WorldWideScience

Sample records for vestibular orientation information

  1. The sense of self-motion, orientation and balance explored by vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St George, Rebecca J; Fitzpatrick, Richard C

    2011-02-15

    The sense of orientation during locomotion is derived from our spatial relationship with the external environment, sensed predominantly by sight and sound, and from internal signals of motion, generated by the vestibular sense and the pattern of efferent and afferent signals to the muscles and joints. The sensory channels operate in different reference frames and have different time-dependent adaptive properties and yet the inputs are combined by the central nervous system to create an internal representation of self-motion. In normal circumstances vestibular, visual and proprioceptive cues provide congruent information on locomotor trajectory; however, in cases of sensory discord there must be a recalibration of sensory signals to provide a unitary representation. We develop a means of studying these fusion processes by perturbing each channel in isolation about a consistent behavioural axis. This review focuses on creating the vestibular perturbation of the orientation sense by transmastoidal galvanic stimulation, a technique generally used to evoke balance reflexes. Vector summation across the population of semicircular canal afferents creates a net signal that is interpreted by the brain as a vector of angular acceleration in a craniocentric reference frame. The signal feeds perceptual processes of orientation after transformation that resolves the 3-D signal onto the terrestrial or behavioural plane. Changing head posture changes the interpretation of the galvanic vestibular signal for balance and orientation responses. With appropriate head alignments during locomotion, the galvanic stimulus can be used to either steer trajectory over the terrestrial plane or perturb balance.

  2. Spatial cognition, body representation and affective processes: the role of vestibular information beyond ocular reflexes and control of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mast, Fred W; Preuss, Nora; Hartmann, Matthias; Grabherr, Luzia

    2014-01-01

    A growing number of studies in humans demonstrate the involvement of vestibular information in tasks that are seemingly remote from well-known functions such as space constancy or postural control. In this review article we point out three emerging streams of research highlighting the importance of vestibular input: (1) Spatial Cognition: Modulation of vestibular signals can induce specific changes in spatial cognitive tasks like mental imagery and the processing of numbers. This has been shown in studies manipulating body orientation (changing the input from the otoliths), body rotation (changing the input from the semicircular canals), in clinical findings with vestibular patients, and in studies carried out in microgravity. There is also an effect in the reverse direction; top-down processes can affect perception of vestibular stimuli. (2) Body Representation: Numerous studies demonstrate that vestibular stimulation changes the representation of body parts, and sensitivity to tactile input or pain. Thus, the vestibular system plays an integral role in multisensory coordination of body representation. (3) Affective Processes and Disorders: Studies in psychiatric patients and patients with a vestibular disorder report a high comorbidity of vestibular dysfunctions and psychiatric symptoms. Recent studies investigated the beneficial effect of vestibular stimulation on psychiatric disorders, and how vestibular input can change mood and affect. These three emerging streams of research in vestibular science are-at least in part-associated with different neuronal core mechanisms. Spatial transformations draw on parietal areas, body representation is associated with somatosensory areas, and affective processes involve insular and cingulate cortices, all of which receive vestibular input. Even though a wide range of different vestibular cortical projection areas has been ascertained, their functionality still is scarcely understood.

  3. Spatial Cognition, Body Representation and Affective Processes: The Role of Vestibular Information beyond Ocular Reflexes and Control of Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred W Mast

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of studies in humans demonstrate the involvement of vestibular information in tasks that are seemingly remote from well-known functions such as space constancy or postural control. In this review article we point out three emerging streams of research highlighting the importance of vestibular input: 1 Spatial Cognition: Modulation of vestibular signals can induce specific changes in spatial cognitive tasks like mental imagery and the processing of numbers. This has been shown in studies manipulating body orientation (changing the input from the otoliths, body rotation (changing the input from the semicircular canals, in clinical findings with vestibular patients, and in studies carried out in microgravity. There is also an effect in the reverse direction; top-down processes can affect perception of vestibular stimuli. 2 Body Representation: Numerous studies demonstrate that vestibular stimulation changes the representation of body parts, and sensitivity to tactile input or pain. Thus, the vestibular system plays an integral role in multisensory coordination of body representation. 3 Affective Processes and Disorders: Studies in psychiatric patients and patients with a vestibular disorder report a high comorbidity of vestibular dysfunctions and psychiatric symptoms. Recent studies investigated the beneficial effect of vestibular stimulation on psychiatric disorders, and how vestibular input can change mood and affect. These three emerging streams of research in vestibular science are – at least in part – associated with different neuronal core mechanisms. Spatial transformations draw on parietal areas, body representation is associated with somatosensory areas, and affective processes involve insular and cingulate cortices, all of which receive vestibular input. Even though a wide range of different vestibular cortical projection areas has been ascertained, their functionality still is scarcely understood.

  4. Velocity dependence of vestibular information for postural control on tilting surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluzik, JoAnn; Hlavacka, Frantisek

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular information is known to be important for postural stability on tilting surfaces, but the relative importance of vestibular information across a wide range of surface tilt velocities is less clear. We compared how tilt velocity influences postural orientation and stability in nine subjects with bilateral vestibular loss and nine age-matched, control subjects. Subjects stood on a force platform that tilted 6 deg, toes-up at eight velocities (0.25 to 32 deg/s), with and without vision. Results showed that visual information effectively compensated for lack of vestibular information at all tilt velocities. However, with eyes closed, subjects with vestibular loss were most unstable within a critical tilt velocity range of 2 to 8 deg/s. Subjects with vestibular deficiency lost their balance in more than 90% of trials during the 4 deg/s condition, but never fell during slower tilts (0.25–1 deg/s) and fell only very rarely during faster tilts (16–32 deg/s). At the critical velocity range in which falls occurred, the body center of mass stayed aligned with respect to the surface, onset of ankle dorsiflexion was delayed, and there was delayed or absent gastrocnemius inhibition, suggesting that subjects were attempting to actively align their upper bodies with respect to the moving surface instead of to gravity. Vestibular information may be critical for stability at velocities of 2 to 8 deg/s because postural sway above 2 deg/s may be too fast to elicit stabilizing responses through the graviceptive somatosensory system, and postural sway below 8 deg/s may be too slow for somatosensory-triggered responses or passive stabilization from trunk inertia. PMID:27486101

  5. An Ecological Theory of Orientation and the Vestibular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Riccio, Gary E.

    1988-01-01

    Evidence is presented negating the theory that gravitoinertial force is perceived. It is suggested that spatial orientation is based on information derived from patterns of motion of the organism, the surface of support, and compensatory actions of the organism. Recommendations for further research are outlined. (SLD)

  6. Improving Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Long Duration Space Flight by Enhancing Vestibular Information Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Kofman, I. S.; De Dios, Y. E; Galvan, R.; Goel, R.; Miller, C.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Jeevarajan, J.; Reschke, M.; hide

    2014-01-01

    performance in both ML and anteroposterior planes while stimulating in the ML axis only. We have shown the efficacy of VSR stimulations on enhancing physiological and perceptual responses of whole-body orientation during low frequency perturbations (0.1 Hz) on the ocular motor system using a variable radius centrifuge on both physiological (using eye movements) and perceptual responses (using a joystick) to track imposed oscillations. The variable radius centrifuge provides a selective tilting sensation that is detectable only by the otolith organs providing conflicting information from the canal organs of the vestibular system (intra-vestibular conflict). These results indicate that VSR can improve performance in sensory conflict scenarios like that experienced during space flight. We have showed the efficacy of VSR stimulation to improve balance and locomotor control on subjects exposed to continuous, sinusoidal lateral motion of the support surface while walking on a treadmill while viewing perceptually matched linear optic flow. We have shown the safety of short term continuous use of up to 4 hours of VSR stimulation and its efficacy in improving balance and locomotor function in Parkinson's Disease patients. This technique for improving vestibular signal detection may thus provide additional information to improve strategic abilities. We hypothesize that VSR stimulation will act synergistically with SA training to improve adaptability by increased utilization of vestibular information and therefore serve to optimize and personalize the SA countermeasure prescription. This forms the basis of its usefulness both as a training modality and further help in significantly reducing the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long duration space flight.

  7. Use of galvanic vestibular feedback to control postural orientation in decerebrate rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenin, P V; Hsu, L-J; Orlovsky, G N; Deliagina, T G

    2012-06-01

    In quadrupeds, the dorsal-side-up body orientation during standing is maintained due to a postural system that is driven by feedback signals coming mainly from limb mechanoreceptors. In caudally decerebrated (postmammillary) rabbits, the efficacy of this system is considerably reduced. In this paper, we report that the efficacy of postural control in these animals can be restored with galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) applied transcutaneously to the labyrinths. In standing intact rabbits, GVS causes a lateral body sway towards the positive electrode. We used this GVS-caused sway to counteract the lateral body sway resulting from a mechanical perturbation of posture. Experiments were performed on postmammillary rabbits that stood on the tilting platform with their hindlimbs. To make the GVS value dependent on the postural perturbation (i.e., on the lateral body sway caused by tilt of the platform), an artificial feedback loop was formed in the following ways: 1) Information about the body sway was provided by a mechanical sensor; 2) The GVS current was applied when the sway exceeded a threshold value; the polarity of the current was determined by the sway direction. This simple algorithm allowed the "hybrid" postural system to maintain the dorsal-side-up orientation of the hindquarters when the platform was tilted by ± 20°. Thus, an important postural function, i.e., securing lateral stability during standing, can be restored in decerebrate rabbits with the GVS-based artificial feedback. We suggest that such a control system can compensate for the loss of lateral stability of various etiologies, and can be used for restoration of balance control in patients with impaired postural functions.

  8. Vertigo and the processing of vestibular information: A review in the context of predictive coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingner, Carsten M; Axer, Hubertus; Brodoehl, Stefan; Witte, Otto W

    2016-12-01

    This article investigates the processing of vestibular information by interpreting current experimental knowledge in the framework of predictive coding. We demonstrate that this theoretical framework give us insights into several important questions regarding specific properties of the vestibular system. Particularly, we discuss why the vestibular network is more spatially distributed than other sensory networks, why a mismatch in the vestibular system is more clinically disturbing than in other sensory systems, why the vestibular system is only marginally affected by most cerebral lesions, and whether there is a primary vestibular cortex. The use of predictive coding as a theoretical framework further points to some problems with the current interpretation of results that are gained from vestibular stimulation studies. In particular, we argue that cortical responses of vestibular stimuli cannot be interpreted in the same way as responses of other sensory modalities. Finally, we discuss the implications of the new insights, hypotheses and problems that were identified in this review on further directions of research of vestibular information processing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Posture, head stability, and orientation recovery during vestibular regeneration in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, J David; Lim, Insook

    2004-09-01

    Compensatory behavior such as oculomotor, gaze, and postural responses that occur during movement largely depend upon a functioning vestibular system. In the present study, the initial loss and subsequent recovery of postural and head stability in pigeons undergoing vestibular regeneration were examined. Adult pigeons were trained to manipulate a straight run chamber to peck an illuminated key for fluid reward. Six behavioral measures assessing performance, posture, and head stability were quantified. These included run latency, steps (walking), path negotiation (lane changes), gaze saccades, head bobs, and head shakes. Once normative values were obtained for four birds, complete lesion of all receptor cells and denervation of the epithelia in the vestibular endorgans were produced using a single intralabyrinthine application of streptomycin sulfate. Each bird was then tested at specific times during regeneration and the same behavioral measures examined. At 7 days post-streptomycin treatment (PST), all birds exhibited severe postural and head instability, with tremors, head shakes, staggering, and circling predominating. No normal trial runs, walking, gaze saccades, or head bobs were present. Many of these dysfunctions persisted through 3-4 weeks PST. Gradually, tremor and head shakes diminished and were replaced with an increasing number of normal head bobs during steps and gaze saccades. Beginning at 4 weeks PST, but largely inaccurate, was the observed initiation of directed steps, less staggering, and some successful path negotiation. As regeneration progressed, spatial orientation and navigation ability increased and, by 49 days PST, most trials were successful. By 70 days PST, all birds had recovered to pretreatment levels. Thus, it was observed that ataxia must subside, coincident with normalized head and postural stability prior to the recovery of spatial orientation and path navigation recovery. Parallels in recovery were drawn to hair cell regeneration

  10. Influence of sensory information on static balance in older patients with vestibular disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Camila; Gazzola,Juliana Maria; Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni [UNIFESP; Doná, Flávia; Ganança, Fernando Freitas

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: With aging, the sensory systems suffer an accumulation of degenerative, infectious and/or traumatic processes that may hinder the body balance maintenance. Objective: To assess the influence of sensory information on static body balance of elderly individuals with vestibular disorders. Methods: Cross-sectional study of elderly individuals with vestibular disorders. The Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance and posturography integrated with virtual reality (Balance Reh...

  11. Personality changes in patients with vestibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F; Darlington, Cynthia L

    2013-10-29

    The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved to detect linear and angular acceleration of the head in all planes so that the brain is not predominantly reliant on visual information to determine self-motion. Since the vestibular system first evolved in invertebrate species in order to detect gravitational vertical, it is likely that the central nervous system has developed a special dependence upon vestibular input. In addition to the deficits in eye movement and postural reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is convincing evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive and emotional disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in the sense of spatial orientation. Beyond this, however, patients with vestibular disorders have been reported to experience other personality changes that suggest that vestibular sensation is implicated in the sense of self. These are depersonalization and derealization symptoms such as feeling "spaced out", "body feeling strange" and "not feeling in control of self". We propose in this review that these symptoms suggest that the vestibular system may make a unique contribution to the concept of self through information regarding self-motion and self-location that it transmits, albeit indirectly, to areas of the brain such as the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ).

  12. Personality Changes in Patients with Vestibular Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSmith

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved to detect linear and angular acceleration of the head in all planes so that the brain is not predominantly reliant on visual information to determine self-motion. Since the vestibular system first evolved in invertebrate species in order to detect gravitational vertical, it is likely that the central nervous system has developed a special dependence upon vestibular input. In addition to the deficits in eye movement and postural reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is convincing evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive and emotional disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and cortex play in the sense of spatial orientation. Beyond this, however, patients with vestibular disorders have been reported to experience other personality changes that suggest that vestibular sensation is implicated in the sense of self. These are depersonalisation and derealisation symptoms such as feeling ‘spaced out’, ‘body feeling strange’ and ‘not feeling in control of self’. We suggest in this review that these symptoms suggest that the vestibular system may make a unique contribution to the concept of self through the information regarding self-motion and self-location that it transmits, albeit indirectly, to areas of the brain such as the temporo-parietal junction.

  13. The orienting response in information processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sokolov, E. N

    2002-01-01

    ... Organization of Color Space 127 9. The Orienting Responseand Subjective Space I 141 10. The Orienting Responseand Subjective Space II 163vi CONTEiNTS 11. Orienting, Information, and Anticipation 189 12. Auditory Orienting Event-Related Response Potentials in the Study of the 241 13. Addendum: Processing Underlying Principles of Information 323 Glossar...

  14. Top-down approach to vestibular compensation: translational lessons from vestibular rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Carey D.; Hoffer, Michael E.; Gottshall, Kim R.

    2012-01-01

    This review examines vestibular compensation and vestibular rehabilitation from a unified translational research perspective. Laboratory studies illustrate neurobiological principles of vestibular compensation at the molecular, cellular and systems levels in animal models that inform vestibular rehabilitation practice. However, basic research has been hampered by an emphasis on ‘naturalistic’ recovery, with time after insult and drug interventions as primary dependent variables. The vestibular rehabilitation literature, on the other hand, provides information on how the degree of compensation can be shaped by specific activity regimens. The milestones of the early spontaneous static compensation mark the re-establishment of static gaze stability, which provides a common coordinate frame for the brain to interpret residual vestibular information in the context of visual, somatosensory and visceral signals that convey gravitoinertial information. Stabilization of the head orientation and the eye orientation (suppression of spontaneous nystagmus) appear to be necessary by not sufficient conditions for successful rehabilitation, and define a baseline for initiating retraining. The lessons from vestibular rehabilitation in animal models offer the possibility of shaping the recovery trajectory to identify molecular and genetic factors that can improve vestibular compensation. PMID:22981400

  15. Vestibular Function and Depersonalization/Derealization Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregui Renaud, Kathrine

    2015-01-01

    Patients with an acquired sensory dysfunction may experience symptoms of detachment from self or from the environment, which are related primarily to nonspecific symptoms of common mental disorders and secondarily, to the specific sensory dysfunction. This is consistent with the proposal that sensory dysfunction could provoke distress and a discrepancy between the multi-sensory frame given by experience and the actual perception. Both vestibular stimuli and vestibular dysfunction can underlie unreal experiences. Vestibular afferents provide a frame of reference (linear and angular head acceleration) within which spatial information from other senses is interpreted. This paper reviews evidence that symptoms of depersonalization/derealization associated with vestibular dysfunction are a consequence of a sensory mismatch between disordered vestibular input and other sensory signals of orientation.

  16. Influence of sensory information on static balance in older patients with vestibular disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Macedo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With aging, the sensory systems suffer an accumulation of degenerative, infectious and/or traumatic processes that may hinder the body balance maintenance. Objective: To assess the influence of sensory information on static body balance of elderly individuals with vestibular disorders. Methods: Cross-sectional study of elderly individuals with vestibular disorders. The Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance and posturography integrated with virtual reality (Balance Rehabilitation UnitTM were used. Posturography parameters analyzed included center of pressure and velocity of body sway. Results: 123 individuals with mean age of 73.11 were assessed. Worst performance was observed in the Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance condition of visual dome-unstable surface. Differences between conditions were: firm surface-open eyes/firm surface-closed eyes, unstable surface-open eyes/unstable surface-closed eyes (p < 0.001, and unstable surface-closed eyes/unstable surface-visual dome. Considering center of pressure and velocity of body sway, significant differences were observed between the following conditions: firm surface-open eyes/firm surface-closed eyes: firm surface-saccadic stimulus/firm surfacevertical optokinetic stimulus; firm surface-optokinetic stimuli/firm surface-visual-vestibular interaction; and firm surface-visual-vestibular interaction/unstable surface. Worse performances were observed in conditions firm surface-closed eyes, firm surface-vertical optokinetic stimulus, F-visual-vestibular interaction, and unstable surface-closed eyes. There was a difference in the center of pressure between firm surface-closed eyes/firm surface-saccadic stimulus, with a worse performance in the condition of firm surface-closed eyes, and of velocity of body sway, between firm surface-saccadic stimulus/firm surface-horizontal optokinetic stimulus (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Static body balance in elderly individuals with

  17. Assessing Readability and Reliability of Online Patient Information Regarding Vestibular Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Harry; Amin, Nikul; Lakhani, Raj; Martin, Andrew J; Patel, Parag M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study is to objectively assess the quality and readability of websites related to vestibular schwannomas. Patients are increasingly seeking information on confirmed or suspected diagnoses through the Internet. Clinicians are often concerned regarding the accuracy, quality, and readability of web-based sites. Online information relating to vestibular schwannoma was searched using the three most popular search engines. The terms "acoustic neuroma" and "vestibular schwannoma" were used. The top 50 results from each site were assessed for readability using the Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level, Flesch Reading Ease Score, and the Gunning-Fog Index. Quality of website information was scored using the DISCERN tool. Of 300 search results analyzed, 58 separate appropriate websites were identified. The mean readability score using Flesch-Kincaid Grade Level was 10.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.84-10.70). The mean Flesch Reading Ease Score was 48.75 (95% CI 46.57-50.92). The Gunning-Fog Index was 13.40 (95% CI 12.92-13.89). These scores equate to someone finishing secondary school/first year university student. DISCERN scores were highly variable but consistently demonstrated great variability in quality of information. Online patient information on vestibular schwannoma is highly variable in quality. Although there are a wide range of different websites easily available to patients on their condition and its treatment options, the information is written at a difficult level which may exceed the understanding level of many patients as it is written at a higher than average level of expected reading ability.

  18. Influence of sensory information on static balance in older patients with vestibular disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Camila; Gazzola, Juliana Maria; Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; Doná, Flávia; Ganança, Fernando Freitas

    2015-01-01

    With aging, the sensory systems suffer an accumulation of degenerative, infectious and/or traumatic processes that may hinder the body balance maintenance. To assess the influence of sensory information on static body balance of elderly individuals with vestibular disorders. Cross-sectional study of elderly individuals with vestibular disorders. The Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance and posturography integrated with virtual reality (Balance Rehabilitation Unit) were used. Posturography parameters analyzed included center of pressure and velocity of body sway. 123 individuals with mean age of 73.11 were assessed. Worst performance was observed in the Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance condition of visual dome-unstable surface. Differences between conditions were: firm surface-open eyes/firm surface-closed eyes, unstable surface-open eyes/unstable surface-closed eyes (pvestibular interaction; and firm surface-visual-vestibular interaction/unstable surface. Worse performances were observed in conditions firm surface-closed eyes, firm surface-vertical optokinetic stimulus, F-visual-vestibular interaction, and unstable surface-closed eyes. There was a difference in the center of pressure between firm surface-closed eyes/firm surface-saccadic stimulus, with a worse performance in the condition of firm surface-closed eyes, and of velocity of body sway, between firm surface-saccadic stimulus/firm surface-horizontal optokinetic stimulus (pvestibular disorders is worse when the sensory conditions are more challenging, i.e. stable and unstable surfaces, visual stimuli, such as optokinetic and visual-vestibular interaction, and with the eyes closed. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Anatomy of the vestibular system: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sarah; Chang, Richard

    2013-01-01

    A sense of proper sensory processing of head motion and the coordination of visual and postural movements to maintain equilibrium is critical to everyday function. The vestibular system is an intricate organization that involves multiple levels of sensory processing to achieve this goal. This chapter provides an overview of the anatomical structures and pathways of the vestibular system. The five major vestibular structures are located in the inner ear and include: the utricle, the saccule, and the lateral, superior, and posterior semicircular canals. Hair cells on the neuroepithelium of the peripheral vestibular organs carry sensory impulses to primary processing centers in the brainstem and the cerebellum. These areas send input via ascending and descending projections to coordinate vital reflexes, such as the vestibuloocular reflex and the vestibulospinal reflex, which allow for the proper orientation of the eyes and body in response to head motion. Specific connections regarding higher level cortical vestibular structures are poorly understood. Vestibular centers in the brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebral cortex function to integrate sensory information from the peripheral vestibular organs, visual system, and proprioceptive system to allow for proper balance and orientation of the body in its environment.

  20. Kinesthetic and Vestibular Information Modulate Alpha Activity during Spatial Navigation: A Mobile EEG Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Valerian Ehinger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In everyday life, spatial navigation involving locomotion provides congruent visual, vestibular and kinesthetic information that need to be integrated. Yet, previous studies on human brain activity during navigation focus on stationary setups, neglecting vestibular and kinesthetic feedback. The aim of our work is to uncover the influence of those sensory modalities on cortical processing. We developed a fully immersive virtual reality setup combined with high-density mobile electroencephalography (EEG. Participants traversed one leg of a triangle, turned on the spot, continued along the second leg and finally indicated the location of their starting position. Vestibular and kinesthetic information was provided either in combination, as isolated sources of information or not at all within a 2x2 full factorial intra-subjects design. EEG data were processed by clustering independent components, and time-frequency spectrograms were calculated. In parietal, occipital and temporal clusters, we detected alpha suppression during the turning movement, which is associated with a heightened demand of visuo-attentional processing, and closely resembles results reported in previous stationary studies. This decrease is present in all conditions and therefore seems to generalize to more natural settings. Yet, in incongruent conditions, when different sensory modalities did not match, the decrease is significantly stronger. Additionally, in more anterior areas, we found that providing only vestibular but no kinesthetic information results in alpha increase. These observations demonstrate that stationary experiments omit important aspects of sensory feedback. Therefore, it is important to develop more natural experimental settings in order to capture a more complete picture of neural correlates of spatial navigation.

  1. Kinesthetic and vestibular information modulate alpha activity during spatial navigation: a mobile EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehinger, Benedikt V; Fischer, Petra; Gert, Anna L; Kaufhold, Lilli; Weber, Felix; Pipa, Gordon; König, Peter

    2014-01-01

    In everyday life, spatial navigation involving locomotion provides congruent visual, vestibular, and kinesthetic information that need to be integrated. Yet, previous studies on human brain activity during navigation focus on stationary setups, neglecting vestibular and kinesthetic feedback. The aim of our work is to uncover the influence of those sensory modalities on cortical processing. We developed a fully immersive virtual reality setup combined with high-density mobile electroencephalography (EEG). Participants traversed one leg of a triangle, turned on the spot, continued along the second leg, and finally indicated the location of their starting position. Vestibular and kinesthetic information was provided either in combination, as isolated sources of information, or not at all within a 2 × 2 full factorial intra-subjects design. EEG data were processed by clustering independent components, and time-frequency spectrograms were calculated. In parietal, occipital, and temporal clusters, we detected alpha suppression during the turning movement, which is associated with a heightened demand of visuo-attentional processing and closely resembles results reported in previous stationary studies. This decrease is present in all conditions and therefore seems to generalize to more natural settings. Yet, in incongruent conditions, when different sensory modalities did not match, the decrease is significantly stronger. Additionally, in more anterior areas we found that providing only vestibular but no kinesthetic information results in alpha increase. These observations demonstrate that stationary experiments omit important aspects of sensory feedback. Therefore, it is important to develop more natural experimental settings in order to capture a more complete picture of neural correlates of spatial navigation.

  2. Otolith-Canal Convergence in Vestibular Nuclei Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, J. David

    1996-01-01

    During manned spaceflight, acute vestibular disturbances often occur, leading to physical duress and a loss of performance. Vestibular adaptation to the weightless environment follows within two to three days yet the mechanisms responsible for the disturbance and subsequent adaptation are still unknown In order to understand vestibular system function in space and normal earth conditions the basic physiological mechanisms of vestibular information co coding must be determined. Information processing regarding head movement and head position with respect to gravity takes place in the vestibular nuclei neurons that receive signals From the semicircular canals and otolith organs in the vestibular labyrinth. These neurons must synthesize the information into a coded output signal that provides for the head and eye movement reflexes as well as the conscious perception of the body in three-dimensional space The current investigation will for the first time. determine how the vestibular nuclei neurons quantitatively synthesize afferent information from the different linear and angular acceleration receptors in the vestibular labyrinths into an integrated output signal. During the second year of funding, progress on the current project has been focused on the anatomical orientation of semicircular canals and the spatial orientation of the innervating afferent responses. This information is necessary in order to understand how vestibular nuclei neurons process the incoming afferent spatial signals particularly with the convergent otolith afferent signals that are also spatially distributed Since information from the vestibular nuclei is presented to different brain regions associated with differing reflexive and sensory functions it is important to understand the computational mechanisms used by vestibular neurons to produce the appropriate output signal.

  3. Signal processing in the vestibular system during active versus passive head movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathleen E; Roy, Jefferson E

    2004-05-01

    In everyday life, vestibular receptors are activated by both self-generated and externally applied head movements. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the vestibular system reliably encodes head-in-space motion throughout our daily activities and that subsequent processing by upstream cerebellar and cortical pathways is required to transform this information into the reference frames required for voluntary behaviors. However, recent studies have radically changed the way we view the vestibular system. In particular, the results of recent single-unit studies in head-unrestrained monkeys have shown that the vestibular system provides the CNS with more than an estimate of head motion. This review first considers how head-in-space velocity is processed at the level of the vestibular afferents and vestibular nuclei during active versus passive head movements. While vestibular information appears to be similarly processed by vestibular afferents during passive and active motion, it is differentially processed at the level of the vestibular nuclei. For example, one class of neurons in vestibular nuclei, which receives direct inputs from semicircular canal afferents, is substantially less responsive to active head movements than to passively applied head rotations. The projection patterns of these neurons strongly suggest that they are involved in generating head-stabilization responses as well as shaping vestibular information for the computation of spatial orientation. In contrast, a second class of neurons in the vestibular nuclei that mediate the vestibuloocular reflex process vestibular information in a manner that depends principally on the subject's current gaze strategy rather than whether the head movement was self-generated or externally applied. The implications of these results are then discussed in relation to the status of vestibular reflexes (i.e., the vestibuloocular, vestibulocollic, and cervicoocular reflexes) and implications for higher

  4. Characterization of Cochlear, Vestibular and Cochlear-Vestibular Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potentials in Patients with a Vestibulo-Cochlear Implant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T. A. K.; Cavuscens, Samuel; Ranieri, Maurizio; Schwarz, Konrad; Guinand, Nils; van de Berg, Raymond; van den Boogert, Thomas; Lucieer, Floor; van Hoof, Marc; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Kingma, Herman; Micera, Silvestro; Perez Fornos, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    The peripheral vestibular system is critical for the execution of activities of daily life as it provides movement and orientation information to motor and sensory systems. Patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction experience a significant decrease in quality of life and have currently no

  5. Vestibular adaption to an altered gravitational environment : Consequences for spatial orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooij, S.A.E.

    2008-01-01

    Earth's gravity is an omnipresent factor in human life and provides a strong reference for spatial orientation. Changes in the prevailing gravity level, like the transition to weightlessness during space flight, affect spatial orientation and require adaptation of many physiological processes

  6. Improving Early Adaptation Following Long Duration Spaceflight by Enhancing Vestibular Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Kofman, Igor; DeDios, Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Miller, Chris; Peters, Brian; Cohen, Helen; Jeevarajan, Jerome; Reschke, Millard; Wood, Scott; hide

    2014-01-01

    Crewmember adapted to the microgravity state may need to egress the vehicle within a few minutes for safety and operational reasons after g-transitions. The transition from one sensorimotor state to another consists of two main mechanisms: strategic and plastic-adaptive and have been demonstrated in astronauts returning after long duration space flight. Strategic modifications represent "early adaptation" -immediate and transitory changes in control that are employed to deal with short-term changes in the environment. If these modifications are prolonged then plastic-adaptive changes are evoked that modify central nervous system function, automating new behavioral responses. More importantly, this longer term adaptive recovery mechanism was significantly associated with their strategic ability to recover on the first day after return to Earth G. We are developing a method based on stochastic resonance (SR) to enhance information transfer by improving the brain's ability to detect vestibular signals especially when combined with balance training exercises for rapid improvement in functional skill, for standing and mobility. The countermeasure to improve post-flight balance and locomotor disturbances is a stimulus delivery system that is wearable/portable providing low imperceptible levels of white noise based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system (stochastic vestibular stimulation, SVS). The techniques for improving signal detection using SVS may thus provide additional information to improve such strategic abilities and thus help in significantly reducing the number of days required to recover functional performance to preflight levels after long duration space flight. We have conducted a series of studies to document the efficacy of SVS stimulation on balance/locomotion tasks on unstable surfaces and motion tracking tasks during intra-vestibular system conflicts. In an initial study, we showed that SVS improved overall balance

  7. Central vestibular system: vestibular nuclei and posterior cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmack, Neal H

    2003-06-15

    The vestibular nuclei and posterior cerebellum are the destination of vestibular primary afferents and the subject of this review. The vestibular nuclei include four major nuclei (medial, descending, superior and lateral). In addition, smaller vestibular nuclei include: Y-group, parasolitary nucleus, and nucleus intercalatus. Each of the major nuclei can be subdivided further based primarily on cytological and immunohistochemical histological criteria or differences in afferent and/or efferent projections. The primary afferent projections of vestibular end organs are distributed to several ipsilateral vestibular nuclei. Vestibular nuclei communicate bilaterally through a commissural system that is predominantly inhibitory. Secondary vestibular neurons also receive convergent sensory information from optokinetic circuitry, central visual system and neck proprioceptive systems. Secondary vestibular neurons cannot distinguish between sources of afferent activity. However, the discharge of secondary vestibular neurons can distinguish between "active" and "passive" movements. The posterior cerebellum has extensive afferent and efferent connections with vestibular nuclei. Vestibular primary afferents are distributed to the ipsilateral uvula-nodulus as mossy fibers. Vestibular secondary afferents are distributed bilaterally. Climbing fibers to the cerebellum originate from two subnuclei of the contralateral inferior olive; the dorsomedial cell column and beta-nucleus. Vestibular climbing fibers carry information only from the vertical semicircular canals and otoliths. They establish a coordinate map, arrayed in sagittal zones on the surface of the uvula-nodulus. Purkinje cells respond to vestibular stimulation with antiphasic modulation of climbing fiber responses (CFRs) and simple spikes (SSs). The modulation of SSs is out of phase with the modulation of vestibular primary afferents. Modulation of SSs persists, even after vestibular primary afferents are destroyed by a

  8. Visual dependency and dizziness after vestibular neuritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Cousins

    Full Text Available Symptomatic recovery after acute vestibular neuritis (VN is variable, with around 50% of patients reporting long term vestibular symptoms; hence, it is essential to identify factors related to poor clinical outcome. Here we investigated whether excessive reliance on visual input for spatial orientation (visual dependence was associated with long term vestibular symptoms following acute VN. Twenty-eight patients with VN and 25 normal control subjects were included. Patients were enrolled at least 6 months after acute illness. Recovery status was not a criterion for study entry, allowing recruitment of patients with a full range of persistent symptoms. We measured visual dependence with a laptop-based Rod-and-Disk Test and severity of symptoms with the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI. The third of patients showing the worst clinical outcomes (mean DHI score 36-80 had significantly greater visual dependence than normal subjects (6.35° error vs. 3.39° respectively, p = 0.03. Asymptomatic patients and those with minor residual symptoms did not differ from controls. Visual dependence was associated with high levels of persistent vestibular symptoms after acute VN. Over-reliance on visual information for spatial orientation is one characteristic of poorly recovered vestibular neuritis patients. The finding may be clinically useful given that visual dependence may be modified through rehabilitation desensitization techniques.

  9. Vestibular migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lempert, Thomas; Olesen, Jes; Furman, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents diagnostic criteria for vestibular migraine, jointly formulated by the Committee for Classification of Vestibular Disorders of the Bárány Society and the Migraine Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society (IHS). The classification includes vestibular...... migraine and probable vestibular migraine. Vestibular migraine will appear in an appendix of the third edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD) as a first step for new entities, in accordance with the usual IHS procedures. Probable vestibular migraine may be included...... in a later version of the ICHD, when further evidence has been accumulated. The diagnosis of vestibular migraine is based on recurrent vestibular symptoms, a history of migraine, a temporal association between vestibular symptoms and migraine symptoms and exclusion of other causes of vestibular symptoms...

  10. Vestibular information is necessary for maintaining metric properties of representational space: evidence from mental imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péruch, Patrick; Lopez, Christophe; Redon-Zouiteni, Christine; Escoffier, Guy; Zeitoun, Alain; Sanjuan, Mélanie; Devèze, Arnaud; Magnan, Jacques; Borel, Liliane

    2011-09-01

    The vestibular system contributes to a wide range of functions, from postural and oculomotor reflexes to spatial representation and cognition. Vestibular signals are important to maintain an internal, updated representation of the body position and movement in space. However, it is not clear to what extent they are also necessary to mentally simulate movement in situations that do not involve displacements of the body, as in mental imagery. The present study assessed how vestibular loss can affect object-based mental transformations (OMTs), i.e., imagined rotations or translations of objects relative to the environment. Participants performed one task of mental rotation of 3D-objects and two mental scanning tasks dealing with the ability to build and manipulate mental images that have metric properties. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (1 week and 1 month). They were compared to healthy participants tested at similar time intervals and to bilateral vestibular-defective patients tested after the recovery period. Vestibular loss impaired all mental imagery tasks. Performance varied according to the extent of vestibular loss (bilateral patients were frequently the most impaired) and according to the time elapsed after unilateral vestibular neurotomy (deficits were stronger at the early stage after neurotomy and then gradually compensated). These findings indicate that vestibular signals are necessary to perform OMTs and provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in processing metric properties of mental representations. They suggest that vestibular loss disorganizes brain structures commonly involved in mental imagery, and more generally in mental representation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Domain oriented information extraction from the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arens, Andreas; Blaesius, Karl H.

    2003-01-01

    Information retrieval and knowledge acquisition represent the basis of the modern information age. The internet provides the possibility of nearly worldwide unlimited information search. However, for a user searching the internet the huge mass of electronic information offerings requires a lot of time and effort to find the desired information. Because of the lack of context awareness, traditional internet search engines cannot satisfy the growing need for a selective high qualitative filtering and extraction of topic and user oriented information. The aim of the project INFOX-I at the University of Applied Sciences Trier, is to develop concepts to support the user searching information in the WWW. Therefore, there is an urgent need for methods that make it possible to automatically select relevant information on a given domain. Methods from the field of document analysis and knowledge based systems are used. In this paper we outline the concepts and the current state of the project.

  12. The vestibular body: Vestibular contributions to bodily representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Vestibular signals are integrated with signals from other sensory modalities. This convergence could reflect an important mechanism for maintaining the perception of the body. Here we review the current literature in order to develop a framework for understanding how the vestibular system contributes to body representation. According to recent models, we distinguish between three processes for body representation, and we look at whether vestibular signals might influence each process. These are (i) somatosensation, the primary sensory processing of somatic stimuli, (ii) somatoperception, the processes of constructing percepts and experiences of somatic objects and events and (iii) somatorepresentation, the knowledge about the body as a physical object in the world. Vestibular signals appear to contribute to all three levels in this model of body processing. Thus, the traditional view of the vestibular system as a low-level, dedicated orienting module tends to underestimate the pervasive role of vestibular input in bodily self-awareness.

  13. Biomimetic smart sensors for autonomous robotic behavior II: vestibular processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Shuwan; Deligeorges, Socrates; Soloway, Aaron; Lichtenstein, Lee; Gore, Tyler; Hubbard, Allyn

    2009-05-01

    Limited autonomous behaviors are fast becoming a critical capability in the field of robotics as robotic applications are used in more complicated and interactive environments. As additional sensory capabilities are added to robotic platforms, sensor fusion to enhance and facilitate autonomous behavior becomes increasingly important. Using biology as a model, the equivalent of a vestibular system needs to be created in order to orient the system within its environment and allow multi-modal sensor fusion. In mammals, the vestibular system plays a central role in physiological homeostasis and sensory information integration (Fuller et al, Neuroscience 129 (2004) 461-471). At the level of the Superior Colliculus in the brain, there is multimodal sensory integration across visual, auditory, somatosensory, and vestibular inputs (Wallace et al, J Neurophysiol 80 (1998) 1006-1010), with the vestibular component contributing a strong reference frame gating input. Using a simple model for the deep layers of the Superior Colliculus, an off-the-shelf 3-axis solid state gyroscope and accelerometer was used as the equivalent representation of the vestibular system. The acceleration and rotational measurements are used to determine the relationship between a local reference frame of a robotic platform (an iRobot Packbot®) and the inertial reference frame (the outside world), with the simulated vestibular input tightly coupled with the acoustic and optical inputs. Field testing of the robotic platform using acoustics to cue optical sensors coupled through a biomimetic vestibular model for "slew to cue" gunfire detection have shown great promise.

  14. Characterization of Cochlear, Vestibular and Cochlear-Vestibular Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potentials in Patients with a Vestibulo-Cochlear Implant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. K. Nguyen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The peripheral vestibular system is critical for the execution of activities of daily life as it provides movement and orientation information to motor and sensory systems. Patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction experience a significant decrease in quality of life and have currently no viable treatment option. Vestibular implants could eventually restore vestibular function. Most vestibular implant prototypes to date are modified cochlear implants to fast-track development. These use various objective measurements, such as the electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP, to supplement behavioral information. We investigated whether eCAPs could be recorded in patients with a vestibulo-cochlear implant. Specifically, eCAPs were successfully recorded for cochlear and vestibular setups, as well as for mixed cochlear-vestibular setups. Similarities and slight differences were found for the recordings of the three setups. These findings demonstrated the feasibility of eCAP recording with a vestibulo-cochlear implant. They could be used in the short term to reduce current spread and avoid activation of non-targeted neurons. More research is warranted to better understand the neural origin of vestibular eCAPs and to utilize them for clinical applications.

  15. The evolution of concepts of vestibular peripheral information processing: toward the dynamic, adaptive, parallel processing macular model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Muriel D.

    2003-01-01

    In a letter to Robert Hooke, written on 5 February, 1675, Isaac Newton wrote "If I have seen further than certain other men it is by standing upon the shoulders of giants." In his context, Newton was referring to the work of Galileo and Kepler, who preceded him. However, every field has its own giants, those men and women who went before us and, often with few tools at their disposal, uncovered the facts that enabled later researchers to advance knowledge in a particular area. This review traces the history of the evolution of views from early giants in the field of vestibular research to modern concepts of vestibular organ organization and function. Emphasis will be placed on the mammalian maculae as peripheral processors of linear accelerations acting on the head. This review shows that early, correct findings were sometimes unfortunately disregarded, impeding later investigations into the structure and function of the vestibular organs. The central themes are that the macular organs are highly complex, dynamic, adaptive, distributed parallel processors of information, and that historical references can help us to understand our own place in advancing knowledge about their complicated structure and functions.

  16. Vestibular-somatosensory interactions: effects of passive whole-body rotation on somatosensory detection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Raffaella Ferrè

    Full Text Available Vestibular signals are strongly integrated with information from several other sensory modalities. For example, vestibular stimulation was reported to improve tactile detection. However, this improvement could reflect either a multimodal interaction or an indirect interaction driven by vestibular effects on spatial attention and orienting. Here we investigate whether natural vestibular activation induced by passive whole-body rotation influences tactile detection. In particular, we assessed the ability to detect faint tactile stimuli to the fingertips of the left and right hand during spatially congruent or incongruent rotations. We found that passive whole-body rotations significantly enhanced sensitivity to faint shocks, without affecting response bias. Critically, this enhancement of somatosensory sensitivity did not depend on the spatial congruency between the direction of rotation and the hand stimulated. Thus, our results support a multimodal interaction, likely in brain areas receiving both vestibular and somatosensory signals.

  17. Vestibular contributions to high-level sensorimotor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medendorp, W Pieter; Selen, Luc J P

    2017-10-01

    The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied, the role of the vestibular system in higher level sensorimotor functions is less clear. This review covers new research on the vestibular influence on perceptual judgments, motor decisions, and the ability to learn multiple motor actions. Guided by concepts such as optimization, inference, estimation and control, we focus on how the brain determines causal relationships between memorized and visual representations in the updating of visual space, and how vestibular, visual and efferent motor information are integrated in the estimation of body motion. We also discuss evidence that these computations involve multiple coordinate representations, some of which can be probed in parietal cortex using neuronal oscillations derived from EEG. In addition, we describe work on decision making during self-motion, showing a clear modulation of bottom-up acceleration signals on decisions in the saccadic system. Finally, we consider the importance of vestibular signals as contextual cues in motor learning and recall. Taken together, these results emphasize the impact of vestibular information on high-level sensorimotor functions, and identify future directions for theoretical, behavioral, and neurophysiological investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Transformation of Vestibular Signals for the Control of Standing in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Patrick A; Luu, Billy L; Van der Loos, H F Machiel; Croft, Elizabeth A; Inglis, J Timothy; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-11-09

    During standing balance, vestibular signals encode head movement and are transformed into coordinates that are relevant to maintaining upright posture of the whole body. This transformation must account for head-on-body orientation as well as the muscle actions generating the postural response. Here, we investigate whether this transformation is dependent upon a muscle's ability to stabilize the body along the direction of a vestibular disturbance. Subjects were braced on top of a robotic balance system that simulated the mechanics of standing while being exposed to an electrical vestibular stimulus that evoked a craniocentric vestibular error of head roll. The balance system was limited to move in a single plane while the vestibular error direction was manipulated by having subjects rotate their head in yaw. Vestibular-evoked muscle responses were greatest when the vestibular error was aligned with the balance direction and decreased to zero as the two directions became orthogonal. This demonstrates that muscles respond only to the component of the error that is aligned with the balance direction and thus relevant to the balance task, not to the cumulative afferent activity, as expected for vestibulospinal reflex loops. When we reversed the relationship between balancing motor commands and associated vestibular sensory feedback, the direction of vestibular-evoked ankle compensatory responses was also reversed. This implies that the nervous system quickly reassociates new relationships between vestibular sensory signals and motor commands related to maintaining balance. These results indicate that vestibular-evoked muscle activity is a highly flexible balance response organized to compensate for vestibular disturbances. The postural corrections critical to standing balance and navigation rely on transformation of sensory information into reference frames that are relevant for the required motor actions. Here, we demonstrate that the nervous system transforms

  19. Vestibular pathways involved in cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eHitier

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent discoveries have emphasized the role of the vestibular system in cognitive processes such as memory, spatial navigation and bodily self-consciousness. A precise understanding of the vestibular pathways involved is essential to understand the consequences of vestibular diseases for cognition, as well as develop therapeutic strategies to facilitate recovery. The knowledge of the vestibular cortical projections areas, defined as the cortical areas activated by vestibular stimulation, has dramatically increased over the last several years from both anatomical and functional points of view. Four major pathways have been hypothesized to transmit vestibular information to the vestibular cortex: 1 the vestibulo-thalamo-cortical pathway, which probably transmits spatial information about the environment via the parietal, entorhinal and perirhinal cortices to the hippocampus and is associated with spatial representation and self-versus object motion distinctions; 2 the pathway from the dorsal tegmental nucleus via the lateral mammillary nucleus, the anterodorsal nucleus of the thalamus to the entorhinal cortex, which transmits information for estimations of the head direction; 3 the pathway via the nucleus reticularis pontis oralis, the supramammillary nucleus and the medial septum to the hippocampus, which transmits information supporting hippocampal theta rhythm and memory; and 4 a possible pathway via the cerebellum, and the ventral lateral nucleus of the thalamus (perhaps to the parietal cortex, which transmits information for spatial learning. Finally a new pathway is hypothesized via the basal ganglia, potentially involved in spatial learning and spatial memory. From these pathways, progressively emerges the anatomical network of vestibular cognition.

  20. Negative emotional stimuli enhance vestibular processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuss, Nora; Ellis, Andrew W; Mast, Fred W

    2015-08-01

    Recent studies have shown that vestibular stimulation can influence affective processes. In the present study, we examined whether emotional information can also modulate vestibular perception. Participants performed a vestibular discrimination task on a motion platform while viewing emotional pictures. Six different picture categories were taken from the International Affective Picture System: mutilation, threat, snakes, neutral objects, sports, and erotic pictures. Using a Bayesian hierarchical approach, we were able to show that vestibular discrimination improved when participants viewed emotionally negative pictures (mutilation, threat, snake) when compared to neutral/positive objects. We conclude that some of the mechanisms involved in the processing of vestibular information are also sensitive to emotional content. Emotional information signals importance and mobilizes the body for action. In case of danger, a successful motor response requires precise vestibular processing. Therefore, negative emotional information improves processing of vestibular information. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Vestibular signal processing in a subject with somatosensory deafferentation: The case of sitting posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teasdale Normand

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vestibular system of the inner ear provides information about head translation/rotation in space and about the orientation of the head with respect to the gravitoinertial vector. It also largely contributes to the control of posture through vestibulospinal pathways. Testing an individual severely deprived of somatosensory information below the nose, we investigated if equilibrium can be maintained while seated on the sole basis of this information. Results Although she was unstable, the deafferented subject (DS was able to remain seated with the eyes closed in the absence of feet, arm and back supports. However, with the head unconsciously rotated towards the left or right shoulder, the DS's instability markedly increased. Small electrical stimulations of the vestibular apparatus produced large body tilts in the DS contrary to control subjects who did not show clear postural responses to the stimulations. Conclusion The results of the present experiment show that in the lack of vision and somatosensory information, vestibular signal processing allows the maintenance of an active sitting posture (i.e. without back or side rests. When head orientation changes with respect to the trunk, in the absence of vision, the lack of cervical information prevents the transformation of the head-centered vestibular information into a trunk-centered frame of reference of body motion. For the normal subjects, this latter frame of reference enables proper postural adjustments through vestibular signal processing, irrespectively of the orientation of the head with respect to the trunk.

  2. Memorandum on design-oriented information systems research

    OpenAIRE

    Österle, Hubert; Becker, Joerg; Frank, Ulrich; Hess, Thomas; Karagiannis, Dimitris; Krcmar, Helmut; Loos, Peter; Mertens, Peter; Oberweis, Andreas; Sinz, Elmar J.

    2011-01-01

    Information Systems Research (Wirtschaftsinformatik) basically follows two research approaches: the behavioristic approach and the design-oriented approach. In this memorandum, 10 authors propose principles of design-oriented information systems research. Moreover, the memorandum is supported by 111 full professors from the German-speaking scientific community, who with their signature advocate the principles specified therein.

  3. The cognitive neurology of the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemungal, Barry M

    2014-02-01

    The aim is to reappraise the current state about what we know of vestibular cognition. The review focuses on cognition and perception, and hence the stress on human studies. In addition, the cerebral cortex is the main but not exclusive brain region of interest. There is a brief mention of vestibular ocular function if only to demonstrate the differential processing between reflex and perception. The effect of vestibular activation on some aspects of cognition, for example neglect, is not reviewed, as there have been no recent landmark findings in this area. The vestibular cerebellum is pivotal in the differential gating of vestibular perceptual and ocular signals to the cerebral cortex. The neuroanatomical correlates mediating vestibular sensations of self-motion ('am I moving?') and spatial orientation ('where am I now?') are distinct. Vestibular-motion perception is supported by a widespread white matter network. Vestibular activation specifically reduces visual motion cortical excitability, whereas other visual cortical regions show an increase in excitability. As the vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) and self-motion perception can be uncoupled both behaviourally and in neural correlate, deficits underlying vestibular patients' symptoms may not be revealed by simple VOR assessment. Given the pivotal cerebellar role in gating vestibular signals to perceptual regions, modulating mechanisms of cerebellar plasticity, for example by combining training with medication or brain stimulation, may prove fruitful in treating the symptoms of chronic dizzy patients.

  4. Vestibular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Precht, W

    1979-01-01

    It is apparent from this and other reviews of the subject that our knowledge of vestibular function is most complete for the primary canal and otolithic afferents. Relatively little progress has been made in the understanding of receptor mechanisms and the functional importance of the efferent vestibular system. Since most of it has been summarized previously the latter were not considered here. Considerably more knowledge has accumulated in the field of central vestibular mechanisms, particularly those related to eye movements. Recent advances in functional synaptology of direct and indirect vestibuloocular pathways are described. It appears that the indirect pathways are essential for the central integration of the peripheral head velocity into a central eye position signal. Candidates for the neural integrator are presented and discussed and their connectivity described both for the horizontal and the relatively poorly studied vertical eye movement system. This field will certainly be studied extensively during the next years. Another interesting field is the role of the cerebellum in the control the vestibuloocular reflex. Recent data and hypotheses, including the problem of cerebellar plasticity, are summarized and evaluated. That the vestibular nuclei are by no means a simple relay system for specific vestibular signals destined for other sensory or motor centers is evidenced in this review by the description of multiple canal-canal, canalotolith, and visual-vestibular convergence at the nuclear level. Canal-otolith and polysensory convergence in vestibular neurons enables them to correct for the inherent inadequacies of the peripheral canal system in the low frequency range. The mechanisms of polysensory interaction in the central vestibular system will undoubtedly be an important and interesting field for future research.

  5. Vestibular compensation following vestibular neurotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devèze, A; Montava, M; Lopez, C; Lacour, M; Magnan, J; Borel, L

    2015-09-01

    Four studies assessing vestibular compensation in Menière's disease patients undergoing unilateral vestibular neurotomy, using different analysis methods, are reviewed, with a focus on the different strategies used by patients according to their preoperative sensory preference. Four prospective studies performed in a university tertiary referral center were reviewed, measuring the pattern of vestibular compensation in Menière's disease patients before and after unilateral vestibular neurotomy on various assessment protocols: postural syndrome assessed on static posturography and gait analysis; perceptual syndrome assessed on subjective visual vertical perception; and oculomotor syndrome assessed on ocular cyclotorsion. Vestibular compensation occurred at variable intervals depending on the parameter investigated. Open-eye postural control and gait/walking returned to normal one month after neurotomy. Fine balance analysis found that visual perception of the vertical and ocular cyclotorsion impairment persisted at long-term follow-up. Clinical postural disturbance persisted only when visual afferents were cut off (eyes closed). These impairments were the expression of a postoperative change in postural strategy related to the new use of visual and non-visual references. Understanding pre-operative interindividual variation in balance strategy is critical to screening for postural instability and tailoring vestibular rehabilitation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. The vestibular implant: Quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond eVan De Berg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: to assess the progress of the development of the vestibular implant and its feasibility short-term. Data sources: a search was performed in Pubmed, Medline and Embase. Key words used were vestibular prosth* and vestibular implant. The only search limit was language: English or Dutch. Additional sources were medical books, conference lectures and our personal experience with per-operative vestibular stimulation in patients selected for cochlear implantation.Study selection: all studies about the vestibular implant and related topics were included and evaluated by two reviewers. No study was excluded since every study investigated different aspects of the vestibular implant. Data extraction and synthesis: data was extracted by the first author from selected reports, supplemented by additional information, medical books conference lectures. Since each study had its own point of interest with its own outcomes, it was not possible to compare data of different studies. Conclusion: to use a basic vestibular implant in humans seems feasible in the very near future. Investigations show that electric stimulation of the canal nerves induces a nystagmus which corresponds to the plane of the canal which is innervated by the stimulated nerve branch. The brain is able to adapt to a higher baseline stimulation, while still reacting on a dynamic component. The best response will be achieved by a combination of the optimal stimulus (stimulus profile, stimulus location, precompensation, complemented by central vestibular adaptation. The degree of response will probably vary between individuals, depending on pathology and their ability to adapt.

  7. Dyscalculia and vestibular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P F

    2012-10-01

    A few studies in humans suggest that changes in stimulation of the balance organs of the inner ear (the 'vestibular system') can disrupt numerical cognition, resulting in 'dyscalculia', the inability to manipulate numbers. Many studies have also demonstrated that patients with vestibular dysfunction exhibit deficits in spatial memory. It is suggested that there may be a connection between spatial memory deficits resulting from vestibular dysfunction and the occurrence of dyscalculia, given the evidence that numerosity is coupled to the processing of spatial information (e.g., the 'spatial numerical association of response codes ('SNARC') effect'). The evidence supporting this hypothesis is summarised and potential experiments to test it are proposed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. From ear to uncertainty: Vestibular contributions to cognitive function.

    OpenAIRE

    Paul eSmith; Yiwen eZheng

    2013-01-01

    In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, espe...

  9. International Clinical Protocol on Vestibular Disorders (Dizziness).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinus, Kostiantyn; Claussen, Claus-Frenz

    2017-12-01

    26-28 May at 43 Congress of Neurootological and Equilibriometric Society (Budapest, Hungary) International Clinical Protocol on Vestibular Disorders (Dizziness) being discussed and accepted as Consensus Document. Cochrane reports estimates that dizziness has prevalence of 22.9% in the last 12 months and an incidence of 3.1%. Only 1.8% of adults consulted a physician in the last 12 months. Cochrane reviews suggest that the evidence base for dizziness evaluation is weak, thus necessitates the creation of evidence-based document. Protocol is based at the new concept of vestibular system, which involves the vestibular peripheral sensors, space orientation tetrad, vestibular presentations in the brain cortex and vestibular effectory projections in the brain. Labyrinth consists of sensors, for which six modalities are adequate: 1. acceleration, 2. gravitation, 3. low frequency whole-body vibration, 4. Infrasound, 5. magnetic impulse, 6. metabolic changes. Vestibular system from rhomboid fosse gets the inputs from visual, acoustic, somatosensory organs, integrating them and forming space perception and orientation. Interaction with space is realized through sensory, motor, vegetative and limbic projections. So, vestibular disturbances may manifest as paropsia, tinnitus, numbness. Vestibular evoked potentials (not VEMP) and craniocorpography have highest sensitivity (90% and more). As vestibular dysfunction has recurrent character patients need monitoring.

  10. Aligning Strategic Orientation with Information Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Eric W. Ford; Timothy R. Huerta; Nir Menachemi; Dmytro Babik

    2013-01-01

    In this research, five steps are brought up to build up the trademark map, including (1) deciding sample range of trademarks, (2) analyzing the first-time information, (3) analyzing the second-time information, (4) building up the trademark map, and (5) analyzing the trademark map. This standard procedure can help enterprises create their trademark maps efficiently. A multi-dimensional scale is used for analyzing and building up the trademark map of the most famous one hundred brands, and 86 ...

  11. Information technology orientation for young hospital administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakshi, Syed Murtuza Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Information technology has evolved over the years and taken its place in every sector, including health care. Every health care professional uses a computer almost every day. Information technology is expected to provide the staff with reliable information for decision making, reducing medical errors and processing time and improving communication. As the health care market grows increasingly competitive and complex, hospitals are relying more and more on information technology as a primary tool to help them compete. Every postgraduate should take a basic course on computers and IT applications. Many universities and colleges offer a masters program in health administration, and with enormous numbers of new post graduates, well grounded in IT, are offering their services to hospitals and allied health care divisions. Their experiences are reflected in the various job codes, which illustrate the need for planning, careful investment, and educational training to put information technology to work in today's sophisticated advanced health care setting. Information technology cannot reach its full potential without a properly trained staff working together as a team.

  12. Effects of electrotactile vestibular substitution on rehabilitation of patients with bilateral vestibular loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Camila Giacomo Carneiro; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Danilov, Yuri

    2010-06-07

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of electrotactile tongue biofeedback (BrainPort((R))) as a sensory substitute for the vestibular apparatus in patients with bilateral vestibular loss (BVL) who did not have a good response to conventional vestibular rehabilitation (VR). Seven patients with BVL were trained to use the device. Stimulation on the surface of the tongue was created by a dynamic pattern of electrical pulses and the patient was able to adjust the intensity of stimulation and spatially centralize the stimulus on the electrode array. Patients were directed to continuously adjust head orientation and to maintain the stimulus pattern at the center of the array. Postural tasks that present progressive difficulties were given during the use of the device. Pre- and post-treatment distribution of the sensory organization test (SOT) composite score showed an average value of 38.3+/-8.7 and 59.9+/-11.3, respectively, indicating a statistically significant improvement (p=0.01). Electrotactile tongue biofeedback significantly improved the postural control of the study group, even if they had not improved with conventional VR. The electrotactile tongue biofeedback system was able to supply additional information about head position with respect to gravitational vertical orientation in the absence of vestibular input, improving postural control. Patients with BVL can integrate electrotactile information in their postural control in order to improve stability after conventional VR. These results were obtained and verified not only by the subjective questionnaire but also by the SOT composite score. The limitations of the study are the small sample size and short duration of the follow-up. The current findings show that the sensory substitution mediated by electrotactile tongue biofeedback may contribute to the improved balance experienced by these patients compared to VR. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. User-Oriented and Cognitive Models of Information Retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingwersen, Peter; Järvelin, Kalervo; Skov, Mette

    2017-01-01

    applications. Several models with different emphases on user-oriented and cognitive IR are presented—ranging from overall approaches and relevance models to procedural models, cognitive models, and task-based models. The present entry does not discuss empirical findings based on the models.......The domain of user-oriented and cognitive information retrieval (IR) is first discussed, followed by a discussion on the dimensions and types of models one may build for the domain. The focus of the present entry is on the models of user-oriented and cognitive IR, not on their empirical...

  14. Object-oriented modeling of hospital information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graeber, S

    1995-01-01

    We have chosen an object-oriented approach for the modeling of a hospital information system; this avoids some disadvantages of the classic methods (i.e., a combination of Structured Analysis and Entity-Relationship-Model). The primary goal of this procedure was to find and represent the needs of communication in the computer-based part of the information system and, with that, to configure an information server that handles all the interactions. Furthermore, we wanted to develop communication interfaces for the application programs on an object-oriented level.

  15. The vestibular system and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F

    2017-02-01

    The last year has seen a great deal of new information published relating vestibular dysfunction to cognitive impairment in humans, especially in the elderly. The objective of this review is to summarize and critically evaluate this new evidence in the context of the previous literature. This review will address the recent epidemiological/survey studies that link vestibular dysfunction with cognitive impairment in the elderly; recent clinical investigations into cognitive impairment in the context of vestibular dysfunction, both in the elderly and in the cases of otic capsule dehiscence and partial bilateral vestibulopathy; recent evidence that vestibular impairment is associated with hippocampal atrophy; and finally recent evidence relating to the hypothesis that vestibular dysfunction could be a risk factor for dementia. The main implication of these recent studies is that vestibular dysfunction, possibly of any type, may result in cognitive impairment, and this could be especially so for the elderly. Such symptoms will need to be considered in the treatment of patients with vestibular disorders.

  16. Epidemiology and natural history of vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2012-01-01

    This article describes various epidemiologic trends for vestibular schwannomas over the last 35 years, including a brief note on terminology. Additionally, it provides information on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing level following the diagnosis of a vestibular schwannoma. A treatm......This article describes various epidemiologic trends for vestibular schwannomas over the last 35 years, including a brief note on terminology. Additionally, it provides information on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing level following the diagnosis of a vestibular schwannoma....... A treatment strategy based on the natural history of tumor growth and hearing also is discussed....

  17. Personality changes in patients with vestibular dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Paul eSmith; Cynthia eDarlington

    2013-01-01

    The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved to detect linear and angular acceleration of the head in all planes so that the brain is not predominantly reliant on visual information to determine self-motion. Since the vestibular system first evolved in invertebrate species in order to detect gravitational vertical, it is likely that the central nervous system has developed a special dependence upon vestibular input. In addition to the deficits in eye movement and postural reflex...

  18. The vestibular contribution to the head direction signal and navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Ryan M; Taube, Jeffrey S

    2014-01-01

    Spatial learning and navigation depend on neural representations of location and direction within the environment. These representations, encoded by place cells and head direction (HD) cells, respectively, are dominantly controlled by visual cues, but require input from the vestibular system. Vestibular signals play an important role in forming spatial representations in both visual and non-visual environments, but the details of this vestibular contribution are not fully understood. Here, we review the role of the vestibular system in generating various spatial signals in rodents, focusing primarily on HD cells. We also examine the vestibular system's role in navigation and the possible pathways by which vestibular information is conveyed to higher navigation centers.

  19. A User-Oriented Approach to Music Information Retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Lesaffre, Micheline; Leman, Marc; Martens, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Search and retrieval of specific musical content (e.g. emotion, melody) has become an important aspect of system development but only little research is user-oriented. The success of music information retrieval technology primarily depends on both assessing and meeting the needs of its users. Potential users of music information retrieval systems, however, draw upon various ways of expressing themselves. But, who are the potential users of MIR systems and how would they describe music qualiti...

  20. Biomimetics in design-oriented information systems research

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, Michael; Portmann, Edy

    2015-01-01

    Modern information systems (ISs) are becoming increasingly complex. Simultaneously, organizational changes are occurring more often and more rapidly. Therefore, emergent behavior and organic adaptivity are key advantages of ISs. In this paper, a design science research (DSR) question for design-oriented information systems research (DISR) is proposed: Can the application of biomimetic principles to IS design result in the creation of value by innovation? Accordingly, the properties of biologi...

  1. Database issues in object-oriented clinical information systems design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, S C; Thom, J B

    1997-01-01

    A clinical information system (CIS) prototype was created from an Object-Oriented (OO) design. We experienced considerable difficulties when implementing the OO data model in a relational database management system (RDBMS), including lack of semantic power and support for complex objects, inability to encapsulate object methods, and performance degradation due to extensive join operations. This paper reflects on the experiences of a CIS research project and explores issues related to the use of RDBMS and Object-Oriented Database Management Systems (OODBMS) in CIS design and development.

  2. User-oriented views in health care information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portoni, Luisa; Combi, Carlo; Pinciroli, Francesco

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, we present the methodology we adopted in designing and developing an object-oriented database system for the management of medical records. The designed system provides technical solutions to important requirements of most clinical information systems, such as 1) the support of tools to create and manage views on data and view schemas, offering to different users specific perspectives on data tailored to their needs; 2) the capability to handle in a suitable way the temporal aspects related to clinical information; and 3) the effective integration of multimedia data. Remote data access for authorized users is also considered. As clinical application, we describe here the prototype of a user-oriented clinical information system for the archiving and the management of multimedia and temporally oriented clinical data related to percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) patients. Suitable view schemas for various user roles (cath-lab physician, ward nurse, general practitioner) have been modeled and implemented on the basis of a detailed analysis of the considered clinical environment, carried out by an object-oriented approach.

  3. An adaptive vestibular rehabilitation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Benjamin T; Schubert, Michael C

    2017-05-23

    There is a large variation in vestibular rehabilitation (VR) results depending on type of therapy, adherence, and the appropriateness for the patient's level of function. A novel adaptive vestibular rehabilitation (AVR) program was developed and evaluated. Technology and procedure development, and prospective multicenter trial. Those with complete unilateral vestibular hypofunction and symptomatic at least 3 months with a Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) >30 were eligible. Patients were given a device to use with their own computer. They were instructed to use the program daily, with each session lasting about 10 minutes. The task consisted of reporting orientation of the letter C, which appeared when their angular head velocity exceeded a threshold. The letter size and head velocity required were adjusted based on prior performance. Performance on the task was remotely collected by the investigator as well as a weekly DHI score. Four patients aged 31 to 74 years (mean = 51 years) were enrolled in this feasibility study to demonstrate efficacy. Two had treated vestibular schwannomas and two had vestibular neuritis. Starting DHI was 32 to 56 (mean = 42), which was reduced to 0 to 16 (mean = 11.5) after a month of therapy, a clinically and statistically significant (P VR in terms of cost and customization for patient ability and obtained a major improvement in symptoms. This study demonstrated a clinically and statistically significant decrease in symptoms after 4 weeks of therapy. 2b Laryngoscope, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  4. From ear to uncertainty: Vestibular contributions to cognitive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eSmith

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and cortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarise the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation, can modulate cognitive function.

  5. From ear to uncertainty: vestibular contributions to cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F; Zheng, Yiwen

    2013-11-26

    In addition to the deficits in the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that occur following vestibular dysfunction, there is substantial evidence that vestibular loss also causes cognitive disorders, some of which may be due to the reflexive deficits and some of which are related to the role that ascending vestibular pathways to the limbic system and neocortex play in spatial orientation. In this review we summarize the evidence that vestibular loss causes cognitive disorders, especially spatial memory deficits, in animals and humans and critically evaluate the evidence that these deficits are not due to hearing loss, problems with motor control, oscillopsia or anxiety and depression. We review the evidence that vestibular lesions affect head direction and place cells as well as the emerging evidence that artificial activation of the vestibular system, using galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS), can modulate cognitive function.

  6. Peripheral Vestibular System Disease in Vestibular Schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Hansen, Søren; Caye-Thomasen, Per

    2015-01-01

    that this may be caused by both cochlear and retrocochlear mechanisms. Multiple mechanisms may also be at play in the case of dizziness, which may broaden perspectives of therapeutic approach. This study presents a systematic and detailed assessment of vestibular histopathology in temporal bones from patients...... with VS. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of vestibular system histopathology in temporal bones from 17 patients with unilateral VS. The material was obtained from The Copenhagen Temporal Bone Collection. RESULTS: Vestibular schwannomas were associated with atrophy of the vestibular ganglion, loss of fiber...... density of the peripheral vestibular nerve branches, and atrophy of the neuroepithelium of the vestibular end organs. In cases with small tumors, peripheral disease occurred only in the tissue structures innervated by the specific nerve from which the tumor originated. CONCLUSION: Vestibular schwannomas...

  7. Vestibular factors influencing the biomedical support of humans in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg, Byron K.

    . From the above information it is obvious that the vestibular system does have unique requirements when it comes to the biomedical support of space flight. This is not to say that other areas such as cardiovascular, musculo-skeletal, immunological and hematological systems do not have their own unique requirements but that possible solutions to one system can provide continuing problems to another system. For example, artificial gravity might be helpful for long term stabilization of bone demineralization or cardiovascular deconditioning but might introduce a new set of problems in orientation, vestibular conflict and just plain body motion in a rotating space vehicle.

  8. Task, muscle and frequency dependent vestibular control of posture

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Patrick A.; Gunter P Siegmund; Schouten, Alfred C.; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2015-01-01

    The vestibular system is crucial for postural control; however there are considerable differences in the task dependence and frequency response of vestibular reflexes in appendicular and axial muscles. For example, vestibular reflexes are only evoked in appendicular muscles when vestibular information is relevant to postural control, while in neck muscles they are maintained regardless of the requirement to maintain head on trunk balance. Recent investigations have also shown that the bandwid...

  9. SUPPLY CHAIN INFORMATION INTEGRATION THROUGH SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Milanovic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years information integration became significant problem for both natural and legal persons in everyday operations. Huge amount of information are available, but insufficiently processed in order to have useful value. Choosing the right combination of tools and technologies for integration is prerequisite for requiring information from multiple heterogeneous sources and their qualitative and simple using after.In this paper, we have focused on information integration within companies which are parts of supply chain or network. This environment typically includes a various mix of sources, structured (such as relational or other databases, and unstructured (such as document repositories, spreadsheets, documents, web pages, emails and others. Effective information integration and sharing significantly enhances supply chain practices. Service oriented architecture (SOA is an architectural style for building software applications that use services available in a network such as the web. The use of SOA to achieve inter-enterprise supply network information integration has many advantages.

  10. Vestibular implants studied in animal models: clinical and scientific implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard F

    2016-12-01

    Damage to the peripheral vestibular system can result in debilitating postural, perceptual, and visual symptoms. A potential new treatment for this clinical problem is to replace some aspects of peripheral vestibular function with an implant that senses head motion and provides this information to the brain by stimulating branches of the vestibular nerve. In this review I consider animal studies performed at our institution over the past 15 years, which have helped elucidate how the brain processes information provided by a vestibular (semicircular canal) implant and how this information could be used to improve the problems experienced by patients with peripheral vestibular damage. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Vestibular perception is slow: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Cowan, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Multisensory stimuli originating from the same event can be perceived asynchronously due to differential physical and neural delays. The transduction of and physiological responses to vestibular stimulation are extremely fast, suggesting that other stimuli need to be presented prior to vestibular stimulation in order to be perceived as simultaneous. There is, however, a recent and growing body of evidence which indicates that the perceived onset of vestibular stimulation is slow compared to the other senses, such that vestibular stimuli need to be presented prior to other sensory stimuli in order to be perceived synchronously. From a review of this literature it is speculated that this perceived latency of vestibular stimulation may reflect the fact that vestibular stimulation is most often associated with sensory events that occur following head movement, that the vestibular system rarely works alone, that additional computations are required for processing vestibular information, and that the brain prioritizes physiological response to vestibular stimulation over perceptual awareness of stimulation onset. Empirical investigation of these theoretical predictions is encouraged in order to fully understand this surprising result, its implications, and to advance the field.

  12. Evaluation of Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, I. S.; Warren, E.; DeSoto, R.; Moroney, G.; Chastain, J.; De Dios, Y. E.; Gadd, N.; Taylor, L.; Peters, B. T.; Allen, E.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure results in an adaptive central reinterpretation of information from multiple sensory sources to produce a sensorimotor state appropriate for motor actions in this unique environment, but this new adaptive state is no longer appropriate for the 1-g gravitational environment on Earth. During these gravitational transitions, astronauts experience deficits in both perceptual and motor functions including impaired postural control, disruption in spatial orientation, impaired control of locomotion that include alterations in muscle activation variability, modified lower limb kinematics, alterations in head-trunk coordination as well as reduced dynamic visual acuity. Post-flight changes in postural and locomotor control might have adverse consequences if a rapid egress was required following a long-duration mission, where support personnel may not be available to aid crewmembers. The act of emergency egress includes, but is not limited to standing, walking, climbing a ladder, jumping down, monitoring displays, actuating discrete controls, operating auxiliary equipment, and communicating with Mission Control and recovery teams while maintaining spatial orientation, mobility and postural stability in order to escape safely. The average time to recover impaired postural control and functional mobility to preflight levels of performance has been shown to be approximately two weeks after long-duration spaceflight. The postflight alterations are due in part to central reinterpretation of vestibular information caused by exposure to microgravity. In this study we will use a commonly used technique of transcutaneous electrical stimulation applied across the vestibular end organs (galvanic vestibular stimulation, GVS) to disrupt vestibular function as a simulation of post-flight disturbances. The goal of this project is an engineering human-in-the-loop evaluation of a device that can degrade performance of functional tasks (e.g. to maintain upright balance

  13. Ocular Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe, Lilian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Diagnostic testing of the vestibular system is an essential component of treating patients with balance dysfunction. Until recently, testing methods primarily evaluated the integrity of the horizontal semicircular canal, which is only a portion of the vestibular system. Recent advances in technology have afforded clinicians the ability to assess otolith function through vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP testing. VEMP testing from the inferior extraocular muscles of the eye has been the subject of interest of recent research. Objective To summarize recent developments in ocular VEMP testing. Results Recent studies suggest that the ocular VEMP is produced by otolith afferents in the superior division of the vestibular nerve. The ocular VEMP is a short latency potential, composed of extraocular myogenic responses activated by sound stimulation and registered by surface electromyography via ipsilateral otolithic and contralateral extraocular muscle activation. The inferior oblique muscle is the most superficial of the six extraocular muscles responsible for eye movement. Therefore, measurement of ocular VEMPs can be performed easily by using surface electrodes on the skin below the eyes contralateral to the stimulated side. Conclusion This new variation of the VEMP procedure may supplement conventional testing in difficult to test populations. It may also be possible to use this technique to evaluate previously inaccessible information on the vestibular system.

  14. Market-Oriented Projects: Analysis in an Information Technology Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edson Lara

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces and analyzes the result of research addressing the business performance of the Local Productive Arrangement of Information Technology RMBH-MG. The theoretical model of reference for the quantitative research was the Market Orientation, or Markor scale, proposed by Kohli, Jaworski (1993. 83 entrepreneurs, out of a total of 142 of the sector, as well as 04 leading business entities were investigated. The study shows that the technical support in the development of micro and small enterprises provided by SEBRAE generated better level of satisfaction in the construct "generation of intelligence" and the "reply to", in relation to "construct" dissemination of intelligence ". The construct "response to the market of the companies met" presented higher performance than the construct "dissemination of technological information". The project as a whole was well rated by entrepreneurs. Nomologicamente the theoretical model explains satisfactorily the project performance.

  15. A data oriented framework for developing flexible information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Dařena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of a rapidly changing environment, the success of organizations is dependent upon the ongoing and immediate adjustments of their information systems as reactions to these changes. Therefore, flexibility becomes one of the most crucial features in information systems. This paper specifies a data model oriented framework for the development of flexible information systems. The result of such process is a system that is sufficiently general and flexible in relation to solving problems related to changing environment. From general requirements related to data layer of information systems the paper discusses the definition of major elements of logical data model (entities and their hierarchical arrangement, attributes of the entities and their important characteristics, relationships among entities and their characteristics as well as possibilities of implementation and definition of application logic and data presentation. Proposed framework enables the organization to specify its own database structure, which best matches the situation of the organization and its environment. Because an approach similar to meta-data approaches is applied, methods for information sharing and interchange can be easily specified as well as program logic for manipulation with the data base on the application layer and data presentation.

  16. Physiological principles of vestibular function on earth and in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, L. B.

    1998-01-01

    Physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular function have important implications for our ability to understand, predict, and modify balance processes during and after spaceflight. The microgravity environment of space provides many unique opportunities for studying the effects of changes in gravitoinertial force on structure and function of the vestibular system. Investigations of basic vestibular physiology and of changes in reflexes occurring as a consequence of exposure to microgravity have important implications for diagnosis and treatment of vestibular disorders in human beings. This report reviews physiological principles underlying control of vestibular processes on earth and in space. Information is presented from a functional perspective with emphasis on signals arising from labyrinthine receptors. Changes induced by microgravity in linear acceleration detected by the vestibulo-ocular reflexes. Alterations of the functional requirements for postural control in space are described. Areas of direct correlation between studies of vestibular reflexes in microgravity and vestibular disorders in human beings are discussed.

  17. Clinical Evaluation of the Vestibular Nerve Using Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, Jamie M

    2018-01-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are currently the most clinically accessible method to evaluate the otolith reflex pathways. These responses provide unique information regarding the status of the utriculo-ocular and sacculo-collic reflex pathways, information that has previously been unavailable. Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials are recorded from tonically contracted target muscles known to be innervated by these respective otolith organs. Diagnosticians can use vestibular evoked myogenic potentials to better evaluate the overall integrity of the inner ear and neural pathways; however, there are specific considerations for each otolith reflex protocol. In addition, specific patient populations may require protocol variations to better evaluate atypical function of the inner ear organs, vestibular nerve transmission, or subsequent reflex pathways. This is a review of the clinical application and interpretation of cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

  18. Spatial Orientation in Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-01

    34 antigravity " muscles such as hip and knee extensors. These vestibular reflexes, of course, help keep the body upright with respect to the direction of...Vestibular-visual conflict need not even be in relation to motion but can be in relation to static orientation: some people become sick in " antigravity

  19. Multisensory perception of spatial orientation and self-motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winkel, K.N.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/315557435

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to improve our insight in how the brain combines information from different sensory systems (e.g. vestibular and visual system) into an integrated percept of self-motion and spatial orientation. Based on evidence from other research in different areas, such as hand-eye

  20. Highly Developed Information-oriented Society and Humanity ; Medical Information Services and Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakimoto, Atsuko

    Change in social circumstances caused by arrival of highly developed information-oriented society has altered what information services in medical libraries should be dramatically. Keeping with complication and diversification of needs by users such as medical doctors, researchers, medical technicians and so on medical librarians have been playing important role in the information activities, and are required to master more specialized knowledge. This paper outlines changes in circumstances surrounding medical libraries, discusses role of medical librarians in online information retrieval services, and introduces various curriculum for library education. The author proposes that humanity of librarian him or herself is still a key factor for library services regardless of advancement of computerization.

  1. Neuropharmacological basis of vestibular system disorder treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Enrique; Vega, Rosario; Seseña, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    This work reviews the neuropharmacology of the vestibular system, with an emphasis on the mechanism of action of drugs used in the treatment of vestibular disorders. Clinicians are confronted with a rapidly changing field in which advances in the knowledge of ionic channel function and synaptic transmission mechanisms have led to the development of new scientific models for the understanding of vestibular dysfunction and its management. In particular, there have been recent advances in our knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms of vestibular system function and of drug action. In this work, drugs acting on vestibular system have been grouped into two main categories according to their primary mechanisms of action: those with effects on neurotransmitters and neuromodulators dynamics and those that act on voltage-gated ion channels. Particular attention is given in this review to drugs that may provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of vestibular diseases. The critical analysis of the literature reveals that there is a significant lack of information defining the real utility of diverse drugs used in clinical practice. The development of basic studies addressing drug actions at the molecular, cellular and systems level, combined with reliable and well controlled clinical trials, would provide the scientific basis for new strategies for the treatment of vestibular disorders.

  2. Common Vestibular Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Balatsouras, Dimitrios G

    2017-01-01

    The three most common vestibular diseases, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Meniere's disease (MD) and vestibular neuritis (VN), are presented in this paper. BPPV, which is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, can be defined as transient vertigo induced by a rapid head position change, associated with a characteristic paroxysmal positional nystagmus. Canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal is considered the most convincing theory of its pathogenesis and the ...

  3. Prediction in the Vestibular Control of Arm Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blouin, Jean; Bresciani, Jean-Pierre; Guillaud, Etienne; Simoneau, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of vestibular signals to motor control has been evidenced in postural, locomotor, and oculomotor studies. Here, we review studies showing that vestibular information also contributes to the control of arm movements during whole-body motion. The data reviewed suggest that vestibular information is used by the arm motor system to maintain the initial hand position or the planned hand trajectory unaltered during body motion. This requires integration of vestibular and cervical inputs to determine the trunk motion dynamics. These studies further suggest that the vestibular control of arm movement relies on rapid and efficient vestibulomotor transformations that cannot be considered automatic. We also reviewed evidence suggesting that the vestibular afferents can be used by the brain to predict and counteract body-rotation-induced torques (e.g., Coriolis) acting on the arm when reaching for a target while turning the trunk.

  4. Information System Engineering Supporting Observation, Orientation, Decision, and Compliant Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    The majority of today's software systems and organizational/business structures have been built on the foundation of solving problems via long-term data collection, analysis, and solution design. This traditional approach of solving problems and building corresponding software systems and business processes, falls short in providing the necessary solutions needed to deal with many problems that require agility as the main ingredient of their solution. For example, such agility is needed in responding to an emergency, in military command control, physical security, price-based competition in business, investing in the stock market, video gaming, network monitoring and self-healing, diagnosis in emergency health care, and many other areas that are too numerous to list here. The concept of Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (OODA) loops is a guiding principal that captures the fundamental issues and approach for engineering information systems that deal with many of these problem areas. However, there are currently few software systems that are capable of supporting OODA. In this talk, we provide a tour of the research issues and state of the art solutions for supporting OODA. In addition, we provide specific examples of OODA solutions we have developed for the video surveillance and emergency response domains.

  5. Clinical vestibular testing assessed with machine-learning algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priesol, Adrian J; Cao, Mengfei; Brodley, Carla E; Lewis, Richard F

    2015-04-01

    Dizziness and imbalance are common clinical problems, and accurate diagnosis depends on determining whether damage is localized to the peripheral vestibular system. Vestibular testing guides this determination, but the accuracy of the different tests is not known. To determine how well each element of the vestibular test battery segregates patients with normal peripheral vestibular function from those with unilateral reductions in vestibular function. Retrospective analysis of vestibular test batteries in 8080 patients. Clinical medical records were reviewed for a subset of individuals with the reviewers blinded to the vestibular test data. A group of machine-learning classifiers were trained using vestibular test data from persons who were "manually" labeled as having normal vestibular function or unilateral vestibular damage based on a review of their medical records. The optimal trained classifier was then used to categorize patients whose diagnoses were unknown, allowing us to determine the information content of each element of the vestibular test battery. The information provided by each element of the vestibular test battery to segregate individuals with normal vestibular function from those with unilateral vestibular damage. The time constant calculated from the rotational test ranked first in information content, and measures that were related physiologically to the rotational time constant were 10 of the top 12 highest-ranked variables. The caloric canal paresis ranked eighth, and the other elements of the test battery provided minimal additional information. The sensitivity of the rotational time constant was 77.2%, and the sensitivity of the caloric canal paresis was 59.6%; the specificity of the rotational time constant was 89.0%, and the specificity of the caloric canal paresis was 64.9%. The diagnostic accuracy of the vestibular test battery increased from 72.4% to 93.4% when the data were analyzed with the optimal machine-learning classifier

  6. User-oriented and cognitive models of information retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvelin, Kalervo; Ingwersen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The domain of user-oriented and cognitive IR is first discussed, followed by a discussion on the dimensions and types of models one may build for the domain.  The focus of the present entry is on the models of user-oriented and cognitive IR, not on their empirical applications. Several models wit...... with different emphases on user-oriented and cognitive IR are presented - ranging from overall approaches and relevance models to procedural models, cognitive models, and task-based models. The present entry does not discuss empirical findings based on the models.......The domain of user-oriented and cognitive IR is first discussed, followed by a discussion on the dimensions and types of models one may build for the domain.  The focus of the present entry is on the models of user-oriented and cognitive IR, not on their empirical applications. Several models...

  7. Coding of Velocity Storage in the Vestibular Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei B. Yakushin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Semicircular canal afferents sense angular acceleration and output angular velocity with a short time constant of ≈4.5 s. This output is prolonged by a central integrative network, velocity storage that lengthens the time constants of eye velocity. This mechanism utilizes canal, otolith, and visual (optokinetic information to align the axis of eye velocity toward the spatial vertical when head orientation is off-vertical axis. Previous studies indicated that vestibular-only (VO and vestibular-pause-saccade (VPS neurons located in the medial and superior vestibular nucleus could code all aspects of velocity storage. A recently developed technique enabled prolonged recording while animals were rotated and received optokinetic stimulation about a spatial vertical axis while upright, side-down, prone, and supine. Firing rates of 33 VO and 8 VPS neurons were studied in alert cynomolgus monkeys. Majority VO neurons were closely correlated with the horizontal component of velocity storage in head coordinates, regardless of head orientation in space. Approximately, half of all tested neurons (46% code horizontal component of velocity in head coordinates, while the other half (54% changed their firing rates as the head was oriented relative to the spatial vertical, coding the horizontal component of eye velocity in spatial coordinates. Some VO neurons only coded the cross-coupled pitch or roll components that move the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical. Sixty-five percent of these VO and VPS neurons were more sensitive to rotation in one direction (predominantly contralateral, providing directional orientation for the subset of VO neurons on either side of the brainstem. This indicates that the three-dimensional velocity storage integrator is composed of directional subsets of neurons that are likely to be the bases for the spatial characteristics of velocity storage. Most VPS neurons ceased firing during drowsiness, but the firing

  8. Coding of Velocity Storage in the Vestibular Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushin, Sergei B.; Raphan, Theodore; Cohen, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    Semicircular canal afferents sense angular acceleration and output angular velocity with a short time constant of ≈4.5 s. This output is prolonged by a central integrative network, velocity storage that lengthens the time constants of eye velocity. This mechanism utilizes canal, otolith, and visual (optokinetic) information to align the axis of eye velocity toward the spatial vertical when head orientation is off-vertical axis. Previous studies indicated that vestibular-only (VO) and vestibular-pause-saccade (VPS) neurons located in the medial and superior vestibular nucleus could code all aspects of velocity storage. A recently developed technique enabled prolonged recording while animals were rotated and received optokinetic stimulation about a spatial vertical axis while upright, side-down, prone, and supine. Firing rates of 33 VO and 8 VPS neurons were studied in alert cynomolgus monkeys. Majority VO neurons were closely correlated with the horizontal component of velocity storage in head coordinates, regardless of head orientation in space. Approximately, half of all tested neurons (46%) code horizontal component of velocity in head coordinates, while the other half (54%) changed their firing rates as the head was oriented relative to the spatial vertical, coding the horizontal component of eye velocity in spatial coordinates. Some VO neurons only coded the cross-coupled pitch or roll components that move the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical. Sixty-five percent of these VO and VPS neurons were more sensitive to rotation in one direction (predominantly contralateral), providing directional orientation for the subset of VO neurons on either side of the brainstem. This indicates that the three-dimensional velocity storage integrator is composed of directional subsets of neurons that are likely to be the bases for the spatial characteristics of velocity storage. Most VPS neurons ceased firing during drowsiness, but the firing rates of VO

  9. The role of value-informed pricing in market-oriented product innovation management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, T.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the positive effect of a market orientation on new product success is widely accepted and the market orientation literature has increased its understanding of how a market orientation leads to performance, the extant literature has overlooked the role of value-informed pricing in the

  10. The Role of Value-Informed Pricing in Market-Oriented Product Innovation Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Frambach, R.T.; Verhallen, Th.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Although the positive effect of a market orientation on new product success is widely accepted and the market orientation literature has increased its understanding of how a market orientation leads to performance, the extant literature has overlooked the role of value-informed pricing in the

  11. Vestibular perception following acute unilateral vestibular lesions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sian Cousins

    Full Text Available Little is known about the vestibulo-perceptual (VP system, particularly after a unilateral vestibular lesion. We investigated vestibulo-ocular (VO and VP function in 25 patients with vestibular neuritis (VN acutely (2 days after onset and after compensation (recovery phase, 10 weeks. Since the effect of VN on reflex and perceptual function may differ at threshold and supra-threshold acceleration levels, we used two stimulus intensities, acceleration steps of 0.5°/s(2 and velocity steps of 90°/s (acceleration 180°/s(2. We hypothesised that the vestibular lesion or the compensatory processes could dissociate VO and VP function, particularly if the acute vertiginous sensation interferes with the perceptual tasks. Both in acute and recovery phases, VO and VP thresholds increased, particularly during ipsilesional rotations. In signal detection theory this indicates that signals from the healthy and affected side are still fused, but result in asymmetric thresholds due to a lesion-induced bias. The normal pattern whereby VP thresholds are higher than VO thresholds was preserved, indicating that any 'perceptual noise' added by the vertigo does not disrupt the cognitive decision-making processes inherent to the perceptual task. Overall, the parallel findings in VO and VP thresholds imply little or no additional cortical processing and suggest that vestibular thresholds essentially reflect the sensitivity of the fused peripheral receptors. In contrast, a significant VO-VP dissociation for supra-threshold stimuli was found. Acutely, time constants and duration of the VO and VP responses were reduced - asymmetrically for VO, as expected, but surprisingly symmetrical for perception. At recovery, VP responses normalised but VO responses remained shortened and asymmetric. Thus, unlike threshold data, supra-threshold responses show considerable VO-VP dissociation indicative of additional, higher-order processing of vestibular signals. We provide evidence of

  12. [Anatomy and physiology of the vestibular system: review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, L; Vitte, E

    2004-10-01

    The vestibular system is a complex system involving not only posterior labyrinth but also central structures such as cerebellum, striatum, thalamus, frontal and prefrontal cortex to assure balance, movements and walking. Information reaching the vestibular complex are not purely vestibular but also from visual, somatosensory and cerebellar origins. The equilibrium is also a complex physiological function needing concordance of vestibular, visual and somatosensory information or either central compensation after an injury but also an integrity of the central nervous system.

  13. The effects of vestibular lesions on hippocampal function in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F; Horii, Arata; Russell, Noah; Bilkey, David K; Zheng, Yiwen; Liu, Ping; Kerr, D Steve; Darlington, Cynthia L

    2005-04-01

    Interest in interaction between the vestibular system and the hippocampus was stimulated by evidence that peripheral vestibular lesions could impair performance in learning and memory tasks requiring spatial information processing. By the 1990s, electrophysiological data were emerging that the brainstem vestibular nucleus complex (VNC) and the hippocampus were connected polysynaptically and that hippocampal place cells could respond to vestibular stimulation. The aim of this review is to summarise and critically evaluate research published in the last 5 years that has seen major progress in understanding the effects of vestibular damage on the hippocampus. In addition to new behavioural studies demonstrating that animals with vestibular lesions exhibit impairments in spatial memory tasks, electrophysiological studies have confirmed long-latency, polysynaptic pathways between the VNC and the hippocampus. Peripheral vestibular lesions have been shown to cause long-term changes in place cell function, hippocampal EEG activity and even CA1 field potentials in brain slices maintained in vitro. During the same period, neurochemical investigations have shown that some hippocampal subregions exhibit long-term changes in the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase, arginase I and II, and the NR1 and NR2A N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits following peripheral vestibular damage. Despite the progress, a number of important issues remain to be resolved, such as the possible contribution of auditory damage associated with vestibular lesions, to the hippocampal effects observed. Furthermore, although these studies demonstrate that damage to the vestibular system does have a long-term impact on the electrophysiological and neurochemical function of the hippocampus, they do not indicate precisely how vestibular information might be used in hippocampal functions such as developing spatial representations of the environment. Understanding this will require detailed

  14. Sensorial countermeasures for vestibular spatial disorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paillard, Aurore C; Quarck, Gaëlle; Denise, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Spatial disorientation is defined as an erroneous body orientation perceived by pilots during flights. Limits of the vestibular system provoke frequent spatial disorientation mishaps. Although vestibular spatial disorientation is experienced frequently in aviation, there is no intuitive countermeasure against spatial disorientation mishaps to date. The aim of this review is to describe the current sensorial countermeasures and to examine future leads in sensorial ergonomics for vestibular spatial disorientation. This work reviews: 1) the visual ergonomics, 2) the vestibular countermeasures, 3) the auditory displays, 4) the somatosensory countermeasures, and, finally, 5) the multisensory displays. This review emphasizes the positive aspects of auditory and somatosensory countermeasures as well as multisensory devices. Even if some aspects such as sensory conflict and motion sickness need to be assessed, these countermeasures should be taken into consideration for ergonomics work in the future. However, a recent development in aviation might offer new and better perspectives: unmanned aerial vehicles. Unmanned aerial vehicles aim to go beyond the physiological boundaries of human sensorial systems and would allow for coping with spatial disorientation and motion sickness. Even if research is necessary to improve the interaction between machines and humans, this recent development might be incredibly useful for decreasing or even stopping vestibular spatial disorientation.

  15. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe, Lilian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential (VEMP is a promising test for the evaluation of the cholic descending vestibular system. This reflex depends of the integrity from the saccular macula, from the inferior vestibular nerve, the vestibular nuclei, the vestibule-spinal tract and effectors muscles. Objective: Perform a systematic review of the pertinent literature by means of database (COCHRANE, MEDLINE, LILACS, CAPES. Conclusion: The clinical application of the VEMP has expanded in the last years, as goal that this exam is used as complementary in the otoneurological evaluation currently used. But, methodological issues must be clarified. This way, this method when combined with the standard protocol, can provide a more widely evaluation from the vestibular system. The standardization of the methodology is fundamental criterion for the replicability and sensibility of the exam.

  16. Current treatment options in vestibular migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eObermann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 1% of the general population in western industrialized countries suffers from vestibular migraine. However, it remains widely unknown and often under diagnosed even despite the recently published diagnostic criteria for vestibular migraine. Treatment trials that specialize on vestibular migraine are scarce and systematic randomized controlled clinical trials are only now emerging.This review summarizes the knowledge on the currently available treatment options that were tested specifically for vestibular migraine and gives an evidence-based, informed treatment recommendation with all its limitations.To date only two randomized controlled treatment trials provide limited evidence for the use of rizatriptan and zolmitriptan for the treatment of vestibular migraine attacks because of methodological shortcommings. There is an on-going a multicenter randomized placebo-controlled trial testing metoprolol 95 mg vs. placebo (PROVEMIG-trial. Therefore, the therapeutic recommendations for the prophylactic treatment of vestibular migraine are currently widely based on the guidelines of migraine with and without aura as well as expert opinion.

  17. Vestibular syndrome: a change in internal spatial representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, L; Lopez, C; Péruch, P; Lacour, M

    2008-12-01

    The vestibular system contributes to a wide range of functions from reflexes to spatial representation. This paper reviews behavioral, perceptive, and cognitive data that highlight the role of changes in internal spatial representation on the vestibular syndrome. Firstly, we review how visual vertical perception and postural orientation depend on multiple reference frames and multisensory integration and how reference frames are selected according to the status of the peripheral vestibular system (i.e., unilateral or bilateral hyporeflexia), the environmental constraints (i.e., sensory cues), and the postural constraints (i.e., balance control). We show how changes in reference frames are able to modify vestibular lesion-induced postural and locomotor deficits and propose that fast changes in reference frame may be considered as fast-adaptive processes after vestibular loss. Secondly, we review data dealing with the influence of vestibular loss on higher levels of internal representation sustaining spatial orientation and navigation. Particular emphasis is placed on spatial performance according to task complexity (i.e., the required level of spatial knowledge) and to the sensory cues available to define the position and orientation within the environment (i.e., real navigation in darkness or visual virtual navigation without any actual self-motion). We suggest that vestibular signals are necessary for other sensory cues to be properly integrated and that vestibular cues are involved in extrapersonal space representation. In this respect, vestibular-induced changes would be based on a dynamic mental representation of space that is continuously updated and that supports fast-adaptive processes.

  18. Vestibular Deficits in Neurodegenerative Disorders: Balance, Dizziness, and Spatial Disorientation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Thomas; Arshad, Qadeer; Seemungal, Barry M

    2017-01-01

    The vestibular system consists of the peripheral vestibular organs in the inner ear and the associated extensive central nervous system projections-from the cerebellum and brainstem to the thalamic relays to cortical projections. This system is important for spatial orientation and balance, both of critical ecological importance, particularly for successful navigation in our environment. Balance disorders and spatial disorientation are common presenting features of neurodegenerative diseases; however, little is known regarding central vestibular processing in these diseases. A ubiquitous aspect of central vestibular processing is its promiscuity given that vestibular signals are commonly found in combination with other sensory signals. This review discusses how impaired central processing of vestibular signals-typically in combination with other sensory and motor systems-may account for the impaired balance and spatial disorientation in common neurodegenerative conditions. Such an understanding may provide for new diagnostic tests, potentially useful in detecting early disease while a mechanistic understanding of imbalance and spatial disorientation in these patients may enable a vestibular-targeted therapy for such problems in neurodegenerative diseases. Studies with state of the art central vestibular testing are now much needed to tackle this important topic.

  19. Vestibular Deficits in Neurodegenerative Disorders: Balance, Dizziness, and Spatial Disorientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Cronin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The vestibular system consists of the peripheral vestibular organs in the inner ear and the associated extensive central nervous system projections—from the cerebellum and brainstem to the thalamic relays to cortical projections. This system is important for spatial orientation and balance, both of critical ecological importance, particularly for successful navigation in our environment. Balance disorders and spatial disorientation are common presenting features of neurodegenerative diseases; however, little is known regarding central vestibular processing in these diseases. A ubiquitous aspect of central vestibular processing is its promiscuity given that vestibular signals are commonly found in combination with other sensory signals. This review discusses how impaired central processing of vestibular signals—typically in combination with other sensory and motor systems—may account for the impaired balance and spatial disorientation in common neurodegenerative conditions. Such an understanding may provide for new diagnostic tests, potentially useful in detecting early disease while a mechanistic understanding of imbalance and spatial disorientation in these patients may enable a vestibular-targeted therapy for such problems in neurodegenerative diseases. Studies with state of the art central vestibular testing are now much needed to tackle this important topic.

  20. The internal representation of head orientation differs for conscious perception and balance control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Brian H; Rasman, Brandon G; Inglis, J Timothy; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2017-04-15

    for perceived orientation and standing balance. All three experiments involved situations in which the vestibular-evoked balance response was not orthogonal to perceived head-on-feet orientation, regardless of the visual information provided. For prolonged head-turned postures, balance responses consistent with actual head-on-feet posture occurred only during the active condition. Our results indicate that conscious perception of head-on-feet posture and vestibular control of balance do not rely on the same internal representation, but instead treat sensorimotor cues in parallel and may arrive at different conclusions regarding head-on-feet posture. The balance system appears to bypass static visual cues of postural orientation and mainly use other sensorimotor signals of head-on-feet position to transform vestibular signals of head motion, a mechanism appropriate for most daily activities. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  1. Can a finding of cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials contribute to vestibular migraine diagnostics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihana Vešligaj

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To investigate differences in vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP results with patients suffering from vestibular migraine and healthy people, taking into consideration values of threshold and latency of occurrence of the characteristic wave complex, size of amplitude, and interaural amplitude ratio. According to the results, determine the importance and usefulness of VEMP in vestibular migraine diagnostics. Methods A total number of 62 subjects were included in the study, 32 of them belonging to a group of patients suffering from vestibular migraine (VM, while other 30 were in a control group of healthy subjects. Information was collected during the diagnostic evaluation. General and otoneurological history of patients and bedside tests, audiological results, videonystagmography and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMP were made. Results There was a difference in an interaural ratio of amplitudes in the experimental and control groups, but it was not found to be clinically significant. By ToneBurst 500 Hz method, the interaural amplitude ratio higher than 35% was measured in 46.97% subjects, while the response was totally unilaterally missing in 28.8% patients. Conclusion Even the sophisticated method as cVEMP does not give the ultimate result confirming the vestibular migraine diagnosis, and neither do other diagnostic methods. cVEMP result can contribute to the completion of full mosaic of vestibular migraine diagnostics.

  2. Deregulated genes in sporadic vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Holga Andrea; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2010-01-01

    In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology....

  3. Responses evoked by a vestibular implant providing chronic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lara A; Haburcakova, Csilla; Gong, Wangsong; Lee, Daniel J; Wall, Conrad; Merfeld, Daniel M; Lewis, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss experience dehabilitating visual, perceptual, and postural difficulties, and an implantable vestibular prosthesis that could improve these symptoms would be of great benefit to these patients. In previous work, we have shown that a one-dimensional, unilateral canal prosthesis can improve the vestibulooccular reflex (VOR) in canal-plugged squirrel monkeys. In addition to the VOR, the potential effects of a vestibular prosthesis on more complex, highly integrative behaviors, such as the perception of head orientation and posture have remained unclear. We tested a one-dimensional, unilateral prosthesis in a rhesus monkey with bilateral vestibular loss and found that chronic electrical stimulation partially restored the compensatory VOR and also that percepts of head orientation relative to gravity were improved. However, the one-dimensional prosthetic stimulation had no clear effect on postural stability during quiet stance, but sway evoked by head-turns was modestly reduced. These results suggest that not only can the implementation of a vestibular prosthesis provide partial restitution of VOR but may also improve perception and posture in the presence of bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH). In this review, we provide an overview of our previous and current work directed towards the eventual clinical implementation of an implantable vestibular prosthesis.

  4. Integrating Project Orientated Problem Based Learning (POPBL) and Information Literacy Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Quinn, Ciaran

    2013-01-01

    GSE1 (PG Information Literacy and Communication Skills) module was redesigned to a more project orientated and problem-based learning (POPBL) delivery. Research showed evidence for the benefits to Information Literacy instruction of a PBL approach.

  5. [Central information portal on rare diseases : Implementation of quality- and needs-oriented information management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litzkendorf, Svenja; Pauer, Frédéric; Zeidler, Jan; Göbel, Jens; Storf, Holger; Graf von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias

    2017-05-01

    A central information portal on rare diseases (ZIPSE) has been conceptualized and implemented that allows patients, relatives and health care professionals to access quality-assured information. For this purpose, quality criteria have been developed specifically for rare diseases. At the same time, the information basis should take into account the specific needs of those interested. The needs of patients and relatives regarding online-based information are analyzed. Based on this, we examined to what extent the information basis, which is available according to the ZIPSE quality criteria, can cover these needs. If necessary, measures have to be developed to ensure quality- as well as needs-oriented information management. Qualitative interviews with patients and relatives were conducted, which were then evaluated using content analysis. Subsequently, a quantitative evaluation of the information on rare diseases in the portal was made. The research addresses how many websites do not fulfil the quality criteria, from which group of provider these websites originate and which criteria are not fulfilled. This is followed by a comparison of the quantitative and qualitative results. When looking for information on the Internet, the websites of self-help groups represent a significant source. These are perceived as very trustworthy and in the later course of the disease, offer detailed information on important information areas. Information websites from self-help groups, however, often do not meet quality requirements. Therefore, a transparent representation is made regarding the quality of the ZIPSE information pages. Pages that are not quality-assured can be actively requested, but will be clearly identified.

  6. Application architectures of enterprise information systems versus service oriented architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There are two different enterprise IS architectures, older application architecture and younger service oriented architecture. The application architecture its structural element is a classical web-based application can accept a partial or complex solution of enterprise IS. The first has got problems with data-process-communication integrity disturbing among IS applications. The second is convenient for large enterprises not for small and intermediate. Classical web-based applications are too inflexible to accepted necessary changes concerning a progress in the enterprise market-production environment.The service oriented architecture of IS can be based on enterprise web-services. Computerization of such small and flexible units can be given by classical web-services. There is constructed a new web-based application that plays a structural unit role for service oriented architecture. This application consists of a sequence formed by enterprise web-services calling. Enterprise web-services can easily accept necessary changes concerning a progress in the enterprise market-production environment. That‘s why contemporary younger service oriented architecture seems to be more acceptable for any enterprise than older application architecture.

  7. Nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein is expressed by scattered neurons in the vestibular and precerebellar brainstem

    OpenAIRE

    Baizer, Joan S.

    2009-01-01

    Vestibular information is essential for the control of posture, balance, and eye movements. The vestibular nerve projects to the four nuclei of the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), as well as to several additional brainstem nuclei and the cerebellum. We have found that expression of the calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CR) and calbindin (CB), and the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) define subdivisions of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) and the nucleus prepositus (Pr...

  8. Vestibular animal models: contributions to understanding physiology and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Straka, Hans; Zwergal, Andreas; Cullen, Kathleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge of the vestibular sensory system, its functional significance for gaze and posture stabilization, and its capability to ensure accurate spatial orientation perception and spatial navigation has greatly benefitted from experimental approaches using a variety of vertebrate species. This review summarizes the attempts to establish the roles of semicircular canal and otolith endorgans in these functions followed by an overview of the most relevant fields of vestibular research inclu...

  9. Task, muscle and frequency dependent vestibular control of posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A Forbes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The vestibular system is crucial for postural control; however there are considerable differences in the task dependence and frequency response of vestibular reflexes in appendicular and axial muscles. For example, vestibular reflexes are only evoked in appendicular muscles when vestibular information is relevant to postural control, while in neck muscles they are maintained regardless of the requirement to maintain head on trunk balance. Recent investigations have also shown that the bandwidth of vestibular input on neck muscles is much broader than appendicular muscles (up to a factor of 3. This result challenges the notion that vestibular reflexes only contribute to postural control across the behavioral and physiological frequency range of the vestibular organ (i.e., 0-20 Hz. In this review, we explore and integrate these task-, muscle- and frequency-related differences in the vestibular system’s contribution to posture, and propose that the human nervous system has adapted vestibular signals to match the mechanical properties of the system that each group of muscles controls.

  10. Task, muscle and frequency dependent vestibular control of posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Patrick A; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system is crucial for postural control; however there are considerable differences in the task dependence and frequency response of vestibular reflexes in appendicular and axial muscles. For example, vestibular reflexes are only evoked in appendicular muscles when vestibular information is relevant to postural control, while in neck muscles they are maintained regardless of the requirement to maintain head on trunk balance. Recent investigations have also shown that the bandwidth of vestibular input on neck muscles is much broader than appendicular muscles (up to a factor of 3). This result challenges the notion that vestibular reflexes only contribute to postural control across the behavioral and physiological frequency range of the vestibular organ (i.e., 0-20 Hz). In this review, we explore and integrate these task-, muscle- and frequency-related differences in the vestibular system's contribution to posture, and propose that the human nervous system has adapted vestibular signals to match the mechanical properties of the system that each group of muscles controls.

  11. Vestibular rehabilitation for unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillier, Susan L; McDonnell, Michelle

    2011-02-16

    This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 4, 2007.Unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction (UPVD) can occur as a result of disease, trauma or postoperatively. The dysfunction is characterised by complaints of dizziness, visual or gaze disturbances and balance impairment. Current management includes medication, physical manoeuvres and exercise regimes, the latter known collectively as vestibular rehabilitation (VR). To assess the effectiveness of vestibular rehabilitation in the adult, community-dwelling population of people with symptomatic unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction. We searched the Cochrane Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders Group Trials Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; ISRCTN and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The most recent search was 1 July 2010, following a previous search in March 2007. Randomised trials of adults living in the community, diagnosed with symptomatic unilateral peripheral vestibular dysfunction. We sought comparisons of VR versus control (placebo etc.), other treatment (non-VR, e.g. pharmacological) or another form of VR. We considered the outcome measures of frequency and severity of dizziness or visual disturbance; changes in balance impairment, function or quality of life; and measure/s of physiological status with known functional correlation. Both authors independently extracted data and assessed trials for risk of bias. We included 27 trials, involving 1668 participants, in the review. Trials addressed the effectiveness of VR against control/sham interventions, medical interventions or other forms of VR. Individual and pooled data showed a statistically significant effect in favour of VR over control or no intervention. The exception to this was when movement-based VR was compared to physical manoeuvres for benign

  12. Application architectures of enterprise information systems versus service oriented architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Milan Mišovič

    2007-01-01

    There are two different enterprise IS architectures, older application architecture and younger service oriented architecture. The application architecture its structural element is a classical web-based application can accept a partial or complex solution of enterprise IS. The first has got problems with data-process-communication integrity disturbing among IS applications. The second is convenient for large enterprises not for small and intermediate. Classical web-based applications are too...

  13. Neural computations in spatial orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoets, R.A.A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis describes the results of a research project that focused on how visual and vestibular signals are used by the human brain to maintain spatial orientation and visual stability. Given the limitations of the vestibular sensors in terms of bandwidth and precision, outlined in chapter 1,

  14. Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Infections, and Deafness Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss On this page: What are vestibular aqueducts? How ... How are enlarged vestibular aqueducts related to childhood hearing loss? Research suggests that most children with enlarged vestibular ...

  15. Determination of the functional status of vestibular apparatus at children aged 5-6 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko E.K.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The physiological methods of determination of the functional state of vestibular analyzer are considered. The indexes of systole and diastole pressure, frequencies of heart-throbs, are chosen. Methods were used before and after standard vestibular irritation. Research was conducted on the base of child's preschool establishment. In it took part 120 children in age 5 - 6 years. Insufficient development of vestibular analyzer is set for children. Selected exercise for the improvement of spatial orientation and statodynamic stability.

  16. Reabilitação vestibular: tendências e indicações

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira,Clarissa Stefani; Pereira, Érico Felden; Rossi, Angela Garcia; Daronco, Luciane Sanchotene Etchepare

    2012-01-01

    The vestibular rehabilitation, generally recommended for the treatment of dysfunctions in the vestibular system, has been prescribed for people with other problems related to balance and to spacial orientation. This study, with a bibliographic basis, had as objective to make a synthesis of the studies about vestibular rehabilitation that are focused in other morbidities besides the vestibulopathies, pointing out the tendencies of investigations and the main results, specially the ones with in...

  17. Advanced information science and object-oriented technology for information management applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummel, J.R.; Swietlik, C.E.

    1996-10-01

    The role of the military has been undergoing rapid change since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The kinds of missions the US military has been asked to participate in have often fallen into the category of {open_quotes}Military Operations Other Than War{close_quotes} and those involving military responses have been more of a surgical nature directed against different kinds of threats, like rogue states or in response to terrorist actions. As a result, the requirements on the military planner and analyst have also had to change dramatically. For example, preparing response options now requires rapid turnaround and a highly flexible simulation capability. This in turn requires that the planner or analyst have access to sophisticated information science and simulation technologies. In this paper, we shall discuss how advanced information science and object-oriented technologies can be used in advanced information management applications. We shall also discuss how these technologies and tools can be applied to DoD applications by presenting examples with a system developed at Argonne, the Dynamic Information Architecture System (DIAS). DIAS has been developed to exploit advanced information science and simulation technologies to provide tools for future planners and analysts.

  18. [Therapy of vestibular vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, K F

    1993-05-01

    The non-surgical treatment of vestibular disorders must be based on current knowledge of vestibular pathophysiology. It is generally accepted that after vestibular lesions a self-repair mechanism exists that allows a more or less complete recovery. In cases of persisting vestibular complaints the physician's duty consists in stimulation of these pre-existing mechanisms. This can be done by physical exercises, as has been recommended since the work of Cawthorne and Cooksey in 1946. This concept is meanwhile supported by modern neurophysiological research. This article describes a short training program consisting of exercises for fixation during rotations, smooth pursuit, optokinetic nystagmus and motor learning mechanisms. Physical exercises can be reinforced by nootropic drugs.

  19. Angiogenesis in vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Nue; Werther, Kim; Nalla, Amarnadh

    2010-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are potent mediators of tumor angiogenesis. It has been demonstrated that vestibular schwannoma VEGF expression correlates with tumor growth pattern, whereas knowledge on the expression of MMPs is lacking. This study...

  20. Vestibular function testing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lang, E E

    2010-06-01

    Vestibular symptoms of vertigo, dizziness and dysequilibrium are common complaints which can be disabling both physically and psychologically. Routine examination of the ear nose and throat and neurological system are often normal in these patients. An accurate history and thorough clinical examination can provide a diagnosis in the majority of patients. However, in a subgroup of patients, vestibular function testing may be invaluable in arriving at a correct diagnosis and ultimately in the optimal treatment of these patients.

  1. Common Vestibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios G. Balatsouras

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The three most common vestibular diseases, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, Meniere's disease (MD and vestibular neuritis (VN, are presented in this paper. BPPV, which is the most common peripheral vestibular disorder, can be defined as transient vertigo induced by a rapid head position change, associated with a characteristic paroxysmal positional nystagmus. Canalolithiasis of the posterior semicircular canal is considered the most convincing theory of its pathogenesis and the development of appropriate therapeutic maneuvers resulted in its effective treatment. However, involvement of the horizontal or the anterior canal has been found in a significant rate and the recognition and treatment of these variants completed the clinical picture of the disease. MD is a chronic condition characterized by episodic attacks of vertigo, fluctuating hearing loss, tinnitus, aural pressure and a progressive loss of audiovestibular functions. Presence of endolymphatic hydrops on postmortem examination is its pathologic correlate. MD continues to be a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Patients with the disease range from minimally symptomatic, highly functional individuals to severely affected, disabled patients. Current management strategies are designed to control the acute and recurrent vestibulopathy but offer minimal remedy for the progressive cochlear dysfunction. VN is the most common cause of acute spontaneous vertigo, attributed to acute unilateral loss of vestibular function. Key signs and symptoms are an acute onset of spinning vertigo, postural imbalance and nausea as well as a horizontal rotatory nystagmus beating towards the non-affected side, a pathological headimpulse test and no evidence for central vestibular or ocular motor dysfunction. Vestibular neuritis preferentially involves the superior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents. Symptomatic medication is indicated only during the acute phase to relieve the vertigo and nausea

  2. An Action-Oriented Perspective of Information Systems in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rex Eugene Pereira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the best efforts of researchers and practitioners, information system (IS failures continue to occur. IS projects are not carried out in isolation, and organizational factors can affect the project outcome. Using a case study conducted at a large, multinational organization, this research investigates the roles users perceive an information system to play. The purpose is not to animate the information system and give it life of its own, but rather, to make explicit the socially constructed roles conferred on the information system by the users. The role which an individual perceives an information system to be playing is determined by three factors:  the combination of business knowledge and information systems knowledge of the individual, the socially constructed image of the information system, and the functionality provided by the information system.

  3. Goal orientations and the seeking of different types of feedback information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Onne; Prins, Jelle

    Based on the goal orientation model of feedback-seeking behaviour, goal orientations are proposed to influence employees in the type of information they seek from knowledgeable others in the work environment. As hypothesized, a survey conducted among 170 medical residents of a Dutch university

  4. Deregulated genes in sporadic vestibular schwannomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Helweg-Larsen, Rehannah Holga Andrea; Stangerup, Sven-Eric

    2010-01-01

    In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology.......In search of genes associated with vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis, this study examines the gene expression in human vestibular nerve versus vestibular schwannoma tissue samples using microarray technology....

  5. The Modulation of Hippocampal Theta Rhythm by the Vestibular System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Phillip; Zheng, Yiwen; Smith, Paul F

    2017-11-22

    The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved over millions of years to detect acceleration of the head, both rotational and translational, in three dimensions. One of its most important functions is to stabilize gaze during unexpected head movement; however, it is also important in the control of posture and autonomic reflexes. Theta rhythm is a 3-12 Hz oscillating EEG signal that is intimately linked to self-motion and is also known to be important in learning and memory. Many studies over the last two decades have shown that selective activation of the vestibular system, either using natural rotational or translational stimulation, or electrical stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system, can induce and modulate theta activity. Furthermore, inactivation of the vestibular system has been shown to significantly reduce theta in freely moving animals, which may be linked to its impairment of place cell function as well as spatial learning and memory. The pathways through which vestibular information modulate theta rhythm remain debatable. However, vestibular responses have been found in the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) and activation of the vestibular system causes an increase in acetylcholine release into the hippocampus, probably from the medial septum. Therefore, a pathway from the vestibular nucleus complex and/or cerebellum to the PPTg, supramammillary nucleus, posterior hypothalamic nucleus and the septum, to the hippocampus, is likely. The modulation of theta by the vestibular system may have implications for vestibular effects on cognitive function and the contribution of vestibular impairment to the risk of dementia. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Neurophysiology.

  6. Differential central projections of vestibular afferents in pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, J. D.; Fang, Q.

    1996-01-01

    The question of whether a differential distribution of vestibular afferent information to central nuclear neurons is present in pigeons was studied using neural tracer compounds. Discrete tracing of afferent fibers innervating the individual semicircular canal and otolith organs was produced by sectioning individual branches of the vestibular nerve that innervate the different receptor organs and applying crystals of horseradish peroxidase, or a horseradish peroxidase/cholera toxin mixture, or a biocytin compound for neuronal uptake and transport. Afferent fibers and their terminal distributions within the brainstem and cerebellum were visualized subsequently. Discrete areas in the pigeon central nervous system that receive primary vestibular input include the superior, dorsal lateral, ventral lateral, medial, descending, and tangential vestibular nuclei; the A and B groups; the intermediate, medial, and lateral cerebellar nuclei; and the nodulus, the uvula, and the paraflocculus. Generally, the vertical canal afferents projected heavily to medial regions in the superior and descending vestibular nuclei as well as the A group. Vertical canal projections to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei were observed but were less prominent. Horizontal canal projections to the superior and descending vestibular nuclei were much more centrally located than those of the vertical canals. A more substantial projection to the medial and lateral vestibular nuclei was seen with horizontal canal afferents compared to vertical canal fibers. Afferents innervating the utricle and saccule terminated generally in the lateral regions of all vestibular nuclei in areas that were separate from the projections of the semicircular canals. In addition, utricular fibers projected to regions in the vestibular nuclei that overlapped with the horizontal semicircular canal terminal fields, whereas saccular afferents projected to regions that received vertical canal fiber terminations. Lagenar

  7. Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: Review of Indications, Mechanisms, and Key Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyun Seok; Kim, Ji Soo

    2011-01-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) is an exercise-based treatment program designed to promote vestibular adaptation and substitution. The goals of VRT are 1) to enhance gaze stability, 2) to enhance postural stability, 3) to improve vertigo, and 4) to improve activities of daily living. VRT facilitates vestibular recovery mechanisms: vestibular adaptation, substitution by the other eye-movement systems, substitution by vision, somatosensory cues, other postural strategies, and habituation. The key exercises for VRT are head-eye movements with various body postures and activities, and maintaining balance with a reduced support base with various orientations of the head and trunk, while performing various upper-extremity tasks, repeating the movements provoking vertigo, and exposing patients gradually to various sensory and motor environments. VRT is indicated for any stable but poorly compensated vestibular lesion, regardless of the patient's age, the cause, and symptom duration and intensity. Vestibular suppressants, visual and somatosensory deprivation, immobilization, old age, concurrent central lesions, and long recovery from symptoms, but there is no difference in the final outcome. As long as exercises are performed several times every day, even brief periods of exercise are sufficient to facilitate vestibular recovery. Here the authors review the mechanisms and the key exercises for each of the VRT goals. PMID:22259614

  8. Vestibular animal models: contributions to understanding physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straka, Hans; Zwergal, Andreas; Cullen, Kathleen E

    2016-04-01

    Our knowledge of the vestibular sensory system, its functional significance for gaze and posture stabilization, and its capability to ensure accurate spatial orientation perception and spatial navigation has greatly benefitted from experimental approaches using a variety of vertebrate species. This review summarizes the attempts to establish the roles of semicircular canal and otolith endorgans in these functions followed by an overview of the most relevant fields of vestibular research including major findings that have advanced our understanding of how this system exerts its influence on reflexive and cognitive challenges encountered during daily life. In particular, we highlight the contributions of different animal models and the advantage of using a comparative research approach. Cross-species comparisons have established that the morpho-physiological properties underlying vestibular signal processing are evolutionarily inherent, thereby disclosing general principles. Based on the documented success of this approach, we suggest that future research employing a balanced spectrum of standard animal models such as fish/frog, mouse and primate will optimize our progress in understanding vestibular processing in health and disease. Moreover, we propose that this should be further supplemented by research employing more "exotic" species that offer unique experimental access and/or have specific vestibular adaptations due to unusual locomotor capabilities or lifestyles. Taken together this strategy will expedite our understanding of the basic principles underlying vestibular computations to reveal relevant translational aspects. Accordingly, studies employing animal models are indispensible and even mandatory for the development of new treatments, medication and technical aids (implants) for patients with vestibular pathologies.

  9. Vestibular rehabilitation with visual stimuli in peripheral vestibular disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Manso, Andréa; Ganança, Mauricio Malavasi; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Visual stimuli can induce vestibular adaptation and recovery of body balance. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of visual stimuli by digital images on vestibular and body balance rehabilitation of peripheral vestibular disorders. METHODS: Clinical, randomized, prospective study. Forty patients aged between 23 and 63 years with chronic peripheral vestibular disorders underwent 12 sessions of rehabilitation with visual stimuli using digital video disk (DVD) (experimental...

  10. The New Global Information Economy: Implications and Recommendations for Service-Oriented Architectures (SOAs)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, Tim; Donahue, William

    2005-01-01

    ... to fast changing mission and business needs. The large-scale service-oriented architectures that DoD planners envision are designed to lower barriers to dynamic information sharing and improve content quality, quantity and propriety...

  11. The New Global Information Economy: Implications and Recommendations for Service-Oriented Architectures (SOAs)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bass, Tim; Donahue, William

    2005-01-01

    Service-oriented architecture (SOA), a term often used today in conjunction with net-centric operations, implies that existing and future DoD information capabilities will be engineered to publish product and/or service offerings...

  12. A management information system model for process-oriented health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Anna; Hallberg, Niklas; Eriksson, Henrik; Timpka, Toomas

    2004-01-01

    To develop a conceptual model of a management information system for process-oriented health care organizations. Qualitative data was collected from two case studies in process-oriented health care settings. The first study addressed the information requirements of health care managers and the second study focused on organizational activities and clinical practice. From these data, preliminary models were iteratively developed, interpreted, and further revised. A county hospital in southern Sweden with 30 clinics and 3,200 employees. A conceptual model of a management information system for process-oriented health care organizations was developed in two parts: one part that describes the organizational interface of the model and the other part that describes the architecture of the model. A conceptual model has been developed for local-level integration of management information systems and organizational procedures in process-oriented health care organizations

  13. Vestibular telemedicine and rehabilitation. Applications for virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viirre, E

    1996-01-01

    This paper will discuss the use of Virtual Reality (VR) technologies in the rehabilitation of patients with vestibular disorders and in the provision of remote medical consultations for those patients. Patients with a vestibular problem are very common (vertigo is the second most common neurological complaint after headache) and yet there are very few vestibular neurotologists: specialists in their diagnosis and treatment. New treatments for various disorders causing vertigo now exist. This means that appropriate diagnosis can significantly improve patients' well-being. Remote medical diagnosis and treatment facilities could make the few vestibular disorder specialists much more available to patients. An analysis of the technological and economic factors influencing the provision of this service is necessary. The main long term effect of many vestibular disorders is damage to the sensing apparatus of the inner ear. The damage can lead to inappropriate interaction between visually driven orientation sensing and sensing of orientation by the inner ear. The consequence for the patient is vertigo (a sensation of turning), motion sickness and imbalance. Current rehabilitation efforts are intended to drive the nervous system to adapt to the disordered vestibular input. Adaptation appears to occur slowly in many subjects, even those within rehabilitation programs. An appropriately designed VR experience could greatly increase the rate of adaptation in these patients.

  14. Accessing sexual health information online: use, motivations and consequences for youth with different sexual orientations

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L.; Korchmaros, Josephine D.; Joseph G. Kosciw

    2013-01-01

    We examine reasons why youth of different sexual orientations look for sexual health information online, and what, if anything, they do with it. The Teen Health and Technology study involved online surveys of 5542 Internet users, ages 13 through 18 in the United States. Searching for sexual health information online was reported frequently and varied significantly by sexual orientation: from 19% of heterosexual youth to 78% of gay/lesbian/queer youth. The most common reasons youth look for se...

  15. Perspectives on Aging Vestibular Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anson, Eric; Jeka, John

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about age related anatomical changes in the vestibular system. Knowledge regarding how vestibular anatomical changes impact behavior for older adults continues to grow, in line with advancements in diagnostic testing...

  16. Neurotransmitters in the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, C D

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal networks that are linked to the peripheral vestibular system contribute to gravitoinertial sensation, balance control, eye movement control, and autonomic function. Ascending connections to the limbic system and cerebral cortex are also important for motion perception and threat recognition, and play a role in comorbid balance and anxiety disorders. The vestibular system also shows remarkable plasticity, termed vestibular compensation. Activity in these networks is regulated by an interaction between: (1) intrinsic neurotransmitters of the inner ear, vestibular nerve, and vestibular nuclei; (2) neurotransmitters associated with thalamocortical and limbic pathways that receive projections originating in the vestibular nuclei; and (3) locus coeruleus and raphe (serotonergic and nonserotonergic) projections that influence the latter components. Because the ascending vestibular interoceptive and thalamocortical pathways include networks that influence a broad range of stress responses (endocrine and autonomic), memory consolidation, and cognitive functions, common transmitter substrates provide a basis for understanding features of acute and chronic vestibular disorders. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Making Sense of the Body: the Role of Vestibular Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    The role of the vestibular system in posture and eye movement control has been extensively described. By contrast, how vestibular signals contribute to bodily perceptions is a more recent research area in the field of cognitive neuroscience. In the present review article, I will summarize recent findings showing that vestibular signals play a crucial role in making sense of the body. First, data will be presented showing that vestibular signals contribute to bodily perceptions ranging from low-level bodily perceptions, such as touch, pain, and the processing of the body's metric properties, to higher level bodily perceptions, such as the sense of owning a body, the sense of being located within this body (embodiment), and the anchoring of the visuo-spatial perspective to this body. In the second part of the review article, I will show that vestibular information seems to be crucially involved in the visual perception of biological motion and in the visual perception of human body structure. Reciprocally, observing human bodies in motion influences vestibular self-motion perception, presumably due to sensorimotor resonance between the self and others. I will argue that recent advances in the mapping of the human vestibular cortex afford neuroscientific models of the vestibular contributions to human bodily self-consciousness.

  18. GENESIS: Agile Generation of Information Management Oriented Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Erasmo Gómez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The specification for an information system can be clear from the beginning: it must acquire, display, query and modify data, using a database. The main issue is to decide which information to manage. In the case originating this work, information was always evolving, even up to the end of the project. This implies the construction of a new system each time the information is redefined. This article presents Genesis, an agile development infrastructure, and proposes an approach for the immediate construction of required information systems. Experts describe their information needs and queries, and Genesis generates the corresponding application, with the appropriate graphical interfaces and database.La especificación de un sistema de información puede estar clara desde el principio: debe adquirir, desplegar, consultar y modificar datos, usando una base de datos. El asunto es decidir cuál información manejar. En el caso que origina este trabajo, la información evoluciona permanentemente, incluso hasta el final del proyecto. Esto implica la construcción de un nuevo sistema cada vez que se redefine la información. Este artículo presenta Genesis, una infraestructura ágil para la construcción inmediata del sistema de información que sea requerido. Los expertos describen su información y consultas. Genesis produce el software correspondiente, generando las interfaces gráficas y la base de datos apropiados.

  19. Product-oriented design theory for digital information services: A literature review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, Alphonsus B.J.M.; Kraaijenbrink, Jeroen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to give a structured literature review, design concepts, and research propositions related to a product-oriented design theory for information services. Information services facilitate the exchange of information goods with or without transforming these goods.

  20. A theory-informed, process-oriented Resident Scholarship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thammasitboon, Satid; Darby, John B; Hair, Amy B; Rose, Karen M; Ward, Mark A; Turner, Teri L; Balmer, Dorene F

    2016-01-01

    The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education requires residency programs to provide curricula for residents to engage in scholarly activities but does not specify particular guidelines for instruction. We propose a Resident Scholarship Program that is framed by the self-determination theory (SDT) and emphasize the process of scholarly activity versus a scholarly product. The authors report on their longitudinal Resident Scholarship Program, which aimed to support psychological needs central to SDT: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. By addressing those needs in program aims and program components, the program may foster residents' intrinsic motivation to learn and to engage in scholarly activity. To this end, residents' engagement in scholarly processes, and changes in perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness were assessed. Residents engaged in a range of scholarly projects and expressed positive regard for the program. Compared to before residency, residents felt more confident in the process of scholarly activity, as determined by changes in increased perceived autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Scholarly products were accomplished in return for a focus on scholarly process. Based on our experience, and in line with the SDT, supporting residents' autonomy, competence, and relatedness through a process-oriented scholarship program may foster the curiosity, inquisitiveness, and internal motivation to learn that drives scholarly activity and ultimately the production of scholarly products.

  1. Concept-oriented research and development in information technology

    CERN Document Server

    Mori, Kinji

    2014-01-01

    This book thoroughly analyzes the relationships between concept, technology, and market-which are the main factors in shifting information technology research and development (R&D) to a new approach. It discusses unconventional methods and viewpoints of concept creation, technology innovation, and market cultivation. Featuring contributions from international experts and case studies from IBM and Hitachi, this book is perfect for graduate students in information technology, engineering, technology management, operation research, and business-as well as for R&D researchers, directors, strategis

  2. Discretionary Information Flow Control for Interaction-Oriented Specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lluch Lafuente, Alberto; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2015-01-01

    system for statically checking if a system specification ensures an information flow policy. The approach is illustrated with two archetypal examples of distributed and parallel computing systems: a protocol for an identity-secured data providing service and a parallel MapReduce computation....

  3. Intergovernmental cooperation for mission-oriented information systems: a memoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woolston, John E.

    2004-12-01

    This frankly personal account is based on my involvement in negotiations, design, and development for international bibliographic systems to support three different missions: fostering the peaceful uses of atomic energy (International Nuclear Information System, or INIS); supporting research, development, and better practices in agriculture (International Information System for the Agricultural Sciences and Technology, or AGRIS); and improving economic and social conditions in poorer countries (Development Sciences Information System, or DEVSIS). All three designs were based on the concept of decentralized operation: each country reports the information produced in its own territory; the merging of this input and the overall management are in the hands of an organization in the United Nations system; and all participants have equal rights to exploit the entire database. INIS began in 1970 and is still in steady operation; AGRIS started in 1975 and showed quantitative and qualitative growth for more than twenty years but has been in disastrous decline since its peak in 1996; and DEVSIS, unfortunately, was not launched on a global scale. Attempts are made to identify the condition -- political and technical -- likely to favor or frustrate efforts to obtain cooperation among countries for the construction of large, essentially comprehensive databases and ultimately for sharing knowledge without discrimination between rich and poor participants.

  4. Artificial balance: restoration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in humans with a prototype vestibular neuroprosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Fornos, Angelica; Guinand, Nils; van de Berg, Raymond; Stokroos, Robert; Micera, Silvestro; Kingma, Herman; Pelizzone, Marco; Guyot, Jean-Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation are limited and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Currently, there is no effective treatment for bilateral vestibular deficits. Research efforts both in animals and humans during the last decade set a solid background to the concept of using electrical stimulation to restore vestibular function. Still, the potential clinical benefit of a vestibular neuroprosthesis has to be demonstrated to pave the way for a translation into clinical trials. An important parameter for the assessment of vestibular function is the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), the primary mechanism responsible for maintaining the perception of a stable visual environment while moving. Here we show that the VOR can be artificially restored in humans using motion-controlled, amplitude modulated electrical stimulation of the ampullary branches of the vestibular nerve. Three patients received a vestibular neuroprosthesis prototype, consisting of a modified cochlear implant providing vestibular electrodes. Significantly higher VOR responses were observed when the prototype was turned ON. Furthermore, VOR responses increased significantly as the intensity of the stimulation increased, reaching on average 79% of those measured in healthy volunteers in the same experimental conditions. These results constitute a fundamental milestone and allow us to envision for the first time clinically useful rehabilitation of patients with bilateral vestibular loss.

  5. Artificial balance: restoration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in humans with a prototype vestibular neuroprosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica ePerez Fornos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The vestibular system plays a crucial role in the multisensory control of balance. When vestibular function is lost, essential tasks such as postural control, gaze stabilization, and spatial orientation are limited and the quality of life of patients is significantly impaired. Currently there is no effective treatment for bilateral vestibular deficits. Research efforts both in animals and humans during the last decade set a solid background to the concept of using electrical stimulation to restore vestibular function. Still, the potential clinical benefit of a vestibular neuroprosthesis has to be demonstrated to pave the way for a translation into clinical trials. An important parameter for the assessment of vestibular function is the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR, the primary mechanism responsible for maintaining the perception of a stable visual environment while moving. Here we show that the VOR can be artificially restored in humans using motion-controlled, amplitude modulated electrical stimulation of the ampullary branches of the vestibular nerve. Three patients received a vestibular neuroprosthesis prototype, consisting of a modified cochlear implant providing vestibular electrodes. Significantly higher VOR responses were observed when the prototype was turned ON. Furthermore, VOR responses increased significantly as the intensity of the stimulation increased, reaching on average 79% of those measured in healthy volunteers in the same experimental conditions. These results constitute a fundamental milestone and allow us to envision for the first time clinically useful rehabilitation of patients with bilateral vestibular loss.

  6. Vestibular tributaries to the vein of the vestibular aqueduct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Marsner; Qvortrup, Klaus; Friis, Morten

    2010-01-01

    CONCLUSION: The vein of the vestibular aqueduct drains blood from areas extensively lined by vestibular dark cells (VDCs). A possible involvement in the pathogenesis of an impaired endolymphatic homeostasis can be envisioned at the level of the dark cells area. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study...... was to investigate the vascular relationship between the vein of the vestibular aqueduct and the vestibular apparatus, with focus on the VDCs. METHODS: Sixteen male Wistar rats were divided into groups of 6 and 10. In the first group, 2 µm thick sections including the vein of the vestibular aqueduct, utricle...... relation to the VDCs in the utricle and the crista ampullaris of the lateral semicircular canal in the vestibular apparatus. One major vein emanated from these networks, which emptied into the vein of the vestibular aqueduct. Veins draining the saccule and the common crus of the superior and posterior...

  7. Object-oriented analysis and design for information systems Modeling with UML, OCL, IFML

    CERN Document Server

    Wazlawick, Raul Sidnei

    2014-01-01

    Object-Oriented Analysis and Design for Information Systems clearly explains real object-oriented programming in practice. Expert author Raul Sidnei Wazlawick explains concepts such as object responsibility, visibility and the real need for delegation in detail. The object-oriented code generated by using these concepts in a systematic way is concise, organized and reusable. The patterns and solutions presented in this book are based in research and industrial applications. You will come away with clarity regarding processes and use cases and a clear understand of how to expand a use case.

  8. The challenge of vestibular migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Eric W

    2013-10-01

    Migraine is a common illness and migraine-related dizziness occurs in up to 3% of the population. Because the diagnosis is controversial and may be difficult, many patients go undiagnosed and untreated. This review summarizes current understanding of the taxonomy and diagnosis of vestibular migraine, the relation of vestibular migraine to labyrinthine disease, and the treatment of the condition in adults and children. The categories of migraine accepted by the International Headache Society do not reflect the complex presentations of patients suspected of having vestibular migraine. In clinical practice and research, criteria are increasingly accepted that divide patients suspected of vestibular migraine into 'definite vestibular migraine' and 'probable vestibular migraine.' Because vertigo itself may trigger migraine, patients with vestibular migraine should be suspected of having vestibular end-organ disease until proven otherwise. Treatment remains controversial because of a notable lack of randomized controlled studies of vestibular migraine treatment. For now, the best strategy for the treatment of suspected vestibular migraine patients is dietary/lifestyle modification, antinausea/antiemetics for acute vertigo, and preventive medication for patients who have continued disruptive symptoms. Patients with vestibular migraine should be monitored regularly for the development of latent audiovestibular end-organ disease.

  9. The influence of visual information on habituation of the electrodermal and the visual orienting reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaten, M.N.; Woestenburg, J.C.; Sjouw, W.

    In this study the influence of the information value of visual stimuli on habituation of the visual orienting reaction (VOR) and the skin conductance reaction (SCR) was investigated. 28 subjects received two blocks of 14 trials. Half the subjects received the higher information condition first and

  10. Vestibular rehabilitation using a wide field of view virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparto, P J; Furman, J M; Whitney, S L; Hodges, L F; Redfern, M S

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical justification for using a wide field of view (FOV) virtual reality display system for use in vestibular rehabilitation. A wide FOV environment offers some unique features that may be beneficial to vestibular rehabilitation. Primarily, optic flow information extracted from the periphery may be critical for recalibrating the sensory processes used by people with vestibular disorders. If this hypothesis is correct, then wide FOV systems will have an advantage over narrow field of view input devices such as head mounted or desktop displays. Devices that we have incorporated into our system that are critical for monitoring improvement in this clinical population will also be described.

  11. Influence of information communicative technologies on students’ sport-oriented physical education interest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Olkhovy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination the influence of information communicative technologies on students’ interest in regular exercise of sport-oriented physical education. Material and Methods: in the researches were involved 1–5 year basic department students of V. N Karazin Kharkov National University (n=36402. Methods: analysis of literature sources, formatted pedagogical experiment, sociological research, maths statistics. Results: through experimental research we found out that that usage of information communicative technologies in authors’ model of sport-oriented physical education in high schools had provided increase in amount of students, who engaged in chosen sports (moving activity, by 14,4% (1463 persons. Conclusion: the usage of information communicative technologies in educational process promoted increasing of student quantity in the sport-oriented groups

  12. New Insights into Pathophysiology of Vestibular Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Sanchez, Juan M.; Lopez-Escamez, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Vestibular migraine (VM) is a common disorder in which genetic, epigenetic, and environmental factors probably contribute to its development. The pathophysiology of VM is unknown; nevertheless in the last few years, several studies are contributing to understand the neurophysiological pathways involved in VM. The current hypotheses are mostly based on the knowledge of migraine itself. The evidence of trigeminal innervation of the labyrinth vessels and the localization of vasoactive neuropeptides in the perivascular afferent terminals of these trigeminal fibers support the involvement of the trigemino-vascular system. The neurogenic inflammation triggered by activation of the trigeminal-vestibulocochlear reflex, with the subsequent inner ear plasma protein extravasation and the release of inflammatory mediators, can contribute to a sustained activation and sensitization of the trigeminal primary afferent neurons explaining VM symptoms. The reciprocal connections between brainstem vestibular nuclei and the structures that modulate trigeminal nociceptive inputs (rostral ventromedial medulla, ventrolateral periaqueductal gray, locus coeruleus, and nucleus raphe magnus) are critical to understand the pathophysiology of VM. Although cortical spreading depression can affect cortical areas involved in processing vestibular information, functional neuroimaging techniques suggest a dysmodulation in the multimodal sensory integration and processing of vestibular and nociceptive information, resulting from a vestibulo-thalamo-cortical dysfunction, as the pathogenic mechanism underlying VM. The elevated prevalence of VM suggests that multiple functional variants may confer a genetic susceptibility leading to a dysregulation of excitatory–inhibitory balance in brain structures involved in the processing of sensory information, vestibular inputs, and pain. The interactions among several functional and structural neural networks could explain the pathogenic mechanisms of VM

  13. New insights into pathophysiology of vestibular migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Espinosa-Sanchez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular migraine (VM is a common disorder in which genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors probably contribute to its development. The pathophysiology of VM is unknown; nevertheless in the last few years, several studies are contributing to understand the neurophysiological pathways involved in VM. The current hypotheses are mostly based on the knowledge of migraine itself. The evidence of trigeminal innervation of the labyrinth vessels and the localization of vasoactive neuropeptides in the perivascular afferent terminals of these trigeminal fibers support the involvement of the trigemino-vascular system. The neurogenic inflammation triggered by activation of the trigeminal-vestibulocochlear reflex, with the subsequent inner ear plasma protein extravasation and the release of inflammatory mediators, can contribute to a sustained activation and sensitization of the trigeminal primary afferent neurons explaining VM symptoms. The reciprocal connections between brainstem vestibular nuclei and the structures that modulate trigeminal nociceptive inputs (rostral ventromedial medulla, ventrolateral periaqueductal grey, locus coeruleus and nucleus raphe magnus are critical to understand the pathophysiology of VM. Although cortical spreading depression can affect cortical areas involved in processing vestibular information, functional neuroimaging techniques suggest a dysmodulation in the multimodal sensory integration and processing of vestibular and nociceptive information, resulting from a vestibulo-thalamo-cortical dysfunction, as the pathogenic mechanism underlying VM. The elevated prevalence of VM suggests that multiple functional variants may confer a genetic susceptibility leading to a dysregulation of excitatory-inhibitory balance in brain structures involved in the processing of sensory information, vestibular inputs and pain. The interactions among several functional and structural neural networks could explain the pathogenic

  14. Accessing sexual health information online: use, motivations and consequences for youth with different sexual orientations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J; Ybarra, Michele L; Korchmaros, Josephine D; Kosciw, Joseph G

    2014-02-01

    We examine reasons why youth of different sexual orientations look for sexual health information online, and what, if anything, they do with it. The Teen Health and Technology study involved online surveys of 5542 Internet users, ages 13 through 18 in the United States. Searching for sexual health information online was reported frequently and varied significantly by sexual orientation: from 19% of heterosexual youth to 78% of gay/lesbian/queer youth. The most common reasons youth look for sexual health information is for privacy and curiosity. Sexual minority youth are more likely than heterosexual youth to report that they looked for information online because they did not have anyone to ask. Once youth have the information, no differences by sexual orientation were noted as to what they did with it. Instead, seeking out the information for privacy-related reasons and having no one to ask were related to taking some action on the information received. Findings indicate that online information is most valuable to those youth who lack alternatives. Care needs to be taken to help ensure that the sexual health information online is accurate and includes topics specific to sexual minority youth.

  15. Vestibular contributions to high-level sensorimotor functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medendorp, W.P.; Selen, L.P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied,

  16. Role of the insula and vestibular system in patients with chronic subjective dizziness: An fMRI study using sound-evoked vestibular stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole eIndovina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic subjective dizziness (CSD is a common vestibular disorder characterized by persistent non-vertiginous dizziness, unsteadiness, and heightened sensitivity to motion stimuli that may last for months to years after events that cause acute vestibular symptoms or disrupt balance. CSD is not associated with abnormalities of basic vestibular or oculomotor reflexes. Rather, it is thought to arise from persistent use of high-threat postural control strategies and greater reliance on visual cues for spatial orientation (i.e., visual dependence, long after triggering events resolve. Anxiety-related personality traits confer vulnerability to CSD. Anomalous interactions between the central vestibular system and neural structures related to anxiety may sustain it. Vestibular- and anxiety-related processes overlap in the brain, particularly in the insula and hippocampus. Alterations in activity and connectivity in these brain regions in response to vestibular stimuli may be the neural basis of CSD.We examined this hypothesis by comparing brain activity from 18 patients with CSD and 18 healthy controls measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging during loud short tone bursts, which are auditory stimuli that evoke robust vestibular responses. Relative to controls, patients with CSD showed reduced activations to sound-evoked vestibular stimulation in the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC including the posterior insula, and in the anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, hippocampus, and anterior cingulate cortex. Patients with CSD also showed altered connectivity between the anterior insula and PIVC, anterior insula and middle occipital cortex, hippocampus and PIVC, and anterior cingulate cortex and PIVC.We conclude that reduced activation in PIVC, hippocampus, anterior insula, inferior frontal gyrus, and anterior cingulate cortex, as well as connectivity changes among these regions, may be linked to long-term vestibular symptoms in patients

  17. New perspectives on vestibular evoked myogenic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengren, Sally M; Kingma, Herman

    2013-02-01

    Although the vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) measured from the cervical muscles (cVEMP, cervical VEMP) is well described and has documented clinical utility, its analogue recorded from the extraocular muscles (oVEMP, ocular VEMP) has been described only recently and is currently emerging as an additional test of otolith function. This review will, therefore, summarize recent developments in VEMP research with a focus on the oVEMP. Recent studies suggest that the oVEMP is produced by otolith afferents in the superior vestibular nerve division, whereas the cVEMP evoked by sound is thought to be an inferior vestibular nerve reflex. Correspondingly, the oVEMP correlates better with caloric and subjective visual vertical tests than sound-cVEMPs. cVEMPs are more complicated than often thought, as shown by the presence of crossed responses and conflicting results of recent vibration studies. Altered inner ear mechanics produced by the vestibular diseases superior semicircular canal dehiscence and Ménière's disease lead to changes in the preferred frequency of the oVEMP and cVEMP. The oVEMP provides complementary diagnostic information to the cVEMP and is likely to be a useful addition to the diagnostic test battery in neuro-otology.

  18. Vestibular Schwannoma (Acoustic Neuroma) and Neurofibromatosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vestibular schwannoma is key to preventing its serious consequences. There are three options for managing a vestibular ... Disorders Balance Problems and Disorders - National Institute on Aging Enlarged Vestibular Aqueducts and Childhood Hearing Loss Genetics ...

  19. Vestibular Aqueduct Midpoint Width and Hearing Loss in Patients With an Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascha, Mustafa S; Manzoor, Nauman; Gupta, Amit; Semaan, Maroun; Megerian, Cliff; Otteson, Todd D

    2017-06-01

    Elucidating the relationship between vestibular aqueduct size and hearing loss progression may inform the prognosis and counseling of patients who have an enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA). To examine the association between vestibular aqueduct size and repeated measures of hearing loss. For this retrospective medical record review, 52 patients with a diagnosis of hearing loss and radiologic diagnosis of EVA according to the Valvassori criterion were included. All available speech reception threshold and word recognition score data was retrieved; mixed-effects models were constructed where vestibular aqueduct size, age at diagnosis of hearing loss, and time since diagnosis of hearing loss were used to predict repeated measures of hearing ability. This study was performed at an academic tertiary care center. Variable vestibular aqueduct size, age at first audiogram, length of time after first audiogram. Speech reception threshold (dB) and word recognition score (%) during routine audiogram. Overall, 52 patients were identified (29 females [56%] and 23 males [44%]; median age at all recorded audiograms, 7.8 years) with a total of 74 ears affected by EVA. Median (range) vestibular aqueduct size was 2.15 (1.5-5.9) mm, and a median (range) of 5 (1-18) tests were available for each patient. Each millimeter increase in vestibular aqueduct size above 1.5 mm was associated with an increase of 17.5 dB in speech reception threshold (95% CI, 7.2 to 27.9 dB) and a decrease of 21% in word recognition score (95% CI, -33.3 to -8.0 dB). For each extra year after a patient's first audiogram, there was an increase of 1.5 dB in speech recognition threshold (95% CI, 0.22 to 3.0 dB) and a decrease of 1.7% in word recognition score (95% CI, -3.08 to -0.22 dB). Hearing loss in patients with an EVA is likely influenced by vestibular aqueduct midpoint width. When considering hearing loss prognosis, vestibular aqueduct midpoint width may be useful for the clinician who counsels patients

  20. Effect of gaze on postural responses to neck proprioceptive and vestibular stimulation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Grasso, Renato; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    1999-01-01

    We studied the effect of gaze orientation on postural responses evoked by vibration of neck dorsal muscles or by galvanic stimulation of the vestibular system during quiet standing in healthy humans. Various gaze orientations were obtained by different combinations of horizontal head-on-feet (−90, −45, 0, 45, 90 deg) and eye-in-orbit (−30, 0, 30 deg) positions. The instantaneous centre of foot pressure was recorded with a force platform. With a symmetrical position of the vibrator relative to the spine, neck muscle vibration elicited a body sway in the direction of the head naso-occipital axis when the eyes were aligned with it. The same result was obtained both during head rotations and when the head and trunk were rotated together. For lateral eye deviations, the direction of the body sway was aligned with gaze orientation. The effect of gaze was present both with eyes open and eyes closed. After long-lasting (1 min) lateral fixation of the target the effect of gaze decreased significantly. Postural responses to galvanic vestibular stimulation tended to occur orthogonal to the head naso-occipital axis (towards the anodal ear) but in eight of the 11 subjects the responses were also biased by the direction of gaze. The prominent effect of gaze in reorienting automatic postural reactions indicates that both neck proprioceptive and vestibular stimuli are processed in the context of visual control of posture. The results point out the importance of a viewer-centred frame of reference for processing multisensory information. PMID:10432359

  1. The Impact of Power on Information Processing Depends on Cultural Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torelli, Carlos J.; Shavitt, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    Two studies show that different culturally based concepts of interpersonal power have distinct implications for information processing. People with a vertical individualist (VI) cultural orientation view power in personalized terms (power is for gaining status over and recognition by others), whereas people with a horizontal collectivist (HC) cultural orientation view power in socialized terms (power is for benefitting and helping others). The distinct goals associated with these power concepts are served by different mindsets, such as stereotyping others versus learning the individuating needs of others. Therefore, for high-VI individuals, making personalized power salient increases stereotyping in processing product information. That is, they recognize better information that is congruent with their prior product expectations, relative to their recognition of incongruent information. In contrast, for high-HC people, making socialized power salient increases individuating processes, characterized by better memory for incongruent information. PMID:21779130

  2. Is Vestibular Neuritis an Immune Related Vestibular Neuropathy Inducing Vertigo?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Greco

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To review the current knowledge of the aetiology of vestibular neuritis including viral infections, vascular occlusion, and immunomediated mechanisms and to discuss the pathogenesis with relevance to pharmacotherapy. Systematic Review Methodology. Relevant publications on the aetiology and treatment of vestibular neuritis from 1909 to 2013 were analysed. Results and Conclusions. Vestibular neuritis is the second most common cause of peripheral vestibular vertigo and is due to a sudden unilateral loss of vestibular function. Vestibular neuronitis is a disorder thought to represent the vestibular-nerve equivalent of sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Histopathological studies of patients who died from unrelated clinical problems have demonstrated degeneration of the superior vestibular nerve. The characteristic signs and symptoms include sudden and prolonged vertigo, the absence of auditory symptoms, and the absence of other neurological symptoms. The aetiology and pathogenesis of the condition remain unknown. Proposed theories of causation include viral infections, vascular occlusion, and immunomediated mechanisms. The management of vestibular neuritis involves symptomatic treatment with antivertiginous drugs, causal treatment with corticosteroids, and physical therapy. Antiviral agents did not improve the outcomes.

  3. Modeling human spatial orientation and motion perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Jelte E.; Bles, Willem; Hosman, Ruud J A W

    2001-01-01

    We here present one part of a generic spatial orientation and motion sickness model. The part focussed on here describes visual-vestibular interactions regarding motion and attitude perception. The key issue regarding the processing of vestibular cues concerns the way accelerations due to motion are

  4. Influence of vestibular and visual stimulation on split-belt walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, B; Colombo, G; Müller, R; Dürsteler, M R; Dietz, V; Straumann, D

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the influence of vestibular (caloric ear irrigation) and visual (optokinetic) stimulation on slow and fast split-belt walking. The velocity of one belt was fixed (1.5 or 5.0-6.0 km/h) and subjects (N = 8 for vestibular and N = 6 for visual experiments) were asked to adjust the velocity of the other belt to a level at which they perceived the velocity of both the belts as equal. Throughout all experiments, subjects bimanually held on to the space-fixed handles along the treadmill, which provided haptic information on body orientation. While the optokinetic stimulus (displayed on face-mounted virtual reality goggles) had no effect on belt velocity adjustments compared to control trials, cold-water ear irrigation during slow (but not fast) walking effectively influenced belt velocity adjustments in seven of eight subjects. Only two of these subjects decreased the velocity of the ipsilateral belt, consistent with the ipsilateral turning toward the irrigated ear in the Fukuda stepping test. The other five subjects, however, increased the velocity of the ipsilateral belt. A straight-ahead sense mechanism can explain both decreased and increased velocity adjustments. Subjects decrease or increase ipsilateral belt velocity depending on whether the vestibular stimulus is interpreted as an indicator of the straight-ahead direction (decreased velocity) or as an error signal relative to the straight-ahead direction provided by the haptic input from the space-fixed handles along the treadmill (increased velocity). The missing effect during fast walking corroborates the findings by others that the influence of vestibular tone asymmetry on locomotion decreases at higher gait velocities.

  5. Neuropharmacology of Vestibular System Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Enrique; Vega, Rosario

    2010-01-01

    This work reviews the neuropharmacology of the vestibular system, with an emphasis on the mechanism of action of drugs used in the treatment of vestibular disorders. Otolaryngologists are confronted with a rapidly changing field in which advances in the knowledge of ionic channel function and synaptic transmission mechanisms have led to the development of new scientific models for the understanding of vestibular dysfunction and its management. In particular, there have been recent advances in...

  6. Prophylactic treatment of vestibular migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Salmito, Márcio Cavalcante; Duarte, Juliana Antoniolli; Morganti, Lígia Oliveira Golçalves; Brandão, Priscila Valéria Caus; Nakao, Bruno Higa; Villa, Thais Rodrigues; Ganança,Fernando Freitas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Vestibular migraine (VM) is now accepted as a common cause of episodic vertigo. Treatment of VM involves two situations: the vestibular symptom attacks and the period between attacks. For the latter, some prophylaxis methods can be used. The current recommendation is to use the same prophylactic drugs used for migraines, including β-blockers, antidepressants and anticonvulsants. The recent diagnostic definition of vestibular migraine makes the number of studies on its ...

  7. The Vestibular-Evoked Postural Response of Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis Is Altered.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Pialasse

    Full Text Available Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is a multifactorial disorder including neurological factors. A dysfunction of the sensorimotor networks processing vestibular information could be related to spine deformation. This study investigates whether feed-forward vestibulomotor control or sensory reweighting mechanisms are impaired in adolescent scoliosis patients. Vestibular evoked postural responses were obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation while participants stood with their eyes closed and head facing forward. Lateral forces under each foot and lateral displacement of the upper body of adolescents with mild (n = 20 or severe (n = 16 spine deformation were compared to those of healthy control adolescents (n = 16. Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients demonstrated greater lateral displacement and net lateral forces than controls both during and immediately after vestibular stimulation. Altered sensory reweighting of vestibular and proprioceptive information changed balance control of AIS patients during and after vestibular stimulation. Therefore, scoliosis onset could be related to abnormal sensory reweighting, leading to altered sensorimotor processes.

  8. Unleashing the Effectiveness of Process-oriented Information Systems: Problem Analysis, Critical Success Factors, Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Reichert, M.U.; Bumiller, J.

    2008-01-01

    Process-oriented information systems (IS) aim at the computerized support of business processes. So far, contemporary IS have often fail to meet this goal. To better understand this drawback, to systematically identify its rationales, and to derive critical success factors for business process

  9. Interaction between Task Oriented and Affective Information Processing in Cognitive Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haazebroek, Pascal; van Dantzig, Saskia; Hommel, Bernhard

    There is an increasing interest in endowing robots with emotions. Robot control however is still often very task oriented. We present a cognitive architecture that allows the combination of and interaction between task representations and affective information processing. Our model is validated by comparing simulation results with empirical data from experimental psychology.

  10. Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Object Oriented Information Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantas, D.; Leonard, M.; Pigneur, Y.; Patel, S.; Unknown, [Unknown

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Object-Oriented Information Systems, OOIS 2003, held in Geneva, Switzerland in September 2003. The 29 revised full papers and 11 revised short papers presented together with an invited paper and abstracts of 2

  11. Drug therapy for peripheral vestibular vertigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. M. Antonenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of effective treatments for vestibular vertigo is one of the important problems, by taking into account the high prevalence of peripheral vestibular diseases. Different drugs, such as vestibular suppressants for the relief of acute vertigo attacks and vestibular compensation stimulants for rehabilitation treatment, are used to treat vestibular vertigo. Drug therapy in combination with vestibular exercises is effective in patients with vestibular neuronitis, Meniere's disease, so is that with therapeutic maneuvers in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. The high therapeutic efficacy and safety of betahistines permit their extensive use for the treatment of various vestibular disorders.

  12. Overview of the IMSA project, a patient-oriented information system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Curé

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an overview of the IMSA application, a patient-oriented medical information system. IMSA stands for Interactive Multimedia System for Auto-medication and aims to provide a health-care Internet tool for the end-user. This system proposes an environment that integrates on-line health information, medical and pharmaceutical databases and a knowledge-based system for medical diagnosis. The implementation process focuses on cognitive science, knowledge representation and human-computer interaction.

  13. Convergence of vestibular and visual self-motion signals in an area of the posterior sylvian fissure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aihua; DeAngelis, Gregory C.; Angelaki, Dora E.

    2011-01-01

    Convergence of visual motion information (optic flow) and vestibular signals is important for self-motion perception, and such convergence has been observed in the dorsal medial superior temporal (MSTd) and ventral intraparietal (VIP) areas. In contrast, the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC), a cortical vestibular area in the sylvian fissure, is not responsive to optic flow. Here we explore optic flow and vestibular convergence in the visual posterior sylvian area (VPS) of macaque monkeys. This area is located at the posterior end of the sylvian fissure, is strongly interconnected with PIVC, and receives projections from MSTd. We found robust optic flow and vestibular tuning in more than one-third of VPS cells, with all motion directions being represented uniformly. However, visual and vestibular direction preferences for translation were mostly opposite, unlike in area MSTd where roughly equal proportions of neurons have visual/vestibular heading preferences that are congruent or opposite. Overall, optic flow responses in VPS were weaker than those in MSTd, whereas vestibular responses were stronger in VPS than in MSTd. When visual and vestibular stimuli were presented together, VPS responses were dominated by vestibular signals, in contrast to MSTd, where optic flow tuning typically dominates. These findings suggest that VPS is proximal to MSTd in terms of vestibular processing, but distal to MSTd in terms of optic flow processing. Given the preponderance of neurons with opposite visual/vestibular heading preferences in VPS, this area may not play a major role in multisensory heading perception. PMID:21832191

  14. A practical object-oriented approach to a development of a next generation hospital information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, N

    1998-01-01

    KIND (stands for Kyushu university hospital Information Network Database) is a five years project, which aims to provide integrated services for patients, physicians, researchers and other hospital staffs. The final product of KIND is a next generation hospital information system. A physicians' clinical workstation, for example, integrated into a secured medical information network, can electronically develop a longitudinal medical record and interface with pharmacies, laboratories, medical specialists, and radiologists, as well as develop patient census and demographic profiles, in addition to doing electronic claims. Since clinical requirements on those medical records may vary for each case, we would like to have an essential data model under the hood. We decided to introduce domain analysis method to produce a relevant domain model. A domain analysis method captures the nature of business and helps us have an essential and extensible data model. Although there are several ways to describe a domain model, we chose an object-oriented description and consequently implementation using an object-oriented database system. Once we could have a decent domain model and implemented it as an object-oriented data model, application programs can utilize those data very easy without worrying extra efforts like finding complex queries including multiple joins. More over, if an application uses decent object-oriented technologies, it allows a user to access whole aspects of data transparently. This paper describes the architecture of KIND (the system) and outlines our domain model. In this paper, we also describe a practical application of several object-oriented technologies to develop a next generation hospital information system.

  15. Age-Related Vestibular Loss: Current Understanding and Future Research Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshad, Qadeer; Seemungal, Barry M

    2016-01-01

    The vestibular system sub-serves a number of reflex and perceptual functions, comprising the peripheral apparatus, the vestibular nerve, the brainstem and cerebellar processing circuits, the thalamic relays, and the vestibular cerebral cortical network. This system provides signals of self-motion, important for gaze and postural control, and signals of traveled distance, for spatial orientation, especially in the dark. Current evidence suggests that certain aspects of this multi-faceted system may deteriorate with age and sometimes with severe consequences, such as falls. Often the deterioration in vestibular functioning relates to how the signal is processed by brain circuits rather than an impairment in the sensory transduction process. We review current data concerning age-related changes in the vestibular system, and how this may be important for clinicians dealing with balance disorders.

  16. Age-Related Vestibular Loss: Current Understanding and Future Research Directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Allen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The vestibular system sub-serves a number of reflex and perceptual functions, comprising the peripheral apparatus, the vestibular nerve, the brainstem and cerebellar processing circuits, the thalamic relays, and the vestibular cerebral cortical network. This system provides signals of self-motion, important for gaze and postural control, and signals of traveled distance, for spatial orientation, especially in the dark. Current evidence suggests that certain aspects of this multi-faceted system may deteriorate with age and sometimes with severe consequences, such as falls. Often the deterioration in vestibular functioning relates to how the signal is processed by brain circuits rather than an impairment in the sensory transduction process. We review current data concerning age-related changes in the vestibular system, and how this may be important for clinicians dealing with balance disorders.

  17. The application of the unified modeling language in object-oriented analysis of healthcare information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Vinod

    2002-10-01

    This paper concerns itself with the beneficial effects of the Unified Modeling Language (UML), a nonproprietary object modeling standard, in specifying, visualizing, constructing, documenting, and communicating the model of a healthcare information system from the user's perspective. The author outlines the process of object-oriented analysis (OOA) using the UML and illustrates this with healthcare examples to demonstrate the practicality of application of the UML by healthcare personnel to real-world information system problems. The UML will accelerate advanced uses of object-orientation such as reuse technology, resulting in significantly higher software productivity. The UML is also applicable in the context of a component paradigm that promises to enhance the capabilities of healthcare information systems and simplify their management and maintenance.

  18. Frequency response of human vestibular reflexes characterized by stochastic stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Christopher J; Son, Gregory M Lee; Inglis, J Timothy; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2007-09-15

    Stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) can be used to study the postural responses to unpredictable vestibular perturbations. The present study seeks to determine if stochastic vestibular stimulation elicits lower limb muscular responses and to estimate the frequency characteristics of these vestibulo-motor responses in humans. Fourteen healthy subjects were exposed to unpredictable galvanic currents applied on their mastoid processes while quietly standing (+/-3 mA, 0-50 Hz). The current amplitude and stimulation configuration as well as the subject's head position relative to their feet were manipulated in order to determine that: (1) the muscle responses evoked by stochastic currents are dependent on the amplitude of the current, (2) the muscle responses evoked by stochastic currents are specific to the percutaneous stimulation of vestibular afferents and (3) the lower limb muscle responses exhibit polarity changes with different head positions as previously described for square-wave galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) pulses. Our results revealed significant coherence (between 0 and 20 Hz) and cumulant density functions (peak responses at 65 and 103 ms) between SVS and the lower limbs' postural muscle activity. The polarity of the cumulant density functions corresponded to that of the reflexes elicited by square-wave GVS pulses. The SVS-muscle activity coherence and time cumulant functions were modulated by current amplitude, electrode position and head orientation with respect to the subject's feet. These findings strongly support the vestibular origin of the lower limb muscles evoked by SVS. In addition, specific frequency bandwidths in the stochastic vestibular signal contributed to the early (12-20 Hz) and late components (2-10 Hz) of the SVS-evoked muscular responses. These frequency-dependent SVS-evoked muscle responses support the view that the biphasic muscle response is conveyed by two distinct physiological processes.

  19. Cognitive deficits in patients with a chronic vestibular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Pauline; Wulff, Melanie; Finke, Kathrin; Rühl, Maxine; Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2017-03-01

    Behavioral studies in rodents and humans have demonstrated deficits of spatial memory and orientation in bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). Our aim was to explore the functional consequences of chronic vestibular failure on different cognitive domains including spatial as well as non-spatial cognitive abilities. Sixteen patients with a unilateral vestibular failure (UVF), 18 patients with a BVF, and 17 healthy controls (HC) participated in the study. To assess the cognitive domains of short-term memory, executive function, processing speed and visuospatial abilities the following tests were used: Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), TAP Alertness and Visual Scanning, the Stroop Color-Word, and the Corsi Block Tapping Test. The cognitive scores were correlated with the degree of vestibular dysfunction and the duration of the disease, respectively. Groups did not differ significantly in age, sex, or handedness. BVF patients were significantly impaired in all of the examined cognitive domains but not in all tests of the particular domain, whereas UVF patients exhibited significant impairments in their visuospatial abilities and in one of the two processing speed tasks when compared independently with HC. The degree of vestibular dysfunction significantly correlated with some of the cognitive scores. Neither the side of the lesion nor the duration of disease influenced cognitive performance. The results demonstrate that vestibular failure can lead to cognitive impairments beyond the spatial navigation deficits described earlier. These cognitive impairments are more significant in BVF patients, suggesting that the input from one labyrinth which is distributed into bilateral vestibular circuits is sufficient to maintain most of the cognitive functions. These results raise the question whether BVF patients may profit from specific cognitive training in addition to physiotherapy.

  20. The vestibular contribution to the head direction cells signal and navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey S Taube

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Spatial learning and navigation depend on neural representations of location and direction within the environment. These representations, encoded by place cells and head direction cells, respectively, are dominantly controlled by visual cues, but require input from the vestibular system. Vestibular signals play an important role in forming spatial representations in both visual and non-visual environments, but the details of this vestibular contribution are not fully understood. Here, we review the role of the vestibular system in generating various spatial signals in rodents, focusing primarily on head direction cells. We also examine the vestibular system’s role in navigation and the possible pathways by which vestibular information is conveyed to higher navigation centers.

  1. A user-centered, object-oriented methodology for developing Health Information Systems: a Clinical Information System (CIS) example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidis, Georgios; Anastassopoulos, George C; Karakos, Alexandros S; Anagnostou, Emmanouil; Danielides, Vasileios

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study is to present our perspectives on healthcare analysis and design and the lessons learned from our experience with the development of a distributed, object-oriented Clinical Information System (CIS). In order to overcome known issues regarding development, implementation and finally acceptance of a CIS by the physicians we decided to develop a novel object-oriented methodology by integrating usability principles and techniques in a simplified version of a well established software engineering process (SEP), the Unified Process (UP). A multilayer architecture has been defined and implemented with the use of a vendor application framework. Our first experiences from a pilot implementation of our CIS are positive. This approach allowed us to gain a socio-technical understanding of the domain and enabled us to identify all the important factors that define both the structure and the behavior of a Health Information System.

  2. True incidence of vestibular schwannoma?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Tos, Mirko; Thomsen, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging.......The incidence of diagnosed sporadic unilateral vestibular schwannomas (VS) has increased, due primarily to more widespread access to magnetic resonance imaging....

  3. Role of orientation reference selection in motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, Robert J.; Black, F. Owen

    1988-01-01

    Previous experiments with moving platform posturography have shown that different people have varying abilities to resolve conflicts among vestibular, visual, and proprioceptive sensory signals used to control upright posture. In particular, there is one class of subjects with a vestibular disorder known as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) who often are particularly sensitive to inaccurate visual information. That is, they will use visual sensory information for the control of their posture even when that visual information is inaccurate and is in conflict with accurate proprioceptive and vestibular sensory signals. BPPV has been associated with disorders of both posterior semicircular canal function and possibly otolith function. The present proposal hopes to take advantage of the similarities between the space motion sickness problem and the sensory orientation reference selection problems associated with the BPPV syndrome. These similarities include both etiology related to abnormal vertical canal-otolith function, and motion sickness initiating events provoked by pitch and roll head movements. The objectives of this proposal are to explore and quantify the orientation reference selection abilities of subjects and the relation of this selection to motion sickness in humans.

  4. Early and phasic cortical metabolic changes in vestibular neuritis onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alessandrini

    Full Text Available Functional brain activation studies described the presence of separate cortical areas responsible for central processing of peripheral vestibular information and reported their activation and interactions with other sensory modalities and the changes of this network associated to strategic peripheral or central vestibular lesions. It is already known that cortical changes induced by acute unilateral vestibular failure (UVF are various and undergo variations over time, revealing different cortical involved areas at the onset and recovery from symptoms. The present study aimed at reporting the earliest change in cortical metabolic activity during a paradigmatic form of UVF such as vestibular neuritis (VN, that is, a purely peripheral lesion of the vestibular system, that offers the opportunity to study the cortical response to altered vestibular processing. This research reports [(18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography brain scan data concerning the early cortical metabolic activity associated to symptoms onset in a group of eight patients suffering from VN. VN patients' cortical metabolic activity during the first two days from symptoms onset was compared to that recorded one month later and to a control healthy group. Beside the known cortical response in the sensorimotor network associated to vestibular deafferentation, we show for the first time the involvement of Entorhinal (BAs 28, 34 and Temporal (BA 38 cortices in early phases of symptomatology onset. We interpret these findings as the cortical counterparts of the attempt to reorient oneself in space counteracting the vertigo symptom (Bas 28, 34 and of the emotional response to the new pathologic condition (BA 38 respectively. These interpretations were further supported by changes in patients' subjective ratings in balance, anxiety, and depersonalization/derealization scores when tested at illness onset and one month later. The present findings contribute in expanding

  5. Hypervascular vestibular Schwannoma: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ja Young; Yu, In Kyu [Dept. of Radiology, Eulji University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Most vestibular schwannoma is hypovascular with well known poor tumor staining in cerebral angiography. However, hypervascular vestibular schwannoma might be observed as a rare subtype with increased risk of bleeding during surgery. Multimodal imaging features which represent hypervascularity of the tumor can be observed in hypervascular vestibular schwannoma. Here we report a case of hypervascular vestibular schwannoma with brief literature review.

  6. Vestibular rehabilitation outcomes in the elderly with chronic vestibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Arash; Pourbakht, Akram; Saki, Nader; Zainun, Zuraida; Nikakhlagh, Soheila; Mirmomeni, Golshan

    2012-11-01

    Chronic vestibular dysfunction is a frustrating problem in the elderly and can have a tremendous impact on their life, but only a few studies are available. Vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) is an important therapeutic option for the neuro-otologist in treating patients with significant balance deficits. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of vestibular rehabilitation on dizziness in elderly patients with chronic vestibular dysfunction. A total of 33 patients older than 60 years with chronic vestibular dysfunction were studied. Clinical and objective vestibular tests including videonystagmography (VNG) and dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) were carried out at their first visit, 2 weeks, and 8 weeks post-VRT. The VRT exercises were performed according to Cawthorne and Cooksey protocols. Oculomotor assessments were within normal limits in all patients. Nineteen patients (57.57%) showed abnormal canal paralysis on caloric testing which at follow-up sessions; CP values were decreased remarkably after VRT exercises. We found a significant improvement between pre-VRT and post-VRT total DHI scores (P < 0.001). This improvement was most prominent in functional subscore. Our study demonstrated that VRT is an effective therapeutic method for elderly patients with chronic vestibular dysfunction.

  7. Information and Communication Technologies and Informal Scholarly Communication: A Review of the Social Oriented Research

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Da-Yu; Lin, Chi-Shiou

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and analyzes findings from research on computer mediated informal scholarly communication. Ten empirical research papers, which show the effects and influences of information & communication technologies (ICTs), or the effects of social contexts on ICTs use in informal scholarly communication, were analyzed and compared. Types of ICTs covered in those studies include e-mails, collaboratories, and electronic forums. The review shows that most of the empirical studies exami...

  8. Media credibility and cognitive authority. The case of seeking orienting information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Savolainen

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article results from a qualitative case study focusing on the information seeking practices of environmental activists. The main attention was devoted to their perceptions of media credibility and cognitive authority in the context of seeking orienting information about environmental issues in particular. Method. The empirical data were gathered in 2005 by semi-structured interviews with twenty environmental activists in Finland. Analysis. The interview data were examined by means of qualitative content analysis by constantly comparing the articulations of media credibility and cognitive authority. Results. The perceptions of media credibility and cognitive authority tend to be dependent on the topic at hand. No specific cognitive authorities were recognized. Sources providing focused information issued by environmental asssociations were perceived as most credible. Newspapers were perceived as less credible due to their political bias and the general level of news reporting. The significance of one's own critical reflection was emphasized in the judgement of the credibility of information sources of various types. Conclusion. Perceived media credibility and cognitive authority significantly, though often implicitly, orient the selection of information sources. There is a need also to explore their role in the context of seeking problem-specific information, both job-related and non-work.

  9. Development of a time-oriented data warehouse based on a medical information event model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuichiro; Namikawa, Hirokazu; Inamura, Kiyonari

    2002-01-01

    We designed a new medical information event model and developed a time-oriented data warehouse based on the model. Here, the medical information event in a basic data unit is handled by a medical information system. The timing of decision making and treatment for a patient in the processing of his medical information is sometimes very critical. The time-oriented data warehouse was developed, to provide a search feature on the time axis. Our medical information event model has a unique simple data structure. PC-ORDERING2000 developed by NEC, which used Oracle, had about 600 pages of tables. However, we reduced these 600 complicated data structures to one unique and simple event model. By means of shifting clinical data from the old type order entry system into the new order entry system of the medical information event model, we produced a simple and flexible system, and the easy secondary use of clinical data of patients was realized. Evaluation of our system revealed heightened data retrieval efficiency and shortened response time 1:600 at a terminal, owing to the 1:600 reduction of the number of tables as mentioned above.

  10. The normal distribution and projections of constitutive NADPH-d/NOS neurons in the brainstem vestibular complex of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxon, D W; Beitz, A J

    2000-09-11

    The vestibular system is a highly conserved sensory system in vertebrates that is largely responsible for maintenance of one's orientation in space, posture, and balance and for visual fixation of objects during motion. In light of the considerable literature indicating an involvement of nitric oxide (NO) in sensory systems, it is important to determine whether NO is associated with vestibular pathways. To study the relationship of NO to vestibular pathways, we first examined the normal distribution of constitutive NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d), a marker for nitric oxide synthase (NOS), in the vestibular complex (VC) and then examined its association with selected vestibular projection neurons. Survey of the four major vestibular nuclei revealed that only the medial vestibular nucleus contained significant numbers of perikarya stained for NADPH-d/NOS. By contrast, all the vestibular nuclei contained a network of fine processes that stained positive for NADPH-d, although the density of this network varied among the individual nuclei. To determine whether NADPH-d/NOS neurons project to vestibular efferent targets, injections of the retrograde tracer Fluoro-Gold were made into known targets of second-order vestibular neurons. Vestibular neurons containing constitutive NADPH-d/NOS were found to project predominantly to the oculomotor nucleus. A small number of neurons also participate in vestibulothalamic and intrinsic vestibular connections. These results indicate that NADPH-d/NOS neurons are prevalent in the MVN and that a subpopulation of these neurons project to the oculomotor complex. Nitric oxide is probably released locally from axons located throughout the vestibular complex but may play a particularly important role in vestibulo-ocular pathways. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Part-whole information assists in topological × topological but not in orientation × orientation conjunction searches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weijia; Blunden, Anthea G; Howe, Piers D L

    2015-04-01

    Visual search is a routine task used in everyday life and is an important field of research in cognitive psychology. In laboratory settings, it has been shown that search for a target defined by a unique conjunction of two colours is more efficient if one colour surrounds the other (a part-whole search) compared to when no such hierarchical structural relationship exists (a part-part search; Wolfe et al. in Perception & Psychophysics, 55, 537, 1994). A similar result has been shown to hold for size × size conjunction searches (Bilsky & Wolfe in Perception & Psychophysics, 57, 749, 1995). We show that this result also holds for topology × topology conjunction searches (where the stimuli are either hollow or filled), but not for orientation × orientation conjunction searches. We use the simultaneous-sequential paradigm to investigate a possible reason for the inefficiency of part-whole orientation search compared with the efficiency of part-whole searches of other features. We argue that two different attribute values from the same dimension can be processed independently, without interfering with each other for colour, size, and topology, but not for orientation. Because it is obviously more efficient to process a conjunction stimulus when both components of the conjunction can be processed without mutual interference, it follows that colour × colour, size × size, and topological × topology part-whole conjunction searches are likely to be more efficient than orientation × orientation part-whole conjunction searches.

  12. Presbivértigo: ejercicios vestibulares Presbivertigo: vestibular exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Esther Bernal Valls; Víctor Faus Cuñat; Raquel Bernal Valls

    2006-01-01

    El uso de ejercicios en el tratamiento de pacientes con déficit vestibular crónico está incrementándose de forma notable, lo que evidencia que se trata de un procedimiento que resulta beneficioso para este tipo de pacientes. Los buenos resultados que se obtienen sugieren que los ejercicios vestibulares dan lugar a una estabilidad postural y a una disminución de la sensación de desequilibrio.The use of exercises in the treatment of patients with vestibular deficits is increasing in a represent...

  13. Information bias in contingent valuation: effects of personal relevance, quality of information, and motivational orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icek Ajzen; Thomas C. Brown; Lori H. Rosenthal

    1996-01-01

    A laboratory experiment examined the potential for information bias in contingent valuation (CV). Consistent with the view that information about a public or private good can function as a persuasive communication, willingness to pay (WTP) was found to increase with the quality of arguments used to describe the good, especially under conditions of high personal...

  14. Information Seeking in Uncertainty Management Theory: Exposure to Information About Medical Uncertainty and Information-Processing Orientation as Predictors of Uncertainty Management Success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rains, Stephen A; Tukachinsky, Riva

    2015-01-01

    Uncertainty management theory outlines the processes through which individuals cope with health-related uncertainty. Information seeking has been frequently documented as an important uncertainty management strategy. The reported study investigates exposure to specific types of medical information during a search, and one's information-processing orientation as predictors of successful uncertainty management (i.e., a reduction in the discrepancy between the level of uncertainty one feels and the level one desires). A lab study was conducted in which participants were primed to feel more or less certain about skin cancer and then were allowed to search the World Wide Web for skin cancer information. Participants' search behavior was recorded and content analyzed. The results indicate that exposure to two health communication constructs that pervade medical forms of uncertainty (i.e., severity and susceptibility) and information-processing orientation predicted uncertainty management success.

  15. How Vestibular Neurons Solve the Tilt/Translation Ambiguity: Comparison of Brainstem, Cerebellum, and Thalamus

    OpenAIRE

    Dora E. Angelaki; Yakusheva, Tatyana A.

    2009-01-01

    The peripheral vestibular system is faced by a sensory ambiguity, where primary otolith afferents respond identically to translational (inertial) accelerations and changes in head orientation relative to gravity. Under certain conditions, this sensory ambiguity can be resolved using extra-otolith cues, including semicircular canal signals. Here we review and summarize how neurons in the vestibular nuclei, rostral fastigial nuclei, cerebellar nodulus/uvula, and thalamus respond during combinat...

  16. Pharmacology of the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P F

    2000-02-01

    In the past year significant advances have been made in our understanding of the neurochemistry and neuropharmacology of the peripheral and central vestibular systems. The recognition of the central importance of excitatory amino acids and their receptors at the level of the hair cells, vestibular nerve and vestibular nucleus has progressed further, and the role of nitric oxide in relation to activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype is becoming increasingly clear. Increasing evidence suggests that excessive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation and nitric oxide production after exposure to aminoglycoside antibiotics is a critical part of hair cell death, and new pharmacological strategies for preventing aminoglycoside ototoxicity are emerging as a result. Conversely, the use of aminoglycosides to lesion the peripheral vestibular system in the treatment of Meniere's disease has been studied intensively. In the vestibular nucleus, new studies suggest the importance of opioid, nociceptin and glucocorticoid receptors in the control of vestibular reflex function. Finally, the mechanisms of action and optimal use of antihistamines in the treatment of vestibular disorders has also received a great deal of attention.

  17. Vestibular Function in the Temporal and Parietal Cortex: Distinct Velocity and Inertial Processing Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocelyne eVentre-Dominey

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A number of behavioural and neuroimaging studies have reported converging data in favour of a cortical network for vestibular function, distributed between the temporo-parietal cortex and the prefrontal cortex in the primate. In this review, we focus on the role of the cerebral cortex in visuo-vestibular integration including the motion sensitive temporo-occipital areas i.e. the middle superior temporal area (MST and the parietal cortex. Indeed these two neighbouring cortical regions, though they both receive combined vestibular and visual information, have distinct implications in vestibular function. In sum, this review of the literature leads to the idea of two separate cortical vestibular sub-systems forming (1 a velocity pathway including MST and direct descending pathways on vestibular nuclei. As it receives well defined visual and vestibular velocity signals, this pathway is likely involved in heading perception and rapid top-down regulation of eye/head coordination and (2 an inertial processing pathway involving the parietal cortex in connection with the subcortical vestibular nuclei complex responsible for velocity storage integration. This vestibular cortical pathway would be implicated in high order multimodal integration and cognitive functions, including world space and self- referential processing.

  18. Vestibular function in the temporal and parietal cortex: distinct velocity and inertial processing pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventre-Dominey, Jocelyne

    2014-01-01

    A number of behavioral and neuroimaging studies have reported converging data in favor of a cortical network for vestibular function, distributed between the temporo-parietal cortex and the prefrontal cortex in the primate. In this review, we focus on the role of the cerebral cortex in visuo-vestibular integration including the motion sensitive temporo-occipital areas i.e., the middle superior temporal area (MST) and the parietal cortex. Indeed, these two neighboring cortical regions, though they both receive combined vestibular and visual information, have distinct implications in vestibular function. In sum, this review of the literature leads to the idea of two separate cortical vestibular sub-systems forming (1) a velocity pathway including MST and direct descending pathways on vestibular nuclei. As it receives well-defined visual and vestibular velocity signals, this pathway is likely involved in heading perception and rapid top-down regulation of eye/head coordination and (2) an inertial processing pathway involving the parietal cortex in connection with the subcortical vestibular nuclei complex responsible for velocity storage integration. This vestibular cortical pathway would be implicated in high-order multimodal integration and cognitive functions, including world space and self-referential processing. PMID:25071481

  19. Is the Headache in Patients with Vestibular Migraine Attenuated by Vestibular Rehabilitation?

    OpenAIRE

    Sugaya, Nagisa; ARAI, Miki; Goto, Fumiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Background Vestibular rehabilitation is the most effective treatment for dizziness due to vestibular dysfunction. Given the biological relationship between vestibular symptoms and headache, headache in patients with vestibular migraine (VM) could be improved by vestibular rehabilitation that leads to the improvement of dizziness. This study aimed to compare the effects of vestibular rehabilitation on headache and other outcomes relating to dizziness, and the psychological factors in patien...

  20. Vestibular loss promotes procedural response during a spatial task in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marie-Laure; Lelong-Boulouard, Véronique; Philoxene, Bruno; Davis, Audrey; Denise, Pierre; Besnard, Stéphane

    2014-05-01

    Declarative memory refers to a spatial strategy using numerous sources of sensory input information in which visual and vestibular inputs are assimilated in the hippocampus. In contrast, procedural memory refers to a response strategy based on motor skills and familiar gestures and involves the striatum. Even if vestibular loss impairs hippocampal activity and spatial memory, vestibular-lesioned rats remain able to find food rewards during complex spatial memory task. Since hippocampal lesions induce a switch from declarative memory to procedural memory, we hypothesize that vestibular-lesioned rats use a strategy other than that of hippocampal spatial response to complete the task and to counterbalance the loss of vestibular information. We test, in a reverse T-maze paradigm, the types of strategy vestibular-lesioned rats preferentially uses in a spatial task. We clearly demonstrate that all vestibular-lesioned rats shift to a response strategy to solve the spatial task, while control rats use spatial and response strategies equally. We conclude that the loss of vestibular informations leading to spatial learning impairments is not offset at the hippocampus level by integration process of other sense mainly visual informations; but favors a response strategy through procedural memory most likely involving the striatum, cerebellum, and motor learning. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. SANDS: a service-oriented architecture for clinical decision support in a National Health Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adam; Sittig, Dean F

    2008-12-01

    In this paper, we describe and evaluate a new distributed architecture for clinical decision support called SANDS (Service-oriented Architecture for NHIN Decision Support), which leverages current health information exchange efforts and is based on the principles of a service-oriented architecture. The architecture allows disparate clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems to be seamlessly integrated over a network according to a set of interfaces and protocols described in this paper. The architecture described is fully defined and developed, and six use cases have been developed and tested using a prototype electronic health record which links to one of the existing prototype National Health Information Networks (NHIN): drug interaction checking, syndromic surveillance, diagnostic decision support, inappropriate prescribing in older adults, information at the point of care and a simple personal health record. Some of these use cases utilize existing decision support systems, which are either commercially or freely available at present, and developed outside of the SANDS project, while other use cases are based on decision support systems developed specifically for the project. Open source code for many of these components is available, and an open source reference parser is also available for comparison and testing of other clinical information systems and clinical decision support systems that wish to implement the SANDS architecture. The SANDS architecture for decision support has several significant advantages over other architectures for clinical decision support. The most salient of these are:

  2. Clinical decision support for whole genome sequence information leveraging a service-oriented architecture: a prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Brandon M; Rodriguez-Loya, Salvador; Eilbeck, Karen; Kawamoto, Kensaku

    2014-01-01

    Whole genome sequence (WGS) information could soon be routinely available to clinicians to support the personalized care of their patients. At such time, clinical decision support (CDS) integrated into the clinical workflow will likely be necessary to support genome-guided clinical care. Nevertheless, developing CDS capabilities for WGS information presents many unique challenges that need to be overcome for such approaches to be effective. In this manuscript, we describe the development of a prototype CDS system that is capable of providing genome-guided CDS at the point of care and within the clinical workflow. To demonstrate the functionality of this prototype, we implemented a clinical scenario of a hypothetical patient at high risk for Lynch Syndrome based on his genomic information. We demonstrate that this system can effectively use service-oriented architecture principles and standards-based components to deliver point of care CDS for WGS information in real-time.

  3. Presbivértigo: ejercicios vestibulares Presbivertigo: vestibular exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Bernal Valls

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de ejercicios en el tratamiento de pacientes con déficit vestibular crónico está incrementándose de forma notable, lo que evidencia que se trata de un procedimiento que resulta beneficioso para este tipo de pacientes. Los buenos resultados que se obtienen sugieren que los ejercicios vestibulares dan lugar a una estabilidad postural y a una disminución de la sensación de desequilibrio.The use of exercises in the treatment of patients with vestibular deficits is increasing in a representative way, what evidences this is a profitable process for this kind of patients. The good results suggest that vestibular exercises permit a postural stability and a decrease in the perception of disequilibrium.

  4. Neural network model of vestibular nuclei reaction to onset of vestibular prosthetic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack eDigiovanna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The vestibular system incorporates multiple sensory pathways to provide crucial information about head and body motion. Damage to the semicircular canals, the peripheral vestibular organs that sense rotational velocities of the head, can severely degrade the ability to perform activities of daily life. Vestibular prosthetics address this problem by using stimulating electrodes that can trigger primary vestibular afferents to modulate their firing rates, thus encoding head movement. These prostheses have been demonstrated chronically in multiple animal models and acutely tested in short-duration trials within the clinic in humans. However, mainly due to limited opportunities to fully characterize stimulation parameters, there is a lack of understanding of ‘optimal’ stimulation configurations for humans. Here we model possible adaptive plasticity in the vestibular pathway. Specifically, this model highlights the influence of adaptation of synaptic strengths and offsets in the vestibular nuclei to compensate for the initial activation of the prosthetic. By changing the synaptic strengths, the model is able to replicate the clinical observation that erroneous eye movements are attenuated within 30 minutes without any change to the prosthetic stimulation rate. Although our model was only built to match this time-point, we further examined how it affected subsequent pulse rate and pulse amplitude modulation. Pulse amplitude modulation was more effective than pulse rate modulation for nearly all stimulation configurations during these acute tests. Two non-intuitive relationships highlighted by our model explain this performance discrepancy. Specifically the attenuation of synaptic strengths for afferents stimulated during baseline adaptation and the discontinuity between baseline and residual firing rates both disproportionally boost pulse amplitude modulation. Co-modulation of pulse rate and amplitude has been experimentally shown to induce both

  5. Task, muscle and frequency dependent vestibular control of posture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Siegmund, G.P.; Schouten, A.C.; Blouin, J.S.

    2015-01-01

    The vestibular system is crucial for postural control; however there are considerable differences in the task dependence and frequency response of vestibular reflexes in appendicular and axial muscles. For example, vestibular reflexes are only evoked in appendicular muscles when vestibular

  6. Vestibular Loss Predicts Poorer Spatial Cognition in Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Eric X; Oh, Esther S; Harun, Aisha; Ehrenburg, Matthew; Agrawal, Yuri

    2018-01-01

    The vestibular system is an important contributor to balance control, spatial orientation, and falls risk. Recent evidence has shown that Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have a higher prevalence of vestibular impairment relative to healthy controls. We sought to evaluate whether vestibular loss is specifically associated with poor spatial cognitive skills among patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD. We enrolled 50 patients (22 MCI and 28 AD) from an interdisciplinary Memory Clinic and measured vestibular physiologic function in all patients. Spatial cognitive function was assessed using the Money Road Map Test (MRMT) and the Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B). General cognitive function was assessed with the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). In multivariable linear regression analyses adjusted for age, gender, education level, and MMSE, MCI and AD patients with vestibular loss made significantly more errors on the MRMT relative to patients with normal vestibular function (β= 7.3, 95% CI 2.4, 12.1 for unilateral vestibular loss and β= 6.4, 95% CI 1.9, 10.9 for bilateral vestibular loss). We further stratified AD patients into "spatially normal" and "spatially impaired" groups based on MRMT performance, and found that the prevalence of vestibular loss was significantly higher in the spatially impaired AD group relative to the spatially normal AD group. These findings support the hypothesis that vestibular loss contributes specifically to a decline in spatial cognitive ability in MCI and AD patients, independently of general cognitive decline, and may predict a "spatially impaired" subtype of AD.

  7. Vestibular rehabilitation with visual stimuli in peripheral vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manso, Andréa; Ganança, Mauricio Malavasi; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena

    2016-01-01

    Visual stimuli can induce vestibular adaptation and recovery of body balance. To verify the effect of visual stimuli by digital images on vestibular and body balance rehabilitation of peripheral vestibular disorders. Clinical, randomized, prospective study. Forty patients aged between 23 and 63 years with chronic peripheral vestibular disorders underwent 12 sessions of rehabilitation with visual stimuli using digital video disk (DVD) (experimental group) or Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises (control group). The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), dizziness analog scale, and the sensitized Romberg static balance and one-leg stance tests were applied before and after the intervention. Before and after the intervention, there was no difference between the experimental and control groups (p>0.005) regarding the findings of DHI, dizziness analog scale, and static balance tests. After the intervention, the experimental and control groups showed lower values (p<0.05) in the DHI and the dizziness analog scale, and higher values (p<0.05) in the static balance tests in some of the assessed conditions. The inclusion of visual stimuli by digital images on vestibular and body balance rehabilitation is effective in reducing dizziness and improving quality of life and postural control in individuals with peripheral vestibular disorders. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Vestibular rehabilitation with visual stimuli in peripheral vestibular disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Manso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Visual stimuli can induce vestibular adaptation and recovery of body balance. OBJECTIVE: To verify the effect of visual stimuli by digital images on vestibular and body balance rehabilitation of peripheral vestibular disorders. METHODS: Clinical, randomized, prospective study. Forty patients aged between 23 and 63 years with chronic peripheral vestibular disorders underwent 12 sessions of rehabilitation with visual stimuli using digital video disk (DVD (experimental group or Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises (control group. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI, dizziness analog scale, and the sensitized Romberg static balance and one-leg stance tests were applied before and after the intervention. RESULTS: Before and after the intervention, there was no difference between the experimental and control groups (p > 0.005 regarding the findings of DHI, dizziness analog scale, and static balance tests. After the intervention, the experimental and control groups showed lower values (p < 0.05 in the DHI and the dizziness analog scale, and higher values (p < 0.05 in the static balance tests in some of the assessed conditions. CONCLUSION: The inclusion of visual stimuli by digital images on vestibular and body balance rehabilitation is effective in reducing dizziness and improving quality of life and postural control in individuals with peripheral vestibular disorders.

  9. E-health and healthcare enterprise information system leveraging service-oriented architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Cheng, Po-Hsun; Lai, Feipei

    2012-04-01

    To present the successful experiences of an integrated, collaborative, distributed, large-scale enterprise healthcare information system over a wired and wireless infrastructure in National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH). In order to smoothly and sequentially transfer from the complex relations among the old (legacy) systems to the new-generation enterprise healthcare information system, we adopted the multitier framework based on service-oriented architecture to integrate the heterogeneous systems as well as to interoperate among many other components and multiple databases. We also present mechanisms of a logical layer reusability approach and data (message) exchange flow via Health Level 7 (HL7) middleware, DICOM standard, and the Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise workflow. The architecture and protocols of the NTUH enterprise healthcare information system, especially in the Inpatient Information System (IIS), are discussed in detail. The NTUH Inpatient Healthcare Information System is designed and deployed on service-oriented architecture middleware frameworks. The mechanisms of integration as well as interoperability among the components and the multiple databases apply the HL7 standards for data exchanges, which are embedded in XML formats, and Microsoft .NET Web services to integrate heterogeneous platforms. The preliminary performance of the current operation IIS is evaluated and analyzed to verify the efficiency and effectiveness of the designed architecture; it shows reliability and robustness in the highly demanding traffic environment of NTUH. The newly developed NTUH IIS provides an open and flexible environment not only to share medical information easily among other branch hospitals, but also to reduce the cost of maintenance. The HL7 message standard is widely adopted to cover all data exchanges in the system. All services are independent modules that enable the system to be deployed and configured to the highest degree of flexibility

  10. Advances in the diagnosis and treatment of vestibular disorders: psychophysics and prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Richard F

    2015-04-01

    Although vestibular disorders are common and often disabling, they remain difficult to diagnose and treat. For these reasons, considerable interest has been focused on developing new ways to identify peripheral and central vestibular abnormalities and on new therapeutic options that could benefit the numerous patients who remain symptomatic despite optimal therapy. In this review, I focus on the potential utility of psychophysical vestibular testing and vestibular prosthetics. The former offers a new diagnostic approach that may prove to be superior to the current tests in some circumstances; the latter may be a way to provide the brain with information about head motion that restores some elements of the information normally provided by the vestibular labyrinth. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355089-08$15.00/0.

  11. Advances in the Diagnosis and Treatment of Vestibular Disorders: Psychophysics and Prosthetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Although vestibular disorders are common and often disabling, they remain difficult to diagnose and treat. For these reasons, considerable interest has been focused on developing new ways to identify peripheral and central vestibular abnormalities and on new therapeutic options that could benefit the numerous patients who remain symptomatic despite optimal therapy. In this review, I focus on the potential utility of psychophysical vestibular testing and vestibular prosthetics. The former offers a new diagnostic approach that may prove to be superior to the current tests in some circumstances; the latter may be a way to provide the brain with information about head motion that restores some elements of the information normally provided by the vestibular labyrinth. PMID:25834036

  12. The role of stereo vision in visual-vestibular integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, John S; Campos, Jennifer L; Bülthoff, Heinrich H; Smith, Stuart T

    2011-01-01

    Self-motion through an environment stimulates several sensory systems, including the visual system and the vestibular system. Recent work in heading estimation has demonstrated that visual and vestibular cues are typically integrated in a statistically optimal manner, consistent with Maximum Likelihood Estimation predictions. However, there has been some indication that cue integration may be affected by characteristics of the visual stimulus. Therefore, the current experiment evaluated whether presenting optic flow stimuli stereoscopically, or presenting both eyes with the same image (binocularly) affects combined visual-vestibular heading estimates. Participants performed a two-interval forced-choice task in which they were asked which of two presented movements was more rightward. They were presented with either visual cues alone, vestibular cues alone or both cues combined. Measures of reliability were obtained for both binocular and stereoscopic conditions. Group level analyses demonstrated that when stereoscopic information was available there was clear evidence of optimal integration, yet when only binocular information was available weaker evidence of cue integration was observed. Exploratory individual analyses demonstrated that for the stereoscopic condition 90% of participants exhibited optimal integration, whereas for the binocular condition only 60% of participants exhibited results consistent with optimal integration. Overall, these findings suggest that stereo vision may be important for self-motion perception, particularly under combined visual-vestibular conditions.

  13. Complex vestibular macular anatomical relationships need a synthetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    2001-01-01

    Mammalian vestibular maculae are anatomically organized for complex parallel processing of linear acceleration information. Anatomical findings in rat maculae are provided in order to underscore this complexity, which is little understood functionally. This report emphasizes that a synthetic approach is critical to understanding how maculae function and the kind of information they conduct to the brain.

  14. A Petri Net-Based Software Process Model for Developing Process-Oriented Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Oberweis, Andreas

    Aiming at increasing flexibility, efficiency, effectiveness, and transparency of information processing and resource deployment in organizations to ensure customer satisfaction and high quality of products and services, process-oriented information systems (POIS) represent a promising realization form of computerized business information systems. Due to the complexity of POIS, explicit and specialized software process models are required to guide POIS development. In this chapter we characterize POIS with an architecture framework and present a Petri net-based software process model tailored for POIS development with consideration of organizational roles. As integrated parts of the software process model, we also introduce XML nets, a variant of high-level Petri nets as basic methodology for business processes modeling, and an XML net-based software toolset providing comprehensive functionalities for POIS development.

  15. Project-oriented teaching model about specialized courses in the information age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Wang, Jinjiang; Tian, Qingguo; Wang, Yi; Cai, Huaiyu

    2017-08-01

    Specialized courses play a significant role in the usage of basic knowledge in the practical application for engineering college students. The engineering data available has sharply increased since the beginning of the information age in the 20th century, providing much more approaches to study and practice. Therefore, how to guide students to make full use of resources for active engineering practice learning has become one of the key problems for specialized courses. This paper took the digital image processing course for opto-electronic information science and technology major as an example, discussed the teaching model of specialized course in the information age, put forward the "engineering resource oriented model", and fostered the ability of engineering students to use the basic knowledge to innovate and deal with specific project objectives. The fusion of engineering examples into practical training and teaching encourages students to practice independent engineering thinking.

  16. IT education strategy oriented to the alignment between business and information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Čičin-Šain

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the significance of IT education strategy oriented to the alignment between in - formation systems and business systems. We establish goals and develop concepts, and present a metho - dological frame of strategic IT education. We report the results of our research and investigate the way and intensity of the impact of strategic IT education on the factors influencing the alignment and linking between information systems and business strategies. From the point of view of our research, we have focused on factors that have an influence on the alignment between information systems and business strategies, and factors affecting organisational effectiveness. Factors influencing strategic IT education have also been systematized within the categories of busine - ss/information system alignment, and organisational effectiveness. Since strategic IT education has been recognized and organized in different concepts, we have included three concepts in our questionnaires: strategic IT education for managers, organisational learning and e-learning

  17. Vestibular Contributions to Human Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Laura; N/A,

    2017-01-01

    The vestibular system is an ancient structure which supports the detection and control of self-motion. The pervasiveness of this sensory system is evidenced by the diversity of its anatomical projections and the profound impact it has on a range of higher level functions, particularly spatial memory. The aim of this thesis was to better characterise the association between the vestibular system and human memory; while many studies have explored this association from a biological perspective f...

  18. Field Dependence, Efficiency of Information Processing in Working Memory and Susceptibility to Orientation Illusions among Architects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Młyniec Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined cognitive predictors of susceptibility to orientation illusions: Poggendorff, Ponzo, and Zöllner. It was assumed that lower efficiency of information processing in WM and higher field dependence are conducive to orientation illusions. 61 architects (30 women aged M = 29, +/- 1.6, and 49 university students (29 women aged M = 23.53, +/- 4.24, were tested with Witkin’s EFT to assess their field dependence; the SWATT method was used as a measure of WM efficiency, and susceptibility to visual illusions was verified with a series of computer tasks. We obtained a small range of the explained variance in the regression models including FDI and WM indicators. On the basis of WM efficiency indicators, we managed to confirm the existence of memory predictors of susceptibility to illusions (they are rather weak, as they explain from 6% to 14% of the variance of the dependent variable. Among the architects, lower efficiency of WM processing (weaker inhibition, task-switching and higher field dependence are responsible for greater susceptibility to orientation illusions.

  19. Vestibular Dysfunction and Difficulty with Driving: Data from the 2001–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric X. Wei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectiveThere is growing understanding of the role of vestibular function in spatial navigation and orientation. Individuals with vestibular dysfunction demonstrate impaired performance on static and dynamic tests of spatial cognition, but there is sparse literature characterizing how these impairments might affect individuals in the real-world. Given the important role of visuospatial ability in driving a motor vehicle, we sought to evaluate whether individuals with vestibular dysfunction might have increased driving difficulty.Materials and methodsWe used data from the 2001–2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys to evaluate the influence of vestibular dysfunction in driving difficulty in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults aged ≥50 years (n = 3,071. Vestibular function was measured with the modified Romberg test. Furthermore, since vestibular dysfunction is a known contributor to falls risk, we assessed whether individuals with vestibular dysfunction and concomitant driving difficulty were at an increased risk of falls.ResultsIn multivariate analyses, vestibular dysfunction was associated with a twofold increased odd of driving difficulty (odds ratio 2.16, 95% CI 1.57, 2.98. Among participants with vestibular dysfunction, concomitant driving difficulty predicted an increased risk of falls that was significantly higher than in participants with vestibular dysfunction only (odds ratio 13.01 vs. 2.91, p < 0.0001.ConclusionThis study suggests that difficulty driving may be a real-world manifestation of impaired spatial cognition associated with vestibular loss. Moreover, driving difficulty may be a marker of more severe vestibular dysfunction.

  20. Perspectives on aging vestibular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eAnson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Much is known about age related anatomical changes in the vestibular system. Knowledge regarding how vestibular anatomical changes impact behavior for older adults continues to grow, in line with advancements in diagnostic testing. However, despite advancements in clinical diagnostics, much remains unknown about the functional impact that an aging vestibular system has on daily life activities like standing and walking. Modern diagnostic tests are very good at characterizing neural activity of the isolated vestibular system, but the tests themselves are artificial and do not reflect the multi-sensory aspects of natural human behavior. Also, the majority of clinical diagnostic tests are passively applied because active behavior can enhance performance. In this perspective paper we review anatomical and behavioral changes associated with an aging vestibular system and highlight several areas where a more functionally relevant perspective can be taken. For postural control, a multi-sensory perturbation approach could be used to bring balance rehabilitation into the arena of precision medicine. For walking and complex gaze stability, this may result in less physiologically specific impairments, but the trade-off would be a greater understanding of how the aging vestibular system truly impacts the daily life of older adults.

  1. Perspectives on Aging Vestibular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Eric; Jeka, John

    2015-01-01

    Much is known about age-related anatomical changes in the vestibular system. Knowledge regarding how vestibular anatomical changes impact behavior for older adults continues to grow, in line with advancements in diagnostic testing. However, despite advancements in clinical diagnostics, much remains unknown about the functional impact that an aging vestibular system has on daily life activities such as standing and walking. Modern diagnostic tests are very good at characterizing neural activity of the isolated vestibular system, but the tests themselves are artificial and do not reflect the multisensory aspects of natural human behavior. Also, the majority of clinical diagnostic tests are passively applied because active behavior can enhance performance. In this perspective paper, we review anatomical and behavioral changes associated with an aging vestibular system and highlight several areas where a more functionally relevant perspective can be taken. For postural control, a multisensory perturbation approach could be used to bring balance rehabilitation into the arena of precision medicine. For walking and complex gaze stability, this may result in less physiologically specific impairments, but the trade-off would be a greater understanding of how the aging vestibular system truly impacts the daily life of older adults.

  2. Vestibular findings in fibromyalgia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fibromyalgia (FM is a non-inflammatory musculoskeletal chronic syndrome, whose etiology is unknown, characterized by a diffuse pain, increase in palpation sensitivity and such symptoms as tiredness, insomnia, anxiety, depression, cold intolerance and otologic complaints. Objective: Evaluate the vestibular behavior in fibromyalgia patients. Method: A retrospective transversal study was performed. 25 patients aged between 26 and 65 (average age - 52.2 and standard deviation - 10.3 were evaluated and submitted to the following procedures: anamnesis, otorhinolaryngologic and vestibular evaluation by way of vector electronystamography. Results: a The most evident otoneurologic symptoms were: difficulty or pain when moving the neck and pain was spread to an arm or shoulder (92.0% in each, dizziness (84.0% and headache (76.0%. The different clinical symptoms mostly reported were: depression (80.0%, anxiety (76.0% and insomnia (72.0%; b vestibular examination showed an alteration in 12 patients (48.0% in the caloric test; c an alteration in the peripheral vestibular system prevailed, and d deficient peripheral vestibular disorders were prevalent. Conclusion: This study enabled the importance of the labyrinthic test to be verified, thus emphasizing that this kind of people must be studied better, since a range of rheumatologic diseases can cause severe vestibular changes as a result of their manifestations and impairment areas.

  3. Neuropharmacology of vestibular system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Enrique; Vega, Rosario

    2010-03-01

    This work reviews the neuropharmacology of the vestibular system, with an emphasis on the mechanism of action of drugs used in the treatment of vestibular disorders. Otolaryngologists are confronted with a rapidly changing field in which advances in the knowledge of ionic channel function and synaptic transmission mechanisms have led to the development of new scientific models for the understanding of vestibular dysfunction and its management. In particular, there have been recent advances in our knowledge of the fundamental mechanisms of vestibular system function and drug mechanisms of action. In this work, drugs acting on vestibular system have been grouped into two main categories according to their primary mechanisms of action: those with effects on neurotransmitters and neuromodulator receptors and those that act on voltage-gated ion channels. Particular attention is given in this review to drugs that may provide additional insight into the pathophysiology of vestibular diseases. A critical review of the pharmacology and highlights of the major advances are discussed in each case.

  4. Eye movements in vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmand, A; Colpak, A I; Zee, D S

    2016-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of patients with vestibular symptoms usually begins with the question: is the lesion central or is it peripheral? The answer commonly emerges from a careful examination of eye movements, especially when the lesion is located in otherwise clinically silent areas of the brain such as the vestibular portions of the cerebellum (flocculus, paraflocculus which is called the tonsils in humans, nodulus, and uvula) and the vestibular nuclei as well as immediately adjacent areas (the perihypoglossal nuclei and the paramedian nuclei and tracts). The neural circuitry that controls vestibular eye movements is intertwined with a larger network within the brainstem and cerebellum that also controls other types of conjugate eye movements. These include saccades and pursuit as well as the mechanisms that enable steady fixation, both straight ahead and in eccentric gaze positions. Navigating through this complex network requires a thorough knowledge about all classes of eye movements to help localize lesions causing a vestibular disorder. Here we review the different classes of eye movements and how to examine them, and then describe common ocular motor findings associated with central vestibular lesions from both a topographic and functional perspective. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Light microscopical study of nitric oxide synthase I-positive neurons, including fibres in the vestibular nuclear complex of the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantchev, Vassil; Paloff, Adrian; Christova, Tatiana; Hinova-Palova, Dimka; Ovtscharoff, Wladimir

    2005-01-01

    Nitric oxide is a gaseous neurotransmitter that is synthesized by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase I (NOS I). At present, little is known of NOS I-positive neurons in the vestibular nuclear complex of the cat (VNCc). The aim of the present study was to examine the morphology, distribution patterns and interconnections of NOS I-positive neurons, including fibres in the VNCc. Five adult cats were used as experimental animals. All cats were anaesthetized and perfused transcardially. Brains were removed, postfixed, cut on a freezing microtome and stained in three different ways. Every third section was treated with the Nissl method, other sections were stained either histochemically for NADPH diaphorase or immunohistochemically for NOS I. The atlas of Berman (1928) was used for orientation in the morphometric study. NOS I-positive neurons and fibres were found in all parts of VNCc: medial vestibular nucleus (MVN); lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN); superior vestibular nucleus (SVN); inferior vestibular nucleus (IVN); X, Y, Z groups and Cajal's nucleus. The NOS I-positive neurons were classified according to their size (small, medium-sized, large neurons type I and type II) and their shape (oval, fusiform, triangular, pear-shaped, multipolar and irregular). In every nucleus, a specific neuronal population was observed. In SVN, a large number of interconnections between NOS I-positive neurons were identified. In MVN, chain-like rolls of small neurons were found. Tiny interconnections between MVN and mesencephalic reticular formation were present. Our data provide information on the morphology, distribution patterns and interconnections of NOS I-positive neurons in the VNCc and can be extrapolated to other mammals.

  6. Social value orientation and impression formation: a test of two competing hypotheses about information search in negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2002-01-01

    Two experiments investigated negotiators' information search strategies as a function of other's personality (cooperative vs. competitive vs. unknown) and own social value orientation (pro-social vs. selfish). In Experiment 1, participants selected questions about other's intention to cooperate or

  7. The dizzy patient: don't forget disorders of the central vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne

    2017-06-01

    Vertigo and dizziness are among the most common complaints in neurology clinics, and they account for about 13% of the patients entering emergency units. In this Review, we focus on central vestibular disorders, which are mostly attributable to acute unilateral lesions of the bilateral vestibular circuitry in the brain. In a tertiary interdisciplinary outpatient dizziness unit, central vestibular disorders, including vestibular migraine, comprise about 25% of the established diagnoses. The signs and symptoms of these disorders can mimic those of peripheral vestibular disorders with sustained rotational vertigo. Bedside examinations, such as the head impulse test and ocular motor testing to determine spontaneous and gaze-evoked nystagmus or skew deviation, reliably differentiate central from peripheral syndromes. We also consider disorders of 'higher vestibular functions', which involve more than one sensory modality as well as cognitive domains (for example, orientation, spatial memory and navigation). These disorders include hemispatial neglect, the room tilt illusion, pusher syndrome, and impairment of spatial memory and navigation associated with hippocampal atrophy in cases of peripheral bilateral vestibular loss.

  8. Assessment of the quality of patient-orientated Internet information on surgery for diverticular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Trevor M; Mortensen, Neil J

    2012-01-01

    The Internet is a vast resource available for patients to obtain health information. This study examines the quality of Web sites that provide information on diverticular disease, treatment options, and surgery. Two search engines (Google and Yahoo) and the search terms "surgery and diverticular disease" and "surgery and diverticulitis" were used. The first 50 sites of each search were assessed. Sites that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were evaluated for content and scored by using the DISCERN instrument, which evaluates the quality of health information on treatment choices. Two hundred sites were examined, of which 60 (30%) provided patient-orientated information. 50 sites (25%) were duplicated, 7 (3.5%) were links, 10 (5%) were advertisements, 14 (7%) were resources for clinicians, 9 (4.5%) were message forums, 27 (13.5%) were articles, and 15 (7.5%) were dead links. Of the 60 Web sites that provided patient information, only 10 (16.7%) had been updated within the past 2 years. Seventeen (28.3%) sites were affiliated with hospitals and clinics, but another 17 (28.3%) sites were associated with private companies with commercial interests. Although most Web sites contained information on symptoms, complications, investigations, and treatment options of diverticular disease, 20 (33.3%) did not describe any of the risks of surgery, and 45 (75%) did not provide information on the timescale of recovery postoperatively. Eighteen sites did not provide balanced information on treatment options; of these, 7 were biased toward medical treatment and 6 focused on laparoscopic surgery. Overall, only 22 (36.7%) were identified as being "good" or "excellent" with the use of the DISCERN criteria. The quality of patient information on surgery for diverticular disease is highly variable, and Web sites that are sponsored by private companies may be biased in discussing treatment options. There is potential for the Internet to provide valuable information, and clinicians should

  9. Visual-vestibular integration motion perception reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Reschke, Millard R.; Parker, Donald E.

    1999-01-01

    Self-orientation and self/surround-motion perception derive from a multimodal sensory process that integrates information from the eyes, vestibular apparatus, proprioceptive and somatosensory receptors. Results from short and long duration spaceflight investigations indicate that: (1) perceptual and sensorimotor function was disrupted during the initial exposure to microgravity and gradually improved over hours to days (individuals adapt), (2) the presence and/or absence of information from different sensory modalities differentially affected the perception of orientation, self-motion and surround-motion, (3) perceptual and sensorimotor function was initially disrupted upon return to Earth-normal gravity and gradually recovered to preflight levels (individuals readapt), and (4) the longer the exposure to microgravity, the more complete the adaptation, the more profound the postflight disturbances, and the longer the recovery period to preflight levels. While much has been learned about perceptual and sensorimotor reactions and adaptation to microgravity, there is much remaining to be learned about the mechanisms underlying the adaptive changes, and about how intersensory interactions affect perceptual and sensorimotor function during voluntary movements. During space flight, SMS and perceptual disturbances have led to reductions in performance efficiency and sense of well-being. During entry and immediately after landing, such disturbances could have a serious impact on the ability of the commander to land the Orbiter and on the ability of all crew members to egress from the Orbiter, particularly in a non-nominal condition or following extended stays in microgravity. An understanding of spatial orientation and motion perception is essential for developing countermeasures for Space Motion Sickness (SMS) and perceptual disturbances during spaceflight and upon return to Earth. Countermeasures for optimal performance in flight and a successful return to Earth require

  10. Integration of 3d Models and Diagnostic Analyses Through a Conservation-Oriented Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelli, A.; Achille, C.; Tommasi, C.; Fassi, F.

    2017-08-01

    In the recent years, mature technologies for producing high quality virtual 3D replicas of Cultural Heritage (CH) artefacts has grown thanks to the progress of Information Technologies (IT) tools. These methods are an efficient way to present digital models that can be used with several scopes: heritage managing, support to conservation, virtual restoration, reconstruction and colouring, art cataloguing and visual communication. The work presented is an emblematic case of study oriented to the preventive conservation through monitoring activities, using different acquisition methods and instruments. It was developed inside a project founded by Lombardy Region, Italy, called "Smart Culture", which was aimed to realise a platform that gave the users the possibility to easily access to the CH artefacts, using as an example a very famous statue. The final product is a 3D reality-based model that contains a lot of information inside it, and that can be consulted through a common web browser. In the end, it was possible to define the general strategies oriented to the maintenance and the valorisation of CH artefacts, which, in this specific case, must consider the integration of different techniques and competencies, to obtain a complete, accurate and continuative monitoring of the statue.

  11. Sexual Orientation and Health Information Technology Use: A Nationally Representative Study of U.S. Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhamer, James M; Galinsky, Adena M; Joestl, Sarah S; Ward, Brian W

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence and odds of participation in online health-related activities among lesbian, gay, and bisexual adults and straight adults aged 18-64. Primary data collected in the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey, a nationally representative household health survey, were used to examine associations between sexual orientation and four measures of health information technology (HIT) use. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews (some telephone follow-up) with 54,878 adults aged 18-64. Compared with straight men, both gay and bisexual men had higher odds of using computers to schedule appointments with healthcare providers, and using email to communicate with healthcare providers. Gay men also had significantly higher odds of seeking health information or participating in a health-related chat group on the Internet, and using computers to fill a prescription. No significant associations were observed between sexual orientation and HIT use among women in the multivariate analysis. Gay and bisexual men make greater use of HIT than their straight counterparts. Additional research is needed to determine the causal factors behind these group differences in the use of online healthcare, as well as the health implications for each group.

  12. INTEGRATION OF 3D MODELS AND DIAGNOSTIC ANALYSES THROUGH A CONSERVATION-ORIENTED INFORMATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mandelli

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years, mature technologies for producing high quality virtual 3D replicas of Cultural Heritage (CH artefacts has grown thanks to the progress of Information Technologies (IT tools. These methods are an efficient way to present digital models that can be used with several scopes: heritage managing, support to conservation, virtual restoration, reconstruction and colouring, art cataloguing and visual communication. The work presented is an emblematic case of study oriented to the preventive conservation through monitoring activities, using different acquisition methods and instruments. It was developed inside a project founded by Lombardy Region, Italy, called “Smart Culture”, which was aimed to realise a platform that gave the users the possibility to easily access to the CH artefacts, using as an example a very famous statue. The final product is a 3D reality-based model that contains a lot of information inside it, and that can be consulted through a common web browser. In the end, it was possible to define the general strategies oriented to the maintenance and the valorisation of CH artefacts, which, in this specific case, must consider the integration of different techniques and competencies, to obtain a complete, accurate and continuative monitoring of the statue.

  13. Internal models and neural computation in the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Andrea M; Angelaki, Dora E

    2010-01-01

    The vestibular system is vital for motor control and spatial self-motion perception. Afferents from the otolith organs and the semicircular canals converge with optokinetic, somatosensory and motor-related signals in the vestibular nuclei, which are reciprocally interconnected with the vestibulocerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei. Here, we review the properties of the many cell types in the vestibular nuclei, as well as some fundamental computations implemented within this brainstem-cerebellar circuitry. These include the sensorimotor transformations for reflex generation, the neural computations for inertial motion estimation, the distinction between active and passive head movements, as well as the integration of vestibular and proprioceptive information for body motion estimation. A common theme in the solution to such computational problems is the concept of internal models and their neural implementation. Recent studies have shed new insights into important organizational principles that closely resemble those proposed for other sensorimotor systems, where their neural basis has often been more difficult to identify. As such, the vestibular system provides an excellent model to explore common neural processing strategies relevant both for reflexive and for goal-directed, voluntary movement as well as perception.

  14. The Decision-Oriented Interview (DOI as a Marketing Instrument for Obtaining Information about Brands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Westhoff

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our article is not to report an empirical study but to present a toolkit which can help to collect valid information about brands. The Decision-Oriented Interview, hereafter, DOI presents empirically proven behavior regularities in interviews as a collection of checklists. The DOI has shown its usefulness in different fields of interviewing e.g. as a selection interview, in forensic assessment or a method for oral examinations. The DOI collection of explicit rules for interview design, execution and summary is described as a toolkit for collecting information relevant in marketing. The purchase decisions are presented as a basis for describing brand-differentiating situations. The use of the rules collected in the DOI checklists has clear advantages over the conventional approach in which success depends on the experience of individual project managers.

  15. Dissociable cerebellar activity during spatial navigation and visual memory in bilateral vestibular failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandl, N M; Sprenger, A; Wojak, J F; Göttlich, M; Münte, T F; Krämer, U M; Helmchen, C

    2015-10-01

    Spatial orientation and navigation depends on information from the vestibular system. Previous work suggested impaired spatial navigation in patients with bilateral vestibular failure (BVF). The aim of this study was to investigate event-related brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during spatial navigation and visual memory tasks in BVF patients. Twenty-three BVF patients and healthy age- and gender matched control subjects performed learning sessions of spatial navigation by watching short films taking them through various streets from a driver's perspective along a route to the Cathedral of Cologne using virtual reality videos (adopted and modified from Google Earth). In the scanner, participants were asked to respond to questions testing for visual memory or spatial navigation while they viewed short video clips. From a similar but not identical perspective depicted video frames of routes were displayed which they had previously seen or which were completely novel to them. Compared with controls, posterior cerebellar activity in BVF patients was higher during spatial navigation than during visual memory tasks, in the absence of performance differences. This cerebellar activity correlated with disease duration. Cerebellar activity during spatial navigation in BVF patients may reflect increased non-vestibular efforts to counteract the development of spatial navigation deficits in BVF. Conceivably, cerebellar activity indicates a change in navigational strategy of BVF patients, i.e. from a more allocentric, landmark or place-based strategy (hippocampus) to a more sequence-based strategy. This interpretation would be in accord with recent evidence for a cerebellar role in sequence-based navigation. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Effect of nitric oxide in vestibular compensation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zi-dong; Zhang, Lian-shan

    2003-10-01

    To study the effect of nitric oxide (NO) in vestibular compensation after unilateral vestibular deafferentation. Eighteen animals were divided into two groups, 6 of group a as control, 12 of group b received gentamicin intratympanic injection in the left ear. Half of the animals were killed respectively after 5 days and 10 days. Vestibular endorgan and brainstem tissue sections were subjected to NADPH-d reactive test of NOS for histochemical examination. In group a, NOS-like reactivity in both sides of vestibular endorgan and nucli. In group b during 5 days, NOS-like reactivity in right side of vestibular endorgan and nucli, those of the left side were negative. During 10 days, NOS-like reactivity only in the right side of vestibular endorgan. Changes of NOS expression in the contralateral vestibular nucli might have played a role in vestibular compensation.

  17. Approach to HIR (human-oriented information restructuring) using bird's-eye views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyota, Koichi; Sekitoh, Makoto; Fujii, Toshiaki; Kimoto, Tadahiko; Tanimoto, Masayuki

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, we describe a system that creates a virtual bird's-eye view from multi-camera images in real-time and its application to 'HIR (Human-Oriented Information Restructuring) system for ITS' we have proposed. In recent years, studies on AHS (Advanced Highway Systems) are seen in many fields. However, there still remains many problems when we try to realize the automated driving, the goal of AHS. To overcome these problems of AHS, we have proposed HIR system, which assists drivers by providing them with integrated and restructured images. The striking point of the proposed system compared with the conventional one is that it is human, not the mechanical cars, that recognizes the situation and controls the car, and for that purpose, we just generate and show easy-to-understand images for human. The step is, integrate and restructure numerous camera images from all driving environment, such as cars and roads, and non-image information like VICS (Vehicle Information and Communication Systems) information. Then pick out the most important information according to the situation and show it in the form of 'image.' This paper proposes a bird's-eye view system as an example of HIR. We describe the algorithm and hardware to create a bird's-eye view in real-time. In the experiment, we show that the bird's-eye view is useful as a driver-assisting image under the situation of right turn at the intersection.

  18. Bim Orientation: Grades of Generation and Information for Different Type of Analysis and Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, F.

    2017-08-01

    Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) industry is facing a great process re-engineering of the management procedures for new constructions, and recent studies show a significant increase of the benefits obtained through the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM) methodologies. This innovative approach needs new developments for information and communication technologies (ICT) in order to improve cooperation and interoperability among different actors and scientific disciplines. Accordingly, BIM could be described as a new tool capable of collect/analyse a great quantity of information (Big data) and improve the management of building during its life of cycle (LC). The main aim of this research is, in addition to a reduction in production times, reduce physical and financial resources (economic impact), to demonstrate how technology development can support a complex generative process with new digital tools (modelling impact). This paper reviews recent BIMs of different historical Italian buildings such as Basilica of Collemaggio in L'Aquila, Masegra Castle in Sondrio, Basilica of Saint Ambrose in Milan and Visconti Bridge in Lecco and carries out a methodological analysis to optimize output information and results combining different data and modelling techniques into a single hub (cloud service) through the use of new Grade of Generation (GoG) and Information (GoI) (management impact). Finally, this study shows the need to orient GoG and GoI for a different type of analysis, which requires a high Grade of Accuracy (GoA) and an Automatic Verification System (AVS ) at the same time.

  19. Vestibular autonomic regulation (including motion sickness and the mechanism of vomiting)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, C. D.

    1999-01-01

    Autonomic manifestations of vestibular dysfunction and motion sickness are well established in the clinical literature. Recent studies of 'vestibular autonomic regulation' have focused predominantly on autonomic responses to stimulation of the vestibular sense organs in the inner ear. These studies have shown that autonomic responses to vestibular stimulation are regionally selective and have defined a 'vestibulosympathetic reflex' in animal experiments. Outside the realm of experimental preparations, however, the importance of vestibular inputs in autonomic regulation is unclear because controls for secondary factors, such as affective/emotional responses and cardiovascular responses elicited by muscle contraction and regional blood pooling, have been inadequate. Anatomic and physiologic evidence of an extensive convergence of vestibular and autonomic information in the brainstem suggests though that there may be an integrated representation of gravitoinertial acceleration from vestibular, somatic, and visceral receptors for somatic and visceral motor control. In the case of vestibular dysfunction or motion sickness, the unpleasant visceral manifestations (e.g. epigastric discomfort, nausea or vomiting) may contribute to conditioned situational avoidance and the development of agoraphobia.

  20. [How do Polish workers respond to the information concerning health-oriented lifestyle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniowska, Elżbieta; Puchalski, Krzysztof

    2017-06-27

    Information overload, including commercial ones, about healthy lifestyle, is a challenge for perception of health education. The empirical data gathered from 100 employees in 2010 by means of free interviews with a standardized list of required information, aimed at analyzing a feeling of pressure to lead a healthy lifestyle, including reactions to meassages provided by the media. Respondents feel pressure associated with a healthy lifestyle from doctors, the state, relatives, friends and themselves. They accept pressure exerted by doctors and appreciate it from relatives and friends, however, the latter may stimulate adverse behavior. As a negative pressure they perceive that imposed by the media, government's shifting the responsibility for citizens' health, information overload contradictory to their own knowledge, unattainable recommendations and their volatility. Such pressure evokes conviction for their own resistance or rejection of the messages. They criticize the media for promoting unhealthy behavior, attending interests of advertisers, hiding information about harmful environmental influence. They appreciate the media for facilitating learning about health and preventive examinations. Health education messages are only occasionally identified by better educated people. "Dense" information environment is a hostile background for health education. An excess of critically evaluated information evokes pressure and lack of trust in information. Therefore, health education should facilitate the identification of its contents, avoid normative methods, limit the number of guidelines and better explain the faced changes, counteract tendencies to associate healthy lifestyle mainly with consumer behaviors, teach how to maintain self orientation in information overload conditions, and build up awareness of one's own brand. Med Pr 2017;68(4):525-543.

  1. How do Polish workers respond to the information concerning health-oriented lifestyle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Korzeniowska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Information overload, including commercial ones, about healthy lifestyle, is a challenge for perception of health education. Material and Methods: The empirical data gathered from 100 employees in 2010 by means of free interviews with a standardized list of required information, aimed at analyzing a feeling of pressure to lead a healthy lifestyle, including reactions to meassages provided by the media. Results: Respondents feel pressure associated with a healthy lifestyle from doctors, the state, relatives, friends and themselves. They accept pressure exerted by doctors and appreciate it from relatives and friends, however, the latter may stimulate adverse behavior. As a negative pressure they perceive that imposed by the media, government’s shifting the responsibility for citizens’ health, information overload contradictory to their own knowledge, unattainable recommendations and their volatility. Such pressure evokes conviction for their own resistance or rejection of the messages. They criticize the media for promoting unhealthy behavior, attending interests of advertisers, hiding information about harmful environmental influence. They appreciate the media for facilitating learning about health and preventive examinations. Health education messages are only occasionally identified by better educated people. Conclusions: “Dense” information environment is a hostile background for health education. An excess of critically evaluated information evokes pressure and lack of trust in information. Therefore, health education should facilitate the identification of its contents, avoid normative methods, limit the number of guidelines and better explain the faced changes, counteract tendencies to associate healthy lifestyle mainly with consumer behaviors, teach how to maintain self orientation in information overload conditions, and build up awareness of one’s own brand. Med Pr 2017;68(4:525–543

  2. Assessment of the quality of patient-orientated internet information on surgery for ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, M; Yeung, T M; Spinelli, A; Mortensen, N J

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the quality of websites providing information on ulcerative colitis, including treatment options and surgery. Two search engines (Google and Yahoo) and the search term 'surgery for ulcerative colitis' were used. The first 50 sites obtained with each search engine were assessed. Sites were evaluated for content and scored using the DISCERN instrument, which evaluates the quality of health information on treatment choices. One hundred sites were examined, of which 14 were duplicates. Of the remainder, 58 provided patient-orientated information for adults and one site provided information for surgery in children. The other 27 sites included six scientific articles, three blogs, three links, six resources for clinicians, five fora, two video links and two dead links. Of the 58 websites that provided patient information for adults, only 26 (44.8%) had been updated within the last 2 years. Only 13/58 (22.4%) were affiliated to hospitals and clinics. Most sites (38/58, 65.5%) were associated with private companies with commercial interests. Although most websites contained information on symptoms and treatment options for ulcerative colitis, 37 (63.8%) did not describe any of the risks of surgery. Overall, only seven (12.1%) websites were identified as being 'good' or 'excellent' using the DISCERN criteria. The quality of patient information on surgery for ulcerative colitis is highly variable. There is potential for internet provision of valuable information and clinicians should guide patients with to access high-quality websites. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  3. Vestibular control of entorhinal cortex activity in spatial navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Yves eJacob

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Navigation in rodents depends on both self-motion (idiothetic and external (allothetic information. Idiothetic information has a predominant role when allothetic information is absent or irrelevant. The vestibular system is a major source of idiothetic information in mammals. By integrating the signals generated by angular and linear accelerations during exploration, a rat is able to generate and update a vector pointing to its starting place and to perform accurate return. This navigation strategy, called path integration, has been shown to involve a network of brain structures. Among these structures, the entorhinal cortex (EC may play a pivotal role as suggested by lesion and electrophysiological data. In particular, it has been recently discovered that some neurons in the medial EC display multiple firing fields producing a regular grid-like pattern across the environment. Such regular activity may arise from the integration of idiothetic information. This hypothesis would be strongly strengthened if it was shown that manipulation of vestibular information interferes with grid cell activity. In the present paper we review neuroanatomical and functional evidence indicating that the vestibular system influences the activity of the brain network involved in spatial navigation. We also provide new data on the effects of reversible inactivation of the peripheral vestibular system on the EC theta rhythm. The main result is that TTX administration abolishes velocity-controlled theta oscillations in the EC, indicating that vestibular information is necessary for EC activity. Since recent data demonstrate that disruption of theta rhythm in the medial EC induces a disorganization of grid cell firing, our findings indicate that the integration of idiothetic information in the EC is essential to form a spatial representation of the environment.

  4. Vestibular control of entorhinal cortex activity in spatial navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Pierre-Yves; Poucet, Bruno; Liberge, Martine; Save, Etienne; Sargolini, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Navigation in rodents depends on both self-motion (idiothetic) and external (allothetic) information. Idiothetic information has a predominant role when allothetic information is absent or irrelevant. The vestibular system is a major source of idiothetic information in mammals. By integrating the signals generated by angular and linear accelerations during exploration, a rat is able to generate and update a vector pointing to its starting place and to perform accurate return. This navigation strategy, called path integration, has been shown to involve a network of brain structures. Among these structures, the entorhinal cortex (EC) may play a pivotal role as suggested by lesion and electrophysiological data. In particular, it has been recently discovered that some neurons in the medial EC display multiple firing fields producing a regular grid-like pattern across the environment. Such regular activity may arise from the integration of idiothetic information. This hypothesis would be strongly strengthened if it was shown that manipulation of vestibular information interferes with grid cell activity. In the present paper we review neuroanatomical and functional evidence indicating that the vestibular system influences the activity of the brain network involved in spatial navigation. We also provide new data on the effects of reversible inactivation of the peripheral vestibular system on the EC theta rhythm. The main result is that tetrodotoxin (TTX) administration abolishes velocity-controlled theta oscillations in the EC, indicating that vestibular information is necessary for EC activity. Since recent data demonstrate that disruption of theta rhythm in the medial EC induces a disorganization of grid cell firing, our findings indicate that the integration of idiothetic information in the EC is essential to form a spatial representation of the environment.

  5. Recovery of Vestibular Ocular Reflex Function and Balance Control after a Unilateral Peripheral Vestibular Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    John eAllum

    2012-01-01

    This review describes the effect of unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit (UPVD) on balance control for stance and gait tests. Because a UPVD is normally defined based on vestibular ocular reflex (VOR) tests, we compared recovery observed in balance control with patterns of recovery in VOR function. Two general types of UPVD are considered; acute vestibular neuritis (AVN) and vestibular neurectomy. The latter was subdivided into vestibular loss after cerebellar pontine angle tumor surgery ...

  6. Interaction between Vestibular Compensation Mechanisms and Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: 10 Recommendations for Optimal Functional Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Lacour, Michel; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    This review questions the relationships between the plastic events responsible for the recovery of vestibular function after a unilateral vestibular loss (vestibular compensation), which has been well described in animal models in the last decades, and the vestibular rehabilitation (VR) therapy elaborated on a more empirical basis for vestibular loss patients. The main objective is not to propose a catalog of results but to provide clinicians with an understandable view on when and how to per...

  7. Interaction between vestibular compensation mechanisms and vestibular rehabilitation therapy: ten recommendations for optimal functional recovery

    OpenAIRE

    LACOUR eMichel; BERNARD DEMANZE eLaurence

    2015-01-01

    This review questions the relationships between the plastic events responsible for the recovery of vestibular function after a unilateral vestibular loss (vestibular compensation), which has been well described in animal models in the last decades, and the vestibular rehabilitation (VR) therapy elaborated on a more empirical basis for vestibular loss patients. The main objective is not to propose a catalogue of results but to provide clinicians with an understandable view on when and how to p...

  8. Vestibular stimulation interferes with the dynamics of an internal representation of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sá Teixeira, Nuno Alexandre; Hecht, Heiko; Diaz Artiles, Ana; Seyedmadani, Kimia; Sherwood, David P; Young, Laurence R

    2017-11-01

    The remembered vanishing location of a moving target has been found to be displaced downward in the direction of gravity (representational gravity) and more so with increasing retention intervals, suggesting that the visual spatial updating recruits an internal model of gravity. Despite being consistently linked with gravity, few inquiries have been made about the role of vestibular information in these trends. Previous experiments with static tilting of observers' bodies suggest that under conflicting cues between the idiotropic vector and vestibular signals, the dynamic drift in memory is reduced to a constant displacement along the body's main axis. The present experiment aims to replicate and extend these outcomes while keeping the observers' bodies unchanged in relation to physical gravity by varying the gravito-inertial acceleration using a short-radius centrifuge. Observers were shown, while accelerated to varying degrees, targets moving along several directions and were required to indicate the perceived vanishing location after a variable interval. Increases of the gravito-inertial force (up to 1.4G), orthogonal to the idiotropic vector, did not affect the direction of representational gravity, but significantly disrupted its time course. The role and functioning of an internal model of gravity for spatial perception and orientation are discussed in light of the results.

  9. Compensation following bilateral vestibular damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill J Yates

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that nonlabyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained.

  10. Compensation following bilateral vestibular damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Andrew A; Yates, Bill J

    2011-01-01

    Bilateral loss of vestibular inputs affects far fewer patients than unilateral inner ear damage, and thus has been understudied. In both animal subjects and human patients, bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) produces a variety of clinical problems, including impaired balance control, inability to maintain stable blood pressure during postural changes, difficulty in visual targeting of images, and disturbances in spatial memory and navigational performance. Experiments in animals have shown that non-labyrinthine inputs to the vestibular nuclei are rapidly amplified following the onset of BVH, which may explain the recovery of postural stability and orthostatic tolerance that occurs within 10 days. However, the loss of the vestibulo-ocular reflex and degraded spatial cognition appear to be permanent in animals with BVH. Current concepts of the compensatory mechanisms in humans with BVH are largely inferential, as there is a lack of data from patients early in the disease process. Translation of animal studies of compensation for BVH into therapeutic strategies and subsequent application in the clinic is the most likely route to improve treatment. In addition to physical therapy, two types of prosthetic devices have been proposed to treat individuals with bilateral loss of vestibular inputs: those that provide tactile stimulation to indicate body position in space, and those that deliver electrical stimuli to branches of the vestibular nerve in accordance with head movements. The relative efficacy of these two treatment paradigms, and whether they can be combined to facilitate recovery, is yet to be ascertained.

  11. A scalable healthcare information system based on a service-oriented architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tzu-Hsiang; Sun, Yeali S; Lai, Feipei

    2011-06-01

    Many existing healthcare information systems are composed of a number of heterogeneous systems and face the important issue of system scalability. This paper first describes the comprehensive healthcare information systems used in National Taiwan University Hospital (NTUH) and then presents a service-oriented architecture (SOA)-based healthcare information system (HIS) based on the service standard HL7. The proposed architecture focuses on system scalability, in terms of both hardware and software. Moreover, we describe how scalability is implemented in rightsizing, service groups, databases, and hardware scalability. Although SOA-based systems sometimes display poor performance, through a performance evaluation of our HIS based on SOA, the average response time for outpatient, inpatient, and emergency HL7Central systems are 0.035, 0.04, and 0.036 s, respectively. The outpatient, inpatient, and emergency WebUI average response times are 0.79, 1.25, and 0.82 s. The scalability of the rightsizing project and our evaluation results show that the SOA HIS we propose provides evidence that SOA can provide system scalability and sustainability in a highly demanding healthcare information system.

  12. Aging of vestibular function evaluated using correlational vestibular autorotation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsieh LC

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Li-Chun Hsieh,1,2 Hung-Ching Lin,2,3 Guo-She Lee4,5 1Institute of Brain Science, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Otolaryngology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan; 3Department of Audiology and Speech Language Pathology, Mackay Memorial Medical College, Taipei, Taiwan; 4Faculty of Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 5Department of Otolaryngology, Taipei City Hospital, Ren-Ai Branch, Taipei, Taiwan Background: Imbalance from degeneration of vestibular end organs is a common problem in the elderly. However, the decline of vestibular function with aging was revealed in few vestibular function tests such as vestibular autorotation test (VAT. In the current VAT, there are drawbacks of poor test–retest reliability, slippage of the sensor at high-speed rotations, and limited data about the effect of aging. We developed a correlational-VAT (cVAT system that included a small, light sensor (less than 20 g with wireless data transmission technique to evaluate the aging of vestibular function. Material and methods: We enrolled 53 healthy participants aged between 25 and 75 years and divided them into five age groups. The test conditions were vertical and horizontal head autorotations of frequencies from 0 to 3 Hz with closed eyes or open eyes. The cross-correlation coefficient (CCC between eye velocity and head velocity was obtained for the head autorotations between 1 Hz and 3 Hz. The mean of the CCCs was used to represent the vestibular function. Results: Age was significantly and negatively correlated with the mean CCC for all test conditions, including horizontal or vertical autorotations with open eyes or closed eyes (P<0.05. The mean CCC with open eyes declined significantly at 55–65 years old and the mean CCC with closed eyes declined significantly at 65–75 years old.Conclusion: Vestibular function evaluated using mean CCC revealed a decline with

  13. Universal Design for Underserved Populations: Person-Centered, Recovery-Oriented and Trauma Informed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassuk, Ellen L; Latta, Rachel E; Sember, Robert; Raja, Sheela; Richard, Molly

    2017-01-01

    Person-centered care has yet to be widely implemented in health care settings, a circumstance that disproportionately affects individuals with behavioral health disorders and those with trauma histories. A need exists for a universal approach to care that encompasses compassionate, collaborative relationships between providers and service users. Person-centered care, enhanced by recovery-oriented care and trauma-informed care, forms the basis for a universal approach to health care. For this paper, we adopted a modified Delphi method to establish consensus on a set of basic principles and practices for developing a universal design based on these three frameworks. We used a two-stage process to arrive at guidelines for use in health and human service settings by: 1) convening an expert panel to draft guidelines; and 2) conducting an online survey of multidisciplinary experts to refine the guidelines. We conclude with recommendations for implementation.

  14. Identity Orientation, Social Exchange, and Information Technology Use in Interorganizational Collaborations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Uri; Jensen, Tina Blegind; Lyytinen, Kalle

    2014-01-01

    Advances in information technologies (IT) are creating unprecedented opportunities for interorganizational collaboration, particularly in large-scale distributed projects. The use of advanced IT in such projects can foster new forms of social exchange among organizations and change the way...... organizations view themselves in the context of their relationships. Despite a wealth of research on IT use, social exchange, and organizational identity, little is known about how new IT and the enactment of related IT affordances within interorganizational contexts enable social exchanges and organizational...... identity orientations. To address this gap, we conduct multiple case studies that describe the changing use of two-dimensional computer-aided design technology and new three-dimensional modeling technologies by a leading metal fabrication company in the architecture, engineering, and construction industry...

  15. Stereotactic radiotherapy for vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muzevic, Dario; Legcevic, Jelena; Splavski, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vestibular schwannomas (acoustic neuromas) are common benign tumours that arise from the Schwann cells of the vestibular nerve. Management options include observation with neuroradiological follow-up, microsurgical resection and stereotactic radiotherapy. OBJECTIVES: To assess...... the effect of stereotactic radiotherapy compared to observation, microsurgical resection, any other treatment modality, or a combination of two or more of the above approaches for vestibular schwannoma. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials; PubMed; EMBASE; CINAHL......; Web of Science; CAB Abstracts; ISRCTN and additional sources for published and unpublished trials. The date of the search was 24 July 2014. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) exploring the efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy compared with observation alone, microsurgical...

  16. Development and Function of the Mouse Vestibular System in the Absence of Gravity Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, Debra J.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that was tested in this research was that the absence of gravity perception, such as would occur in space, would affect the development and function of the vestibular and central nervous systems. Further, we postulated that these effects would be more significant at specific stages of post-natal development of the animal. We also proposed the use of molecular genetic approaches that would provide important information as to the hierarchy of gene function during the development and subsequent function of the vestibular system. The tilted (tlt) mutant mouse has been characterized as lacking the ability to provide sensory input to the gravity receptors. The tlt/tlt mutant mice were a particularly attractive model for the study of vestibular function since the primary defect was limited to the receptor part of the vestibular system, and there were no detectable abnormal phenotypes in other organ systems. The goal of the proposed studies was to assess immediate and delayed effects of the lack of gravity perception on the vestibular system. Particular attention was paid to characterizing primarily affected periods of vestibular morphogenesis, and to identifying downstream genetic pathways that are altered in the CNS of the tlt/tlt mutant mouse. The specific aims were: (1) to characterize the postnatal morphogenesis of the CNS in the tlt mutant mouse, using detailed morphometric analysis of isolated vestibular ganglia and brain tissue at different stages of postnatal development and assessment of apoptotic cell death; (2) to examine the expression of selected genes implicated by mutational analysis to be important in vestibular development or function by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry in the mutant mice; and (3) to identify other genes involved in vestibular development and function, using differential cloning strategies to isolate genes whose expression is changed in the mutant versus normal vestibular system.

  17. A Service Oriented Architecture Approach to Achieve Interoperability between Immunization Information Systems in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Masoud; Ahmadi, Maryam; Dixon, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems can support vaccine forecasting and immunization reminders; however, immunization decision-making requires data from fragmented, independent systems. Interoperability and accurate data exchange between immunization information systems (IIS) is an essential factor to utilize Immunization CDS systems. Service oriented architecture (SOA) and Health Level 7 (HL7) are dominant standards for web-based exchange of clinical information. We implemented a system based on SOA and HL7 v3 to support immunization CDS in Iran. We evaluated system performance by exchanging 1500 immunization records for roughly 400 infants between two IISs. System turnaround time is less than a minute for synchronous operation calls and the retrieved immunization history of infants were always identical in different systems. CDS generated reports were accordant to immunization guidelines and the calculations for next visit times were accurate. Interoperability is rare or nonexistent between IIS. Since inter-state data exchange is rare in United States, this approach could be a good prototype to achieve interoperability of immunization information.

  18. 75 FR 81612 - The Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Advisory Board; Office of Consumer Information...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES The Consumer Operated and Oriented Plan (CO-OP) Advisory Board; Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, January 13, 2011 AGENCY: Office of Consumer Information and Insurance...

  19. BIM ORIENTATION: GRADES OF GENERATION AND INFORMATION FOR DIFFERENT TYPE OF ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Banfi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC industry is facing a great process re-engineering of the management procedures for new constructions, and recent studies show a significant increase of the benefits obtained through the use of Building Information Modelling (BIM methodologies. This innovative approach needs new developments for information and communication technologies (ICT in order to improve cooperation and interoperability among different actors and scientific disciplines. Accordingly, BIM could be described as a new tool capable of collect/analyse a great quantity of information (Big data and improve the management of building during its life of cycle (LC. The main aim of this research is, in addition to a reduction in production times, reduce physical and financial resources (economic impact, to demonstrate how technology development can support a complex generative process with new digital tools (modelling impact. This paper reviews recent BIMs of different historical Italian buildings such as Basilica of Collemaggio in L’Aquila, Masegra Castle in Sondrio, Basilica of Saint Ambrose in Milan and Visconti Bridge in Lecco and carries out a methodological analysis to optimize output information and results combining different data and modelling techniques into a single hub (cloud service through the use of new Grade of Generation (GoG and Information (GoI (management impact. Finally, this study shows the need to orient GoG and GoI for a different type of analysis, which requires a high Grade of Accuracy (GoA and an Automatic Verification System (AVS at the same time.

  20. Vestibular Activation Differentially Modulates Human Early Visual Cortex and V5/MT Excitability and Response Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman-Lopez, Jessica; Arshad, Qadeer; Schultz, Simon R; Walsh, Vincent; Yousif, Nada

    2013-01-01

    Head movement imposes the additional burdens on the visual system of maintaining visual acuity and determining the origin of retinal image motion (i.e., self-motion vs. object-motion). Although maintaining visual acuity during self-motion is effected by minimizing retinal slip via the brainstem vestibular-ocular reflex, higher order visuovestibular mechanisms also contribute. Disambiguating self-motion versus object-motion also invokes higher order mechanisms, and a cortical visuovestibular reciprocal antagonism is propounded. Hence, one prediction is of a vestibular modulation of visual cortical excitability and indirect measures have variously suggested none, focal or global effects of activation or suppression in human visual cortex. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced phosphenes to probe cortical excitability, we observed decreased V5/MT excitability versus increased early visual cortex (EVC) excitability, during vestibular activation. In order to exclude nonspecific effects (e.g., arousal) on cortical excitability, response specificity was assessed using information theory, specifically response entropy. Vestibular activation significantly modulated phosphene response entropy for V5/MT but not EVC, implying a specific vestibular effect on V5/MT responses. This is the first demonstration that vestibular activation modulates human visual cortex excitability. Furthermore, using information theory, not previously used in phosphene response analysis, we could distinguish between a specific vestibular modulation of V5/MT excitability from a nonspecific effect at EVC. PMID:22291031

  1. Vestibular nucleus neurons respond to hindlimb movement in the decerebrate cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshian, Milad S; Hobson, Candace E; Catanzaro, Michael F; Miller, Daniel J; Puterbaugh, Sonya R; Cotter, Lucy A; Yates, Bill J; McCall, Andrew A

    2014-06-15

    The vestibular nuclei integrate information from vestibular and proprioceptive afferents, which presumably facilitates the maintenance of stable balance and posture. However, little is currently known about the processing of sensory signals from the limbs by vestibular nucleus neurons. This study tested the hypothesis that limb movement is encoded by vestibular nucleus neurons and described the changes in activity of these neurons elicited by limb extension and flexion. In decerebrate cats, we recorded the activity of 70 vestibular nucleus neurons whose activity was modulated by limb movements. Most of these neurons (57/70, 81.4%) encoded information about the direction of hindlimb movement, while the remaining neurons (13/70, 18.6%) encoded the presence of hindlimb movement without signaling the direction of movement. The activity of many vestibular nucleus neurons that responded to limb movement was also modulated by rotating the animal's body in vertical planes, suggesting that the neurons integrated hindlimb and labyrinthine inputs. Neurons whose firing rate increased during ipsilateral ear-down roll rotations tended to be excited by hindlimb flexion, whereas neurons whose firing rate increased during contralateral ear-down tilts were excited by hindlimb extension. These observations suggest that there is a purposeful mapping of hindlimb inputs onto vestibular nucleus neurons, such that integration of hindlimb and labyrinthine inputs to the neurons is functionally relevant. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Why Process-Orientation is Scarce: An Empirical Study of Process-oriented Information Systems in the Automotive Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschler, B.B.; Bumiller, J.; Reichert, M.U.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that existing information systems (IS) often fail to provide adequate business process support. To systematically identify the reasons for this drawback, we conducted a case study in the automotive domain and a survey among 79 IT practitioners. This paper presents the

  3. Sensory (re)weighting in spatial orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, B.B.G.T.

    2016-01-01

    Determining the orientation of our body as well as objects in space, more commonly referred to as spatial orientation, involves the processing of various sensory signals, including visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive signals. The brain needs to integrate these sensory signals, which are noisy and

  4. Automatic Identification of Travel Locations in Rare Books - Object Oriented Information Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detlev Doherr

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The digital content of the Internet is growing exponentially and mass digitization of printed media opens access to literature, in particular the genre of travel literature from the 18th and 19th century, which consists of diaries or travel books describing routes, observations or inspirations. The identification of described locations in the digital text is a long-standing challenge which requires information technology to supply dynamic links to sources by new forms of interaction and synthesis between humanistic texts and scientific observations. Using object oriented information technology, a prototype of a software tool is developed which makes it possible to automatically identify geographic locations and travel routes mentioned in rare books. The information objects contain properties such as names and classification codes for populated places, streams, mountains and regions. Together, with the latitudes and longitudes of every single location, it is possible to geo-reference this information in order that all processed and filtered datasets can be displayed by a map application. This method has already been used in the Humboldt Digital Library to present Alexander von Humboldt's maps and was tested in a case study to prove the correctness and reliability of the automatic identification of locations based on the work of Alexander von Humboldt and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. The results reveal numerous errors due to misspellings, change of location names, equality of terms and location names. But on the other hand it becomes very clear that results of the automatic object detection and recognition can be improved by error-free and comprehensive sources. As a result an increase in quality and usability of the service can be expected, accompanied by more options to detect unknown locations in the descriptions of rare books.

  5. TEACHING INFORMATION SYSTEMS WITH A PROJECT ORIENTED COURSE - A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bekker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Many engineering students often find a course in less analytical subjects like Information Systems difficult due to the significant proportion of abstract concepts covered. To help the students understand them requires a teaching strategy other than the conventional. This paper discusses the use of a project-oriented course to overcome many of the difficulties of teaching Information Systems to industrial engineering students. In contrast with the usual approach to projects, where each group of students delivers an independent solution, the teaching approach discussed requires that the given class deliver a single, integrated solution.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Baie ingenieurstudente vind ‘n kursus met ‘n beduidende nie-analitiese komponent moeilik as gevolg van abstrakte konsepte wat behandel word. Die vakgebied van Inligtingstelsels is ‘n voorbeeld hiervan. ‘n Onderrigstrategie anders as die konvensionele is nodig om studente te help met die begripsproses. Hierdie artikel bespreek die gebruik van ‘n projekgebaseerde kursus om sommige van die onderrigprobleme wat ontstaan wanneer Inligtingstelsels aan bedryfsingenieurstudente doseer word, te oorkom. Die onderrigbenadering wat hier bespreek word, vereis dat ‘n gegewe klas ‘n enkele, geïntegreerde oplossing lewer, in teenstelling met die gewone benadering tot projekte waar studente in groepe werk en ‘n onafhanklike oplossing per groep lewer.

  6. Vision can recalibrate the vestibular reafference signal used to re-establish postural equilibrium following a platform perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Adam J; Harris, Laurence R; Zettel, John; Bent, Leah R

    2017-02-01

    Visuo-vestibular recalibration, in which visual information is used to alter the interpretation of vestibular signals, has been shown to influence both oculomotor control and navigation. Here we investigate whether vision can recalibrate the vestibular feedback used during the re-establishment of equilibrium following a perturbation. The perturbation recovery responses of nine participants were examined following exposure to a period of 11 s of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS). During GVS in VISION trials, occlusion spectacles provided 4 s of visual information that enabled participants to correct for the GVS-induced tilt and associate this asymmetric vestibular signal with a visually provided 'upright'. NoVISION trials had no such visual experience. Participants used the visual information to assist in realigning their posture compared to when visual information was not provided (p vision had been provided during the preceding GVS, as determined by peak centre of mass and pressure deviations (p = 0.09). However, after using vision to reinterpret the vestibular signal during GVS, final centre of mass and pressure equilibrium positions were significantly shifted compared to trials in which vision was not available (p postural equilibrium following a perturbation. Our work is the first to highlight the capacity for visual feedback to recalibrate the vertical interpretation of vestibular reafference for re-establishing equilibrium following a perturbation. This demonstrates the rapid adaptability of the vestibular reafference signal for postural control.

  7. Perspectival Structure and Vestibular Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsmith, Adrian John Tetteh

    2016-01-01

    I begin by contrasting a taxonomic approach to the vestibular system with the structural approach I take in the bulk of this commentary. I provide an analysis of perspectival structure. Employing that analysis and following the structural approach, I propose three lines of empirical investigation...

  8. Extraterrestrial vestibular research, a new partial field of medical research into the human vestibular apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, H J

    1967-01-01

    The first otologic professorial chair in the world was established by Politzer in Vienna as long ago as 1861. In 1914 an assistant of the 1st Vienna Ear Clinic with Politzer as its head, Barany, was awarded the Nobel Prize for Medicine for his fundamental investigations into the organ of equilibration and for his discovery of the caloric sensitivity of the semicircular canals. Since that time Barany is regarded as the founder of the physiology of the vestibular apparatus. During the period 1959 to 1963 a new conception of fundamental research into the vestibule was demanded and elaborated in Vienna with the postulate that, in all theoretical deliberations and practical experience, one should take into consideration that our experiments into the vestibule do not take place on a static platform but rather on a diversely moving one, namely the surface of the earth. This led to new findings in the field of research into the otolith apparatus. In 1962 it was discovered that the gravitation of the sun at the distance of earth-sun represents a supraliminal stimulus, namely both in the aphelion as well as in the perihelion position of the earth. In 1965 it was suggested in Vienna that a new branch of research into the vestibule should be established on an international level, the so-called extraterrestrial vestibular research. The importance of this new branch of research is discussed for all problems of orientation of human beings in space.

  9. Gait ataxia in humans: vestibular and cerebellar control of dynamic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schniepp, Roman; Möhwald, Ken; Wuehr, Max

    2017-10-01

    During human locomotion, vestibular feedback control is fundamental for maintaining dynamic stability and adapting the gait pattern to external circumstances. Within the supraspinal locomotor network, the cerebellum represents the key site for the integration of vestibular feedback information. The cerebellum is further important for the fine-tuning and coordination of limb movements during walking. The aim of this review article is to highlight the shared structural and functional sensorimotor principles in vestibular and cerebellar locomotion control. Vestibular feedback for the maintenance of dynamic stability is integrated into the locomotor pattern via midline, caudal cerebellar structures (vermis, flocculonodular lobe). Hemispheric regions of the cerebellum facilitate feed-forward control of multi-joint coordination and higher locomotor functions. Characteristic features of the gait disorder in patients with vestibular deficits or cerebellar ataxia are increased levels of spatiotemporal gait variability in the fore-aft and the medio-lateral gait dimension. In the fore-aft dimension, pathologic increases of gait fluctuations critically depend on the locomotion speed and predominantly manifest during slow walking velocities. This feature is associated with an increased risk of falls in both patients with vestibular hypofunction as well as patients with cerebellar ataxia. Pharmacological approaches for the treatment of vestibular or cerebellar gait ataxia are currently not available. However, new promising options are currently tested in randomized, controlled trials (fampridine/FACEG; acetyl-DL-leucine/ALCAT).

  10. Altered auditory and vestibular functioning in individuals with low bone mineral density: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Jha, Raghav Hira; Gargeshwari, Aditi; Kumar, Prawin

    2018-01-01

    Alteration in the process of bone remodelling is associated with falls and fractures due to increased bone fragility and altered calcium functioning. The auditory system consists of skeletal structures and is, therefore, prone to getting affected by altered bone remodelling. In addition, the vestibule consists of huge volumes of calcium (CaCO3) in the form of otoconia crystals and alteration in functioning calcium levels could, therefore, result in vestibular symptoms. Thus, the present study aimed at compiling information from various studies on assessment of auditory or vestibular systems in individuals with reduced bone mineral density (BMD). A total of 1977 articles were searched using various databases and 19 full-length articles which reported auditory and vestibular outcomes in persons with low BMD were reviewed. An intricate relationship between altered BMD and audio-vestibular function was evident from the studies; nonetheless, how one aspect of hearing or balance affects the other is not clear. Significant effect of reduced bone mineral density could probably be due to the metabolic changes at the level of cochlea, secondary to alterations in BMD. One could also conclude that sympathetic remodelling is associated with vestibular problems in individual; however, whether vestibular problems lead to altered BMD cannot be ascertained with confidence. The studies reviewed in the article provide an evidence of possible involvement of hearing and vestibular system abnormalities in individuals with reduced bone mineral density. Hence, the assessment protocol for these individuals must include hearing and balance evaluation as mandatory for planning appropriate management.

  11. Vestibular Stimulation for Stress Management in Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sai Sailesh; Rajagopalan, Archana; Mukkadan, Joseph Kurien

    2016-02-01

    Although several methods are developed to alleviate stress among college students, logistic limitations in adopting them have limited their utility. Hence, we aimed to test a very practical approach to alleviate stress among college students by achieving vestibular stimulation using swings. In this study 60 male and female participants were randomly assigned into vestibular stimulation or control groups. Depression, anxiety, stress scores, sleep quality, heart rate, blood pressure, Autonomic functions, respiratory, haematological, cognitive function, Quality of life were recorded before and after 1(st), 7(th), 14(th), 21(st), 28(th) days of vestibular stimulation. STAI S and STAI T scores were significantly improved on day 28(th) following vestibular stimulation. Diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure were significantly decreased and remained within normal limits in vestibular group on day 28(th) following vestibular stimulation. Postural fall in blood pressure was significantly improved on day 14 onwards, following vestibular stimulation. Respiratory rate was significantly improved on day 7 onwards, following vestibular stimulation. PSQI sleep disturbance, PSQI sleep latency, PSQI total score and bleeding time was significantly improved following vestibular stimulation. Our study supports the adoption of vestibular stimulation for stress management. Hence, placement of swings in college campuses must be considered, which may be a simple approach to alleviate stress among college students.

  12. Vestibular Findings in Military Band Musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Exposure to music is the subject of many studies because it is related to an individual's professional and social activities. Objectives Evaluate the vestibular behavior in military band musicians. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. Nineteen musicians with ages ranging from 21 to 46 years were evaluated (average = 33.7 years and standard deviation = 7.2 years. They underwent anamnesis and vestibular and otolaryngologic evaluation through vectoelectronystagmography. Results The most evident otoneurologic symptoms in the anamnesis were tinnitus (84.2%, hearing difficulties (47.3%, dizziness (36.8%, headache (26.3%, intolerance to intense sounds (21.0%, and earache (15.7%. Seven musicians (37.0% showed vestibular abnormality, which occurred in the caloric test. The abnormality was more prevalent in the peripheral vestibular system, and there was a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular disorders. Conclusion The alteration in vestibular exam occurred in the caloric test (37.0%. There were changes in the prevalence of peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative vestibular dysfunction. Dizziness was the most significant symptom for the vestibular test in correlation with neurotologic symptoms. The present study made it possible to verify the importance of the labyrinthine test, which demonstrates that this population should be better studied because the systematic exposure to high sound pressure levels may cause major vestibular alterations.

  13. Vestibular findings in military band musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Gueber, Crislaine; Silva, Thanara Pruner da; Liberalesso, Paulo Breno Noronha; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Faryniuk, João Henrique; Marques, Jair Mendes; Jurkiewicz, Ari Leon

    2014-04-01

    Introduction Exposure to music is the subject of many studies because it is related to an individual's professional and social activities. Objectives Evaluate the vestibular behavior in military band musicians. Methods A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed. Nineteen musicians with ages ranging from 21 to 46 years were evaluated (average = 33.7 years and standard deviation = 7.2 years). They underwent anamnesis and vestibular and otolaryngologic evaluation through vectoelectronystagmography. Results The most evident otoneurologic symptoms in the anamnesis were tinnitus (84.2%), hearing difficulties (47.3%), dizziness (36.8%), headache (26.3%), intolerance to intense sounds (21.0%), and earache (15.7%). Seven musicians (37.0%) showed vestibular abnormality, which occurred in the caloric test. The abnormality was more prevalent in the peripheral vestibular system, and there was a predominance of irritative peripheral vestibular disorders. Conclusion The alteration in vestibular exam occurred in the caloric test (37.0%). There were changes in the prevalence of peripheral vestibular system with a predominance of irritative vestibular dysfunction. Dizziness was the most significant symptom for the vestibular test in correlation with neurotologic symptoms. The present study made it possible to verify the importance of the labyrinthine test, which demonstrates that this population should be better studied because the systematic exposure to high sound pressure levels may cause major vestibular alterations.

  14. Mechanisms of vestibular compensation: recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutia, Mayank B

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews recent studies that have provided experimental evidence for mechanisms of neural and synaptic plasticity in the brain during vestibular compensation, the behavioural recovery that takes place following peripheral vestibular lesions. First, experimental evidence from animal studies indicates that an unbalanced vestibular commissural system is a fundamental cause of the syndrome of oculomotor and postural deficits after unilateral labyrinthectomy. Second, recent studies suggest the involvement of both GABAergic and glycinergic commissural neurons. In addition gliosis and reactive neurogenesis in the ipsilesional vestibular nuclei appear to be involved in compensation. Third, evidence from cerebellar-deficient mutant mice demonstrates an important role for cerebellum-dependent motor learning in the longer term. Factors such as stress steroids and neuromodulators such as histamine influence these plasticity mechanisms and may thus contribute to the development of compensation in patients. Vestibular compensation involves multiple, parallel plastic processes at various sites in the brain. Experimental evidence suggests that adaptive changes in the sensitivity of ipsilesional vestibular neurons to the inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and glycine, changes in the electrophysiological excitability of vestibular neurons, changes in the inhibitory control of the brainstem vestibular networks by the cerebellum, gliosis and neurogenesis in the ipsilesional vestibular nuclei, and activity-dependent reorganization of the synaptic connectivity of the vestibular pathways are mechanisms involved in compensation.

  15. The Vestibular System: A Newly Identified Regulator of Bone Homeostasis Acting Through the Sympathetic Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignaux, G; Besnard, S; Denise, P; Elefteriou, F

    2015-08-01

    The vestibular system is a small bilateral structure located in the inner ear, known as the organ of balance and spatial orientation. It senses head orientation and motion, as well as body motion in the three dimensions of our environment. It is also involved in non-motor functions such as postural control of blood pressure. These regulations are mediated via anatomical projections from vestibular nuclei to brainstem autonomic centers and are involved in the maintenance of cardiovascular function via sympathetic nerves. Age-associated dysfunction of the vestibular organ contributes to an increased incidence of falls, whereas muscle atrophy, reduced physical activity, cellular aging, and gonadal deficiency contribute to bone loss. Recent studies in rodents suggest that vestibular dysfunction might also alter bone remodeling and mass more directly, by affecting the outflow of sympathetic nervous signals to the skeleton and other tissues. This review will summarize the findings supporting the influence of vestibular signals on bone homeostasis, and the potential clinical relevance of these findings.

  16. Towards the reconstruction of 3D orientation information from direction-sensitive X-ray projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malecki, Andreas; Biernath, Thomas; Bech, Martin; Potdevin, Guillaume; Pfeiffer, Franz [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Physics (E17); Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Inst. of Medical Engineering (IMETUM); Lasser, Tobias [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Chair for Computer Aided Medical Procedures and Augmented Reality (CAMP)

    2011-07-01

    For medical in vivo applications the resolution of a computed tomography (CT) scan is limited by the acceptable patient received dose. Thus it does not allow to image microstructures in the body. Novel X-ray contrast mechanisms provide two additional signal channels, phase contrast and dark-field contrast. In this study we report on our progress to use the dark-field signal to gain micro-structural information by reconstructing a tensor field describing the local sample scattering power. For that purpose we developed an experimental setup composed of an X-ray tube, a Talbot Lau interferometer, an Euler cradle to orient the sample and a detector. This setup allows a direct measurement of the sample scattering strength in all directions. The reconstruction of several test samples is done using filtered back-projection or the algebraic reconstruction technique. The definition of the physical model behind the reconstructed quantity is obtained from a second ansatz by using 3D density map (micro-CT) data as an input to a computer simulation of the whole setup. We consider this project important for diagnostic improvements in the case of bone pathologies. (orig.)

  17. Medial vestibular connections with the hypocretin (orexin) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Seth S.; Blanchard, Jane; Morin, Lawrence P.

    2005-01-01

    The mammalian medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) receives input from all vestibular endorgans and provides extensive projections to the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated projections from the MVe to the circadian rhythm system. In addition, there are known projections from the MVe to regions considered to be involved in sleep and arousal. In this study, afferent and efferent subcortical connectivity of the medial vestibular nucleus of the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) was evaluated using cholera toxin subunit-B (retrograde), Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin (anterograde), and pseudorabies virus (transneuronal retrograde) tract-tracing techniques. The results demonstrate MVe connections with regions mediating visuomotor and postural control, as previously observed in other mammals. The data also identify extensive projections from the MVe to regions mediating arousal and sleep-related functions, most of which receive immunohistochemically identified projections from the lateral hypothalamic hypocretin (orexin) neurons. These include the locus coeruleus, dorsal and pedunculopontine tegmental nuclei, dorsal raphe, and lateral preoptic area. The MVe itself receives a projection from hypocretin cells. CTB tracing demonstrated reciprocal connections between the MVe and most brain areas receiving MVe efferents. Virus tracing confirmed and extended the MVe afferent connections identified with CTB and additionally demonstrated transneuronal connectivity with the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the medial habenular nucleus. These anatomical data indicate that the vestibular system has access to a broad array of neural functions not typically associated with visuomotor, balance, or equilibrium, and that the MVe is likely to receive information from many of the same regions to which it projects.

  18. Postural and spatial orientation driven by virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshner, Emily A; Kenyon, Robert V

    2009-01-01

    Orientation in space is a perceptual variable intimately related to postural orientation that relies on visual and vestibular signals to correctly identify our position relative to vertical. We have combined a virtual environment with motion of a posture platform to produce visual-vestibular conditions that allow us to explore how motion of the visual environment may affect perception of vertical and, consequently, affect postural stabilizing responses. In order to involve a higher level perceptual process, we needed to create a visual environment that was immersive. We did this by developing visual scenes that possess contextual information using color, texture, and 3-dimensional structures. Update latency of the visual scene was close to physiological latencies of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Using this system we found that even when healthy young adults stand and walk on a stable support surface, they are unable to ignore wide field of view visual motion and they adapt their postural orientation to the parameters of the visual motion. Balance training within our environment elicited measurable rehabilitation outcomes. Thus we believe that virtual environments can serve as a clinical tool for evaluation and training of movement in situations that closely reflect conditions found in the physical world.

  19. Differential Involvement during Latent Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Infection of the Superior and Inferior Divisions of the Vestibular Ganglia: Implications for Vestibular Neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Anja; Sinicina, Inga; Horn, Anja K. E.; Brandt, Thomas; Strupp, Michael; Hüfner, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Controversy still surrounds both the etiology and pathophysiology of vestibular neuritis (VN). Especially uncertain is why the superior vestibular nerve (SVN) is more frequently affected than the inferior vestibular nerve (IVN), which is partially or totally spared. To address this question, we developed an improved method for preparing human vestibular ganglia (VG) and nerve. Subsequently, macro- and microanatomical as well as PCR studies were performed on 38 human ganglia from 38 individuals. The SVN was 2.4 mm longer than the IVN, and in 65% of the cases, the IVN ran in two separate bony canals, which was not the case for the SVN. Anastomoses between the facial and cochlear nerves were more common for the SVN (14/38 and 9/38, respectively) than for the IVN (7/38 and 2/38, respectively). Using reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), we found only a few latently herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1)-infected VG (18.4%). In cases of two separate neuronal fields, infected neurons were located in the superior part only. In summary, these PCR and micro- and macroanatomical studies provide possible explanations for the high frequency of SVN infection in vestibular neuritis. IMPORTANCE Vestibular neuritis is known to affect the superior part of the vestibular nerve more frequently than the inferior part. The reason for this clinical phenomenon remains unclear. Anatomical differences may play a role, or if latent HSV-1 infection is assumed, the etiology may be due to the different distribution of the infection. To shed further light on this subject, we conducted different macro- and microanatomical studies. We also assessed the presence of HSV-1 in VG and in different sections of the VG. Our findings add new information on the macro- and microanatomy of the VG as well as the pathophysiology of vestibular neuritis. We also show that latent HSV-1 infection of VG neurons is less frequent than previously reported. PMID:28446678

  20. Distinct information processing characteristics in dyslexia and ADHD during a covert orienting task : An event-related potential study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhar, Monica; Been, Pieter H.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Althaus, Monika

    Objective: A visuo-spatial orienting task was used to investigate the individual and joint contribution of the presence of dyslexia and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to information processing. Methods: Sixteen control, 17 dyslexic, 16 ADHD, and 15 comorbid adults performed the

  1. The influence of task relevance and stimulus information on habituation of the visual and the skin conductance orienting reaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbaten, M.N.; Woestenburg, J.C.; Sjouw, W.

    This study investigated the hypothesis that task-relevant stimuli induce orienting reactions (ORs) that are stronger and more resistant to habituation when their information content is high than when it is low. Task-relevance was given to the stimuli by rewarding the subjects for correct recognition

  2. Efficacy of vestibular rehabilitation on chronic unilateral vestibular dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Oya; Topuz, Bülent; Ardiç, F Necdet; Sarhuş, Merih; Ogmen, Gülsen; Ardiç, Füsun

    2004-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of vestibular rehabilitation exercises on patients with chronic unilateral vestibular dysfunction. Prospective study. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinic and Otolaryngology Clinic of a tertiary referral hospital. One-hundred and twenty-five patients with unilateral chronic vestibular dysfunction were included in the study. Eight-week, two-staged (clinic and home) vestibular rehabilitation programme with components of Cawthorne-Cooksey and Norre exercises was applied. Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were completed three times (at the beginning, end of the second week and end of the treatment). Data for 112 patients in the first stage and 93 patients in the second stage were evaluated because of insufficient compliance of the other patients. The mean DHI score was decreased from 50.42 +/- 24.12 points to 21.21 +/- 15.97 points (p < 0.001) at the end of first two weeks, and to 19.93 +/- 19.33 points at the end of the whole treatment. The mean VAS score was decreased from 5.87 +/- 2.27 to 2.02 +/- 1.75 (p < 0.001) at the end of second week, and to 1.51 +/- 1.29 at the end of eighth week. In respect to both VAS and DHI scores, improvement was noted in 67 patients (77.4%). Age, gender and disability level had no predictive value about therapy outcome. There was a fast recovery in the supervised exercise session, whereas there was no significant difference in the home exercise session. These findings suggest that either supervised exercise is better than home exercise or that 10 supervised sessions are sufficient to get the end result.

  3. Physical therapy for persons with vestibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Susan L; Alghwiri, Alia; Alghadir, Ahmad

    2015-02-01

    Persons with vestibular disorders experience symptoms of dizziness and balance dysfunction, resulting in falls, as well as impairments of daily life. Various interventions provided by physical therapists have been shown to decrease dizziness and improve postural control. In the present review, we will focus on the role of physical therapy in the management of vestibular symptoms in patients with peripheral and central vestibular disorders. Persons with both acute and chronic central and peripheral vestibular disorders improve with vestibular rehabilitation. New interventions during the past 5 years have been designed to enhance recovery from problems with balance and dizziness. Examples include the use of virtual reality, vibrotactile feedback, optokinetic flow, YouTube videos, and innovative methods to change the gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Patients with central and peripheral vestibular disorders benefit from physical therapy interventions. Advances in physical therapy interventions include new methods to stimulate adaptation of the VOR and the vestibulospinal systems.

  4. Motor development after vestibular deprivation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, H C; Gramsbergen, A

    1998-07-01

    This review summarizes the postural development in the rat and the influences of vestibular deprivation from the 5th postnatal day on this development. Vestibular deprivation leads to a delay in motor development. Most probably this delay is caused by a delay in the development of postural control, which is characterized by a retarded EMG development in postural muscles. Our results indicate that the developing nervous system cannot compensate for a vestibular deficit during the early phase of ontogeny.

  5. Changing perspective: The role of vestibular signals

    OpenAIRE

    Deroualle, Diane; Borel, Liliane; Deveze, Arnaud; Lopez, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Social interactions depend on mechanisms such as the ability to take another person's viewpoint, i.e. visuo-spatial perspective taking. However, little is known about the sensorimotor mechanisms underpinning perspective taking. Because vestibular signals play roles in mental rotation and spatial cognition tasks and because damage to the vestibular cortex can disturb egocentric perspective, vestibular signals stand as important candidates for the sensorimotor foundations of perspective taking....

  6. Large basolateral processes on type II hair cells comprise a novel processing unit in mammalian vestibular organs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Rémy; Pickett, Sarah B.; Nguyen, Tot Bui; Stone, Jennifer S.

    2014-01-01

    Sensory receptors in the vestibular system (hair cells) encode head movements and drive central motor reflexes that control gaze, body movements, and body orientation. In mammals, type I and II vestibular hair cells are defined by their shape, contacts with vestibular afferent nerves, and membrane conductance. Here, we describe unique morphological features of type II vestibular hair cells in mature rodents (mice and gerbils) and bats. These features are cytoplasmic processes that extend laterally from the hair cell’s base and project under type I hair cells. Closer analysis of adult mouse utricles demonstrated that the basolateral processes of type II hair cells range in shape, size, and branching, with the longest processes extending 3–4 hair cell widths. The hair cell basolateral processes synapse upon vestibular afferent nerves and receive inputs from vestibular efferent nerves. Further, some basolateral processes make physical contacts with the processes of other type II hair cells, forming some sort of network amongst type II hair cells. Basolateral processes are rare in perinatal mice and do not attain their mature form until 3–6 weeks of age. These observations demonstrate that basolateral processes are significant signaling regions of type II vestibular hair cells, and they suggest type II hair cells may directly communicate with each other, which has not been described in vertebrates. PMID:24825750

  7. Prosthetic implantation of the human vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golub, Justin S; Ling, Leo; Nie, Kaibao; Nowack, Amy; Shepherd, Sarah J; Bierer, Steven M; Jameyson, Elyse; Kaneko, Chris R S; Phillips, James O; Rubinstein, Jay T

    2014-01-01

    A functional vestibular prosthesis can be implanted in human such that electrical stimulation of each semicircular canal produces canal-specific eye movements while preserving vestibular and auditory function. A number of vestibular disorders could be treated with prosthetic stimulation of the vestibular end organs. We have previously demonstrated in rhesus monkeys that a vestibular neurostimulator, based on the Nucleus Freedom cochlear implant, can produce canal-specific electrically evoked eye movements while preserving auditory and vestibular function. An investigational device exemption has been obtained from the FDA to study the feasibility of treating uncontrolled Ménière's disease with the device. The UW/Nucleus vestibular implant was implanted in the perilymphatic space adjacent to the three semicircular canal ampullae of a human subject with uncontrolled Ménière's disease. Preoperative and postoperative vestibular and auditory function was assessed. Electrically evoked eye movements were measured at 2 time points postoperatively. Implantation of all semicircular canals was technically feasible. Horizontal canal and auditory function were largely, but not totally, lost. Electrode stimulation in 2 of 3 canals resulted in canal-appropriate eye movements. Over time, stimulation thresholds increased. Prosthetic implantation of the semicircular canals in humans is technically feasible. Electrical stimulation resulted in canal-specific eye movements, although thresholds increased over time. Preservation of native auditory and vestibular function, previously observed in animals, was not demonstrated in a single subject with advanced Ménière's disease.

  8. Vestibular insights into cognition and psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurvich, Caroline; Maller, Jerome J; Lithgow, Brian; Haghgooie, Saman; Kulkarni, Jayashri

    2013-11-06

    The vestibular system has traditionally been thought of as a balance apparatus; however, accumulating research suggests an association between vestibular function and psychiatric and cognitive symptoms, even when balance is measurably unaffected. There are several brain regions that are implicated in both vestibular pathways and psychiatric disorders. The present review examines the anatomical associations between the vestibular system and various psychiatric disorders. Despite the lack of direct evidence for vestibular pathology in the key psychiatric disorders selected for this review, there is a substantial body of literature implicating the vestibular system in each of the selected psychiatric disorders. The second part of this review provides complimentary evidence showing the link between vestibular dysfunction and vestibular stimulation upon cognitive and psychiatric symptoms. In summary, emerging research suggests the vestibular system can be considered a potential window for exploring brain function beyond that of maintenance of balance, and into areas of cognitive, affective and psychiatric symptomology. Given the paucity of biological and diagnostic markers in psychiatry, novel avenues to explore brain function in psychiatric disorders are of particular interest and warrant further exploration. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vestibular activation, smooth pursuit tracking, and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A M; Pivik, R T

    1985-04-01

    Pursuit tracking and vestibular activation procedures were combined in an investigation to determine if smooth pursuit tracking deficits could be related to abnormalities of visual-vestibular interaction in psychiatric patients. In actively psychotic patients, but not in comparison groups of schizophrenic outpatients with remitted symptomatology or normal controls, a significant failure of visual fixation to suppress caloric nystagmus was related to a higher incidence of disordered tracking during both baseline and postirrigation conditions. Other vestibular irregularities including dysrhythmia and reduced fast phase velocity were observed in these same patients. The results are supportive of a central deficit in visual-vestibular interaction that may contribute to pursuit tracking deficits in psychosis.

  10. The role of the vestibular assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, J S; FitzGerald, J E; Bath, A P

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the role of vestibular assessment in the management of the dizzy patient. A retrospective review of case notes and vestibular assessment reports of 100 consecutive patients referred for vestibular assessment. Sixty of the 100 patients had an abnormal vestibular assessment. Eleven patients had benign paroxysmal positional vertigo as the sole diagnosis, of whom nine had not had a Dix-Hallpike manoeuvre performed before referral. Of patients referred for vestibular rehabilitation, 76 per cent had an abnormal electrophysiological assessment. After vestibular assessment, 35 patients were discharged with no further follow-up appointments in the ENT department. All patients should have a Dix-Hallpike manoeuvre performed prior to referral for vestibular assessment. The majority of our patients undergoing vestibular rehabilitation had abnormal test results, although a significant number did not. Prior to referral, it is worth considering the implication of a 'normal' and 'abnormal' result for the management of the patient. Careful consideration should be given to the development of dedicated dizziness clinics run by practitioners with a specialist interest in balance disorders, in order to ensure appropriate requests for vestibular assessment.

  11. Development of a Statistical Model for the Prediction of Common Vestibular Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, David R; Tarima, Sergey; Erbe, Christy; Miles, Alexia

    2016-04-01

    Treatment of patients with vestibular disorders can be complex, requires lengthy clinic visit time, and uses greater clinical resources for diagnosis. A pre-encounter intake questionnaire may predict the most common disorders, allowing for more efficient allocation of resources and use of clinicians. To develop a statistical model for predicting vestibular diagnoses, prior to clinical evaluation, from an intake questionnaire. Retrospective review of 414 consecutive new vestibular patient intake questionnaires (September 2012 through January 2014) and associated medical records with performance of logistic regression analyses and development of predictive models (July 2013 through May 2015). Use of a vestibular intake questionnaire for triaging of new patients with complaints of dizziness. Predictors for the diagnosis of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), Ménière's disease, and vestibular migraine. Of the 414 questionnaires analyzed, 381 (92%) had clinician information necessary to define a final diagnosis. Patients were 34% male and had a mean (range) age of 57 (19-91) years. Of the diagnoses, 183 (48%) were ear related (including 103 BPPV and 49 Meniere's disease), 141 (37%) neurological (including 109 vestibular migraine), 36 (9%) medical, 8 (2%) of psychological origin, 46 (12%) of unknown etiology, and 33 (9%) other causes. The diagnosis of BPPV could be predicted from 4 variables with a sensitivity of 79% and specificity of 65%. The diagnosis of Ménière's disease could be predicted from 5 variables with a sensitivity of 81% and specificity of 85%. The diagnosis of vestibular migraine could be predicted from 4 variables with a sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 59%. A pre-encounter history questionnaire can provide useful diagnostic information for common vestibular disorders. This can help direct appointment scheduling to improve clinical efficiency, time to intervention, and use of resources. Further refinement may enable the use of shorter

  12. Changing perspective: The role of vestibular signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroualle, Diane; Borel, Liliane; Devèze, Arnaud; Lopez, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Social interactions depend on mechanisms such as the ability to take another person's viewpoint, i.e. visuo-spatial perspective taking. However, little is known about the sensorimotor mechanisms underpinning perspective taking. Because vestibular signals play roles in mental rotation and spatial cognition tasks and because damage to the vestibular cortex can disturb egocentric perspective, vestibular signals stand as important candidates for the sensorimotor foundations of perspective taking. Yet, no study merged natural full-body vestibular stimulations and explicit visuo-spatial perspective taking tasks in virtual environments. In Experiment 1, we combined natural vestibular stimulation on a rotatory chair with virtual reality to test how vestibular signals are processed to simulate the viewpoint of a distant avatar. While they were rotated, participants tossed a ball to a virtual character from the viewpoint of a distant avatar. Our results showed that vestibular signals influence perspective taking in a direction-specific way: participants were faster when their physical body rotated in the same direction as the mental rotation needed to take the avatar's viewpoint. In Experiment 2, participants realized 3D object mental rotations, which did not involve perspective taking, during the same whole-body vestibular stimulation. Our results demonstrated that vestibular stimulation did not affect 3D object mental rotations. Altogether, these data indicate that vestibular signals have a direction-specific influence on visuo-spatial perspective taking (self-centered mental imagery), but not a general effect on mental imagery. Findings from this study suggest that vestibular signals contribute to one of the most crucial mechanisms of social cognition: understanding others' actions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effectiveness of Self-efficacy Promoting Vestibular Rehabilitation Program for Patients with Vestibular Hypofunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Choi-Kwon, Smi

    2016-10-01

    In this study an examination was done of the effect of self-efficacy promoting vestibular rehabilitation (S-VR) on dizziness, exercise selfefficacy, adherence to vestibular rehabilitation (VR), subjective and objective vestibular function, vestibular compensation and the recurrence of dizziness in patients with vestibular hypofunction. This was a randomized controlled study. Data were collected 3 times at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks after beginning the intervention. Outcome measures were level of dizziness, exercise self-efficacy, and level of adherence to VR. Subjective and objective vestibular function, vestibular compensation and the recurrence of dizziness were also obtained. Data were analyzed using Windows SPSS 21.0 program. After 4 weeks of S-VR, there was no difference between the groups for dizziness, subjective and objective vestibular functions. However, exercise self-efficacy and adherence to VR were higher in the experimental group than in the control group. After 8 weeks of S-VR, dizziness (p=.018) exercise self-efficacy (pVR (pVR is effective in reducing dizziness, and improving exercise self-efficacy, subjective vestibular function and adherence to VR. Objective vestibular function and vestibular compensation were also improved in the experimental group at the end of 8 weeks of S-VR.

  14. [Vestibular influences on human locomotion: results obtained using galvanic vestibular stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolbkov, Iu K; Gerasimenko, Iu P

    2014-06-01

    Locomotion is the most important mode of our movement in space. The role of the vestibular system during human locomotion is not well studied, mainly due to problems associated with its isolation stimulation. It is difficult to stimulate this system in isolation during locomotion because the real movement of the head to activate the vestibular end-organs inevitably leads to the activation of other sensory inputs. Galvanic stimulation is not a natural way to stimulate the vestibular system, but it has the advantage providing an isolated stimulation of the vestibular inputs. This technique is relatively novel in the examination of vestibular contributions during human locomotion. In our review we consider the current data regarding the effect of vestibular signals on human locomotion by using galvanic vestibular stimulation.

  15. Reviewing the Role of the Efferent Vestibular System in Motor and Vestibular Circuits

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    Miranda A. Mathews

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Efferent circuits within the nervous system carry nerve impulses from the central nervous system to sensory end organs. Vestibular efferents originate in the brainstem and terminate on hair cells and primary afferent fibers in the semicircular canals and otolith organs within the inner ear. The function of this efferent vestibular system (EVS in vestibular and motor coordination though, has proven difficult to determine, and remains under debate. We consider current literature that implicate corollary discharge from the spinal cord through the efferent vestibular nucleus (EVN, and hint at a potential role in overall vestibular plasticity and compensation. Hypotheses range from differentiating between passive and active movements at the level of vestibular afferents, to EVS activation under specific behavioral and environmental contexts such as arousal, predation, and locomotion. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of EVS circuitry, its effects on vestibular hair cell and primary afferent activity, and discuss its potential functional roles.

  16. Reviewing the Role of the Efferent Vestibular System in Motor and Vestibular Circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Miranda A; Camp, Aaron J; Murray, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Efferent circuits within the nervous system carry nerve impulses from the central nervous system to sensory end organs. Vestibular efferents originate in the brainstem and terminate on hair cells and primary afferent fibers in the semicircular canals and otolith organs within the inner ear. The function of this efferent vestibular system (EVS) in vestibular and motor coordination though, has proven difficult to determine, and remains under debate. We consider current literature that implicate corollary discharge from the spinal cord through the efferent vestibular nucleus (EVN), and hint at a potential role in overall vestibular plasticity and compensation. Hypotheses range from differentiating between passive and active movements at the level of vestibular afferents, to EVS activation under specific behavioral and environmental contexts such as arousal, predation, and locomotion. In this review, we summarize current knowledge of EVS circuitry, its effects on vestibular hair cell and primary afferent activity, and discuss its potential functional roles.

  17. The Oculus Rift: A cost-effective tool for studying visual-vestibular interactions in self-motion perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juno eKim

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For years now, virtual reality devices have been applied in the field of vision science in an attempt to improve our understanding of perceptual principles underlying the experience of self-motion. Some of this research has been concerned with exploring factors involved in the visually-induced illusory perception of self-motion, known as vection. We examined the usefulness of the cost-effective Oculus Rift in generating vection in seated observers. This device has the capacity to display optic flow in world coordinates by compensating for tracked changes in 3D head orientation. We measured vection strength in three conditions of visual compensation for head movement: compensated, uncompensated, and inversely compensated. During presentation of optic flow, the observer was instructed to make periodic head oscillations (+/- 22 deg horizontal excursions at approximately 0.53 Hz. We found that vection was best in the compensated condition, and was weakest in the inversely compensated condition. Surprisingly, vection was always better in passive viewing conditions, compared with conditions where active head rotations were performed. These findings suggest that vection is highly dependent on interactions between visual, vestibular and proprioceptive information, and may be highly sensitive to limitations of temporal lag in visual-vestibular coupling using this system.

  18. The Oculus Rift: a cost-effective tool for studying visual-vestibular interactions in self-motion perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Juno; Chung, Charles Y L; Nakamura, Shinji; Palmisano, Stephen; Khuu, Sieu K

    2015-01-01

    For years now, virtual reality devices have been applied in the field of vision science in an attempt to improve our understanding of perceptual principles underlying the experience of self-motion. Some of this research has been concerned with exploring factors involved in the visually-induced illusory perception of self-motion, known as vection. We examined the usefulness of the cost-effective Oculus Rift in generating vection in seated observers. This device has the capacity to display optic flow in world coordinates by compensating for tracked changes in 3D head orientation. We measured vection strength in three conditions of visual compensation for head movement: compensated, uncompensated, and inversely compensated. During presentation of optic flow, the observer was instructed to make periodic head oscillations (±22° horizontal excursions at approximately 0.53 Hz). We found that vection was best in the compensated condition, and was weakest in the inversely compensated condition. Surprisingly, vection was always better in passive viewing conditions, compared with conditions where active head rotations were performed. These findings suggest that vection is highly dependent on interactions between visual, vestibular and proprioceptive information, and may be highly sensitive to limitations of temporal lag in visual-vestibular coupling using this system.

  19. Anatomical and Physiological Considerations in Vestibular Dysfunction and Compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Sherri M.; Jones, Timothy A.; Mills, Kristal N.; Gaines, G Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Sensory information from the vestibular, visual, and somatosensory/proprioceptive systems are integrated in the brain in complex ways to produce a final motor output to muscle groups for maintaining gaze, head and body posture, and controlling static and dynamic balance. The balance system is complex, which can make differential diagnosis of dizziness quite challenging. On the other hand, this complex system is organized anatomically in a variety of pathways and some of these pathways have be...

  20. Adding sexual orientation to New York State's Human Rights Law: initial information about implementation and effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Roddrick

    2009-01-01

    While previous research has focused on measuring employment discrimination based on sexual orientation and establishing the need for laws that protect against such discrimination, very little research has evaluated the effectiveness of current nondiscrimination laws. This exploratory research considers the addition of sexual orientation to New York State's Human Rights Law as it relates to employment. In an effort to better understand the implementation and overall effectiveness of the law, attorneys in New York who specialize in employment law were surveyed. The survey results, based on the responses of 34 attorneys, provide insights into how well the law has initially protected individuals from discrimination, and how well it has provided redress for claimants of employment discrimination. The initial results of the research suggest that employees mostly seek redress for a hostile work environment, that potential claimants are concerned with confidentiality and retaliation, and that more training for employees is needed to combat employment discrimination based on sexual orientation.

  1. Avaliação vestibular no tremor essencial Vestibular evaluation in the essential tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Simone Zeigelboim

    2008-01-01

    members and neither any lowering of her auditory sharpness nor buzzing. The patient informed that one of her children suffered hand tremors two years ago and also that both grandparents had Parkinson’s disease. The following procedures were performed: anamnesis, otological inspection and vestibular evaluation through vectoelectronystagmography. RESULTS: the following findings from the vestibular exam were observed: positioning nystagmus with central characteristics, spontaneous nystagmus with the eyes open, semi-spontaneous nystagmus of the multiple and hyperreflexia type in readings absolute to the caloric test at 20ºC (RE and LE. CONCLUSION: the vestibular exam was shown to be sensitive and important for garnering alterations in tests that suggested involvement of the central nervous system.

  2. Pre-Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Process-oriented Information Systems in Healthcare (ProHealth'07)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reichert, M.U.; Peleg, M.; Lenz, R.

    These pre-proceedings contain the presentations given at the 1st Int'l Workshop on Process-oriented Information Systems in Healthcare (ProHealth'07). Formal proceedings will be published in Springer's LNCS series. Process-oriented information systems have been demanded for more than 20 years and

  3. Vestibular Function and Activities of Daily Living

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    Aisha Harun MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vestibular dysfunction increases with age and is associated with mobility difficulties and fall risk in older individuals. We evaluated whether vestibular function influences the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs. Method: We analyzed the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of adults aged older than 40 years ( N = 5,017. Vestibular function was assessed with the Modified Romberg test. We evaluated the association between vestibular function and difficulty level in performing specific basic and instrumental ADLs, and total number of ADL impairments. Results: Vestibular dysfunction was associated with significantly higher odds of difficulty with nine ADLs, most strongly with difficulty managing finances (odds ratio [ OR ] = 2.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.18, 5.90]. In addition, vestibular dysfunction was associated with a significantly greater number of ADL impairments (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.09, 0.33]. This effect size was comparable with the influence of heavy smoking (β = .21, 95% CI = [0.06, 0.36] and hypertension (β = .10, 95% CI = [0.02, 0.18] on the number of ADL impairments. Conclusion: Vestibular dysfunction significantly influences ADL difficulty, most strongly with a cognitive rather than mobility-based task. These findings underscore the importance of vestibular inputs for both cognitive and physical daily activities.

  4. Motor development after vestibular deprivation in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geisler, HC; Gramsbergen, A

    This review summarizes the postural development in the rat and the influences of vestibular deprivation from the 5th postnatal day on this development. Vestibular deprivation leads to a delay in motor development. Most probably this delay is caused by a delay in the development of postural control,

  5. Effects of Vestibular Loss on Orthostatic Responses to Tilts in the Pitch Plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Scott J.; Serrador, Jorge M.; Black, F. Owen; Rupert,Angus H.; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which vestibular loss might impair orthostatic responses to passive tilts in the pitch plane in human subjects. Data were obtained from six subjects having chronic bilateral vestibular loss and six healthy individuals matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Vestibular loss was assessed with a comprehensive battery including dynamic posturography, vestibulo-ocular and optokinetic reflexes, vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, and ocular counterrolling. Head up tilt tests were conducted using a motorized two-axis table that allowed subjects to be tilted in the pitch plane from either a supine or prone body orientation at a slow rate (8 deg/s). The sessions consisted of three tilts, each consisting of20 min rest in a horizontal position, tilt to 80 deg upright for 10 min, and then return to the horizontal position for 5 min. The tilts were performed in darkness (supine and prone) or in light (supine only). Background music was used to mask auditory orientation cues. Autonomic measurements included beat-to-beat recordings of blood pressure (Finapres), heart rate (ECG), cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), end tidal CO2, respiratory rate and volume (Respritrace), and stroke volume (impedance cardiography). For both patients and control subjects, cerebral blood flow appeared to exhibit the most rapid adjustment following transient changes in posture. Outside of a greater cerebral hypoperfusion in patients during the later stages of tilt, responses did not differ dramatically between the vestibular loss and control subjects, or between tilts performed in light and dark room conditions. Thus, with the 'exception of cerebrovascular regulation, we conclude that orthostatic responses during slow postural tilts are not substantially impaired in humans following chronic loss of vestibular function, a result that might reflect compensation by nonvisual graviceptor

  6. Investigations of the Effects of Altered Vestibular System Function on Hindlimb Anti-Gravity Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Mary Sue

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to different gravitational environments, both the microgravity of spaceflight and the hypergravity of centrifugation, result in altered vestibulo-spinal function which can be reversed by reacclimation to earth gravity (2). Control of orientation, posture, and locomotion are functions of the vestibular system which are altered by changes in gravitational environment. Not only is the vestibular system involved with coordination and proprioception, but the gravity sensing portion of the vestibular system also plays a major role in maintaining muscle tone through projections to spinal cord motoneurons that control anti-gravity muscles. I have been involved with investigations of several aspects of the link between vestibular inputs and muscle morphology and function during my work with Dr. Nancy Daunton this summer and the previous summer. We have prepared a manuscript for submission (4) to Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine based on work that I performed last summer in Dr. Daunton's lab. Techniques developed for that project will be utilized in subsequent experiments begun in the summer of 1998. I have been involved with the development of a pilot project to test the effects of vestibular galvanic stimulation (VGS) on anti-gravity muscles and in another project testing the effects of the ototoxic drug streptomycin on the otolith-spinal reflex and anti-gravity muscle morphology.

  7. A Learning Research Informed Design and Evaluation of a Web-Enhanced Object Oriented Programming Seminar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgantaki, Stavroula C.; Retalis, Symeon D.

    2007-01-01

    "Object-Oriented Programming" subject is included in the ACM Curriculum Guidelines for Undergraduate and Graduate Degree Programs in Computer Science as well as in Curriculum for K-12 Computer Science. In a few research studies learning problems and difficulties have been recorded, and therefore, specific pedagogical guidelines and…

  8. Influence of informational technologies on physical background of students engaged futsal in sport-oriented physical education

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    Vladimir Temchenko

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the influence of usage informational technologies in sport-oriented physical education on physical background level of students engaged futsal. Material and Methods: in the research students (young man – n=40 of 18–20 year old were engaged. Methods: Analysis of literature sources formatted pedagogical experiment, maths statistics. Results: upon sum of two terms experiment with purposeful usage of informational technologies in sport-oriented physical education proved true improvement (р<0,05–р<0,001 of test result that characterize strengths development (“Horizontal bar pull-ups ” – by 33,3%, “Sitting-ups of the body per 1 min” – by 21,1%, flexibility (“Sitting bend forward” – by 26,8%, speed and speed-and-strengths qualities (“100 m race” – by 4,6%, “Standing long-jump” – by 4,8%. Conclusion: the results confirm the arguments and prove the feasibility of the use of information technology in the sports-oriented physical training of students in universities.

  9. Utility of Stepping, Walking, and Head Impulses for Screening Patients for Vestibular Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Helen S; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Ricci, Natalia A; Kampangkaew, June; Williamson, Robert A

    2014-07-01

    To determine if some common screening tests predict scores on detailed, objective diagnostic tests of the vestibular system. Sixty patients with vestibular disorders were compared with 60 asymptomatic controls. Vestibular diagnostic laboratory, tertiary care center. Subjects were screened with head impulse tests, Fukuda stepping tests while walking and marching in place, and tandem walking tests with eyes open and closed. All subjects underwent bithermal caloric tests and Dix-Hallpike maneuvers; patients underwent low-frequency sinusoidal tests of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in darkness and cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials. On tandem walking tests, patients differed significantly from controls, but receiver operating characteristic scores were impulse tests, patients with bithermal caloric weakness (≥20% and 0.80 only for subjects with severe bithermal caloric weakness and were highest, at 0.88, for subjects with severe weakness and age ≥ 60 years. The Fukuda test is a poor screening test because it does not correlate well with objective test findings. Tandem walking is best used for screening older patients for vestibular disorders. Positive findings on a head impulse test are probably consistent with severe peripheral vestibular impairment and may be most useful in older patients. In younger patients with vertigo, negative results on head impulse tests may not be informative. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2014.

  10. Preoperative vestibular assessment protocol of cochlear implant surgery: an analytical descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Sato, Eduardo Setsuo; Ribeiro, Douglas Jósimo Silva; Tsuji, Robinson Koji

    Cochlear implants are undeniably an effective method for the recovery of hearing function in patients with hearing loss. To describe the preoperative vestibular assessment protocol in subjects who will be submitted to cochlear implants. Our institutional protocol provides the vestibular diagnosis through six simple tests: Romberg and Fukuda tests, assessment for spontaneous nystagmus, Head Impulse Test, evaluation for Head Shaking Nystagmus and caloric test. 21 patients were evaluated with a mean age of 42.75±14.38 years. Only 28% of the sample had all normal test results. The presence of asymmetric vestibular information was documented through the caloric test in 32% of the sample and spontaneous nystagmus was an important clue for the diagnosis. Bilateral vestibular areflexia was present in four subjects, unilateral arreflexia in three and bilateral hyporeflexia in two. The Head Impulse Test was a significant indicator for the diagnosis of areflexia in the tested ear (p=0.0001). The sensitized Romberg test using a foam pad was able to diagnose severe vestibular function impairment (p=0.003). The six clinical tests were able to identify the presence or absence of vestibular function and function asymmetry between the ears of the same individual. Copyright © 2016 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Preoperative vestibular assessment protocol of cochlear implant surgery: an analytical descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseli Saraiva Moreira Bittar

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Cochlear implants are undeniably an effective method for the recovery of hearing function in patients with hearing loss. Objective: To describe the preoperative vestibular assessment protocol in subjects who will be submitted to cochlear implants. Methods: Our institutional protocol provides the vestibular diagnosis through six simple tests: Romberg and Fukuda tests, assessment for spontaneous nystagmus, Head Impulse Test, evaluation for Head Shaking Nystagmus and caloric test. Results: 21 patients were evaluated with a mean age of 42.75 ± 14.38 years. Only 28% of the sample had all normal test results. The presence of asymmetric vestibular information was documented through the caloric test in 32% of the sample and spontaneous nystagmus was an important clue for the diagnosis. Bilateral vestibular areflexia was present in four subjects, unilateral arreflexia in three and bilateral hyporeflexia in two. The Head Impulse Test was a significant indicator for the diagnosis of areflexia in the tested ear (p = 0.0001. The sensitized Romberg test using a foam pad was able to diagnose severe vestibular function impairment (p = 0.003. Conclusion: The six clinical tests were able to identify the presence or absence of vestibular function and function asymmetry between the ears of the same individual.

  12. [Vestibular rehabilitation in elderly patients with dizziness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardini, Francisco Halilla; Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Jurkiewicz, Ari Leon; Marques, Jair Mendes; Martins-Bassetto, Jackeline

    2007-01-01

    The aging of the population is a natural process and is manifested by a decline in the functions of several organs. Vestibular rehabilitation (VR) is a therapeutic process that seeks to promote a significant reduction in the symptoms of the labyrinth. To verify the benefits of VR exercises through the application of the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI) questionnaire--Brazilian version--pre and post rehabilitation. Participants of this study were eight elderly patients with dizziness, ages between 63 and 82 years, three male and five female. The following procedures were carried out: medical history, otologic inspection, vestibular evaluation with vectoelectronystagmography (VENG), application of the DHI questionnaire and of the Cawthorne (1944) and Cooksey (1946) VR exercises. Regarding the auditory and vestibular complaints which were referred to in the medical history, the following was observed: presence of tinnitus, hearing loss, postural vertigo and of unbalance. In the evaluation of the vestibular function alterations were observed for all of the participants, mainly in the caloric test, with a prevalence of unilateral and bilateral hypofunction. In the vestibular exam the following was observed: three cases of unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit syndrome, three cases of bilateral peripheral vestibular deficit syndrome, one case of bilateral central vestibular deficit syndrome and one case of irritating bilateral central vestibular syndrome. There was a statistically significant improvement of the following aspects after VR: physical (p=0.00413), functional (p=0.00006) and emotional (p=0.03268). The VR protocol favored the improvement of life quality of the participants and was of assistance in the process of vestibular compensation.

  13. Effects of conventional versus multimodal vestibular rehabilitation on functional capacity and balance control in older people with chronic dizziness from vestibular disorders: design of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaroni Ricci, Natalia; Aratani, Mayra Cristina; Caovilla, Heloisa Helena; Freitas Ganança, Fernando

    2012-12-31

    There are several protocols designed to treat vestibular disorders that focus on habituation, substitution, adaptation, and compensation exercises. However, protocols that contemplate not only vestibular stimulation but also other components that are essential to the body balance control in older people are rare. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of two vestibular rehabilitation protocols (conventional versus multimodal) on the functional capacity and body balance control of older people with chronic dizziness due to vestibular disorders. A randomized, single-blind, controlled clinical trial with a 3 months follow-up period will be performed. The sample will be composed of older individuals with a clinical diagnosis of chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. The subjects will be evaluated at baseline, post-treatment and follow-up. Primary outcomes will be determined in accordance with the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (functional capacity) and the Dynamic Gait Index (body balance). Secondary outcomes include dizziness features, functional records, body balance control tests, and psychological information. The older individuals (minimum sample n = 68) will be randomized to either the conventional or multimodal Cawthorne&Cooksey protocols. The protocols will be performed during individual 50-minute sessions, twice a week, for 2 months (a total of 16 sessions). The outcomes of both protocols will be compared according to the intention-to-treat analysis. Vestibular rehabilitation through the Cawthorne&Cooksey protocol has already proved to be effective. However, the addition of other components related to body balance control has been proposed to improve the rehabilitation of older people with chronic dizziness from vestibular disorders. ACTRN12610000018011.

  14. Effects of conventional versus multimodal vestibular rehabilitation on functional capacity and balance control in older people with chronic dizziness from vestibular disorders: design of a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricci Natalia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are several protocols designed to treat vestibular disorders that focus on habituation, substitution, adaptation, and compensation exercises. However, protocols that contemplate not only vestibular stimulation but also other components that are essential to the body balance control in older people are rare. This study aims to compare the effectiveness of two vestibular rehabilitation protocols (conventional versus multimodal on the functional capacity and body balance control of older people with chronic dizziness due to vestibular disorders. Methods/design A randomized, single-blind, controlled clinical trial with a 3 months follow-up period will be performed. The sample will be composed of older individuals with a clinical diagnosis of chronic dizziness resulting from vestibular disorders. The subjects will be evaluated at baseline, post-treatment and follow-up. Primary outcomes will be determined in accordance with the Dizziness Handicap Inventory (functional capacity and the Dynamic Gait Index (body balance. Secondary outcomes include dizziness features, functional records, body balance control tests, and psychological information. The older individuals (minimum sample n = 68 will be randomized to either the conventional or multimodal Cawthorne&Cooksey protocols. The protocols will be performed during individual 50-minute sessions, twice a week, for 2 months (a total of 16 sessions. The outcomes of both protocols will be compared according to the intention-to-treat analysis. Discussion Vestibular rehabilitation through the Cawthorne&Cooksey protocol has already proved to be effective. However, the addition of other components related to body balance control has been proposed to improve the rehabilitation of older people with chronic dizziness from vestibular disorders. Trial registration ACTRN12610000018011

  15. Reliability-Based Weighting of Visual and Vestibular Cues in Displacement Estimation.

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    Arjan C ter Horst

    Full Text Available When navigating through the environment, our brain needs to infer how far we move and in which direction we are heading. In this estimation process, the brain may rely on multiple sensory modalities, including the visual and vestibular systems. Previous research has mainly focused on heading estimation, showing that sensory cues are combined by weighting them in proportion to their reliability, consistent with statistically optimal integration. But while heading estimation could improve with the ongoing motion, due to the constant flow of information, the estimate of how far we move requires the integration of sensory information across the whole displacement. In this study, we investigate whether the brain optimally combines visual and vestibular information during a displacement estimation task, even if their reliability varies from trial to trial. Participants were seated on a linear sled, immersed in a stereoscopic virtual reality environment. They were subjected to a passive linear motion involving visual and vestibular cues with different levels of visual coherence to change relative cue reliability and with cue discrepancies to test relative cue weighting. Participants performed a two-interval two-alternative forced-choice task, indicating which of two sequentially perceived displacements was larger. Our results show that humans adapt their weighting of visual and vestibular information from trial to trial in proportion to their reliability. These results provide evidence that humans optimally integrate visual and vestibular information in order to estimate their body displacement.

  16. Reliability-Based Weighting of Visual and Vestibular Cues in Displacement Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Horst, Arjan C; Koppen, Mathieu; Selen, Luc P J; Medendorp, W Pieter

    2015-01-01

    When navigating through the environment, our brain needs to infer how far we move and in which direction we are heading. In this estimation process, the brain may rely on multiple sensory modalities, including the visual and vestibular systems. Previous research has mainly focused on heading estimation, showing that sensory cues are combined by weighting them in proportion to their reliability, consistent with statistically optimal integration. But while heading estimation could improve with the ongoing motion, due to the constant flow of information, the estimate of how far we move requires the integration of sensory information across the whole displacement. In this study, we investigate whether the brain optimally combines visual and vestibular information during a displacement estimation task, even if their reliability varies from trial to trial. Participants were seated on a linear sled, immersed in a stereoscopic virtual reality environment. They were subjected to a passive linear motion involving visual and vestibular cues with different levels of visual coherence to change relative cue reliability and with cue discrepancies to test relative cue weighting. Participants performed a two-interval two-alternative forced-choice task, indicating which of two sequentially perceived displacements was larger. Our results show that humans adapt their weighting of visual and vestibular information from trial to trial in proportion to their reliability. These results provide evidence that humans optimally integrate visual and vestibular information in order to estimate their body displacement.

  17. Developmental maturation of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in rat vestibular nuclear neurons responsive to vertical linear acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Suk-King; Lai, Chun-Hong; Tse, Yiu-Chung; Yung, Ken K L; Shum, Daisy K Y; Chan, Ying-Shing

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the maturation profile of subunits of ionotropic glutamate receptors in vestibular nuclear neurons that were activated by sinusoidal linear acceleration along the vertical plane. The otolithic origin of Fos expression in these neurons was confirmed as a marker of functional activation when labyrinthectomized and/or stationary control rats contrasted by showing sporadically scattered Fos-labeled neurons in the vestibular nuclei. By double immunohistochemistry for Fos and one of the receptor subunits, otolith-related neurons that expressed either alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate or N-methyl-d-aspartate subunits were first identified in the medial vestibular nucleus, spinal vestibular nucleus and Group x by postnatal day (P)7, and in the lateral vestibular nucleus and Group y by P9. No double-labeled neurons were found in the superior vestibular nucleus. Within each vestibular subnucleus, these double-labeled neurons constituted approximately 90% of the total Fos-labeled neurons. The percentage of Fos-labeled neurons expressing the GluR1 or NR2A subunit showed developmental invariance in all subnuclei. For Fos-labeled neurons expressing the NR1 subunit, similar invariance was observed except that, in Group y, these neurons decreased from P14 onwards. For Fos-labeled neurons expressing the GluR2, GluR2/3, GluR4 or NR2B subunit, a significant decrease was found by the adult stage. In particular, those expressing the GluR4 subunit showed a two- to threefold decrease in the medial vestibular nucleus, spinal vestibular nucleus and Group y. Also, those expressing the NR2B subunit showed a twofold decrease in Group y. Taken together, the postsynaptic expression of ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits in different vestibular subnuclei suggests that glutamatergic transmission within subregions plays differential developmental roles in the coding of gravity-related vertical spatial information.

  18. Reabilitação vestibular em um hospital universitário Vestibular rehabilitation in a university hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia da Silva Tavares

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A Reabilitação Vestibular visa melhorar o equilíbrio global, a qualidade de vida e orientação espacial dos pacientes com tontura. OBJETIVOS: Traçar o perfil dos pacientes atendidos no Ambulatório de Reabilitação Vestibular do Setor de Otoneurologia de um hospital universitário e verificar os resultados obtidos no período de novembro/2000 a dezembro/2004. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Levantamento de dados contidos nas fichas dos 93 pacientes submetidos à Reabilitação Vestibular no período. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. RESULTADOS: A média etária dos pacientes foi de 52,82 anos, 56 do sexo feminino e 37 do sexo masculino. O número médio de atendimentos foi 4,3, sendo maior para os pacientes com distúrbios otoneurológicos centrais (média de 5,9. Dentre os pacientes que concluíram o tratamento proposto, 37 (60,7% obtiveram melhora significativa, 14 (22,9% tiveram melhora parcial e 10 (16,4% não referiram benefícios significativos. Os pacientes que mais se beneficiaram com a Reabilitação Vestibular tinham distúrbios otoneurológicos periféricos. CONCLUSÃO: A maior parte dos pacientes era do sexo feminino, com idade média de 52,8 anos. Cinqüenta e um pacientes (83,6% tiveram benefício com a terapia confirmando a eficácia do tratamento.The aim of vestibular rehabilitation is to improve total balance, quality of life and spatial orientation of patients with dizziness. AIMS: To determine the characteristics of the patients who underwent the Vestibular Rehabilitation program of the Neurotology Ward of a University Hospital, and to verify the results obtained between November/2000 and December/2004. MATERIALS AND METHODS: analysis of 93 files from patients under Vestibular Rehabilitation during the studied period. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective clinical. RESULTS: the mean age of patients was 52.82 years, 56 females and 37 males. The average number of therapy sessions was 4.3, higher for patients with central neurotological

  19. Effects of vibrotactile vestibular substitution on vestibular rehabilitation - preliminary study,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Brugnera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Some patients with severe impairment of body balance do not obtain adequate improvement from vestibular rehabilitation (VR. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of Vertiguard(tm biofeedback equipment as a sensory substitution (SS of the vestibular system in patients who did not obtain sufficient improvement from VR. METHODS: This was a randomized prospective clinical study. Thirteen patients without satisfactory response to conventional VR were randomized into a study group (SG, which received the vibrotactile stimulus from Vertiguard(tm for ten days, and a control group (CG, which used equipment without the stimulus. For pre- and post-treatment assessment, the Sensory Organization Test (SOT protocol of the Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP and two scales of balance self-perception, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI, were used. RESULTS: After treatment, only the SG showed statistically significant improvement in C5 (p = 0.007 and C6 (p = 0.01. On the ABC scale, there was a significant difference in the SG (p= 0.04. The DHI showed a significant difference in CG and SG with regard to the physical aspect, and only in the SG for the functional aspect (p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: The present findings show that sensory substitution using the vibrotactile stimulus of the Vertiguard(tm system helped with the integration of neural networks involved in maintaining posture, improving the strategies used in the recovery of body balance.

  20. Effects of vibrotactile vestibular substitution on vestibular rehabilitation - preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugnera, Cibele; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Greters, Mário Edvin; Basta, Dietmar

    2015-01-01

    Some patients with severe impairment of body balance do not obtain adequate improvement from vestibular rehabilitation (VR). To evaluate the effectiveness of Vertiguard™ biofeedback equipment as a sensory substitution (SS) of the vestibular system in patients who did not obtain sufficient improvement from VR. This was a randomized prospective clinical study. Thirteen patients without satisfactory response to conventional VR were randomized into a study group (SG), which received the vibrotactile stimulus from Vertiguard™ for ten days, and a control group (CG), which used equipment without the stimulus. For pre- and post-treatment assessment, the Sensory Organization Test (SOT) protocol of the Computerized Dynamic Posturography (CDP) and two scales of balance self-perception, Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) and Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), were used. After treatment, only the SG showed statistically significant improvement in C5 (p=0.007) and C6 (p=0.01). On the ABC scale, there was a significant difference in the SG (p=0.04). The DHI showed a significant difference in CG and SG with regard to the physical aspect, and only in the SG for the functional aspect (p=0.04). The present findings show that sensory substitution using the vibrotactile stimulus of the Vertiguard™ system helped with the integration of neural networks involved in maintaining posture, improving the strategies used in the recovery of body balance. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Galvanic vestibular stimulation improves the results of vestibular rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, Sergio; Ferrero, Antonela; Pianetti, Guillermina; Escolá, Natalia; Arteaga, María Victoria; Frankel, Lilian

    2011-09-01

    Here, we present findings from a three-step investigation of the effect of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) in normal subjects and in subjects undergoing vestibular rehabilitation (VR). In an initial study, we examined the body sway of 10 normal subjects after one minute of 2 mA GVS. The effect of the stimulation lasted for at least 20 minutes in all subjects and up to two hours in 70% of the subjects. We then compared a group of patients who received conventional VR (40 patients) with a group that received a combination of VR and GVS. Results suggest a significant improvement in the second group. Finally, we attempted to establish the optimal number of GVS sessions and to rule out a placebo effect. Fifteen patients received "systematic" GVS: five sessions, once a week. Five patients received "nonsystematic" galvanic stimulation in a sham protocol, which included two stimulations of the clavicle. These data were analyzed with Fisher's exact test and indicated that the best results were obtained after three sessions of GVS and no placebo effect was observed. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Object-oriented analysis and design of a health care management information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, M; Reich, D L

    1999-04-01

    We have created a prototype for a universal object-oriented model of a health care system compatible with the object-oriented approach used in version 3.0 of the HL7 standard for communication messages. A set of three models has been developed: (1) the Object Model describes the hierarchical structure of objects in a system--their identity, relationships, attributes, and operations; (2) the Dynamic Model represents the sequence of operations in time as a collection of state diagrams for object classes in the system; and (3) functional Diagram represents the transformation of data within a system by means of data flow diagrams. Within these models, we have defined major object classes of health care participants and their subclasses, associations, attributes and operators, states, and behavioral scenarios. We have also defined the major processes and subprocesses. The top-down design approach allows use, reuse, and cloning of standard components.

  3. On Estimation Of The Orientation Of Mobile Robots Using Turning Functions And SONAR Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel AIORDACHIOAIE

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available SONAR systems are widely used by some artificial objects, e.g. robots, and by animals, e.g. bats, for navigation and pattern recognition. The objective of this paper is to present a solution on the estimation of the orientation in the environment of mobile robots, in the context of navigation, using the turning function approach. The results are shown to be accurate and can be used further in the design of navigation strategies of mobile robots.

  4. Genetic disorders of the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppsteiner, Robert W; Smith, Richard J H

    2011-10-01

    This review highlights the current body of literature related to the genetics of inherited vestibular disorders and provides a framework for the characterization of these disorders. We emphasize peripheral causes of vestibular dysfunction and highlight recent advances in the field, point out gaps in understanding, and focus on key areas for future investigation. The discovery of a modifier gene that leads to a more severe Usher syndrome phenotype calls into question the assumption that Usher syndrome is universally a monogenic disorder. Despite the use of several investigational approaches, the genetic basis of Menière's disease remains poorly understood. Evidence for a vestibular phenotype associated with DFNB1 suggests that mutations in other genes causally related to nonsyndromic hearing loss also may have an unrecognized vestibular phenotype. Our understanding of the genetic basis for vestibular disorders is superficial. Significant challenges include defining the genetics of inherited isolated vestibular dysfunction and understanding the pathological basis of Menière's disease. However, improved characterization of inherited vestibular dysfunction, coupled with advanced genetic techniques such as targeted genome capture and massively parallel sequencing, provides an opportunity to investigate these diseases at the genetic level.

  5. Embryological development and large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, G M

    2000-11-01

    Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) is a significant cause of hearing loss in early childhood. Many theories on the origins and causes of LVAS have been proposed, including arrest or maldevelopment of the vestibular labyrinth in embryonic life. Prior studies have described postnatal and adult vestibular aqueduct anatomy, but none has analyzed aqueduct growth throughout embryonic life. This study was undertaken to characterize the growth of the developing vestibular aqueduct to gain a better understanding of the possible origins of LVAS. Basic science, temporal bone histopathological study. Serial sections from 48 temporal bones from human embryos ranging in age from 5 weeks' gestation to full term were studied with computer image analysis. Measurements of vestibular aqueduct internal and external aperture, midportion diameter, and length were analyzed to obtain a growth model of development. The vestibular aqueduct grows in a nonlinear fashion throughout embryonic life. All parameters fit a similar growth curve and never reached a maximum or began narrowing during development. Growth in one parameter correlated well with growth of another. There was good side-to-side correlation with all but the external aperture. Most of the membranous labyrinth reaches adult size by 20 weeks' gestation, but the vestibular aqueduct grows throughout embryonic life. The measurements and growth model obtained in this study are not consistent with the theory that LVAS results from an arrest in development early in fetal life. The data suggest that LVAS may result from postnatal and early childhood maldevelopment.

  6. An OAIS-based Hospital Information System on the Cloud: Analysis of a NoSQL Column-Oriented Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celesti, Antonio; Maria, Fazio; Romano, Agata; Bramanti, Alessia; Bramanti, Placido; Villari, Massimo

    2017-03-10

    The Open Archive Information System (OAIS) is a reference model for organizing people and resources in a system, and it is already adopted in care centers and medical systems to efficiently manage clinical data, medical personnel and patients. Archival storage systems are typically implemented using traditional relational database systems, but the relation-oriented technology strongly limits the efficiency in the management of huge amount of patients' clinical data, especially in emerging Cloud-based, that are distributed. In this paper, we present an OAIS healthcare architecture usefull to manage a huge amount of HL7 clinical documents in a scalable way. Specifically, it is based on a NoSQL column-oriented Data Base Management System (DBMS) deployed in the Cloud, thus to benefit from a big tables and wide rows available over a virtual distributed infrastructure. We developed a prototype of the proposed architecture at the IRCCS, and we evaluated its efficiency in a real case of study.

  7. A Study on the Information and Telecommunication Services of Ukraine as an Export-Oriented Sector of the Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Mahbubur S.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the current status, main problems and prospects for the development of the information and telecommunication services of Ukraine at the domestic and foreign markets as an export-oriented branch of the economy. The statistical indicators of the industry structure in the dynamics at the domestic and foreign markets, the contribution to GDP and employment were analyzed; the matrix and correlation analyses were performed and, on the base of the results, forecast models for the development of indicators for sales, exports and staff costs were constructed. Recommendations on prospective directions of development of IT services and software, use of the key advantages of the industry for the development of the export-oriented sector of the national economy are offered.

  8. Influences of Vestibular System on Sympathetic Nervous System. Implications for countermeasures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denise, Pr Pierre

    As gravity is a direct and permanent stress on body fluids, muscles and bones, it is not surpris-ing that weightlessness has important effects on cardiovascular and musculo-skeletal systems. However, these harmful effects do not totally result from the removal of the direct stress of gravity on these organs, but are also partially and indirectly mediated by the vestibular sys-tem. Besides its well known crucial role in spatial orientation and postural equilibrium, it is now clear that the vestibular system is also involved in the regulation of other important physi-ological systems: respiratory and cardiovascular systems, circadian regulation, food intake and even bone mineralization. The neuroanatomical substrate for these vestibular-mediated reg-ulations is still poorly defined, but there is much evidence that vestibular system has strong impacts not only on brainstem autonomic centers but on many hypothalamic nuclei as well. As autonomic nervous system controls almost all body organs, bringing into play the vestibular system by hypergravity or microgravity could virtually affects all major physiological func-tions. There is experimental evidence that weightlessness as well as vestibular lesion induce sympathetic activation thus participating in space related physiological alterations. The fact that some effects of weightlessness on biological systems are mediated by the vestibular system has an important implication for using artificial gravity as a countermeasure: artificial gravity should load not only bones and the cardiovascular system but the vestibular system as well. In short-arm centrifuges, the g load at the head level is low because the head is near the axis of rotation. If the vestibular system is involved in cardiovascular deconditioning and bone loss during weightlessness, it would be more effective to significantly stimulate it and thus it would be necessary to place the head off-axis. Moreover, as the otolithic organs are non longer stimu-lated in

  9. Progress toward development of a multichannel vestibular prosthesis for treatment of bilateral vestibular deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Gene Y; Della Santina, Charles C

    2012-11-01

    This article reviews vestibular pathology and the requirements and progress made in the design and construction of a vestibular prosthesis. Bilateral loss of vestibular sensation is disabling. When vestibular hair cells are injured by ototoxic medications or other insults to the labyrinth, the resulting loss of sensory input disrupts vestibulo-ocular reflexes (VORs) and vestibulo-spinal reflexes that normally stabilize the eyes and body. Affected individuals suffer poor vision during head movement, postural instability, chronic disequilibrium, and cognitive distraction. Although most individuals with residual sensation compensate for their loss over time, others fail to do so and have no adequate treatment options. A vestibular prosthesis analogous to cochlear implants but designed to modulate vestibular nerve activity during head movement should improve quality of life for these chronically dizzy individuals. We describe the impact of bilateral loss of vestibular sensation, animal studies supporting feasibility of prosthetic vestibular stimulation, the current status of multichannel vestibular sensory replacement prosthesis development, and challenges to successfully realizing this approach in clinical practice. In bilaterally vestibular-deficient rodents and rhesus monkeys, the Johns Hopkins multichannel vestibular prosthesis (MVP) partially restores the three-dimensional (3D) VOR for head rotations about any axis. Attempts at prosthetic vestibular stimulation of humans have not yet included the 3D eye movement assays necessary to accurately evaluate VOR alignment, but these initial forays have revealed responses that are otherwise comparable to observations in animals. Current efforts now focus on refining electrode design and surgical technique to enhance stimulus selectivity and preserve cochlear function, optimizing stimulus protocols to improve dynamic range and reduce excitation-inhibition asymmetry, and adapting laboratory MVP prototypes into devices

  10. Reviewing the Role of the Efferent Vestibular System in Motor and Vestibular Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews, Miranda A.; Camp, Aaron J.; Murray, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    Efferent circuits within the nervous system carry nerve impulses from the central nervous system to sensory end organs. Vestibular efferents originate in the brainstem and terminate on hair cells and primary afferent fibers in the semicircular canals and otolith organs within the inner ear. The function of this efferent vestibular system (EVS) in vestibular and motor coordination though, has proven difficult to determine, and remains under debate. We consider current literature that implicate...

  11. Effects of Vestibular Rehabilitation Interventions in the Elderly with Chronic Unilateral Vestibular Hypofunction

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Bayat; Nader Saki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Although vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) methods are relatively popular in treating patients with body balance deficits of vestibular origin, only limited studies have been conducted into customized exercises for unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH). Furthermore, very little evidence is available on the outcomes of VRT in the elderly population with chronic UVH. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 patients, aged 61 to 74 years, with UVH participated in this study. T...

  12. Potencial evocado miogênico vestibular

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe,Lilian; Kingma, Herman; Gonçalves, Denise Utsch

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: O Potencial Evocado Miogênico Vestibular (VEMP) é um teste promissor para a avaliação do sistema vestíbulo-cólico descendente. Este reflexo depende da integridade da mácula sacular, do nervo vestibular inferior, dos núcleos vestibulares, das vias vestíbulo-espinhais e do músculo efetor. OBJETIVO: Realizar revisão sistemática de literatura pertinente por meio de bases de dados (COCHRANE, MEDLINE, LILACS, CAPES). CONCLUSÃO: A aplicação clínica do VEMP expandiu-se nos últimos anos, c...

  13. Vestibular rehabilitation in a university hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Flávia da Silva Tavares; Maria Francisca Colella dos Santos; Keila Alessandra Baraldi Knobel

    2008-01-01

    A Reabilitação Vestibular visa melhorar o equilíbrio global, a qualidade de vida e orientação espacial dos pacientes com tontura. OBJETIVOS: Traçar o perfil dos pacientes atendidos no Ambulatório de Reabilitação Vestibular do Setor de Otoneurologia de um hospital universitário e verificar os resultados obtidos no período de novembro/2000 a dezembro/2004. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Levantamento de dados contidos nas fichas dos 93 pacientes submetidos à Reabilitação Vestibular no período. FORMA DE ESTU...

  14. The vestibular system: multimodal integration and encoding of self-motion for motor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Kathleen E

    2012-03-01

    Understanding how sensory pathways transmit information under natural conditions remains a major goal in neuroscience. The vestibular system plays a vital role in everyday life, contributing to a wide range of functions from reflexes to the highest levels of voluntary behavior. Recent experiments establishing that vestibular (self-motion) processing is inherently multimodal also provide insight into a set of interrelated questions. What neural code is used to represent sensory information in vestibular pathways? How do the interactions between the organism and the environment shape encoding? How is self-motion information processing adjusted to meet the needs of specific tasks? This review highlights progress that has recently been made towards understanding how the brain encodes and processes self-motion to ensure accurate motor control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Vestibular Restoration and Adaptation in Vestibular Neuritis and Ramsay Hunt Syndrome With Vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Sanz, Eduardo; Rueda, Almudena; Esteban-Sanchez, Jonathan; Yanes, Joaquin; Rey-Martinez, Jorge; Sanz-Fernandez, Ricardo

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate vestibular restoration and the evolution of the compensatory saccades in acute severe inflammatory vestibular nerve paralysis, including vestibular neuritis and Ramsay Hunt syndrome with vertigo. Prospective. Tertiary referral center. Vestibular neuritis (n = 18) and Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients with vertigo (n = 13) were enrolled. After treatment with oral corticosteroids, patients were followed up for 6 months. Functional recovery of the facial nerve was scored according to the House-Brackman grading system. Caloric and video head impulse tests were performed in every patient at the time of enrolment. Subsequently, successive video head impulse test (vHIT) exploration was performed at the 1, 3, and 6-month follow-up. Eighteen patients with vestibular neuritis and 13 with Ramsay Hunt syndrome and associated vertigo were included. Vestibular function was significantly worse in patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome than in those with vestibular neuritis. Similar compensatory saccades velocity and latency values were observed in both groups, in both the caloric and initial vHIT tests. Successive vHIT results showed a significantly higher vestibulo-ocular reflex gain recovery in vestibular neuritis patients than in Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients. A significantly faster reduction in the latency, velocity, and organization of the compensatory saccades was observed in neuritis than in Ramsay Hunt syndrome patients. In addition to the recovery of the vestibulo-ocular reflex, the reduction of latency, velocity and the organization of compensatory saccades play a role in vestibular compensation.

  16. A computer-oriented system for assembling and displaying land management information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot L. Amidon

    1964-01-01

    Maps contain information basic to land management planning. By transforming conventional map symbols into numbers which are punched into cards, the land manager can have a computer assemble and display information required for a specific job. He can let a computer select information from several maps, combine it with such nonmap data as treatment cost or benefit per...

  17. Roles of the cerebellum in pursuit-vestibular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kikuro

    2003-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on cerebellar roles in on-line control of smooth-pursuit eye movements during vestibular stimulation in primates. The smooth-pursuit system is necessary to track smoothly moving targets and must interact with the vestibular system during movement of the head and/or whole body to maintain the precision of eye movements in space (i.e. gaze movements). This interaction requires calculation of gaze velocity commands that match the eye velocity in space to the actual target velocity. Two cerebellar regions, the floccular lobe that consists of the flocculus and ventral paraflocculus, and the dorsal vermis, are known to be involved in smooth-pursuit. However, potential differences in their involvement are incompletely understood. To understand their roles, in particular whether the output of these regions codes gaze velocity or eye velocity, simple-spike activity of Purkinje (P-) cells was examined during smooth-pursuit and pursuit-vestibular interaction tasks in various directions in head-restrained monkeys. The results showed differences in discharge characteristics of vertical and horizontal P-cells within the floccular lobe and between the floccular lobe and dorsal vermis. These differences and other available evidence suggest that the dorsal vermis is involved more in the control of gaze movement whereas the floccular lobe primarily controls eye movement (in the orbit) as a component of the oculomotor neural integrator. Smooth-pursuit without vestibular stimulation cannot dissociate eye movement from gaze movement. To understand the cerebellar role in various aspects of smooth tracking of targets moving in the three dimensional space, more information is needed particularly on how the above mentioned two regions along with the dorsal paraflocclus and underlying deep cerebellar nuclei are involved in vergence tracking, how the cerebellum is involved in prediction and perception of target motion, and whether complex-spike discharge is involved

  18. Concussion Recovery Phase Affects Vestibular and Oculomotor Symptom Provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheever, Kelly M; McDevitt, Jane; Tierney, Ryan; Wright, W Geoffrey

    2017-11-30

    Vestibular and oculomotor testing is emerging as a valuable assessment in sport-related concussion (SRC). However, their usefulness for tracking recovery and guiding return-to-play decisions remains unclear. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate their clinical usefulness for tracking SRC recovery. Vestibular and oculomotor assessments were used to measure symptom provocation in an acute group (n=21) concussed≤10 days, prolonged symptoms group (n=10) concussed ≥16 days (median=84 days), healthy group (n=58) no concussions in >6 months. Known-groups approach was used with three groups at three time points (initial, 2-week and 6-week follow-up). Provoked symptoms for Gaze-Stabilization (GST), Rapid Eye Horizontal (REH), Optokinetic Stimulation (OKS), Smooth-Pursuit Slow (SPS) and Fast (SPF) tests, total combined symptoms scores and near point convergence (NPC) distance were significantly greater at initial assessment in both injury groups compared to controls. Injury groups improved on the King-Devick test and combined symptom provocation scores across time. The acute group improved over time on REH and SPF tests, while the prolonged symptoms group improved on OKS. A regression model (REH, OKS, GST) was 90% accurate discriminating concussed from healthy. Vestibular and ocular motor tests give valuable insight during recovery. They can prove beneficial in concussion evaluation given the modest equipment, training and time requirements. The current study demonstrates that when combined, vestibular and oculomotor clinical tests aid in the detection of deficits following a SRC. Additionally, tests such as NPC, GST, REH, SPS, SPF OKS and KD provide valuable information to clinicians throughout the recovery process and may aid in return to play decisions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Confidence in masked orientation judgments is informed by both evidence and visibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Manuel; Hellmann, Sebastian; Zehetleitner, Michael

    2017-10-17

    How do human observers determine their degree of belief that they are correct in a decision about a visual stimulus-that is, their confidence? According to prominent theories of confidence, the quality of stimulation should be positively related to confidence in correct decisions, and negatively to confidence in incorrect decisions. However, in a backward-masked orientation task with a varying stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA), we observed that confidence in incorrect decisions also increased with stimulus quality. Model fitting to our decision and confidence data revealed that the best explanation for the present data was the new weighted evidence-and-visibility model, according to which confidence is determined by evidence about the orientation as well as by the general visibility of the stimulus. Signal detection models, postdecisional accumulation models, two-channel models, and decision-time-based models were all unable to explain the pattern of confidence as a function of SOA and decision correctness. We suggest that the metacognitive system combines several cues related to the correctness of a decision about a visual stimulus in order to calculate decision confidence.

  20. Functional Suitability Measurement using Goal-Oriented Approach based on ISO/IEC 25010 for Academics Information System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajeng Savitri Puspaningrum

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Rapid of information technology development grow a new competitive environment. Including higher education, they need to improve their service quality in order to provide education service in more competitive. One of the ways of using information technology in higher education is the used of Academic Information System (AIS. AIS was developed to achieve the goals of the learning process which is one of vision and mission organization success factor. The measurement is needed to evaluate the quality of AIS. Functionality is one of the quality factors which is measured by observing the correlation between function and functional suitability. In this study, the quality of AIS functional suitability is measured using goal-oriented approach base on ISO/IEC 25010 in the perspective of a lecturer. The strategic plan of an institution is used as a reference to measure if the system used to have meet institution goals when using this approach. The result shows that the measurement using goal-oriented approach become more objective and suitable to the need of used AIS quality improvement for the institution than the measurement with ISO/IEC 25010 only.

  1. INFORMATIVE SYSTEM OF EDUCATIONAL PURPOSE FROM MATHEMATICS AS A WAY OF PROFESSIONAL ORIENTATION OF TEACHING STUDENTS IT SPECIALTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmyla Shishko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current state of formation of mathematical knowledge in universities insufficiently focused on their further use in professional activities. Students not formed the ability to apply mathematical knowledge to study general professional and special disciplines. In this article: –\tconsidered features of formation of a professional orientation of teaching mathematics using structured content multimedia information system for educational purposes (MISEP; –\tfound psychologo-pedagogical features of teaching mathematics of students IT specialties; –\tconsidered methodical aspects of MISEP in teaching the course "Discrete Mathematics" for students of IT specialties

  2. Molecular aging of the mammalian vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosel, Sonja; Laub, Christoph; Averdam, Anne; Bender, Andreas; Elstner, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    Dizziness and imbalance frequently affect the elderly and contribute to falls and frailty. In many geriatric patients, clinical testing uncovers a dysfunction of the vestibular system, but no specific etiology can be identified. Neuropathological studies have demonstrated age-related degeneration of peripheral and central vestibular neurons, but the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. In contrast, recent studies into age-related hearing loss strongly implicate mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptotic cell death of cochlear hair cells. While some data suggest that analogous biological pathomechanisms may underlie vestibular dysfunction, actual proof is missing. In this review, we summarize the available data on the molecular causes of vestibular dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Idiopathic scoliosis and the vestibular system

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hawasli, Ammar H; Hullar, Timothy E; Dorward, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    ... in the etiology of scoliosis. In this article, we discuss putative mechanisms for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and review the current evidence supporting a role for the vestibular system in adolescent idiopathic...

  4. Reducing Information Gap and Increasing Market Orientation in the Agribusiness Sector: Some Evidences from Apulia Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contò, Francesco; Santini, Cristina; La Sala, Piermichele; Fiore, Mariantonietta

    2016-01-01

    Market orientation plays a crucial role in reinforcing firm's competitive advantage; nevertheless, marketing myopia can negatively affect a clear perception of the market. An organization that defines itself by product rather than by market terms is probably affected by marketing myopia, a narrowness of mind towards any newness - newness respect to firms' convincement and routines - coming from the external environment. In that context some scientific relevant developments that comes from recent patents have been considered. This paper explores the determinants of marketing myopia in the Apulia wine business (South Italy). The aim of this paper is to describe how experiential research based on Consumer Science research tools, can facilitate a better market knowledge. Experimental sessions carried out in 2013 in Apulia with a group of professionals from the oil and wine sectors clearly demonstrate how country of origin effect can improve marketing myopia. Through a protocol based on an "academicians - practitioners" model, professionals can be facilitated in their strategy formulation.

  5. Modeling Human Control of Self-Motion Direction With Optic Flow and Vestibular Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaal, Peter M T; Nieuwenhuizen, Frank M; van Paassen, Marinus M; Mulder, Max

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the effects of visual and motion stimuli on the manual control of one's direction of self-motion. In a flight simulator, subjects conducted an active target-following disturbance-rejection task, using a compensatory display. Simulating a vehicular control task, the direction of vehicular motion was shown on the outside visual display in two ways: an explicit presentation using a symbol and an implicit presentation, namely, through the focus of radial outflow that emerges from optic flow. In addition, the effects of the relative strength of congruent vestibular motion cues were investigated. The dynamic properties of human visual and vestibular motion perception paths were modeled using a control-theoretical approach. As expected, improved tracking performance was found for the configurations that explicitly showed the direction of self-motion. The human visual time delay increased with approximately 150 ms for the optic flow conditions, relative to explicit presentations. Vestibular motion, providing higher order information on the direction of self-motion, allowed subjects to partially compensate for this visual perception delay, improving performance. Parameter estimates of the operator control model show that, with vestibular motion, the visual feedback becomes stronger, indicating that operators are more confident to act on optic flow information when congruent vestibular motion cues are present.

  6. Information on 'Overdiagnosis' in Breast Cancer Screening on Prominent United Kingdom- and Australia-Oriented Health Websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanouni, Alex; Meisel, Susanne F; Hersch, Jolyn; Waller, Jo; Wardle, Jane; Renzi, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Health-related websites are an important source of information for the public. Increasing public awareness of overdiagnosis and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) in breast cancer screening may facilitate more informed decision-making. This study assessed the extent to which such information was included on prominent health websites oriented towards the general public, and evaluated how it was explained. Cross-sectional study. Websites identified through Google searches in England (United Kingdom) and New South Wales (Australia) for "breast cancer screening" and further websites included based on our prior knowledge of relevant organisations. Content analysis was used to determine whether information on overdiagnosis or DCIS existed on each site, how the concepts were described, and what statistics were used to quantify overdiagnosis. After exclusions, ten UK websites and eight Australian websites were considered relevant and evaluated. They originated from charities, health service providers, government agencies, and an independent health organisation. Most contained some information on overdiagnosis (and/or DCIS). Descriptive information was similar across websites. Among UK websites, statistical information was often based on estimates from the Independent UK Panel on Breast Cancer Screening; the most commonly provided statistic was the ratio of breast cancer deaths prevented to overdiagnosed cases (1:3). A range of other statistics was included, such as the yearly number of overdiagnosed cases and the proportion of women screened who would be overdiagnosed. Information on DCIS and statistical information was less common on the Australian websites. Online information about overdiagnosis has become more widely available in 2015-16 compared with the limited accessibility indicated by older research. However, there may be scope to offer more information on DCIS and overdiagnosis statistics on Australian websites. Moreover, the variability in how estimates are

  7. Information on 'Overdiagnosis' in Breast Cancer Screening on Prominent United Kingdom- and Australia-Oriented Health Websites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Ghanouni

    Full Text Available Health-related websites are an important source of information for the public. Increasing public awareness of overdiagnosis and ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS in breast cancer screening may facilitate more informed decision-making. This study assessed the extent to which such information was included on prominent health websites oriented towards the general public, and evaluated how it was explained.Cross-sectional study.Websites identified through Google searches in England (United Kingdom and New South Wales (Australia for "breast cancer screening" and further websites included based on our prior knowledge of relevant organisations.Content analysis was used to determine whether information on overdiagnosis or DCIS existed on each site, how the concepts were described, and what statistics were used to quantify overdiagnosis.After exclusions, ten UK websites and eight Australian websites were considered relevant and evaluated. They originated from charities, health service providers, government agencies, and an independent health organisation. Most contained some information on overdiagnosis (and/or DCIS. Descriptive information was similar across websites. Among UK websites, statistical information was often based on estimates from the Independent UK Panel on Breast Cancer Screening; the most commonly provided statistic was the ratio of breast cancer deaths prevented to overdiagnosed cases (1:3. A range of other statistics was included, such as the yearly number of overdiagnosed cases and the proportion of women screened who would be overdiagnosed. Information on DCIS and statistical information was less common on the Australian websites.Online information about overdiagnosis has become more widely available in 2015-16 compared with the limited accessibility indicated by older research. However, there may be scope to offer more information on DCIS and overdiagnosis statistics on Australian websites. Moreover, the variability in how estimates

  8. Recovery of vestibular ocular reflex function and balance control after a unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eAllum

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the effect of unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit (UPVD on balance control as observed in stance and gait tests. Normally, a UPVD is defined based on vestibular ocular reflex (VOR function. Therefore, we compare recovery observed in balance control over time with similar patterns of recovery or lack thereof in VOR function. Three types of UPVD are considered; acute vestibular neuritis, vestibular loss prior to and after cerebellar pontine angle tumor (CPAT surgery during which a vestibular neurectomy was performed, and vestibular loss following neurectomy to eliminate disabling Ménière’s disease.To measure balance control, body-worn gyroscopes, mounted near the body’s centre of mass, were used for stance and gait tests. Measurement variables were the pitch (anterior-posterior and roll (lateral sway angles and angular velocities of the lower trunk-pelvis. All three groups showed balance deficits during stance tasks on foam, especially with eyes closed when stable control is highly dependent on vestibular inputs. Deficits in balance control during gait were present but were more profound for complex gait tasks such as tandem gait. Differences emerged between the groups concerning the severity of the deficit and its recovery. Generally, the effects of acute neuritis were more severe but recovered rapidly, deficits due to vestibular neurectomy were less severe but longer lasting. These results paralleled deficits in VOR function and raise questions about two modes of neural plasticity occurring in the vestibular system following vestibular loss: one mode being the limited central compensation for the loss, and the second mode being some restoration of peripheral vestibular function. Future work will need to correlate deficits in balance control during stance and gait more exactly with VOR deficits and carefully consider the differences between insufficient central compensation compared to inadequate peripheral

  9. BASIC CONCEPTS IN UNDERSTANDING RECOVERY OF FUNCTION IN VESTIBULAR REFLEX NETWORKS DURING VESTIBULAR COMPENSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenna ePeusner

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Unilateral peripheral vestibular lesions produce a syndrome of oculomotor and postural deficits with the symptoms at rest, the static symptoms, partially or completely normalizing shortly after the lesion due to a process known as vestibular compensation. The symptoms are thought to result from changes in the activity of vestibular sensorimotor reflexes. Since the vestibular nuclei must be intact for recovery to occur, many investigations have focused on studying these neurons after lesions. At present, the neuronal plasticity underlying early recovery from the static symptoms is not fully understood. Here we propose that knowledge of the reflex identity and input-output connections of the recorded neurons is essential to link the responses to animal behavior. We further propose that the cellular mechanisms underlying vestibular compensation can be sorted out by characterizing the synaptic responses and time course for change in morphologically-defined subsets of vestibular reflex projection neurons. Accordingly, this review focuses on the perspective gained by performing electrophysiological and immunolabeling studies on a specific subset of morphologically-defined, glutamatergic vestibular reflex projection neurons, the principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus. Reference is made to pertinent findings from other studies on vestibular nuclei neurons, but no comprehensive review of the literature is intended since broad reviews already exist. From recording excitatory and inhibitory spontaneous synaptic activity in principal cells, we find that the rebalancing of excitatory synaptic drive bilaterally is essential for vestibular compensation to proceed. This work is important for it defines for the first time the excitatory and inhibitory nature of the changing synaptic inputs and the time course for changes in a morphologically-defined subset of vestibular reflex projection neurons during early stages of vestibular compensation.

  10. Informal, Practice-Based Learning for Professionals: A Changing Orientation for Legitimate Continuing Professional Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Karen

    1998-01-01

    A practice-based learning model, involving self-directed learning, critical self-reflection, intentional active learning, and learning community, provides a way to structure informal continuing professional education (CPE) that occurs in practice. As individuals assume more responsibility for their learning, the legitimacy of informal CPE should…

  11. Participatory Gender-Oriented Study of the Information Needs of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An adequate understanding of the information needs of the youth is crucial in planning programmes that address their socio-economic wellbeing. This study investigated the information needs of the youth in Uzoagba, a rural community in South-Eastern Nigeria. Data were collected from the youth through focus group ...

  12. Nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein is expressed by scattered neurons in the vestibular and precerebellar brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizer, Joan S

    2009-11-17

    Vestibular information is essential for the control of posture, balance, and eye movements. The vestibular nerve projects to the four nuclei of the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC), as well as to several additional brainstem nuclei and the cerebellum. We have found that expression of the calcium-binding proteins calretinin (CR) and calbindin (CB), and the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) define subdivisions of the medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) and the nucleus prepositus (PrH), in cat, monkey, and human. We have asked if the pattern of expression of nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP) might define additional subdivisions of these or other nuclei that participate in vestibular function. We studied the distribution of cells immunoreactive to NPNFP in the brainstems of 5 cats and one squirrel monkey. Labeled cells were scattered throughout the four nuclei of the VNC, as well as in PrH, the reticular formation (RF) and the external cuneate nucleus. We used double-label immunofluorescence to visualize the distribution of these cells relative to other neurochemically defined subdivisions. NPNFP cells were excluded from the CR and CB regions of the MVe. In PrH, NPNFP and nNOS were not colocalized. Cells in the lateral vestibular nucleus and RF colocalized NPNFP and a marker for glutamatergic neurons. We also found that the cholinergic cells and axons of cranial nerve nuclei 3, 4, 6, 7,10 and 12 colocalize NPNFP. The data suggest that NPNFP is expressed by a subset of glutamatergic projection neurons of the vestibular brainstem. NPNFP may be a marker for those cells that are especially vulnerable to the effects of normal aging, neurological disease or disruption of sensory input.

  13. Brain Activations for Vestibular Stimulation and Dual Tasking Change with Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Peng; Koppelmans, Vincent; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia; De Dios, Yiri; Gadd, Nichole; Wood, Scott; Riascos, Roy; Kofman, Igor; Bloomberg, Jacob; Mulavara, Ajitkumar; hide

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have documented the effects of spaceflight on human physiology and behavior, including muscle mass, cardiovascular function, gait, balance, manual motor control, and cognitive performance. An understanding of spaceflight-related changes provides important information about human adaptive plasticity and facilitates future space travel. In the current study, we evaluated how brain activations associated with vestibular stimulation and dual tasking change as a function of spaceflight. Five crewmembers were included in this study. The durations of their spaceflight missions ranged from 3 months to 7 months. All of them completed at least two preflight assessments and at least one postflight assessment. The preflight sessions occurred, on average, about 198 days and 51 days before launch; the first postflight sessions were scheduled 5 days after return. Functional MRI was acquired during vestibular stimulation and dual tasking, at each session. Vestibular stimulation was administered via skull taps delivered by a pneumatic tactile pulse system placed over the lateral cheekbones. The magnitude of brain activations for vestibular stimulation increased with spaceflight relative to the preflight levels, in frontal areas and the precuneus. In addition, longer flight duration was associated with greater preflight-to-postflight increases in vestibular activation in frontal regions. Functional MRI for finger tapping was acquired during both single-task (finger tapping only) and dual-task (simultaneously performing finger tapping and a secondary counting task) conditions. Preflight-to-post-spaceflight decreases in brain activations for dual tasking were observed in the right postcentral cortex. An association between flight duration and amplitude of flight-related change in activations for dual tasking was observed in the parietal cortex. The spaceflight-related increase in vestibular brain activations suggests that after a long-term spaceflight, more neural

  14. Idiopathic scoliosis and the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawasli, Ammar H; Hullar, Timothy E; Dorward, Ian G

    2015-02-01

    Despite its high prevalence, the etiology underlying idiopathic scoliosis remains unclear. Although initial scrutiny has focused on genetic, biochemical, biomechanical, nutritional and congenital causes, there is growing evidence that aberrations in the vestibular system may play a role in the etiology of scoliosis. In this article, we discuss putative mechanisms for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and review the current evidence supporting a role for the vestibular system in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. A comprehensive search of the English literature was performed using PubMed ( http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed ). Research articles studying interactions between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and the vestibular system were selected and evaluated for inclusion in a literature review. Eighteen manuscripts of level 3-4 clinical evidence to support an association between adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) and dysfunction of the vestibular system were identified. These studies include data from physiologic and morphologic studies in humans. Clinical data are supported by animal model studies to suggest a causative link between the vestibular system and AIS. Clinical data and a limited number of animal model studies suggest a causative role of the vestibular system in AIS, although this association has not been reproduced in all studies.

  15. Nitric oxide in the rat vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, A; Blythe, W R; Zdanski, C J; Prazma, J; Pillsbury, H C

    1994-10-01

    Nitric oxide is known to function as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. It is also known to be involved in the central nervous system excitatory amino acid neurotransmission cascade. Activation of excitatory amino acid receptors causes an influx of calcium, which activates nitric oxide synthase. The resulting increase in intracellular nitric oxide activates soluble guanylate cyclase, leading to a rise in cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The excitatory amino acids glutamate and aspartate are found in the vestibular system and have been postulated to function as vestibular system neurotransmitters. Although nitric oxide has been investigated as a neurotransmitter in other tissues, no published studies have examined the role of nitric oxide in the vestibular system. Neuronal NADPH-diaphorase has been characterized as a nitric oxide synthase. This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of L-arginine to L-citrulline, producing nitric oxide during the reaction. We used a histochemical stain characterized by Hope et al. (Proc Natl Acad Sci 1991;88:2811) as specific for neuronal nitric oxide synthase to localize the enzyme in the rat vestibular system. An immunocytochemical stain was used to examine rat inner ear tissue for the presence of the enzyme's end product, L-citrulline, thereby demonstrating nitric oxide synthase activity. Staining of vestibular ganglion sections showed nitric oxide synthase presence and activity in ganglion cells and nerve fibers. These results indicate the presence of active nitric oxide synthase in these tissues and suggest modulation of vestibular neurotransmission by nitric oxide.

  16. Vestibular function assessment using the NIH Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Michael C.; Whitney, Susan L.; Roberts, Dale; Redfern, Mark S.; Musolino, Mark C.; Roche, Jennica L.; Steed, Daniel P.; Corbin, Bree; Lin, Chia-Cheng; Marchetti, Greg F.; Beaumont, Jennifer; Carey, John P.; Shepard, Neil P.; Jacobson, Gary P.; Wrisley, Diane M.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Furman, Gabriel; Slotkin, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Development of an easy to administer, low-cost test of vestibular function. Methods: Members of the NIH Toolbox Sensory Domain Vestibular, Vision, and Motor subdomain teams collaborated to identify 2 tests: 1) Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA), and 2) the Balance Accelerometry Measure (BAM). Extensive work was completed to identify and develop appropriate software and hardware. More than 300 subjects between the ages of 3 and 85 years, with and without vestibular dysfunction, were recruited and tested. Currently accepted gold standard measures of static visual acuity, vestibular function, dynamic visual acuity, and balance were performed to determine validity. Repeat testing was performed to examine reliability. Results: The DVA and BAM tests are affordable and appropriate for use for individuals 3 through 85 years of age. The DVA had fair to good reliability (0.41–0.94) and sensitivity and specificity (50%–73%), depending on age and optotype chosen. The BAM test was moderately correlated with center of pressure (r = 0.42–0.48) and dynamic posturography (r = −0.48), depending on age and test condition. Both tests differentiated those with and without vestibular impairment and the young from the old. Each test was reliable. Conclusion: The newly created DVA test provides a valid measure of visual acuity with the head still and moving quickly. The novel BAM is a valid measure of balance. Both tests are sensitive to age-related changes and are able to screen for impairment of the vestibular system. PMID:23479540

  17. Vestibular function assessment using the NIH Toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rine, Rosemarie M; Schubert, Michael C; Whitney, Susan L; Roberts, Dale; Redfern, Mark S; Musolino, Mark C; Roche, Jennica L; Steed, Daniel P; Corbin, Bree; Lin, Chia-Cheng; Marchetti, Greg F; Beaumont, Jennifer; Carey, John P; Shepard, Neil P; Jacobson, Gary P; Wrisley, Diane M; Hoffman, Howard J; Furman, Gabriel; Slotkin, Jerry

    2013-03-12

    Development of an easy to administer, low-cost test of vestibular function. Members of the NIH Toolbox Sensory Domain Vestibular, Vision, and Motor subdomain teams collaborated to identify 2 tests: 1) Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA), and 2) the Balance Accelerometry Measure (BAM). Extensive work was completed to identify and develop appropriate software and hardware. More than 300 subjects between the ages of 3 and 85 years, with and without vestibular dysfunction, were recruited and tested. Currently accepted gold standard measures of static visual acuity, vestibular function, dynamic visual acuity, and balance were performed to determine validity. Repeat testing was performed to examine reliability. The DVA and BAM tests are affordable and appropriate for use for individuals 3 through 85 years of age. The DVA had fair to good reliability (0.41-0.94) and sensitivity and specificity (50%-73%), depending on age and optotype chosen. The BAM test was moderately correlated with center of pressure (r = 0.42-0.48) and dynamic posturography (r = -0.48), depending on age and test condition. Both tests differentiated those with and without vestibular impairment and the young from the old. Each test was reliable. The newly created DVA test provides a valid measure of visual acuity with the head still and moving quickly. The novel BAM is a valid measure of balance. Both tests are sensitive to age-related changes and are able to screen for impairment of the vestibular system.

  18. Unilateral Vestibular Loss Impairs External Space Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Liliane; Redon-Zouiteni, Christine; Cauvin, Pierre; Dumitrescu, Michel; Devèze, Arnaud; Magnan, Jacques; Péruch, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal) and far (extrapersonal) spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation), and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss. PMID:24523916

  19. Unilateral vestibular loss impairs external space representation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Borel

    Full Text Available The vestibular system is responsible for a wide range of postural and oculomotor functions and maintains an internal, updated representation of the position and movement of the head in space. In this study, we assessed whether unilateral vestibular loss affects external space representation. Patients with Menière's disease and healthy participants were instructed to point to memorized targets in near (peripersonal and far (extrapersonal spaces in the absence or presence of a visual background. These individuals were also required to estimate their body pointing direction. Menière's disease patients were tested before unilateral vestibular neurotomy and during the recovery period (one week and one month after the operation, and healthy participants were tested at similar times. Unilateral vestibular loss impaired the representation of both the external space and the body pointing direction: in the dark, the configuration of perceived targets was shifted toward the lesioned side and compressed toward the contralesioned hemifield, with higher pointing error in the near space. Performance varied according to the time elapsed after neurotomy: deficits were stronger during the early stages, while gradual compensation occurred subsequently. These findings provide the first demonstration of the critical role of vestibular signals in the representation of external space and of body pointing direction in the early stages after unilateral vestibular loss.

  20. Vestibular schwannoma: negative growth and audiovestibular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stipkovits, E M; Graamans, K; Van Dijk, J E

    2001-11-01

    At the University Medical Center Utrecht, non-operative management was used for 44 patients with a unilateral vestibular schwannoma between 1990 and 1997. During that period, consecutive tumor sizes were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Three of the 44 patients showed an average decrease in tumor size of 16.7% according to American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery standards. This study describes the initial vestibular status and audiometric changes measured over up to 10 years in these three patients. Vestibular function was determined once, by means of the bithermal caloric test, the torsion test, the saccade test, the smooth pursuit test, and the registration of spontaneous nystagmus. The three patients had severe vestibular paresis on the affected side. Pure-tone and speech audiometry were performed at regular intervals. Although the size of their tumors decreased, their hearing gradually deteriorated, just as it does in the majority of patients with a growing or stable vestibular schwannoma. The observations presented here suggest that the development of symptoms in a vestibular schwannoma does not differentiate between patients with a stable, growing or shrinking tumor. The development of symptoms may be the result of the same pathogenetic mechanism.

  1. A business management- and workflow-orientated information system in the Universidad Nacional de Colombia: perspectives and case-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Jiménez Olea

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents an introduction to a case study concerning the academic secretariat, a dependency of the School of Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Colombia. A methodological approach towards implemen-ting Business management (BM / Workflow Management System (WMS, using an open source code, aimed at making significant improvements in the School of Engineering’s administrative processes, particularly how teacher’s applications are dealt with. This was to optimise the secretariat’s functional performance and create knowledge in this field; general considerations are given. The possible implementation of an integral BPM- and WMS-orientated information system at the academic secretariat (seen as automating key processes may result in satisfying external and internal clients, through advantages such as reduced cost, waiting time and paperwork, plus improved use of information.

  2. Agent-oriented privacy-based information brokering architecture for healthcare environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaud-Wahaishi, Abdulmutalib; Ghenniwa, Hamada

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare industry is facing a major reform at all levels-locally, regionally, nationally, and internationally. Healthcare services and systems become very complex and comprise of a vast number of components (software systems, doctors, patients, etc.) that are characterized by shared, distributed and heterogeneous information sources with varieties of clinical and other settings. The challenge now faced with decision making, and management of care is to operate effectively in order to meet the information needs of healthcare personnel. Currently, researchers, developers, and systems engineers are working toward achieving better efficiency and quality of service in various sectors of healthcare, such as hospital management, patient care, and treatment. This paper presents a novel information brokering architecture that supports privacy-based information gathering in healthcare. Architecturally, the brokering is viewed as a layer of services where a brokering service is modeled as an agent with a specific architecture and interaction protocol that are appropriate to serve various requests. Within the context of brokering, we model privacy in terms of the entities ability to hide or reveal information related to its identities, requests, and/or capabilities. A prototype of the proposed architecture has been implemented to support information-gathering capabilities in healthcare environments using FIPA-complaint platform JADE.

  3. Avaliação do efeito da cafeína no teste vestibular Evaluation of the caffeine effect in the vestibular test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Felipe

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Há controvérsias sobre a interferência da cafeína no teste vestibular. O café é a fonte mais rica em cafeína. Enquanto em alguns serviços os pacientes são orientados a suspender a ingestão de café 24 a 48 horas antes da realização do teste, outros não consideram necessária a suspensão da ingestão dessa bebida. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito da cafeína no resultado do teste vestibular. FORMA DE ESTUDO: clínico com coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo comparativo, transversal, pareado. O teste vestibular foi realizado em duplicidade, com intervalo máximo de cinco dias entre um e outro exame. No primeiro teste, os pacientes foram orientados a não ingerir café 24 horas antes do exame; no segundo teste, os pacientes foram orientados a beber café como de costume. Todos os participantes tinham indicação clínica de se submeter ao teste vestibular e tinham o hábito de tomar café. RESULTADOS: Participaram do estudo 19 mulheres com idade média de 49,5 anos. O consumo médio de café foi de três xícaras por dia. As queixas de ansiedade e cefaléia foram associadas ao teste realizado com suspensão do café. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significante nos resultados dos exames realizados com e sem ingestão de café. CONCLUSÃO: A ingestão moderada de café não interferiu no resultado do teste vestibular. Considerando ser recomendável que o paciente esteja tranqüilo ao se submeter ao teste vestibular e que a meia-vida da cafeína é de apenas seis horas, sugerimos que a orientação para a suspensão súbita e completa da ingestão moderada de café antes do teste vestibular para os indivíduos habituados à ingestão diária seja reavaliada.Exist controversy about the interference of the caffeine in the vestibular test. Coffee is the richest source of caffeine. While in some services, the patients were orient to suspend the ingestion of caffeine 24 to 48 hours before the vestibular test, other not consider

  4. Assessment of the Quality of Patient-Orientated Information on Surgery for Crohn's Disease on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Trevor M; Sacchi, Matteo; Mortensen, Neil J; Spinelli, Antonino

    2015-09-01

    The Internet is a vast resource for patients to search for health information on the treatment of Crohn's disease. This study examines the quality of Web sites that provide information to adults regarding Crohn's disease, including treatment options and surgery. Two search engines (Google and Yahoo) and the search terms "surgery for Crohn's disease" were used. The first 50 sites of each search were assessed. Sites that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were evaluated for content and scored by using the DISCERN instrument, which evaluates the quality of health information on treatment choices. One hundred sites were examined, of which 13 were duplicates. Sixty-two sites provided patient-orientated information. The other sites included 7 scientific articles, 3 blogs, 2 links, 6 forums, 3 video links, and 4 dead links. Of the 62 Web sites that provided patient information for adults, only 15 (24.2%) had been updated within the past 2 years. Only 9 (14.5%) were affiliated with hospitals and clinics. The majority of sites (33, 53.2%) were associated with private companies with commercial interests. Only half of the Web sites provided details on treatment options, and most Web sites did not provide any information on symptoms and procedure details. Just 5 Web sites (8.1%) described the risks of surgery, and only 7 (11.3%) provided any information on the timescale for recovery. Overall, only 1 Web site (1.6%) was identified as being "good" or "excellent" with the use of the DISCERN criteria. Although the internet is constantly evolving, this study captures data at a specific time point. Search results may vary depending on geographical location. This study only assessed English language websites. The quality of patient information on surgery for Crohn's disease is highly variable and generally poor. There is potential for the Internet to provide valuable information, and clinicians should identify high-quality Web sites to guide their patients.

  5. Newborn screening healthcare information system based on service-oriented architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sung-Huai; Hsieh, Sheau-Ling; Chien, Yin-Hsiu; Weng, Yung-Ching; Hsu, Kai-Ping; Chen, Chi-Huang; Tu, Chien-Ming; Wang, Zhenyu; Lai, Feipei

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we established a newborn screening system under the HL7/Web Services frameworks. We rebuilt the NTUH Newborn Screening Laboratory's original standalone architecture, having various heterogeneous systems operating individually, and restructured it into a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA), distributed platform for further integrity and enhancements of sample collections, testing, diagnoses, evaluations, treatments or follow-up services, screening database management, as well as collaboration, communication among hospitals; decision supports and improving screening accuracy over the Taiwan neonatal systems are also addressed. In addition, the new system not only integrates the newborn screening procedures among phlebotomy clinics, referral hospitals, as well as the newborn screening center in Taiwan, but also introduces new models of screening procedures for the associated, medical practitioners. Furthermore, it reduces the burden of manual operations, especially the reporting services, those were heavily dependent upon previously. The new system can accelerate the whole procedures effectively and efficiently. It improves the accuracy and the reliability of the screening by ensuring the quality control during the processing as well.

  6. The Vestibular Implant Input Interacts with Residual Natural Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond van de Berg

    2017-12-01

    “natural” input. “Artificial” VI-input was able to significantly influence and counteract the response to residual “natural” input.ConclusionIn the acute phase of VI-activation, residual “natural” input and “artificial” VI-input interact to generate eye movement responses in a non-linear fashion. This implies that different stimulation paradigms and more complex signal processing strategies will be required unless the brain is able to optimally combine both sources of information after adaptation during chronic use. Next to this, these findings could pave the way for using the VI as “vestibular pacemaker.”

  7. The Vestibular Implant Input Interacts with Residual Natural Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Berg, Raymond; Guinand, Nils; Ranieri, Maurizio; Cavuscens, Samuel; Khoa Nguyen, T A; Guyot, Jean-Philippe; Lucieer, Florence; Starkov, Dmitrii; Kingma, Herman; van Hoof, Marc; Perez-Fornos, Angelica

    2017-01-01

    residual "natural" input. In the acute phase of VI-activation, residual "natural" input and "artificial" VI-input interact to generate eye movement responses in a non-linear fashion. This implies that different stimulation paradigms and more complex signal processing strategies will be required unless the brain is able to optimally combine both sources of information after adaptation during chronic use. Next to this, these findings could pave the way for using the VI as "vestibular pacemaker."

  8. Central adaptation to repeated galvanic vestibular stimulation: implications for pre-flight astronaut training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Dilda

    Full Text Available Healthy subjects (N = 10 were exposed to 10-min cumulative pseudorandom bilateral bipolar Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS on a weekly basis for 12 weeks (120 min total exposure. During each trial subjects performed computerized dynamic posturography and eye movements were measured using digital video-oculography. Follow up tests were conducted 6 weeks and 6 months after the 12-week adaptation period. Postural performance was significantly impaired during GVS at first exposure, but recovered to baseline over a period of 7-8 weeks (70-80 min GVS exposure. This postural recovery was maintained 6 months after adaptation. In contrast, the roll vestibulo-ocular reflex response to GVS was not attenuated by repeated exposure. This suggests that GVS adaptation did not occur at the vestibular end-organs or involve changes in low-level (brainstem-mediated vestibulo-ocular or vestibulo-spinal reflexes. Faced with unreliable vestibular input, the cerebellum reweighted sensory input to emphasize veridical extra-vestibular information, such as somatosensation, vision and visceral stretch receptors, to regain postural function. After a period of recovery subjects exhibited dual adaption and the ability to rapidly switch between the perturbed (GVS and natural vestibular state for up to 6 months.

  9. Optimizing the sensitivity of the head thrust test for identifying vestibular hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Michael C; Tusa, Ronald J; Grine, Lawrence E; Herdman, Susan J

    2004-02-01

    The head thrust test (HTT) is used to assess the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) in patients following vestibular ablation is excellent (100%), although sensitivity is lower (35%-39%) for patients with nonsurgically induced UVH. The variability of the test results may be from moving the subject's head outside the plane of the lateral semicircular canals as well as using a head thrust of predictable timing and direction. The purpose of this study was to examine sensitivity and specificity of the horizontal HTT in identifying patients with UVH and bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) when the head was flexed 30 degrees in attempt to induce acceleration primarily in the lateral semicircular canal and the head was moved unpredictably. The medical records of 176 people with and without vestibular dysfunction (n=79 with UVH, n=32 with BVH, and n=65 with nonvestibular dizziness) were studied. Data were retrospectively tabulated from a de-identified database (ie, with health information stripped of all identifiers). Sensitivity of the HTT for identifying vestibular hypofunction was 71% for UVH and 84% for BVH. Specificity was 82%. Ensuring the head is pitched 30 degrees down and thrust with an unpredictable timing and direction appears to improve sensitivity of the HTT.

  10. Vestibular ablation and a semicircular canal prosthesis affect postural stability during head turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lara A.; Haburcakova, Csilla; Lewis, Richard F.

    2016-01-01

    In our study, we examined postural stability during head turns for two rhesus monkeys: one, single animal study contrasted normal and mild bilateral vestibular ablation and a second animal study contrasted severe bilateral vestibular ablation with and without prosthetic stimulation. The monkeys freely stood, unrestrained on a balance platform and made voluntary head turns between visual targets. To quantify each animals’ posture, motions of the head and trunk, as well as torque about the body’s center-of-mass, were measured. In the mildly ablated animal, we observed less foretrunk sway in comparison to the normal state. When the canal prosthesis provided electric stimulation to the severely ablated animal, it showed a decrease in trunk sway during head turns. Because the rhesus monkey with severe bilateral vestibular loss exhibited a decrease in trunk sway when receiving vestibular prosthetic stimulation, we propose that the prosthetic electrical stimulation partially restored head velocity information. Our results provide an indication that a semicircular canal prosthesis may be an effective way to improve postural stability in patients with severe peripheral vestibular dysfunction. PMID:27405997

  11. Up, Down, Near, Far: An Online Vestibular Contribution to Distance Judgement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Török, Ágoston; Ferrè, Elisa Raffaella; Kokkinara, Elena; Csépe, Valéria; Swapp, David; Haggard, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Whether a visual stimulus seems near or far away depends partly on its vertical elevation. Contrasting theories suggest either that perception of distance could vary with elevation, because of memory of previous upwards efforts in climbing to overcome gravity, or because of fear of falling associated with the downwards direction. The vestibular system provides a fundamental signal for the downward direction of gravity, but the relation between this signal and depth perception remains unexplored. Here we report an experiment on vestibular contributions to depth perception, using Virtual Reality. We asked participants to judge the absolute distance of an object presented on a plane at different elevations during brief artificial vestibular inputs. Relative to distance estimates collected with the object at the level of horizon, participants tended to overestimate distances when the object was presented above the level of horizon and the head was tilted upward and underestimate them when the object was presented below the level of horizon. Interestingly, adding artificial vestibular inputs strengthened these distance biases, showing that online multisensory signals, and not only stored information, contribute to such distance illusions. Our results support the gravity theory of depth perception, and show that vestibular signals make an on-line contribution to the perception of effort, and thus of distance.

  12. Up, Down, Near, Far: An Online Vestibular Contribution to Distance Judgement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ágoston Török

    Full Text Available Whether a visual stimulus seems near or far away depends partly on its vertical elevation. Contrasting theories suggest either that perception of distance could vary with elevation, because of memory of previous upwards efforts in climbing to overcome gravity, or because of fear of falling associated with the downwards direction. The vestibular system provides a fundamental signal for the downward direction of gravity, but the relation between this signal and depth perception remains unexplored. Here we report an experiment on vestibular contributions to depth perception, using Virtual Reality. We asked participants to judge the absolute distance of an object presented on a plane at different elevations during brief artificial vestibular inputs. Relative to distance estimates collected with the object at the level of horizon, participants tended to overestimate distances when the object was presented above the level of horizon and the head was tilted upward and underestimate them when the object was presented below the level of horizon. Interestingly, adding artificial vestibular inputs strengthened these distance biases, showing that online multisensory signals, and not only stored information, contribute to such distance illusions. Our results support the gravity theory of depth perception, and show that vestibular signals make an on-line contribution to the perception of effort, and thus of distance.

  13. Needs for Developing Culturally Oriented Supportive Learning with the Aid of Information and Communication Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologou, Nektaria

    2009-01-01

    This article demonstrates the inadequacy of access and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and networked learning for many people in non-Western societies and for those who belong to ethno-cultural minority groups. Especially, immigrants have great needs in the domain of learning the language of the host country as a foreign…

  14. An Employment-Oriented Definition of the Information Systems Field: An Educator's View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Ralph D.

    2012-01-01

    Defining information systems has been a longstanding problem for the field. This paper suggests that, since it may not be possible to develop a universal definition, consideration should be given to a plurality of definitions aligned toward specific purposes. As an implementation of this approach it recommends the following shorter definition for…

  15. Click-evoked responses in vestibular afferents in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu, Hong; Tang, Xuehui; Wei, Wei; Mustain, William; Xu, Youguo; Zhou, Wu

    2011-01-01

    Sound activates not only the cochlea but also the vestibular end organs. Research on this phenomenon led to the discovery of the sound-evoked vestibular myogenic potentials recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscles...

  16. Expression of calcium-binding proteins and nNOS in the human vestibular and precerebellar brainstem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baizer, Joan S; Broussard, Dianne M

    2010-03-15

    Information about the position and movement of the head in space is coded by vestibular receptors and relayed to four nuclei that comprise the vestibular nuclear complex (VNC). Many additional brainstem nuclei are involved in the processing of vestibular information, receiving signals either directly from the eighth nerve or indirectly via projections from the VNC. In cats, squirrel monkeys, and macaque monkeys, we found neurochemically defined subdivisions within the medial vestibular nucleus (MVe) and within the functionally related nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (PrH). In humans, different studies disagree about the borders, sizes, and possible subdivisions of the vestibular brainstem. In an attempt to clarify this organization, we have begun an analysis of the neurochemical characteristics of the human using brains from the Witelson Normal Brain Collection and standard techniques for antigen retrieval and immunohistochemistry. Using antibodies to calbindin, calretinin, parvalbumin, and nitric oxide synthase, we find neurochemically defined subdivisions within the MVe similar to the subdivisions described in cats and monkeys. The neurochemical organization of PrH is different. We also find unique neurochemical profiles for several structures that suggest reclassification of nuclei. These data suggest both quantitative and qualitative differences among cats, monkeys, and humans in the organization of the vestibular brainstem. These results have important implications for the analysis of changes in that organization subsequent to aging, disease, or loss of input.

  17. Integration of hybrid wireless networks in cloud services oriented enterprise information systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shancang; Xu, Lida; Wang, Xinheng; Wang, Jue

    2012-05-01

    This article presents a hybrid wireless network integration scheme in cloud services-based enterprise information systems (EISs). With the emerging hybrid wireless networks and cloud computing technologies, it is necessary to develop a scheme that can seamlessly integrate these new technologies into existing EISs. By combining the hybrid wireless networks and computing in EIS, a new framework is proposed, which includes frontend layer, middle layer and backend layers connected to IP EISs. Based on a collaborative architecture, cloud services management framework and process diagram are presented. As a key feature, the proposed approach integrates access control functionalities within the hybrid framework that provide users with filtered views on available cloud services based on cloud service access requirements and user security credentials. In future work, we will implement the proposed framework over SwanMesh platform by integrating the UPnP standard into an enterprise information system.

  18. Action-oriented knowledge, Information and Communcation Technology and Action Competence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B. B.; Simovska, Venka

    2005-01-01

    In this chapter we address the action-focused approach to teaching about health and its interplay with the use of information and communication technology (ICT) within the framework of the health promoting schools approach. The overall framework for the discussion is shaped by the distinction...... outcomes and it is concerned with the development of pupils? ?action competence? or ability to act to bring about positive changes with regard to health matters whereas the moralistic approach is concerned with promoting information and encouraging behaviour change. We begin by discussing the concept...... of action competence and presenting a four-dimensional model of the knowledge ?landscape? which represents a key constituent of action competence. The theoretical discussion is then illuminated with a case study drawing on the work of one group of schools within the web-based international project ?Young...

  19. Pragmatic oriented data interoperability for smart\\ud healthcare information systems

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shixiong; Li, Vicky; Liu, Kecheng

    2014-01-01

    Smart healthcare is a complex domain for systems\\ud integration due to human and technical factors and\\ud heterogeneous data sources involved. As a part of smart city, it is such a complex area where clinical functions require smartness of multi-systems collaborations for effective communications among departments, and radiology is one of the areas highly relies on intelligent information integration and communication. Therefore, it faces many challenges regarding integration and its\\ud inter...

  20. ScolioMedIS: web-oriented information system for idiopathic scoliosis visualization and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devedžić, Goran; Cuković, Saša; Luković, Vanja; Milošević, Danijela; Subburaj, K; Luković, Tanja

    2012-11-01

    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis is the most common type of abnormal curvature observed in spine and it progresses rapidly during the puberty period. The most followed clinical way of assessing the spinal deformity is subjective by measuring the characteristic angles of spinal curve from a set of radiographic images. This paper presents a web-based information system (called ScolioMedIS) based on parameterized 3D anatomical models of the spine to quantitatively assess the deformity and to minimize the amount of radiation exposure by reducing the number of radiographs required. The main components of the system are 3D parametric solid model of spine, back surfaces, relevant clinical information and scoliosis ontology. The patient-specific spine model is regenerated from the parametric model and surface data using anatomical information extracted from radiographic images. The system is designed to take inherent advantage of Web for facilitating multi-center data collection and collaborative clinical decisions. The preliminary analysis of patient data showed promising results, which involve improved documentation standard, clinical decision knowledge base record, facilitated exchange and retrieval of medical data between institutions in multi-center clinical studies, 3D visualization of spinal deformity, and permanent monitoring of treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pygrass: An Object Oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Ciolli

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available PyGRASS is an object-oriented Python Application Programming Interface (API for Geographic Resources Analysis Support System (GRASS Geographic Information System (GIS, a powerful open source GIS widely used in academia, commercial settings and governmental agencies. We present the architecture of the PyGRASS library, covering interfaces to GRASS modules, vector and raster data, with a focus on the new capabilities that it provides to GRASS users and developers. Our design concept of the module interface allows the direct linking of inputs and outputs of GRASS modules to create process chains, including compatibility checks, process control and error handling. The module interface was designed to be easily extended to work with remote processing services (Web Processing Service (WPS, Web Service Definition Language (WSDL/Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. The new object-oriented Python programming API introduces an abstract layer that opens the possibility to use and access transparently the efficient raster and vector functions of GRASS that are implemented in C. The design goal was to provide an easy to use, but powerful, Python interface for users and developers who are not familiar with the programming language C and with the GRASS C-API. We demonstrate the capabilities, scalability and performance of PyGRASS with several dedicated tests and benchmarks. We compare and discuss the results of the benchmarks with dedicated C implementations.

  2. Auditory and Vestibular Issues Related to Human Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, Richard W.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Human spaceflight provides unique opportunities to study human vestibular and auditory systems. This session will discuss 1) vestibular adaptive processes reflected by pronounced perceptual and motor coordination problems during, and after, space missions; 2) vestibular diagnostic and rehabilitative techniques (used to promote recovery after living in altered gravity environments) that may be relevant to treatment of vestibular disorders on earth; and 3) unique acoustical challenges to hearing loss prevention and crew performance during spaceflight missions.

  3. Interactive Healthcare Systems in the Home: Vestibular Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarhus, Rikke; Grönvall, Erik; Larsen, Simon Bo

    2010-01-01

    Vestibular dysfunction is a balance disorder, causing dizziness that provokes discomfort and fall situations. This paper discusses early results from a project that aims to develop assistive technologies to support home-based rehabilitation for elderly affected by Vestibular dysfunction.......Vestibular dysfunction is a balance disorder, causing dizziness that provokes discomfort and fall situations. This paper discusses early results from a project that aims to develop assistive technologies to support home-based rehabilitation for elderly affected by Vestibular dysfunction....

  4. The thalamocortical vestibular system in animals and humans

    OpenAIRE

    LOPEZ, Christophe; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-01-01

    The vestibular system provides the brain with sensory signals about three-dimensional head rotations and translations. These signals are important for postural and oculomotor control, as well as for spatial and bodily perception and cognition, and they are subtended by pathways running from the vestibular nuclei to the thalamus, cerebellum and the "vestibular cortex." The present review summarizes current knowledge on the anatomy of the thalamocortical vestibular system and discusses data fro...

  5. Transforming a research-oriented dataset for evaluation of tactical information extraction technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Heather; Kase, Sue E.; Knight, Joanne

    2016-05-01

    The most representative and accurate data for testing and evaluating information extraction technologies is real-world data. Real-world operational data can provide important insights into human and sensor characteristics, interactions, and behavior. However, several challenges limit the feasibility of experimentation with real-world operational data. Realworld data lacks the precise knowledge of a "ground truth," a critical factor for benchmarking progress of developing automated information processing technologies. Additionally, the use of real-world data is often limited by classification restrictions due to the methods of collection, procedures for processing, and tactical sensitivities related to the sources, events, or objects of interest. These challenges, along with an increase in the development of automated information extraction technologies, are fueling an emerging demand for operationally-realistic datasets for benchmarking. An approach to meet this demand is to create synthetic datasets, which are operationally-realistic yet unclassified in content. The unclassified nature of these unclassified synthetic datasets facilitates the sharing of data between military and academic researchers thus increasing coordinated testing efforts. This paper describes the expansion and augmentation of two synthetic text datasets, one initially developed through academic research collaborations with the Army. Both datasets feature simulated tactical intelligence reports regarding fictitious terrorist activity occurring within a counterinsurgency (COIN) operation. The datasets were expanded and augmented to create two military relevant datasets. The first resulting dataset was created by augmenting and merging the two to create a single larger dataset containing ground-truth. The second resulting dataset was restructured to more realistically represent the format and content of intelligence reports. The dataset transformation effort, the final datasets, and their

  6. THE VISUAL COMMUNICATION FOR ORIENTATION IN THE INFORMAL ORIGIN ÁREAS OF THE CITY

    OpenAIRE

    LUIS OTÁVIO NOGUEIRA PESSÔA

    2007-01-01

    Esta pesquisa analisa a comunicação visual para orientação no espaço urbano da Cidade do Rio de Janeiro, seus emissores, veículos e receptores, com o propósito de avaliar a sua abrangência discursiva e especular sobre seu provável potencial de aproximação entre as áreas informais, ou de origem informal, e o conjunto da cidade, contribuindo para a declarada intenção da prefeitura de integrar todo o ambiente urbano. Retratando a realidade social e morfológica de c...

  7. LUMIS: Land Use Management and Information Systems; coordinate oriented program documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    An integrated geographic information system to assist program managers and planning groups in metropolitan regions is presented. The series of computer software programs and procedures involved in data base construction uses the census DIME file and point-in-polygon architectures. The system is described in two parts: (1) instructions to operators with regard to digitizing and editing procedures, and (2) application of data base construction algorithms to achieve map registration, assure the topological integrity of polygon files, and tabulate land use acreages within administrative districts.

  8. Longitudinal performance of an implantable vestibular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Christopher; Ling, Leo; Oxford, Trey; Nowack, Amy; Nie, Kaibao; Rubinstein, Jay T; Phillips, James O

    2015-04-01

    Loss of vestibular function may be treatable with an implantable vestibular prosthesis that stimulates semicircular canal afferents with biphasic pulse trains. Several studies have demonstrated short-term activation of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) with electrical stimulation. Fewer long-term studies have been restricted to small numbers of animals and stimulation designed to produce adaptive changes in the electrically elicited response. This study is the first large consecutive series of implanted rhesus macaque to be studied longitudinally using brief stimuli designed to limit adaptive changes in response, so that the efficacy of electrical activation can be studied over time, across surgeries, canals and animals. The implantation of a vestibular prosthesis in animals with intact vestibular end organs produces variable responses to electrical stimulation across canals and animals, which change in threshold for electrical activation of eye movements and in elicited slow phase velocities over time. These thresholds are consistently lower, and the slow phase velocities higher, than those obtained in human subjects. The changes do not appear to be correlated with changes in electrode impedance. The variability in response suggests that empirically derived transfer functions may be required to optimize the response of individual canals to a vestibular prosthesis, and that this function may need to be remapped over time. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Complications of Microsurgery of Vestibular Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Betka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to analyze complications of vestibular schwannoma (VS microsurgery. Material and Methods. A retrospective study was performed in 333 patients with unilateral vestibular schwannoma indicated for surgical treatment between January 1997 and December 2012. Postoperative complications were assessed immediately after VS surgery as well as during outpatient followup. Results. In all 333 patients microsurgical vestibular schwannoma (Koos grade 1: 12, grade 2: 34, grade 3: 62, and grade 4: 225 removal was performed. The main neurological complication was facial nerve dysfunction. The intermediate and poor function (HB III–VI was observed in 124 cases (45% immediately after surgery and in 104 cases (33% on the last followup. We encountered disordered vestibular compensation in 13%, permanent trigeminal nerve dysfunction in 1%, and transient lower cranial nerves (IX–XI deficit in 6%. Nonneurological complications included CSF leakage in 63% (lateral/medial variant: 99/1%, headache in 9%, and intracerebral hemorrhage in 5%. We did not encounter any case of meningitis. Conclusions. Our study demonstrates that despite the benefits of advanced high-tech equipment, refined microsurgical instruments, and highly developed neuroimaging technologies, there are still various and significant complications associated with vestibular schwannomas microsurgery.

  10. A review of the interrelationship between vestibular dysfunction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    problems and dyslexia were also associated with dysfunction of the vestibular system. Different tests evaluating vestibular loss were identified of which some can be used successfully by practitionars. Various programmes and activities were identified to successfully rehabilitate vestibular function. For better understanding ...

  11. Origin of vestibular dysfunction in Usher syndrome type 1B.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, J.; Alphen, A.M. van; Wagenaar, M.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Hoogenraad, C.C.; Hasson, T.; Koekkoek, S.K.; Bohne, B.A.; Zeeuw, C.I. de

    2001-01-01

    It is still debated to what extent the vestibular deficits in Usher patients are due to either central vestibulocerebellar or peripheral vestibular problems. Here, we determined the origin of the vestibular symptoms in Usher 1B patients by subjecting them to compensatory eye movement tests and by

  12. [The research progress of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulikemu, Yiming; Tang, Liang; Zhang, Jin

    2012-11-01

    Large vestibular aqueduct syndrome (LVAS) is one of common non-syndromic hearing disorders. With the rapid development of medical imaging, audiology, molecular biology, genetics, cochlear implant surgery, we have made remarkable achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of large vestibular aqueduct syndrome. This article reviewed related researches of the large vestibular aqueduct syndrome.

  13. The emerging role of corporate information systems: An example from the area of business process-oriented learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas, L.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Emerging business requirements, stemming from a holistic view over an organisation’s activities, place additional pressure on technical infrastructures and call for operational agility and a better alignment between business and technology. Business process oriented learning unites corporate training and business process management. Given the importance of an organisation’s human capital to business success, aligning individual training with business priorities, becomes a key challenge. The implementation of this new business service entails integrating learning into daily working tasks and putting in place mechanisms for the effective management of business processes, organisational roles, competencies and learning processes, to reduce the time to fill competency gaps and to build proficiency according to evolving business needs. In this paper we outline the main characteristics of this approach and provide insights regarding the changing role of the involved corporate information systems and the multiple aspects of the integration work.

  14. Information technologies at physics practicums in a subject-oriented school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tishchenko Lyudmila V.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper suggests a new method of implementing an activity approach in a physicsoriented program. Such method implies the use of a system which comprises three types of practical sessions: a laboratory practicum, a practical training aimed at analyzing physical processes on the basis of computerized modeling and a problem-solving practicum. A methodology used for holding practicums provides for an active use of information technologies. At laboratory sessions we use computerized sensors, tablets with an integrated data recorder, an electronic oscilloscope and process data in Excel tables. At practicums aimed at analyzing physical processes, we develop programs in Visual Basic and Рascal in order to visualize physical processes in the form of motion trajectories, dynamic charts; besides, we conduct computer experiments. At problem-solving practicums we use our own PowerPoint “Study Guide for an Interactive Whiteboard”, which contains a database of graphic and pictorial physics problems for students of 10–11 grades. Knowledge of information technologies facilitates students’ adaptation in modern society, improves education quality.

  15. Vestibular Schwannoma or acoustic neuroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hekmatara M

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Vestibular schwannoma is the most common tumor of the posterior fossa of the skull. Patients referred with the primary otologic symptoms such as hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, imbalance, and the cranial nerve palsy. Thirty-three patients were operated and treated by a team of otolaryngologist and neurosurgeon, anudiometrist, and internist. Patients'chiefcomplaint was due to 94% hearing loss and 27% tinnitus. They scarcely complain of vertigo. If a patient refers with the palsy or paralysis of facial nerve preoperation, we must think of the facial nerve schwannoma or hemangioma or congential cholestoma or malignant metastases rather than acoustic neuroma. The best way for preoperative diagnosis is audiometry, ABR (Auditory Brain Response, and SDS (speech discrimination score with 90% success, but computer Tomography (CT scan and MRI (Magnetic Resonance Image are the valuable anatomic diagnostic radiographic devices. The best method of operation is translabirynthine approach (TLA, since it has the advantages such as an easy access to nerve paths and being the nearest path to CPA (Cerebellopontine Angle. Physicians ought to talk to patients about the importance of the microscopic surgery, surgical methods, and their probable diverse effects such as hearing loss, facial nerve palsy, and intracranial problems.

  16. Performance Evaluation of Alternative Relative Orientation Procedures for UAV-based Imagery with Prior Flight Trajectory Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. He

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to recent advances at the hardware (e.g., emergence of reliable platforms at low cost and software (e.g., automated identification of conjugate points in overlapping images levels, UAV-based 3D reconstruction has been widely used in various applications. However, mitigating the impact of outliers in automatically matched points in UAV imagery, especially when dealing with scenes that has poor and/or repetitive texture, remains to be a challenging task. In spite of the fact that existing literature has already demonstrated that incorporating prior motion information can play an important role in increasing the reliability of the matching process, there is a lack of methodologies that are mainly suited for UAV imagery. Assuming the availability of prior information regarding the trajectory of a UAV-platform, this paper presents a two-point approach for reliable estimation of Relative Orientation Parameters (ROPs of UAV-based images. This approach is based on the assumption that the UAV platform is moving at a constant flying height while maintaining the camera in a nadir-looking orientation. For this flight scenario, a closed-form solution that can be derived using a minimum of two pairs of conjugate points is established. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed approach, experimental tests using real stereo-pairs acquired from different UAV platforms have been conducted. The derived results from the comparative performance analysis against the Nistér five-point approach demonstrate that the proposed two-point approach is capable of providing reliable estimate of the ROPs from UAV-based imagery in the presence of poor and/or repetitive texture with high percentage of matching outliers.

  17. Learning Processes of Students in Pre-Vocational Secondary Education: Relations between Goal Orientations, Information Processing Strategies and Development of Conceptual Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koopman, Maaike; Den Brok, Perry; Beijaard, Douwe; Teune, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relations between goal orientations, information processing strategies and development of conceptual knowledge of pre-vocational secondary education students (n = 719; 14 schools). Students' preferences for certain types of goals and information processing strategies were examined using questionnaires.…

  18. Lateral medullary syndrome following injury of the vestibular pathway to the core vestibular cortex: Diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Sang Seok; Jang, Sung Ho; Kwon, Jung Won

    2017-12-05

    The parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) is a core region of vestibular input into regions of the cortex. The vestibular nuclei have reciprocal connections with the PIVC. However, little is known about injury of the core vestibular pathway to the PIVC in patients with dorsolateral medullary infarctions. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we investigated injury of the neural connections between the vestibular nuclei and the PIVC in patients with typical central vestibular disorder. Eight consecutive patients with lateral medullary syndrome and 10 control subjects were recruited for this study. To reconstruct the core vestibular pathway to the PIVC, we defined the seed region of interest (ROI) as the vestibular nuclei of the pons and the target ROI as the PIVC. Fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and tract volume were measured. The core vestibular pathway to the PIVC showed significantly lower tract volume in patients compared with the control group (p0.05). In conclusion, injury of the core vestibular pathway to the PIVC was demonstrated in patients with lateral vestibular syndrome following dorsolateral medullary infarcts. We believe that analysis of the core vestibular pathway to the PIVC using DTT would be helpful in evaluating patients with lateral medullary syndrome. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. An Algorithm to Translate Building Topology in Building Information Modeling into Object-Oriented Physical Modeling-Based Building Energy Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WoonSeong Jeong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an algorithm to translate building topology in an object-oriented architectural building model (Building Information Modeling, BIM into an object-oriented physical-based energy performance simulation by using an object-oriented programming approach. Our algorithm demonstrates efficient mapping of building components in a BIM model into space boundary conditions in an object-oriented physical modeling (OOPM-based building energy model, and the translation of building topology into space boundary conditions to create an OOPM model. The implemented command, TranslatingBuildingTopology, using an object-oriented programming approach, enables graphical representation of the building topology of BIM models and the automatic generation of space boundaries information for OOPM models. The algorithm and its implementation allow coherent object-mapping from BIM to OOPM and facilitate the definition of space boundaries information during model translation for building thermal simulation. In order to demonstrate our algorithm and its implementation, we conducted experiments with three test cases using the BESTEST 600 model. Our experiments show that our algorithm and its implementation enable building topology information to be automatically translated into space boundary information, and facilitates the reuse of BIM data into building thermal simulations without additional export or import processes.

  20. Vestibular rehabilitation: useful but not universally so.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, David E; Gill-Body, Kathleen M; Parker, Stephen W; Ramirez, Jose V; Wernick-Robinson, Mara

    2003-02-01

    Although vestibular rehabilitation (VR) is gaining popularity, few data support its utility in improving locomotor stability, and no good predictors exist of whom will benefit most. A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of vestibular rehabilitation was conducted at a large tertiary care hospital on 124 patients (59 +/- 18 years old) with unilateral (n = 51) or bilateral (n = 73) vestibular hypofunction, of whom 86 completed a 12-week intervention. Of these 86, 27 returned for long-term (1-year) follow-up testing. The primary outcome measure was locomotor stability. Group A (6 weeks of VR) significantly (P VR; there were no group differences at 1 year. Of the 86 who completed the intervention, 52 (61%) had clear locomotor gains. VR is helpful for most patients in providing locomotor stability, but further work is needed to determine the factors that prevent VR from being effective for all patients with vestibulopathy.

  1. Eye Movements as Indicators of Vestibular Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshikova, Galina Ya; Kovalev, Artem I; Klimova, Oxana A; Chernorizov, Alexander M

    2015-01-01

    Virtual reality technologies are in wide use in sport psychology. An advantage of this kind of technology is the possibility to assess sportspeople's readiness to perform complex movements. This study is aimed at developing a method for the evaluation of vestibular function disturbances in young skaters. Such disturbances may occur while skaters are performing rotation movements. To achieve this goal, we induced a vection illusion, accompanied by virtual environment rotation in a CAVE virtual reality system. Vestibular disturbances were tested for two groups-professional skaters and people who had very little or no skating experience. The quantitative evaluation of vestibular dysfunction was based on eye movement characteristics, which were recorded in subjects experiencing a vection illusion. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Move it or lose it--is stimulation of the vestibular system necessary for normal spatial memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F; Darlington, Cynthia L; Zheng, Yiwen

    2010-01-01

    Studies in both experimental animals and human patients have demonstrated that peripheral vestibular lesions, especially bilateral lesions, are associated with spatial memory impairment that is long-lasting and may even be permanent. Electrophysiological evidence from animals indicates that bilateral vestibular loss causes place cells and theta activity to become dysfunctional; the most recent human evidence suggests that the hippocampus may cause atrophy in patients with bilateral vestibular lesions. Taken together, these studies suggest that self-motion information provided by the vestibular system is important for the development of spatial memory by areas of the brain such as the hippocampus, and when it is lost, spatial memory is impaired. This naturally suggests the converse possibility that activation of the vestibular system may enhance memory. Surprisingly, there is some human evidence that this may be the case. This review considers the relationship between the vestibular system and memory and suggests that the evolutionary age of this primitive sensory system as well as how it detects self-motion (i.e., detection of acceleration vs. velocity) may be the reasons for its unique contribution to spatial memory. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Vestibular rehabilitation following mild traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, James M; Hujsak, Bryan D; Kelly, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Vertigo, dizziness, and imbalance are a symptom complex that is commonly found following concussion. Early metabolic changes following concussion may lead to worsening of the injury and symptoms in individuals not properly managed from the outset. When symptoms do not recover spontaneously, skilled vestibular rehabilitation can be an effective modality in an attempt to normalize the individual's vestibular responses. The purpose of this review is to appraise the current and accepted methods available to the skilled clinician in quantifying and treating vestibular dysfunction following concussion. Incidence and prognostic indicators will be reviewed along with common barriers to recovery. Vestibular Rehabilitation following concussion utilizes similar tools and techniques employed when treating those solely with peripheral pathology. The clinician must not only have a solid understanding of when and why certain exercises are required, but also be willing to accept that less exercise may be indicated in this population. As injury to the system following mild traumatic brain injury can include both peripheral and central structures, the duration of therapy and the time to recovery may be prolonged. Co-morbidities including cognitive and behavioral issues, visual-perceptual dysfunction, metabolic dysfunction, and autonomic dysfunction may hamper the effectiveness of the traditional Vestibular Rehabilitation approach. As successful treatment does not occur in a vacuum, working closely with other disciplines well versed in treating these co-morbid issues will help the individual to obtain optimal recovery. Vestibular Rehabilitation is an effective modality for managing dizziness, vertigo, and imbalance following concussion. Careful consideration of the acuity of the injury, along with effective management of co-morbid conditions will optimize the result.

  4. RECORDING OF VESTIBULAR EVOKED MYOGENIC POTENTIALS

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    A. A. Sazgar

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been shown recently that loud clicks evoke myogenic potentials in the tonically contracting sternocleidomastoid muscles. Studies have suggested that these potentials are of vestibular origin, especially of the saccule and inferior vestibular nerve. A pilot study was undertaken in our hospital to record vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP for the first time in Iran. Eighteen healthy volunteers (32 ears without history of otologic or vestibular disorders were subjected to the VEMP test. Twenty-one patients (26 ears with unilateral (6 patients and bilateral (5 patients high frequency sensorineural hearing loss with unknown etiology, acoustic neuroma (1 patient, Meniere’s disease (4 patients and unilateral low frequency sensorineural hearing loss without vestibular complaint (5 patients were also enrolled in this study. VEMP response to clicks was obtained from 84.4% of ears of healthy subjects. These subjects demonstrated short latency waves to click stimuli during tonic neck flexor activation. Mean latencies of first positive (p13 and first negative (n23 potentials in healthy subjects were 12.45 ± 1.9 ms and 20.8 ± 3.5 ms, respectively. Median latencies of these two potentials were 12.1 and 19.3 ms, respectively. We could record VEMP in 5 patients with unilateral and all patients with high and low frequency sensorineural hearing loss without vestibular complaint. In the patient with acoustic neuroma VEMP was absent on the affected side. This technique may offer a new method to evaluate otolith and sacculocollic pathways in human.

  5. Patient with headache and peripheral vestibular dysfunction: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi,Tatiane Maria; Luciano,Naonne Santos Camargo; Oricoli, Polliay Freire; Marchiori,Luciana Lozza de Moraes; Melo, Juliana Jandre

    2009-01-01

    TEMA: a Reabilitação Vestibular constitui-se numa opção de tratamento para pacientes portadores de síndrome vestibular periférica e cefaleia. PROCEDIMENTOS: o paciente, do sexo feminino com 26 anos de idade apresentava síndrome vestibular periférica acompanhada de crises de cefaleia. Foi realizada avaliação e terapia fonoaudiológica com exercícios de habituação vestibular além de fisioterapia e dieta recomendada pelo nutricionista. RESULTADOS: no período de 3 meses com reabilitação vestibular...

  6. Non-linear Galilean vestibular receptive fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennequin, D; Berthoz, A

    2011-01-01

    We present a set of formulas for the receptive fields of the vestibular neurons that are motivated by Galilean invariance. We show that these formulas explain non-trivial data in neurophysiology, and suggest new hypothesis to be tested in dynamical 3D conditions. Moreover our model offers a way for neuronal computing with 3D displacements, which is reputed to be hard, underlying the vestibular reflexes. This computation is presented in a Bayesian framework. The basis of the model is the necessity of living bodies to work invariantly in space-time, allied to the necessary discreteness of neuronal transmission.

  7. The Skull Vibration-Induced Nystagmus Test of Vestibular Function—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Georges; Curthoys, Ian S.; Lion, Alexis; Perrin, Philippe; Schmerber, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    A 100-Hz bone-conducted vibration applied to either mastoid induces instantaneously a predominantly horizontal nystagmus, with quick phases beating away from the affected side in patients with a unilateral vestibular loss (UVL). The same stimulus in healthy asymptomatic subjects has little or no effect. This is skull vibration-induced nystagmus (SVIN), and it is a useful, simple, non-invasive, robust indicator of asymmetry of vestibular function and the side of the vestibular loss. The nystagmus is precisely stimulus-locked: it starts with stimulation onset and stops at stimulation offset, with no post-stimulation reversal. It is sustained during long stimulus durations; it is reproducible; it beats in the same direction irrespective of which mastoid is stimulated; it shows little or no habituation; and it is permanent—even well-compensated UVL patients show SVIN. A SVIN is observed under Frenzel goggles or videonystagmoscopy and recorded under videonystagmography in absence of visual-fixation and strong sedative drugs. Stimulus frequency, location, and intensity modify the results, and a large variability in skull morphology between people can modify the stimulus. SVIN to 100 Hz mastoid stimulation is a robust response. We describe the optimum method of stimulation on the basis of the literature data and testing more than 18,500 patients. Recent neural evidence clarifies which vestibular receptors are stimulated, how they cause the nystagmus, and why the same vibration in patients with semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) causes a nystagmus beating toward the affected ear. This review focuses not only on the optimal parameters of the stimulus and response of UVL and SCD patients but also shows how other vestibular dysfunctions affect SVIN. We conclude that the presence of SVIN is a useful indicator of the asymmetry of vestibular function between the two ears, but in order to identify which is the affected ear, other information and careful clinical judgment are

  8. Reporting success rates in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas: are we accounting for the natural history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Timothy; Lau, Tsz; Vasan, Rohit; Danner, Christopher; Youssef, A Samy; van Loveren, Harry; Agazzi, Siviero

    2014-06-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery is generally accepted as one of the best treatment options for vestibular schwannomas. We question whether growth control is an accurate measure of success in vestibular schwannoma treatment. We aim to clarify the success rate of stereotactic radiosurgery and adjust the reported results to the benign natural history of untreated tumors. All articles were taken from a PubMed search of the English literature from the years 2000-2011. Inclusion criteria were articles containing the number of patients treated, radiation technique, average tumor size, follow-up time, and percentage of tumors growing during follow-up. Data were extracted from 19 articles. Success rates were adjusted using published data that 17% to 30% of vestibular schwannomas grow. The average reported success rate for stereotactic radiosurgery across all articles was 95.5%. When considering 17% or 30% natural growth without intervention, the adjusted success rates became 78.2% and 86.9% respectively. These rates were obtained by applying the natural history growth percentages to any tumors not reported to be growing before radiosurgical intervention. Success in the treatment of vestibular schwannomas with stereotactic radiosurgery is often defined as lack of further growth. Recent data on the natural growth history of vestibular schwannomas raise the question of whether this is the best definition of success. We have identified a lack of continuity regarding the reporting of success and emphasize the importance of the clarification of the success of radiosurgery to make informed decisions regarding the best treatment options for vestibular schwannoma. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Visual-Vestibular Conflict Detection Depends on Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzorz, Isabelle T; MacNeilage, Paul R

    2017-09-25

    Visual and vestibular signals are the primary sources of sensory information for self-motion. Conflict among these signals can be seriously debilitating, resulting in vertigo [1], inappropriate postural responses [2], and motion, simulator, or cyber sickness [3-8]. Despite this significance, the mechanisms mediating conflict detection are poorly understood. Here we model conflict detection simply as crossmodal discrimination with benchmark performance limited by variabilities of the signals being compared. In a series of psychophysical experiments conducted in a virtual reality motion simulator, we measure these variabilities and assess conflict detection relative to this benchmark. We also examine the impact of eye movements on visual-vestibular conflict detection. In one condition, observers fixate a point that is stationary in the simulated visual environment by rotating the eyes opposite head rotation, thereby nulling retinal image motion. In another condition, eye movement is artificially minimized via fixation of a head-fixed fixation point, thereby maximizing retinal image motion. Visual-vestibular integration performance is also measured, similar to previous studies [9-12]. We observe that there is a tradeoff between integration and conflict detection that is mediated by eye movements. Minimizing eye movements by fixating a head-fixed target leads to optimal integration but highly impaired conflict detection. Minimizing retinal motion by fixating a scene-fixed target improves conflict detection at the cost of impaired integration performance. The common tendency to fixate scene-fixed targets during self-motion [13] may indicate that conflict detection is typically a higher priority than the increase in precision of self-motion estimation that is obtained through integration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. EVALUATION OF UTILIZING SERVICE ORIENTED ARCHITECTURE AS A SUITABLE SOLUTION TO ALIGN UNIVERSITY MANAGEMENT INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND LEARNING MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. RIAD

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available To help universities achieve their goals, it is important to align managerial functionalities side by side with educational aspects. Universities consume University Management Information Systems (UMIS to handle managerial aspects as they do with Learning Management Systems (LMS to achieve learning objectives. UMIS advances LMS by decades and has reached stable and mature consistency level. LMS is the newly acquired solution in Universities; compared to UMIS, and so adopting LMSs in universities can be achieved via three different deployment approaches. First approach believes in LMS ability to replace UMIS and performing its functionalities. Second approach presents the idea of extending UMIS to include LMS functionalities. Third approach arises from the shortages of the two proposed approaches and present integration between both as the appropriate deployment approach. Service Oriented Architecture (SOA is a design pattern that can be used as a suitable architectural solution to align UMIS and LMS. SOA can be utilized in universities to overcome some of information systems’ challenges like the integration between UMIS and LMS. This paper presents the current situation at Mansoura University; Egypt, presents integration as the most suitable solution, and evaluates three different implementation techniques: Dynamic Query, Stored Procedure, and Web services. Evaluation concludes that though SOA enhanced many different aspects of both UMIS and LMS; and consequently university overall. It is not recommended to adopt SOA via Web services as the building unit of the system, but as the interdisciplinary interface between systems.

  11. Sensitivity enhancement and contrasting information provided by free radicals in oriented-sample NMR of bicelle-reconstituted membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, Deanna M.; Nevzorov, Alexander A.

    2014-02-01

    Elucidating structure and topology of membrane proteins (MPs) is essential for unveiling functionality of these important biological constituents. Oriented-sample solid-state NMR (OS-NMR) is capable of providing such information on MPs under nearly physiological conditions. However, two dimensional OS-NMR experiments can take several days to complete due to long longitudinal relaxation times combined with the large number of scans to achieve sufficient signal sensitivity in biological samples. Here, free radicals 5-DOXYL stearic acid, TEMPOL, and CAT-1 were added to uniformly 15N-labeled Pf1 coat protein reconstituted in DMPC/DHPC bicelles, and their effect on the longitudinal relaxation times (T1Z) was investigated. The dramatically shortened T1Z's allowed for the signal gain per unit time to be used for either: (i) up to a threefold reduction of the total experimental time at 99% magnetization recovery or (ii) obtaining up to 74% signal enhancement between the control and radical samples during constant experimental time at “optimal” relaxation delays. In addition, through OS-NMR and high-field EPR studies, free radicals were able to provide positional constraints in the bicelle system, which provide a description of the location of each residue in Pf1 coat protein within the bicellar membranes. This information can be useful in the determination of oligomerization states and immersion depths of larger membrane proteins.

  12. Sensitivity enhancement and contrasting information provided by free radicals in oriented-sample NMR of bicelle-reconstituted membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesch, Deanna M; Nevzorov, Alexander A

    2014-02-01

    Elucidating structure and topology of membrane proteins (MPs) is essential for unveiling functionality of these important biological constituents. Oriented-sample solid-state NMR (OS-NMR) is capable of providing such information on MPs under nearly physiological conditions. However, two dimensional OS-NMR experiments can take several days to complete due to long longitudinal relaxation times combined with the large number of scans to achieve sufficient signal sensitivity in biological samples. Here, free radicals 5-DOXYL stearic acid, TEMPOL, and CAT-1 were added to uniformly (15)N-labeled Pf1 coat protein reconstituted in DMPC/DHPC bicelles, and their effect on the longitudinal relaxation times (T1Z) was investigated. The dramatically shortened T1Z's allowed for the signal gain per unit time to be used for either: (i) up to a threefold reduction of the total experimental time at 99% magnetization recovery or (ii) obtaining up to 74% signal enhancement between the control and radical samples during constant experimental time at "optimal" relaxation delays. In addition, through OS-NMR and high-field EPR studies, free radicals were able to provide positional constraints in the bicelle system, which provide a description of the location of each residue in Pf1 coat protein within the bicellar membranes. This information can be useful in the determination of oligomerization states and immersion depths of larger membrane proteins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of vestibular rehabilitation therapy on emotional aspects in chronic vestibular patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meli, Annalisa; Zimatore, Giovanna; Badaracco, Carlo; De Angelis, Ezio; Tufarelli, Davide

    2007-08-01

    A strong relationship exists between vestibular dysfunction and anxiety disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the anxiety and depression levels in patients with chronic dizziness and to assess the effects of vestibular rehabilitation (VR) therapy, on the anxiety and depression levels, without a behavioural or pharmacological therapy. Two groups of 40 patients, each affected by chronic vestibular deficit, were studied. The first one underwent VR, and the latter did not. The psychometric tests used were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Psychological factors influence the level of handicap experienced by chronic dizziness patients, and disequilibrium influences the anxiety and depression levels. STAI and CES-D scales significantly decrease after VR therapy (PVR therapy positively influences the emotional condition of chronic vestibular deficit patients without pharmacological or psychotherapy treatments.

  14. Interactions between Stress and Vestibular Compensation - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saman, Yougan; Bamiou, D E; Gleeson, Michael; Dutia, Mayank B

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of stress and anxiety often accompany vestibular dysfunction, while conversely complaints of dizziness and loss of balance are common in patients with panic and other anxiety disorders. The interactions between stress and vestibular function have been investigated both in animal models and in clinical studies. Evidence from animal studies indicates that vestibular symptoms are effective in activating the stress axis, and that the acute stress response is important in promoting compensatory synaptic and neuronal plasticity in the vestibular system and cerebellum. The role of stress in human vestibular disorders is complex, and definitive evidence is lacking. This article reviews the evidence from animal and clinical studies with a focus on the effects of stress on the central vestibular pathways and their role in the pathogenesis and management of human vestibular disorders.

  15. Interactions between stress and vestibular compensation – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yougan eSaman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Elevated levels of stress and anxiety often accompany vestibular dysfunction, while conversely complaints of dizziness and loss of balance are common in patients with panic and other anxiety disorders. The interactions between stress and vestibular function, and plasticity have been investigated both in animal models and in clinical studies. Evidence from animal studies indicates that vestibular symptoms are effective in activating the stress axis, and that the acute stress response is important in promoting compensatory synaptic and neuronal plasticity in the vestibular system and cerebellum. The role of stress in human vestibular disorders is complex, and definitive evidence is lacking. This article reviews the evidence from animal and clinical studies with a focus on the effects of stress on the central vestibular pathways and their role in the pathogenesis and management of human vestibular disorders.

  16. Interactions between Stress and Vestibular Compensation – A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saman, Yougan; Bamiou, D. E.; Gleeson, Michael; Dutia, Mayank B.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of stress and anxiety often accompany vestibular dysfunction, while conversely complaints of dizziness and loss of balance are common in patients with panic and other anxiety disorders. The interactions between stress and vestibular function have been investigated both in animal models and in clinical studies. Evidence from animal studies indicates that vestibular symptoms are effective in activating the stress axis, and that the acute stress response is important in promoting compensatory synaptic and neuronal plasticity in the vestibular system and cerebellum. The role of stress in human vestibular disorders is complex, and definitive evidence is lacking. This article reviews the evidence from animal and clinical studies with a focus on the effects of stress on the central vestibular pathways and their role in the pathogenesis and management of human vestibular disorders. PMID:22866048

  17. Receptors of glutamate and neurotrophin in vestibular neuronal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y S; Chen, L W; Lai, C H; Shum, D K Y; Yung, K K L; Zhang, F X

    2003-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed advances in understanding the roles of receptors of neurotrophin and glutamate in the vestibular system. In the first section of this review, the biological actions of neurotrophins and their receptors in the peripheral and central vestibular systems are summarized. Emphasis will be placed on the roles of neurotrophins in developmental plasticity and in the maintenance of vestibular function in the adult animal. This is reviewed in relation to the developmental expression pattern of neurotrophins and their receptors within the vestibular nuclei. The second part is focused on the functional role of different glutamate receptors on central vestibular neurons. The developmental expression pattern of glutamate receptor subunits within the vestibular nuclei is reviewed in relation to the potential role of glutamate receptors in regulating the development of vestibular function. Copyright 2003 National Science Council, ROC and S. Karger AG, Basel

  18. Visual-vestibular interactions in postural control during the execution of a dynamic task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, Leah R; McFadyen, Bradford J; Inglis, J Timothy

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the interaction between visual and vestibular information during the transition from quiet standing to the completion of a forward step. Six subjects were asked to take one step forward at the sound of an audio tone, with their eyes open or closed, and terminate the step in a standing position. During stimulation trials, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) was delivered 1500 ms before the auditory cue. GVS was delivered at an intensity three-fold that of each subject's quiet stance threshold with either stimulus right, left or no stimulation. Force data were collected from three forceplates for the calculation of centre of pressure (CoP), and kinematic data were used to calculate centre of mass (CoM) and body trajectories. In quiet stance all subjects responded to the GVS perturbation by demonstrating upper body segment roll and whole body sway towards the anode electrode. Unexpectedly, in the presence of vision during quiet stance, the upper body roll response was not attenuated, even though the CoP sway patterns were reduced when vision was available. During the initiation phase of the step, despite ongoing GVS stimulation, there were no significant effects seen in CoM, CoP or upper body roll responses. During step execution, however, both CoM displacement and upper body roll demonstrated significant effects and both responses were significantly reduced when subjects' eyes were open. Analysis of the medio-lateral CoP integrals also indicated a strong stimulation effect between conditions late in the execution phase, which were largely attenuated with vision. The results suggest that the importance of visual and vestibular information varies depending on the phase of the task. In addition, the different integration between visual and vestibular input during quiet standing suggests a dual role for vestibular information. We propose that vestibular information in quiet standing has a role in maintaining whole body

  19. Inferior vestibular neuritis: 3 cases with clinical features of acute vestibular neuritis, normal calorics but indications of saccular failure

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    Økstad Siri

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular neuritis (VN is commonly diagnosed by demonstration of unilateral vestibular failure, as unilateral loss of caloric response. As this test reflects the function of the superior part of the vestibular nerve only, cases of pure inferior nerve neuritis will be lost. Case presentations We describe three patients with symptoms suggestive of VN, but normal calorics. All 3 had unilateral loss of vestibular evoked myogenic potential. A slight, asymptomatic position dependent nystagmus, with the pathological ear down, was observed. Conclusion We believe that these patients suffer from pure inferior nerve vestibular neuritis.

  20. Changes in outflow to respiratory pump muscles produced by natural vestibular stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, C D; Hayden, N L; Stocker, S D; Yates, B J

    1996-11-01

    1. Activity was recorded from abdominal (expiratory) and phrenic (inspiratory) nerves during natural vestibular stimulation in multiple vertical planes and the horizontal plane in decerebrate cats. Vestibular stimulation was produced by rotating the head in animals whose upper cervical dorsal roots were transected to remove inputs from neck receptors; the upper airway and carotid sinus were denervated, and the vagus nerves were transected to assure that the head rotations did not elicit visceral or pulmonary inputs. 2. The plane of head rotation that produced maximal modulation of respiratory nerve activity (response vector orientation) was measured at one or more frequencies between 0.05 and 0.5 Hz. The dynamics of the response were then studied with sinusoidal (0.05-2 Hz) stimuli aligned with this orientation. In some animals, sinusoidal horizontal rotations of the head at 0.5 and 1 Hz or static head tilts in the pitch and roll planes were also delivered. 3. Typically, maximal modulation of abdominal nerve outflow was elicited by head rotations in a plane near pitch; nose-up rotations produced increased outflow, and nose-down rotations reduced nerve discharges. The gains of the responses (relative to stimulus position) remained relatively constant across stimulus frequencies, and the phases were consistently near stimulus position, like regularly firing otolith afferents. Static nose-up tilt produced elevated abdominal nerve activity throughout the stimulus period, providing further evidence that pitch-sensitive otolith receptors contribute to the response. Horizontal head rotations had little influence on abdominal nerve discharges. 4. The abdominal nerve responses to head rotation were abolished by chemical or aspiration lesions of the medial and inferior vestibular nuclei, which is concordant with the responses resulting from activation of vestibular receptors. Transections of axons arising from bulbospinal neurons in the ventral respiratory group, which are

  1. Contribution of Bodily and Gravitational Orientation Cues to Face and Letter Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Snow, Jacqueline C; Culham, Jody C

    2015-01-01

    Sensory information provided by the vestibular system is crucial in cognitive processes such as the ability to recognize objects. The orientation at which objects are most easily recognized--the perceptual upright (PU)--is influenced by body orientation with respect to gravity as detected from the somatosensory and vestibular systems. To date, the influence of these sensory cues on the PU has been measured using a letter recognition task. Here we assessed whether gravitational influences on letter recognition also extend to human face recognition. 13 right-handed observers were positioned in four body orientations (upright, left-side-down, right-side-down, supine) and visually discriminated ambiguous characters ('p'-from-'d'; 'i'-from-'!') and ambiguous faces used in popular visual illusions ('young woman'-from-'old woman'; 'grinning man'-from-'frowning man') in a forced-choice paradigm. The two transition points (e.g., 'p-to-d' and 'd-to-p'; 'young woman-to-old woman' and 'old woman-to-young woman') were fit with a sigmoidal psychometric function and the average of these transitions was taken as the PU for each stimulus category. The results show that both faces and letters are more influenced by body orientation than gravity. However, faces are more optimally recognized when closer in alignment with body orientation than letters--which are more influenced by gravity. Our results indicate that the brain does not utilize a common representation of upright that governs recognition of all object categories. Distinct areas of ventro-temporal cortex that represent faces and letters may weight bodily and gravitational cues differently--possibly to facilitate the specific demands of face and letter recognition.

  2. Central Vestibular Dysfunction in an Otorhinolaryngological Vestibular Unit: Incidence and Diagnostic Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa, Badr E.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vertigo can be due to a variety of central and peripheral causes. The relative incidence of central causes is underestimated. This may have an important impact of the patients' management and prognosis. Objective The objective of this work is to determine the incidence of central vestibular disorders in patients presenting to a vestibular unit in a tertiary referral academic center. It also aims at determining the best strategy to increase the diagnostic yield of the patients' visit. Methods This is a prospective observational study on 100 consecutive patients with symptoms suggestive of vestibular dysfunction. All patients completed a structured questionnaire and received bedside and vestibular examination and neuroimaging as required. Results There were 69 women and 31 men. Their ages ranged between 28 and 73 (mean 42.48 years. Provisional videonystagmography (VNG results were: 40% benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV, 23% suspicious of central causes, 18% undiagnosed, 15% Meniere disease, and 4% vestibular neuronitis. Patients with an unclear diagnosis or central features (41 had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and Doppler studies. Combining data from history, VNG, and imaging studies, 23 patients (23% were diagnosed as having a central vestibular lesion (10 with generalized ischemia/vertebra basilar insufficiency, 4 with multiple sclerosis, 4 with migraine vestibulopathy, 4 with phobic postural vertigo, and 1 with hyperventilation-induced nystagmus. Conclusions Combining a careful history with clinical examination, VNG, MRI, and Doppler studies decreases the number of undiagnosed cases and increases the detection of possible central lesions.

  3. Vestibular Dysfunctions in Cochlear Implant Patients; A Vestibular Evoked Myogenic Potential Study

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    Masoud Motasaddi Zarandy

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Vestibular evoked myogenic potential in response to click or short tone burst stimuli have been used as a clinical test for distinguish saccule and inferior vestibular nerve diseases. Different studies show that cochlear implant could have inverse effects on vestibular structures. We aimed to investigate vestibular evoked myogenic potential in unilateral cochlear implanted individuals in compare to normal individuals.Methods: Thirty-three unilateral cochlear implanted patients (mean age 19.96 years and 30 normal hearing individuals (mean age 24-27 years as control group were enrolled in this cross- sectional study. Absolute latencies and amplitudes of myogenic potential responses were measured and compared in both groups.Results: Myogenic potential recorded in both ears of all controls were normal. No response could be recorded in 16 patients (48.48% from both ears. In three patients, responses were recorded in both ears though the amplitude of waves was reduced in implanted ear. Unilateral response could be recorded in 14 patients only in their non-implanted ear.Conclusion: Vestibular evoked myogenic potential test is a useful tool for assessing saccular function in cochlear implant patients. Damages of osseous spiral lamina and basilar membrane after cochlear implantation could result in dysfunctions of vestibular organs specially saccule. It seems that saccule could be easily damaged after cochlear implantation. This would cause absence or reduced amplitudes in myogenic potential.

  4. Interaction between vestibular compensation mechanisms and vestibular rehabilitation therapy: ten recommendations for optimal functional recovery

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    LACOUR eMichel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review questions the relationships between the plastic events responsible for the recovery of vestibular function after a unilateral vestibular loss (vestibular compensation, which has been well described in animal models in the last decades, and the vestibular rehabilitation (VR therapy elaborated on a more empirical basis for vestibular loss patients. The main objective is not to propose a catalogue of results but to provide clinicians with an understandable view on when and how to perform VR therapy, and why VR may benefit from basic knowledge and may influence the recovery process. With this perspective, 10 major recommendations are proposed as ways to identify an optimal functional recovery. Among them are the crucial role of active and early VR therapy, coincidental with a post-lesion sensitive period for neuronal network remodelling, the instructive role that VR therapy may play in this functional reorganisation, the need for progression in the VR therapy protocol, which is based mainly on adaptation processes, the necessity to take into account the sensorimotor, cognitive and emotional profile of the patient to propose individual or à la carte VR therapies, and the importance of motivational and ecologic contexts. More than 10 general principles are very likely, but these principles seem crucial for the fast recovery of vestibular loss patients to ensure good quality of life.

  5. Interaction between Vestibular Compensation Mechanisms and Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: 10 Recommendations for Optimal Functional Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Michel; Bernard-Demanze, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    This review questions the relationships between the plastic events responsible for the recovery of vestibular function after a unilateral vestibular loss (vestibular compensation), which has been well described in animal models in the last decades, and the vestibular rehabilitation (VR) therapy elaborated on a more empirical basis for vestibular loss patients. The main objective is not to propose a catalog of results but to provide clinicians with an understandable view on when and how to perform VR therapy, and why VR may benefit from basic knowledge and may influence the recovery process. With this perspective, 10 major recommendations are proposed as ways to identify an optimal functional recovery. Among them are the crucial role of active and early VR therapy, coincidental with a post-lesion sensitive period for neuronal network remodeling, the instructive role that VR therapy may play in this functional reorganization, the need for progression in the VR therapy protocol, which is based mainly on adaptation processes, the necessity to take into account the sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional profile of the patient to propose individual or "à la carte" VR therapies, and the importance of motivational and ecologic contexts. More than 10 general principles are very likely, but these principles seem crucial for the fast recovery of vestibular loss patients to ensure good quality of life.

  6. CONTRIBUTION OF THE AUDIOLOGICAL AND VESTIBULAR ASSESSMENT TO THE DIFFERENTIAL AND ETIOLOGICAL DIAGNOSIS OF PERIPHERIC VESTIBULAR SYNDROMES

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    Loreta Ungureanu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Scope of the study: Vestibular pathology is a complex one, requiring a minute clinical evaluation, as well as numerous paraclinical investigations. The present study analyzes the contribution of the modern methods of vestibular and auditive investigation to the diagnosis of dizziness. Materials and method: The results of the investigations performed on 84 patients with peripheric vestibular syndrome, on whom a complete audiological and vestibular assessment had been also made, have been retrospectively analyzed. Results: Anamnestic data and the results of evaluation permitted classification of peripheric vestibular pathology according to topo-lesional and etiological criteria. The most frequently diagnosed diseases were: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Ménière syndrome and vestibular neuronitis. Conclusions: Testing of the vestibulo-ocular and vestibulo-spinal reflexes through videonystagmoscopy and, respectively, computerized dynamic posturography, besides tonal vocal audiometry and precocious auditive potentials, is especially important for a positive diagnosis and etiological differentiation of vestibular syndromes.

  7. Time constants of vestibular nuclei neurons in the goldfish: a model with ocular propioception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allum, J H; Graf, W

    1977-12-22

    A simple model of the vestibular-ocular reflex with a proprioceptive eye velocity feedback loop is used to simulate recent data on the vestibular responses of neurons in the vestibular nuclei of spinal goldfish. The data support the hypothesis that a proprioceptive feedback loop elongates the vestibular nucleus time constant to equal that of the slow phase eye movements of vestibular nystagmus.

  8. Effects of Sound on the Vestibular System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    receptors and directly affects central nervous system nuclei. Visual, olfactory, and gustatory responses would be expected if sound directly affected the...AMRL-TR-75-89 EFFECTS OF SOUND ON THE VESTIBULAR SYSTEM MIAMI UNIVERSITY NO OXFORD, OHIO 45056 MARCH 1976 | j...Approvedrfor public release: distribution unlimited AEROSPACE MEDICAL RESEARCH LABORATORY AEROSPACE MEDICAL DMSION Air Force Systems Command Wright.Patterson

  9. Latent nystagmus: vestibular nystagmus with a twist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Michael C; Tusa, Ronald J

    2004-02-01

    Latent nystagmus is a horizontal binocular oscillation that is evoked by unequal visual input to the 2 eyes. It develops primarily in humans with congenital esotropia. To investigate the interrelationship between latent and peripheral vestibular nystagmus and their corollary neuroanatomical pathways. Examination of subcortical neuroanatomical pathways producing latent nystagmus and review of the neurophysiological mechanisms by which they become activated in congenital esotropia. The vestibular nucleus presides over motion input from the eyes and labyrinths. Latent nystagmus corresponds to the optokinetic component of ocular rotation that is driven monocularly by nasal optic flow during a turning movement of the body in lateral-eyed animals. Congenital esotropia alters visual pathway development from the visual cortex to subcortical centers that project to the vestibular nucleus, allowing this primitive subcortical motion detection system to generate latent nystagmus under conditions of monocular fixation. Latent nystagmus is the ocular counterpart of peripheral vestibular nystagmus. Its clinical expression in humans proclaims the evolutionary function of the eyes as sensory balance organs.

  10. Vestibular migraine: clinical and epidemiological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Oliveira Gonçalves Morganti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Vestibular migraine (VM is one of the most often common diagnoses in neurotology, but only recently has been recognized as a disease. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with VM. METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational, and descriptive study, with analysis of patients' records from an outpatient VM clinic. RESULTS: 94.1% of patients were females and 5.9% were males. The mean age was 46.1 years; 65.6% of patients had had headache for a longer period than dizziness. A correlation was detected between VM symptoms and the menstrual period. 61.53% of patients had auditory symptoms, with tinnitus the most common, although tonal audiometry was normal in 68.51%. Vectoelectronystagmography was normal in 67.34%, 10.20% had hyporeflexia, and 22.44% had vestibular hyperreflexia. Electrophysiological assessment showed no abnormalities in most patients. Fasting plasma glucose and glycemic curve were normal in most patients, while the insulin curve was abnormal in 75%. 82% of individuals with MV showed abnormalities on the metabolism of carbohydrates. CONCLUSION: VM affects predominantly middle-aged women, with migraine headache representing the first symptom, several years before vertigo. Physical, auditory, and vestibular evaluations are usually normal. The most frequent vestibular abnormality was hyperreflexia. Most individuals showed abnormality related to carbohydrate metabolism.

  11. Stereotactic radiation therapy for large vestibular schwannomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandl, Ellen S.; Meijer, Otto W. M.; Slotman, Ben J.; Vandertop, W. Peter; Peerdeman, Saskia M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: To evaluate the morbidity and tumor-control rate in the treatment of large vestibular schwannomas (VS) after stereotactic radiation therapy in our institution. Material and methods: Twenty-five consecutive patients (17 men, 8 women) with large VS (diameter 3.0 cm or larger),

  12. Damage to the vestibular inner ear causes long-term changes in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y; Horii, A; Appleton, I; Darlington, C L; Smith, P F

    2001-01-01

    The vestibular inner ear detects head acceleration and initiates compensatory eye movement and postural reflexes that help keep the visual image of the world stable on the retina, and maintain balance, during unexpected head movement. The most primitive vestibular systems are estimated to have evolved more than 500 million years ago and in mammalian and submammalian species the vestibular reflexes are mediated by basic brainstem pathways (see Wilson and Melvill Jones, 1979 for review). Although the contributions of the vestibular system to higher cognitive function have generally received less attention than its reflexive roles, vestibular sensory information is transmitted to higher centres in the brain and humans with vestibular damage are known to experience debilitating perceptual illusions (see Curthoys and Halmagyi, 1995; Berthoz, 1996 for reviews). Increasing behavioural and neurophysiological evidence suggests that the hippocampus uses information from the vestibular inner ear in order to build up maps of space that can be used in the development of spatial memory during learning tasks (McNaughton et al., 1991; Chapuis et al., 1992; Wiener and Berthoz, 1993; O'Mara et al., 1994; Wiener et al., 1995; Gavrilov et al., 1995; Stackman and Taube, 1996; Vitte et al., 1996; Taube et al., 1996; Save et al., 1998; Peruch et al., 1999; Cuthbert et al., 2000; Russell et al., 2000). However, to date, there has been no indication of the long-term neurochemical effects of the loss of vestibular input on hippocampal function. Since nitric oxide has been implicated in the mechanisms of hippocampal synaptic plasticity associated with the development of short-term memory (e.g. Schuman and Madison, 1991; Schuman et al., 1994; Arancio et al., 1996; Wu et al., 1997; Lu et al., 1999), we examined whether changes occur in the activity and expression of the enzymes responsible for nitric oxide production (nitric oxide synthases) in subregions of the rat hippocampus at different

  13. Vestibular evaluation in children with otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolkaila, E A; Emara, A A; Gabr, T A

    2015-04-01

    Fifty per cent of children with serous otitis media may have some balance disturbances. To evaluate vestibular function in children with otitis media with effusion. The control group comprised 25 children with bilateral normal hearing and middle-ear function. The study group consisted of 30 children with bilateral otitis media with effusion; these were divided into 2 subgroups according to air-bone gap size. Measures included the Arabic Dizziness Handicap Inventory, an imbalance evaluation sheet for children, vestibular bedside tests for children, and air- and bone-conducted vestibular-evoked myogenic potential testing. Arabic Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores and some vestibular bedside test results were significantly abnormal, with normal video-nystagmography results, in children with otitis media with effusion. Air-conducted vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials were recorded in 73 per cent of children with otitis media with effusion, with significantly delayed latencies. Bone-conducted vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials were successfully detected in 100 per cent of children with otitis media with effusion with similar results to the control group. The Arabic Dizziness Handicap Inventory and vestibular bedside tests are valuable tools for detecting vestibular impairment in children. Bone-conducted vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials are useful for vestibular system evaluation.

  14. Patient-oriented cancer information on the internet: a comparison of wikipedia and a professionally maintained database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Malolan S; Khanna, Vineet K; Leiter, Yaacov; Stott, Meghan; Showalter, Timothy N; Dicker, Adam P; Lawrence, Yaacov R

    2011-09-01

    A wiki is a collaborative Web site, such as Wikipedia, that can be freely edited. Because of a wiki's lack of formal editorial control, we hypothesized that the content would be less complete and accurate than that of a professional peer-reviewed Web site. In this study, the coverage, accuracy, and readability of cancer information on Wikipedia were compared with those of the patient-orientated National Cancer Institute's Physician Data Query (PDQ) comprehensive cancer database. For each of 10 cancer types, medically trained personnel scored PDQ and Wikipedia articles for accuracy and presentation of controversies by using an appraisal form. Reliability was assessed by using interobserver variability and test-retest reproducibility. Readability was calculated from word and sentence length. Evaluators were able to rapidly assess articles (18 minutes/article), with a test-retest reliability of 0.71 and interobserver variability of 0.53. For both Web sites, inaccuracies were rare, less than 2% of information examined. PDQ was significantly more readable than Wikipedia: Flesch-Kincaid grade level 9.6 versus 14.1. There was no difference in depth of coverage between PDQ and Wikipedia (29.9, 34.2, respectively; maximum possible score 72). Controversial aspects of cancer care were relatively poorly discussed in both resources (2.9 and 6.1 for PDQ and Wikipedia, respectively, NS; maximum possible score 18). A planned subanalysis comparing common and uncommon cancers demonstrated no difference. Although the wiki resource had similar accuracy and depth as the professionally edited database, it was significantly less readable. Further research is required to assess how this influences patients' understanding and retention.

  15. Processing of vestibular inputs by the medullary lateral tegmental field of conscious cats: implications for generation of motion sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Andrew A.; Moy, Jennifer D.; DeMayo, William M.; Puterbaugh, Sonya R.; Miller, Daniel J.; Catanzaro, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    The dorsolateral reticular formation of the caudal medulla, the lateral tegmental field (LTF), participates in generating vomiting. LTF neurons exhibited complex responses to vestibular stimulation in decerebrate cats, indicating that they received converging inputs from a variety of labyrinthine receptors. Such a convergence pattern of vestibular inputs is appropriate for a brain region that participates in generating motion sickness. Since responses of brainstem neurons to vestibular stimulation can differ between decerebrate and conscious animals, the current study examined the effects of whole-body rotations in vertical planes on the activity of LTF neurons in conscious felines. Wobble stimuli, fixed-amplitude tilts, the direction of which moves around the animal at a constant speed, were used to determine the response vector orientation, and also to ascertain whether neurons had spatial–temporal convergence (STC) behavior (which is due to the convergence of vestibular inputs with different spatial and temporal properties). The proportion of LTF neurons with STC behavior in conscious animals (25 %) was similar to that in decerebrate cats. Far fewer neurons in other regions of the feline brainstem had STC behavior, confirming findings that many LTF neurons receive converging inputs from a variety of labyrinthine receptors. However, responses to vertical plane vestibular stimulation were considerably different in decerebrate and conscious felines for LTF neurons lacking STC behavior. In decerebrate cats, most LTF neurons had graviceptive responses to rotations, similar to those of otolith organ afferents. However, in conscious animals, the response properties were similar to those of semicircular canal afferents. These differences show that higher centers of the brain that are removed during decerebration regulate the labyrinthine inputs relayed to the LTF, either by gating connections in the brainstem or by conveying vestibular inputs directly to the region

  16. Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance in Vestibular Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan-Garza, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Oman, C. M.; Mulavara, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transitions. Post flight sensorimotor changes include spatial disorientation, along with postural and gait instability that may degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. A sensorimotor countermeasure that mitigates these effects would improve crewmember safety and decrease risk. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor perception through the phenomenon of stochastic resonance (SR), when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is enhanced by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. This study aims to advance the development of SVS as a potential countermeasure by 1) demonstrating the exhibition of stochastic resonance in vestibular perception, a vital component of sensorimotor function, 2) investigating the repeatability of SR exhibition, and 3) determining the relative contribution of the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith (OTO) organs to vestibular perceptual SR. A constant current stimulator was used to deliver bilateral bipolar SVS via electrodes placed on each of the mastoid processes, as previously done. Vestibular perceptual motion recognition thresholds were measured using a 6-degree of freedom MOOG platform and a 150 trial 3-down/1-up staircase procedure. In the first test session, we measured vestibular perceptual thresholds in upright roll-tilt at 0.2 Hz (SCC+OTO) with SVS ranging from 0-700 µA. In a second test session a week later, we re-measured roll-tilt thresholds with 0, optimal (from test session 1), and 1500 µA SVS levels. A subset of these subjects, plus naive subjects, participated in two additional test sessions in which we measured thresholds in supine roll-rotation at 0.2 Hz (SCC) and upright y-translation at 1 Hz

  17. Functional and anatomic alterations in the gentamicin-damaged vestibular system in the guinea pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, MLYM; Segenhout, HM; Dijk, T; Stokroos, [No Value; van der Want, TJL; Albers, FWJ

    Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to investigate the expected functional and morphologic effect of gentamicin on the vestibular system simultaneously by measurement of vestibular evoked potentials and electron microscopic evaluation. Background: Vestibular short-latency evoked potentials to

  18. Understanding the links between vestibular and limbic systems regulating emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Archana; Jinu, K V; Sailesh, Kumar Sai; Mishra, Soumya; Reddy, Udaya Kumar; Mukkadan, Joseph Kurien

    2017-01-01

    Vestibular system, which consists of structures in the inner ear and brainstem, plays a vital role is body balance and patient well-being. In recent years, modulating this system by vestibular stimulation techniques are reported to be effective in stress relief and possibly patient's emotional well-being. Emotions refer to an aroused state involving intense feeling, autonomic activation, and related change in behavior, which accompany many of our conscious experiences. The limbic system is primarily involved in the regulation of emotions. Considering the extensive networks between vestibular and limbic system, it is likely that vestibular stimulation techniques may be useful in influencing emotions. Hence, we review here, the possible mechanisms through which vestibular system can influence emotions and highlight the necessary knowledge gaps, which warrants further research to develop vestibular stimulation techniques as a means to treat health conditions associated with emotional disturbances.

  19. Anxiety changes depersonalization and derealization symptoms in vestibular patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolev, Ognyan I; Georgieva-Zhostova, Spaska O; Berthoz, Alain

    2014-01-01

    Depersonalization and derealization are common symptoms reported in the general population. Objective. The aim of the present study was to establish the relationship between anxiety and depersonalization and derealization symptoms in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders. Twenty-four vestibular patients with anxiety and 18 vestibular patients without anxiety were examined for depersonalization and derealization symptoms. They were also compared to healthy controls. The results revealed that anxiety consistently changes depersonalization and derealization symptoms in vestibular patients. They are more frequent, more severe, and qualitatively different in vestibular patients with anxiety than in those without anxiety. Anxiety has an effect on depersonalization and derealization symptoms in vestibular patients. The various hypotheses about the underlying mechanism of this effect were discussed.

  20. Bionic balance organs: progress in the development of vestibular prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F

    2017-09-01

    The vestibular system is a sensory system that is critically important in humans for gaze and image stability as well as postural control. Patients with complete bilateral vestibular loss are severely disabled and experience a poor quality of life. There are very few effective treatment options for patients with no vestibular function. Over the last 10 years, rapid progress has been made in developing artificial 'vestibular implants' or 'prostheses', based on cochlear implant technology. As of 2017, 13 patients worldwide have received vestibular implants and the results are encouraging. Vestibular implants are now becoming part of an increasing effort to develop artificial, bionic sensory systems, and this paper provides a review of the progress in this area.

  1. Evaluation of postural control in unilateral vestibular hypofunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Maia Quitschal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Patients with vestibular hypofunction, a typical finding in peripheral vestibular disorders, show body balance alterations. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postural control of patients with vertigo and unilateral vestibular hypofunction. METHOD: This is a clinical cross-sectional study. Twenty-five patients with vertigo and unilateral vestibular hypofunction and a homogeneous control group consisting of 32 healthy individuals were submitted to a neurotological evaluation including the Tetrax Interactive Balance System posturography in eight different sensory conditions. RESULTS: For different positions, vertiginous patients with unilateral vestibular hypofunction showed significantly higher values of general stability index, weight distribution index, right/left and tool/heel synchronizations, Fourier transformation index and fall index than controls. CONCLUSION: Increased values in the indices of weight distribution, right/left and tool/heel synchronizations, Fourier transformation and fall risk characterize the impairment of postural control in patients with vertigo and unilateral vestibular hypofunction.

  2. The value of close monitoring in vestibular rehabilitation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itani, M; Koaik, Y; Sabri, A

    2017-03-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation therapy is a well-established treatment modality for patients with vestibular problems. Performing vestibular rehabilitation therapy in a closely monitored setting may result in a better outcome than a home exercise programme. A retrospective study was conducted of patients undergoing vestibular rehabilitation therapy between June 2005 and November 2012 in a tertiary university hospital. The Dynamic Gait Index, the main outcome measure, was utilised before and after the rehabilitation programme. The magnitude of improvement for all patients was analysed, mainly to compare the home exercise group with the closely monitored therapy group. Only 32 patients underwent the vestibular rehabilitation therapy programme. In all patients, there was significant improvement in the mean Dynamic Gait Index score (from 11.75 to 17.38; p rehabilitation therapy resulted in improved performance status. More studies are needed to establish the efficiency of vestibular rehabilitation therapy and compare closely monitored therapy with tailored home exercise rehabilitation.

  3. The thalamocortical vestibular system in animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christophe; Blanke, Olaf

    2011-06-24

    The vestibular system provides the brain with sensory signals about three-dimensional head rotations and translations. These signals are important for postural and oculomotor control, as well as for spatial and bodily perception and cognition, and they are subtended by pathways running from the vestibular nuclei to the thalamus, cerebellum and the "vestibular cortex." The present review summarizes current knowledge on the anatomy of the thalamocortical vestibular system and discusses data from electrophysiology and neuroanatomy in animals by comparing them with data from neuroimagery and neurology in humans. Multiple thalamic nuclei are involved in vestibular processing, including the ventroposterior complex, the ventroanterior-ventrolateral complex, the intralaminar nuclei and the posterior nuclear group (medial and lateral geniculate nuclei, pulvinar). These nuclei contain multisensory neurons that process and relay vestibular, proprioceptive and visual signals to the vestibular cortex. In non-human primates, the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) has been proposed as the core vestibular region. Yet, vestibular responses have also been recorded in the somatosensory cortex (area 2v, 3av), intraparietal sulcus, posterior parietal cortex (area 7), area MST, frontal cortex, cingulum and hippocampus. We analyze the location of the corresponding regions in humans, and especially the human PIVC, by reviewing neuroimaging and clinical work. The widespread vestibular projections to the multimodal human PIVC, somatosensory cortex, area MST, intraparietal sulcus and hippocampus explain the large influence of vestibular signals on self-motion perception, spatial navigation, internal models of gravity, one's body perception and bodily self-consciousness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Interactions between Stress and Vestibular Compensation – A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Saman, Yougan; Bamiou, D. E.; Gleeson, Michael; Dutia, Mayank B

    2012-01-01

    Elevated levels of stress and anxiety often accompany vestibular dysfunction, while conversely complaints of dizziness and loss of balance are common in patients with panic and other anxiety disorders. The interactions between stress and vestibular function have been investigated both in animal models and in clinical studies. Evidence from animal studies indicates that vestibular symptoms are effective in activating the stress axis, and that the acute stress response is important in promoting...

  5. Static Balance in Patients with Vestibular Impairments: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein Talebi; Mohammad Taghi Karimi; Seyed Hamid Reza Abtahi; Niloofar Fereshtenejad

    2016-01-01

    Aims. Vestibular system is indicated as one of the most important sensors responsible for static and dynamic postural control. In this study, we evaluated static balance in patients with unilateral vestibular impairments. Materials and Methods. We compared static balance control using Kistler force plate platform between 10 patients with unilateral vestibular impairments and 20 normal counterparts in the same sex ratio and age limits (50 ? 7). We evaluated excursion and velocity of center of ...

  6. Anxiety Changes Depersonalization and Derealization Symptoms in Vestibular Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kolev, Ognyan I.; Georgieva-Zhostova, Spaska O.; Alain Berthoz

    2014-01-01

    Background. Depersonalization and derealization are common symptoms reported in the general population. Objective. The aim of the present study was to establish the relationship between anxiety and depersonalization and derealization symptoms in patients with peripheral vestibular disorders. Methods. Twenty-four vestibular patients with anxiety and 18 vestibular patients without anxiety were examined for depersonalization and derealization symptoms. They were also compared to healthy controls...

  7. Responses evoked by a vestibular implant providing chronic stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson L.A.; Haburcakova C.; Gong W; Lee D.J.; Wall Iii C.; Merfeld D.M.; Lewis R.F.

    2012-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss experience dehabilitating visual, perceptual, and postural difficulties, and an implantable vestibular prosthesis that could improve these symptoms would be of great benefit to these patients. In previous work, we have shown that a one-dimensional, unilateral canal prosthesis can improve the vestibulooccular reflex (VOR) in canal-plugged squirrel monkeys. In addition to the VOR, the potential effects of a vestibular prosthesis on more complex, highly in...

  8. The Moving History of Vestibular Stimulation as a Therapeutic Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Grabherr, Luzia; Lenggenhager, Bigna; Macauda, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Although the discovery and understanding of the function of the vestibular system date back only to the 19th century, strategies that involve vestibular stimulation were used long before to calm, soothe and even cure people. While such stimulation was classically achieved with various motion devices, like Cox’s chair or Hallaran’s swing, the development of caloric and galvanic vestibular stimulation has opened up new possibilities in the 20th century. With the increasing knowledge and recogni...

  9. Vestibular stimulation: A simple but effective intervention in diabetes care

    OpenAIRE

    Sailesh, Kumar Sai; Archana, R.; Mukkadan, J. K.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the complexities of the relationship between vestibular stimulation and endocrine disorders being well known, research efforts to understand these complexities are lacking. Interestingly vestibular stimulation may potentially prevent/delay development/progression of diabetes. Here we review the science behind this concept and highlight the need for necessary translational research in this area. Current evidence supports the use of vestibular stimulation not only as a potential interve...

  10. Internal models and neural computation in the vestibular system

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Andrea M.; Dora E. Angelaki

    2010-01-01

    The vestibular system is vital for motor control and spatial self-motion perception. Afferents from the otolith organs and the semicircular canals converge with optokinetic, somatosensory and motor-related signals in the vestibular nuclei, which are reciprocally interconnected with the vestibulocerebellar cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei. Here, we review the properties of the many cell types in the vestibular nuclei, as well as some fundamental computations implemented within this brainstem–...

  11. Virtual vestibular re-education. A new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boniver, R

    2006-01-01

    This paper will provide an introduction to the use of virtual environments for vestibular re-education. The author illustrates some of the ways in which researchers are using virtual reality to improve therapy for vertigo. Users of virtual reality must make adaptations to avoid mismatches between perception due to virtual reality and that due to vestibular and proprioceptive subsystems. Virtual reality may be an interesting new way of studying vestibular compensation in normal and pathological conditions.

  12. Idiopathic spasmodic torticollis is not associated with abnormal kinesthetic perception from neck proprioceptive and vestibular afferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasopoulos, Dimitri; Nasios, Gregor; Mergner, Thomas; Maurer, Christoph

    2003-05-01

    Proceeding from recent evidence for a sensory involvement in the pathophysiology of idiopathic spasmodic torticollis (ST), we asked whether the abnormal head posture of these patients is associated with distortions of their internal spatial reference frames due to abnormal processing of neck proprioceptive and/or vestibular input. Twelve ST patients were instructed to estimate, by adjusting a light pointer in the dark, their head and trunk mid-sagittal directions (as representatives of ego-centric references) and to reproduce a remembered target location in space (space centric reference). They did so before and after horizontal head and trunk rotations, which evoked isolated or combined vestibular and/or neck stimulation. In ST patients, unlike in normal controls, pre-stimulus estimates of the head and trunk mid-sagittal directions (baselines) showed a pronounced across-subjects variability, with essentially normal mean values. Their post-stimulus estimates in all tasks, after correction for the individual baseline errors, were normal with respect to both amplitude and variability, independent of stimulus direction, modality and rotation dynamics. Our findings suggest that ST patients have a rather inaccurate knowledge of their head posture, but can effectively use neck proprioceptive input and vestibular cues when estimating head and trunk displacements in ego-centric and space centric spatial orientation tasks. We propose that an offset of a non-sensory set point signal in the neck proprioceptive loop for head-on-trunk control may be responsible for the pathological head deviation in ST.

  13. How vestibular neurons solve the tilt/translation ambiguity. Comparison of brainstem, cerebellum, and thalamus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelaki, Dora E; Yakusheva, Tatyana A

    2009-05-01

    The peripheral vestibular system is faced by a sensory ambiguity, where primary otolith afferents respond identically to translational (inertial) accelerations and changes in head orientation relative to gravity. Under certain conditions, this sensory ambiguity can be resolved using extra-otolith cues, including semicircular canal signals. Here we review and summarize how neurons in the vestibular nuclei, rostral fastigial nuclei, cerebellar nodulus/uvula, and thalamus respond during combinations of tilt and translation. We focus primarily on cerebellar cortex responses, as nodulus/uvula Purkinje cells reliably encode translation rather than net gravito-inertial acceleration. In contrast, neurons in the vestibular and rostral fastigial nuclei, as well as the ventral lateral and ventral posterior nuclei of the thalamus represent a continuum, with some encoding translation and some net gravito-inertial acceleration. This review also outlines how Purkinje cells use semicircular canal signals to solve the ambiguity problem and how this solution fails at low frequencies. We conclude by attempting to bridge the gap between the proposed roles of nodulus/uvula in tilt/translation discrimination and velocity storage.

  14. Optimal Stimulus Amplitude for Vestibular Stochastic Stimulation to Improve Sensorimotor Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, R.; Kofman, I.; DeDios, Y. E.; Jeevarajan, J.; Stepanyan, V.; Nair, M.; Congdon, S.; Fregia, M.; Cohen, H.; Bloomberg, J. J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Sensorimotor changes such as postural and gait instabilities can affect the functional performance of astronauts when they transition across different gravity environments. We are developing a method, based on stochastic resonance (SR), to enhance information transfer by applying non-zero levels of external noise on the vestibular system (vestibular stochastic resonance, VSR). Our previous work has shown the advantageous effects of VSR in a balance task of standing on an unstable surface. This technique to improve detection of vestibular signals uses a stimulus delivery system that is wearable or portable and provides imperceptibly low levels of white noise-based binaural bipolar electrical stimulation of the vestibular system. The goal of this project is to determine optimal levels of stimulation for SR applications by using a defined vestibular threshold of motion detection. A series of experiments were carried out to determine a robust paradigm to identify a vestibular threshold that can then be used to recommend optimal stimulation levels for SR training applications customized to each crewmember. Customizing stimulus intensity can maximize treatment effects. The amplitude of stimulation to be used in the VSR application has varied across studies in the literature such as 60% of nociceptive stimulus thresholds. We compared subjects' perceptual threshold with that obtained from two measures of body sway. Each test session was 463s long and consisted of several 15s sinusoidal stimuli, at different current amplitudes (0-2 mA), interspersed with 20-20.5s periods of no stimulation. Subjects sat on a chair with their eyes closed and had to report their perception of motion through a joystick. A force plate underneath the chair recorded medio-lateral shear forces and roll moments. First we determined the percent time during stimulation periods for which perception of motion (activity above a pre-defined threshold) was reported using the joystick, and body sway (two

  15. Orienteering Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Club d'orientation

    2013-01-01

    Courses d’orientation Une bonne dizaine de clubs étaient représentés samedi dernier à La Faucille pour participer à la  2e manche de la coupe genevoise organisée par le club du CERN. Les 120 coureurs ont pu découvrir des parcours classés "technique". Ceux du Haut-Jura familiarisés à ce type de terrain ont pu sortir leur épingle du jeu et se sont octroyé la victoire sur 4 des 5 circuits. Samedi 21 septembre, la montagne du Haut-Jura était encore plébiscitée puisque les coureurs étaient attendus à Saint Cergue sur la carte des Pralies. Pour les résultats complets de La Faucille et les informations sur la prochaine étape, consultez le site du club http://cern.ch/club-orientation.

  16. The vestibular system: balancing more than just the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Christophe

    2016-02-01

    The review presents a selection of recent studies in the field of vestibular neuroscience, including how vestibular stimulation modulates space and body perception. Recent neuroimaging studies identified the operculo-insular/retroinsular cortex as the core vestibular cortex and showed how it is reorganized after vestibular dysfunctions. Subliminal galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) induces long-term reduction of hemispatial neglect and improves vertical perception in stroke patients, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be identified. Healthy volunteer research suggests that GVS and caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) modulate visual and somatosensory processing and that beneficial effects of GVS/CVS in stroke patients are not limited to merely rebalancing brain hemispheric activity. Another mechanism would be that GVS/CVS anchors the self to the body, thus promoting an egocentric frame of reference. In addition to 'balancing the body', the vestibular cortical network contributes to modulate space, body and self-awareness. Emerging evidence suggests that the vestibular network expands into dimensions of emotion processing, mental health, and social cognition. Here, the importance of connecting vestibular physiology, affective neuroscience, and social neuroscience to better understand the psychological aspects of vertigo in otoneurology is discussed.

  17. The History and Evolution of Surgery on the Vestibular Labyrinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naples, James G; Eisen, Marc D

    2016-11-01

    The history of surgery on the vestibular labyrinth is rich but sparsely documented in the literature. The story begins over a century ago with the labyrinthectomy in an era that consisted exclusively of ablative surgery for infection or vertigo. Improved understanding of vestibular physiology and pathology produced an era of selective ablation and hearing preservation that includes semicircular canal occlusion for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. An era of restoration began with a discovery of superior semicircular canal dehiscence and its repair. The final era of vestibular replacement is upon us as the possibility of successful prosthetic vestibular implantation becomes reality. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  18. K+ Currents in Isolated Vestibular Afferent Calyx Terminals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dhawan, Ritu; Mann, Scott E; Meredith, Frances L; Rennie, Katherine J

    2010-01-01

    Vestibular hair cells transduce mechanical displacements of their hair bundles into an electrical receptor potential which modulates transmitter release and subsequent action potential firing in afferent neurons...

  19. Bedside examination for vestibular screening in occupational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Zamysłowska-Szmytke

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of bedside examination for screening of vestibular and balance system for occupational medicine purposes. Study group comprised 165 patients referred to Audiology and Phoniatric Clinic due to vestibular and/or balance problems. Caloric canal paresis of 19% was the cut off value to divide patients into 43 caloric-positive vestibular subjects and 122 caloric-negative patients. The latter group comprised 79 subjects revealing abnormalities of videonystagmographic (VNG oculomotor tests (central group and 43 subjects with normal VNG. Material and Methods: Vestibular and balance symptoms were collected. Five tests were included to bedside examination: Romberg and Unterberger tests, Head Impulse Test (HIT, Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA and gaze nystagmus assessment. Results: Vestibular and balance symptoms were reported by 82% of vestibular, 73% of central and 40% of VNG-normal patients. Thirteen out of 18 VNG-normal but symptomatic subjects (73% had abnormal tests in clinical assessment. The sensitivity of bedside test set for vestibular pathology was 88% as compared to caloric test and 68% for central pathology as compared to VNG oculomotor tests. Conclusions: The combination of 5 bedside tests reveal satisfactory sensitivity to detect vestibular abnormalities. Bedside examination abnormalities are highly correlated with vestibular/balance symptoms, regardless the normal results of VNG. Thus, this method should be recommended for occupational medicine purposes.

  20. Bedside examination for vestibular screening in occupational medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamysłowska-Szmytke, Ewa; Szostek-Rogula, Sylwia; Śliwińska-Kowalska, Mariola

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of bedside examination for screening of vestibular and balance system for occupational medicine purposes. Study group comprised 165 patients referred to Audiology and Phoniatric Clinic due to vestibular and/or balance problems. Caloric canal paresis of 19% was the cut off value to divide patients into 43 caloric-positive vestibular subjects and 122 caloric-negative patients. The latter group comprised 79 subjects revealing abnormalities of videonystagmographic (VNG) oculomotor tests (central group) and 43 subjects with normal VNG. Vestibular and balance symptoms were collected. Five tests were included to bedside examination: Romberg and Unterberger tests, Head Impulse Test (HIT), Dynamic Visual Acuity (DVA) and gaze nystagmus assessment. Vestibular and balance symptoms were reported by 82% of vestibular, 73% of central and 40% of VNG-normal patients. Thirteen out of 18 VNG-normal but symptomatic subjects (73%) had abnormal tests in clinical assessment. The sensitivity of bedside test set for vestibular pathology was 88% as compared to caloric test and 68% for central pathology as compared to VNG oculomotor tests. The combination of 5 bedside tests reveal satisfactory sensitivity to detect vestibular abnormalities. Bedside examination abnormalities are highly correlated with vestibular/balance symptoms, regardless the normal results of VNG. Thus, this method should be recommended for occupational medicine purposes. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  1. Periosteal Pedicle Flap Harvested during Vestibular Extension for Root Coverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root exposure along with inadequate vestibular depth is a common clinical finding. Treatment option includes many techniques to treat such defects for obtaining predictable root coverage. Normally, the vestibular depth is increased first followed by a second surgery for root coverage. The present case report describes a single-stage technique for vestibular extension and root coverage in a single tooth by using the Periosteal Pedicle Flap (PPF. This technique involves no donor site morbidity and allows for reflection of sufficient amount of periosteal flap tissue with its own blood supply at the surgical site, thus increasing the chances of success of root coverage with simultaneous increase in vestibular depth.

  2. Gentamicin perfusion vestibular response and hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Joshua P; Silverstein, Herbert; Jackson, Lance E

    2003-03-01

    To compare hearing results as a function of vestibular ablation in the treatment of Ménière's Disease, using gentamicin perfusion. A retrospective review of patients with Ménière's Disease treated by gentamicin perfusion of the inner ear via the MicroWick device. A tertiary otologic referral center. The charts of patients treated with gentamicin perfusion via the MicroWick between the years 1998 and 2000 were reviewed. The results for patients with functional hearing in the affected ear were analyzed and were compared with the results in patients without functional hearing. Audiologic and vestibular test results as well as subjective symptoms. There were 45 patients who met the inclusion criteria. The averages for speech discrimination score and pure tone average before treatment were 92% and 38 dB, and after treatment were 82% and 47 dB. Patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (20 patients), less than 75% ice air caloric reduced vestibular response (RVR); Group 2 (25 patients), those who reached greater than 75% ice air caloric RVR. There were 8 patients (17.6%) with persistent vertigo; 7 were from Group 1, and 1 was from Group 2, which was statistically significant (p = 0.007)wwww. The pure tone average dropped an average of 3 dB for Group 1 and 15 dB for Group 2. The difference in hearing loss between the two groups was statistically significant (p = 0.01). This study suggests that there is a correlation between the degree of vestibular ablation, the control of vertigo, and the risk of hearing loss. Patients with functional hearing seem to have a similar success rate for vertigo control, compared with patients who already had lost functional hearing before treatment. Future investigation may determine if less than 100% RVR, but greater than 75% RVR, is an alternative end point with adequate vertigo control and reduced risk of hearing loss.

  3. Reconsidering the role of neuronal intrinsic properties and neuromodulation in vestibular homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu eBeraneck

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The sensorimotor transformations performed by central vestibular neurons (2°VN constantly adapt as the animal faces conflicting sensory information or sustains injuries. In order to ensure the homeostasis of vestibular-related functions, neural changes could in part rely on the regulation of 2°VN intrinsic properties. Here, we review evidence which demonstrates modulation and plasticity of 2°VN intrinsic properties. We first present partition of rodents 2°VN into distinct subtypes, namely type A and type B. Then, we focus on the respective properties of each type and their putative roles in vestibular functions. The intrinsic properties of 2°VN can be swiftly modulated by a wealth of neuromodulators, to adapt rapidly, for example, to temporary changes of the ecophysiological surroundings. To illustrate how intrinsic excitability can rapidly be modified in physiological conditions and therefore be targeted in the clinic, we present the modulation of vestibular reflexes in relation to the neuromodulatory fluctuation of the sleep/wake cycle. On the other hand, intrinsic properties can also be slowly yet deeply modified in response to major perturbations as is the case following a unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL. We revisit the experimental evidence which demonstrate that drastic alterations of the 2°VN intrinsic properties occur following UL, however with a slow dynamic, more on par with the compensation of dynamic deficits than static ones. Data are interpreted in the framework of a distributed process which progress from the global, large scale coping mechanisms (e.g. changes in behavioural strategies to the local, small scale ones (e.g. changes in intrinsic properties. Within this framework, the compensation of dynamic deficits improves with time as deeper modifications are engraved within the finer parts of the vestibular-related networks. Finally, we propose perspectives and working hypotheses to pave the way for future research aiming at

  4. Effects of Vestibular Rehabilitation Interventions in the Elderly with Chronic Unilateral Vestibular Hypofunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Arash; Saki, Nader

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Although vestibular rehabilitation therapy (VRT) methods are relatively popular in treating patients with body balance deficits of vestibular origin, only limited studies have been conducted into customized exercises for unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH). Furthermore, very little evidence is available on the outcomes of VRT in the elderly population with chronic UVH. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 patients, aged 61 to 74 years, with UVH participated in this study. The dizziness handicap inventory (DHI) was performed immediately before, and 2 and 8 weeks after treatment. Results: All patients showed a reduction in DHI scores during the study. The average decrease in DHI score was 25.98 points after 2 weeks’ intervention (P0.05). There were no relationships between the scores and gender. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that VRT is an effective method for the management of elderly patients with UVH, and shows maximal effect on functional aspects. PMID:28819615

  5. Cerebellar nodulectomy impairs spatial memory of vestibular and optokinetic stimulation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmack, N H; Errico, P; Ferraresi, A; Fushiki, H; Pettorossi, V E; Yakhnitsa, V

    2002-02-01

    maintained in a "pitched-up" or "pitched-down" orientation during long-term OKS, the subsequently measured OKAN II peak velocity occurred at the same orientation. This was not true for nodulectomized rabbits, who had OKAN II peak velocities at head pitch angles independent of those maintained during long-term OKS. We conclude that the nodulus participates in the regulation of compensatory reflexive movements. The nodulus also influences "remembered" head position in space derived from previous optokinetic and vestibular stimulation.

  6. Vestibular schwannoma: an unusual post radiotherapy response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Najam; Iqbal, Muhammad; Memon, Muhammad Ali; Farrukh, Salman

    2014-11-01

    Vestibular schwannoma is a relatively uncommon tumor. Although, it is benign but locally expansile and spreads to damage the adjacent structures. Treatment strategy includes surgery, Stereotactic Radiosurgery (SRS) either by standard or hypofractionated protocols. Due to its benign nature, radiation therapy cannot remove the tumor completely, instead radiation therapy halts the growth of vestibular schwannoma and inactivates this benign tumor. Response of radiation in the form of tumor shrinkage is seen 2 - 2.5 years after the radiations. We report a case of vestibular Schwannoma in which residual tumor of 3.1 cm size following subtotal resection was irradiated of the dose of 54 Gy in 30 equal fractions on 3-Dimensional Conformal Radiation Therapy (3-DCRT). A follow-up CT scan brain after 2 months of radiotherapy showed complete disappearance of the disease categorized as complete response. This is an unusual phenomenon and is likely due to the very rarely seen malignant transformation or presence of malignant component in this benign tumor.

  7. Non surgical treatment of vestibular schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas, Leoncio; Chust, María L; Menéndez, Antonio; Arana, Estanislao; Vendrell, Juan B; Crispín, Vicente; Pesudo, Carmen; Mengual, José L; Mut, Alejandro; Arribas, Mar; Guinot, José L

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the results of local control and complications in the treatment of vestibular schwannoma treated with radiation. A retrospective study of 194 patients diagnosed with vestibular schwannoma, treated consecutively with radiation (either stereotactic radiosurgery or fractionated radiotherapy) from 1997 to 2012. We analyze the local control of tumors, as well as secondary complications to treatment with radiation. A total of 132 (68%) tumors 68% are grade I-II tumors of the Koos classification, 40 (19%) are grade III, and 22 (13%) are grade IV. The tumors associated with neurofibromatosis (NF2), are 3.6% (6 tumors in 4 patients). The tumor control for the overall serie is 97% at 5 years, with a median follow-up of 80.4 months. For large tumors the local control is 91% at 5 years. Free survival of chronic complications is 89% at 5 years. Additionally, 50 tumors were subjected to regular follow-up with MRI without treatment, and 28 (58%) did not experienced tumor growth. Radiation and follow up with MRI, are an alternative to surgery in the treatment of vestibular schwannoma, with a low level of complications inside of multidisciplinary approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  8. Molecular studies of vestibular schwannomas: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, D Bradley; Packer, Mark D; Chang, Long-Sheng

    2007-10-01

    To summarize advances in understanding the molecular biology of vestibular schwannomas over the past year. The role of the neurofibromatosis type 2 protein, denoted as merlin or schwannomin, in embryonic development, cellular adherence, and in cell proliferation has become better elucidated in the past year. Likewise, the role of merlin in Schwann cell-axon interaction has been studied. Additionally, two comprehensive analyses of the spectrum of human neurofibromatosis type 2 mutations have been compiled which make up a valuable resource in understanding critical regions of the neurofibromatosis type 2 gene. Neurofibromatosis type 2 screening guidelines for young patients with solitary vestibular schwannomas have been published. The role of electromagnetic radiation via cellular and portable telephones as a predisposing factor to vestibular schwannoma formation has also been the topic of several studies. Based on increased knowledge of the pathways in which merlin functions and the available transgenic and xenograft mouse models, preliminary data regarding directed pharmacotherapy are also summarized. With increased knowledge of the pathologic mechanisms and interacting proteins associated with merlin, the research community is poised to begin trials of targeted interventions in vitro and in the current mouse models.

  9. [Emergency diagnosis of the acute vestibular syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamás, T László; Garai, Tibor; Király, István; Mike, Andrea; Nagy, Csaba; Paukovics, Ágnes; Schmidt, Péter; Szatmári, Ferenc; Tompos, Tamás; Vadvári, Árpád; Szirmai, Ágnes

    2017-12-01

    To diagnose acute vestibular syndrome (AVS) in a prospective study by a new bedside test (providing 1A evidence) based on oculomotor analysis and assessment of hearing loss. To assess the frequency of central and peripheral causes of acute vestibular syndrome in the emergency room. To establish the diagnostic accuracy of acute cranial computed tomography as compared to oculomotor analysis done by video oculography goggles and audiometry. Between 1st March 2016 and 1st March 2017 we documented 125 patients (62 women, 63 men, average age 53 years) in the emergency room of the Petz Aladár County Teaching Hospital using the above bedside and instrumental testing. Diagnosis was verified by cranial magnetic resonance imaging. According to the results of the instrumental examination in AVS in 67% we found a peripheral cause and in 33% a central pathology. In 62% isolated posterior circulation stroke manifested itself by isolated vertigo without additional focal signs and the acute cranial computed tomography showed negative results in 96%. The instrumental examination increased diagnostic accuracy by making the diagnosis of isolated inferior semicircular canal vestibular neuritis possible. The new bedside oculomotor test is suitable for the diagnosis of posterior circulation stroke manifesting with isolated vertigo in early cases, when the routine neuroradiologic methods have a lower sensitivity or are not available. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(51): 2029-2040.

  10. Laboratory testing of the vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Andrew H

    2010-10-01

    Recent reports on vestibular testing, relevant to clinical diagnosis, are reviewed.Besides the case history and bedside examination, objective measurement of the vestibuloocular reflex in all of its facets remains the cornerstone in the diagnostic process. In recent years, this has been enhanced considerably by reliable unilateral tests for the otolith organs, most notably by vestibular-evoked myogenic potential recording and estimation of subjective visual vertical. In addition, progress has been made in the investigation of multisensory interaction, involving visual acuity and posturography.Technological developments include improved eye movement measurement techniques, electrotactile and vibrotactile sensory enhancement or substitution, the use of virtual reality devices and motion stimulators such as hexapods and the rediscovery of galvanic vestibular stimulation as a research and diagnostic tool. The recent introduction of new tests, together with the development of novel technologies, is gradually increasing the scope of the physical and bedside examination of the dizzy patient (see chapter 'Medical management of peripheral disorders' in this issue). The use of more complex equipment, such as rotating chairs, linear sleds, hexapods and posturography platforms, is likely to become limited to specialized laboratories and rehabilitation centers in future years. Further, high resolution magnetic resonance tomography (MRT) and computed tomography have allowed insight into the morphology and determination of malformations of the human labyrinth.

  11. Male and female characteristics in vestibular testing: a step toward the selection of the best participants for space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aust, G.; Hordinsky, J. R.; Schmelzer, B.

    1980-11-01

    Vestibular disturbances in connection with space flight were reported by a majority of participating astronauts and cosmonauts. These include motion sickness symptoms in the first few days of the space flight, as well as standing, gait and orientation disturbances after the return to Earth.The Aerospace Medical Community has been trying to select those people that are particularly adapted to the above stresses or that can be further adapted through training programs. As the circle of selectees extends to women, the problem arises as to whether differences between men and women exist under the conditions of space flight.In seeking answers to this question we studied a group of 42 women and 44 men, who were further subdivided according to their subjective motion sickness sensitivity, as determined by a questionnaire. Using this material, 26 men and 22 women were designated as motion sickness resistant, and 18 men and 20 women were designated as nonresistant.The vestibular test battery given these test subjects consisted of caloric, rotatory, optokinetic, vestibulo-spinal and vestibulo-vegetative testing.Because of the mixed orthostatic and vestibular problems seen after space flights, we also studied the response of the vestibular apparatus during peripheral blood pooling as induced by lower body negative pressure.The collected historical and test data are analyzed in this paper with emphasis on the relationship to motion sickness tendency.

  12. What can posturography tell us about vestibular function?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, F. O.

    2001-01-01

    Patients with balance disorders want answers to the following basic questions: (1) What is causing my problem? and (2) What can be done about my problem? Information to fully answer these questions must include status of both sensory and motor components of the balance control systems. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) provides quantitative assessment of both sensory and motor components of postural control along with how the sensory inputs to the brain interact. This paper reviews the scientific basis and clinical applications of CDP. Specifically, studies describing the integration of vestibular inputs with other sensory systems for postural control are briefly summarized. Clinical applications, including assessment, rehabilitation, and management are presented. Effects of aging on postural control along with prevention and management strategies are discussed.

  13. Afferent diversity and the organization of central vestibular pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, J M

    2000-02-01

    This review considers whether the vestibular system includes separate populations of sensory axons innervating individual organs and giving rise to distinct central pathways. There is a variability in the discharge properties of afferents supplying each organ. Discharge regularity provides a marker for this diversity since fibers which differ in this way also differ in many other properties. Postspike recovery of excitability determines the discharge regularity of an afferent and its sensitivity to depolarizing inputs. Sensitivity is small in regularly discharging afferents and large in irregularly discharging afferents. The enhanced sensitivity of irregular fibers explains their larger responses to sensory inputs, to efferent activation, and to externally applied galvanic currents, but not their distinctive response dynamics. Morphophysiological studies show that regular and irregular afferents innervate overlapping regions of the vestibular nuclei. Intracellular recordings of EPSPs reveal that some secondary vestibular neurons receive a restricted input from regular or irregular afferents, but that most such neurons receive a mixed input from both kinds of afferents. Anodal currents delivered to the labyrinth can result in a selective and reversible silencing of irregular afferents. Such a functional ablation can provide estimates of the relative contributions of regular and irregular inputs to a central neuron's discharge. From such estimates it is concluded that secondary neurons need not resemble their afferent inputs in discharge regularity or response dynamics. Several suggestions are made as to the potentially distinctive contributions made by regular and irregular afferents: (1) Reflecting their response dynamics, regular and irregular afferents could compensate for differences in the dynamic loads of various reflexes or of individual reflexes in different parts of their frequency range; (2) The gating of irregular inputs to secondary VOR neurons could

  14. Oxytocin enhances orienting to social information in a selective group of high-functioning male adults with autism spectrum disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Althaus, M.; Groen, Y.; Wijers, A. A.; Noltes, H.; Tucha, O.; Hoekstra, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated the effects of nasally administered oxytocin on neurophysiological orienting to empathy-evoking pictures in normally intelligent male adults with and without an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). It further investigated whether these effects might be moderated by the

  15. Long-term hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Thomsen, Jens; Tos, Mirko

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas.......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas....

  16. Evaluation and treatment of vestibular dysfunction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rine, Rose Marie; Wiener-Vacher, Sylvette

    2013-01-01

    The effect of vestibular dysfunction since birth is more debilitating than that attained later in life, and unlike adults, children with vestibular dysfunction since or shortly after birth do not recover function without intervention. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the etiology of vestibular dysfunction in children as well as the related impairments, and to describe testing methods and evidence based interventions to ameliorate the vestibular related impairments in children. In recent years, investigations have revealed that vestibular dysfunction is more common in children than previously thought, with consequent impairments in motor development, balance and reading abilities. The dysfunction may be due to central or peripheral lesions, each with distinct presentation of symptoms and test results. Common etiologies and clinical presentation of vestibular dysfunction in children are reviewed; appropriate screening and diagnostic techniques and efficacious medical and rehabilitation interventions are presented. Despite advances in clinical and diagnostic testing of vestibular function in children and infants, testing of vestibular function is not typically done. Comprehensive testing of signs and symptoms is critical for diagnosis and implementation of appropriate interventions.

  17. Recent Evidence About the Effectiveness of Vestibular Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Susan L; Alghadir, Ahmad H; Anwer, Shahnawaz

    2016-03-01

    Vestibular rehabilitation of persons with peripheral and central vestibular disorders requires a thorough evaluation and a customized plan of care. Collaboration of the various members of the treatment team optimizes outcomes. Early intervention appears to be better than referring patients who have developed chronic symptoms of balance loss, dizziness, anxiety, and depression. There is a body of emerging evidence that supports that the central nervous system has the capability to reweigh sensory inputs in order to improve function. There continues to be a dearth of knowledge related to how to treat persons with otolithic dysfunction as compared to those with semicircular canal damage. With the use of vestibular rehabilitation, patients are less likely to fall, are less dizzy, balance and gait improve, and quality of life is enhanced. Recent Cochrane reviews and a clinical practice guideline support the use of vestibular rehabilitation for persons with vestibular dysfunction. Typical symptoms and their management including dysregulated gait, falling, fear of falling, increased sway in standing, visual blurring, symptoms with complex visual scenes in the periphery, and weakness are all discussed with ideas for intervention. Any patient with a vestibular disorder may benefit from a trial of vestibular rehabilitation. A discussion of recent evidence and innovations related to vestibular rehabilitation is also included.

  18. Paediatric Acquired Recto –Vestibular Fistula: Experience In Accra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of acquired recto-vaginal fistula (RVF) with the human immunodeficiency virus is increasingly being recognized and reported in the literature Congenital recto - vestibular fistulae associated with imperforate anus is not uncommon, but it is rare to see children with acquired recto - vestibular fistula. From 1997 ...

  19. Connections of the vestibular nuclei in the rabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. Epema

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis descnbes the afferent, efferent and intrinsic connections of the vestibular nuclei in the Dutch belted rabbit. Different anatomical tracing techniques were used to study these projections. A description of the vestibular complex was added, since recent data for the rabbit

  20. Vestibular vertigo in emergency neurology and cervical osteochondrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Barykova

    2010-01-01

    had acute peripheral vestibular pathology that required cerebral stroke or hemorrhage to be ruled out according to clinical data in most cases. Intermittent, recurrent, short-term vestibular crisis in the examined group of patients is temporarily or clinically unrelated to an exacerbation of cervical osteochondrosis.

  1. Molecular mechanisms of vestibular compensation in the central vestibular system--review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, T; Takeda, N; Kiyama, H; Kubo, T

    1998-01-01

    Vestibular compensation consists of two stages: the inhibition of the contralesional medial vestibular nucleus (contra-MVe) activities at the acute stage after unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) and the recovery and maintenance of the ipsilesional MVe (ipsi-MVe) spontaneous activities at the chronic stage after UL. In this paper, we reviewed molecular mechanisms of vestibular compensation in the central vestibular system using several morphological and pharmacological approaches in rats. Based on our examinations, we propose the following hypotheses: i) at the acute stage after UL, the activated neurons in the ipsi-MVe project their axons into the flocculus to inhibit the contra-MVe neurons via the NMDA receptor, nitric oxide (NO) and/or GABA-mediated signalling, resulting in the restoration of balance between intervestibular nuclear activities. ii) At the chronic stage after UL, the flocculus depresses the inhibitory effects on the ipsi-MVe neurons via protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) beta, protein kinase C (PKC) and glutamate receptor (GluR) delta-2, to help the recovery and maintenance of ipsi-MVe activities.

  2. Postoperative management of nasal vestibular stenosis - The custom-made vestibular device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menger, Dirk-Jan; Lohuis, Peter J. F. M.; Kerssemakers, Steven; Nolst Trenité, Gilbert J.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of a custom-made postoperative vestibular device on the occurrence and severity), of restenosis. Design: This was a retrospective study conducted at the Department of Otorhinolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Center for Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery of

  3.  A Novel V- Silicone Vestibular Stent: Preventing Vestibular Stenosis andPreserving Nasal Valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Al Abri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  This report presents a novel style of placing nasal stents. Patientsundergoing surgical procedures in the region of nasal vestibuleand nasal valves are at risk of developing vestibular stenosis andlifelong problems with the external and internal nasal valves;sequels of the repair. The objective of the report is to demonstratea simple and successful method of an inverted V- Stent placementto prevent potential complication of vestibular stenosis and nasalvalve compromise later in life. Following a fall on a sharp edge ofa metallic bed, a sixteen month old child with a deep laceratednasal wound extending from the collumellar base toward thetip of the nose underwent surgical exploration and repair of thenasal vestibule and nasal cavity. A soft silicone stent fashioned asinverted V was placed bilaterally. The child made a remarkablerecovery with no evidence of vestibular stenosis or nasal valveabnormalities. In patients with nasal trauma involving the nasalvestibule and internal and external nasal valves stent placementavoids sequels, adhesions, contractures, synechia vestibularstenosis and fibrosis involving these anatomical structures.The advantages of the described V- stents over the traditionalreadymade ridged nasal stents, tubing’s and composite aural graftsare: a technical simplicity of use, b safety, c less morbidity, dmore comfortable, and e economical. To our knowledge, this isthe first report of such a stent for prevention of vestibular stenosisand preserving nasal valves.

  4. Regeneration of hair cells in the mammalian vestibular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenyan; You, Dan; Chen, Yan; Chai, Renjie; Li, Huawei

    2016-06-01

    Hair cells regenerate throughout the lifetime of non-mammalian vertebrates, allowing these animals to recover from hearing and balance deficits. Such regeneration does not occur efficiently in humans and other mammals. Thus, balance deficits become permanent and is a common sensory disorder all over the world. Since Forge and Warchol discovered the limited spontaneous regeneration of vestibular hair cells after gentamicininduced damage in mature mammals, significant efforts have been exerted to trace the origin of the limited vestibular regeneration in mammals after hair cell loss. Moreover, recently many strategies have been developed to promote the hair cell regeneration and subsequent functional recovery of the vestibular system, including manipulating the Wnt, Notch and Atoh1. This article provides an overview of the recent advances in hair cell regeneration in mammalian vestibular epithelia. Furthermore, this review highlights the current limitations of hair cell regeneration and provides the possible solutions to regenerate functional hair cells and to partially restore vestibular function.

  5. Development and regeneration of vestibular hair cells in mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Joseph C; Stone, Jennifer S

    2017-05-01

    Vestibular sensation is essential for gaze stabilization, balance, and perception of gravity. The vestibular receptors in mammals, Type I and Type II hair cells, are located in five small organs in the inner ear. Damage to hair cells and their innervating neurons can cause crippling symptoms such as vertigo, visual field oscillation, and imbalance. In adult rodents, some Type II hair cells are regenerated and become re-innervated after damage, presenting opportunities for restoring vestibular function after hair cell damage. This article reviews features of vestibular sensory cells in mammals, including their basic properties, how they develop, and how they are replaced after damage. We discuss molecules that control vestibular hair cell regeneration and highlight areas in which our understanding of development and regeneration needs to be deepened. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vestibular schwannoma with contralateral facial pain – case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghodsi Mohammad

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma most commonly presents with ipsilateral disturbances of acoustic, vestibular, trigeminal and facial nerves. Presentation of vestibular schwannoma with contralateral facial pain is quite uncommon. Case presentation Among 156 cases of operated vestibular schwannoma, we found one case with unusual presentation of contralateral hemifacial pain. Conclusion The presentation of contralateral facial pain in the vestibular schwannoma is rare. It seems that displacement and distortion of the brainstem and compression of the contralateral trigeminal nerve in Meckel's cave by the large mass lesion may lead to this atypical presentation. The best practice in these patients is removal of the tumour, although persistent contralateral pain after operation has been reported.

  7. Congenital and compensated vestibular dysfunction in childhood: an overlooked entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Avery H; Phillips, James O

    2006-07-01

    We report five children with previously unrecognized vestibular dysfunction detected by clinical examination and confirmed by quantitative vestibular testing. Patient 1 presented with fluctuating visual acuity and intermittent nystagmus. Patient 2 had congenital hearing loss associated with imbalance, delayed motor development, and cyclic vomiting. Patient 3 had neurotrophic keratitis with an intermittent head tilt, imbalance, and motor delays. Patient 4 showed ataxia and eye movement abnormalities following traumatic brain injury and had reading difficulties. Patient 5 had episodic vertigo and eye movement abnormalities from infancy. Clinical vestibular testing emphasized spontaneous nystagmus, rapid head thrust, and assessment of post-rotatory nystagmus. Quantitative vestibular testing included the sinusoidal chair rotation and velocity step tests, measurement of dynamic visual acuity, post-head-shake nystagmus, and computerized platform posturography. Pediatric neurologists encounter children with congenital and compensated vestibular dysfunction, which can be recognized on the basis of relevant history and clinical abnormalities of the ocular-ocular reflex.

  8. Presynaptic and postsynaptic ion channel expression in vestibular nuclei neurons after unilateral vestibular deafferentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mei; Popratiloff, Anastas; Hirsch, June C; Peusner, Kenna D

    2009-01-01

    Vestibular compensation refers to the recovery of function occurring after unilateral vestibular deafferentation, but some patients remain uncompensated. Similarly, more than half of the operated chickens compensate three days after unilateral vestibular ganglionectomy (UVG), but the rest remain uncompensated. This review focuses on the studies performed on the principal cells of the chick tangential nucleus after UVG. The tangential nucleus is a major avian vestibular nucleus whose principal cells are all second-order, vestibular reflex projection neurons participating in the vestibuloocular and vestibulocollic reflexes controlling posture, balance, and eye movements. Using whole-cell patch-clamp approach in brain slice preparations, spontaneous spike firing, ionic conductances, and spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) are recorded in principal cells from controls and operated chickens three days after UVG. In compensated chickens, the proportion of spontaneous spike firing principal cells and their spike discharge rate are symmetric on the lesion and intact sides, with the rates increased over controls. However, in the uncompensated chickens, the spike discharge rate increases on the lesion side, but not on the intact side, where only silent principal cells are recorded. In all the experimental groups, including controls, silent principal cells are distinguished from spontaneous spiking cells by smaller persistent sodium conductances and higher activation thresholds for the fast sodium channel. In addition, silent principal cells on the intact side of uncompensated chickens have larger dendrotoxin-sensitive potassium conductances, with a higher ratio of immunolabeling for surface/cytoplasmic expression of a dendrotoxin-sensitive, potassium channel subunit, Kv1.1. Finally, in compensated chickens, sEPSC frequency is symmetric bilaterally, but in uncompensated chickens sEPSC frequency increased only on the lesion side, where the expression of Kv1

  9. Vestibular characterization in the menstrual cycle Caracterização vestibular no ciclo menstrual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cintia Ishii

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal disorders in the menstrual cycle can affect labyrinthine fluid homeostasis, causing balance and hearing dysfunctions. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical prospective. AIM: compare the results from vestibular tests in young women, in the premenstrual and postmenstrual periods. MATERIALS AND METHODS: twenty women were selected with ages ranging from 18 to 35 years, who were not using any kind of contraceptive method for at least six months, and without vestibular or hearing complaints. The test was carried out in each subject before and after the menstrual period, respecting the limit of ten days before or after menstruation. RESULTS: there was a statistically significant difference in the menstrual cycle phases only in the following vestibular tests: calibration, saccadic movements, PRPD and caloric-induced nystagmus. We also noticed that age; a regular menstrual cycle; hearing loss or dizziness cases in the family; and premenstrual symptoms such as tinnitus, headache, sleep disorders, anxiety, nausea and hyperacusis can interfere in the vestibular test. CONCLUSION: there are differences in the vestibular tests of healthy women when comparing their pre and postmenstrual periods.As alterações hormonais do ciclo menstrual podem comprometer a homeostase dos fluidos labirínticos, gerando alterações no equilíbrio e na audição. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Clínico prospectivo. OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados dos testes do exame vestibular em mulheres jovens, nos períodos pré e pós-menstrual. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas vinte mulheres, entre dezoito e trinta e cinco anos, que não fizessem uso de qualquer tipo de anticoncepcional, com audição normal e sem queixas vestibulares. O exame vestibular foi realizado em cada participante no período pré e no período pós-menstrual, em ordem aleatória, e respeitando o limite de até dez dias antes do início da menstruação e até dez dias após o início da menstruação. RESULTADO: Foi observada

  10. The relationship between vestibular aqueduct diameter and sensorineural hearing loss is linear: a review and meta-analysis of large case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, C R

    2012-11-01

    Inner ear homeostasis is dependent on the vestibular aqueduct and its content, the endolymphatic duct. Narrow and enlarged vestibular aqueducts have both been associated with hearing loss in Ménière's and large vestibular aqueduct syndromes. This review investigated the correlation between vestibular aqueduct diameter and pure tone average, and the effect of measurement site (i.e. the midpoint or the external aperture). A systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of large case series published on the Allied and Complementary Medicine, British Nursing Index, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, Embase, Health Business Elite, Health Management Information Consortium, Medline, PsycInfo and PubMed databases. References and personal books were also scrutinised. A linear relationship between vestibular aqueduct diameter and hearing loss was observed, with a projected increase of 6 dBHL per unit of vestibular aqueduct diameter (95 per cent confidence interval, 2-10; p = 0.003). This relationship was independent of measurement site. This dose-dependent or linear relationship supports the role of flow and/or pressure change as aetiological factors in the pathogenesis of hearing loss, as per Poiseuille's law. This aetiological association is strengthened by the fact that the observed relationship is independent of measurement site.

  11. State Anxiety Subjective Imbalance and Handicap in Vestibular Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saman, Yougan; Mclellan, Lucie; Mckenna, Laurence; Dutia, Mayank B; Obholzer, Rupert; Libby, Gerald; Gleeson, Michael; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is emerging for a significant clinical and neuroanatomical relationship between balance and anxiety. Research has suggested a potentially priming effect with anxiety symptoms predicting a worsening of balance function in patients with underlying balance dysfunction. We propose to show that a vestibular stimulus is responsible for an increase in state anxiety, and there is a relationship between increased state anxiety and worsening balance function. (1) To quantify state anxiety following a vestibular stimulus in patients with a chronic vestibular deficit. (2) To determine if state anxiety during a vestibular stimulus would correlate with the severity of chronic balance symptoms and handicap. Two separate cohorts of vestibular schwannoma (VS) patients underwent vestibular tests (electronystagmography, cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials, and caloric responses) and questionnaire assessments [vertigo handicap questionnaire (VHQ), vertigo symptom scale (VSS), and state-trait anxiety inventory (STAIY)]. Fifteen post-resection VS patients, with complete unilateral vestibular deafferentation, were assessed at a minimum of 6 months after surgery in Experiment 1 (Aim 1). Forty-five patients with VS in situ formed the cohort for Experiment 2 (Aim 2). Experiment 1: VS subjects (N = 15) with a complete post-resection unilateral vestibular deafferentation completed a state anxiety questionnaire before caloric assessment and again afterward with the point of maximal vertigo as the reference (Aim 1). Experiment 2: state anxiety measured at the point of maximal vertigo following a caloric assessment was compared between two groups of patients with VS in situ presenting with balance symptoms (Group 1, N = 26) and without balance symptoms (Group 2, N = 11) (Aim 2). The presence of balance symptoms was defined as having a positive score on the VSS-VER. In Experiment 1, a significant difference (p handicap (p < 0.001). Anxiety

  12. The molecular biology and novel treatments of vestibular schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Brendan; Barkhoudarian, Garni; Pezeshkian, Patrick; Parsa, Andrew T; Gopen, Quinton; Yang, Isaac

    2011-11-01

    Vestibular schwannomas are histopathologically benign tumors arising from the Schwann cell sheath surrounding the vestibular branch of cranial nerve VIII and are related to the NF2 gene and its product merlin. Merlin acts as a tumor suppressor and as a mediator of contact inhibition. Thus, deficiencies in both NF2 genes lead to vestibular schwannoma development. Recently, there have been major advances in our knowledge of the molecular biology of vestibular schwannomas as well as the development of novel therapies for its treatment. In this article the authors comprehensively review the recent advances in the molecular biology and characterization of vestibular schwannomas as well as the development of modern treatments for vestibular schwannoma. For instance, merlin is involved with a number of receptors including the CD44 receptor, EGFR, and signaling pathways, such as the Ras/raf pathway and the canonical Wnt pathway. Recently, merlin was also shown to interact in the nucleus with E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4(DCAF1). A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms behind vestibular schwannoma tumorigenesis has begun to yield novel therapies. Some authors have shown that Avastin induces regression of progressive schwannomas by over 40% and improves hearing. An inhibitor of VEGF synthesis, PTC299, is currently in Phase II trials as a potential agent to treat vestibular schwannoma. Furthermore, in vitro studies have shown that trastuzumab (an ERBB2 inhibitor) reduces vestibular schwannoma cell proliferation. With further research it may be possible to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality rates by decreasing tumor burden, tumor volume, hearing loss, and cranial nerve deficits seen in vestibular schwannomas.

  13. Probabilistic Tractography of the Cranial Nerves in Vestibular Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolal, Amir; Juratli, Tareq A; Podlesek, Dino; Rieger, Bernhard; Kitzler, Hagen H; Linn, Jennifer; Schackert, Gabriele; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2017-11-01

    Multiple recent studies have reported on diffusion tensor-based fiber tracking of cranial nerves in vestibular schwannoma, with conflicting results as to the accuracy of the method and the occurrence of cochlear nerve depiction. Probabilistic nontensor-based tractography might offer advantages in terms of better extraction of directional information from the underlying data in cranial nerves, which are of subvoxel size. Twenty-one patients with large vestibular schwannomas were recruited. The probabilistic tracking was run preoperatively and the position of the potential depictions of the facial and cochlear nerves was estimated postoperatively by 3 independent observers in a blinded fashion. The true position of the nerve was determined intraoperatively by the surgeon. Thereafter, the imaging-based estimated position was compared with the intraoperatively determined position. Tumor size, cystic appearance, and postoperative House-Brackmann score were analyzed with regard to the accuracy of the depiction of the nerves. The probabilistic tracking showed a connection that correlated to the position of the facial nerve in 81% of the cases and to the position of the cochlear nerve in 33% of the cases. Altogether, the resulting depiction did not correspond to the intraoperative position of any of the nerves in 3 cases. In a majority of cases, the position of the facial nerve, but not of the cochlear nerve, could be estimated by evaluation of the probabilistic tracking results. However, false depictions not corresponding to any nerve do occur and cannot be discerned as such from the image only. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The emerging role of corporate information systems: An example from the area of business process-oriented learning

    OpenAIRE

    Stergioulas, L.K.; Pappa, D.

    2008-01-01

    Emerging business requirements, stemming from a holistic view over an organisation’s activities, place additional pressure on technical infrastructures and call for operational agility and a better alignment between business and technology. Business process oriented learning unites corporate training and business process management. Given the importance of an organisation’s human capital to business success, aligning individual training with business priorities, becomes a key challenge. The i...

  15. Neurosonology Accuracy for Isolated Acute Vestibular Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tábuas-Pereira, Miguel; Sargento-Freitas, João; Isidoro, Luís; Silva, Fernando; Galego, Orlando; Nunes, César; Cordeiro, Gustavo; Cunha, Luís

    2017-12-01

    The clinical approach to acute vestibular syndromes is often complex for the physician. Neurosonology offers a noninvasive method to study the cervicocephalic circulation when a vascular etiology is suspected. We aim to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a vascular neurosonological exam in isolated acute vestibular syndrome. All patients submitted to cerebrovascular ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging during the period between 2011 and 2015 with acute isolated vestibular syndrome. Those with any clinical sign of brainstem lesion on presentation were excluded. All patients performed the neuroimaging s