developed for validating and evaluating the model's practicability.
Sabir, Azhin; Al-jawad, Naseer; Jassim, Sabah
This paper presents a new algorithm for human gait recognition based on Spatio-temporal body biometric features using wavelet transforms. The proposed algorithm extracts the Gait cycle depending on the width of boundary box from a sequence of Silhouette images. Gait recognition is based on feature level fusion of three feature vectors: the gait spatio-temporal feature represented by the distances between (feet, knees, hands, shoulders, and height); binary difference between consecutive frames of the silhouette for each leg detected separately based on hamming distance; a vector of statistical parameters captured from the wavelet low frequency domain. The fused feature vector is subjected to dimension reduction using linear discriminate analysis. The Nearest Neighbour with a certain threshold used for classification. The threshold is obtained by experiment from a set of data captured from the CASIA database. We shall demonstrate that our method provides a non-traditional identification based on certain threshold to classify the outsider members as non-classified members.
Full Text Available This paper explores the use of the Support Vector Machine (SVM as a data exploration tool and a predictive engine for spatio-temporal forecasting of snow avalanches. Based on the historical observations of avalanche activity, meteorological conditions and snowpack observations in the field, an SVM is used to build a data-driven spatio-temporal forecast for the local mountain region. It incorporates the outputs of simple physics-based and statistical approaches used to interpolate meteorological and snowpack-related data over a digital elevation model of the region. The interpretation of the produced forecast is discussed, and the quality of the model is validated using observations and avalanche bulletins of the recent years. The insight into the model behaviour is presented to highlight the interpretability of the model, its abilities to produce reliable forecasts for individual avalanche paths and sensitivity to input data. Estimates of prediction uncertainty are obtained with ensemble forecasting. The case study was carried out using data from the avalanche forecasting service in the Locaber region of Scotland, where avalanches are forecast on a daily basis during the winter months.
Lee, C. H.; Yu, H. L.
Groundwater has been well known as one of the major water resources in the regions with water scarcity problems. As the results of the increasing water shortage concerns around the world recently, it is essential to realize the spatial and temporal variation of groundwater levels for water resources management. In general, hydrological models have been developed to describe groundwater flow system across space and time. Since hydrological models are simplified and conceptual representations, both parameter and model uncertainties play important roles while constructing. The performance of hydrological models depends on the subjective of hydrologists due to the uncertainties. However, environmental data like groundwater level observations is abundant and prevalent nowadays. It provides an opportunity to enhance previous subjective modeling in hydrological research. The present study will conduct feature extraction on groundwater levels to identify the spatiotemporal characteristics of groundwater. A three-dimensional groundwater model (MODFLOW) is used to create artificial cases that make sure the results will conform to the physical laws. By tuning parameters in model, the extracted features can show natural and anthropogenic disturbances under different scenarios. The data-driven analysis can effectively reveal insights of interactions between important variables of groundwater system. With a better view of spatiotemporal groundwater variations, it is useful for governmental agency to manage water resources.
Full Text Available Research on provenance, which focuses on different ways to describe and record the history of changes and advances made throughout an analysis process, is an integral part of visual analytics. This paper focuses on providing the provenance of insight and rationale through visualizations while emphasizing, first, that this entails a profound understanding of human cognition and reasoning and that, second, the special nature of spatiotemporal data needs to be acknowledged in this process. A recently proposed human reasoning framework for spatiotemporal analysis, and four guidelines for the creation of visualizations that provide the provenance of insight and rationale published in relation to that framework, work as a starting point for this paper. While these guidelines are quite abstract, this paper set out to create a set of more concrete guidelines. On the basis of a review of available provenance solutions, this paper identifies a set of key features that are of relevance when providing the provenance of insight and rationale and, on the basis of these features, produces a new set of complementary guidelines that are more practically oriented than the original ones. Together, these two sets of guidelines provide both a theoretical and practical approach to the problem of providing the provenance of insight and rationale. Providing these kinds of guidelines represents a new approach in provenance research.
Han, Lee [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chin, Shih-Miao [ORNL; Hwang, Ho-Ling [ORNL
Along with the rapid development of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS), traffic data collection technologies have been evolving dramatically. The emergence of innovative data collection technologies such as Remote Traffic Microwave Sensor (RTMS), Bluetooth sensor, GPS-based Floating Car method, automated license plate recognition (ALPR) (1), etc., creates an explosion of traffic data, which brings transportation engineering into the new era of Big Data. However, despite the advance of technologies, the missing data issue is still inevitable and has posed great challenges for research such as traffic forecasting, real-time incident detection and management, dynamic route guidance, and massive evacuation optimization, because the degree of success of these endeavors depends on the timely availability of relatively complete and reasonably accurate traffic data. A thorough literature review suggests most current imputation models, if not all, focus largely on the temporal nature of the traffic data and fail to consider the fact that traffic stream characteristics at a certain location are closely related to those at neighboring locations and utilize these correlations for data imputation. To this end, this paper presents a Kriging based spatiotemporal data imputation approach that is able to fully utilize the spatiotemporal information underlying in traffic data. Imputation performance of the proposed approach was tested using simulated scenarios and achieved stable imputation accuracy. Moreover, the proposed Kriging imputation model is more flexible compared to current models.
Full Text Available Bio-inspired asynchronous event-based vision sensors are currently introducing a paradigm shift in visual information processing. These new sensors rely on a stimulus-driven principle of light acquisition similar to biological retinas. They are event-driven and fully asynchronous, thereby reducing redundancy and encoding exact times of input signal changes, leading to a very precise temporal resolution. Approaches for higher-level computer vision often rely on the realiable detection of features in visual frames, but similar definitions of features for the novel dynamic and event-based visual input representation of silicon retinas have so far been lacking. This article addresses the problem of learning and recognizing features for event-based vision sensors, which capture properties of truly spatiotemporal volumes of sparse visual event information. A novel computational architecture for learning and encoding spatiotemporal features is introduced based on a set of predictive recurrent reservoir networks, competing via winner-take-all selection. Features are learned in an unsupervised manner from real-world input recorded with event-based vision sensors. It is shown that the networks in the architecture learn distinct and task-specific dynamic visual features, and can predict their trajectories over time.
Chen, C. R.; Chen, C. F.; Liu, M. E.; Tsai, S. J.; Son, N. T.; Kinh, L. V.
With rapid developments in wearable device technology, a vast amount of spatiotemporal data, such as people's movement and physical activities, are generated. Information derived from the data reveals important knowledge that can contribute a long-term care and psychological assessment of the elders' living condition especially in long-term care institutions. This study aims to develop a method to investigate the spatial-temporal movement patterns of the elders with their outdoor trajectory information. To achieve the goal, GPS based location data of the elderly subjects from long-term care institutions are collected and analysed with geographic information system (GIS). A GIS statistical model is developed to mine the elderly subjects' spatiotemporal patterns with the location data and represent their daily movement pattern at particular time. The proposed method first finds the meaningful trajectory and extracts the frequent patterns from the time-stamp location data. Then, a density-based clustering method is used to identify the major moving range and the gather/stay hotspot in both spatial and temporal dimensions. The preliminary results indicate that the major moving area of the elderly people encompasses their dorm and has a short moving distance who often stay in the same site. Subjects' outdoor appearance are corresponded to their life routine. The results can be useful for understanding elders' social network construction, risky area identification and medical care monitoring.
Baker, Christopher M; Bode, Michael
Invasive species are a worldwide issue, both ecologically and economically. A large body of work focuses on various aspects of invasive species control, including how to allocate control efforts to eradicate an invasive population as cost effectively as possible: There are a diverse range of invasive species management problems, and past mathematical analyses generally focus on isolated examples, making it hard to identify and understand parallels between the different contexts. In this study, we use a single spatiotemporal model to tackle the problem of allocating control effort for invasive species when suppressing an island invasive species, and for long-term spatial suppression projects. Using feral cat suppression as an illustrative example, we identify the optimal resource allocation for island and mainland suppression projects. Our results demonstrate how using a single model to solve different problems reveals similar characteristics of the solutions in different scenarios. As well as illustrating the insights offered by linking problems through a spatiotemporal model, we also derive novel and practically applicable results for our case studies. For temporal suppression projects on islands, we find that lengthy projects are more cost effective and that rapid control projects are only economically cost effective when population growth rates are high or diminishing returns on control effort are low. When suppressing invasive species around conservation assets (e.g., national parks or exclusion fences), we find that the size of buffer zones should depend on the ratio of the species growth and spread rate.
Brown, Kevin S.; Grafton, Scott T.; Carlson, Jean M.
We introduce a method for spatiotemporal data fusion and demonstrate its performance on three constructed data sets: one entirely simulated, one with temporal speech signals and simulated spatial images, and another with recorded music time series and astronomical images defining the spatial patterns. Each case study is constructed to present specific challenges to test the method and demonstrate its capabilities. Our algorithm, BICAR (Bidirectional Independent Component Averaged Representation), is based on independent component analysis (ICA) and extracts pairs of temporal and spatial sources from two data matrices with arbitrarily different spatiotemporal resolution. We pair the temporal and spatial sources using a physical transfer function that connects the dynamics of the two. BICAR produces a hierarchy of sources ranked according to reproducibility; we show that sources which are more reproducible are more similar to true (known) sources. BICAR is robust to added noise, even in a “worst case” scenario where all physical sources are equally noisy. BICAR is also relatively robust to misspecification of the transfer function. BICAR holds promise as a useful data-driven assimilation method in neuroscience, earth science, astronomy, and other signal processing domains. PMID:23209693
Kevin S Brown
Full Text Available We introduce a method for spatiotemporal data fusion and demonstrate its performance on three constructed data sets: one entirely simulated, one with temporal speech signals and simulated spatial images, and another with recorded music time series and astronomical images defining the spatial patterns. Each case study is constructed to present specific challenges to test the method and demonstrate its capabilities. Our algorithm, BICAR (Bidirectional Independent Component Averaged Representation, is based on independent component analysis (ICA and extracts pairs of temporal and spatial sources from two data matrices with arbitrarily different spatiotemporal resolution. We pair the temporal and spatial sources using a physical transfer function that connects the dynamics of the two. BICAR produces a hierarchy of sources ranked according to reproducibility; we show that sources which are more reproducible are more similar to true (known sources. BICAR is robust to added noise, even in a "worst case" scenario where all physical sources are equally noisy. BICAR is also relatively robust to misspecification of the transfer function. BICAR holds promise as a useful data-driven assimilation method in neuroscience, earth science, astronomy, and other signal processing domains.
Militino, A. F.
Accumulated daily rainfall in non-observed locations on a particular day is frequently required as input to decision-making tools in precision agriculture or for hydrological or meteorological studies. Various solutions and estimation procedures have been proposed in the literature depending on the auxiliary information and the availability of data, but most such solutions are oriented to interpolating spatial data without incorporating temporal dependence. When data are available in space and time, spatiotemporal models usually provide better solutions. Here, we analyse the performance of three spatiotemporal models fitted to the whole sampled set and to clusters within the sampled set. The data consists of daily observations collected from 87 manual rainfall gauges from 1990 to 2010 in Navarre, Spain. The accuracy and precision of the interpolated data are compared with real data from 33 automated rainfall gauges in the same region, but placed in different locations than the manual rainfall gauges. Root mean squared error by months and by year are also provided. To illustrate these models, we also map interpolated daily precipitations and standard errors on a 1km2 grid in the whole region. © 2014 Royal Meteorological Society.
Full Text Available The prediction of suspect location enables proactive experiences for crime investigations and offers essential intelligence for crime prevention. However, existing studies have failed to capture the complex social location transition patterns of suspects and lack the capacity to address the issue of data sparsity. This paper proposes a novel location prediction model called CMoB (Crime Multi-order Bayes model based on the spatiotemporal semantics to enhance the prediction performance. In particular, the model groups suspects with similar spatiotemporal semantics as one target suspect. Then, their mobility data are applied to estimate Markov transition probabilities of unobserved locations based on a KDE (kernel density estimating smoothing method. Finally, by integrating the total transition probabilities, which are derived from the multi-order property of the Markov transition matrix, into a Bayesian-based formula, it is able to realize multi-step location prediction for the individual suspect. Experiments with the mobility dataset covering 210 suspects and their 18,754 location records from January to June 2012 in Wuhan City show that the proposed CMoB model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art algorithms for suspect location prediction in the context of data sparsity.
Various continuously-indexed spatio-temporal process models have been constructed to characterize spatio-temporal dependence structures, but the computational complexity for model fitting and predictions grows in a cubic order with the size of dataset and application of such models is not feasible for large datasets. This article extends the full-scale approximation (FSA) approach by Sang and Huang (2012) to the spatio-temporal context to reduce computational complexity. A reversible jump Markov chain Monte Carlo (RJMCMC) algorithm is proposed to select knots automatically from a discrete set of spatio-temporal points. Our approach is applicable to nonseparable and nonstationary spatio-temporal covariance models. We illustrate the effectiveness of our method through simulation experiments and application to an ozone measurement dataset.
Konapala, Goutam; Mishra, Ashok
The quantification of spatio-temporal hydroclimatic extreme events is a key variable in water resources planning, disaster mitigation, and preparing climate resilient society. However, quantification of these extreme events has always been a great challenge, which is further compounded by climate variability and change. Recently complex network theory was applied in earth science community to investigate spatial connections among hydrologic fluxes (e.g., rainfall and streamflow) in water cycle. However, there are limited applications of complex network theory for investigating hydroclimatic extreme events. This article attempts to provide an overview of complex networks and extreme events, event synchronization method, construction of networks, their statistical significance and the associated network evaluation metrics. For illustration purpose, we apply the complex network approach to study the spatio-temporal evolution of droughts in Continental USA (CONUS). A different drought threshold leads to a new drought event as well as different socio-economic implications. Therefore, it would be interesting to explore the role of thresholds on spatio-temporal evolution of drought through network analysis. In this study, long term (1900-2016) Palmer drought severity index (PDSI) was selected for spatio-temporal drought analysis using three network-based metrics (i.e., strength, direction and distance). The results indicate that the drought events propagate differently at different thresholds associated with initiation of drought events. The direction metrics indicated that onset of mild drought events usually propagate in a more spatially clustered and uniform approach compared to onsets of moderate droughts. The distance metric shows that the drought events propagate for longer distance in western part compared to eastern part of CONUS. We believe that the network-aided metrics utilized in this study can be an important tool in advancing our knowledge on drought
Kjaergard, Lise L; Als-Nielsen, Bodil
To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials.......To assess the association between competing interests and authors' conclusions in randomised clinical trials....
Thomas, Hollie B.
The educational significance of the present study lies in the potential use of the Career Interest by career educators needing to identify students with interests in particular career areas and to counselors placing students into various career courses. (BP)
... or blind trust which might have an interest in a prohibited entity but whose decisions to invest or... own interests: (1) The arbitrator's spouse; (2) The arbitrator's minor child; (3) The arbitrator's...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduction of measles incidence and mortality has been encouraging in China. However, it remains an important public health concern among infants. This study aimed to examine the space-time distribution pattern of infant measles occurrence for the period of 1999-2008 in Shandong, China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Measles cases among infants aged younger than 1 year were obtained from the national infectious diseases reporting information system. A spatiotemporal analysis using population attributable risk percent (PAR% was used to distinguish between multiple geographic clusters of potential interest. The analysis detected 29 statistically significant space-time clusters with the most likely cluster in Zaozhuang City from 2006 to 2008. Of the 28 secondary clusters, 22 were found in 2008. The map of PAR%, relative risk (RR and space-time cluster analysis indicated that the clusters were generally unchanged, and were found south-west and north-west of Shandong. The Lanshan District in Linyi had the highest PAR%, while highest RR was in the Yicheng District in Zaozhuang. CONCLUSION: There were significant space-time clusters of infant measles in Shandong over the study period. PAR% is an effective way to analyze multiple clusters from their application like RR. Interrupting measles circulation and maintaining routine coverage over 95% may be the only effective strategy to achieve measles elimination.
Cao, Nan; Lin, Yu-Ru; Sun, Xiaohua; Lazer, D; Liu, Shixia; Qu, Huamin
When and where is an idea dispersed? Social media, like Twitter, has been increasingly used for exchanging information, opinions and emotions about events that are happening across the world. Here we propose a novel visualization design, "Whisper", for tracing the process of information diffusion in social media in real time. Our design highlights three major characteristics of diffusion processes in social media: the temporal trend, social-spatial extent, and community response of a topic of interest. Such social, spatiotemporal processes are conveyed based on a sunflower metaphor whose seeds are often dispersed far away. In Whisper, we summarize the collective responses of communities on a given topic based on how tweets were retweeted by groups of users, through representing the sentiments extracted from the tweets, and tracing the pathways of retweets on a spatial hierarchical layout. We use an efficient flux line-drawing algorithm to trace multiple pathways so the temporal and spatial patterns can be identified even for a bursty event. A focused diffusion series highlights key roles such as opinion leaders in the diffusion process. We demonstrate how our design facilitates the understanding of when and where a piece of information is dispersed and what are the social responses of the crowd, for large-scale events including political campaigns and natural disasters. Initial feedback from domain experts suggests promising use for today's information consumption and dispersion in the wild.
Symmetry is usually computationally expensive to detect reliably, while it is relatively easy to perceive. In spite of many attempts to understand the neurofunctional properties of symmetry processing, no symmetry-specific activation was found in earlier cortical areas. Psychophysical evidence relating to the processing mechanisms suggests that the basic processes of symmetry perception would not perform a serial, point-by-point comparison of structural features but rather operate in parallel. Here, modeling of neural processes in psychophysical detection of bilateral texture symmetry is considered. A simple fine-grained algorithm that is capable of performing symmetry estimation without explicit comparison of remote elements is introduced. A computational model of symmetry perception is then described to characterize the underlying mechanisms as one-dimensional spatio-temporal neural processes, each of which is mediated by intracellular horizontal connections in primary visual cortex and adopts the proposed algorithm for the neural computation. Simulated experiments have been performed to show the efficiency and the dynamics of the model. Model and human performances are comparable for symmetry perception of intensity images. Interestingly, the responses of V1 neurons to propagation activities reflecting higher-order perceptual computations have been reported in neurophysiologic experiments.
Rouissi, Maya; Boix, Dani; Muller, Serge D; Gascón, Stéphanie; Ruhí, Albert; Sala, Jordi; Bouattour, Ali; Ben Haj Jilani, Imtinen; Ghrabi-Gammar, Zeineb; Ben Saad-Limam, Samia; Daoud-Bouattour, Amina
Six temporary wetlands in the region of Sejenane (Mogods, NW Tunisia) were studied in order to characterize the aquatic flora and fauna and to quantify their spatio-temporal variability. Samplings of aquatic fauna, phytosociological relevés, and measurements of the physicochemical parameters of water were taken during four different field visits carried out during the four seasons of the year (November 2009-July 2010). Despite the strong anthropic pressures on them, these temporary wetlands are home to rich and diversified biodiversity, including rare and endangered species. Spatial and temporal variations affect fauna and flora differently, as temporal variability influences the fauna rather more than the plants, which are relatively more dependent on spatial factors. These results demonstrate the interest of small water bodies for maintaining biodiversity at the regional level, and thus underscore the conservation issues of Mediterranean temporary wetlands that are declining on an ongoing basis currently. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Qin, K.; Zhou, Q.; Wu, T.; Xu, Y. Q.
City hotspots refer to the areas where residents visit frequently, and large traffic flow exist, which reflect the people travel patterns and distribution of urban function area. Taxi trajectory data contain abundant information about urban functions and citizen activities, and extracting interesting city hotspots from them can be of importance in urban planning, traffic command, public travel services etc. To detect city hotspots and discover a variety of changing patterns among them, we introduce a data field-based cluster analysis technique to the pick-up and drop-off points of taxi trajectory data and improve the method by introducing the time weight, which has been normalized to estimate the potential value in data field. Thus, in the light of the new potential function in data field, short distance and short time difference play a powerful role. So the region full of trajectory points, which is regarded as hotspots area, has a higher potential value, while the region with thin trajectory points has a lower potential value. The taxi trajectory data of Wuhan city in China on May 1, 6 and 9, 2015, are taken as the experimental data. From the result, we find the sustaining hotspots area and inconstant hotspots area in Wuhan city based on the spatiotemporal data field method. Further study will focus on optimizing parameter and the interaction among hotspots area.
Schoessow, F. S.; Li, Y.; Howe, P. D.
Extreme heat events are the deadliest natural hazard in the United States and are expected to increase in both severity and frequency in the coming years due to the effects of climate change. The risks of climate change and weather-related events such as heat waves to a population can be more comprehensively assessed by coupling the traditional examination of natural hazards using remote sensing and geospatial analysis techniques with human vulnerability factors and individual perceptions of hazards. By analyzing remote-sensed and empirical survey data alongside national hazards advisories, this study endeavors to establish a nationally-representative baseline quantifying the spatiotemporal variation of individual heat vulnerabilities at multiple scales and between disparate population groups affected by their unique socioenvironmental factors. This is of immediate academic interest because the study of heat waves risk perceptions remains relatively unexplored - despite the intensification of extreme heat events. The use of "human sensors", georeferenced & timestamped individual response data, provides invaluable contextualized data at a high spatial resolution, which will enable policy-makers to more effectively implement targeted strategies for risk prevention, mitigation, and communication. As climate change risks are further defined, this cognizance will help identify vulnerable populations and enhance national hazard preparedness and recovery frameworks.
Full Text Available This article focuses on data aggregation in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs. In such networks, data produced by sensors or crowdsourcers are exchanged between vehicles in order to warn or inform drivers when an event occurs (e.g., an accident, a traffic congestion, a parking space released, a vehicle with non-functioning brake lights, etc.. In the following, we propose to generate spatio-temporal aggregates containing these data in order to keep a summary of past events. We therefore use Flajolet-Martin sketches. Our goal is then to exploit these aggregates to better assist the drivers. These aggregates may indeed produce additional knowledge that may be useful when no event has been recently transmitted by surrounding vehicles or when some knowledge about the global demand may improve the decision that need to be taken at the vehicle level. To prove the effectiveness of our approach, an extensive experimental evaluation has been performed considering vehicles looking for an available parking space, that proves the interest of our proposal. The experimentations indeed show that the use of our aggregation structure significantly reduces the time needed to actually find a parking space. It also increases the percentage of vehicles finding such a resource in a bounded time in congested situations.
Full Text Available City hotspots refer to the areas where residents visit frequently, and large traffic flow exist, which reflect the people travel patterns and distribution of urban function area. Taxi trajectory data contain abundant information about urban functions and citizen activities, and extracting interesting city hotspots from them can be of importance in urban planning, traffic command, public travel services etc. To detect city hotspots and discover a variety of changing patterns among them, we introduce a data field-based cluster analysis technique to the pick-up and drop-off points of taxi trajectory data and improve the method by introducing the time weight, which has been normalized to estimate the potential value in data field. Thus, in the light of the new potential function in data field, short distance and short time difference play a powerful role. So the region full of trajectory points, which is regarded as hotspots area, has a higher potential value, while the region with thin trajectory points has a lower potential value. The taxi trajectory data of Wuhan city in China on May 1, 6 and 9, 2015, are taken as the experimental data. From the result, we find the sustaining hotspots area and inconstant hotspots area in Wuhan city based on the spatiotemporal data field method. Further study will focus on optimizing parameter and the interaction among hotspots area.
Hull, John; White, Alan
This article shows that the one-state-variable interest-rate models of Vasicek (1977) and Cox, Ingersoll, and Ross (1985b) can be extended so that they are consistent with both the current term structure of interest rates and either the current volatilities of all spot interest rates or the current volatilities of all forward interest rates. The extended Vasicek model is shown to be very tractable analytically. The article compares option prices obtained using the extended Vasicek model with ...
It has been argued that only moral agents can have preference-interests and this therefore excludes animals. I will present two objections to this argument. The first will show that moral agency is not necessary to have preference-interests. The second will assert that the argument that animals cannot have preference-interests has unwelcome consequences.
Putro, Nur Hidayanto Pancoro Setyo; Lee, Jihyun
The era of "digital literacy" raises the question of whether the meaning of reading interest may have changed. This study examined psycho-behavioral dimensions of reading interest as these relate to different reading modes and different purposes of reading. Findings show that reading interest is best represented by its subcomponents of…
Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.
We give a rough sketch of the Judaic, Greek, Islamic and Christian positions in the matter of interest prohibition during the last few millennia and discuss the way in which interest prohibition is dealt with in Islamic finance, the problems with authority-based arguments for interest prohibition,
hereby introduce a new feature for Scopus: Items of interest from recent ornithological literature. We hope to have this feature in all forthcoming issues of Scopus, switching between topics based on interest and articles received. Besides the Editorial Board occasionally soliciting articles, we welcome pieces from interested ...
Common stock value is affected by two important economic and financial risk factors namely interest rate and exchange rate. Interest rate which reflects the price of money also affects other variables in the financial market. Valuation of stock prices is indirectly affected by interest rates while directly its volatility causes a shift ...
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... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 3575.33 Section 3575.33 Agriculture... GENERAL Community Programs Guaranteed Loans § 3575.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates will be negotiated between the lender and the borrower. They may be either fixed or variable rates. Interest rates...
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 3550.66 Section 3550.66 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 502 Origination § 3550.66 Interest rate. Loans will be written using the applicable RHS interest rate in effect at loan approval or loan closing...
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interest rates. 36.4312... GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4312 Interest rates. (a... such loans either bear interest at a rate that is agreed upon by the veteran and the lender, or bear...
... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Interest rate. 1950.105 Section 1950.105 Agriculture... rate. (a) The Soldiers and Sailors Relief Act requires that the effective interest rate charged a... Supervisor will send the borrower a letter which states that the interest rate on the borrower's FmHA or its...
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 120.932 Section 120.932 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Development Company Loan Program (504) 504 Loans and Debentures § 120.932 Interest rate. The interest rate of the 504 Loan...
... ADMINISTRATION 12 CFR Part 741 RIN 3133-AD66 Interest Rate Risk AGENCY: National Credit Union Administration... insured credit unions to have a written policy addressing interest rate risk (IRR) management and an... (FICUs) to have a written policy and an effective program addressing interest rate risk (IRR) as part of...
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 1714.4 Section 1714.4 Agriculture... PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR INSURED ELECTRIC LOANS General § 1714.4 Interest rates. (a) Municipal rate loans. Each advance of funds on a municipal rate loan shall bear interest at a single rate...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate. 293.2 Section 293.2 Aliens... CASH RECEIVED TO SECURE IMMIGRATION BONDS § 293.2 Interest rate. The Secretary of the Treasury has determined that effective from date of deposit occurring after April 27, 1966, the interest rate shall be 3...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 614.4155 Section 614.4155 Banks... Policies for Banks and Associations § 614.4155 Interest rates. Loans made by each bank and direct lender association shall bear interest at a rate or rates as may be determined by the institution board. The board...
... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rates. 1779.33 Section 1779.33 Agriculture... (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.33 Interest rates. (a) General. Rates.... Interest rates will be those rates customarily charged borrowers in similar circumstances in the ordinary...
... ADMINISTRATION Interest Rates; Notice AGENCY: Small Business Administration. The Small Business Administration publishes an interest rate called the optional ``peg'' rate (13 CFR 120.214) on a quarterly basis. This rate... direct loan. This rate may be used as a base rate for guaranteed fluctuating interest rate SBA loans...
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interested party. 29.28 Section 29.28 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.28 Interested party. The owner or other financially interested person...
Dik, Bryan J.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.
This article describes the relationship between interests and well-being by conceptualizing interest as both an emotional state and a stable disposition. First, interest is explored as a distinct emotion or affective state, itself a form of well-being that also leads to other forms of well-being by facilitating the development of diverse life…
It is argued that arguments for strict prohibition of interests must be based on the use of arguments from authority. This is carried out by first making a survey of so-called dialectical roots for interest prohibition and then demonstrating that for at least one important positive interest bearing
... conflict of interest. A conflict of interest exists if— (1) The representation of one client will be... more clients will be materially limited by the practitioner's responsibilities to another client, a... existence of a conflict of interest under paragraph (a) of this section, the practitioner may represent a...
... conflicts of interest. (a) Retained entity's responsibility. A retained entity working under an arrangement... responsibility. A retained entity shall ensure that all key individuals have no personal conflicts of interest... 31 CFR Part 31 RIN 1505-AC05 TARP Conflicts of Interest AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Treasury...
Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador’s suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework. Methods A Bayesian model was applied to examine the spatio-temporal evolution of the tendency of completed suicide over homicide in El Salvador. Data on numbers of suicides and homicides at the municipal level were obtained from the Instituto de Medicina Legal (IML and population counts, from the Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC, for the period of 2002 to 2012. Data on migration were derived from the 2007 Population Census, and inequality data were obtained from a study by Damianović, Valenzuela and Vera. Results The data reveal a stable standardized rate of total lethal violence (completed suicide plus homicide across municipalities over time; a decline in suicide; and a standardized suicide rate decreasing with income inequality but increasing with social isolation. Municipalities clustered in terms of both total lethal violence and suicide standardized rates. Conclusions Spatial effects for suicide were stronger among municipalities located in the north-east and center-south sides of the country. New clusters of municipalities with large suicide standardized rates were detected in the north-west, south-west and center-south regions, all of which are part of time-stable clusters of homicide. Prevention efforts to reduce income inequality and mitigate the negative effects of weak relational systems should focus upon municipalities forming time
In 2012, international statistics showed El Salvador's suicide rate as 40th in the world and the highest in Latin America. Over the last 15 years, national statistics show the suicide death rate declining as opposed to an increasing rate of homicide. Though completed suicide is an important social and health issue, little is known about its prevalence, incidence, etiology and spatio-temporal behavior. The primary objective of this study was to examine completed suicide and homicide using the stream analogy to lethal violence within a spatio-temporal framework. A Bayesian model was applied to examine the spatio-temporal evolution of the tendency of completed suicide over homicide in El Salvador. Data on numbers of suicides and homicides at the municipal level were obtained from the Instituto de Medicina Legal (IML) and population counts, from the Dirección General de Estadística y Censos (DIGESTYC), for the period of 2002 to 2012. Data on migration were derived from the 2007 Population Census, and inequality data were obtained from a study by Damianović, Valenzuela and Vera. The data reveal a stable standardized rate of total lethal violence (completed suicide plus homicide) across municipalities over time; a decline in suicide; and a standardized suicide rate decreasing with income inequality but increasing with social isolation. Municipalities clustered in terms of both total lethal violence and suicide standardized rates. Spatial effects for suicide were stronger among municipalities located in the north-east and center-south sides of the country. New clusters of municipalities with large suicide standardized rates were detected in the north-west, south-west and center-south regions, all of which are part of time-stable clusters of homicide. Prevention efforts to reduce income inequality and mitigate the negative effects of weak relational systems should focus upon municipalities forming time-persistent clusters with a large rate of death by suicide. In
Full Text Available Cartography is an ancient science with almost the same long history as the world's oldest culture.Since ancient times,the movement and change of anything and any phenomena,including human activities,have been carried out in a certain time and space.The development of science and technology and the progress of social civilization have made social management and governance more and more dependent on time and space.The information source,theme,content,carrier,form,production methods and application methods of map are different in different historical periods,so that its all-round value is different. With the arrival of the big data age,the scientific paradigm has now entered the era of "data-intensive" paradigm,so is the cartography,with obvious characteristics of big data science.All big data are caused by movement and change of all things and phenomena in the geographic world,so they have space and time characteristics and thus cannot be separated from the spatial reference and time reference.Therefore,big data is big spatio-temporal data essentially.Since the late 1950s and early 1960s,modern cartography,that is,the cartography in the information age,takes spatio-temporal data as the object,and focuses on the processing and expression of spatio-temporal data,but not in the face of the large scale multi-source heterogeneous and multi-dimensional dynamic data flow(or flow datafrom sky to the sea.The real-time dynamic nature,the theme pertinence,the content complexity,the carrier diversification,the expression form personalization,the production method modernization,the application ubiquity of the map,is incomparable in the past period,which leads to the great changes of the theory,technology and application system of cartography.And all these changes happen to occur in the 60 years since the late 1950s and early 1960s,so this article was written to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the "Acta Geodaetica et Cartographica Sinica".
Juarez, Jose M; Ochotorena, Jose M; Campos, Manuel; Combi, Carlo
Elderly people who live alone can be assisted by home monitoring systems that identify risk scenarios such as falls, fatigue symptoms or burglary. Given that these systems have to manage spatiotemporal data, human intervention is required to validate automatic alarms due to the high number of false positives and the need for context interpretation. The goal of this work was to provide tools to support human action, to identify such potential risk scenarios based on spatiotemporal data visualisation. We propose the MTA (multiple temporal axes) model, a visual representation of temporal information of the activity of a single person at different locations. The main goal of this model is to visualize the behaviour of a person in their home, facilitating the identification of health-risk scenarios and repetitive patterns. We evaluate the model's insight capacity compared with other models using a standard evaluation protocol. We also test its practical suitability of the MTA graphical model in a commercial home monitoring system. In particular, we implemented 8VISU, a visualization tool based on MTA. MTA proved to be more than 90% accurate in identify non-risk scenarios, independently of the length of the record visualised. When the spatial complexity was increased (e.g. number of rooms) the model provided good accuracy form up to 5 rooms. Therefore, user preferences and user performance seem to be balanced. Moreover, it also gave high sensitivity levels (over 90%) for 5-8 rooms. Fall is the most recurrent incident for elderly people. The MTA model outperformed the other models considered in identifying fall scenarios (66% of correctness) and was the second best for burglary and fatigue scenarios (36% of correctness). Our experiments also confirm the hypothesis that cyclic models are the most suitable for fatigue scenarios, the Spiral and MTA models obtaining most positive identifications. In home monitoring systems, spatiotemporal visualization is a useful tool for
Rojo, Gabriel Lihue; Goya, Stephanie; Orellana, Mariana; Sancilio, Andrea; Rodriguez Perez, Alberto; Montali, César; García, Carolina; Sosa, Lilian; Musto, Alejandra; Alvarez, Daniela; Castello, Alejandro; Viegas, Mariana
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the main viral cause of hospitalization due to acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants worldwide. Several vaccines against RSV are under research and development, which are about to be approved. We evaluated transmission patterns in different settings to determine age-specific vaccination targets from a viral perspective. We sequenced the G glycoprotein's ectodomain of a constant clinical sampling between two epidemic outbreaks in a limited geographical region and performed phylogeographic analyses. We described a spatio-temporal transmission between local strains, which were originated in the center of the analyzed area and then spread to others. Interestingly, that central area reported the highest population density of the region and also showed overcrowding. This information should be considered by public health systems to evaluate vaccination at all ages in those areas to decrease viral transmission and in lower density populations only susceptible children should be vaccinated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Amiranoff, F.; Riconda, C.; Chiaramello, M.; Lancia, L.; Marquès, J. R.; Weber, S.
The role of the global phase in the spatio-temporal evolution of the 3-wave coupled equations for backscattering is analyzed in the strong-coupling regime of Brillouin scattering. This is of particular interest for controlled backscattering in the case of plasma-based amplification to produce short and intense laser pulses. It is shown that the analysis of the envelope equations of the three waves involved, pump, seed, and ion wave, in terms of phase and amplitude fully describes the coupling dynamics. In particular, it helps understanding the role of the chirp of the laser beams and of the plasma density profile. The results can be used to optimize or quench the coupling mechanism. It is found that the directionality of the energy transfer is imposed by the phase relation at the leading edge of the pulse. This actually ensures continued energy transfer even if the intensity of the seed pulse is already higher than the pump pulse intensity.
Olson, Branden; Kleiber, William
Stochastic precipitation generators (SPGs) produce synthetic precipitation data and are frequently used to generate inputs for physical models throughout many scientific disciplines. Especially for large data sets, statistical parameter estimation is difficult due to the high dimensionality of the likelihood function. We propose techniques to estimate SPG parameters for spatiotemporal precipitation occurrence based on an emerging set of methods called Approximate Bayesian computation (ABC), which bypass the evaluation of a likelihood function. Our statistical model employs a thresholded Gaussian process that reduces to a probit regression at single sites. We identify appropriate ABC penalization metrics for our model parameters to produce simulations whose statistical characteristics closely resemble those of the observations. Spell length metrics are appropriate for single sites, while a variogram-based metric is proposed for spatial simulations. We present numerical case studies at sites in Colorado and Iowa where the estimated statistical model adequately reproduces local and domain statistics.
Sloan, Chantel D; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Wu, Pingsheng; Carroll, Kecia N; Mitchel, Edward F; Hartert, Tina V
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality in infants, primarily through the induction of bronchiolitis. RSV epidemics are highly seasonal, occurring in the winter months in the northern hemisphere. Within the United States, RSV epidemic dynamics vary both spatially and temporally. This analysis employs a retrospective space–time scan statistic to locate spatiotemporal clustering of infant bronchiolitis in a very large Tennessee (TN) Medicaid cohort. We studied infants less than 6 months of age (N = 52,468 infants) who had an outpatient visit, emergency department visit, or hospitalization for bronchiolitis between 1995 and 2008. The scan statistic revealed distinctive and consistent patterns of deviation in epidemic timing. Eastern TN (Knoxville area) showed clustering in January and February, and Central TN (Nashville area) in November and December. This is likely due to local variation in geography-associated factors which should be taken into consideration in future modeling of RSV epidemics.
Nugroho, Fahrudin; Ueki, Tatsuhiro; Hidaka, Yoshiki; Kai, Shoichi
We are working on the electroconvection of nematic liquid crystals, in which a kind of spatiotemporal chaos called as a soft-mode turbulence (SMT) is observed. The SMT is caused by the nonlinear interaction between the convective modes and the Nambu--Goldstone (NG) modes. By applying an external magnetic field H, the NG mode is suppressed and an ordered pattern can be observed. By removing the suppression effect the ordered state relax to its original SMT pattern. We revealed two types of instability govern the relaxation process: the zigzag instability and the free rotation of wavevector q(r). This work is partially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (Nos. 20111003, 21340110, and 21540391) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sport, Science, and Technology of Japan and the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS).
Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar
We consider a reaction-diffusion system in a homogeneous stable steady state. On perturbation by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter the system exhibits parametric spatiotemporal instability beyond a critical threshold frequency. We have formulated a general scheme to calculate the threshold condition for oscillation and the range of unstable spatial modes lying within a V-shaped region reminiscent of Arnold's tongue. Full numerical simulations show that depending on the specificity of nonlinearity of the models, the instability may result in time-periodic stationary patterns in the form of standing clusters or spatially localized breathing patterns with characteristic wavelengths. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric oscillation in reaction-diffusion system is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well-known chemical dynamical models: chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and Briggs-Rauscher reactions.
Nichols, T E; Asma, E; Leahy, R M
We describe a method for computing a continuous time estimate of tracer density using list-mode positron emission tomography data. The rate function in each voxel is modeled as an inhomogeneous Poisson process whose rate function can be represented using a cubic B-spline basis. The rate functions are estimated by maximizing the likelihood of the arrival times of detected photon pairs over the control vertices of the spline, modified by quadratic spatial and temporal smoothness penalties and a penalty term to enforce non-negativity. Randoms rate functions are estimated by assuming independence between the spatial and temporal randoms distributions. Similarly, scatter rate functions are estimated by assuming spatiotemporal independence and that the temporal distribution of the scatter is proportional to the temporal distribution of the trues. A quantitative evaluation was performed using simulated data and the method is also demonstrated in a human study using 11C-raclopride.
Ferrero, Ezequiel E; Foini, Laura; Giamarchi, Thierry; Kolton, Alejandro B; Rosso, Alberto
In the presence of impurities, ferromagnetic and ferroelectric domain walls slide only above a finite external field. Close to this depinning threshold, they proceed by large and abrupt jumps called avalanches, while, at much smaller fields, these interfaces creep by thermal activation. In this Letter, we develop a novel numerical technique that captures the ultraslow creep regime over huge time scales. We point out the existence of activated events that involve collective reorganizations similar to avalanches, but, at variance with them, display correlated spatiotemporal patterns that resemble the complex sequence of aftershocks observed after a large earthquake. Remarkably, we show that events assemble in independent clusters that display at large scales the same statistics as critical depinning avalanches. We foresee these correlated dynamics being experimentally accessible by magnetooptical imaging of ferromagnetic films.
Minardi, Silvia; Taraballi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Laura; Tasciotti, Ennio
The aim of tissue engineering is to promote the repair of functional tissues. For decades, the combined use of biomaterials, growth factors (GFs), and stem cells has been the base of several regeneration strategies. Among these, biomimicry emerged as a robust strategy to efficiently address this clinical challenge. Biomimetic materials, able to recapitulate the composition and architecture of the extracellular matrix, are the materials of choice, for their biocompatibility and higher rate of efficacy. In addition, it has become increasingly clear that restoring the complex biochemical environment of the target tissue is crucial for its regeneration. Toward this aim, the combination of scaffolds and GFs is required. The advent of nanotechnology significantly impacted the field of tissue engineering by providing new ways to reproduce the complex spatial and temporal biochemical patterns of tissues. This review will present the most recent approaches to finely control the spatiotemporal release of bioactive molecules for various tissue engineering applications. PMID:27313997
Full Text Available The aim of tissue engineering is to promote the repair of functional tissues. For decades, the combined use of biomaterials, growth factors, and stem cells has been at the base of several regeneration strategies. Among these, biomimicry emerged as a robust strategy to efficiently address this clinical challenge. Biomimetic materials, able to recapitulate the composition and architecture of the extracellular matrix, are the materials of choice, for their biocompatibility and higher rate of efficacy. In addition, it has become increasingly clear that restoring the complex biochemical environment of the target tissue is crucial for its regeneration. Towards this aim, the combination of scaffolds and growth factors is required. The advent of nanotechnology significantly impacted the field of tissue engineering by providing new ways to reproduce the complex spatial and temporal biochemical patterns of tissues. This review will present the most recent approaches to finely control the spatiotemporal release of bioactive molecules for various tissue engineering applications.
Wright, Logan G.; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.; Wise, Frank W.
A laser is based on the electromagnetic modes of its resonator, which provides the feedback required for oscillation. Enormous progress has been made toward controlling the interactions of longitudinal modes in lasers with a single transverse mode. For example, the field of ultrafast science has been built on lasers that lock many longitudinal modes together to form ultrashort light pulses. However, coherent superposition of longitudinal and transverse modes in a laser has received little attention. We show that modal and chromatic dispersions in fiber lasers can be counteracted by strong spatial and spectral filtering. This allows locking of multiple transverse and longitudinal modes to create ultrashort pulses with a variety of spatiotemporal profiles. Multimode fiber lasers thus open new directions in studies of nonlinear wave propagation and capabilities for applications.
Nichols, Thomas E.; Qi, Jinyi; Asma, Evren; Leahy, Richard M.
We describe a method for computing a continuous time estimate of tracer density using list-mode positron emission tomography data. The rate function in each voxel is modeled as an inhomogeneous Poisson process whose rate function can be represented using a cubic B-spline basis. The rate functions are estimated by maximizing the likelihood of the arrival times of detected photon pairs over the control vertices of the spline, modified by quadratic spatial and temporal smoothness penalties and a penalty term to enforce nonnegativity. Randoms rate functions are estimated by assuming independence between the spatial and temporal randoms distributions. Similarly, scatter rate functions are estimated by assuming spatiotemporal independence and that the temporal distribution of the scatter is proportional to the temporal distribution of the trues. A quantitative evaluation was performed using simulated data and the method is also demonstrated in a human study using 11C-raclopride.
Pezard, Laurent; Martinerie, Jacques; Müller-Gerking, Johannes; Varela, Francisco J.; Renault, Bernard
We present a procedure to quantify spatio-temporal dynamics applied here to brain surface recordings during three distinct cognitive tasks. The method uses 19 sites of EEG recording as spatial embedding for the reconstruction of trajectories, global and local linear indices, and non-linear forecasting methods to quantify the global and local information loss of the dynamics (K-entropy). We show that K-entropy can differentiate between raw and multivariate phase random surrogate data in a significant percentage of EEG segments, and that relevant non-linear indices are best studied in time segments not longer than 4s. We also find a certain complementarity between local non-linear and linear indices for the discrimination between the three cognitive tasks. Moreover, localized projections onto electrode site of K-entropy provide a new kind of brain mapping with functional significance.
W. W. Song
Full Text Available Traditional geospatial information platforms are built, managed and maintained by the geoinformation agencies. They integrate various geospatial data (such as DLG, DOM, DEM, gazetteers, and thematic data to provide data analysis services for supporting government decision making. In the era of big data, it is challenging to address the data- and computing- intensive issues by traditional platforms. In this research, we propose to build a spatiotemporal cloud platform, which uses HDFS for managing image data, and MapReduce-based computing service and workflow for high performance geospatial analysis, as well as optimizing auto-scaling algorithms for Web client users’ quick access and visualization. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility by several GIS application cases.
We propose a new copula model for spatial data that are observed repeatedly in time. The model is based on the assumption that there exists a common factor that affects the measurements of a process in space and in time. Unlike models based on multivariate normality, our model can handle data with tail dependence and asymmetry. The likelihood for the proposed model can be obtained in a simple form and therefore parameter estimation is quite fast. Simulation from this model is straightforward and data can be predicted at any spatial location and time point. We use simulation studies to show different types of dependencies, both in space and in time, that can be generated by this model. We apply the proposed copula model to hourly wind data and compare its performance with some classical models for spatio-temporal data.
Chen, Xin; Wang, Yu; Schoenfeld, Elinor; Saltz, Mary; Saltz, Joel; Wang, Fusheng
Increased accessibility of health data provides unique opportunities to discover spatio-temporal patterns of diseases. For example, New York State SPARCS (Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System) data collects patient level detail on patient demographics, diagnoses, services, and charges for each hospital inpatient stay and outpatient visit. Such data also provides home addresses for each patient. This paper presents our preliminary work on spatial, temporal, and spatial-temporal analysis of disease patterns for New York State using SPARCS data. We analyzed spatial distribution patterns of typical diseases at ZIP code level. We performed temporal analysis of common diseases based on 12 years' historical data. We then compared the spatial variations for diseases with different levels of clustering tendency, and studied the evolution history of such spatial patterns. Case studies based on asthma demonstrated that the discovered spatial clusters are consistent with prior studies. We visualized our spatial-temporal patterns as animations through videos.
Lu, Hua; Yang, Bin; Jensen, Christian S.
To facilitate a variety of applications, positioning systems are deployed in indoor settings. For example, Bluetooth and RFID positioning are deployed in airports to support real-time monitoring of delays as well as off-line flow and space usage analyses. Such deployments generate large collections...... of tracking data. Like in other data management applications, joins are indispensable in this setting. However, joins on indoor tracking data call for novel techniques that take into account the limited capabilities of the positioning systems as well as the specifics of indoor spaces. This paper proposes...... and studies probabilistic, spatio-temporal joins on historical indoor tracking data. Two meaningful types of join are defined. They return object pairs that satisfy spatial join predicates either at a time point or during a time interval. The predicates considered include “same X,” where X is a semantic...
Song, W. W.; Jin, B. X.; Li, S. H.; Wei, X. Y.; Li, D.; Hu, F.
Traditional geospatial information platforms are built, managed and maintained by the geoinformation agencies. They integrate various geospatial data (such as DLG, DOM, DEM, gazetteers, and thematic data) to provide data analysis services for supporting government decision making. In the era of big data, it is challenging to address the data- and computing- intensive issues by traditional platforms. In this research, we propose to build a spatiotemporal cloud platform, which uses HDFS for managing image data, and MapReduce-based computing service and workflow for high performance geospatial analysis, as well as optimizing auto-scaling algorithms for Web client users' quick access and visualization. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility by several GIS application cases.
Ivanova, Elena V; Figueroa, Ricardo A; Gatsinzi, Tom; Hallberg, Einar; Iverfeldt, Kerstin
FRET biosensors have become a routine tool for investigating mechanisms and components of cell signaling. Strategies for improving them for particular applications are continuously sought. One important aspect to consider when designing FRET probes is the dynamic distribution and propagation of signals within living cells. We have addressed this issue by directly comparing an anchored (taFS) to a non-anchored (naFS) cleavable FRET sensor. We chose a microtubule-associated protein tau as an anchor, as microtubules are abundant throughout the cytosol of cells. We show that tau-anchored FRET sensors are concentrated at the cytoskeleton and enriched in the neurite-like processes of cells, providing high intensity of the total signal. In addition, anchoring limits the diffusion of the sensor, enabling spatiotemporally resolved monitoring of subcellular variations in enzyme activity. Thus, anchoring is an important aspect to consider when designing FRET sensors for deeper understanding of cell signaling.
Full Text Available Photoactivatable fluorophores have become an important technique for the high spatiotemporal resolution of biological imaging. Here, we developed a novel photoactivatable probe (PHBT, which is based on 2-(2-hydroxyphenylbenzothiazole (HBT, a small organic fluorophore known for its classic luminescence mechanism through excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT with the keto form and the enol form. After photocleavage, PHBT released a ratiometric fluorophore HBT, which showed dual emission bands with more than 73-fold fluorescence enhancement at 512 nm in buffer and more than 69-fold enhancement at 452 nm in bovine serum. The probe displayed a high ratiometric imaging resolution and is believed to have a wide application in biological imaging.
Tian, Canrong; Zhang, Lai
An inhomogeneous distribution of species density over physical space is a widely observed scenario in plankton systems. Understanding the mechanisms resulting in these spatial patterns is a central topic in plankton ecology. In this paper we explore the impact of time delay on spatiotemporal patterns in a prey-predator plankton system. We find that time delay can trigger the emergence of irregular spatial patterns via a Hopf bifurcation. Moreover, a phase transition from a regular spiral pattern to an irregular one was observed and the latter gradually replaced the former and persisted indefinitely. The characteristic length of the emergent spatial pattern is consistent with the scale of plankton patterns observed in field studies.
Yomosa, Makoto; Mizuguchi, Tsuyoshi; Hayakawa, Yoshinori
We analyzed the spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks with a portable stereo camera system. The 3-dimensional positions of individuals were reconstructed from pairs of videos. The motions of each individual were analyzed, and both gliding and flapping motions were quantified based on the velocity time series. We analyzed the distributions of the nearest neighbor's position in terms of coordinates based on each individual's motion. The obtained results were consistent with the aerodynamic interaction between individuals. We characterized the leader-follower relationship between individuals by a delay time to mimic the direction of a motion. A relation between the delay time and a relative position was analyzed quantitatively, which suggested the basic properties of the formation flight that maintains order in the flock.
Full Text Available We analyzed the spatio-temporal structure of hooded gull flocks with a portable stereo camera system. The 3-dimensional positions of individuals were reconstructed from pairs of videos. The motions of each individual were analyzed, and both gliding and flapping motions were quantified based on the velocity time series. We analyzed the distributions of the nearest neighbor's position in terms of coordinates based on each individual's motion. The obtained results were consistent with the aerodynamic interaction between individuals. We characterized the leader-follower relationship between individuals by a delay time to mimic the direction of a motion. A relation between the delay time and a relative position was analyzed quantitatively, which suggested the basic properties of the formation flight that maintains order in the flock.
Lage, Marcos; Ono, Jorge Piazentin; Cervone, Daniel; Chiang, Justin; Dietrich, Carlos; Silva, Claudio T
Major League Baseball (MLB) has a long history of providing detailed, high-quality data, leading to a tremendous surge in sports analytics research in recent years. In 2015, MLB.com released the StatCast spatiotemporal data-tracking system, which has been used in approximately 2,500 games since its inception to capture player and ball locations as well as semantically meaningful game events. This article presents a visualization and analytics infrastructure to help query and facilitate the analysis of this new tracking data. The goal is to go beyond descriptive statistics of individual plays, allowing analysts to study diverse collections of games and game events. The proposed system enables the exploration of the data using a simple querying interface and a set of flexible interactive visualization tools.
Full Text Available In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in the field of indoor and outdoor positioning sensors continuously producing huge volumes of trajectory data that has been used in many fields such as location-based services or location intelligence. Trajectory data is massively increased and semantically complicated, which poses a great challenge on spatio-temporal data indexing. This paper proposes a spatio-temporal data indexing method, named HBSTR-tree, which is a hybrid index structure comprising spatio-temporal R-tree, B*-tree and Hash table. To improve the index generation efficiency, rather than directly inserting trajectory points, we group consecutive trajectory points as nodes according to their spatio-temporal semantics and then insert them into spatio-temporal R-tree as leaf nodes. Hash table is used to manage the latest leaf nodes to reduce the frequency of insertion. A new spatio-temporal interval criterion and a new node-choosing sub-algorithm are also proposed to optimize spatio-temporal R-tree structures. In addition, a B*-tree sub-index of leaf nodes is built to query the trajectories of targeted objects efficiently. Furthermore, a database storage scheme based on a NoSQL-type DBMS is also proposed for the purpose of cloud storage. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms TB*-tree in some aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and query type.
Ke, Shengnan; Gong, Jun; Li, Songnian; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Xintao; Zhang, Yeting
In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in the field of indoor and outdoor positioning sensors continuously producing huge volumes of trajectory data that has been used in many fields such as location-based services or location intelligence. Trajectory data is massively increased and semantically complicated, which poses a great challenge on spatio-temporal data indexing. This paper proposes a spatio-temporal data indexing method, named HBSTR-tree, which is a hybrid index structure comprising spatio-temporal R-tree, B*-tree and Hash table. To improve the index generation efficiency, rather than directly inserting trajectory points, we group consecutive trajectory points as nodes according to their spatio-temporal semantics and then insert them into spatio-temporal R-tree as leaf nodes. Hash table is used to manage the latest leaf nodes to reduce the frequency of insertion. A new spatio-temporal interval criterion and a new node-choosing sub-algorithm are also proposed to optimize spatio-temporal R-tree structures. In addition, a B*-tree sub-index of leaf nodes is built to query the trajectories of targeted objects efficiently. Furthermore, a database storage scheme based on a NoSQL-type DBMS is also proposed for the purpose of cloud storage. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms TB*-tree in some aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and query type.
Ke, Shengnan; Gong, Jun; Li, Songnian; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Xintao; Zhang, Yeting
In recent years, there has been tremendous growth in the field of indoor and outdoor positioning sensors continuously producing huge volumes of trajectory data that has been used in many fields such as location-based services or location intelligence. Trajectory data is massively increased and semantically complicated, which poses a great challenge on spatio-temporal data indexing. This paper proposes a spatio-temporal data indexing method, named HBSTR-tree, which is a hybrid index structure comprising spatio-temporal R-tree, B*-tree and Hash table. To improve the index generation efficiency, rather than directly inserting trajectory points, we group consecutive trajectory points as nodes according to their spatio-temporal semantics and then insert them into spatio-temporal R-tree as leaf nodes. Hash table is used to manage the latest leaf nodes to reduce the frequency of insertion. A new spatio-temporal interval criterion and a new node-choosing sub-algorithm are also proposed to optimize spatio-temporal R-tree structures. In addition, a B*-tree sub-index of leaf nodes is built to query the trajectories of targeted objects efficiently. Furthermore, a database storage scheme based on a NoSQL-type DBMS is also proposed for the purpose of cloud storage. Experimental results prove that HBSTR-tree outperforms TB*-tree in some aspects such as generation efficiency, query performance and query type. PMID:25051028
Allegra, Michele; Seyed-Allaei, Shima; Pizzagalli, Fabrizio; Baftizadeh, Fahimeh; Maieron, Marta; Reverberi, Carlo; Laio, Alessandro; Amati, Daniele
There is growing interest in the description of short-lived patterns in the spatiotemporal cortical activity monitored via neuroimaging. Most traditional analysis methods, designed to estimate relatively long-term brain dynamics, are not always appropriate to capture these patterns. Here we introduce a novel data-driven approach for detecting short-lived fMRI brain activity patterns. Exploiting Density Peak Clustering (Rodriguez and Laio ), our approach reveals well localized clusters by identifying and grouping together voxels whose time-series are similar, irrespective of their brain location, even when very short time windows (∼10 volumes) are used. The method, which we call Coherence Density Peak Clustering (CDPC), is first tested on simulated data and compared with a standard unsupervised approach for fMRI analysis, independent component analysis (ICA). CDPC identifies activated voxels with essentially no false-positives and proves more reliable than ICA, which is troubled by a number of false positives comparable to that of true positives. The reliability of the method is demonstrated on real fMRI data from a simple motor task, containing brief iterations of the same movement. The clusters identified are found in regions expected to be involved in the task, and repeat synchronously with the paradigm. The methodology proposed is especially suitable for the study of short-time brain dynamics and single trial experiments, where the event or task of interest cannot be repeated for the same subject, as happens, for instance, in problem-solving, learning and decision-making. A GUI implementation of our method is available for download at https://github.com/micheleallegra/CDPC. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1421-1437, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Pataky, Todd Colin; Maiwald, Christian
The purposes of this study were (i) to develop a three-dimensional interactive visualization tool for exploring plantar pressure time series and spatiotemporal statistical volumes and (ii) to demonstrate the benefits of volumetric analyses using various running and walking data sets. A data exploration tool was developed in Python using the open-source Visualization Toolkit. Multiple-pressure isosurfaces were computed and were then rendered with interactive rotation and adjustable thresholds and transparencies. Plantar pressure data were collected: (i) from two running subjects, one with a heel-loading pattern and one with a forefoot-loading pattern; (ii) from one individual while running straight and then while performing a cutting maneuver; and (iii) from one subject walking at three different speeds. All data were spatiotemporally aligned, and mean volumes were computed. Statistical volumes were also computed for the walking data set, and significance was assessed topologically using techniques from three-dimensional brain imaging. After converting raw plantar pressure data into a rapidly readable format, volumetric renderings were presented in ∼50 ms, a negligible time lag for interactive data exploration. We observed that consideration of only spatial two-dimensional variables yielded "impulse illusions" that could be resolved most effectively with three-dimensional renderings. For all data sets, we found that dynamic foot behavior was clearest through interactive three-dimensional exploration. Plantar pressure data contain high-quality biomechanical information in their original three-dimensional form. The main benefit of the proposed visualization technique is that it affords qualitatively rich and unique holistic explorations of dynamic foot behavior.
Dabanlı, İsmail; Mishra, Ashok K.; Şen, Zekai
The spatio-temporal variability of drought is presented by evaluating homogeneously distributed 250 station records from 1931 to 2010 for 80 years' duration in Turkey. The drought analysis is implemented using Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) in terms of SPI-1, SPI-3, SPI-6, SPI-6AS (SPI-6 April to September) and SPI-12. The principle component analysis (PCA) is applied to SPI time series to identify spatial and temporal drought patterns. SPI time series are classified into two groups (1st group: SPI-1, SPI-3, SPI-6AS; and 2nd group: SPI-6 and SPI-12) according to the similarity in spatial drought patterns. SPI-3 and SPI-12 are selected as representative members of each group for spatio-temporal analysis. A relationship among correlation area (An), correlation coefficient (CC), principle component numbers (Fn) and total variances explained (Vexp) are investigated for identifying four well-defined drought vulnerable homogeneous regions over Turkey mainland. Mean percentages of extreme, severe, and moderate drought areas are calculated as 3.13% (2.81%), 3.75% (4.06%) and 7.19% (7.50%) for SPI-3 (SPI-12) based on 80 years in all drought vulnerable regions. Spectral characteristics of drought are also investigated based on fast Fourier transform (FFT) method. It is observed that while southeastern and western parts of Turkey are more stable due to the highly-correlated variances of spatial patterns; central parts and few pockets in northern areas of Turkey are less stable regions because of the low-correlated variance scores (below 10%). Furthermore, the impact of extreme phases of the ENSO (El Nino/La Nina) on droughts in four drought regions over Turkey is discussed.
Myers, Aaron T [ORNL; Movva, Sunil [ORNL; Karthik, Rajasekar [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; White, Devin A [ORNL; Thomas, Neil [ORNL; Chase, Adrian S Z [ORNL
The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (BioenergyKDF) is a scalable, web-based collaborative environment for scientists working on bioenergy related research in which the connections between data, literature, and models can be explored and more clearly understood. The fully-operational and deployed system, built on multiple open source libraries and architectures, stores contributions from the community of practice and makes them easy to find, but that is just its base functionality. The BioenergyKDF provides a national spatiotemporal decision support capability that enables data sharing, analysis, modeling, and visualization as well as fosters the development and management of the U.S. bioenergy infrastructure, which is an essential component of the national energy infrastructure. The BioenergyKDF is built on a flexible, customizable platform that can be extended to support the requirements of any user community especially those that work with spatiotemporal data. While there are several community data-sharing software platforms available, some developed and distributed by national governments, none of them have the full suite of capabilities available in BioenergyKDF. For example, this component-based platform and database independent architecture allows it to be quickly deployed to existing infrastructure and to connect to existing data repositories (spatial or otherwise). As new data, analysis, and features are added; the BioenergyKDF will help lead research and support decisions concerning bioenergy into the future, but will also enable the development and growth of additional communities of practice both inside and outside of the Department of Energy. These communities will be able to leverage the substantial investment the agency has made in the KDF platform to quickly stand up systems that are customized to their data and research needs.
Moore, Brandon; Dasi, Lakshmi Prasad
The aortic sinus vortex is a classical flow structure of significant importance to aortic valve dynamics and the initiation and progression of calific aortic valve disease. We characterize the spatio-temporal characteristics of aortic sinus voxtex dynamics in relation to the viscosity of blood analog solution as well as heart rate. High resolution time-resolved (2KHz) particle image velocimetry was conducted to capture 2D particle streak videos and 2D instantaneous velocity and streamlines along the sinus midplane using a physiological but rigid aorta model fitted with a porcine bioprosthetic heart valve. Blood analog fluids used include a water-glycerin mixture and saline to elucidate the sensitivity of vortex dynamics to viscosity. Experiments were conducted to record 10 heart beats for each combination of blood analog and heart rate condition. Results show that the topological characteristics of the velocity field vary in time-scales as revealed using time bin averaged vectors and corresponding instantaneous streamlines. There exist small time-scale vortices and a large time-scale main vortex. A key flow structure observed is the counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus adjacent to the base (lower half) of the leaflet. The spatio-temporal complexity of vortex dynamics is shown to be profoundly influenced by strong leaflet flutter during systole with a peak frequency of 200Hz and peak amplitude of 4 mm observed in the saline case. While fluid viscosity influences the length and time-scales as well as the introduction of leaflet flutter, heart rate influences the formation of counter vortex at the upstream end of the sinus. Higher heart rates are shown to reduce the strength of the counter vortex that can greatly influence the directionality and strength of shear stresses along the base of the leaflet. This study demonstrates the impact of heart rate and blood analog viscosity on aortic sinus hemodynamics.
Wu, X.; Babst, F.; Ciais, P.; Frank, D.; Reichstein, M.; Wattenbach, M.; Zang, C.; Mahecha, M. D.
Quantifying the interannual variability (IAV) of the terrestrial ecosystem productivity and its sensitivity to climate is crucial for improving carbon budget predictions. In this context it is necessary to disentangle the influence of climate from impacts of other mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal patterns of IAV of the ecosystem productivity. In this study we investigated the spatiotemporal patterns of IAV of historical observations of European crop yields in tandem with a set of climate variables. We further evaluated if relevant remote-sensing retrievals of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) and FAPAR (fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation) depict a similar behaviour. Our results reveal distinct spatial patterns in the IAV of the analysed proxies linked to terrestrial productivity. In particular, we find higher IAV in water-limited regions of Europe (Mediterranean and temperate continental Europe) compared to other regions in both crop yield and remote-sensing observations. Our results further indicate that variations in the water balance during the active growing season exert a more pronounced and direct effect than variations of temperature on explaining the spatial patterns in IAV of productivity-related variables in temperate Europe. Overall, we observe a temporally increasing trend in the IAV of terrestrial productivity and an increasing sensitivity of productivity to water availability in dry regions of Europe during the 1975-2009 period. In the same regions, a simultaneous increase in the IAV of water availability was detected. These findings suggest intricate responses of carbon fluxes to climate variability in Europe and that the IAV of terrestrial productivity has become potentially more sensitive to changes in water availability in the dry regions in Europe. The changing sensitivity of terrestrial productivity accompanied by the changing IAV of climate is expected to impact carbon stocks and the net carbon balance
Reiter, Sam; Campillo Rodriguez, Chelsey; Sun, Kui; Stopfer, Mark
Four of the five major sensory systems (vision, olfaction, somatosensation, and audition) are thought to use different but partially overlapping sets of neurons to form unique representations of vast numbers of stimuli. The only exception is gustation, which is thought to represent only small numbers of basic taste categories. However, using new methods for delivering tastant chemicals and making electrophysiological recordings from the tractable gustatory system of the moth Manduca sexta, we found chemical-specific information is as follows: (1) initially encoded in the population of gustatory receptor neurons as broadly distributed spatiotemporal patterns of activity; (2) dramatically integrated and temporally transformed as it propagates to monosynaptically connected second-order neurons; and (3) observed in tastant-specific behavior. Our results are consistent with an emerging view of the gustatory system: rather than constructing basic taste categories, it uses a spatiotemporal population code to generate unique neural representations of individual tastant chemicals. Our results provide a new view of taste processing. Using a new, relatively simple model system and a new set of techniques to deliver taste stimuli and to examine gustatory receptor neurons and their immediate followers, we found no evidence for labeled line connectivity, or basic taste categories such as sweet, salty, bitter, and sour. Rather, individual tastant chemicals are represented as patterns of spiking activity distributed across populations of receptor neurons. These representations are transformed substantially as multiple types of receptor neurons converge upon follower neurons, leading to a combinatorial coding format that uniquely, rapidly, and efficiently represents individual taste chemicals. Finally, we found that the information content of these neurons can drive tastant-specific behavior. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/3512309-13$15.00/0.
Costa, R.; Pereira, M. G.; Caramelo, L.; Vega Orozco, C.; Kanevski, M.
Several studies have shown that wildfires in Portugal presenthigh temporal as well as high spatial variability (Pereira et al., 2005, 2011). The identification and characterization of spatio-temporal clusters contributes to a comprehensivecharacterization of the fire regime and to improve the efficiency of fire prevention and combat activities. The main goalsin this studyare: (i) to detect the spatio-temporal clusters of burned area; and, (ii) to characterize these clusters along with the role of human and environmental factors. The data were supplied by the National Forest Authority(AFN, 2011) and comprises: (a)the Portuguese Rural Fire Database, PRFD, (Pereira et al., 2011) for the 1980-2007period; and, (b) the national mapping burned areas between 1990 and 2009. In this work, in order to complement the more common cluster analysis algorithms, an alternative approach based onscan statistics and on the permutation modelwas used. This statistical methodallows the detection of local excess events and to test if such an excess can reasonably have occurred by chance.Results obtained for different simulations performed for different spatial and temporal windows are presented, compared and interpreted.The influence of several fire factors such as (climate, vegetation type, etc.) is also assessed. Pereira, M.G., Trigo, R.M., DaCamara, C.C., Pereira, J.M.C., Leite, S.M., 2005:"Synoptic patterns associated with large summer forest fires in Portugal".Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 129, 11-25. Pereira, M. G., Malamud, B. D., Trigo, R. M., and Alves, P. I.: The history and characteristics of the 1980-2005 Portuguese rural fire database, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 3343-3358, doi:10.5194/nhess-11-3343-2011, 2011 AFN, 2011: AutoridadeFlorestalNacional (National Forest Authority). Available at http://www.afn.min-agricultura.pt/portal.
da Silva Lizzi, Elisangela Aparecida; Nunes, Altacilio Aparecido; Martinez, Edson Zangiacomi
AIDS is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and, currently, the overall prevalence rate of HIV infection in Brazil is 0.5% among men and 0.3% among women. To evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of AIDS in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with human development index (HDI) and their components income, education and life expectancy. This ecological study evaluate the spatiotemporal trend of standardized incidence ratio of AIDS among adults in Brazil from 2006 to 2012 and its relationship with HDI by using a Bayesian analysis, considering the Brazilian Federal Units as units of analysis. The proposed statistical model allows obtaining a standardized incidence ratio (SIR, adjusted by gender and age). Among the men, our results show higher incidence rates in the States of the Southern regions as well as in the state of Amazonas (Northern Brazil). In females, we found other patterns for SIR, with higher incidence rates in the states of Rio de Janeiro (Southeast region), Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina (both in Southern region). Among men it was observed as an expressive association between the SIR values and the overall HDI and income and education components, but it was observed to have an inverse association with the life expectancy component. Among women, it is noted that the SIR values are associated with the overall HDI and the education components only at the beginning of the studied period. AIDS remains a major public health problem in Brazil, mainly in the southern and southeastern regions of the country. Considering its association with HDI, it is noted that the disease still remains related to the pattern observed in the early years of the studied period, at least in the more developed regions of Brazil. This certainly happened because of the chronicity of the disease, thus affecting people with good socioeconomic status.
Gómez-Molina, Josué; Ogueta-Alday, Ana; Stickley, Christopher; Cámara, Jesús; Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Jon; García-López, Juan
Gómez-Molina, J, Ogueta-Alday, A, Stickley, C, Tobalina, JC, Cabrejas-Ugartondo, J, and García-López, J. Differences in spatiotemporal parameters between trained runners and untrained participants. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2169-2175, 2017-The aim of this study was to compare the spatiotemporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in 2 groups according to their training experience: Trained (n = 10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n = 11, healthy untrained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill. Physiological (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, heart rate, running economy [RE], peak speed …) and biomechanical variables (contact and flight times, step rate, and length) were simultaneously registered. Trained runners showed higher step rate and shorter step length than the Untrained group at the same running speeds (between 4 and 7%, p ≤ 0.05) and at the same physiological intensities (between 7 and 11%, p ≤ 0.05). However, there were no differences in contact and flight times between groups. Significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) and large effect sizes (Cohen's d) between groups were found for body mass, sum of 6 skinfolds, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max, peak speed, and ventilatory threshold and respiratory compensation threshold speeds. The Trained group also showed a ∼7% better RE (ml·kg·km) than the Untrained group. In conclusion, adopting higher step rate and shorter step length may be an adaptive mechanism of the Trained group to reduce injury risk and possibly improve RE. However, contact and flight times were consistent regardless of training level.
Huizinga, W; Poot, D H J; Vernooij, M W; Roshchupkin, G V; Bron, E E; Ikram, M A; Rueckert, D; Niessen, W J; Klein, S
Both normal aging and neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) cause morphological changes of the brain. It is generally difficult to distinguish these two causes of morphological change by visual inspection of magnetic resonance (MR) images. To facilitate making this distinction and thus aid the diagnosis of neurodegenerative disorders, we propose a method for developing a spatio-temporal model of morphological differences in the brain due to normal aging. The method utilizes groupwise image registration to characterize morphological variation across brain scans of people with different ages. To extract the deformations that are due to normal aging we use partial least squares regression, which yields modes of deformations highly correlated with age, and corresponding scores for each input subject. Subsequently, we determine a distribution of morphologies as a function of age by fitting smooth percentile curves to these scores. This distribution is used as a reference to which a person's morphology score can be compared. We validate our method on two different datasets, using images from both cognitively normal subjects and patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Results show that the proposed framework extracts the expected atrophy patterns. Moreover, the morphology scores of cognitively normal subjects are on average lower than the scores of AD subjects, indicating that morphology differences between AD subjects and healthy subjects can be partly explained by accelerated aging. With our methods we are able to assess accelerated brain aging on both population and individual level. A spatio-temporal aging brain model derived from 988 T1-weighted MR brain scans from a large population imaging study (age range 45.9-91.7y, mean age 68.3y) is made publicly available at www.agingbrain.nl. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This study analyzed the spatiotemporal pattern and spatial diffusion of elderly suicide by age cohort, in Korea. The research investigated the elderly suicide rates of the 232 municipal units in South Korea between 2001 and 2011. The Gi* score, which is a spatially weighted indicator of area attributes, was used to identify hot spots and the spatiotemporal pattern of elderly suicide in the nation during the last 10 years. The spatial Markov matrix and spatial dynamic panel data model were employed to identify and estimate the diffusion effect. The suicide rate among elderly individuals 75 years and older was substantially higher than the rate for those between 65 and 74 years of age; however, the spatial patterns of the suicide clusters were similar between the two groups. From 2001 to 2011, the spatial distribution of elderly suicide hot spots differed each year. For both age cohorts, elderly suicide hot spots developed around the north area of South Korea in 2001 and moved to the mid-east area and the mid-western coastal area over 10 years. The spatial Markov matrix indicates that the change in the suicide rate of one area was affected by the suicide rates of neighbouring areas from the previous year, which suggests that suicide increase in one area inflates a neighbouring area's suicide rate over time. Using a spatial dynamic panel data model, elderly suicide diffusion effects were found to be statistically significant for both age cohorts even after economic and demographic indicators and a time variable are included. For individuals 75 years and older, the diffusion effect appeared to be larger. This study demonstrates that elderly suicide can spread spatially over time in both age cohorts. Thus, it is necessary to design a place-based and age-differentiated intervention policy that precisely considers the spatial diffusion of elderly suicide. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Injury related to violent acts is a problem in every society. Although some authors have examined the geography of violent crime, few have focused on the spatio-temporal patterns of violent injury and none have used an ambulance dataset to explore the spatial characteristics of injury. The purpose of this study was to describe the combined spatial and temporal characteristics of violent injury in a large urban centre.Using a geomatics framework and geographic information systems software, we studied 4,587 ambulance dispatches and 10,693 emergency room admissions for violent injury occurrences among adults (aged 18-64 in Toronto, Canada, during 2002 and 2004, using population-based datasets. We created kernel density and choropleth maps for 24-hour periods and four-hour daily time periods and compared location of ambulance dispatches and patient residences with local land use and socioeconomic characteristics. We used multivariate regressions to control for confounding factors. We found the locations of violent injury and the residence locations of those injured were both closely related to each other and clearly clustered in certain parts of the city characterised by high numbers of bars, social housing units, and homeless shelters, as well as lower household incomes. The night and early morning showed a distinctive peak in injuries and a shift in the location of injuries to a "nightlife" district. The locational pattern of patient residences remained unchanged during those times.Our results demonstrate that there is a distinctive spatio-temporal pattern in violent injury reflected in the ambulance data. People injured in this urban centre more commonly live in areas of social deprivation. During the day, locations of injury and locations of residences are similar. However, later at night, the injury location of highest density shifts to a "nightlife" district, whereas the residence locations of those most at risk of injury do not change.
Cusimano, Michael; Marshall, Sean; Rinner, Claus; Jiang, Depeng; Chipman, Mary
Injury related to violent acts is a problem in every society. Although some authors have examined the geography of violent crime, few have focused on the spatio-temporal patterns of violent injury and none have used an ambulance dataset to explore the spatial characteristics of injury. The purpose of this study was to describe the combined spatial and temporal characteristics of violent injury in a large urban centre. Using a geomatics framework and geographic information systems software, we studied 4,587 ambulance dispatches and 10,693 emergency room admissions for violent injury occurrences among adults (aged 18-64) in Toronto, Canada, during 2002 and 2004, using population-based datasets. We created kernel density and choropleth maps for 24-hour periods and four-hour daily time periods and compared location of ambulance dispatches and patient residences with local land use and socioeconomic characteristics. We used multivariate regressions to control for confounding factors. We found the locations of violent injury and the residence locations of those injured were both closely related to each other and clearly clustered in certain parts of the city characterised by high numbers of bars, social housing units, and homeless shelters, as well as lower household incomes. The night and early morning showed a distinctive peak in injuries and a shift in the location of injuries to a "nightlife" district. The locational pattern of patient residences remained unchanged during those times. Our results demonstrate that there is a distinctive spatio-temporal pattern in violent injury reflected in the ambulance data. People injured in this urban centre more commonly live in areas of social deprivation. During the day, locations of injury and locations of residences are similar. However, later at night, the injury location of highest density shifts to a "nightlife" district, whereas the residence locations of those most at risk of injury do not change.
Stahlhut, Carsten; Attias, Hagai T.; Sekihara, Kensuke
In this paper we present a hierarchical Bayesian model, to tackle the highly ill-posed problem that follows with MEG and EEG source imaging. Our model promotes spatiotemporal patterns through the use of both spatial and temporal basis functions. While in contrast to most previous spatio-temporal ......In this paper we present a hierarchical Bayesian model, to tackle the highly ill-posed problem that follows with MEG and EEG source imaging. Our model promotes spatiotemporal patterns through the use of both spatial and temporal basis functions. While in contrast to most previous spatio...
Zarrella, K L; Schuerger, J M
Test-retest reliability data gathered from 83 sources (62 independent samples) were analyzed using a multiple-regression method to estimate the effects of several factors on the temporal stability of occupational interest inventories. Seven self-report inventories were examined--the Act Interest Inventory, the Career Assessment Inventory, the California Occupational Preference System Interest Survey, the Strong Vocational Interest Blank, and the Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory, Form T325 of the Strong Vocational Interest Blank. Samples encompassed a wide range of subjects. Subjects' ages and retest intervals were significant predictors of reliability. Number of items and homogeneity had anomalous relations with stability. Subjects' sex and sample size did not significantly affect reliability. A summary table provides expected reliability coefficients tabulated for combinations of age by test-retest interval.
Sohail, Azmat; Jayaraman, Kumaresan; Venkatesan, Santhoshkannan
the inward-open state of LeuT. We compared LeuT in membranes and micelles using molecular dynamics simulations and lanthanide-based resonance energy transfer (LRET). Simulations of micelle-solubilized LeuT revealed a stable and widely open inward-facing conformation. However, this conformation was unstable...
Full Text Available It has been argued that only moral agents can have preference-interests and this therefore excludes animals. I will present two objections to this argument. The first will show that moral agency is not necessary to have preference-interests. The second will assert that the argument that animals cannot have preference-interests has unwelcome consequences.
Loukomies, Anni; Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari
Pupils' interest has been one of the major concerns in science education research because it can be seen as a gateway to more personalised forms of interest and motivation. However, methods to investigate situational interest in science teaching and learning are not broadly examined. This study compares the pupils' observed situational interest and their expressed situational interest. One class of Finnish fourth-graders (N = 22, age 9-10 years) participated in a heat transfer lesson. The lesson encompassed an interactive demonstration with a thermal camera, teacher-led discussions and the conduct and presentation of a collaborative inquiry task. Pupils expressed their interest levels (scale: 1 = very boring, 5 = very interesting) by using an electronic response system called a 'clicker'. The measurement took place 15 times during the lesson, with 1 measurement being just a rehearsal. The lesson was video recorded, and visible aspects of interest at the measurement time points were analysed. Reported and observational data were compared. In most cases, the observations did not yield data compatible with the pupils' own evaluations, indicating that most pupils' expressed interest is not easily interpreted through observation of their facial expressions and behaviour. In general, the interest of the group as a whole seems to diminish during the lesson. We argue that in order to maintain and increase pupils' interest, their evaluations should be taken into account in lesson planning. Video-based research might also be further enriched and validated by employing the participants' own expressions. The clicker is a suitable means of collecting primary pupils' experiences concerning their interest levels.
There has been increasing scrutiny of government policy decisions and advice in recent years. The supremacy of the national interest has been questioned and self interest theories explored. Administrative systems have been reformed, and the role of the Westminster model of government decision-making endlessly reviewed. Increased interest by economists in the policy process has created a new subject area in economics, namely, public choice theory. It places greater emphasis on individual choic...
De Dominicis, Stefano; Crano, William D.; Ganucci Cancellieri, Uberta
found (both at "between cities" and "within city" levels). Study 2 (N=444) looked at the moderating role of VIT-based risk communication messages on the relationship between vested interest and behavioral intentions. Components of vested interest moderate attitude-intention consistency, suggesting a new......Vested interest theory (VIT), first investigated on environmental risk, suggests that the hedonic relevance of an attitude object moderates relations between attitudes, intentions, and responses to danger. Emphasizing vested interest may maximize impacts of risk communications. Study 1 (N=215...
Tucker, Andrew M
Conflict of interest is common in the practice of medicine, and likely more so in the practice of sports medicine at the highest levels of competition. Two areas where conflict of interest frequently manifest in sports medicine are confidentiality and clinical decision making. Confidentiality can be challenging by the team physician's dual responsibilities to the player-patient and the team. Clinical decision making, traditionally associated with a patient's long term health interests, can be complicated by short term interests rooted in pursuit of winning. These issues are reviewed, hopefully to increase awareness in clinicians who find themselves in these unique situations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hobara, Hiroaki; Hashizume, Satoru; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Usami, Yuko; Mochimaru, Masaaki
...) amputee sprinters, not Asian (AS) sprinters. Although these results indicate differences in sprint performance due to ethnicity, little is known about the ethnicity and spatiotemporal parameters of the 100-m sprint for amputee sprinters...
Chi Wa Cheng; Ben Niu; Mya Warren; Larysa Halyna Pevny; Robin Lovell-Badge; Terence Hwa; Kathryn S. E. Cheah
.... We used the expression of sex-determining region Y box 2 to identify and distinguish the primary and secondary hair follicles and to infer the spatiotemporal dynamics of the follicle formation process...
Z. Cui; G. Xie; Z. Gui; H. Wu
.... Based on the enterprises registration data of Administrator for Industry and Commerce of Wuhan from 1996 to 2007, in this paper, we analysed the spatiotemporal distribution of enterprises in Wuhan city...
Brede, Benjamin; Thies, Boris; Bendix, Jörg; Feister, Uwe
The high spatiotemporal variability of clouds requires automated monitoring systems. This study presents a retrieval algorithm that evaluates observations of a hemispherically scanning thermal infrared radiometer, the NubiScope, to produce georeferenced, spatially explicit cloud maps. The algorithm
Xinliang Xu; Ying Fu; Shuang Li
China has abundant crop residues (CRE) that could be used for bioenergy. The spatiotemporal characteristics of bioenergy production are crucial for high-efficiency use and appropriate management of bioenergy enterprises...
Manga, Edna; Awang, Norhashidah
This article presents an application of a Bayesian spatio-temporal Gaussian process (GP) model on particulate matter concentrations from Peninsular Malaysia. We analyze daily PM10 concentration levels from 35 monitoring sites in June and July 2011. The spatiotemporal model set in a Bayesian hierarchical framework allows for inclusion of informative covariates, meteorological variables and spatiotemporal interactions. Posterior density estimates of the model parameters are obtained by Markov chain Monte Carlo methods. Preliminary data analysis indicate information on PM10 levels at sites classified as industrial locations could explain part of the space time variations. We include the site-type indicator in our modeling efforts. Results of the parameter estimates for the fitted GP model show significant spatio-temporal structure and positive effect of the location-type explanatory variable. We also compute some validation criteria for the out of sample sites that show the adequacy of the model for predicting PM10 at unmonitored sites.
To control source pollution and improve water quality, an understanding of the spatiotemporal characteristics of organic contaminant concentrations in affected receiving waters is necessary. The Songhua River in northeast China is the country's third-largest domestic river and lo...
Bonnyaud, Céline; Pradon, Didier; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Bensmail, Djamel; Roche, Nicolas
... and therefore may help to guide rehabilitation. The aim of this study was thus to determine the spatiotemporal and kinematic parameters which were most related to the walking and turning sub-tasks of TUG performance in stroke patients...
Spatio-temporal analysis of the national parks in Nigeria using geographic information system. S O Mohammed, E N Gajere, E O Eguaroje, H Shaba, J O Ogbole, Y S Mangut, N D Onyeuwaoma, I S Kolawole ...
Greenewald, Kristjan H.; Hero, Alfred O.
We consider the application of KronPCA spatio-temporal modeling techniques1, 2 to the extraction of spatiotemporal features for video dismount classification. KronPCA performs a low-rank type of dimensionality reduction that is adapted to spatio-temporal data and is characterized by the T frame multiframe mean μ and covariance ∑ of p spatial features. For further regularization and improved inverse estimation, we also use the diagonally corrected KronPCA shrinkage methods we presented in.1 We apply this very general method to the modeling of the multivariate temporal behavior of HOG features extracted from pedestrian bounding boxes in video, with gender classification in a challenging dataset chosen as a specific application. The learned covariances for each class are used to extract spatiotemporal features which are then classified, achieving competitive classification performance.
, to what extent infants rely on spatiotemporal or featural object information when individuating objects is currently under debate. Hitherto, infants' use of spatiotemporal and featural object information has only been compared directly using the rather cognitively demanding event mapping design....... The results obtained using this design reveal that infants are more successful using spatiotemporal object information than when using featural information. However, recent studies using the less cognitively demanding event monitoring design have revealed that even younger infants are capable of object...... in the present series of experiments in which infants' use of spatiotemporal and featural information is compared directly using the less demanding event monitoring design. The results are discussed in relation to existing empirical evidence....
Charron, Maud V P; Kluiters, Georgette; Langlais, Michel; Seegers, Henri; Baylis, Matthew; Ezanno, Pauline
.... Our objective was to assess, using a modelling approach, how spatiotemporal heterogeneities in abundance and distribution of hosts and vectors impact the occurrence and amplitude of local and regional BT epidemics...
Full Text Available In this paper, we address outliers in spatiotemporal data streams obtained from sensors placed across geographically distributed locations. Outliers may appear in such sensor data due to various reasons such as instrumental error and environmental change. Real-time detection of these outliers is essential to prevent propagation of errors in subsequent analyses and results. Incremental Principal Component Analysis (IPCA is one possible approach for detecting outliers in such type of spatiotemporal data streams. IPCA has been widely used in many real-time applications such as credit card fraud detection, pattern recognition, and image analysis. However, the suitability of applying IPCA for outlier detection in spatiotemporal data streams is unknown and needs to be investigated. To fill this research gap, this paper contributes by presenting two new IPCA-based outlier detection methods and performing a comparative analysis with the existing IPCA-based outlier detection methods to assess their suitability for spatiotemporal sensor data streams.
Panda, Dileep K; Wahr, John
...). The spatiotemporal evolution of GRACE data reflects consistent patterns with that of several hydroclimatic variables and also shows that most of the water loss has occurred in the northern parts of India...
Ben-Elia, Eran; Alexander, Bayarma; Hubers, Christa; Ettema, Dick
This paper focuses on the interrelationships between ICT, activity fragmentation and travel behaviour. The concept of fragmentation relates to how activities are spatiotemporally reorganized, by subdividing activities into smaller components that are then performed at different times and/or
Tonini, Marj; Pereira, Mário G.; Parente, Joana
A key issue in fire management is the ability to explore and try to predict where and when fires are more likely to occur. This information can be useful to understand the triggering factors of ignitions and for planning strategies to reduce forest fires, to manage the sources of ignition and to identify areas and frame period at risk. Therefore, producing maps displaying forest fires location and their occurrence in time can be of great help for accurately forecasting these hazardous events. In a fire prone country as Portugal, where thousands of events occurs each year, it is involved to drive information about fires over densities and recurrences just by looking at the original arrangement of the mapped ignition points or burnt areas. In this respect, statistical methods originally developed for spatio-temporal stochastic point processes can be employed to find a structure within these large datasets. In the present study, the authors propose an approach to analyze and visualize the evolution in space and in time of forest fires occurred in Portugal during a long frame period (1990 - 2013). Data came from the Portuguese mapped burnt areas official geodatabase (by the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests), which is the result of interpreted satellite measurements. The following statistical analyses were performed: the geographically-weighted summary statistics, to analyze the local variability of the average burned area; the space-time Kernel density, to elaborate smoothed density surfaces representing over densities of fires classed by size and on North vs South region. Finally, we emploied the volume rendering thecnique to visualize the spatio-temporal evolution of these events into a unique map: this representation allows visually inspecting areas and time-step more affected from a high aggregation of forest fires. It results that during the whole investigated period over densities are mainly located in the northern regions, while in the
Zhifeng Liu; Chunyang He; Jianguo Wu
Urbanization is the most dramatic form of land use change that has profoundly influenced environmental and socioeconomic conditions around the world. To assess these impacts and promote urban sustainability, a better understanding of urbanization patterns is needed. Recent studies have suggested several spatiotemporal patterns of urbanization, but their generality is yet to be adequately tested with long-term data. Thus, the main goal of our study was two-fold: (1) to examine the spatiotempor...
Fase, M.M.G.; Vlaar, P.J.G.
This article investigates the extent of capital market interest rate convergence among six EU countries on the one hand, and a group of four countries with floating exchange rates - US, Germany, Japan and Switzerland - on the other. We conclude that interest rate changes within the EU have been and
Berkhout, J.; Lowery, D.; Halpin, D.; Gray, V.
European population ecological studies of interest organizations are rare. The concern about the Schattschneiderian upper-class accent motivating such studies in the United States never gained much traction in European ‘organized’ interest systems. There have been, however, several large-n studies
Bergin, David A.
Where does enduring individual interest come from? One answer is, through social experience that derives from a need for belongingness. Because of this need, students seek social links that influence the development of individual interest. This may occur through experiences with parents, friends, passionate affinity groups, competition, public…
On first contact, students express less interest in plants than in animals. With suitable didactic methods, however, the teacher can actively interest students in plants. In our research we attempted to quantify the influence of these methods. 184 students of three age groups took part in the experiment. We used eight plants (one artificial). We…
Laufer, William S.
Examined the vocational interests and personality characteristics of 69 homeless unemployed men using the Vocational Preference Inventory. Results indicated significant occupational interest, comparable to data reported on employed adults and numerous vocational "types." Personality scales, however, were indicative of possible behavioral…
Kelly, William E.
This study explored the relationship between vocational interests and noctcaelador, defined as strong interest in, and psychological attachment to, the night sky. University students (N = 134) completed the Vocational Preference Inventory (Form C) and the Noctcaelador Inventory. The results indicated that students scoring higher on noctcaelador…
Xu, Jianzhong; Yuan, Ruiping; Xu, Brian; Xu, Melinda
The authors examine the factors influencing mathematics homework interest for Chinese students and compare the findings with a recent study involving U.S. students. The findings from multilevel analyses revealed that some predictors for homework interest functioned similarly (e.g., affective attitude toward homework, learning-oriented reasons,…
The thesis contains a collection of papers on issues in inflation targeting and its implications for the way interest rates are set. In this respect, the first part deals with two largely positive issues: the effect of inflation forecast targeting on the term structure of interest rates and the
Johnson, Richard W.
Scores on scales with identical or similar names on the Strong Vocational Interest Blank for Women and the Kuder Occupational Interest Survey were compared by means of both scale and profile analyses. The individual scales were only moderately intercorrelated; however, the total profiles revealed substantial agreement for most subjects. (Author)
Iliescu, Dragos; Ispas, Dan; Ilie, Alexandra; Ion, Andrei
Using data provided by the Self-Directed Search (SDS) on a sample of 1,519 participants comprising 3 subsamples containing high school students, university students, and working adults, the authors examine the structure of vocational interests in Romania. Three competing structural models of vocational interests (Holland's circumplex model and…
In this article, the concept of school discipline will be explored in relation to that of educational interest. Initially, Clark's account of two different kinds of school order (discipline and control) will be explained. The interest-based theory of school discipline advanced by Pat Wilson will thereafter be analysed. It will be argued that both…
Dohn, Niels Bonderup
The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n=46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students’ interests were investigated by means...
Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is a major public health problem in Libya. In this paper, we describe the eco-epidemiological parameters of CL during the armed conflict period from January 2011 till December 2012. Current spatiotemporal distributions of CL cases were explored and projected to the future using a correlative modelling approach. In addition the present results were compared with our previous data obtained for the time period 1995-2008.We investigated 312 CL patients who presented to the Dermatology Department at the Tripoli Central Hospital and came from 81 endemic areas distributed in 10 districts. The patients presented with typical localized lesions which appeared commonly on the face, arms and legs. Molecular identification of parasites by a PCR-RFLP approach targeting the ITS1 region of the rDNA was successful for 81 patients with two causative species identified: L. major and L. tropica comprised 59 (72.8% and 22 (27.2% cases, respectively. Around 77.3% of L. tropica CL and 57.7% of L. major CL caused single lesions. Five CL patients among our data set were seropositive for HIV. L. tropica was found mainly in three districts, Murqub (27.3%, Jabal al Gharbi (27.3% and Misrata (13.7% while L. major was found in two districts, in Jabal al Gharbi (61% and Jafara (20.3%. Seasonal occurrence of CL cases showed that most cases (74.2% admitted to the hospital between November and March, L. major cases from November till January (69.4%, and L. tropica cases mainly in January and February (41%. Two risk factors were identified for the two species; the presence of previously infected household members, and the presence of rodents and sandflies in patient's neighborhoods. Spatiotemporal projections using correlative distribution models based on current case data and climatic conditions showed that coastal regions have a higher level of risk due to more favourable conditions for the transmitting vectors.Future projection of CL until 2060
Stoma, Szymon; Fröhlich, Martina; Gerber, Susanne; Klipp, Edda
Recently, the availability of high-resolution microscopy together with the advancements in the development of biomarkers as reporters of biomolecular interactions increased the importance of imaging methods in molecular cell biology. These techniques enable the investigation of cellular characteristics like volume, size and geometry as well as volume and geometry of intracellular compartments, and the amount of existing proteins in a spatially resolved manner. Such detailed investigations opened up many new areas of research in the study of spatial, complex and dynamic cellular systems. One of the crucial challenges for the study of such systems is the design of a well stuctured and optimized workflow to provide a systematic and efficient hypothesis verification. Computer Science can efficiently address this task by providing software that facilitates handling, analysis, and evaluation of biological data to the benefit of experimenters and modelers. The Spatio-Temporal Simulation Environment (STSE) is a set of open-source tools provided to conduct spatio-temporal simulations in discrete structures based on microscopy images. The framework contains modules to digitize, represent, analyze, and mathematically model spatial distributions of biochemical species. Graphical user interface (GUI) tools provided with the software enable meshing of the simulation space based on the Voronoi concept. In addition, it supports to automatically acquire spatial information to the mesh from the images based on pixel luminosity (e.g. corresponding to molecular levels from microscopy images). STSE is freely available either as a stand-alone version or included in the linux live distribution Systems Biology Operational Software (SB.OS) and can be downloaded from http://www.stse-software.org/. The Python source code as well as a comprehensive user manual and video tutorials are also offered to the research community. We discuss main concepts of the STSE design and workflow. We
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, the availability of high-resolution microscopy together with the advancements in the development of biomarkers as reporters of biomolecular interactions increased the importance of imaging methods in molecular cell biology. These techniques enable the investigation of cellular characteristics like volume, size and geometry as well as volume and geometry of intracellular compartments, and the amount of existing proteins in a spatially resolved manner. Such detailed investigations opened up many new areas of research in the study of spatial, complex and dynamic cellular systems. One of the crucial challenges for the study of such systems is the design of a well stuctured and optimized workflow to provide a systematic and efficient hypothesis verification. Computer Science can efficiently address this task by providing software that facilitates handling, analysis, and evaluation of biological data to the benefit of experimenters and modelers. Results The Spatio-Temporal Simulation Environment (STSE is a set of open-source tools provided to conduct spatio-temporal simulations in discrete structures based on microscopy images. The framework contains modules to digitize, represent, analyze, and mathematically model spatial distributions of biochemical species. Graphical user interface (GUI tools provided with the software enable meshing of the simulation space based on the Voronoi concept. In addition, it supports to automatically acquire spatial information to the mesh from the images based on pixel luminosity (e.g. corresponding to molecular levels from microscopy images. STSE is freely available either as a stand-alone version or included in the linux live distribution Systems Biology Operational Software (SB.OS and can be downloaded from http://www.stse-software.org/. The Python source code as well as a comprehensive user manual and video tutorials are also offered to the research community. We discuss main concepts
Amro, Ahmad; Al-Dwibe, Hamida; Gashout, Aisha; Moskalenko, Olga; Galafin, Marlena; Hamarsheh, Omar; Frohme, Marcus; Jaeschke, Anja; Schönian, Gabriele; Kuhls, Katrin
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a major public health problem in Libya. In this paper, we describe the eco-epidemiological parameters of CL during the armed conflict period from January 2011 till December 2012. Current spatiotemporal distributions of CL cases were explored and projected to the future using a correlative modelling approach. In addition the present results were compared with our previous data obtained for the time period 1995-2008. We investigated 312 CL patients who presented to the Dermatology Department at the Tripoli Central Hospital and came from 81 endemic areas distributed in 10 districts. The patients presented with typical localized lesions which appeared commonly on the face, arms and legs. Molecular identification of parasites by a PCR-RFLP approach targeting the ITS1 region of the rDNA was successful for 81 patients with two causative species identified: L. major and L. tropica comprised 59 (72.8%) and 22 (27.2%) cases, respectively. Around 77.3% of L. tropica CL and 57.7% of L. major CL caused single lesions. Five CL patients among our data set were seropositive for HIV. L. tropica was found mainly in three districts, Murqub (27.3%), Jabal al Gharbi (27.3%) and Misrata (13.7%) while L. major was found in two districts, in Jabal al Gharbi (61%) and Jafara (20.3%). Seasonal occurrence of CL cases showed that most cases (74.2%) admitted to the hospital between November and March, L. major cases from November till January (69.4%), and L. tropica cases mainly in January and February (41%). Two risk factors were identified for the two species; the presence of previously infected household members, and the presence of rodents and sandflies in patient's neighborhoods. Spatiotemporal projections using correlative distribution models based on current case data and climatic conditions showed that coastal regions have a higher level of risk due to more favourable conditions for the transmitting vectors. Future projection of CL until 2060 showed a
Bonderup Dohn, Niels
The aim of the present mixed-method study was to investigate task-based situational interest of sixth grade students (n = 46), between 12 and 14 years old, during an eight-week engineering design programme in a Science & Technology-class. Students' interests were investigated by means of a descriptive interpretative analysis of qualitative data from classroom observations and informal interviews. The analysis was complemented by a self-report survey to validate findings and determine prevalence. The analysis revealed four main sources of interest: designing inventions, trial-and-error experimentation, achieved functionality of invention, and collaboration. These sources differ in terms of stimuli factors, such as novelty, autonomy (choice), social involvement, self-generation of interest, and task goal orientation. The study shows that design tasks stimulated interest, but only to the extent that students were able to self-regulate their learning strategies.
Hallett, Andrew Hughes
Rather than chronicle recent developments in European long-term interest rates as such, this paper assesses the impact of increases in those interest rates on economic performance and inflation. That puts us in a position to evaluate the economic pressures for further rises in those rates......, the first question posed in this assignment, and the scope for overshooting (the second question), and then make some illustrative predictions of future interest rates in the euro area. We find a wide range of effects from rising interest rates, mostly small and mostly negative, focused on investment...... till the emerging European recovery is on a firmer basis and capable of overcoming increases in the cost of borrowing and shrinking fiscal space. There is also an implication that worries about rising/overshooting interest rates often reflect the fact that inflation risks are unequally distributed...
MCDUFFIE, ANDREA S.; LIEBERMAN, REBECCA G.; YODER, PAUL J.
A randomized control trial comparing two social communication treatments for children with autism spectrum disorder examined the effect of treatment on object interest. Thirty-two children, 18–60 months, were randomly assigned to the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) or Responsive Education and Prelinguistic Milieu Teaching (RPMT) condition. Assessment of object interest was conducted in an unstructured play session with different toys, activities, adult, and location than experienced in treatment. Results indicated children in the RPMT condition showed greater increases in object interest as compared to children in the PECS condition. Because child characteristics such as interest in objects may influence response to interventions using object play as contexts for treatment, it is important to improve our understanding of whether intervention can affect object interest. PMID:22133872
Baijnath, Janine; Duguay, Claude; Sushama, Laxmi; Huziy, Oleksandr
The Laurentian Great Lakes Basin (GLB) is susceptible to snowfall events that derive from extratropical cyclones and heavy lake effect snowfall (HLES). The former is generated by quasigeostropic forcing from positive temperature or vorticity advection associated with low-pressure centres. HLES is produced by planetary boundary layer (PBL) convection that is initiated as a result of cold and dry continental air mass advecting over relatively warm lakes and generating turbulent moisture and heat fluxes into the PBL. HLES events can have disastrous impacts on local communities such as the November 2014 Buffalo storm that caused 13 fatalities. Albeit the many HLES studies, most are focused on specific case study events with a discernible under examination of climatological HLES trend analyses for the Canadian GLB. The research objectives are to first determine the historical, climatological trends in monthly snowfall totals and to examine potential surface and atmospheric variables driving the resultant changes in HLES. The second aims to analyze the historical extremes in snowfall by assessing the intensity, frequency, and duration of snowfall within the domain of interest. Spatiotemporal snowfall and precipitation trends are computed for the 1982 to 2015 period using Daymet (Version 3) monthly gridded observational datasets from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR), NOAA Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (OISST), and the Canadian Ice Service (CIS) datasets are also used for evaluating trends in HLES driving variables such as air temperature, lake surface temperature (LST), ice cover concentration, omega, and vertical temperature gradient (VTGlst-850). Climatological trends in monthly snowfall totals show a significant decrease along the Ontario snowbelt of Lake Superior, Lake Huron and Georgian Bay at the 90 percent confidence level. These results are attributed to significant warming in LST, significant
Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J
We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. Also by relating a topic's interestingness to an article's interestingness, iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 9% to 14% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.
Pon, R K; Cardenas, A F; Buttler, D J; Critchlow, T J
We introduce multiple topic tracking (MTT) for iScore to better recommend news articles for users with multiple interests and to address changes in user interests over time. As an extension of the basic Rocchio algorithm, traditional topic detection and tracking, and single-pass clustering, MTT maintains multiple interest profiles to identify interesting articles for a specific user given user-feedback. Focusing on only interesting topics enables iScore to discard useless profiles to address changes in user interests and to achieve a balance between resource consumption and classification accuracy. iScore is able to achieve higher quality results than traditional methods such as the Rocchio algorithm. We identify several operating parameters that work well for MTT. Using the same parameters, we show that MTT alone yields high quality results for recommending interesting articles from several corpora. The inclusion of MTT improves iScore's performance by 25% in recommending news articles from the Yahoo! News RSS feeds and the TREC11 adaptive filter article collection. And through a small user study, we show that iScore can still perform well when only provided with little user feedback.
Tennyson, Christina A.; Simpson, Suzanne; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Lewis, Suzanne
Objectives: A gluten-free diet is the treatment for celiac disease, but pharmaceutical agents are being developed. The level of interest amongst patients in using a medication to treat celiac disease is unknown. This study examined the level of interest amongst patients in medication to treat celiac disease. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to celiac disease patients and data were collected on demographics, presentation, and interest in medication. Three validated celiac disease-specific instruments were incorporated: Celiac Disease Associated Quality of Life, the Celiac Symptom Index, and the Celiac Dietary Adherence Test. Results: Responses were received from 365 individuals with biopsy-proven celiac disease. Respondents were 78% (n = 276) female, 48% (n = 170) over 50 years of age, and experienced a classical (diarrhea predominant) presentation in 44% (n = 154). Of the 339 individuals answering the question regarding use of a medication to treat celiac disease, 66% were interested. Interest was greatest in older individuals (71% >50 years of age versus 60% celiac disease are interested in using a medication. Interest was highest among men, older individuals, frequent restaurant customers, individuals dissatisfied with their weight or concerned with the cost of a gluten-free diet, and those with a worse quality of life. PMID:24003336
Suzuki, Reiji; Matsubayashi, Shiho; Saito, Fumiyuki; Murate, Tatsuyoshi; Masuda, Tomohisa; Yamamoto, Koichi; Kojima, Ryosuke; Nakadai, Kazuhiro; Okuno, Hiroshi G
Acoustic interactions are important for understanding intra- and interspecific communication in songbird communities from the viewpoint of soundscape ecology. It has been suggested that birds may divide up sound space to increase communication efficiency in such a manner that they tend to avoid overlap with other birds when they sing. We are interested in clarifying the dynamics underlying the process as an example of complex systems based on short-term behavioral plasticity. However, it is very problematic to manually collect spatiotemporal patterns of acoustic events in natural habitats using data derived from a standard single-channel recording of several species singing simultaneously. Our purpose here was to investigate fine-scale spatiotemporal acoustic interactions of the great reed warbler. We surveyed spatial and temporal patterns of several vocalizing color-banded great reed warblers ( Acrocephalus arundinaceus ) using an open-source software for robot audition HARK (Honda Research Institute Japan Audition for Robots with Kyoto University) and three new 16-channel, stand-alone, and water-resistant microphone arrays, named DACHO spread out in the bird's habitat. We first show that our system estimated the location of two color-banded individuals' song posts with mean error distance of 5.5 ± 4.5 m from the location of observed song posts. We then evaluated the temporal localization accuracy of the songs by comparing the duration of localized songs around the song posts with those annotated by human observers, with an accuracy score of average 0.89 for one bird that stayed at one song post. We further found significant temporal overlap avoidance and an asymmetric relationship between songs of the two singing individuals, using transfer entropy. We believe that our system and analytical approach contribute to a better understanding of fine-scale acoustic interactions in time and space in bird communities.
Full Text Available The brain is able to realign asynchronous signals that approximately coincide in both space and time. Given that many experience-based links between visual and auditory stimuli are established in the absence of spatiotemporal proximity, we investigated whether or not temporal realignment arises in these conditions. Participants received a 3-min exposure to visual and auditory stimuli that were separated by 706 ms and appeared either from the same (Experiment 1 or from different spatial positions (Experiment 2. A simultaneity judgment task (SJ was administered right afterwards. Temporal realignment between vision and audition was observed, in both Experiment 1 and 2, when comparing the participants' SJs after this exposure phase with those obtained after a baseline exposure to audiovisual synchrony. However, this effect was present only when the visual stimuli preceded the auditory stimuli during the exposure to asynchrony. A similar pattern of results (temporal realignment after exposure to visual-leading asynchrony but not after exposure to auditory-leading asynchrony was obtained using temporal order judgments (TOJs instead of SJs (Experiment 3. Taken together, these results suggest that temporal recalibration still occurs for visual and auditory stimuli that fall clearly outside the so-called temporal window for multisensory integration and appear from different spatial positions. This temporal realignment may be modulated by long-term experience with the kind of asynchrony (vision-leading that we most frequently encounter in the outside world (e.g., while perceiving distant events.
Yang, Ying; Xu, Yang; Jew, Carol A; Pyles, John A; Kass, Robert E; Tarr, Michael J
Humans are experts at face individuation. Although previous work has identified a network of face-sensitive regions and some of the temporal signatures of face processing, as yet, we do not have a clear understanding of how such face-sensitive regions support learning at different time points. To study the joint spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning, we trained subjects to categorize two groups of novel faces and recorded their neural responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG) throughout learning. A regression analysis of neural responses in face-sensitive regions against behavioral learning curves revealed significant correlations with learning in the majority of the face-sensitive regions in the face network, mostly between 150-250 ms, but also after 300 ms. However, the effect was smaller in nonventral regions (within the superior temporal areas and prefrontal cortex) than that in the ventral regions (within the inferior occipital gyri (IOG), midfusiform gyri (mFUS) and anterior temporal lobes). A multivariate discriminant analysis also revealed that IOG and mFUS, which showed strong correlation effects with learning, exhibited significant discriminability between the two face categories at different time points both between 150-250 ms and after 300 ms. In contrast, the nonventral face-sensitive regions, where correlation effects with learning were smaller, did exhibit some significant discriminability, but mainly after 300 ms. In sum, our findings indicate that early and recurring temporal components arising from ventral face-sensitive regions are critically involved in learning new faces.
Shklovski, Irina; Troshynski, Emily; Dourish, Paul
One of the most significant contemporary technological trends is institutional adoption and use of mobile and location-based systems and services. We argue that the notion of “location” as it manifests itself in location-based systems is being produced as an object of exchange. Here we are specif......One of the most significant contemporary technological trends is institutional adoption and use of mobile and location-based systems and services. We argue that the notion of “location” as it manifests itself in location-based systems is being produced as an object of exchange. Here we...... are specifically concerned with what happens to institutional roles, power relationships, and decision-making processes when a particular type of information—that of spatiotemporal location of people—is made into a technologically tradable object through the use of location-based systems. We examine...... the introduction of GPS (Global Positioning Systems) technologies by the California criminal justice system and the institution of parole for monitoring the movements of parolees, with consequences both for the everyday lives of these parolees and the work practices of their parole officers. We document the ways...
Chang, Jessica T; Kumsta, Caroline; Hellman, Andrew B; Adams, Linnea M; Hansen, Malene
Autophagy has been linked to longevity in many species, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Using a GFP-tagged and a new tandem-tagged Atg8/LGG-1 reporter, we quantified autophagic vesicles and performed autophagic flux assays in multiple tissues of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans and long-lived daf-2/insulin/IGF-1 and glp-1/Notch mutants throughout adulthood. Our data are consistent with an age-related decline in autophagic activity in the intestine, body-wall muscle, pharynx, and neurons of wild-type animals. In contrast, daf-2 and glp-1 mutants displayed unique age- and tissue-specific changes in autophagic activity, indicating that the two longevity paradigms have distinct effects on autophagy during aging. Although autophagy appeared active in the intestine of both long-lived mutants, inhibition of intestinal autophagy significantly abrogated lifespan extension only in glp-1 mutants. Collectively, our data suggest that autophagic activity normally decreases with age in C. elegans, whereas daf-2 and glp-1 long-lived mutants regulate autophagy in distinct spatiotemporal-specific manners to extend lifespan. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18459.001 PMID:28675140
Froula, D. H.; Turnbull, D.; Kessler, T. J.; Haberberger, D.; Bahk, S.-W.; Begishev, I. A.; Boni, R.; Bucht, S.; Davies, A.; Katz, J.; Sefkow, A. B.; Shaw, J. L.
A ``flying focus'' is presented: this advanced focusing scheme provides unprecedented spatiotemporal control over the laser focal volume. A chromatic focusing system combined with chirped laser pulses enabled the speed of a small-diameter laser focus to propagate over nearly 100 × its Rayleigh length. Furthermore, the flying focus decouples the speed at which the peak intensity propagates from the group velocity of the laser pulse, allowing the laser focus to co- or counter-propagate along its axis at any velocity. Experiments have demonstrated a nearly constant intensity over 4.5 mm while the velocity of the focus ranged from subluminal (0.01 c) to superluminal (15 c) . These properties could provide the opportunity to overcome current fundamental limitations in laser-plasma amplifiers, laser-wakefield accelerators, photon accelerators, ion accelerators, and high-order frequency conversion. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.
Getman, Dan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Lopez, Anthony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Mai, Trieu [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dyson, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
In this report, we introduce a methodology to achieve multiple levels of spatial resolution reduction of solar resource data, with minimal impact on data variability, for use in energy systems modeling. The selection of an appropriate clustering algorithm, parameter selection including cluster size, methods of temporal data segmentation, and methods of cluster evaluation are explored in the context of a repeatable process. In describing this process, we illustrate the steps in creating a reduced resolution, but still viable, dataset to support energy systems modeling, e.g. capacity expansion or production cost modeling. This process is demonstrated through the use of a solar resource dataset; however, the methods are applicable to other resource data represented through spatiotemporal grids, including wind data. In addition to energy modeling, the techniques demonstrated in this paper can be used in a novel top-down approach to assess renewable resources within many other contexts that leverage variability in resource data but require reduction in spatial resolution to accommodate modeling or computing constraints.
Walter, M.; Lyon, S.; Steenhuis, T. S.; Seifert, S. L.
Linking spatiotemporally varying hydrologic processes and streamwater quality remains an important research challenge and a critical knowledge gap for improving management strategies. Indeed, the very term "nonpoint source pollution" implies that we cannot generally identify specific flowpaths connecting streams with their surrounding watersheds. Areas where the soil is saturated to the surface play important roles in terrestrial biogeochemistry and watershed hydrology, especially in humid, well-vegetated areas, like the northeastern US. In this talk we present an overview of our work to identify and predict the spatial and temporal distributions of surface saturation and to improve our understanding of how these areas impact water quality. We are finding that areas especially prone to saturation, i.e., hydrologically sensitive areas, account for a disproportionately large fraction of storm runoff and nutrient loss. We suggest targeting these areas when developing water quality protection strategies and will present some recent examples. As our understanding of the relevant hydrological and biogeochemical processes controlling water quality improves, we are making simultaneous improvements in the tools available for environmental-protection professionals, taking advantage of new technologies. At the same time, technological advances in areas like molecular biogeochemistry and nanotechnology are providing exciting new opportunities to investigate landscape hydrological and transport dynamics.
Macnamara, Cicely K; Chaplain, Mark A J
Signal transduction pathways play a major role in many important aspects of cellular function e.g. cell division, apoptosis. One important class of signal transduction pathways is gene regulatory networks (GRNs). In many GRNs, proteins bind to gene sites in the nucleus thereby altering the transcription rate. Such proteins are known as transcription factors. If the binding reduces the transcription rate there is a negative feedback leading to oscillatory behaviour in mRNA and protein levels, both spatially (e.g. by observing fluorescently labelled molecules in single cells) and temporally (e.g. by observing protein/mRNA levels over time). Recent computational modelling has demonstrated that spatial movement of the molecules is a vital component of GRNs and may cause the oscillations. These numerical findings have subsequently been proved rigorously i.e. the diffusion coefficient of the protein/mRNA acts as a bifurcation parameter and gives rise to a Hopf bifurcation. In this paper we first present a model of the canonical GRN (the Hes1 protein) and show the effect of varying the spatial location of gene and protein production sites on the oscillations. We then extend the approach to examine spatio-temporal models of synthetic gene regulatory networks e.g. n-gene repressilators and activator-repressor systems.
Gilroy, Kristin L.; McCuen, Richard H.
SummaryThe increase in land development and urbanization experienced in the US and worldwide is causing environmental degradation. Traditional off-site stormwater management does not protect small streams. To mitigate the negative effects of land development, best management practices (BMPs) are being implemented into stormwater management policies for the purposes of controlling minor flooding and improving water quality. Unfortunately, the effectiveness of BMPs has not been extensively studied. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effects of both location and quantity of two types of BMPs: cisterns and bioretention pits. A spatio-temporal model of a microwatershed was developed to determine the effects of BMPs on single-family, townhome, and commercial lots. The effects of development and the BMPs on peak runoff rates and volumes were compared to pre-development conditions. The results show that cisterns alone are capable of controlling rooftop runoff for small storms. Both the spatial location and the volume of BMP storage on a microwatershed influences the effectiveness of BMPs. The volume of BMP storage is positively correlated to the percent reduction in the peak discharge rate and total runoff volume; however, location is a factor in the peak reduction and a maximum volume of effective storage for both hydrologic metrics does exist. These results provide guidelines for developing stormwater management policies that can potentially reduce pollution of first-order streams, lower the cost and maintenance requirements, enhance aesthetics, and increase safety.
Spann, Stefan M; Kazimierski, Kamil S; Aigner, Christoph S; Kraiger, Markus; Bredies, Kristian; Stollberger, Rudolf
In arterial spin labeling (ASL) a perfusion weighted image is achieved by subtracting a label image from a control image. This perfusion weighted image has an intrinsically low signal to noise ratio and numerous measurements are required to achieve reliable image quality, especially at higher spatial resolutions. To overcome this limitation various denoising approaches have been published using the perfusion weighted image as input for denoising. In this study we propose a new spatio-temporal filtering approach based on total generalized variation (TGV) regularization which exploits the inherent information of control and label pairs simultaneously. In this way, the temporal and spatial similarities of all images are used to jointly denoise the control and label images. To assess the effect of denoising, virtual ground truth data were produced at different SNR levels. Furthermore, high-resolution in-vivo pulsed ASL data sets were acquired and processed. The results show improved image quality, quantitative accuracy and robustness against outliers compared to seven state of the art denoising approaches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Kun; Jurdak, Raja
Understanding the drivers of animal movement is significant for ecology and biology. Yet researchers have so far been unable to fully understand these drivers, largely due to low data resolution. In this study, we analyse a high-frequency movement dataset for a group of grazing cattle and investigate their spatiotemporal patterns using a simple two-state ‘stop-and-move’ mobility model. We find that the dispersal kernel in the moving state is best described by a mixture exponential distribution, indicating the hierarchical nature of the movement. On the other hand, the waiting time appears to be scale-invariant below a certain cut-off and is best described by a truncated power-law distribution, suggesting that the non-moving state is governed by time-varying dynamics. We explore possible explanations for the observed phenomena, covering factors that can play a role in the generation of mobility patterns, such as the context of grazing environment, the intrinsic decision-making mechanism or the energy status of different activities. In particular, we propose a new hypothesis that the underlying movement pattern can be attributed to the most probable observable energy status under the maximum entropy configuration. These results are not only valuable for modelling cattle movement but also provide new insights for understanding the underlying biological basis of grazing behaviour.
Strickland, Stephen L; Daniels, Karen E
Materials adsorbed to the surface of a fluid -- for instance, crude oil, biogenic slicks, or industrial/medical surfactants -- will move in response to surface waves. Due to the difficulty of non-invasive measurement of the spatial distribution of a molecular monolayer, little is known about the dynamics that couple the surface waves and the evolving density field. Here, we report measurements of the spatiotemporal dynamics of the density field of an insoluble surfactant driven by gravity-capillary waves in a shallow cylindrical container. Standing Faraday waves and traveling waves generated by the meniscus are superimposed to create a non-trivial surfactant density field. We measure both the height field of the surface using moir\\'e-imaging, and the density field of the surfactant via the fluorescence of NBD-tagged phosphatidylcholine, a lipid. Through phase-averaging stroboscopically-acquired images of the density field, we determine that the surfactant accumulates on the leading edge of the traveling menis...
Watanabe, Momoko; Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Portaveetus, Thantrira; Oommen, Shelly; Blackburn, James; Nagai, Takahiro; Kitamura, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Kodama, Yasumitsu; Takagi, Ritsuo; Maeda, Takeyasu; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi
Members of the Sox gene family play critical roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridisation analysis of seventeen Sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18 and 21) during murine palatogenesis from initiation to fusion of the palatal shelves above the dorsal side of the tongue. At palatal shelf initiation (E12.5), the localized expression of six Sox genes (Sox2, 5, 6, 9, 12 and 13) was observed in the shelves, whereas Sox4 and Sox11 showed ubiquitious expression. During the down-growth of palatal shelves (E13.5), Sox4, Sox5, and Sox9 exhibited restricted expression to the interior side of the palatal shelves facing the tongue. Following elevation of the palatal shelves (E14.5), Sox2, Sox11 and Sox21 expression was present in the midline epithelial seam. We thus identify dynamic spatio-temporal expression of Sox gene family during the process of palatogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Purpose Ultrafast imaging techniques based on spatiotemporal-encoding (SPEN), such as RASER (rapid acquisition with sequential excitation and refocusing), is a promising new class of sequences since they are largely insensitive to magnetic field variations which cause signal loss and geometric distortion in EPI. So far, attempts to theoretically describe the point-spread-function (PSF) for the original SPEN-imaging techniques have yielded limited success. To fill this gap a novel definition for an apparent PSF is proposed. Theory Spatial resolution in SPEN-imaging is determined by the spatial phase dispersion imprinted on the acquired signal by a frequency-swept excitation or refocusing pulse. The resulting signal attenuation increases with larger distance from the vertex of the quadratic phase profile. Methods Bloch simulations and experiments were performed to validate theoretical derivations. Results The apparent PSF quantifies the fractional contribution of magnetization to a voxel’s signal as a function of distance to the voxel. In contrast, the conventional PSF represents the signal intensity at various locations. Conclusion The definition of the conventional PSF fails for SPEN-imaging since only the phase of isochromats, but not the amplitude of the signal varies. The concept of the apparent PSF is shown to be generalizable to conventional Fourier- imaging techniques. PMID:26712657
Barrett, C.L.; Weisgerber, S.A. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA); Naval Weapons Center, China Lake, CA (USA))
A theoretical analysis of the relationship between cognitive complexity and the perception of time and distance is presented and experimentally verified. Complex tasks produce high rates of mental representation which affect the subjective sense of duration and, through the subjective time scale, the percept of distance derived from dynamic visual cues (i.e., visual cues requiring rate integration). The analysis of the interrelationship of subjective time and subjective distance yields the prediction that, as a function of cognitive complexity, distance estimates derived from dynamic visual cues will be longer than the actual distance whereas estimates based on perceived temporal duration will be shorter than the actual distance. This prediction was confirmed in an experiment in which subjects (both pilots and non-pilots) estimated distances using either temporal cues or dynamic visual cues. The distance estimation task was also combined with secondary loading tasks in order to vary the overall task complexity. The results indicated that distance estimates based on temporal cues were underestimated while estimates based on visual cues were overestimated. This spatio-temporal distortion effect increased with increases in overall task complexity. 30 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.
Torralba, Miguel Angel; Padullés, José María; Losada, Jose Luis; López, Jose Luis
Background Blind people depend on spatial and temporal representations to perform activities of daily living and compete in sport. Objective The aim of this study is to determine the spatiotemporal characteristics of long jumps performed by blind athletes and compare findings with those reported for sighted athletes. Methods We analysed a sample of 12 male athletes competing in the F11 Long Jump Finals at the Paralympic Games in London 2012. Performances were recorded using four high-speed cameras, and speeds were measured using a radar speed gun. The images were processed using validated image analysis software. Results The long jump run-up is shorter in blind athletes than in sighted athletes. We observed statistically significant differences for body centre of mass velocity and an increase in speed over the last three strides prior to take-off, contrasting with reports for sighted athletes and athletes with less severe visual impairment, who maintain or reduce their speed during the last stride. Stride length for the last three strides was the only spatial characteristic that was not significantly associated with effective jump distance. Blind long jumpers extend rather than shorten their last stride. Contact time with the take-off board is longer than that reported for sighted athletes. Conclusion The actions of blind long jumpers, unlike those without disabilities, do not vary their leg actions during the final runway approach for optimal placement on the take-off board. PMID:29018542
Summerhayes, Richard J; Morgan, Geoffrey G; Lincoln, Douglas; Edwards, Howard P; Earnest, Arul; Rahman, Md Bayzidur; Byleveld, Paul; Cowie, Christine T; Beard, John R
This paper describes the spatio-temporal variation of trihalomethanes in drinking water in New South Wales, Australia from 1997 to 2007 We obtained data on trihalomethanes (THMs) from two metropolitan and 13 rural water utilities and conducted a descriptive analysis of the spatial and temporal trends in THMs and the influence of season and drought. Concetrations of monthly THMs in the two metropolitan water utilities of Sydney/Illawarra (mean 66.8 μg/L) and Hunter (mean 62.7 μg/L) were similar compared to the considerable variation between rural water utilities (range in mean THMs: 14.5-330.7 μg/L). Chloroform was the predominate THM in two-thirds of the rural water utilities. Higher concentrations of THMs were found in chlorinated water distribution systems compared to chloraminated systems, and in distribution systems sourced from surface water compared to ground water or mixed surface and ground water. Ground water sourced supplies had a greater proportion of brominated THMs than surface water sourced supplies. There was substantial variation in concentration of THMs between seasons and between periods of drought or no drought. There was a moderate correlation between heavy rainfall and elevated concentrations of THMs. There is considerable spatial and temporal variation in THMs amongst New South Wales water utilities and these variations are likely related to water source, treatment processes, catchments, drought and seasonal factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Igamberdiev, Abir U; Shklovskiy-Kordi, Nikita E
Living systems inhabit the area of the world which is shaped by the predictable space-time of physical objects and forces that can be incorporated into their perception pattern. The process of selecting a "habitable" space-time is the internal quantum measurement in which living systems become embedded into the environment that supports their living state. This means that living organisms choose a coordinate system in which the influence of measurement is minimal. We discuss specific roles of biological macromolecules, in particular of the cytoskeleton, in shaping perception patterns formed in the internal measurement process. Operation of neuron is based on the transmission of signals via cytoskeleton where the digital output is generated that can be decoded through a reflective action of the perceiving agent. It is concluded that the principle of optimality in biology as formulated by Liberman et al. (BioSystems 22, 135-154, 1989) is related to the establishment of spatiotemporal patterns that are maximally predictable and can hold the living state for a prolonged time. This is achieved by the selection of a habitable space approximated to the conditions described by classical physics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Kaisheng; Nan, Wei; Feng, Dongliang; Yi, Zhigang; Zhu, Yandong; Long, Zaiyun; Li, Sen; Zhang, Haihong; Wu, Yamin
Ski is an evolutionarily conserved protein and widely participates in the regulation of various pathological and physiological processes such as wound healing, liver regeneration, development of the embryonic nervous system, muscle differentiation, and progression of many kinds of tumors. However, the distribution and function of Ski in central nervous system lesion and disease remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the spatiotemporal expression of Ski in a spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats. Western Blot analysis indicated that Ski was expressed in both normal and injured spinal cord, and showed a significant upregulation after SCI compared with the sham group. Double-labeled immunofluorescence staining showed that Ski was significantly expressed in astrocytes, but not in the neurons. Western Blot analyses of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and BBB scores were carried out and correlation analysis showed a positive correlation between them. In addition, the relative expression level of Ski was also positively correlated with the relative expression level of GFAP. Moreover, the conspicuous co-expression band of Ski and GFAP at the lesion border was found in the results of immunofluorescence staining combined with the pattern of glial scar formation reflected by H&E staining; in addition, it was found that Ski was also highly associated with glial scar. On the basis of our data, we speculated that Ski might play an important role in the process of reactive astrogliosis after SCI and our study might provide a basis for further study on the detailed role of Ski in astrocytes.
Meyerhans, Andreas; Bessonov, Nickolai; Trofimchuk, Sergei; Volpert, Vitaly
Virus spreading in tissues is determined by virus transport, virus multiplication in host cells and the virus-induced immune response. Cytotoxic T cells remove infected cells with a rate determined by the infection level. The intensity of the immune response has a bell-shaped dependence on the concentration of virus, i.e., it increases at low and decays at high infection levels. A combination of these effects and a time delay in the immune response determine the development of virus infection in tissues like spleen or lymph nodes. The mathematical model described in this work consists of reaction-diffusion equations with a delay. It shows that the different regimes of infection spreading like the establishment of a low level infection, a high level infection or a transition between both are determined by the initial virus load and by the intensity of the immune response. The dynamics of the model solutions include simple and composed waves, and periodic and aperiodic oscillations. The results of analytical and numerical studies of the model provide a systematic basis for a quantitative understanding and interpretation of the determinants of the infection process in target organs and tissues from the image-derived data as well as of the spatiotemporal mechanisms of viral disease pathogenesis, and have direct implications for a biopsy-based medical testing of the chronic infection processes caused by viruses, e.g. HIV, HCV and HBV. PMID:27997613
Full Text Available Predicting large-scale transportation network traffic has become an important and challenging topic in recent decades. Inspired by the domain knowledge of motion prediction, in which the future motion of an object can be predicted based on previous scenes, we propose a network grid representation method that can retain the fine-scale structure of a transportation network. Network-wide traffic speeds are converted into a series of static images and input into a novel deep architecture, namely, spatiotemporal recurrent convolutional networks (SRCNs, for traffic forecasting. The proposed SRCNs inherit the advantages of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs and long short-term memory (LSTM neural networks. The spatial dependencies of network-wide traffic can be captured by DCNNs, and the temporal dynamics can be learned by LSTMs. An experiment on a Beijing transportation network with 278 links demonstrates that SRCNs outperform other deep learning-based algorithms in both short-term and long-term traffic prediction.
Yu, Haiyang; Wu, Zhihai; Wang, Shuqin; Wang, Yunpeng; Ma, Xiaolei
Predicting large-scale transportation network traffic has become an important and challenging topic in recent decades. Inspired by the domain knowledge of motion prediction, in which the future motion of an object can be predicted based on previous scenes, we propose a network grid representation method that can retain the fine-scale structure of a transportation network. Network-wide traffic speeds are converted into a series of static images and input into a novel deep architecture, namely, spatiotemporal recurrent convolutional networks (SRCNs), for traffic forecasting. The proposed SRCNs inherit the advantages of deep convolutional neural networks (DCNNs) and long short-term memory (LSTM) neural networks. The spatial dependencies of network-wide traffic can be captured by DCNNs, and the temporal dynamics can be learned by LSTMs. An experiment on a Beijing transportation network with 278 links demonstrates that SRCNs outperform other deep learning-based algorithms in both short-term and long-term traffic prediction. PMID:28672867
Watts, Alexander G.; Schlichting, P; Billerman, S; Jesmer, B; Micheletti, S; Fortin, M.-J.; Funk, W.C.; Hapeman, P; Muths, Erin L.; Murphy, M.A.
Heterogeneous landscapes and fluctuating environmental conditions can affect species dispersal, population genetics, and genetic structure, yet understanding how biotic and abiotic factors affect population dynamics in a fluctuating environment is critical for species management. We evaluated how spatio-temporal habitat connectivity influences dispersal and genetic structure in a population of boreal chorus frogs (Pseudacris maculata) using a landscape genetics approach. We developed gravity models to assess the contribution of various factors to the observed genetic distance as a measure of functional connectivity. We selected (a) wetland (within-site) and (b) landscape matrix (between-site) characteristics; and (c) wetland connectivity metrics using a unique methodology. Specifically, we developed three networks that quantify wetland connectivity based on: (i) P. maculata dispersal ability, (ii) temporal variation in wetland quality, and (iii) contribution of wetland stepping-stones to frog dispersal. We examined 18 wetlands in Colorado, and quantified 12 microsatellite loci from 322 individual frogs. We found that genetic connectivity was related to topographic complexity, within- and between-wetland differences in moisture, and wetland functional connectivity as contributed by stepping-stone wetlands. Our results highlight the role that dynamic environmental factors have on dispersal-limited species and illustrate how complex asynchronous interactions contribute to the structure of spatially-explicit metapopulations.
Full Text Available Hepatitis C Virus (HCV is the most prevalent human pathogen in Pakistan and is the major cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in infected patients. It has shifted from being hypo-endemic to being hyper-endemic. There was no information about the origin and evolution of the local variants. Here we use newly developed phyloinformatic methods of sequence analysis to conduct the first comprehensive investigation of the evolutionary and biogeographic history in unprecedented detail and breadth. Considering evolutionary rate and molecular-clock hypothesis in context, we reconstructed the spatiotemporal spread of HCV in the whole territory of its circulation using a combination of Bayesian MCMC methods utilizing all sequences available in GenBank. Comparative analysis were performed and were addressed. Whole genome and individual gene analysis have shown that sub-types 1a, 1b and 3a are recognized as epidemic strains and are distributed globally. Here we confirm that the origin of HCV 3a genotypes is in South Asia and HCV has evolved in the region to become stably adapted to the host environment.
Meng, Hao; Xie, Wen-Jie; Jiang, Zhi-Qiang; Podobnik, Boris; Zhou, Wei-Xing; Stanley, H. Eugene
Housing markets play a crucial role in economies and the collapse of a real-estate bubble usually destabilizes the financial system and causes economic recessions. We investigate the systemic risk and spatiotemporal dynamics of the US housing market (1975-2011) at the state level based on the Random Matrix Theory (RMT). We identify richer economic information in the largest eigenvalues deviating from RMT predictions for the housing market than for stock markets and find that the component signs of the eigenvectors contain either geographical information or the extent of differences in house price growth rates or both. By looking at the evolution of different quantities such as eigenvalues and eigenvectors, we find that the US housing market experienced six different regimes, which is consistent with the evolution of state clusters identified by the box clustering algorithm and the consensus clustering algorithm on the partial correlation matrices. We find that dramatic increases in the systemic risk are usually accompanied by regime shifts, which provide a means of early detection of housing bubbles.
Kutz, Dieter F.; Wölfel, Alexander; Meindl, Tobias; Timmann, Dagmar; Kolb, Florian P.
This study describes a technique for measuring human grip forces exerted on a cylindrical object via a sensor array. Standardised resistor-based pressure sensor arrays for industrial and medical applications have been available for some time. We used a special 20 mm diameter grip rod that subjects could either move actively with their fingers in the horizontal direction or exert reactive forces against opposing forces generated in the rod by a linear motor. The sensor array film was attached to the rod by adhesive tape and covered approximately 45 cm2 of the rod surface. The sensor density was 4/cm2 with each sensor having a force resolution of 0.1 N. A scan across all sensors resulted in a corresponding frame containing force values at a frame repetition rate of 150/s. The force value of a given sensor was interpreted as a pixel value resulting in a false-colour image. Based on remote sensed image analysis an algorithm was developed to distinguish significant force-representing pixels from those affected by noise. This allowed tracking of the position of identified fingers in subsequent frames such that spatio-temporal grip force profiles for individual fingers could be derived. Moreover, the algorithm allowed simultaneous measurement of forces exerted without any constraints on the number of fingers or on the position of the fingers. The system is thus well suited for basic and clinical research in human physiology as well as for studies in psychophysics. PMID:22454588
Florian P. Kolb
Full Text Available This study describes a technique for measuring human grip forces exerted on a cylindrical object via a sensor array. Standardised resistor-based pressure sensor arrays for industrial and medical applications have been available for some time. We used a special 20 mm diameter grip rod that subjects could either move actively with their fingers in the horizontal direction or exert reactive forces against opposing forces generated in the rod by a linear motor. The sensor array film was attached to the rod by adhesive tape and covered approximately 45 cm2 of the rod surface. The sensor density was 4/cm2 with each sensor having a force resolution of 0.1 N. A scan across all sensors resulted in a corresponding frame containing force values at a frame repetition rate of 150/s. The force value of a given sensor was interpreted as a pixel value resulting in a false-colour image. Based on remote sensed image analysis an algorithm was developed to distinguish significant force-representing pixels from those affected by noise. This allowed tracking of the position of identified fingers in subsequent frames such that spatio-temporal grip force profiles for individual fingers could be derived. Moreover, the algorithm allowed simultaneous measurement of forces exerted without any constraints on the number of fingers or on the position of the fingers. The system is thus well suited for basic and clinical research in human physiology as well as for studies in psychophysics.
Korah, Thommen; Rasmussen, Christopher
We present a technique for constructing a "clean" texture map of a partially occluded building facade from a series of images taken from a moving camera. Building regions blocked by trees, signs, people, and other foreground objects in a minority of views can be recovered via temporal median filtering on a registered image mosaic of the planar facade. However, when such areas are occluded in the majority of camera views, appearance information from other visible portions of the facade provides a critical cue to correctly complete the mosaic. In this paper, we apply a robust measure of spread to infer whether a particular mosaic pixel is occluded in a majority of views, and introduce a novel spatiotemporal timeline-based inpainting algorithm that uses appearance and motion cues in order to fill the texture map in majority-occluded regions. We describe methods for automatically training appearance-based classifiers from a coarse motion-based segmentation to efficiently recognize foreground and background patches in static imagery. Results of recovered building facades are shown for various sequences.
Full Text Available Video inpainting or completion is a vital video improvement technique used to repair or edit digital videos. This paper describes a framework for temporally consistent video completion. The proposed method allows to remove dynamic objects or restore missing or tainted regions presented in a video sequence by utilizing spatial and temporal information from neighboring scenes. Masking algorithm is used for detection of scratches or damaged portions in video frames. The algorithm iteratively performs the following operations: achieve frame; update the scene model; update positions of moving objects; replace parts of the frame occupied by the objects marked for remove by using a background model. In this paper, we extend an image inpainting algorithm based texture and structure reconstruction by incorporating an improved strategy for video. Our algorithm is able to deal with a variety of challenging situations which naturally arise in video inpainting, such as the correct reconstruction of dynamic textures, multiple moving objects and moving background. Experimental comparisons to state-of-the-art video completion methods demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. It is shown that the proposed spatio-temporal image inpainting method allows restoring a missing blocks and removing a text from the scenes on videos.
Lee, Chieh-Han; Yu, Hwa-Lung
Dengue Fever is a vector-borne disease that is transmitted between human and mosquitos in tropical and sub-tropical regions. Previous studies have found significant relationship between the epidemic of dengue cases and climate variables, especially temperature and precipitation. Besides, the natural phenomena (e.g., drought) are considered that significantly drop the number of dengue cases by killing vector's breeding environment. However, in Kaohsiung City, Taiwan, there are evidences that the temporal pattern of dengue is correlated to drought events. Kaohsiung City experienced two main dengue outbreaks in 2002 and 2014 that both years were confirmed with serious drought. Especially in 2014, Kaohsiung City was suffered from extremely dengue outbreak in 2014 that reported the highest number of dengue cases in the history. Otherwise, another nearby city, Tainan City, had reported the biggest outbreak in 2015. This study constructs the spatiotemporal model of dengue incidences and index of drought events (Standardized Precipitation Index, SPI) based on the distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM). Other meteorological measures are also included in the analysis.
Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that science & engineering PhD students lose interest in an academic career over the course of graduate training. It is not clear, however, whether this decline reflects students being discouraged from pursuing an academic career by the challenges of obtaining a faculty job or whether it reflects more fundamental changes in students' career goals for reasons other than the academic labor market. We examine this question using a longitudinal survey that follows a cohort of PhD students from 39 U.S. research universities over the course of graduate training to document changes in career preferences and to explore potential drivers of such changes. We report two main results. First, although the vast majority of students start the PhD interested in an academic research career, over time 55% of all students remain interested while 25% lose interest entirely. In addition, 15% of all students were never interested in an academic career during their PhD program, while 5% become more interested. Thus, the declining interest in an academic career is not a general phenomenon across all PhD students, but rather reflects a divergence between those students who remain highly interested in an academic career and other students who are no longer interested in one. Second, we show that the decline we observe is not driven by expectations of academic job availability, nor by related factors such as postdoctoral requirements or the availability of research funding. Instead, the decline appears partly due to the misalignment between students' changing preferences for specific job attributes on the one hand, and the nature of the academic research career itself on the other. Changes in students' perceptions of their own research ability also play a role, while publications do not. We discuss implications for scientific labor markets, PhD career development programs, and science policy.
There is increasing evidence that science & engineering PhD students lose interest in an academic career over the course of graduate training. It is not clear, however, whether this decline reflects students being discouraged from pursuing an academic career by the challenges of obtaining a faculty job or whether it reflects more fundamental changes in students’ career goals for reasons other than the academic labor market. We examine this question using a longitudinal survey that follows a cohort of PhD students from 39 U.S. research universities over the course of graduate training to document changes in career preferences and to explore potential drivers of such changes. We report two main results. First, although the vast majority of students start the PhD interested in an academic research career, over time 55% of all students remain interested while 25% lose interest entirely. In addition, 15% of all students were never interested in an academic career during their PhD program, while 5% become more interested. Thus, the declining interest in an academic career is not a general phenomenon across all PhD students, but rather reflects a divergence between those students who remain highly interested in an academic career and other students who are no longer interested in one. Second, we show that the decline we observe is not driven by expectations of academic job availability, nor by related factors such as postdoctoral requirements or the availability of research funding. Instead, the decline appears partly due to the misalignment between students’ changing preferences for specific job attributes on the one hand, and the nature of the academic research career itself on the other. Changes in students’ perceptions of their own research ability also play a role, while publications do not. We discuss implications for scientific labor markets, PhD career development programs, and science policy. PMID:28922403
Bero, Lisa A; Grundy, Quinn
A current debate about conflicts of interest related to biomedical research is to question whether the focus on financial conflicts of interest overshadows "nonfinancial" interests that could put scientific judgment at equal or greater risk of bias. There is substantial evidence that financial conflicts of interest such as commercial sponsorship of research and investigators lead to systematic biases in scientific research at all stages of the research process. Conflation of "conflicts of interest" with "interests" in general serves to muddy the waters about how to manage conflicts of interest. We call for heightened disclosure of conflicts of interest and policy action beyond disclosure as the sole management strategy. We propose a different strategy to manage interests more broadly to ensure fair representation and accountability.
Lisa A Bero
Full Text Available A current debate about conflicts of interest related to biomedical research is to question whether the focus on financial conflicts of interest overshadows "nonfinancial" interests that could put scientific judgment at equal or greater risk of bias. There is substantial evidence that financial conflicts of interest such as commercial sponsorship of research and investigators lead to systematic biases in scientific research at all stages of the research process. Conflation of "conflicts of interest" with "interests" in general serves to muddy the waters about how to manage conflicts of interest. We call for heightened disclosure of conflicts of interest and policy action beyond disclosure as the sole management strategy. We propose a different strategy to manage interests more broadly to ensure fair representation and accountability.
Loog, Marco; Lauze, Francois Bernard
An elementary characterization of the map underlying Harris corners, also known as Harris interest points or key points, is provided. Two principal and basic assumptions made are: 1) Local image structure is captured in an uncommitted way, simply using weighted raw image values around every image...... location to describe the local image information, and 2) the lower the probability of observing the image structure present in a particular point, the more salient, or interesting, this position is, i.e., saliency is related to how uncommon it is to see a certain image structure, how surprising it is......, the characterization provides a compelling case in favor of Harris interest points over other approaches....
Van Dijk, Dick; Koopman, Siem Jan; Wel, Michel van der
We consider forecasting the term structure of interest rates with the assumption that factors driving the yield curve are stationary around a slowly time-varying mean or ‘shifting endpoint’. The shifting endpoints are captured using either (i) time series methods (exponential smoothing) or (ii......) long-range survey forecasts of either interest rates or inflation and output growth, or (iii) exponentially smoothed realizations of these macro variables. Allowing for shifting endpoints in yield curve factors provides substantial and significant gains in out-of-sample predictive accuracy, relative...... to stationary and random walk benchmarks. Forecast improvements are largest for long-maturity interest rates and for long-horizon forecasts....
Ristić-Fira, A.; Bulat, T.; Keta, O.; Petrović, I. [Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Romano, F.; Cirrone, P.; Cuttone, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, via S. Sofia 62, Catania (Italy)
The aim of this study is to investigate the behavior of radio-resistant human malignant cells, thus enabling better understanding of radiobiological effects of ions in such a case. Radiation sources such as accelerated continuous ion beams and laser technology-based ultra short radiation sources with energy of around 10 MeV will be used. The HTB140 melanoma cells are chosen since it has been shown that they represent the limit case of cellular radio-resistance among the studied tumor cell lines. These cells are particularly interesting as they provide data on the very edge of inactivation capacity of each beam line that is tested. After exposing the cell monolayers to continuous radiations of low (γ-rays) and high (protons) linear energy transfer, the kinetics of disappearance of the phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) foci per cell will be determined. The same procedure will be performed with the pulsed high dose rate protons. Detection and quantification of γ-H2AX foci will be performed by immunohistochemical 3D time-dependent imaging analyses using laser scanning confocal microscopy. Immunoblotting will enable the follow-up of the relation between γ-H2AX and cell cycle arrest via the p53/p21 pathway. In such a way the spatio-temporal changes on sub-cellular level will be visualized, quantified and compared. These results will show whether there is a difference in the effects on cells between continuous and pulsed irradiation mode. Therefore, they will contribute to the data base that might promote pulsed sources for medical treatments of malignant growths.
Suepa, Tanita; Qi, Jiaguo; Lawawirojwong, Siam; Messina, Joseph P
The spatio-temporal characteristics of remote sensing are considered to be the primary advantage in environmental studies. With long-term and frequent satellite observations, it is possible to monitor changes in key biophysical attributes such as phenological characteristics, and relate them to climate change by examining their correlations. Although a number of remote sensing methods have been developed to quantify vegetation seasonal cycles using time-series of vegetation indices, there is limited effort to explore and monitor changes and trends of vegetation phenology in the Monsoon Southeast Asia, which is adversely affected by changes in the Asian monsoon climate. In this study, MODIS EVI and TRMM time series data, along with field survey data, were analyzed to quantify phenological patterns and trends in the Monsoon Southeast Asia during 2001-2010 period and assess their relationship with climate change in the region. The results revealed a great regional variability and inter-annual fluctuation in vegetation phenology. The phenological patterns varied spatially across the region and they were strongly correlated with climate variations and land use patterns. The overall phenological trends appeared to shift towards a later and slightly longer growing season up to 14 days from 2001 to 2010. Interestingly, the corresponding rainy season seemed to have started earlier and ended later, resulting in a slightly longer wet season extending up to 7 days, while the total amount of rainfall in the region decreased during the same time period. The phenological shifts and changes in vegetation growth appeared to be associated with climate events such as EL Niño in 2005. Furthermore, rainfall seemed to be the dominant force driving the phenological changes in naturally vegetated areas and rainfed croplands, whereas land use management was the key factor in irrigated agricultural areas. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, H. C.; He, G. J.; Zhang, X. M.; Jiang, W.; Ling, S. G.
With the continuous development of satellite techniques, it is now possible to acquire a regular series of images concerning a given geographical zone with both high accuracy and low cost. Research on how best to effectively process huge volumes of observational data obtained on different dates for a specific geographical zone, and to exploit the valuable information regarding land cover contained in these images has received increasing interest from the remote sensing community. In contrast to traditional land cover change measures using pair-wise comparisons that emphasize the compositional or configurational changes between dates, this research focuses on the analysis of the temporal sequence of land cover dynamics, which refers to the succession of land cover types for a given area over more than two observational periods. Using a time series of classified Landsat images, ranging from 2006 to 2011, a sequential pattern mining method was extended to this spatiotemporal context to extract sets of connected pixels sharing similar temporal evolutions. The resultant sequential patterns could be selected (or not) based on the range of support values. These selected patterns were used to explore the spatial compositions and temporal evolutions of land cover change within the study region. Experimental results showed that continuous patterns that represent consistent land cover over time appeared as quite homogeneous zones, which agreed with our domain knowledge. Discontinuous patterns that represent land cover change trajectories were dominated by the transition from vegetation to bare land, especially during 2009-2010. This approach quantified land cover changes in terms of the percentage area affected and mapped the spatial distribution of these changes. Sequential pattern mining has been used for string mining or itemset mining in transactions analysis. The expected novel significance of this study is the generalization of the application of the sequential pattern
Yuan, Jing; Li, Xiang; Zhang, Jinhe; Luo, Liao; Dong, Qinglin; Lv, Jinglei; Zhao, Yu; Jiang, Xi; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Tianming
Many recent literature studies have revealed interesting dynamics patterns of functional brain networks derived from fMRI data. However, it has been rarely explored how functional networks spatially overlap (or interact) and how such connectome-scale network interactions temporally evolve. To explore these unanswered questions, this paper presents a novel framework for spatio-temporal modeling of connectome-scale functional brain network interactions via two main effective computational methodologies. First, to integrate, pool and compare brain networks across individuals and their cognitive states under task performances, we designed a novel group-wise dictionary learning scheme to derive connectome-scale consistent brain network templates that can be used to define the common reference space of brain network interactions. Second, the temporal dynamics of spatial network interactions is modeled by a weighted time-evolving graph, and then a data-driven unsupervised learning algorithm based on the dynamic behavioral mixed-membership model (DBMM) is adopted to identify behavioral patterns of brain networks during the temporal evolution process of spatial overlaps/interactions. Experimental results on the Human Connectome Project (HCP) task fMRI data showed that our methods can reveal meaningful, diverse behavior patterns of connectome-scale network interactions. In particular, those networks' behavior patterns are distinct across HCP tasks such as motor, working memory, language and social tasks, and their dynamics well correspond to the temporal changes of specific task designs. In general, our framework offers a new approach to characterizing human brain function by quantitative description for the temporal evolution of spatial overlaps/interactions of connectome-scale brain networks in a standard reference space. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available MALDI mass spectrometry imaging was performed to localize metabolites during the first seven days of the barley germination. Up to 100 mass signals were detected of which 85 signals were identified as 48 different metabolites with highly tissue-specific localizations. Oligosaccharides were observed in the endosperm and in parts of the developed embryo. Lipids in the endosperm co-localized in dependency on their fatty acid compositions with changes in the distributions of diacyl phosphatidylcholines during germination. 26 potentially antifungal hordatines were detected in the embryo with tissue-specific localizations of their glycosylated, hydroxylated, and O-methylated derivates. In order to reveal spatio-temporal patterns in local metabolite compositions, multiple MSI data sets from a time series were analyzed in one batch. This requires a new preprocessing strategy to achieve comparability between data sets as well as a new strategy for unsupervised clustering. The resulting spatial segmentation for each time point sample is visualized in an interactive cluster map and enables simultaneous interactive exploration of all time points. Using this new analysis approach and visualization tool germination-dependent developments of metabolite patterns with single MS position accuracy were discovered. This is the first study that presents metabolite profiling of a cereals' germination process over time by MALDI MSI with the identification of a large number of peaks of agronomically and industrially important compounds such as oligosaccharides, lipids and antifungal agents. Their detailed localization as well as the MS cluster analyses for on-tissue metabolite profile mapping revealed important information for the understanding of the germination process, which is of high scientific interest.
Wang, Ying; Resnick, Susan M; Davatzikos, Christos
Brain changes due to development and maturation, normal aging, or degenerative disease are continuous, gradual, and variable across individuals. To quantify the individual progression of brain changes, we propose a spatio-temporal methodology based on Hidden Markov Models (HMM), and apply it on four-dimensional structural brain magnetic resonance imaging series of older individuals. First, regional brain features are extracted in order to reduce image dimensionality. This process is guided by the objective of the study or the specific imaging patterns whose progression is of interest, for example, the evaluation of Alzheimer-like patterns of brain change in normal individuals. These regional features are used in conjunction with HMMs, which aim to measure the dynamic association between brain structure changes and progressive stages of disease over time. A bagging framework is used to obtain models with good generalization capability, since in practice the number of serial scans is limited. An application of the proposed methodology was to detect individuals with the risk of developing MCI, and therefore it was tested on modeling the progression of brain atrophy patterns in older adults. With HMM models, the state-transition paths corresponding to longitudinal brain changes were constructed from two completely independent datasets, the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging. The statistical analysis of HMM-state paths among the normal, progressive MCI, and MCI groups indicates that, HMM-state index 1 is likely to be a predictor of the conversion from cognitively normal to MCI, potentially many years before clinical symptoms become measurable. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — The AgSat Areas of Interest map contains area polygons where satellite imagery will be collected for the Farm Service Agency (FSA) to provide imagery coverage for...
Coleman, Carolyn I
Liberia is of national security interest to the United States of America. Liberia's 14-year civil war ended in 2003, leaving the country with a collapsed government and failing economic, physical, and social infrastructures...
Lipworth, Wendy; Kerridge, Ian; Morrell, Bronwen; Bonfiglioli, Catriona; Forsyth, Rowena
The news media is frequently criticised for failing to support the goals of government health campaigns. But is this necessarily the purpose of the media? We suggest that while the media has an important role in disseminating health messages, it is a mistake to assume that the media should serve the interests of government as it has its own professional ethics, norms, values, structures and roles that extend well beyond the interests of the health sector, and certainly beyond those of the government. While considerable attention has been given to the ways in which uncritical publication of industry perspectives by news media can negatively impact on public understandings of health and health behaviours, we would argue that it is equally important that journalists not become the 'lapdogs' of government interests. Further, we suggest that the interests of public health may be served more by supporting the ongoing existence of an independent media than by seeking to overdetermine its purpose or scope.
Coleman, Carolyn I
... that can threaten the national security. This paper explores why Liberia is of national security interest to the United States, describes elements of adolescent personal development that were neglected while the nation was in conflict...
Sung, Billy; Yih, Jennifer
Theory proposes that interest is a positive emotion that may either broaden attention to facilitate processing of new information, or narrow attention to preserve engagement with new information. To our knowledge, no research has directly examined the effect of interest on attentional scope. Across four experiments, we show that traits associated with the propensity to experience interest-specifically, trait curiosity and internal boredom proneness-are associated with a narrower scope of attention. We also find that, instead of broadening, interest actually narrows attentional scope in comparison to a neutral state and awe. Challenging the conventional notion that all positive emotions broaden cognition and attention, our findings suggest that specific emotions influence attention in ways that extend beyond a general emotional valence effect.
Tennyson, Christina A; Simpson, Suzanne; Lebwohl, Benjamin; Lewis, Suzanne; Green, Peter H R
A gluten-free diet is the treatment for celiac disease, but pharmaceutical agents are being developed. The level of interest amongst patients in using a medication to treat celiac disease is unknown. This study examined the level of interest amongst patients in medication to treat celiac disease. A questionnaire was distributed to celiac disease patients and data were collected on demographics, presentation, and interest in medication. Three validated celiac disease-specific instruments were incorporated: Celiac Disease Associated Quality of Life, the Celiac Symptom Index, and the Celiac Dietary Adherence Test. Responses were received from 365 individuals with biopsy-proven celiac disease. Respondents were 78% (n = 276) female, 48% (n = 170) over 50 years of age, and experienced a classical (diarrhea predominant) presentation in 44% (n = 154). Of the 339 individuals answering the question regarding use of a medication to treat celiac disease, 66% were interested. Interest was greatest in older individuals (71% >50 years of age versus 60% women, p = 0.0083), frequent restaurant customers (76% versus 58%, p = 0.0006), those dissatisfied with their weight (73% versus 51%, p = 0.0003) and those concerned with the cost of a gluten-free diet (77% versus 64%, p = 0.0176). Length of time since diagnosis, education, presentation, and symptoms with gluten exposure did not demonstrate any effect. Interest in medication was associated with a worse quality of life (CD-QOL 69.4 versus 80.1, p celiac disease are interested in using a medication. Interest was highest among men, older individuals, frequent restaurant customers, individuals dissatisfied with their weight or concerned with the cost of a gluten-free diet, and those with a worse quality of life.
This paper undertakes a survey of theoretical considerations and an analysis of the experience of five African countries with interest rate liberalization. Despite substantial progress in monetary policy reforms, liberalization has only partially affected the level and variability of interest rates. Several factors—macroeconomic instability, oligopolistic financial markets, the absence of developed capital markets, as well as the sequencing of the liberalization programs and the asymmetric av...
Hojat, Mohammadreza; Zuckerman, Marvin
Research on the relationship between personality and specialty interest is important because of its implications in student career counseling and in forecasting future specialty distribution. This study was designed to test the following hypotheses: 1. Students interested in 'surgical' specialties would obtain higher scores on a measure of 'impulsive sensation seeking' and lower scores on a measure of 'neuroticism-anxiety'. 2. Students interested in 'hospital-based' specialties would score lower on a measure of 'sociability' whereas those interested in 'primary care' would score higher on this measure. In addition to these two hypotheses, gender differences on personality were also examined. Study participants were 1,076 students who matriculated at Jefferson Medical College between 2002 to 2006. A short version of the Zuckerman-Kuhlman personality questionnaire (ZKPQ) measuring five personality factors of 'impulsive sensation Seeking', 'neuroticism-anxiety', 'aggression-hostility', 'sociability', and 'activity' was completed by research participants at the beginning of medical school. Students were also asked to note their specialty interests. Multivariate statistical analyses confirmed the first and partially confirmed the second research hypotheses. Results also showed that men scored higher on 'impulsive sensation seeking,' and women outscored men in the 'neuroticism-Anxiety' and 'activity' scales. Findings suggest that information about the personalities of medical students can help to predict their career interests. Implications for career counseling are discussed.
Escalera, Sergio; Pujol, Oriol; Radeva, Petia; Vitrià, Jordi; Anguera, M. Teresa
Social Signal Processing is an emergent area of research that focuses on the analysis of social constructs. Dominance and interest are two of these social constructs. Dominance refers to the level of influence a person has in a conversation. Interest, when referred in terms of group interactions, can be defined as the degree of engagement that the members of a group collectively display during their interaction. In this paper, we argue that only using behavioral motion information, we are able to predict the interest of observers when looking at face-to-face interactions as well as the dominant people. First, we propose a simple set of movement-based features from body, face, and mouth activity in order to define a higher set of interaction indicators. The considered indicators are manually annotated by observers. Based on the opinions obtained, we define an automatic binary dominance detection problem and a multiclass interest quantification problem. Error-Correcting Output Codes framework is used to learn to rank the perceived observer's interest in face-to-face interactions meanwhile Adaboost is used to solve the dominant detection problem. The automatic system shows good correlation between the automatic categorization results and the manual ranking made by the observers in both dominance and interest detection problems.